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Sample records for reducing glycosphingolipid content

  1. Reducing glycosphingolipid content in adipose tissue of obese mice restores insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis and reduces inflammation.

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    Marco van Eijk

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a critical mediator in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Previously we have demonstrated that pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids and subsequently GM3 by using the iminosugar AMP-DNM, strikingly improves glycemic control. Here we studied the effects of AMP-DNM on adipose tissue function and inflammation in detail to provide an explanation for the observed improved glucose homeostasis. Leptin-deficient obese (Lep(Ob mice were fed AMP-DNM and its effects on insulin signalling, adipogenesis and inflammation were monitored in fat tissue. We show that reduction of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in adipose tissue of Lep(Ob mice restores insulin signalling in isolated ex vivo insulin-stimulated adipocytes. We observed improved adipogenesis as the number of larger adipocytes was reduced and expression of genes like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR gamma, insulin responsive glucose transporter (GLUT-4 and adipsin increased. In addition, we found that adiponectin gene expression and protein were increased by AMP-DNM. As a consequence of this improved function of fat tissue we observed less inflammation, which was characterized by reduced numbers of adipose tissue macrophages (crown-like structures and reduced levels of the macrophage chemo attractants monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1/Ccl2 and osteopontin (OPN. In conclusion, pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids by inhibition of glucosylceramide biosynthesis improves adipocyte function and as a consequence reduces inflammation in adipose tissue of obese animals.

  2. Cholesterol masks membrane glycosphingolipid tumor-associated antigens to reduce their immunodetection in human cancer biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Anton; Binnington, Beth; Ngan, Bo; Chadwick, Karen; Fleshner, Neil; Lingwood, Clifford A

    2013-11-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are neoplastic and normal/cancer stem cell markers and GSL/cholesterol-containing membrane rafts are increased in cancer cell plasma membranes. We define a novel means by which cancer cells can restrict tumor-associated GSL immunoreactivity. The GSL-cholesterol complex reorients GSL carbohydrate to a membrane parallel, rather than perpendicular conformation, largely unavailable for antibody recognition. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin cholesterol extraction of all primary human tumor frozen sections tested (ovarian, testicular, neuroblastoma, prostate, breast, colon, pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma), unmasked previously "invisible" membrane GSLs for immunodetection. In ovarian carcinoma, globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb3), the GSL receptor for the antineoplastic Escherichia coli-derived verotoxin, was increased throughout the tumor. In colon carcinoma, Gb3 detection was vastly increased within the neovasculature and perivascular stroma. In tumors considered Gb3 negative (neuroblastoma, Leydig testicular tumor and pheochromocytoma), neovascular Gb3 was unmasked. Tumor-associated GSL stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4 and globoH were unmasked according to tumor: SSEA-1 in prostate/colon; SSEA-3 in prostate; SSEA-4 in pheochromocytoma/some colon tumors; globoH in prostate/some colon tumors. In colon, anti-SSEA-1 was tumor cell specific. Within the GSL-cholesterol complex, filipin-cholesterol binding was also reduced. These results may relate to the ill-defined benefit of statins on cancer prognosis, for example, prostate carcinoma. We found novel anti-tumor GSL antibodies circulating in 3/5 statin-treated, but not untreated, prostate cancer patients. Lowering tumor membrane cholesterol may permit immune recognition of otherwise unavailable tumor-associated GSL carbohydrate, for more effective immunosurveillance and active/passive immunotherapy. Our results show standard immunodetection of tumor GSLs significantly under assesses

  3. Reducing FLI1 levels in the MRL/lpr lupus mouse model impacts T cell function by modulating glycosphingolipid metabolism.

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    Erin Morris Richard

    Full Text Available Systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease caused, in part, by abnormalities in cells of the immune system including B and T cells. Genetically reducing globally the expression of the ETS transcription factor FLI1 by 50% in two lupus mouse models significantly improves disease measures and survival through an unknown mechanism. In this study we analyze the effects of reducing FLI1 in the MRL/lpr lupus prone model on T cell function. We demonstrate that adoptive transfer of MRL/lpr Fli1(+/+ or Fli1(+/- T cells and B cells into Rag1-deficient mice results in significantly decreased serum immunoglobulin levels in animals receiving Fli1(+/- lupus T cells compared to animals receiving Fli1(+/+ lupus T cells regardless of the genotype of co-transferred lupus B cells. Ex vivo analyses of MRL/lpr T cells demonstrated that Fli1(+/- T cells produce significantly less IL-4 during early and late disease and exhibited significantly decreased TCR-specific activation during early disease compared to Fli1(+/+ T cells. Moreover, the Fli1(+/- T cells expressed significantly less neuraminidase 1 (Neu1 message and decreased NEU activity during early disease and significantly decreased levels of glycosphingolipids during late disease compared to Fli1(+/+ T cells. FLI1 dose-dependently activated the Neu1 promoter in mouse and human T cell lines. Together, our results suggest reducing FLI1 in lupus decreases the pathogenicity of T cells by decreasing TCR-specific activation and IL-4 production in part through the modulation of glycosphingolipid metabolism. Reducing the expression of FLI1 or targeting the glycosphingolipid metabolic pathway in lupus may serve as a therapeutic approach to treating lupus.

  4. Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance, a state characterized by impaired responsiveness of liver, muscle and adipose tissue to insulin. One class of lipids involved in the development of insulin resistance are the (glyco)sphingolipids. Ceramide, the most simple

  5. Lipidomics of glycosphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwanah, Hany; Kolter, Thomas

    2012-02-02

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) contain one or more sugars that are attached to a sphingolipid moiety, usually to a ceramide, but in rare cases also to a sphingoid base. A large structural heterogeneity results from differences in number, identity, linkage, and anomeric configuration of the carbohydrate residues, and also from structural differences within the hydrophobic part. GSLs form complex cell-type specific patterns, which change with the species, the cellular differentiation state, viral transformation, ontogenesis, and oncogenesis. Although GSL structures can be assigned to only a few series with a common carbohydrate core, their structural variety and the complex pattern are challenges for their elucidation and quantification by mass spectrometric techniques. We present a general overview of the application of lipidomics for GSL determination. This includes analytical procedures and instrumentation together with recent correlations of GSL molecular species with human diseases. Difficulties such as the structural complexity and the lack of standard substances for complex GSLs are discussed.

  6. Lipidomics of Glycosphingolipids

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    Hany Farwanah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycosphingolipids (GSLs contain one or more sugars that are attached to a sphingolipid moiety, usually to a ceramide, but in rare cases also to a sphingoid base. A large structural heterogeneity results from differences in number, identity, linkage, and anomeric configuration of the carbohydrate residues, and also from structural differences within the hydrophobic part. GSLs form complex cell-type specific patterns, which change with the species, the cellular differentiation state, viral transformation, ontogenesis, and oncogenesis. Although GSL structures can be assigned to only a few series with a common carbohydrate core, their structural variety and the complex pattern are challenges for their elucidation and quantification by mass spectrometric techniques. We present a general overview of the application of lipidomics for GSL determination. This includes analytical procedures and instrumentation together with recent correlations of GSL molecular species with human diseases. Difficulties such as the structural complexity and the lack of standard substances for complex GSLs are discussed.

  7. Design of a covalently bonded glycosphingolipid microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arigi, Emma; Blixt, Klas Ola; Buschard, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are well known ubiquitous constituents of all eukaryotic cell membranes, yet their normal biological functions are not fully understood. As with other glycoconjugates and saccharides, solid phase display on microarrays potentially provides an effective platform for in vi......Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are well known ubiquitous constituents of all eukaryotic cell membranes, yet their normal biological functions are not fully understood. As with other glycoconjugates and saccharides, solid phase display on microarrays potentially provides an effective platform...

  8. Glycosphingolipid structural analysis and glycosphingolipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levery, Steven B

    2005-01-01

    Sphingosines, or sphingoids, are a family of naturally occurring long-chain hydrocarbon derivatives sharing a common 1,3-dihydroxy-2-amino-backbone motif. The majority of sphingolipids, as their derivatives are collectively known, can be found in cell membranes in the form of amphiphilic conjugates, each composed of a polar head group attached to an N-acylated sphingoid, or ceramide. Glycosphingolipids (GSLs), which are the glycosides of either ceramide or myo-inositol-(1-O)-phosphoryl-(O-1)-ceramide, are a structurally and functionally diverse sphingolipid subclass; GSLs are ubiquitously distributed among all eukaryotic species and are found in some bacteria. Since GSLs are secondary metabolites, direct and comprehensive analysis (metabolomics) must be considered an essential complement to genomic and proteomic approaches for establishing the structural repertoire within an organism and deducing its possible functional roles. The glycosphingolipidome clearly comprises an important and extensive subset of both the glycome and the lipidome, but the complexities of GSL structure, biosynthesis, and function form the outlines of a considerable analytical problem, especially since their structural diversity confers by extension an enormous variability with respect to physicochemical properties. This chapter covers selected developments and applications of techniques in mass spectrometric (MS) that have contributed to GSL structural analysis and glycosphingolipidomics since 1990. Sections are included on basic characteristics of ionization and fragmentation of permethylated GSLs and of lithium-adducted nonderivatized GSLs under positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and collision-induced mass spectrometry (CID-MS) conditions; on the analysis of sulfatides, mainly using negative-ion techniques; and on selected applications of ESI-MS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to emerging GSL structural, functional

  9. Comparison of the glycosphingolipids of human-induced pluripotent stem cells and human embryonic stem cells.

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    Säljö, Karin; Barone, Angela; Vizlin-Hodzic, Dzeneta; Johansson, Bengt R; Breimer, Michael E; Funa, Keiko; Teneberg, Susann

    2017-04-01

    High expectations are held for human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) since they are established from autologous tissues thus overcoming the risk of allogeneic immune rejection when used in regenerative medicine. However, little is known regarding the cell-surface carbohydrate antigen profile of hiPSC compared with human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Here, glycosphingolipids were isolated from an adipocyte-derived hiPSC line, and hiPSC and hESC glycosphingolipids were compared by concurrent characterization by binding assays with carbohydrate-recognizing ligands and mass spectrometry. A high similarity between the nonacid glycosphingolipids of hiPSC and hESC was found. The nonacid glycosphingolipids P1 pentaosylceramide, x2 pentaosylceramide and H type 1 heptaosylceramide, not previously described in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), were characterized in both hiPSC and hESC. The composition of acid glycosphingolipids differed, with increased levels of GM3 ganglioside, and reduced levels of GD1a/GD1b in hiPSC when compared with hESC. In addition, the hESC glycosphingolipids sulf-globopentaosylceramide and sialyl-globotetraosylceramide were lacking in hiPSC. Neural stem cells differentiating from hiPSC had a reduced expression of sialyl-lactotetra, whereas expression of the GD1a ganglioside was significantly increased. Thus, while sialyl-lactotetra is a marker of undifferentiated hPSC, GD1a is a novel marker of neural differentiation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Glycosphingolipids are required for sorting melanosomal proteins in the Golgi complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815; Degroote, S.; Claessens, T.; van Drunen, J.; Oorschot, V.M.J.; Westerink, B.H.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Klumperman, J.; van der Sluijs, P.; van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368

    2001-01-01

    Although glycosphingolipids are ubiquitously expressed and essential for multicellular organisms, surprisingly little is known about their intracellular functions. To explore the role of glycosphingolipids in membrane transport, we used the glycosphingolipid-deficient GM95 mouse melanoma cell line.

  11. Mass spectrometry of fluorocarbon-labeled glycosphingolipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yunsen; Arigi, Emma; Eichert, Heather

    2010-01-01

    A method for generation of novel fluorocarbon derivatives of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) with high affinity for fluorocarbon phases has been developed, and their potential applications to mass spectrometry (MS)-based methodologies for glycosphingolipidomics have been investigated. Sphingolipid......, and four fungal glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs) were de-N-acylated, derivatized by prototype F-Tags, and recovered by solid phase extraction on fluorocarbon-derivatized silica (F-SPE). The efficacy of SCDase treatment of GIPCs was here demonstrated for the first time. Compatibility...

  12. Surface behaviour of gangliosides and related glycosphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, B; Cumar, F A; Caputto, R

    1978-06-01

    1. The surface behaviour of six different gangliosides and eight chemically related glycosphingolipids was investigated in monolayers at the air-water interface. 2. Mono-, di-, tri and tetra-hexosylceramides had force-area isotherms showing similar limiting molecular areas on 145 mM-NaCl, pH 5.6. The increasing number of negatively charged sialosyl residues in mono-, di- and tri-sialogangliosides induced a progressive increase in the liquid-expanded character of the films and in the limiting area occupied per molecule, owing to electrostatic repulsions. When the ganglioside monolayers were spread on subphases at pH 1.2, the limiting area per molecule was similar to that found for neutral glycosphingolipids. 3. The monolayer collapse pressure at pH 5.6 increased with the number of uncharged carbohydrate units up to when the polar head group contained 3-4 residues. For gangliosides the collapse pressures were lower and decreased from mono- to tri-sialogangliosides. Ganglioside monolayers on subphases at pH 1.2 showed increases in their collapse pressure. 4. The glycosphingolipid monolayers studied had various surface in their collapse pressure. 4. The glycosphingolipid monolayers studied had various surface potentials according to the complexity of the polar head group of the lipid. Attempts to calculate the dipolar contributions to the surface potential from each carbohydrate residue suggest that the second and third sialosyl residues in di- and tri-sialogangliosides contributed with a vertical dipole moment opposite to that of the first sialosyl residue.

  13. The repertoire of glycosphingolipids recognized by Vibrio cholerae.

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    John Benktander

    Full Text Available The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAcβ3Galβ4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Galα3Galα3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.

  14. Hepatic Glycosphingolipid Deficiency and Liver Function in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennemann, Richard; Rothermel, Ulrike; Wang, Shijun; Sandhoff, Roger; Kaden, Sylvia; Out, Ruud; van Berkel, Theo J.; Aerts, Johannes M.; Ghauharali, Karen; Sticht, Carsten; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that glycosphingolipids (GSLs) might be involved in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Those reports suggested that inhibition of GSL biosynthesis in animals ameliorated insulin resistance accompanied by improved glycemic control and decreased liver steatosis in obese

  15. Egghead and brainiac are essential for glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall, Hans H; Pizette, Sandrine; Pedersen, Johannes W

    2004-01-01

    The Drosophila genes, brainiac and egghead, encode glycosyltransferases predicted to act sequentially in early steps of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, and both genes are required for development in Drosophila. egghead encodes a beta4-mannosyltransferase, and brainiac encodes a beta3-N-acetylgluc...... and accumulation of Manbeta1-4Glcbeta1-Cer. The study demonstrates that glycosphingolipids are essential for development of complex organisms and suggests that the function of the Drosophila glycosphingolipids in development does not depend on the core structure.......The Drosophila genes, brainiac and egghead, encode glycosyltransferases predicted to act sequentially in early steps of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, and both genes are required for development in Drosophila. egghead encodes a beta4-mannosyltransferase, and brainiac encodes a beta3-N...... lactosylceramide glycosphingolipid biosynthetic pathway (Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-Cer) using a human beta4-galactosyltransferase (beta4Gal-T6) transgene. Conversely, introduction of egghead in vertebrate cells (Chinese hamster ovary) resulted in near complete blockage of biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids...

  16. Virentrack: A heuristic for reducing cache contention

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Viren

    2009-01-01

    Multicore processors are the dominant paradigm in mainstream computing for the present and foreseeable future. Current operating system schedulers on multicore systems co-schedule applications on cores at random. This often exacerbates issues such as cache contention, leading to a performance decrease. Optimally scheduling applications to take advantage of multicore characteristics remains a difficult and open problem. In this thesis, I advocate a method of optimized scheduling on multicore sys...

  17. Lyso-glycosphingolipid abnormalities in different murine models of lysosomal storage disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferraz, Maria J.; Marques, André R. A.; Gaspar, Paulo; Mirzaian, Mina; van Roomen, Cindy; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Alfonso, Pilar; Irún, Pilar; Giraldo, Pilar; Wisse, Patrick; Sá Miranda, Clara; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Aerts, Johannes M.

    2016-01-01

    In lysosomal glycosphingolipid storage disorders, marked elevations in corresponding glycosphingoid bases (lyso-glycosphingolipids) have been reported, such as galactosylsphingosine in Krabbe disease, glucosylsphingosine in Gaucher disease and globotriaosylsphingosine in Fabry disease. Using

  18. Glycosphingolipids as Receptors for Non-Enveloped Viruses

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    Stefan Taube

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycosphingolipids are ubiquitous molecules composed of a lipid and a carbohydrate moiety. Their main functions are as antigen/toxin receptors, in cell adhesion/recognition processes, or initiation/modulation of signal transduction pathways. Microbes take advantage of the different carbohydrate structures displayed on a specific cell surface for attachment during infection. For some viruses, such as the polyomaviruses, binding to gangliosides determines the internalization pathway into cells. For others, the interaction between microbe and carbohydrate can be a critical determinant for host susceptibility. In this review, we summarize the role of glycosphingolipids as receptors for members of the non-enveloped calici-, rota-, polyoma- and parvovirus families.

  19. Inheritance of reduced saturated fatty acid content in sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Vick Brady A.; Jan C.C.; Miller Jerry F.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, consumers have become concerned with reducing the saturated fat content of their diet. Studies have indicated that high levels of saturated fat consumption are correlated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The total saturated fat content of oil from current sunflower hybrids averages about 130 g kg-1. To identify sunflower germplasm with reduced saturated fatty acid composition, a total of 884 cultivated sunflower accessions from the USDA-ARS North Central Regiona...

  20. Two new protease-inhibiting glycosphingolipids from Buddleja crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Anis, Itrat; Fatima, Itrat; Malik, Abdul; Khan, Shafiullah; Afza, Nighat; Tareen, Rasool Bakhsh; Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2007-05-01

    Crispins A (1) and B (2), two new glycosphingolipids, were isolated from the whole plant Buddleja crispa, along with three known compounds: alpha-amyrin, linoleic acid, and stigmasterol. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic techniques. Both 1 and 2 showed significant inhibitory activity against alpha-chymotrypsin in a concentration-dependent manner.

  1. Household methods to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the {sup 137}Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times.

  2. Glycolipid transfer protein expression is affected by glycosphingolipid synthesis.

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    Matti A Kjellberg

    Full Text Available Members of the glycolipid transfer protein superfamily (GLTP are found from animals and fungi to plants and red micro-alga. Eukaryotes that encode the glucosylceramide synthase responsible for the synthesis of glucosylceramide, the precursor for most glycosphingolipids, also produce GLTPs. Cells that does not synthesize glucosylceramide neither express GLTPs. Based on this genetic relationship there must be a strong correlation between the synthesis of glucosylceramide and GLTPs. To regulate the levels of glycolipids we have used inhibitors of intracellular trafficking, glycosphingolipid synthesis and degradation, and small interfering RNA to down-regulate the activity of glucosylceramide synthase activity. We found that GLTP expression, both at the mRNA and protein levels, is elevated in cells that accumulate glucosylceramide. Monensin and brefeldin A block intracellular vesicular transport mechanisms. Brefeldin A treatment leads to accumulation of newly synthesized glucosylceramide, galactosylceramide and lactosylceramide in a fused endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex. On the other hand, inhibiting glycosphingolipid degradation with conduritol-B-epoxide, that generates glucosylceramide accumulation in the lysosomes, did not affect the levels of GLTP. However, glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitors like PDMP, NB-DNJ and myriocin, all decreased glucosylceramide and GLTP below normal levels. We also found that an 80% loss of glucosylceramide due to glucosylceramide synthase knockdown resulted in a significant reduction in the expression of GLTP. We show here that interfering with membrane trafficking events and simple neutral glycosphingolipid synthesis will affect the expression of GLTP. We postulate that a change in the glucosylceramide balance causes a response in the GLTP expression, and put forward that GLTP might play a role in lipid directing and sensing of glucosylceramide at the ER-Golgi interface.

  3. Prediction of reducible soil iron content from iron extraction data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Reeven, van J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Soils contain various iron compounds that differ in solubility, reducibility and extractability. Moreover, the contribution of the various iron compounds to total iron (Fe) and total Fe concentrations differs highly among soils. As a result, the total reducible Fe content can also differ among

  4. Distribution of glycosphingolipids in the serum lipoproteins of normal human subjects and patients with hypo- and hyperlipidemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, G.; Kruski, A.W.; Scanu, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Five glycosphingolipids (GSL), glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide, trihexosylceramide, globoside, and hematoside (G/sub m//sub 3/) were studied in serum from normal human subjects and patients with dyslipoproteinemia and found to be exclusively associated with the various classes of serum lipoproteins. Based on a unit weight of lipoprotein protein, the total amount of GSL in serum from normal subjects was twice as high in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) (d < 1.006 g/ml) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (d 1.019-1.063 g/ml) as in high density lipoproteins HDL/sub 2/ (d 1.063-1.125 g/ml) or HDL/sub 3/ (d 1.125-1.21 g/ml). In abetalipoproteinemia the levels of serum GSL were slightly reduced when compared to normal serum and were all found in the only existing lipoprotein, HDL; this contained 2-3 moles of GSL/mole of lipoprotein as compared to 0.5 GSL/mole in normal HDL. In hypobetalipoproteinemia and Tangier disease, the serum glycosphingolipids were 10 to 30% reduced in concentration compared to the 75% reduction in other lipids, and were again found to be associated only with the serum lipoproteins. The relative proportions of GSL did not vary substantially in the normo- and hypolipidemic subjects studied. Although results establish that glycosphingolipids are intimately associated with serum lipoproteins, the mode of association or the structural and functional significance of such an association remains undetermined.

  5. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  6. ATTEMPT TO REDUCE ACRYLAMIDE CONTENT IN ROASTED CHICORY

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    Gabriela Zięć

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reduce the formation of acrylamide during roasting of chicory roots by soaking the fresh roots in a solution of calcium chloride, by the use of different temperature and time of roasting of dried roots, as well as by the addition of the enzyme (asparaginase during roasting of dried roots. It was shown, that with increasing roasting temperature of chicory roots from 100 - 175 ° C the acrylamide content also increased, while at a temperature of 210 ° C the growth was inhibited. Increasing roasting time from 10 - 25 minutes resulted in an increased acrylamide content. Soaking the roots in the CaCl2 solution for 20 minutes reduced the formation of acrylamide during the roasting approximately by 40%, similarly as the application of asparaginase to the dried roots during the roasting process.

  7. Process for production of synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Mitri S.; Corbeels, Roger J.; Kokturk, Uygur

    1989-01-01

    A process for the partial oxidation of a sulfur- and silicate-containing carbonaceous fuel to produce a synthesis gas with reduced sulfur content which comprises partially oxidizing said fuel at a temperature in the range of 1800.degree.-2200.degree. F. in the presence of a temperature moderator, an oxygen-containing gas and a sulfur capture additive which comprises an iron-containing compound portion and a sodium-containing compound portion to produce a synthesis gas comprising H.sub.2 and CO with a reduced sulfur content and a molten slag which comprises (i) a sulfur-containing sodium-iron silicate phase and (ii) a sodium-iron sulfide phase. The sulfur capture additive may optionally comprise a copper-containing compound portion.

  8. Reducing the nicotine content to make cigarettes less addictive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Henningfield, Jack E

    2013-05-01

    Nicotine is highly addictive and is primarily responsible for the maintenance of cigarette smoking. In 1994, Benowitz and Henningfield proposed the idea of federal regulation of the nicotine content of cigarettes such that the nicotine content of cigarettes would be reduced over time, resulting in lower intake of nicotine and a lower level of nicotine dependence. When nicotine levels get very low, cigarettes would be much less addictive. As a result, fewer young people who experiment with cigarettes would become addicted adult smokers and previously addicted smokers would find it easier to quit smoking when they attempt to do so. The regulatory authority to promulgate such a public health strategy was provided by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Although it precludes 'reducing nicotine to zero', the act does not prohibit the Food and Drug Administration from setting standards for cigarette nicotine content that would prevent them from being capable of causing addiction. This paper reviews the assumptions implicit in a nicotine reduction strategy, examines the available data on the feasibility and safety of nicotine reduction, and discusses the public education, surveillance and support services that would be needed for the implementation of such a policy.

  9. Glycosphingolipids in signaling and development: from liposomes to model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Stephanie M; Schweisguth, François

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of the raft hypothesis in 1997, data generated in liposomes and cultured cells have highlighted the role of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in the dynamic organization of biological membranes and the activity of signaling complexes. In parallel studies, genetic analysis of the GSL synthetic pathway has begun to reveal some of the specific roles of GSLs in vivo. Here, we review the role of GSLs in signaling in the context of a refined raft hypothesis. Recent genetic studies in worms, flies, and mice give us the opportunity to integrate these in vivo data with earlier in vitro liposome studies. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Simultaneous quantification of lyso-neutral glycosphingolipids and neutral glycosphingolipids by N-acetylation with [3H]acetic anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodennec, Jacques; Trajkovic-Bodennec, Selena; Futerman, Anthony H

    2003-07-01

    We describe a new method that permits quantification in the pmol to nmol range of three lyso-neutral glycosphingolipids (lyso-n-GSLs), glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph), galactosylsphingosine (GalSph), and lactosylsphingosine, in the same sample as neutral glycosphingolipids (n-GSLs). Lyso-n-GSLs and n-GSLs are initially obtained from a crude lipid extract using Sephadex G25 chromatography, followed by their isolation in one fraction, which is devoid of other contaminating lipids, by aminopropyl solid-phase chromatography. Lyso-n-GSLs and n-GSLs are subsequently separated from one another by weak cation exchange chromatography. N-GSLs are then deacylated by strong alkaline hydrolysis, and the N-deacylated-GSLs and lyso-n-GSLs are subsequently N-acetylated using [3H]acetic anhydride. An optimal concentration of 5 mM acetic anhydride was established, which gave >95% N-acetylation. We demonstrate the usefulness of this technique by showing an approximately 40-fold increase of both GlcSph and glucosylceramide in brain tissue from a glucocerebrosidase-deficient mouse, as well as significant lactosylceramide accumulation. The application and optimization of this technique for lyso-n-GSLs and lyso-GSLs will permit their quantification in small amounts of biological tissues, particularly in the GSL storage diseases, such as Gaucher and Krabbe's disease, in which GlcSph and GalSph, respectively, accumulate.

  11. Reducing the nicotine content to make cigarettes less addictive

    OpenAIRE

    Benowitz, Neal; Benowitz, NL; Henningfield, JE

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine is highly addictive and is primarily responsible for the maintenance of cigarette smoking. In 1994, Benowitz and Henningfield proposed the idea of federal regulation of the nicotine content of cigarettes such that the nicotine content of cigarette

  12. Lysosomal glycosphingolipid catabolism by acid ceramidase: formation of glycosphingoid bases during deficiency of glycosidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferraz, Maria J.; Marques, André R. A.; Appelman, Monique D.; Verhoek, Marri; Strijland, Anneke; Mirzaian, Mina; Scheij, Saskia; Ouairy, Cécile M.; Lahav, Daniel; Wisse, Patrick; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosphingoid bases are elevated in inherited lysosomal storage disorders with deficient activity of glycosphingolipid catabolizing glycosidases. We investigated the molecular basis of the formation of glucosylsphingosine and globotriaosylsphingosine during deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (Gaucher

  13. Lyso-glycosphingolipid abnormalities in different murine models of lysosomal storage disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Maria J; Marques, André R A; Gaspar, Paulo; Mirzaian, Mina; van Roomen, Cindy; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Alfonso, Pilar; Irún, Pilar; Giraldo, Pilar; Wisse, Patrick; Sá Miranda, Clara; Overkleeft, Herman S; Aerts, Johannes M

    2016-02-01

    In lysosomal glycosphingolipid storage disorders, marked elevations in corresponding glycosphingoid bases (lyso-glycosphingolipids) have been reported, such as galactosylsphingosine in Krabbe disease, glucosylsphingosine in Gaucher disease and globotriaosylsphingosine in Fabry disease. Using LC–MS/MS, we comparatively investigated the occurrence of abnormal lyso-glycosphingolipids in tissues and plasma of mice with deficiencies in lysosomal α-galactosidase A, glucocerebrosidase and galactocerebrosidase. The nature and specificity of lyso-glycosphingolipid abnormalities are reported and compared to that in correspondingly more abundant N-acylated glycosphingolipids. Specific elevations in tissue and plasma globotriaosylsphingosine were detected in α-galactosidase A-deficient mice; glucosylsphingosine in glucocerebrosidase-deficient mice and galactosylsphingosine in galactocerebrosidase-deficient animals. A similar investigation was conducted for two mouse models of Niemann Pick type C (Npc1nih and Npc1nmf164), revealing significant tissue elevation of several neutral glycosphingolipids and concomitant increased plasma glucosylsphingosine. This latter finding was recapitulated by analysis of plasma of NPC patients. The value of plasma glucosylsphingosine in biochemical confirmation of the diagnosis of NPC is discussed.

  14. Improved processing methods to reduce the total cyanide content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WHO amendments (10 mg HCN equivalent per kilogram flour), if the initial cyanide level of roots did not exceed 200 mg/kg d.w. Actually, the initial maximum total cyanide content was confirmed to be fundamental in order to obtain safe products ...

  15. Improved processing methods to reduce the total cyanide content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PierGuido

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... was produced according to FAO/WHO amendments (10 mg HCN equivalent per kilogram flour), if the initial cyanide level of roots did ... and free amino acids, and high content of the poisonous cyanogenic glucosides (CNG): ... tation after lactic acid bacteria (Oyewole and Odunfa,. 1990). Akindahunsi et al.

  16. Glycosphingolipid studies of visceral tissues and brain from type 1 Gaucher disease variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, O; Grabowski, G A; Ludman, M D; Desnick, R J; Svennerholm, L

    1985-05-01

    Glucosylceramide and glucosylsphingosine isolated from spleen, liver and brain were quantitated and characterized in two unrelated patients with Gaucher disease, neither of whom had clinical or neuropathologic evidence of neuronal involvement. Visceral glucosylceramide accumulation did not differ in the two patients. Hepatic glucosylsphingosine content was 2-fold greater in a young severely affected 3-year-old American Black patient compared to that in a 56-year-old Ashkenazi Jewish patient. In contrast, significant differences in glycosphingolipid content and composition were observed in the brains of these two cases. Cerebral and cerebellar cortical glucosylceramide accumulated to a greater extent (3-fold) in the severely affected 3-year-old patient compared to that in the older case. The compositions of the acyl and sphingosyl base residues of glucosylceramide in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices from the Ashkenazi Jewish patient were similar to those in normal individuals. In comparison, the gray matter glucosylceramide in the severely affected patient had increased percentages of stearic acid (18:0) and eicosasphingenine (d20:1), suggesting that the accumulated substrate was derived from the brain ganglioside pool. Glucosylsphingosine was found in large amounts only in cerebral and cerebellar cortices from the severely affected patient. The glycolipid content and composition in this patient was similar to that found in the Norrbottnian (Type 3) form of Gaucher disease. The differences in glucosylceramide acyl and sphingosyl base composition in gray matter from the severely affected patient and that in the Ashkenazi Jewish patient suggested that the accumulated substrates were metabolized differently by the residual enzymes in each case.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Glycosphingolipids are required for sorting melanosomal proteins in the Golgi complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprong, H; Degroote, S; Claessens, T; van Drunen, J; Oorschot, V; Westerink, B H; Hirabayashi, Y; Klumperman, J; van der Sluijs, P; van Meer, G

    2001-10-29

    Although glycosphingolipids are ubiquitously expressed and essential for multicellular organisms, surprisingly little is known about their intracellular functions. To explore the role of glycosphingolipids in membrane transport, we used the glycosphingolipid-deficient GM95 mouse melanoma cell line. We found that GM95 cells do not make melanin pigment because tyrosinase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis, was not targeted to melanosomes but accumulated in the Golgi complex. However, tyrosinase-related protein 1 still reached melanosomal structures via the plasma membrane instead of the direct pathway from the Golgi. Delivery of lysosomal enzymes from the Golgi complex to endosomes was normal, suggesting that this pathway is not affected by the absence of glycosphingolipids. Loss of pigmentation was due to tyrosinase mislocalization, since transfection of tyrosinase with an extended transmembrane domain, which bypassed the transport block, restored pigmentation. Transfection of ceramide glucosyltransferase or addition of glucosylsphingosine restored tyrosinase transport and pigmentation. We conclude that protein transport from Golgi to melanosomes via the direct pathway requires glycosphingolipids.

  18. High nitrogen availability reduces polyphenol content in Sphagnum peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazza, Luca; Freeman, Chris

    2007-05-15

    Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum constitute the bulk of living and dead biomass in bogs. These plants contain peculiar polyphenols which hamper litter peat decomposition through their inhibitory activity on microbial breakdown. In the light of the increasing availability of biologically active nitrogen in natural ecosystems, litter derived from Sphagnum mosses is an ideal substrate to test the potential effects of increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition on polyphenol content in litter peat. To this aim, we measured total nitrogen and soluble polyphenol concentration in Sphagnum litter peat collected in 11 European bogs under a chronic gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results demonstrate that increasing nitrogen concentration in Sphagnum litter, as a consequence of increased exogenous nitrogen availability, is accompanied by a decreasing concentration of polyphenols. This inverse relationship is consistent with reports that in Sphagnum mosses, polyphenol and protein biosynthesis compete for the same precursor. Our observation of modified Sphagnum litter chemistry under chronic nitrogen eutrophication has implications in the context of the global carbon balance, because a lower content of decay-inhibiting polyphenols would accelerate litter peat decomposition.

  19. Chronic cyclodextrin treatment of murine Niemann-Pick C disease ameliorates neuronal cholesterol and glycosphingolipid storage and disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristin D Davidson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused most commonly by a defect in the NPC1 protein and characterized by widespread intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycosphingolipids (GSLs. While current treatment therapies are limited, a few drugs tested in Npc1(-/- mice have shown partial benefit. During a combination treatment trial using two such compounds, N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ and allopregnanolone, we noted increased lifespan for Npc1(-/- mice receiving only 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD, the vehicle for allopregnanolone. This finding suggested that administration of CD alone, but with greater frequency, might provide additional benefit.Administration of CD to Npc1(-/- mice beginning at either P7 or P21 and continuing every other day delayed clinical onset, reduced intraneuronal cholesterol and GSL storage as well as free sphingosine accumulation, reduced markers of neurodegeneration, and led to longer survival than any previous treatment regime. We reasoned that other lysosomal diseases characterized by cholesterol and GSL accumulation, including NPC disease due to NPC2 deficiency, GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS type IIIA, might likewise benefit from CD treatment. Treated Npc2(-/- mice showed benefits similar to NPC1 disease, however, mice with GM1 gangliosidosis or MPS IIIA failed to show reduction in storage.Treatment with CD delayed clinical disease onset, reduced intraneuronal storage and secondary markers of neurodegeneration, and significantly increased lifespan of both Npc1(-/- and Npc2(-/- mice. In contrast, CD failed to ameliorate cholesterol or glycosphingolipid storage in GM1 gangliosidosis and MPS IIIA disease. Understanding the mechanism(s by which CD leads to reduced neuronal storage may provide important new opportunities for treatment of NPC and related neurodegenerative diseases characterized by cholesterol dyshomeostasis.

  20. Improved processing methods to reduce the total cyanide content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PierGuido

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... The identification of highly effective procedures that reduce the cyanogens contained in cassava roots which require no sophisticated equipment, and can readily be adopted by subsistence farmers is of tremendous importance. This study, which used cassava root samples collected in Burundi, included.

  1. ATTEMPT TO REDUCE ACRYLAMIDE CONTENT IN ROASTED CHICORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Zięć

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The region of Upper Nitra has been influenced for several decades by the intensive activity of the industry. The Nitra is a river with the most polluted water ecosystems. It was caused by anthropogenic activities in the past decades. In the upper reaches of the river in the cadastral territory of the village Zemianske Kostoľany is located the thermal power plant. There is the sedimentation reservoir, which caused the ecological disaster in 1965. During this accident there was a bursting of the dam and the downstream sedimentation of sludge spill, which contaminated the entire water catchment area of the Nitra river. As a result of an ecological accident occurred to a long-term contamination of the stream but also the adjacent alluvial areas by heavy metals (Hg, As, Pb and others. In the present work, we have focused on ascertaining the level of contamination the adjacent plot of land and seeds of corn in the cadastral territory of Malé Kršteňany. We ascertained the excess of the limit values in the case of Hg on the south side of the agricultural land in Malé Kršteňany, which borders with the stream of the river. The Cd content has exceeded the limit value at the five sampling places, in the case of lead, content does not exceed the limit value. The average mercury concentration in the grain of maize was 0.095 mg.kg-1, which exceeds the limit value by 90.5%. The average cadmium content in maize grain reached the value of 0.06 mg.kg-1. This value does not exceed the limit value. Average lead accumulation in the grain of maize was 0.54 mg.kg-1, which exceeds 2.7 times the limit value. The results of analyzes indicate an increased level of land contamination by mercury and cadmium, which was reflected in an increased level of contamination by monitored metals of crops.

  2. Structure and Dynamics of Glycosphingolipids in Lipid Bilayers: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Y. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipids are important constituents of biological membranes, and understanding their structure and dynamics in lipid bilayers provides insights into their physiological and pathological roles. Experimental techniques have provided details into their behavior at model and biological membranes; however, computer simulations are needed to gain atomic level insights. This paper summarizes the insights obtained from MD simulations into the conformational and orientational dynamics of glycosphingolipids and their exposure, hydration, and hydrogen-bonding interactions in membrane environment. The organization of glycosphingolipids in raft-like membranes and their modulation of lipid membrane structure are also reviewed.

  3. Lysosomal glycosphingolipid catabolism by acid ceramidase: formation of glycosphingoid bases during deficiency of glycosidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Maria J; Marques, André R A; Appelman, Monique D; Verhoek, Marri; Strijland, Anneke; Mirzaian, Mina; Scheij, Saskia; Ouairy, Cécile M; Lahav, Daniel; Wisse, Patrick; Overkleeft, Herman S; Boot, Rolf G; Aerts, Johannes M

    2016-03-01

    Glycosphingoid bases are elevated in inherited lysosomal storage disorders with deficient activity of glycosphingolipid catabolizing glycosidases. We investigated the molecular basis of the formation of glucosylsphingosine and globotriaosylsphingosine during deficiency of glucocerebrosidase (Gaucher disease) and α-galactosidase A (Fabry disease). Independent genetic and pharmacological evidence is presented pointing to an active role of acid ceramidase in both processes through deacylation of lysosomal glycosphingolipids. The potential pathophysiological relevance of elevated glycosphingoid bases generated through this alternative metabolism in patients suffering from lysosomal glycosidase defects is discussed. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. Intestinal remodelling in mink fed with reduced protein content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke

    2009-01-01

    Low protein intake occurs in humans in relation to diseases, starvation and post-operatively. Low-protein diets may affect the gastrointestinal structure and mechanical function. The aim was to study the passive biomechanical properties and tissue remodelling of the intestine in minks on reduced...... protein diets. Twenty-seven male minks were divided into three groups receiving different protein level in the diet for 6 weeks: High protein level (group H, 55% energy from protein), moderate protein level (group M, 30% energy from protein) and low protein level (group L, 15% energy from protein) (n=9...... groups. Feeding the low-protein diet shifted the stress-strain curves to the right for the circumferential direction, indicating the wall become softer in the circumferential direction. However, no significant difference was observed in the longitudinal direction for any of the intestinal segments...

  5. Sensory profile of beef burger with reduced sodium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Barbosa Carvalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the sensory profile of three beef burger samples, namely, CON (control, F25 (25% sodium reduction and F50 (50% sodium reduction, based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The samples´ microbial, physical and chemical composition was evaluated. Twelve panelists were selected and trained using as criteria the panelists´ discrimination power, reproducibility and consensus. Eleven terms were generated by the method of network descriptors. The intensity of each descriptor in each sample was evaluated by unstructured scale of 9 cm. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Duncan´s mean test and principal component analysis. The sensory profile shows that low sodium beef burgers had lower fat and salty flavor when compared to untreated control and greater flavor and spice aroma. The above proves that reducing sodium intake causes increased perception burger tasters when compared to the presence of spices in the product. Treatment with 50% sodium reduction obtained the best results for texture softness and appearance. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05 in the chemical composition of ash, protein and fat in all burgers. In the case of general sensory attributes, treatments with sodium reduction obtained higher intensities of the attributes evaluated, except for meat and salt flavors.

  6. Shiga Toxin Glycosphingolipid Receptors in Human Caco-2 and HCT-8 Colon Epithelial Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzel, Ivan U; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Schmitz, Julia S; Steil, Daniel; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Karch, Helge; Müthing, Johannes

    2017-10-25

    Shiga toxins (Stxs) released by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) into the human colon are the causative agents for fatal outcome of EHEC infections. Colon epithelial Caco-2 and HCT-8 cells are widely used for investigating Stx-mediated intestinal cytotoxicity. Only limited data are available regarding precise structures of their Stx receptor glycosphingolipids (GSLs) globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer), and lipid raft association. In this study we identified Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer lipoforms of serum-free cultivated Caco-2 and HCT-8 cells, chiefly harboring ceramide moieties composed of sphingosine (d18:1) and C16:0, C22:0 or C24:0/C24:1 fatty acid. The most significant difference between the two cell lines was the prevalence of Gb3Cer with C16 fatty acid in HCT-8 and Gb4Cer with C22-C24 fatty acids in Caco-2 cells. Lipid compositional analysis of detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), which were used as lipid raft-equivalents, indicated slightly higher relative content of Stx receptor Gb3Cer in DRMs of HCT-8 cells when compared to Caco-2 cells. Cytotoxicity assays revealed substantial sensitivity towards Stx2a for both cell lines, evidencing little higher susceptibility of Caco-2 cells versus HCT-8 cells. Collectively, Caco-2 and HCT-8 cells express a plethora of different receptor lipoforms and are susceptible towards Stx2a exhibiting somewhat lower sensitivity when compared to Vero cells.

  7. Pre- and post-Golgi translocation of glucosylceramide in glycosphingolipid synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halter, D.; Neumann, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834513; van Dijk, S.M.; Wolthoorn, J.; de Maziere, A.M.G.L.; Vieira, O.V.; Mattjus, P.; Klumperman, J.; van Meer, G.; Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815

    2007-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids are controlled by the spatial organization of their metabolism and by trans port specificity. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we localize to the Golgi stack the glycosyltransferases that produce glucosylceramide (GlcCer), lactosylceramide (LacCer), and GM3. GlcCer is synthesized

  8. Effect of glycosphingolipids purified from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigotes on human peripheral lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio, S; Santos, MRM; Straus,AH; Takahashi, HK; Barbieri, CU

    2003-01-01

    The effect of purified glycosphingolipids from Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis on human lymphoproliferation, on expression of human lymphocyte and monocyte markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD19, and CD45), and on lymphocyte protein kinase C activity was analyzed.

  9. Glycosphingolipids with extended sugar chain have specialized functions in development and behavior of Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Pedersen, Johannes W; Wandall, Hans H

    2007-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSL) are glycosylated polar lipids in cell membranes essential for development of vertebrates as well as Drosophila. Mutants that impair enzymes involved in biosynthesis of GSL sugar chains provide a means to assess the functions of the sugar chains in vivo. The Drosophila gly...

  10. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the Psammomys obesus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zigmond E

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ehud Zigmond,1,* Oshrat Tayer-Shifman,1,* Gadi Lalazar,1 Ami Ben Ya'acov,1 Sarah Weksler-Zangen,2 David Shasha,1 Miriam Sklair-Levy,3 Lidya Zolotarov,1 Zvi Shalev,1 Rony Kalman,2 Ehud Ziv,2 Itamar Raz,2 Yaron Ilan1 1Liver Unit, 2Diabetes Unit, 3Department of Radiology, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Liver steatosis is a common characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and fatty liver disease is increasingly recognized as a major health burden. Accumulating evidence suggests that β-glycosphingolipids play an important role in insulin sensitivity and thus could affect hepatic steatosis. To determine the effect associated with β-glycosphingolipid-mediated amelioration of liver injury, seven groups of Psammomys obesus on a high-energy diet were studied. Animals were treated with daily injections of β-glucosylceramide, β-lactosylceramide, or a combination of both. β-glycosphingolipids ameliorated the hepatic injury manifested by decreased liver enzymes, liver weight, and hepatic fat, and improved liver histology. Administration of both β-glucosylceramide and β-lactosylceramide also decreased interferon (IFN-γ serum levels. These effects were associated with improved serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These data suggest that β-glycosphingolipids ameliorate liver injury in an animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.Keywords: NAFLD, glycolipids, STAT, NASH, insulin resistance, diabetes

  11. Family History of Diabetes Links Impaired Substrate Switching and Reduced Mitochondrial Content in Skeletal Muscle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbara Ukropcova; Olga Sereda; Lilian de Jonge; Iwona Bogacka; Tuong Nguyen; Hui Xie; George A. Bray; Steven R. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Family History of Diabetes Links Impaired Substrate Switching and Reduced Mitochondrial Content in Skeletal Muscle Barbara Ukropcova , Olga Sereda , Lilian de Jonge , Iwona Bogacka , Tuong Nguyen , Hui Xie , George A. Bray and Steven R...

  12. Reduced wood stiffness and strength, and altered stem form, in young antisense 4CL transgenic poplars with reduced lignin contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Frederick C. Meinzer; Peter Kitin; Steven H. Strauss

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lignin content in perennial crops has been sought as a means to improve biomass processability for paper and biofuels production, but it is unclear how this could affect wood properties and tree form. Here, we studied a nontransgenic control and 14 transgenic events containing an antisense 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) to discern the...

  13. FOXO1 Content Is Reduced in Cystic Fibrosis and Increases with IGF-I Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Smerieri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is to date the most frequent complication in cystic fibrosis (CF. The mechanisms underlying this condition are not well understood, and a possible role of insulin resistance is debated. We investigated insulin signal transduction in CF. Total insulin receptor, IRS1, p85 PI3K, and AKT contents were substantially normal in CF cells (CFBE41o-, whereas winged helix forkhead (FOXO1 contents were reduced both in baseline conditions and after insulin stimulation. In addition, CF cells showed increased ERK1/2, and reduced β2 arrestin contents. No significant change in SOCS2 was observed. By using a CFTR inhibitor and siRNA, changes in FOXO1 were related to CFTR loss of function. In a CF-affected mouse model, FOXO1 content was reduced in the muscle while no significant difference was observed in liver and adipose tissue compared with wild-type. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I increased FOXO1 content in vitro and in vivo in muscle and adipose tissue. In conclusion; we present the first description of reduced FOXO1 content in CF, which is compatible with reduced gluconeogenesis and increased adipogenesis, both features of insulin insensitivity. IGF-I treatment was effective in increasing FOXO1, thereby suggesting that it could be considered as a potential treatment in CF patients possibly to prevent and treat cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

  14. Role of heparan sulfates and glycosphingolipids in the pore formation of basic polypeptides of cobra cardiotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Guey; Tjong, Siu-Cin; Wu, Po-Long; Kuo, Je-Hung; Wu, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Cobra venom contains cardiotoxins (CTXs) that induce tissue necrosis and systolic heart arrest in bitten victims. CTX-induced membrane pore formation is one of the major mechanisms responsible for the venom's designated cytotoxicity. This chapter examines how glycoconjugates such as heparan sulfates (HS) and glycosphingolipids, located respectively in the extracellular matrix and lipid bilayers of the cell membranes, facilitate CTX pore formation. Evidences for HS-facilitated cell surface retention and glycosphingolipid-facilitated membrane bilayer insertion of CTX are reviewed. We suggest that similar physical steps could play a role in the mediation of other pore forming toxins (PFT). The membrane pores formed by PFT are expected to have limited lifetime on biological cell surface as a result of membrane dynamics during endocytosis and/or rearrangement of lipid rafts.

  15. Investigations on aberrant glycosylation of glycosphingolipids in colorectal cancer tissues using liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Stephanie; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Balog, Crina I A; Koeleman, Carolien A M; McDonnell, Liam M; Mayboroda, Oleg A; Verhoeven, Aswin; Mesker, Wilma E; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Deelder, André M; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2013-11-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death and alterations of glycosylation are characteristic features of malignant cells. Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and its exact causes and biology are not yet well understood. Here, we compared glycosylation profiles of colorectal tumor tissues and corresponding control tissues of 13 colorectal cancer patients to contribute to the understanding of this cancer. Using MALDI-TOF(/TOF)-MS and 2-dimensional LC-MS/MS we characterized enzymatically released and 2-aminobenzoic acid labeled glycans from glycosphingolipids. Multivariate data analysis revealed significant differences between tumor and corresponding control tissues. Main discriminators were obtained, which represent the overall alteration in glycosylation of glycosphingolipids during colorectal cancer progression, and these were found to be characterized by (1) increased fucosylation, (2) decreased acetylation, (3) decreased sulfation, (4) reduced expression of globo-type glycans, as well as (5) disialyl gangliosides. The findings of our current research confirm former reports, and in addition expand the knowledge of glycosphingolipid glycosylation in colorectal cancer by revealing new glycans with discriminative power and characteristic, cancer-associated glycosylation alterations. The obtained discriminating glycans can contribute to progress the discovery of biomarkers to improve diagnostics and patient treatment.

  16. Structural Analysis of Unsaturated Glycosphingolipids Using Shotgun Ozone-Induced Dissociation Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Rodell C.; Vu, Ngoc; Zhang, Qibin

    2017-08-01

    Glycosphingolipids are essential biomolecules widely distributed across biological kingdoms yet remain relatively underexplored owing to both compositional and structural complexity. While the glycan head group has been the subject of most studies, there is paucity of reports on the lipid moiety, particularly the location of unsaturation. In this paper, ozone-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (OzID-MS) implemented in a traveling wave-based quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-ToF) mass spectrometer was applied to study unsaturated glycosphingolipids using shotgun approach. Resulting high resolution mass spectra facilitated the unambiguous identification of diagnostic OzID product ions. Using [M+Na]+ adducts of authentic standards, we observed that the long chain base and fatty acyl unsaturation had distinct reactivity with ozone. The reactivity of unsaturation in the fatty acyl chain was about 8-fold higher than that in the long chain base, which enables their straightforward differentiation. Influence of the head group, fatty acyl hydroxylation, and length of fatty acyl chain on the oxidative cleavage of double bonds was also observed. Application of this technique to bovine brain galactocerebrosides revealed co-isolated isobaric and regioisomeric species, which otherwise would be incompletely identified using contemporary collision-induced dissociation (CID) alone. These results highlight the potential of OzID-MS in glycosphingolipids research, which not only provides complementary structural information to existing CID technique but also facilitates de novo structural determination of these complex biomolecules. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  18. Reducing the CP content in broiler feeds: impact on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, P; Méda, B; Lambert, W; Corrent, E; Juin, H; Lessire, M; Tesseraud, S

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the dietary CP content is an efficient way to limit nitrogen excretion in broilers but, as reported in the literature, it often reduces performance, probably because of an inadequate provision in amino acids (AA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing the CP content in the diet on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization in growing-finishing broilers using an optimized dietary AA profile based on the ideal protein concept. Two experiments (1 and 2) were performed using 1-day-old PM3 Ross male broilers (1520 and 912 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) using the minimum AA:Lys ratios proposed by Mack et al. with modifications for Thr and Arg. The digestible Thr (dThr): dLys ratio was increased from 63% to 68% and the dArg:dLys ratio was decreased from 112% to 108%. In experiment 1, the reduction of dietary CP from 19% to 15% (five treatments) did not alter feed intake or BW, but the feed conversion ratio was increased for the 16% and 15% CP diets (+2.4% and +3.6%, respectively), while in experiment 2 (three treatments: 19%, 17.5% and 16% CP) there was no effect of dietary CP on performance. In both experiments, dietary CP content did not affect breast meat yield. However, abdominal fat content (expressed as a percentage of BW) was increased by the decrease in CP content (up to +0.5 and +0.2 percentage point, in experiments 1 and 2, respectively). In experiment 2, meat quality traits responded to dietary CP content with a higher ultimate pH and lower lightness and drip loss values for the low CP diets. Nitrogen retention efficiency increased when reducing CP content in both experiments (+3.5 points/CP percentage point). The main consequence of this higher efficiency was a decrease in nitrogen excretion (-2.5 g N/kg BW gain) and volatilization (expressed as a percentage of excretion: -5 points/CP percentage point). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that with an adapted AA profile, it is possible to reduce

  19. The Ability of Benzoic Acid to Reduce Cr(VI Heavy Metal Content in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anugrah Windy Mustikarini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (VI is an ionic heavy metal which has to be handled properly when dissolved in water due to its toxicity, corosive, carsinogenic activity.. According to the State Minister for Population and Environment’s regulation, the quality standards of waste water, which is allowed to be discharge on surface water contains Cr(VI is 0.05-1 mg/L. This research used benzoic acid which is a kind of organic acid to reduce Cr(VI content in water. Benzoic acid has an active carboxyl group which interact this metal. This paper, the elimination of Cr(VI using benzoic acid is undertaken through pH adjustment by regulating with phosphoric acid. The result showed the best condition to reducing Cr(VI content 41.99% when 400 ppm of benzoic acid and pH 7 was applied, respectively.

  20. Influence of pre- and post-slaughter factors on the reduced glutathione content of beef muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, R; Sadowska, A; Waszkiewicz-Robak, B

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this experiment was to assess the effect of certain factors (muscle anatomy, paternal breed, diet, age at slaughter, castration, process of meat aging and grilling) on the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in beef. The research material included selected beef muscles acquired from steers and bulls obtained by crossing Polish Holstein-Friesian cows with meat breed bulls (Limousin, Charolais, Hereford). An analysis of ante-mortem factors such as the castration, slaughter age, and fattening of the animals showed no significant effect on the content of GSH (α=0,05). On the other hand, the paternal breed of animals was observed to have a significant effect on GSH content. In the study, GSH content significantly increased during meat aging. In contrast, grilling caused a loss approximately 40% of GSH content. Based on the study, it can be concluded that the distribution of GSH in anatomical beef muscles is uneven. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak...... moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control...... subjects. RESULTS: In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. CONCLUSIONS: New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less...

  2. Chefs' opinions about reducing the calorie content of menu items in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbagy, Julie E; Condrasky, Margaret D; Roe, Liane S; Sharp, Julia L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-02-01

    Modifying the energy content of foods, particularly foods eaten away from home, is important in addressing the obesity epidemic. Chefs in the restaurant industry are uniquely placed to influence the provision of reduced-calorie foods, but little is known about their opinions on this issue. A survey was conducted among chefs attending US culinary meetings about strategies for creating reduced-calorie foods and opportunities for introducing such items on restaurant menus. The 432 respondents were from a wide variety of employment positions and the majority had been in the restaurant industry for ≥ 20 years. Nearly all chefs (93%) thought that the calories in menu items could be reduced by 10-25% without customers noticing. To decrease the calories in two specific foods, respondents were more likely to select strategies for reducing energy density than for reducing portion size (P menu by 38% of chefs, followed by the need for staff skills and training (24%), and high ingredient cost (18%). The majority of respondents (71%) ranked taste as the most influential factor in the success of reduced-calorie items (P restaurant items. Ongoing collaboration is needed between chefs and public health professionals to ensure that appealing reduced-calorie menu items are more widely available in restaurants and that research is directed toward effective ways to develop and promote these items.

  3. A Bit String Content Aware Chunking Strategy for Reduced CPU Energy on Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve energy saving and reduce the total cost of ownership, green storage has become the first priority for data center. Detecting and deleting the redundant data are the key factors to the reduction of the energy consumption of CPU, while high performance stable chunking strategy provides the groundwork for detecting redundant data. The existing chunking algorithm greatly reduces the system performance when confronted with big data and it wastes a lot of energy. Factors affecting the chunking performance are analyzed and discussed in the paper and a new fingerprint signature calculation is implemented. Furthermore, a Bit String Content Aware Chunking Strategy (BCCS is put forward. This strategy reduces the cost of signature computation in chunking process to improve the system performance and cuts down the energy consumption of the cloud storage data center. On the basis of relevant test scenarios and test data of this paper, the advantages of the chunking strategy are verified.

  4. Elevated Chitin Content Reduces the Susceptibility of Candida Species to Caspofungin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Louise A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2013-01-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species. PMID:23089748

  5. Glycosphingolipid analysis in a naturally occurring ovine model of acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgos, Litsa; Hein, Leanne; Rozaklis, Tina; Adams, Melissa; Duplock, Stephen; Snel, Marten; Hemsley, Kim; Kuchel, Tim; Smith, Nicholas; Hopwood, John J

    2016-07-01

    Gaucher disease arises from mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene which encodes an enzyme required for the lysosomal catabolism of glucosylceramide. We have identified a naturally occurring mutation in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene in sheep that leads to Gaucher disease with acute neurological symptoms. Here we have examined the clinical phenotype at birth and subsequently quantified lipids in Gaucher lamb brain, in order to characterise the disorder. Enzyme activity assessments showed that a reduction in β-glucocerebrosidase activity to 1-5% of wild-type occurs consistently across newborn Gaucher lamb brain regions. We analyzed glucosylceramide, glucosylsphingosine, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate and ganglioside profiles in brain, liver, and spleen, and observed 30- to 130-fold higher glucosylceramide, and 500- to 2000-fold higher glucosylsphingosine concentrations in Gaucher diseased lambs compared to wild-type. Significant increases of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate and gangliosides [GM1, GM2, GM3] concentrations were also detected in the brain. As these glycosphingolipids are involved in many cellular events, an imbalance or disruption of the cell membrane lipid homeostasis would be expected to impair normal neuronal function. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed analysis of glycosphingolipids in various brain regions in a large animal model of neuronal disease, which permits the mechanistic investigation of lipid deregulation and their contribution to neurodegenerative process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chefs’ opinions about reducing the calorie content of menu items in restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbagy, Julie E.; Condrasky, Margaret D.; Roe, Liane S.; Sharp, Julia L.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Modifying the energy content of foods, particularly foods eaten away from home, is important in addressing the obesity epidemic. Chefs in the restaurant industry are uniquely placed to influence the provision of reduced-calorie foods, but little is known about their opinions on this issue. A survey was conducted among chefs attending U.S. culinary meetings about strategies for creating reduced-calorie foods and opportunities for introducing such items on restaurant menus. The 432 respondents were from a wide variety of employment positions and the majority had been in the restaurant industry for 20 years or more. Nearly all chefs (93%) thought that the calories in menu items could be reduced by 10 to 25% without customers noticing. To decrease the calories in two specific foods, respondents were more likely to select strategies for reducing energy density than for reducing portion size (prestaurant items. Ongoing collaboration is needed between chefs and public health professionals to ensure that appealing reduced-calorie menu items are more widely available in restaurants and that research is directed towards effective ways to develop and promote these items. PMID:20814414

  7. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...... a theoretical approach, which takes complexity as fundamental premise for modern society (Luhmann, 1985, 2002). In educational situations conditionally valuable content generally will exceed what can actually be taught within the frames of an education. In pedagogy this situation is often referred...... to as ‘abundance of material’, and in many cases it is not obvious, how the line between actually chosen and conditionally relevant content can be draw. Difficulties in drawing the line between actual educational content and conditionally relevant content can be handled in different way. One way, quite efficient...

  8. Exogenous cadaverine induces oxidative burst and reduces cadaverine conjugate content in the common ice plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir V; Stetsenko, Larisa A; Shevyakova, Nina I

    2009-01-01

    The effect of free cadaverine (Cad) on its conjugates formation was analyzed in roots of the common ice plants (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.). It was found for the first time that Cad could induce oxidative burst in the roots of adult plants, as was evident from the sharp decrease in the content of Cad soluble or insoluble conjugates. This unusual effect was associated with the increased oxidative degradation of exogenous Cad (1mM, 1.5h) and intense H(2)O(2) production in the root cells of adult plants. Root treatment of both juvenile and adult plants with H(2)O(2) (1mM, 1.5h) reduced the content of soluble Cad conjugates and increased the content of their components, free Cad and phenols. We also found that one of the possible reasons of the negative effect of exogenous diamine on the formation of conjugated forms in adult roots was alkalization of the root apoplast at Cad addition to nutrient medium and the unusual O(2)(-) synthase function as a pH-dependent guaiacol peroxidase in the presence of a high content of H(2)O(2). This was confirmed by the data on the accumulation of O(2)(-) and enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in adult roots under treatment with Cad. It is possible that the accumulation of O(2)(-) together with H(2)O(2) was also responsible for oxidative burst, which induced a decrease in the content of Cad conjugates in adult roots of the common ice plants.

  9. Nicotine Dependence, Nicotine Metabolism, and the Extent of Compensation in Response to Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Frank C; Ross, Kathryn C; Taghavi, Seyedehtaraneh; Delucchi, Kevin; Tyndale, Rachel F; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate tobacco product constituents, including nicotine, to promote public health. Reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes may lead to lower levels of addiction. Smokers however may compensate by smoking more cigarettes and/or smoking more intensely. The objective of this study was to test whether individual differences in the level of nicotine dependence (as measured by the Fagerstrom Test of Cigarette Dependence [FTCD]) and/or the rate of nicotine metabolism influence smoking behavior and exposure to tobacco toxicants when smokers are switched to reduced nicotine content cigarettes (RNC). Data from 51 participants from a previously published clinical trial of RNC were analyzed. Nicotine content of cigarettes was progressively reduced over 6 months and measures of smoking behavior, as well as nicotine metabolites and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure, CYP2A6 and nicotinic CHRNA5-A3-B4 (rs1051730) genotype were measured. Higher baseline FTCD predicted smoking more cigarettes per day (CPD), higher cotinine and smoke toxicant levels while smoking RNC throughout the study, with no interaction by RNC level. Time to first cigarette (TFC) was associated with differences in compensation. TFC within 10 min was associated with a greater increase in CPD compared to TFC greater than 10 min. Neither rate of nicotine metabolism, nor CYP2A6 or nicotinic receptor genotype, had an effect on the outcome variables of interest. FTCD is associated with overall exposure to nicotine and other constituents of tobacco smoke, while a short TFC is associated with an increased compensatory response after switching to RNC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitor AMP-DNM lowers plasma cholesterol levels by promoting fecal cholesterol excretion without inhibiting cholesterol absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; Bietrix, Florence; Lombardo, Elisa; van Roomen, Cindy P. A. A.; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Aerts, Johannes M.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of glycosphingolipid synthesis with iminosugar N-(5'-adamantane-1'-yl-methoxy)-pentyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM) increases fecal neutral sterol output in mice. To investigate which pathways were involved in this increase, C57BI/6J mice were treated with AMP-DNM and/or ezetimibe. Fecal

  11. Topology of sphingolipid galactosyltransferases in ER and Golgi: Transbilayer movement of monohexosyl sphingolipids is required for higher glycosphingolipid biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, K.N.J.; Bijl, P.; van Meer, G.

    1996-01-01

    Glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is synthesized at the cytosolic surface of the Golgi complex while enzymes acting in late steps of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis have their active centers in the Golgi lumen. However, the topology of the 'early' galactose-transferring enzymes is largely unknown. We used

  12. Reduced Stress and Improved Sleep Quality Caused by Green Tea Are Associated with a Reduced Caffeine Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Unno

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine, one of the main components in green tea, can interfere with sleep and block the effect of theanine. Since theanine, the main amino acid in tea leaves, has significant anti-stress effects in animals and humans, we examined the effects of green tea with lowered caffeine content, i.e., low-caffeine green tea (LCGT, on stress and quality of sleep of middle–aged individuals (n = 20, mean age 51.3 ± 6.7 years in a double-blind crossover design. Standard green tea (SGT was used as the control. These teas (≥300 mL/day, which were eluted with room temperature water, were consumed over a period of seven days after a single washout term. The level of salivary α-amylase activity (sAA, a stress marker, was significantly lower in participants that consumed LCGT (64.7 U/mL than in those that consumed SGT (73.9 U/mL. Sleep quality was higher in participants that consumed a larger quantity of LCGT. In addition, a self-diagnostic check for accumulated fatigue was significantly lower in those participants that consumed LCGT than SGT. These results indicate that LCGT intake can reduce stress in middle-aged individuals and improve their quality of sleep. The reduction in caffeine is suggested to be a valid reason for enhancing the anti-stress effect of green tea.

  13. Can emotional content reduce the age gap in visual working memory? Evidence from two tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Tania; Souza, Alessandra S

    2017-12-01

    Ageing is associated with declines in several cognitive abilities including working memory (WM). The goal of the present study was to assess whether emotional information could reduce the age gap in the quantity and quality (precision) of representations in visual WM. Young and older adults completed a serial image recognition (SIR) task and a colour-image binding (CIB) task. Results of the SIR task showed worse performance for negative than neutral and positive images within the older group, hence enlarging the age gap in WM. In the CIB task, recall precision was lower in the old than young adults, showing an ageing decline in the quality of WM representations. Positive images tended to improve precision, but this boost was similar for both age groups. In sum, emotional content did not reduce the age gap in visual WM.

  14. A Study Protocol for Testing the Effectiveness of User-Generated Content in Reducing Excessive Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herziger, Atar; Benzerga, Amel; Berkessel, Jana; Dinartika, Niken L.; Franklin, Matija; Steinnes, Kamilla K.; Sundström, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Excessive consumption is on the rise, as is apparent in growing financial debt and global greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary simplicity, a lifestyle choice of reduced consumption and sustainable consumer behavior, provides a potential solution for excessive consumers. However, voluntary simplicity is unpopular, difficult to adopt, and under researched. The outlined research project will test a method of promoting voluntary simplicity via user-generated content, thus mimicking an existing social media trend (Minimalism) in an empirical research design. The project will test (a) whether the Minimalism trend could benefit consumers interested in reducing their consumption, and (b) whether self-transcendence (i.e., biospheric) and self-enhancement (i.e., egoistic and hedonic) values and goals have a similar impact in promoting voluntary simplicity. A one-week intervention program will test the efficacy of watching user-generated voluntary simplicity videos in reducing non-essential consumption. Each of the two intervention conditions will present participants with similar tutorial videos on consumption reduction (e.g., decluttering, donating), while priming the relevant values and goals (self-transcendence or self-enhancement). These interventions will be compared to a control condition, involving no user-generated content. Participants will undergo baseline and post-intervention evaluations of: voluntary simplicity attitudes and behaviors, buying and shopping behaviors, values and goals in reducing consumption, and life satisfaction. Experience sampling will monitor affective state during the intervention. We provide a detailed stepwise procedure, materials, and equipment necessary for executing this intervention. The outlined research design is expected to contribute to the limited literature on voluntary simplicity, online behavioral change interventions, and the use of social marketing principles in consumer interventions. PMID:28649220

  15. Reducing the nicotine content of combusted tobacco products sold in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donny, Eric C; Walker, Natalie; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Bullen, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Large reductions in nicotine content could dramatically reduce reinforcement from and dependence on cigarettes. In this article, we summarise the potential benefits of reducing nicotine in combusted tobacco and address some of the common concerns. We focus specifically on New Zealand because it may be ideally situated to implement such a policy. The available data suggest that, in current smokers, very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes decrease nicotine exposure, decrease cigarette dependence, reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day and increase the likelihood of contemplating, making and succeeding at a quit attempt. New smokers would almost certainly be exposed to far less nicotine as a result of smoking VLNC cigarettes and, consequently, would probably be less likely to become chronic, dependent, smokers. Many of the concerns about reducing nicotine including compensatory smoking, an exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms, the perception that VLNC cigarettes are less harmful, and the potential for a black market are either not supported by the available data, likely mitigated by other factors including the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, or unlikely to offset the potential benefit to public health. Although not all concerns have been addressed or can be a priori, the magnitude of the potential benefits and the growing evidence of relatively few potential harms should make nicotine reduction one of the centrepieces for discussion of how to rapidly advance tobacco control. Policies that aim to render the most toxic tobacco products less addictive could help New Zealand attain their goal of becoming smokefree by 2025. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. A Study Protocol for Testing the Effectiveness of User-Generated Content in Reducing Excessive Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atar Herziger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive consumption is on the rise, as is apparent in growing financial debt and global greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary simplicity, a lifestyle choice of reduced consumption and sustainable consumer behavior, provides a potential solution for excessive consumers. However, voluntary simplicity is unpopular, difficult to adopt, and under researched. The outlined research project will test a method of promoting voluntary simplicity via user-generated content, thus mimicking an existing social media trend (Minimalism in an empirical research design. The project will test (a whether the Minimalism trend could benefit consumers interested in reducing their consumption, and (b whether self-transcendence (i.e., biospheric and self-enhancement (i.e., egoistic and hedonic values and goals have a similar impact in promoting voluntary simplicity. A one-week intervention program will test the efficacy of watching user-generated voluntary simplicity videos in reducing non-essential consumption. Each of the two intervention conditions will present participants with similar tutorial videos on consumption reduction (e.g., decluttering, donating, while priming the relevant values and goals (self-transcendence or self-enhancement. These interventions will be compared to a control condition, involving no user-generated content. Participants will undergo baseline and post-intervention evaluations of: voluntary simplicity attitudes and behaviors, buying and shopping behaviors, values and goals in reducing consumption, and life satisfaction. Experience sampling will monitor affective state during the intervention. We provide a detailed stepwise procedure, materials, and equipment necessary for executing this intervention. The outlined research design is expected to contribute to the limited literature on voluntary simplicity, online behavioral change interventions, and the use of social marketing principles in consumer interventions.

  17. A Study Protocol for Testing the Effectiveness of User-Generated Content in Reducing Excessive Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herziger, Atar; Benzerga, Amel; Berkessel, Jana; Dinartika, Niken L; Franklin, Matija; Steinnes, Kamilla K; Sundström, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Excessive consumption is on the rise, as is apparent in growing financial debt and global greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary simplicity, a lifestyle choice of reduced consumption and sustainable consumer behavior, provides a potential solution for excessive consumers. However, voluntary simplicity is unpopular, difficult to adopt, and under researched. The outlined research project will test a method of promoting voluntary simplicity via user-generated content, thus mimicking an existing social media trend (Minimalism) in an empirical research design. The project will test (a) whether the Minimalism trend could benefit consumers interested in reducing their consumption, and (b) whether self-transcendence (i.e., biospheric) and self-enhancement (i.e., egoistic and hedonic) values and goals have a similar impact in promoting voluntary simplicity. A one-week intervention program will test the efficacy of watching user-generated voluntary simplicity videos in reducing non-essential consumption. Each of the two intervention conditions will present participants with similar tutorial videos on consumption reduction (e.g., decluttering, donating), while priming the relevant values and goals (self-transcendence or self-enhancement). These interventions will be compared to a control condition, involving no user-generated content. Participants will undergo baseline and post-intervention evaluations of: voluntary simplicity attitudes and behaviors, buying and shopping behaviors, values and goals in reducing consumption, and life satisfaction. Experience sampling will monitor affective state during the intervention. We provide a detailed stepwise procedure, materials, and equipment necessary for executing this intervention. The outlined research design is expected to contribute to the limited literature on voluntary simplicity, online behavioral change interventions, and the use of social marketing principles in consumer interventions.

  18. Yeast Starter as a Biotechnological Tool for Reducing Copper Content in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Capece

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is widely used in agriculture as a traditional fungicide in organic farming to control downy mildew on grapes, consequently it is possible to find this metal during all stages of the vinification process. Low amounts of copper play a key role on the function of key cell enzymes, whereas excess quantities can exert amount-dependent cytotoxicity, resulting in general cellular damage. Nowadays the excessive copper ions in wines is removed by addition of adsorbents, but these additives can influence the sensory characteristics of wine, as well as detrimental to the health of consumers. It is well known that high concentrations of Cu2+ can be toxic to yeasts, inhibiting growth and activity, causing sluggish fermentation and reducing alcohol production. In this study, 47 S. cerevisiae strains were tested for copper tolerance by two different tests, growth on copper added medium and fermentative activity in copper added grape must. The results obtained by the two different tests were comparable and the high strain variability found was used to select four wild strains, possessing this characteristic at the highest (PP1-13 and A20 and the lowest level (MPR2-24 and A13. The selected strains were tested in synthetic and natural grape must fermentation for ability to reduce copper content in wine. The determination of copper content in wines and yeast cells revealed that at the lowest copper residual in wine corresponded the highest content in yeast cells, indicating a strong strain ability to reduce the copper content in wine. This effect was inversely correlated with strain copper resistance and the most powerful strain in copper reduction was the most sensitive strain, MPR2-24. This wild strain was finally tested as starter culture in cellar pilot scale fermentation in comparison to a commercial starter, confirming the behavior exhibited at lab scale. The use of this wild strain to complete the alcoholic fermentation and remove the copper from

  19. Development of transgenic Brassica juncea lines for reduced seed sinapine content by perturbing phenylpropanoid pathway genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kajla

    Full Text Available Sinapine is a major anti-nutritive compound that accumulates in the seeds of Brassica species. When ingested, sinapine imparts gritty flavuor in meat and milk of animals and fishy odor to eggs of brown egg layers, thereby compromising the potential use of the valuable protein rich seed meal. Sinapine content in Brassica juncea germplasm ranges from 6.7 to 15.1 mg/g of dry seed weight (DSW which is significantly higher than the prescribed permissible level of 3.0 mg/g of DSW. Due to limited natural genetic variability, conventional plant breeding approach for reducing the sinapine content has largely been unsuccessful. Hence, transgenic approach for gene silencing was adopted by targeting two genes-SGT and SCT, encoding enzymes UDP- glucose: sinapate glucosyltransferase and sinapoylglucose: choline sinapoyltransferase, respectively, involved in the final two steps of sinapine biosynthetic pathway. These two genes were isolated from B. juncea and eight silencing constructs were developed using three different RNA silencing approaches viz. antisense RNA, RNAi and artificial microRNA. Transgenics in B. juncea were developed following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. From a total of 1232 independent T0 transgenic events obtained using eight silencing constructs, 25 homozygous lines showing single gene inheritance were identified in the T2 generation. Reduction of seed sinapine content in these lines ranged from 15.8% to 67.2%; the line with maximum reduction had sinapine content of 3.79 mg/g of DSW. The study also revealed that RNAi method was more efficient than the other two methods used in this study.

  20. Cryptochrome and phytochrome cooperatively but independently reduce active gibberellin content in rice seedlings under light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Fumiaki; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Hanada, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takano, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    In contrast to a wealth of knowledge about the photoregulation of gibberellin metabolism in dicots, that in monocots remains largely unclear. In this study, we found that a blue light signal triggers reduction of active gibberellin content in rice seedlings with simultaneous repression of two gibberellin 20-oxidase genes (OsGA20ox2 and OsGA20ox4) and acute induction of four gibberellin 2-oxidase genes (OsGA2ox4-OsGA2ox7). For further examination of the regulation of these genes, we established a series of cryptochrome-deficient lines through reverse genetic screening from a Tos17 mutant population and construction of knockdown lines based on an RNA interference technique. By using these lines and phytochrome mutants, we elucidated that cryptochrome 1 (cry1), consisting of two species in rice plants (cry1a and cry1b), is indispensable for robust induction of the GA2ox genes. On the other hand, repression of the GA20ox genes is mediated by phytochromes. In addition, we found that the phytochromes also mediate the repression of a gibberellin 3-oxidase gene (OsGA3ox2) in the light. These results imply that, in rice seedlings, phytochromes mediate the repression of gibberellin biosynthesis capacity, while cry1 mediates the induction of gibberellin inactivation capacity. The cry1 action was demonstrated to be dominant in the reduction of active gibberellin content, but, in rice seedlings, the cumulative effects of these independent actions reduced active gibberellin content in the light. This pathway design in which different types of photoreceptors independently but cooperatively regulate active gibberellin content is unique from the viewpoint of dicot research. This redundancy should provide robustness to the response in rice plants.

  1. Quarantine versus pathogen-reduced plasma-coagulation factor content and rotational thromboelastometry coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theusinger, Oliver M; Goslings, David; Studt, Jan-Dirk; Brand-Staufer, Brigitte; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R; Frey, Beat M

    2017-03-01

    Different types of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) exist, and the concentrations of plasma proteins vary between individuals and blood groups. Furthermore, processing may also influence the content. Quarantine-stored plasma (qFFP) and plasma that was pathogen-reduced using blood-safety (Intercept) technology (piFFP) were analyzed regarding procoagulant and anticoagulant hemostasis proteins, including endogenous thrombin (thrombin-generation) potential (ETP). Thirty-five samples of each type of FFP were analyzed using only male Blood Group O donors. FFP units were stored frozen for comparable periods of time before plasma protein content was assessed. Once the units were thawed, all tests were completed within 4 hours. The results are presented as means ± standard deviations or as median (minimum; maximum) and were compared using independent-sample t tests (significance, p protein S, protein S activity, antithrombin, microvesicle (<900 nm), and α2 antiplasmin were observed in qFFP. The variability of factors was significantly lower in piFFP. Tissue factor (TF) at 1 picomolar (pM) exhibited significantly longer lag time, a lower peak, lower ETP, and a lower velocity index in qFFP compared with piFFP. In TF at 5 pM, significant differences in lag time (longer in qFFP), velocity index (lower in qFFP), and peak (lower in qFFP) were observed. Rotational thromboelastometry revealed a significantly longer (p = 0.002) clot-formation time with intrinsic thromboelastometry for piFFP and a significantly shorter clotting time (p = 0.004) with thromboelastometry fibrinogen testing for piFFP. Pathogen reduction reduces procoagulant and anticoagulant coagulation factors as well as variability. A thrombin-generation assay showed no reduced ETP and no supraphysiological thrombin generation. None of the FFP preparations is likely to be effective for treating fibrinogen deficiency. © 2016 AABB.

  2. Norovirus contamination and the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis pathway in Pacific oyster: A transcriptomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liping; Su, Laijin; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Deqing; Duan, Delin

    2017-07-01

    Noroviruses are the primary pathogens associated with shellfish-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks. These viruses remain stable in oysters, suggesting an active mechanism for virus concentration. In this study, a deep RNA sequencing technique was used to analyze the transcriptome profiles of Pacific oysters at different time points after inoculation with norovirus (GII.4). We obtained a maximum of 65, 294, 698 clean sample reads. When aligned to the reference genome, the average mapping ratio of clean data was approximately 65%. In the samples harvested at 12, 24, and 48 h after contamination, 2,223, 2,990, and 2020 genes, respectively, were differentially expressed in contaminated and non-contaminated oyster digestive tissues, including 500, 1748, and 1039 up-regulated and 1723, 1242, and 981 down-regulated genes, respectively. In particular, FUT2 and B3GNT4, genes encoding the signaling components of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, were significantly up-regulated in contaminated samples. In addition, we found up-regulation of some immune- and disease-related genes in the MHC I pathway (PA28, HSP 70, HSP90, CANX, BRp57, and CALR) and MHC II pathway (GILT, CTSBLS, RFX, and NFY), although NoVs did not cause diseases in the oysters. We detected two types of HBGA-like molecules with positive-to-negative ratios similar to type A and H1 HBGA-like molecules in digestive tissues that were significantly higher in norovirus-contaminated than in non-contaminated oysters. Thus, our transcriptome data analysis indicated that a human pathogen (GII.4 Norovirus) was likely concentrated in the digestive tissues of oysters via HBGA-like molecules that were synthesized by the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis pathway. The identified differentially expressed genes also provide potential candidates for functional analysis to identify genes involved in the accumulation of noroviruses in oysters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stability of the nicotine metabolite ratio in smokers of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-11-01

    The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), the ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) to cotinine, has been used as a biomarker of the rate of CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism. While stable in smokers who maintain constant smoking consumption, since smoking has been shown to inhibit nicotine metabolism and this inhibition could be mediated by the nicotine in the smoke, NMR could change during nicotine reduction. The objective of this study was to determine the reproducibility (or stability) of plasma NMR in smokers of progressively reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes. We analyzed data from subjects in a clinical trial of smoking progressively RNC cigarettes. Plasma NMR in 30 smokers whose plasma cotinine levels had decreased by at least 50% from the use of the first test cigarette (12mg nicotine content) to the final test cigarette (1mg nicotine content) was measured on 4 occasions over a period of 24 weeks. Plasma cotinine and 3-HC decreased by an average of 85% and 84%, respectively, following the use of the first type of RNC cigarette to the last type. Plasma NMR had an average absolute change of 28.5% over the same period. Using repeated measures analysis, changes in plasma NMR over time were not significant with or without controlling for the effects of age, body mass index, gender, and race (p = .24 and p = .23, respectively). The reliability coefficient for repeated measurements of plasma NMR was .72. The average within-subject coefficient of variation for plasma NMR was 21.6% (SD = 12.0%). The plasma NMR is relatively stable over time as nicotine levels decline in smokers of progressively RNC cigarettes.

  4. Evaluation of quality factors of bovine and chicken meat marinated with reduced sodium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Barbosa Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In many industrialized countries, including Brazil, sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations. Excessive consumption is associated with hypertension and premature death by cardiovascular diseases. The industry's challenge is to produce products with reduced sodium that are similar to regular products in texture and flavor and consistent with consumers' dietary habits. The present study aimed at substituting 25 and 50% NaCl for KCl in marinated beef and chicken meat with the addition of aromatic herbs and spices. The following microbiological analyses were carried out: macronutrient, chemical composition, and sensorial analysis. The meats showed a reduction in NaCl contents without any changes in their physical and chemical characteristics, and the products´ quality and microbiological safety were maintained. Beef and chicken tenderness was maintained for both treatments. Furthermore, the use of 50% KCl did not cause any changes in the products' sensory quality, and the overall acceptance of both types of meat was maintained. Results showed that a reduction by 50% in the NaCl contents of marinated meat products with a combination of herbs and spices is possible. Future applications in other meat products and sausages are highly promising.

  5. Physical pretreatments of wastewater algae to reduce ash content and improve thermal decomposition characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Ting; Ma, Junchao; Zhang, Yuanhui; Gai, Chao; Qian, Wanyi

    2014-10-01

    Previous study showed high ash content in wastewater algae (WA) has a negative effect on bio-crude oil formation in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). This study explored the effect of different pretreatments on ash reduction and the thermal decomposition of WA. Single-stage (e.g. centrifugation) and two-stage pretreatments (e.g. centrifugation followed by ultrasonication, C+U) were used. The apparent activation energy of the thermal decomposition (E(a)) of pretreated algae was determined. HTL was conducted to study how different pretreatments may impact on bio-crude oil formation. Compared to untreated samples, the ash content of algae with centrifugation was reduced from 28.6% to 18.6%. With C+U pretreatments, E(a) was decreased from 50.2 kJ/mol to 35.9 kJ/mol and the bio-crude oil yield was increased from 30% to 55%. These results demonstrate that pretreatments of C+U can improve the thermal decomposition behavior of WA and enhance the bio-crude oil conversion efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Endurance interval training in obese mice reduces muscle inflammation and macrophage content independently of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, M Constantine; Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah; Fullerton, Morgan D; Ziafazeli, Tahereh; Khan, Mohammad I; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that involves infiltration of macrophages into metabolic organs such as skeletal muscle. Exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity independently of weight loss; but its role in regulating muscle inflammation is not fully understood. We hypothesized that exercise training would inhibit skeletal muscle inflammation and alter macrophage infiltration into muscle independently of weight loss. Wild type C57BL/6 male mice were fed a chow diet or a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% calories fat) for 6 weeks. Then, mice maintained on the HFD either remained sedentary (HFD Sed) or exercised (HFD Ex) on a treadmill for another 6 weeks. The exercise training protocol involved conducting intervals of 2 min in duration followed by 2 min of rest for 60 min thrice weekly. Chow-fed control mice remained sedentary for the entire 12 weeks. Muscle cytokine and macrophage gene expression analysis were conducted using qRT-PCR, and muscle macrophage content was also measured using immunohistochemistry. Muscle cytokine protein content was quantified using a cytokine array. The HFD increased adiposity and weight gain compared to chow-fed controls. HFD Sed and HFD Ex mice had similar body mass as well as total and visceral adiposity. However, despite similar adiposity, exercise reduced inflammation and muscle macrophage infiltration. We conclude that Endurance exercise training modulates the immune-metabolic crosstalk in obesity independently of weight loss, and may have potential benefits in reducing obesity-related muscle inflammation. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  7. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p'sbelief that they are less likely to cause cancer (p=0.046). Neither false beliefs nor subjective ratings directly affected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p'sbeliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol

    2006-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law.

  9. Reduced nicotine content cigarettes and use of alternative nicotine products: exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Luo, Xianghua; Dick, Laura; Kangkum, Margarita; Allen, Sharon S; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S; Shields, Peter G; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    To compare the use of alternative nicotine products, smoking behavior and tobacco biomarker exposure in smokers unwilling to quit who were assigned randomly to normal nicotine content (NNC) cigarettes or very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes. Randomized, parallel-arm 8-week study with assignment to VLNC (VLNC 1, n = 53) or NNC (NNC, n = 27) with access to non-cigarette combusted and non-combusted tobacco/nicotine products or to VLNC with access to only non-combusted products (VLNC2, n = 56). Clinics in Minnesota, USA. Smokers uninterested in quitting smoking with a mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of 44 (± 14) years and smoking 16 (± seven) cigarettes/day; 51% female, 72% white. During the experimental period, the measures taken included: rate of alternative products used, amount of and abstinence from combusted tobacco used and tobacco exposure biomarkers. There were higher rates of non-combusted alternative tobacco/nicotine product use in both VLNC conditions versus the NNC condition [rate ratio (RR) = 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.94, 2.46 and RR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.46, 1.85, respectively] and in VLNC1 versus VLNC2 condition (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.23, 1.44), accompanied by reduced biomarkers of exposure primarily in VLNC2 condition compared to NNC condition (Ps cigarettes during an 8-week period led to greater use of alternative tobacco/nicotine products compared with continued use of normal nicotine cigarettes and also reductions in smoking rates. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Estimations and predictors of non-compliance in switchers to reduced nicotine content cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Natalie; Donny, Eric C; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Murphy, Sharon E; Strasser, Andrew A; Tidey, Jennifer W; Vandrey, Ryan; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-12-01

    Clinical trials on the impact and safety of reduced nicotine content cigarettes (RNCs) are ongoing, and an important methodological concern is participant compliance with smoking only RNCs. Our aims were to measure non-compliance biochemically with urine cotinine (COT) and total nicotine equivalents (TNEs), compare with self-reported non-compliance and identify associated covariates. Secondary analysis of a double-blind, parallel, randomized clinical trial. Research centers from the United States, enrolling participants from June 2013 to July 2014. Volunteer sample of 242 participants (55% Caucasian), average age of 41.2 years, smoking at least five cigarettes per day (CPD). Smoking very low nicotine cigarettes (VLNCs; 0.4 mg nicotine/g tobacco) for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was biochemically verified non-compliance, measured as thresholds of COT/CPD and TNE/CPD ratios, considering changes in nicotine content from conventional levels to VLNCs, and as an absolute threshold of week 6 TNEs. Self-reported non-compliance was measured via daily phone calls. Key predictors included age, sex, race, menthol preference, nicotine metabolite ratio, time to first cigarette, dependence, CPD, TNEs, tar level and cigarette evaluation. Estimates of non-compliance with smoking the VLNCs exclusively include: the biochemical ratios (both 78%), the week 6 TNE threshold (76%) and self-report (39%). Of the key covariates, age, dependence and cigarette evaluations of satisfaction were significant; for age, younger participants more likely to be non-compliant [P = 0.01; odds ratio (OR) = 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.96-0.99]. Dependence was associated significantly with self-reported non-compliance (P = 0.01; OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.55). Cigarette evaluations of satisfaction were associated significantly with non-compliance (P = 0.001; OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.61-0.82). Among smokers volunteering to smoke only very low nicotine cigarettes for 6 weeks, non

  11. Selective Extraction and Effective Separation of Galactosylsphingosine (Psychosine) and Glucosylsphingosine from Other Glycosphingolipids in Pathological Tissue Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yu-Teh; Li, Su-Chen; Buck, Wayne R.; Haskins, Mark E.; Wu, Sz-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Sidransky, Ellen; Bunnell, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    To facilitate the study of the chemical pathology of galactosylsphingosine (psychosine, GalSph) in Krabbe disease and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph) in Gaucher disease, we have devised a facile method for the effective separation of these two glycosylsphingosines from other glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in Krabbe brain and Gaucher spleen samples. The procedure involves the use of acetone to selectively extract GalSph and GlcSph, respectively, from Krabbe brain and Gaucher spleen samples. Since acet...

  12. Pharmacological Evaluation of Total Alkaloids from Nux Vomica: Effect of Reducing Strychnine Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of improving the therapeutic efficacy of the total alkaloid fraction (TAF extracted from processed nux vomica by reducing the strychnine contents. Most strychnine was removed from TAF to obtain the modified total alkaloid fraction (MTAF. The toxicity and pharmacokinetics of TAF and MTAF were further investigated and compared besides their antitumor, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results showed that the ratios of brucine to strychnine were 1:2.05 and 2.2:1 for TAF and MTAF, respectively, and the toxicity of TAF was about 3.17-fold higher than that of MTAF. Compared to brucine alone, the elimination of brucine was found to be inhibited by other alkaloids in TAF or MTAF except strychnine. Significantly increased pharmacological activities when administered by the oral route were obtained with MTAF in comparison to TAF and nux vomica powder (NVP. In summary, MTAF might replace NVP and TAF in the clinical application of Chinese medicine to obtain much higher efficacy.

  13. Gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with reduced starch digestibility and enhanced protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Renjusha; Padmaja, G; Jyothi, A N; Asha, V; Sajeev, M S

    2016-09-01

    Sweet potato starch (SPS) noodles despite being gluten-free, has low nutritional value as it lacks proteins, minerals, vitamins etc. The objective of this study was to develop gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with enhanced protein content through fortification with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and to study the effect of protein fortification and blending SPS with banana (BS), cassava (CS) and mung bean (MBS) starches and annealed cassava starch (ACS) in reducing the starch digestibility. The highest protein retention in cooked noodles was obtained for 20 % WPC fortification, while the lowest starch digestibility was observed for 40 % BS fortified noodles followed by 50 % ACS fortified noodles. The highest resistant starch (RS) retention was for BS and ACS fortified noodles, which also had medium glycemic index of 66.3 (BS) and 67.2 (ACS). High sensory scores were obtained for the BS and 20 % WPC fortified noodles. The study showed that protein and/or BS fortification with SPS could enhance the acceptability as well as functional value of SPS noodles.

  14. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  15. The effect of varying carboxylic-group content in reduced graphene oxides on the anticorrosive properties of PMMA/reduced graphene oxide composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present comparative studies on the effect of varying the carboxylic-group content of thermally reduced graphene oxides (TRGs on the anticorrosive properties of as-prepared poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA/TRG composite (PTC coatings. TRGs were formed from graphene oxide (GO by thermal exfoliation. The as-prepared TRGs were then characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Subsequently, the PTC materials were prepared via a UV-curing process and then characterized using FTIR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. PTC coatings containing TRGs with a higher carboxylic-group content exhibited better corrosion protection of a cold-rolled steel electrode that those with a lower carboxylic-group content. This is because the well-dispersed TRG with a higher carboxylic-group content embedded in the PMMA matrix effectively enhances the oxygen barrier properties of the PTC. This conclusion was supported by gas permeability analysis.

  16. AtHKT1 drives adaptation of Arabidopsis thaliana to salinity by reducing floral sodium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong; Chen, Jiu-Geng; Gao, Yi-Qun; Li, Xiang; Chao, Zhen-Fei; Chen, Zi-Ru; Li, Qian-Qian; Han, Mei-Ling; Wang, Ya-Ling; Wang, Yong-Fei; Chao, Dai-Yin

    2017-10-30

    Arabidopsis thaliana high-affinity potassium transporter 1 (AtHKT1) limits the root-to-shoot sodium transportation and is believed to be essential for salt tolerance in A. thaliana. Nevertheless, natural accessions with 'weak allele' of AtHKT1, e.g. Tsu-1, are mainly distributed in saline areas and are more tolerant to salinity. These findings challenge the role of AtHKT1 in salt tolerance and call into question the involvement of AtHKT1 in salinity adaptation in A. thaliana. Here, we report that AtHKT1 indeed drives natural variation in the salt tolerance of A. thaliana and the coastal AtHKT1, so-called weak allele, is actually hyper-functional in reducing flowers sodium content upon salt stress. Our data showed that AtHKT1 positively contributes to saline adaptation in a linear manner. Forward and reverse genetics analysis established that the single AtHKT1 locus is responsible for the variation in the salinity adaptation between Col-0 and Tsu-1. Reciprocal grafting experiments revealed that shoot AtHKT1 determines the salt tolerance of Tsu-1, whereas root AtHKT1 primarily drives the salt tolerance of Col-0. Furthermore, evidence indicated that Tsu-1 AtHKT1 is highly expressed in stems and is more effective compared to Col-0 AtHKT1 at limiting sodium flow to the flowers. Such efficient retrieval of sodium to the reproductive organ endows Tsu-1 with stronger fertility compared to Col-0 upon salt stress, thus improving Tsu-1 adaptation to a coastal environment. To conclude, our data not only confirm the role of AtHKT1 in saline adaptation, but also sheds light on our understanding of the salt tolerance mechanisms in plants.

  17. CD1a and CD1b surface expression is independent from de novo synthesized glycosphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolova, Vania; Hirabayashi, Yoshio; Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2003-01-01

    CD1 molecules resemble classical MHC molecules in structure, bind self and bacterial glycolipids and present them to T cells. Whether the CD1 antigen-binding groove becomes filled during maturation and traffic to the cell surface is an important and still unsolved biological question. As most cell types synthesize complex glycosphingolipids (GSL), which also stimulate CD1-restricted T cells, it could be possible that these ligands associate with nascent CD1 molecules. Here, we show that treatment of cells with drugs blocking at different levels the de novo and salvage pathways of GSL synthesis does not prevent surface expression of CD1a and CD1b. Furthermore, transfection of CD1A and CD1B genes in a mutant cell line unable to synthesize glucosylceramides and galactosylceramides showed normal surface expression of both CD1 molecules. Lack of GSL did not induce intracellular CD1 accumulation as indicated by confocal microscopy. The same results were obtained by transfecting the Lec series of mutants, which are deficient in sugar addition to glycolipids and glycoproteins. These findings demonstrate that endogenous de novo synthesized GSL are not mandatory for CD1a and CD1b negotiating surface expression.

  18. The effect of reduced sodium chloride content on the microbiological and biochemical properties of a soft surface-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugat-Bony, E; Sarthou, A-S; Perello, M-C; de Revel, G; Bonnarme, P; Helinck, S

    2016-04-01

    Many health authorities have targeted salt reduction in food products as a means to reduce dietary sodium intake due to the harmful effects associated with its excessive consumption. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) content on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of an experimental surface-ripened cheese. A control cheese (1.8% NaCl) and a cheese with a reduced NaCl content (1.3% NaCl) were sampled weekly over a period of 27d. Reducing NaCl content induced microbial perturbations such as the lesser development of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and the greater development of the gram-negative bacterium Hafnia alvei. This was accompanied by changes in proteolytic kinetics and in profiles of volatile aroma compounds and biogenic amine production. Finally, the development of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fragi was significantly higher in the cheese with a reduced salt content. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Content of chalconaringenin and chlorogenic acid in cherry tomatoes is strongly reduced during postharvest ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimestad, Rune; Verheul, Michèl J

    2005-09-07

    The contents of chalconaringenin, chlorogenic acid, rutin, ascorbic acid, lycopene, and beta-carotene were analyzed during postharvest and vine ripening of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentumMill.) (cv. Jennita) produced in a greenhouse. A remarkable decrease in the content of chalconaringenin took place during postharvest ripening. The tomatoes were found to contain 15.26 mg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (FW) at harvest but held only 0.41 mg after 3 weeks at 20 degrees C in darkness. Chalconaringenin did not convert into naringenin. The content of chlorogenic acid fell from 0.51 to 0.06 mg 100 g(-1) FW at the same conditions. The content of rutin and that of total phenolics remained stable during postharvest ripening. The amounts of lycopene as well as beta-carotene and ascorbic acid increased during postharvest ripening. No significant change in the amount of methanol soluble antioxidants or total soluble solids was found during postharvest ripening of the tomato fruits. During vine ripening, the total amount of phenolics and that of soluble solids (% Brix) increased. The content of phenolics correlated well with the content of methanol soluble antioxidants (p tomatoes to 17.1 mg 100 g(-1) FW in red tomatoes. The amount of chalconaringenin decreased to 8.16 mg 100 g(-1) FW, whereas no significant change was observed for chlorogenic acid or rutin. Possible causes for the decrease in chalconaringenin are discussed.

  20. Smoking behavior and exposure to tobacco toxicants during 6 months of smoking progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Dains, Katherine M; Hall, Sharon M; Stewart, Susan; Wilson, Margaret; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

    2012-05-01

    Recent federal legislation gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate the nicotine content of cigarettes. A nationwide strategy for progressive reduction of the nicotine content of cigarettes is a potential way to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted, and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. We conducted a trial of progressive nicotine content tapering over 6 months to determine the effects on smoking behaviors and biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and cardiovascular effects. One hundred and thirty-five healthy smokers were randomly assigned to one of two groups. A research group smoked their usual brand of cigarettes followed by five types of research cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine content, each smoked for one month. A control group smoked their own brand of cigarettes for the same period of time. Nicotine intake, as indicated by plasma cotinine concentration, declined progressively as the nicotine content of cigarettes was reduced. Cigarette consumption and markers of exposure to carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as cardiovascular biomarkers remained stable, whereas urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) excretion decreased. No significant changes in biomarkers of exposure or cardiovascular effects were observed in controls. Our data support the proposition that the intake of nicotine from cigarettes of smokers can be substantially lowered without increasing exposure to other tobacco smoke toxins. These findings support the feasibility and safety of gradual reduction of the nicotine content in cigarettes.

  1. Interactive effect of reduced pollen availability and Varroa destructor infestation limits growth and protein content of young honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooremalen, C; Stam, E; Gerritsen, L; Cornelissen, B; van der Steen, J; van Langevelde, F; Blacquière, T

    2013-04-01

    Varroa destructor in combination with one or more stressors, such as low food availability or chemical exposure, is considered to be one of the main causes for honey bee colony losses. We examined the interactive effect of pollen availability on the protein content and body weight of young bees that emerged with and without V. destructor infestation. With reduced pollen availability, and the coherent reduced nutritional protein, we expected that V. destructor infestation during the pupal stage would have a larger negative effect on bee development than without infestation. Moreover, when raised with ample pollen available after emergence, infested pupae were expected not to be able to compensate for early losses due to V. destructor. We found that both V. destructor infestation and reduced pollen availability reduced body weight, abdominal protein level, and increased the head to abdomen protein ratio. The availability of pollen did indeed not result in compensation for reduced mass and protein content caused by V. destructor infestation in young bees after 1 week of their adult life. Both V. destructor and nutrition are top concerns for those studying honey bee health and this study demonstrates that both have substantial effects on young bees and that ample available pollen cannot compensate for reduced mass and protein content caused by V. destructor parasitism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing Capacity, Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activity in a Collection of Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum and Gboma (S. macrocarpon Eggplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Plazas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum and gboma (S. macrocarpon eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids. Heritability (H2 for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties.

  3. Consumer Support for Policies to Reduce the Sodium Content in School Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sheena M.; Gunn, Janelle P.; Merlo, Caitlin L.; Tong, Xin; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess consumer support for policies lowering the sodium content of cafeteria foods in schools. Methods: Data were used from 9,634 adults aged >18 years who responded to questions about sodium in general and in school foods in a 2010 national mail panel survey. Prevalence of consumer…

  4. Lyso-glycosphingolipids mobilize calcium from brain microsomes via multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Evans, Emyr; Pelled, Dori; Riebeling, Christian; Futerman, Anthony H

    2003-11-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the GSL (glycosphingolipid), GlcCer (glucosylceramide), modulates Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and from microsomes by sensitizing the RyaR (ryanodine receptor), a major Ca2+-release channel of the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas the lyso derivative of GlcCer, namely GlcSph (glucosylsphingosine), induced Ca2+ release via a mechanism independent of the RyaR [Lloyd-Evans, Pelled, Riebeling, Bodennec, de-Morgan, Waller, Schiffmann and Futerman (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 23594-23599]. We now systematically examine the mechanism by which GlcSph and other lyso-GSLs modulate Ca2+ mobilization from rat brain cortical and cerebellar microsomes. GlcSph, lactosylsphingosine and galactosylsphingosine all mobilized Ca2+, but at significantly higher concentrations than those required for GlcCer-mediated sensitization of the RyaR. GlcSph-induced Ca2+ mobilization was partially blocked by heparin, an inhibitor of the Ins(1,4,5) P3 receptor, and also partially blocked by thapsigargin or ADP, inhibitors of SERCA (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase), but completely blocked when both acted together. In contrast, neither lactosylsphingosine nor galactosylsphingosine had any effect on Ca2+ release via either the Ins(1,4,5) P3 receptor or SERCA, but acted as agonists of the RyaR. Finally, and surprisingly, all three lyso-GSLs reversed inhibition of SERCA by thapsigargin. We conclude that different lyso-GSLs modulate Ca2+ mobilization via different mechanisms, and discuss the relevance of these findings to the GSL storage diseases in which lyso-GSLs accumulate.

  5. The ultraviolet sensitivity of Cockayne syndrome cells is not a consequence of reduced cellular NAD content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayne, L.V.; Broughton, B.C.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1984-03-01

    Cells from individuals with Cockayne syndrome (CS) are hypersensitive to the lethal effects of ultraviolet light (uv) and show a number of abnormal biochemical responses following uv-irradiation. Fujiwara et al. recently reported that the NAD contents of CS fibroblasts were lower than those of normal fibroblasts, and that addition of NAD to the cellular growth medium rectified most of the abnormal responses of CS cells to uv-irradiation. In our experiments, however, the cellular NAD contents of normal and CS fibroblasts were similar, and addition of NAD to the growth medium had no effect on the hypersensitivity of CS cells to uv-irradiation, nor did it restore the inability of CS cells to recover normal rates of DNA or RNA synthesis following uv-irradiation.

  6. Effects of 6-Week Use of Reduced-Nicotine Content Cigarettes in Smokers With and Without Elevated Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidey, Jennifer W; Pacek, Lauren R; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Vandrey, Ryan; Nardone, Natalie; Drobes, David J; Benowitz, Neal L; Dermody, Sarah S; Lemieux, Andrine; Denlinger, Rachel L; Cassidy, Rachel; al'Absi, Mustafa; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C

    2017-01-01

    The FDA recently acquired regulatory authority over tobacco products, leading to renewed interest in whether reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes would reduce tobacco dependence in the United States. Given the association between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking, it is important to consider whether smokers with elevated depressive symptoms experience unique benefits or negative consequences of nicotine reduction. In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial that examined the effects of cigarettes varying in nicotine content over a 6-week period in non-treatment-seeking smokers, we used linear regression to examine whether baseline depressive symptom severity (scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]) moderated the effects of reduced-nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes, relative to normal-nicotine content (NNC) cigarettes, on smoking rates, depressive symptom severity, and related subjective and physiological measures. Of the 717 participants included in this analysis, 109 (15.2%) had CES-D scores ≥ 16, indicative of possible clinical depression. Relative to NNC cigarettes, RNC cigarettes reduced smoking rates, nicotine dependence, and cigarette craving, and these effects were not significantly moderated by baseline CES-D score. A significant interaction between baseline CES-D score and cigarette condition on week 6 CES-D score was observed (p nicotine content conditions, biochemically confirmed compliance with the RNC cigarettes was associated with an increase in CES-D score for those with baseline CES-D scores nicotine standard for cigarettes may reduce smoking, without worsening depressive symptoms, among smokers with elevated depressive symptoms. This secondary analysis of a recent clinical trial examined whether depressive symptom severity moderated the effects of reduced-nicotine cigarettes on smoking and depressive symptoms. Results indicate that, regardless of baseline depressive symptoms

  7. A Bit String Content Aware Chunking Strategy for Reduced CPU Energy on Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zhou; ShuDao Zhang; Ying Zhang(School of Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, P.R. China); JiaHao Tan

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve energy saving and reduce the total cost of ownership, green storage has become the first priority for data center. Detecting and deleting the redundant data are the key factors to the reduction of the energy consumption of CPU, while high performance stable chunking strategy provides the groundwork for detecting redundant data. The existing chunking algorithm greatly reduces the system performance when confronted with big data and it wastes a lot of energy. Factors affecti...

  8. Solar ultraviolet-B radiation increases phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power in Avena sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Christopher T; Fogal, Mitchell J; Buyarski, Christopher R; Krna, Matthew A

    2007-06-29

    We examined the influence of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm) on the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F(v)/F(m)), bulk-soluble phenolic concentrations, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and growth of Avena sativa. Treatments involved placing filters on frames over potted plants that reduced levels of biologically effective UV-B by either 71% (reduced UV-B) or by 19% (near-ambient UV-B) over the 52 day experiment (04 July-25 August 2002). Plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had 38% less total biomass than those under reduced UV-B. The reduction in biomass was mainly the result of a 24% lower leaf elongation rate, resulting in shorter leaves and less total leaf area than plants under reduced UV-B. In addition, plants growing under near-ambient UV-B had up to 17% lower F(v)/F(m) values early in the experiment, and this effect declined with plant age. Concentrations of bulk-soluble phenolics and FRAP values were 17 and 24% higher under near-ambient UV-B than under reduced UV-B, respectively. There was a positive relationship between bulk-soluble phenolic concentrations and FRAP values. There were no UV-B effects on concentrations of carotenoids (carotenes + xanthophylls).

  9. Does maintaining a bottle of adhesive without the lid significantly reduce the solvent content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Márcia Luciana Carregosa; Sousa Júnior, José Aginaldo de; Leal, Pollyana Caldeira; Faria-e-Silva, André Luis

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of maintaining a bottle of adhesive without its lid on the solvent loss of the etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. Three 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesives with different solvents (acetone, ethanol or butanol) were used in this study. Drops of each adhesive were placed on an analytical balance and the adhesive mass was recorded until equilibrium was achieved (no significant mass alteration within time). The solvent content of each adhesive and evaporation rate of solvents were measured (n=3). Two bottles of each adhesive were weighted. The bottles were maintained without their lids for 8 h in a stove at 37 ºC, after which the mass loss was measured. Based on mass alteration of drops, acetone-based adhesive showed the highest solvent content (46.5%, CI 95%: 35.8-54.7) and evaporation rate (1.11 %/s, CI95%: 0.63-1.60), whereas ethanol-based adhesive had the lowest values (10.1%, CI95%: 4.3-16.0; 0.03 %/s CI95%: 0.01-0.05). However, none of the adhesives bottles exhibited significant mass loss after sitting for 8 h without their lids (% from initial content; acetone - 96.5, CI 95%: 91.8-101.5; ethanol - 99.4, CI 95%: 98.4-100.4; and butanol - 99.3, CI 95%: 98.1-100.5). In conclusion, maintaining the adhesive bottle without lid did not induce significant solvent loss, irrespective the concentration and evaporation rate of solvent.

  10. The low-aluminium cast iron of reduced silicon content treated with cerium mischmetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Soiński

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the effect of cerium mischmetal used in quantities of 0.1 and 0.2 wt-% and ferrosilicon used in quantities from 0.5% to 1.5% on the alloy matrix and the shape of graphite precipitates in the low-aluminium cast iron from seven heats, basing on the examination of its structure. The hypereutectic cast iron of the relatively high carbon content (4.0÷4.2% at the prior-to-treatment silicon and manganese content equal to ca. 0.6% and ca. 0.04%, respectively, has been examined.It has been found that the performed treatment leads to the change in the alloy matrix from the nearly almost pearlitic to the ferritic-pearlitic one accompanied by changes in the shape of graphite precipitates. Due to applying both of the mentioned substances in the above stated amounts the graphite precipitates in cast iron have taken the shape of nodular and vermicular ones, and no presence of flake graphite has been revealed. A quantitative analysis of the performed treatment i.e. determining the fractions of graphite precipitates of different shapes has been possible by means of a computer image analyser.

  11. Atorvastatin reduces the myocardial content of coenzyme Q10 in isoproterenol-induced heart failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalib, S; Shayanfar, A; Khorrami, A; Maleki-Dijazi, N; Garjani, A

    2014-05-01

    The present study was aimed to study the effects of different doses of atorvastatin on Co Q10 content in the myocardium tissue in rats. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (5 mg/kg/day) for 10 days was used for the induction of heart failure. Rats were randomly assigned to control, treatment with atorvastatin (5, 10, 20 mg/kg/day) and treatment with atorvastatin plus coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg/day). Coenzyme Q10 content of myocardium was measured using HPLC method with UV detector after hemodynamic parameters measurements. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the myocardium was evaluated in order to determine coenzyme Q10 antioxidative effect. A high dose of atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day) was significantly reduced the myocardium content of coenzyme Q10 as compared with isoproterenol treated group (pcoenzyme Q10 with atorvastatin was improved the level of coenzyme Q10 in the myocardium (pcoenzyme Q10 content of the myocardium and increase lipid peroxidation in myocardium which is reversed by coenzyme Q10 co-administration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Texture, flavor, and sensory quality of buffalo milk Cheddar cheese as influenced by reducing sodium salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, M A; Huma, N; Sameen, A; Murtaza, M S; Mahmood, S; Mueen-ud-Din, G; Meraj, A

    2014-11-01

    The adverse health effects of dietary sodium demand the production of cheese with reduced salt content. The study was aimed to assess the effect of reducing the level of sodium chloride on the texture, flavor, and sensory qualities of Cheddar cheese. Cheddar cheese was manufactured from buffalo milk standardized at 4% fat level by adding sodium chloride at 2.5, 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, and 0.5% (wt/wt of the curd obtained). Cheese samples were ripened at 6 to 8 °C for 180 d and analyzed for chemical composition after 1 wk; for texture and proteolysis after 1, 60, 120, and 180 d; and for volatile flavor compounds and sensory quality after 180 d of ripening. Decreasing the salt level significantly reduced the salt-in-moisture and pH and increased the moisture-in-nonfat-substances and water activity. Cheese hardness, toughness, and crumbliness decreased but proteolysis increased considerably on reducing the sodium content and during cheese ripening. Lowering the salt levels appreciably enhanced the concentration of volatile compounds associated with flavor but negatively affected the sensory perception. We concluded that salt level in cheese can be successfully reduced to a great extent if proteolysis and development of off-flavors resulted by the growth of starter and nonstarter bacteria can be controlled. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. RESEARCH Reducing the sodium content of high-salt foods: Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt is known to affect blood pressure (BP) via a linear association.6. This analysis provides ... common risk factors were to be reduced.11 We used the PIF to estimate the percentage ... behaviour or a well-functioning health system. This is the first .... legislative changes.22 However, sodium tax – an economic (dis) incentive ...

  14. Niacin reduces plasma CETP levels by diminishing liver macrophage content in CETP transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Wang, Y.; Sluis, R.J. van der; Hoorn, J.W.A. van der; Princen, H.M.G.; Eck, M. van; Berkel, T.J.C. van; Rensen, P.C.N.; Hoekstra, M.

    2012-01-01

    The anti-dyslipidemic drug niacin has recently been shown to reduce the hepatic expression and plasma levels of CETP. Since liver macrophages contribute to hepatic CETP expression, we investigated the role of macrophages in the CETP-lowering effect of niacin in mice. In vitro studies showed that

  15. Reducing input data via image categorization to improve the speed of copyright content management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kanami; Watanabe, Eriko

    2015-02-01

    An optical correlator has the advantage of high data transfer speed and parallel operation. However, in copyright content management systems (CCMSs), the numerous video files that need to be downloaded from the Internet and input to the optical correlator constitute a bottleneck. This paper proposes an image categorization method for CCMSs that uses the difference in the color features between animation and live-action images to remove this bottleneck and increase the speed of CCMSs. The results of experiments conducted indicate that the proposed method achieves a live-action video true rejection rate of 86.7 % and an animation video false rejection rate of 13.3 %. This indicates that the proposed method can improve the overall speed of a CCMS more than twice the original speed.

  16. Rare Coumarins Induce Apoptosis, G1 Cell Block and Reduce RNA Content in HL60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widelski Jarosław

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rare coumarins stenocarpin, stenocarpin isobutyrate, oficinalin, oficinalin isobutyrate, 8-methoxypeucedanin and the known xanthotoxin, isoimperatorin, bergapten, peucedanin and 8–methoxyisoimperatorin were isolated from Peucedanum luxurians Tamamsch. (Apiaceae and identified by means of spectral data (1D and 2D NMR. Their immunomodulating activity was evaluated by flow cytometry and their influence on HL60 cells as well as on PHA-stimulated PBLs was tested. All tested coumarins induce apoptosis (maximal in the 48 h culture and decrease cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, especially in HL60 cells. They also induce partial G1 block, but only in HL60 cells (at 100 µM concentrations. Dose-dependent reduction of RNA content was also found in G1 cells treated by the coumarins. All of the tested coumarins also possessed immunomodulatory activities. Bergapten and xanthotoxin were found to be the best candidates for further evaluation as anti-cancer drugs.

  17. Accumulation of long-chain glycosphingolipids during aging is prevented by caloric restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Hernández-Corbacho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are major causes of morbidity and mortality that are seen far more commonly in the aged population. Interestingly, kidney function declines during aging even in the absence of underlying renal disease. Declining renal function has been associated with age-related cellular damage and dysfunction with reports of increased levels of apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammation in the aged kidney. Bioactive sphingolipids have been shown to regulate these same cellular processes, and have also been suggested to play a role in aging and cellular senescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that alterations in kidney sphingolipids play a role in the declining kidney function that occurs during aging. To begin to address this, the sphingolipid profile was measured in young (3 mo, middle aged (9 mo and old (17 mo C57BL/6 male mice. Interestingly, while modest changes in ceramides and sphingoid bases were evident in kidneys from older mice, the most dramatic elevations were seen in long-chain hexosylceramides (HexCer and lactosylceramides (LacCer, with C14- and C16-lactosylceramides elevated as much as 8 and 12-fold, respectively. Increases in long-chain LacCers during aging are not exclusive to the kidney, as they also occur in the liver and brain. Importantly, caloric restriction, previously shown to prevent the declining kidney function seen in aging, inhibits accumulation of long-chain HexCer/LacCers and prevents the age-associated elevation of enzymes involved in their synthesis. Additionally, long-chain LacCers are also significantly elevated in human fibroblasts isolated from elderly individuals. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates accumulation of the glycosphingolipids HexCer and LacCer in several different organs in rodents and humans during aging. In addition, data demonstrate that HexCer and LacCer metabolism is regulated by caloric restriction. Taken together

  18. Control of discharge conditions to reduce hydrogen content in low Z films produced with DC glow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsir, M.; Sagara, A.; Tsuzuki, K.; Tsuchiya, B.; Hasegawa, Y.; Motojima, O.

    1995-09-01

    Boronization at near room temperature has been performed in plasma processing teststand (PPT) by using a 5 % diborane gases B{sub 2}H{sub 6} in He on electrically floating or unfloating Al samples under various conditions on DC glow discharge power or total gas pressure. The hydrogen concentration was analyzed by using elastic recoil detection method (ERD) and a new modified normalizing technique with Rutherford back scattering (RBS). Results showed that a high growth rate of film formation and floating surface were effective in reducing hydrogen concentration in B films. This result was in good agreement with earlier measurements of H with flash filament (FF) desorption method. In particular the H/B ratio was reduced by decreasing ions but increasing radicals for B film formation. (author).

  19. Evaluation of quality factors of bovine and chicken meat marinated with reduced sodium content

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; Corradine, Silvana da Silva; Reche, Péricles Martim; Pozza, Magali Soares dos Santos; Prado, Ivanor Nunes do

    2013-01-01

    In many industrialized countries, including Brazil, sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations. Excessive consumption is associated with hypertension and premature death by cardiovascular diseases. The industry's challenge is to produce products with reduced sodium that are similar to regular products in texture and flavor and consistent with consumers' dietary habits. The present study aimed at substituting 25 and 50% NaCl for KCl in marinated beef and chicken meat with the additi...

  20. Addiction Potential of Cigarettes With Reduced Nicotine Content in Populations With Psychiatric Disorders and Other Vulnerabilities to Tobacco Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen T; Heil, Sarah H; Sigmon, Stacey C; Tidey, Jennifer W; Gaalema, Diann E; Hughes, John R; Stitzer, Maxine L; Durand, Hanna; Bunn, Janice Y; Priest, Jeff S; Arger, Christopher A; Miller, Mollie E; Bergeria, Cecilia L; Davis, Danielle R; Streck, Joanna M; Reed, Derek D; Skelly, Joan M; Tursi, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    A national policy is under consideration to reduce the nicotine content of cigarettes to lower nicotine addiction potential in the United States. To examine how smokers with psychiatric disorders and other vulnerabilities to tobacco addiction respond to cigarettes with reduced nicotine content. A multisite, double-blind, within-participant assessment of acute response to research cigarettes with nicotine content ranging from levels below a hypothesized addiction threshold to those representative of commercial cigarettes (0.4, 2.3, 5.2, and 15.8 mg/g of tobacco) at 3 academic sites included 169 daily smokers from the following 3 vulnerable populations: individuals with affective disorders (n = 56) or opioid dependence (n = 60) and socioeconomically disadvantaged women (n = 53). Data were collected from March 23, 2015, through April 25, 2016. After a brief smoking abstinence, participants were exposed to the cigarettes with varying nicotine doses across fourteen 2- to 4-hour outpatient sessions. Addiction potential of the cigarettes was assessed using concurrent choice testing, the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT), and validated measures of subjective effects, such as the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale. Among the 169 daily smokers included in the analysis (120 women [71.0%] and 49 men [29.0%]; mean [SD] age, 35.6 [11.4] years), reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes decreased the relative reinforcing effects of smoking in all 3 populations. Across populations, the 0.4-mg/g dose was chosen significantly less than the 15.8-mg/g dose in concurrent choice testing (mean [SEM] 30% [0.04%] vs 70% [0.04%]; Cohen d = 0.40; P addiction potential in populations that are highly vulnerable to tobacco addiction. Smokers with psychiatric conditions and socioeconomic disadvantage are more addicted and less likely to quit and experience greater adverse health impacts. Policies to reduce these disparities are needed; reducing the nicotine content in

  1. Citrus co-products as technological strategy to reduce residual nitrite content in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuda-Martos, M; Fernández-López, J; Sayas-Barbera, E; Sendra, E; Navarro, C; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

    2009-10-01

    Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in cured meat products because it inhibits outgrowth and neurotoxin formation by Clostridium botulinum, delays the development of oxidative rancidity, develops the characteristic flavor of cured meats, and reacts with myoglobin and stabilizes the red meat color. As soon as nitrite is added in the meat formulation, it starts to disappear and the nitrite that has not reacted with myoglobin and it is available corresponds to residual nitrite level. Health concerns relating to the use of nitrates and nitrites in cured meats (cooked and dry cured) trend toward decreased usage to alleviate the potential risk to the consumers from formation of carcinogenic compounds. Recently, some new ingredients principally agro-industrial co-products in general and those from the citrus industry in particular (albedo [with different treatments], dietetic fiber obtained from the whole co-product, and washing water used in the process to obtain the dietetic fiber) are seen as good sources of bio-compounds that may help to reduce the residual nitrite level in meat products. From these co-products, citrus fiber shows the highest potential to reduce the residual nitrite level, followed by the albedo and finally the washing water. The aim of this article is to describe the latest advances concerning the use of citrus co-products in meat products as a potential ingredient to reduce the nitrite level.

  2. Reduced Cerebral Oxygen Content in the DG and SVZ In Situ Promotes Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Brain In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs mainly within two neurogenic structures, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ of the forebrain. It has been reported that mild hypoxia promoted the proliferation of Neural Stem Cells (NSCsin vitro. Our previous study further demonstrated that an external hypoxic environment stimulated neurogenesis in the adult rat brain in vivo. However, it remains unknown how external hypoxic environments affect the oxygen content in the brain and result in neurogenesis. Here we use an optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensor to detect the oxygen content in the adult rat brain in situ under normoxia and hypoxia. We found that the distribution of oxygen in cerebral regions is spatiotemporally heterogeneous. The Po2 values in the ventricles (45∼50 Torr and DG (approximately 10 Torr were much higher than those of other parts of the brain, such as the cortex and thalamus (approximately 2 Torr. Interestingly, our in vivo studies showed that an external hypoxic environment could change the intrinsic oxygen content in brain tissues, notably reducing oxygen levels in both the DG and SVZ, the major sites of adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment also increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, two factors that have been reported to regulate neurogenesis, within the DG and SVZ. Thus, we have demonstrated that reducing the oxygen content of the external environment decreased Po2 levels in the DG and SVZ. This reduced oxygen level in the DG and SVZ might be the main mechanism triggering neurogenesis in the adult brain. More importantly, we speculate that varying oxygen levels may be the physiological basis of the regionally restricted neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  3. Reduced Cerebral Oxygen Content in the DG and SVZ In Situ Promotes Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Brain In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuan; Zhou, Yanzhao; Zhao, Tong; Wu, Liying; Huang, Xin; Wu, Kuiwu; Xu, Lun; Li, Dahu; Liu, Shuhong; Zhao, Yongqi; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs mainly within two neurogenic structures, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain. It has been reported that mild hypoxia promoted the proliferation of Neural Stem Cells (NSCs)in vitro. Our previous study further demonstrated that an external hypoxic environment stimulated neurogenesis in the adult rat brain in vivo. However, it remains unknown how external hypoxic environments affect the oxygen content in the brain and result in neurogenesis. Here we use an optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensor to detect the oxygen content in the adult rat brain in situ under normoxia and hypoxia. We found that the distribution of oxygen in cerebral regions is spatiotemporally heterogeneous. The Po2 values in the ventricles (45∼50 Torr) and DG (approximately 10 Torr) were much higher than those of other parts of the brain, such as the cortex and thalamus (approximately 2 Torr). Interestingly, our in vivo studies showed that an external hypoxic environment could change the intrinsic oxygen content in brain tissues, notably reducing oxygen levels in both the DG and SVZ, the major sites of adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment also increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, two factors that have been reported to regulate neurogenesis, within the DG and SVZ. Thus, we have demonstrated that reducing the oxygen content of the external environment decreased Po2 levels in the DG and SVZ. This reduced oxygen level in the DG and SVZ might be the main mechanism triggering neurogenesis in the adult brain. More importantly, we speculate that varying oxygen levels may be the physiological basis of the regionally restricted neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  4. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Allison

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety.

  5. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-02-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety.

  6. Tailoring the Oxygen Content of Graphite and Reduced Graphene Oxide for Specific Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Naoki; Kubo, Takuya; Nishina, Yuta

    2016-02-25

    Graphene oxide (GO) is widely recognized as a promising material in a variety of fields, but its structure and composition has yet to be fully controlled. We have developed general strategies to control the oxidation degree of graphene-like materials via two methods: oxidation of graphite by KMnO4 in H2SO4 (oGO), and reduction of highly oxidized GO by hydrazine (rGO). Even though the oxygen content may be the same, oGO and rGO have different properties, for example the adsorption ability, oxidation ability, and electron conductivity. These differences in property arise from the difference in the underlying graphitic structure and the type of defect present. Our results can be used as a guideline for the production of tailor-made graphitic carbons. As an example, we show that rGO with 23.1 wt% oxygen showed the best performance as an electrode of an electric double-layer capacitor.

  7. Structure elucidation of neutral, di-, tri-, and tetraglycosylceramides from High Five cells: identification of a novel (non-arthro-series) glycosphingolipid pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuller, Matthew D; Schwientek, Tilo; Wandall, Hans H

    2005-01-01

    The major neutral glycosphingolipids (GSLs) of High Five insect cells have been extracted, purified, and characterized. It was anticipated that GSLs from High Five cells would follow the arthro-series pathway, known to be expressed by both insects and nematodes at least through the common tetragl...

  8. Baking reduces prostaglandin, resolvin, and hydroxy-fatty acid content of farm-raised Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Golovko, Mikhail Y; Brose, Stephen A; Rosenberger, Thad A; Burr, Gary S; Wolters, William R; Picklo, Matthew J

    2011-10-26

    The consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether the consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the contents of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regioisomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and EPA, while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The contents of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of a coating on the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect on prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA contents, indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids, and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined.

  9. Reduced GABA content in the motor thalamus during effective deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eStefani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN, in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients, is a well established therapeutic option, but its mechanisms of action are only partially known. In our previous study, the clinical transitions from OFF- to ON-state were not correlated with significant changes of GABA content inside GPi or substantia nigra reticulata.Here, biochemical effects of STN-DBS have been assessed in putamen (PUT, internal pallidus (GPi, and inside the antero-ventral thalamus (VA, the key station receiving pallidothalamic fibres. In ten advanced PD patients undergoing surgery, microdialysis samples were collected before and during STN-DBS. cGMP, an index of glutamatergic transmission, was measured in GPi and PUT by radioimmunoassay, whereas GABA from VA was measured by HPLC.During clinically effective STN-DBS, we found a significant decrease in GABA extracellular concentrations in VA (- 30%. Simultaneously, cGMP extracellular concentrations were enhanced in PUT (+200% and GPi (+481%. These findings support a thalamic dis-inhibition, in turn re-establishing a more physiological corticostriatal transmission, as the source of motor improvement. They indirectly confirm the relevance of patterning (instead of mere changes of excitability and suggest that a rigid interpretation of the standard model, at least when it indicates the hyperactive indirect pathway as key feature of hypokinetic signs, is unlikely to be correct. Finally, given the demonstration of a key role of VA in inducing clinical relief, locally administration of drugs modulating GABA transmission in thalamic nuclei could become an innovative therapeutic strategy.

  10. Theory content of digital interventions for reducing alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Garnett

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of theory in design and evaluation of interventions is likely to increase effectiveness and improve the evidence base from which future interventions are developed, though few interventions report this. Aim: To assess the extent to which digital interventions to reduce hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption have used theory in their design and evaluation. Method: Use of theory within the digital interventions evaluated in randomised controlled trials was investigated using an amended Theory Coding Scheme developed by Michie and Prestwich (2010. Composite scores were calculated for six different areas of theory use. Frequency counts and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Results: Of 53 interventions reported in 55 trials, a theory or model was mentioned in 27 (51%, theory or theoretical predictors were used to select or develop intervention techniques in only 21 (40%, and targeted constructs were mentioned as a predictor of behaviour in 20 (36%. The two most commonly mentioned theories or models were the Transtheoretical model (8/27 and Social Norms theory (8/27. No studies used the results of the intervention to refine theory and only one study used theory to select recipients or tailor the intervention. Conclusions: There is very limited use of theory in the development or evaluation of current digital interventions to reduce hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption and its reporting is often unclear when it is present. Almost half of all interventions made no reference to any theories or models of behaviour and only a little over a third used them to develop the intervention.

  11. Aptitude of Saccharomyces yeasts to ferment unripe grapes harvested during cluster thinning for reducing alcohol content of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Barbara; Nadai, Chiara; Vendramini, Chiara; Fernandes Lemos Junior, Wilson Josè; Carlot, Milena; Skelin, Andrea; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2016-11-07

    Among the viticultural techniques developed to obtain wine with reduced alcohol content, the use of unripe grapes with low sugar and high malic acid concentration, harvested at cluster thinning, was recently explored. So far, no studies have evaluated the fermentation performances of Saccharomyces in unripe grape musts, in terms of fermentation ability and reducing malic acid contents, to improve the quality of this low-alcohol beverage. In this work, we evaluated 24 S. cerevisiae strains isolated from Italian and Croatian vineyards with different fermentation aptitudes. Moreover, four S. paradoxus were considered, as previous works demonstrated that strains belonging to this species were able to degrade high malic acid amounts in standard musts. The industrial strain S. cerevisiae 71B was added as reference. Sugar and malic acid contents were modified in synthetic musts in order to understand the effect of their concentrations on alcoholic fermentation and malic acid degradation. S. cerevisiae fermentation performances improved when glucose concentration decreased and malic acid level increased. The conditions that simulate unripe grape must, i.e. low glucose and high malic acid content were found to enhance S. cerevisiae ability to degrade malic acid. On the contrary, S. paradoxus strains were able to degrade high amounts of malic acid only in conditions that resemble ripe grape must, i.e. high glucose and low malic acid concentration. In fermentation trials when low glucose concentrations were used, at high malic acid levels S. cerevisiae strains produced higher glycerol than at low malic acid condition. Malic acid degradation ability, tested on the best performing S. cerevisiae strains, was enhanced in fermentation trials when unripe grape must was used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. BDA-410 Treatment Reduces Body Weight and Fat Content by Enhancing Lipolysis in Sedentary Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Andrea S; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Zhang, Tan; Wu, Hanzhi; Register, Thomas C; Forbes, Elizabeth; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O; Files, Daniel Clark; Abba, Martin C; Furdui, Cristina; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2017-08-01

    Loss of muscle mass and force with age leads to fall risk, mobility impairment, and reduced quality of life. This article shows that BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, induced loss of body weight and fat but not lean mass or skeletal muscle proteins in a cohort of sedentary 23-month-old mice. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were not modified, whereas BDA-410 treatment decreased intramyocellular lipid and perigonadal fat, increased serum nonesterified fatty acids, and upregulated the genes mediating lipolysis and oxidation, lean phenotype, muscle contraction, muscle transcription regulation, and oxidative stress response. This finding is consistent with our recent report that lipid accumulation in skeletal myofibers is significantly correlated with slower fiber-contraction kinetics and diminished power in obese older adult mice. A proteomic analysis and immunoblot showed downregulation of the phosphatase PPP1R12B, which increases phosphorylated myosin half-life and modulates the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. This study demonstrates that BDA-410 exerts a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle contractility through new, alternative mechanisms, including enhanced lipolysis, upregulation of "lean phenotype-related genes," downregulation of the PP1R12B phosphatase, and enhanced excitation-contraction coupling. This single compound holds promise for treating age-dependent decline in muscle composition and strength. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. If exposure to aluminium in antiperspirants presents health risks, its content should be reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, Alain; Fauconneau, Bernard; Sappino, André-Pascal; Deloncle, Roger; Guillard, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Since aluminium (Al) pervades our environment, the scientific community has for many years raised concerns regarding its safety in humans. Al is present in numerous cosmetics such as antiperspirants, lipsticks and sunscreens. Al chlorohydrate is the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics and may constitute for Al a key exposure route to the human body and a potential source of damage. An in vitro study has demonstrated that Al from antiperspirant can be absorbed through viable human stripped skin. The potential toxicity of Al has been clearly shown and recent works convincingly argue that Al could be involved in cancerogenic processes. Nowadays, for example, Al is suspected of being involved in breast cancer. Recent work in cells in culture has lent credence to the hypothesis that this metal could accumulate in the mammary gland and selectively interfere with the biological properties of breast epithelial cells, thereby promoting a cascade of alterations reminiscent of the early phases of malignant transformation. In addition, several studies suggest that the presence of Al in human breast could influence metastatic process. As a consequence, given that the toxicity of Al has been widely recognized and that it is not a physiological component in human tissues, reducing the concentration of this metal in antiperspirants is a matter of urgency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Clodronate liposomes improve metabolic profile and reduce visceral adipose macrophage content in diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity-related adipose inflammation has been thought to be a causal factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue of obese animals and humans are an important source for inflammatory cytokines. Clodronate liposomes can ablate macrophages by inducing apoptosis. In this study, we aim to determine whether peritoneal injection of clodronate liposomes has any beneficial effect on systemic glucose homeostasis/insulin sensitivity and whether macrophage content in visceral adipose tissue will be reduced in diet-induced obese (DIO mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clodronate liposomes were used to deplete macrophages in lean and DIO mice. Macrophage content in visceral adipose tissue, metabolic parameters, glucose and insulin tolerance, adipose and liver histology, adipokine and cytokine production were examined. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study was also performed to assess systemic insulin sensitivity. Peritoneal injection of clodronate liposomes significantly reduced blood glucose and insulin levels in DIO mice. Systemic glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were mildly improved in both lean and DIO mice treated with clodronate liposomes by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection. Hepatosteatosis was dramatically alleviated and suppression of hepatic glucose output was markedly increased in DIO mice treated with clodronate liposomes. Macrophage content in visceral adipose tissue of DIO mice was effectively decreased without affecting subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, levels of insulin sensitizing hormone adiponectin, including the high molecular weight form, were significantly elevated in circulation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposomes reduces visceral adipose tissue macrophages, improves systemic glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in DIO mice, which can be partially attributable to increased adiponectin

  15. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.

  16. Bed rest reduces metabolic protein content and abolishes exercise-induced mRNA responses in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus S; Kiilerich, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to test the hypothesis that one week of bed rest will reduce mitochondrial number and expression and activity of oxidative proteins in human skeletal muscle, but that exercise-induced intracellular signaling as well as mRNA and microRNA (miR) responses are maintained after...... kinase phosphorylation, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ¿ coactivator-1a and VEGF mRNA content in skeletal muscle before bed rest, but the responses were abolished after bed rest. Conclusion: The present findings indicate that only 7 days of physical inactivity reduce skeletal muscle metabolic...... capacity as well as abolish exercise-induced adaptive gene responses likely reflecting the interference with the ability of skeletal muscle to adapt to exercise....

  17. Etanercept Attenuates Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats by Reducing Brain TNF-α Contents and by Stimulating Newly Formed Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Chong-Un; Chao, Chien-Ming; Cheng, Bor-Chih; Yang, Chung-Zhing; Chio, Chung-Ching

    2013-01-01

    It remains unclear whether etanercept penetrates directly into the contused brain and improves the outcomes of TBI by attenuating brain contents of TNF-α and/or stimulating newly formed neurogenesis. Rats that sustained TBI are immediately treated with etanercept. Acute neurological and motor injury is assessed in all rats the day prior to and 7 days after surgery. The numbers of the colocalizations of 5-bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin specific markers in the contused brain injury that occurred during TBI were counted by immunofluorescence staining. Enzyme immunoassay for quantitative determination of TNF-α or etanercept in brain tissues is also performed. Seven days after systemic administration of etanercept, levels of etanercept can be detected in the contused brain tissues. In addition, neurological and motor deficits, cerebral contusion, and increased brain TNF-α contents caused by TBI can be attenuated by etanercept therapy. Furthermore, the increased numbers of the colocalizations of 5-bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin specific markers in the contused brain tissues caused by TBI can be potentiated by etanercept therapy. These findings indicate that systemically administered etanercept may penetrate directly into the contused brain tissues and may improve outcomes of TBI by reducing brain contents of TNF-α and by stimulating newly formed neurogenesis. PMID:23710117

  18. Rosemary distillation residues reduce lipid oxidation, increase alpha-tocopherol content and improve fatty acid profile of lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoubi, Y; Joy, M; Ripoll, G; Mahouachi, M; Bertolín, J R; Atti, N

    2018-02-01

    The experiment studied the effects of rosemary distillation residues (RR) intake on lamb meat quality, oxidative stability and fatty acid (FA) profile. Barbarine lambs of Control group were fed 600g of hay, which was substituted by 600g of pellets containing 60 and 87% of RR for RR60 and RR87 groups; all animals received 600g of concentrate. Meat protein and fat content was similar for 3 treatments. Lipid oxidation was strongly reduced with RR diets. Both RR diets resulted in a higher α- tocopherol content in muscle. The metmyoglobin and deoxymyoglobin percentages were similar for all groups; however oxymyoglobin was higher for RR groups. The saturated (SFA) and unsaturated FAs (UFA) were unaffected by the diets. However, the PUFA, n-6 and n-3 were higher for RR groups. In conclusion, rosemary residues resulted in higher vitamin E content, so it enhanced the oxidative status and improved the fatty acid profile of lamb meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of substitutions of tungsten, vanadium, molybdenum, and titanium for reduced niobium contents in Inconel Alloy 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Inconel Alloy 718 is a nickel iron-base superalloy strengthened by the precipitation of the metastable Ni/sub 3/Nb-..gamma..'' phase. Large coherency strains between ..gamma..'' and the matrix result in a slow precipitation rate and an intermediate maximum use temperature. The combination of slow precipitation rate and the relative formability and machinability of Alloy 718 make it a popular material for the fabrication of superalloy components. The dependence on foreign sources of Nb has pointed out the desirability of reducing the Nb content of alloy 718 while maintaining the tensile and stress-rupture properties of the original alloys. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of reduced Nb, and substitutions for Nb, on the properties of Alloy 718. A seris of alloys was developed having a base composition similar to Alloy 718, with reduced Nb levels of 3.00 and 1.10 wt% Nb. Substitutions of 3.0% W, 3.0W + 0.9V or Mo increased from 3.0 to 5.8% were made for the Nb in these alloys. Two additional alloys, one containing 3.49% Nb and 1.10% Ti and another containing 3.89% Nb and 1.27% Ti, were also studied. Solution and age heat treatments were optimized for each alloy to develop a proper microstructure. The reduction in Nb content required the substitution of other elements to maintain the properties of the original alloy. Additions of solid-solution elements to a reduced Nb alloy had no significant effect on the properties of the alloys under either process condition.

  20. Examination of food industry progress in reducing the sodium content of packaged foods in Canada: 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcand, JoAnne; Jefferson, Katherine; Schermel, Alyssa; Shah, Ferdeela; Trang, Susan; Kutlesa, Daniela; Lou, Wendy; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    In 2010, as part of a national sodium reduction strategy, Canada published sodium reduction benchmark targets for packaged foods; however, no evaluation of this policy has occurred. The objective was to evaluate changes in the sodium content of packaged foods, identify categories reduced in sodium, and determine the proportion meeting Health Canada's sodium reduction benchmarks. This was a cross-sectional analysis of Canadian packaged foods in 2010 and 2013 (n = 10 487 and n = 15 394, respectively). Sodium content was obtained from the Nutrition Facts table. Overall, 16.2% of food categories had significantly reduced sodium levels. The greatest shifts in the distribution of sodium within food categories occurred in imitation seafood (mean ± SD, mg/100 g; 602 ± 50 to 444 ± 81, 26.2%, p = 0.002), condiments (1309 ± 790 to 1048 ± 620, 19.9%, p = 0.005), breakfast cereals (375 ± 26 to 301 ± 242, 19.7%, p = 0.001), canned vegetables/legumes (269 ± 156 to 217 ± 180, 19.3%, p foods meeting at least 1 of the 3 phases of the sodium reduction benchmark targets slightly increased (51.4% to 58.2%) and the proportion exceeding maximum benchmark levels decreased (25.2% to 20.8%). These data provide a critical evaluation of changes in sodium levels in the Canadian food supply. Although progress in reducing sodium in packaged foods is evident, the food industry needs to continue efforts in reducing the sodium in the foods they produce.

  1. Selective extraction and effective separation of galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) and glucosylsphingosine from other glycosphingolipids in pathological tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Teh; Li, Su-Chen; Buck, Wayne R; Haskins, Mark E; Wu, Sz-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Sidransky, Ellen; Bunnell, Bruce A

    2011-09-01

    To facilitate the study of the chemical pathology of galactosylsphingosine (psychosine, GalSph) in Krabbe disease and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph) in Gaucher disease, we have devised a facile method for the effective separation of these two glycosylsphingosines from other glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in Krabbe brain and Gaucher spleen samples. The procedure involves the use of acetone to selectively extract GalSph and GlcSph, respectively, from Krabbe brain and Gaucher spleen samples. Since acetone does not extract other GSLs except modest amounts of galactosylceramide, sulfatide, and glucosylceramide, the positively charged GalSph or GlcSph in the acetone extract can be readily separated from other GSLs by batchwise cation-exchange chromatography using a Waters Accell Plus CM Cartridge. GalSph or GlcSph enriched by this simple procedure can be readily analyzed by thin-layer chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography.

  2. Formulation of yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content by using a Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Francesca; Conte, Amalia; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Lonigro, S Lisa; Padalino, Lucia; Pontonio, Erica; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2017-04-15

    A Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation product (Bio21B), obtained after strain growth (14h) in a wheat flour-based medium, was applied in the bread-making process as taste enhancer, in order to obtain a yeast-leavened bread with reduced salt content (20% and 50%) with respect to a reference bread (REF) not containing the fermentation product. Sensory analysis indicated that the Bio21B bread with salt reduced by 50% had a pleasant taste similar to the salt-containing bread (REF). l-Glutamate and total free amino acid content did not differ between REF and Bio21B breads, while the acids lactic, acetic, phenyllactic, 4-OH-phenyllactic and indole-3-lactic were present only in Bio21B breads. Moreover, the presence of several umami (uridine monophosphate, inosine monophosphate, adenosine, and guanosine) and kokumi (γ-l-glutamyl-l-valine) taste-related molecules was ascertained both in REF and in Bio21B breads. Therefore, a possible role of the acidic molecules in compensating the negative perception of salt reduction can be hypothesized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Primary study on contents of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and organic matter from intertidal zone at Chongming Dongtan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Cui, Yu-Xue; Chen, Qing-Qiang; Lü, Bao-Yi; Xie, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Collected soil samples from different tidal flats and elevation in Chongming Dongtan wetland, then conducted sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) based on MPN method, determined organic matter content and calculated SO4(2-)/Cl- molar ratio, for the research on the distribution of SRB, relevance to soil organic matter content as well as influence of plant rhizosphere environment on SRB growth. The results show the distribution of SRB is ranked as middle flat > climax flat > bald flat. The same tidal flats at different depths, the SRB levels are shown as 51-52 cm > 21-22 cm > 81-82 cm, therefore 51-52 cm soil depth of Dongtan wetland is the suitable area for SRB to grow. However, in different tidal and depth, the distribution of organic matter content presents climax flat > middle flat > bald flat. From 21-51 cm, as the depth increasing, the organic matter content decreases while the amount of SRB significantly increasing, which indicates SRB utilizes the soil organic matter to carry out reduction reaction. The SO4(2-)/Cl- molar ratios of all soil samples are less than 0.05, indicating that SRB are actively engaged in sulfate reduction. The concentration of SRB in reed rhizosphere soil is the highest, showing that Phragmites australis rhizosphere environment in Dongtan wetland could enhance SRB growth, while the number of SRB in Spartina alterniflora rhizosphere environment is relatively lower than the non-rhizosphere environment, indicating that the rhizosphere effect has different effects on SRB in Dongtan tidal flats.

  4. Dietary high-polyphenols extra-virgin olive oil is effective in reducing cholesterol content in eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, Vito; Ceci, Edmondo; Lastella, Nunzia M B; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-02-07

    Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) represents an important food in Mediterranean diet due to its favorable effects on human and animal health derived from the consumption of polyphenols. We studied the effects of dietary EVOO differing in polyphenols levels on egg quality. A total of 150 laying hens were allotted into three groups over 10 weeks of the experimental period. The three diets were based on wheat-soybean meal with added oils at 2.5%. Hens were fed the following diets: (1) commercial diet containing sunflower oil (Control), (2) diet EVOO from Cima di Bitonto variety (low-polyphenols content; Low-P), and (3) diet EVOO from Coratina variety (high-polyphenols content; High-P). The performance of the hen, the qualitative traits of eggs, and the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk were measured. None of the egg productive parameters studied were influenced by dietary treatment, except for yolk color score that was enhanced in hens fed the both EVOO diets (PEVOO reduced serum cholesterol level in hens (PEVOO raised the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) composition and increased the content of oleic and linolenic acids in egg-yolk. Moreover, the atherogenic index in egg-yolk decreased linearly in accordance with increasing levels of dietary polyphenols (P<0.01). In conclusion, a diet for hens consisting of high-polyphenols level from extra-virgin olive oil can improve the fatty acid quality of egg-yolk while lowering the egg-yolk cholesterol level, which could be a beneficial functional food for human health.

  5. Influence of Plum Rootstocks on the Content of Reducing Sugars in the Annual Shoots of Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dēķena Dzintra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of suitable plum rootstocks for Baltic conditions has become a problem during recent years due to changing climatic conditions. Rapid temperature fluctuations between freezing and thawing are occurring more frequently. The winter-hardiness of rootstocks is essential for overwintering of trees in such conditions. The content of accumulated reducing sugars is an important physiological factor influencing wintering ability of trees. The dynamics of reducing sugars was investigated during two winter seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012 in one-year-old ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ (Prunus x rossica Erem. hybrid plum shoots from two orchards planted in 2001 at Pūre Horticultural Research Centre (Latvia and Polli Horticultural Research Centre (Estonia. Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ was grafted on eight clonal rootstocks: ‘St. Julien A’, ‘Brompton’ cuttings, ‘Ackermann’, ‘Pixy’, GF8/1, G5/22, GF655/2, ‘Hamyra’ and eight seedling rootstocks: ‘St. Julien INRA 2’, ‘St. Julien d’Orleans’, ‘St. Julien Noir’, ‘Brompton’ seedlings, ‘Wangenheims Zwetsche’, ‘St. Julien Wädenswill’, ‘Myrobаlan’ and Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata. Trees were planted at 5×3 m spacing in four replications per rootstock with three trees per plot. Shoot samples were harvested five times during the winter period. The concentration of reducing sugars (mg g-1 dry weight was determined with Bertran’s method. Significant differences in concentration of reducing sugar were found between samples coming from different locations and in two seasons. The maximum concentration of reducing sugar was found in December or January depending on growing location and meteorological conditions

  6. Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullerton, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; Avnstorp, C

    1993-01-01

    The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulphate were used....... The cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48 h or applied repeatedly every 24 h for 96 h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulphate...... and unexposed skin was observed, despite a more permeable skin barrier at the alkaline pH of the cement suspensions, i.e., pH 12.5. Increased chromium levels in epidermis and dermis were seen when ordinary Portland cement was applied as a suspension with added sodium sulphate (20%) on the skin surface for 96 h...

  7. Virucidal activity of a new hand disinfectant with reduced ethanol content: comparison with other alcohol-based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A; Galabov, A S; Sattar, S A; Döhner, L; Pivert, A; Payan, C; Wolff, M H; Yilmaz, A; Steinmann, J

    2006-01-01

    A new formula with reduced ethanol content (55%) in combination with 10% propan-1-ol, 5.9% propan-1.2-diol, 5.7% butan-1.3-diol and 0.7% phosphoric acid exhibited a broad spectrum of virucidal activity. In quantitative suspension tests, with and without protein load, this formulation reduced the infectivity titre of seven enveloped (influenza A and B, herpes simplex 1 and 2, bovine corona, respiratory syncytial, vaccinia, hepatitis B, bovine viral diarrhoea) and four non-enveloped (hepatitis A, polio, rota, feline calici) viruses >10(3)-fold within 30s. In comparative testing, only 95% ethanol showed similar levels of activity. In fingerpad tests, the formulation produced a log10 reduction factor of the titre of poliovirus type 1 (Sabin) of 3.04 in 30s compared with 1.32 by 60% propan-2-ol. Testing against feline calicivirus produced a log10 reduction factor of 2.38 by the test formulation; in contrast, the log10 reduction factors with 70% ethanol and 70% propan-1-ol were 0.68 and 0.70, respectively.

  8. Reduced fertiliser use and changes in cereal grain weight, test weight and protein content in Finland in 1990-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SALO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995 the Finnish Agri-Environmental Program has set limits for nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P fertiliser application rates in agriculture. The decrease in N and P fertiliser recommendations, and especially the decrase in N and P amounts applied in practice, has raised the question of whether N and P application rates are too low to produce high quality yields. The test weight, 1000 grain weight and protein concentrations measured in 1990–2005 by the Cereal Inspection Unit of the Finnish Food Safety Authority were analysed against soil type, location and NP fertiliser data. The purpose of this study was to document and statistically analyse changes in fertiliser use, important quality factors and the connection between fertiliser use and grain quality of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L., oats (Avena sativa L., winter rye (Secale cereale L. as well as spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Applications of N and P fertiliser, test weight and 1000 grain weight have decreased in Finland since 1990-1994. Protein content began to decrease in 1995–1999, but then increased in 2000–2005. The statistical analysis showed that reduced N application rates are associated with lower test weight, 1000 grain weight and grain protein concentration. In addition, low P application rates were associated with reduced 1000 grain weight and protein concentration in some instances, although protein concentration also increased in winter wheat grain. The magnitude of grain quality reduction was not solely explicable through N and P application rates. During the observation period many other factors changed in Finnish cereal production and, for example, the decrease in cereal prices, increase of reduced tillage and low investments in drainage and liming could have been associated with decreased grain quality.;

  9. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 (Japan); Taguchi, Sadayoshi [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  10. Characterization of acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids of porcine heart valve cusps as potential immune targets in biological heart valve grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Angela; Benktander, John; Teneberg, Susann; Breimer, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Although xenotransplantation of vascularized organs/cells has not yet reached the clinic, glutaraldehyde-treated bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV), derived from porcine or bovine tissues, are today used for clinical replacement of diseased heart valves. However, the durability of these valve cusps is limited partly due to the onset of immune responses to the grafts. The xenoantigen-determinant Galα3Gal- and corresponding anti-Gal antibodies have been postulated to in part contribute to BHV damage. However, the presence of other non-Gal carbohydrate antigen determinants as well as the immune response to these non-Gal antigens and the inflammatory response generated by their interaction with the immune system has not been studied. In this study, we have isolated and structurally characterized both non-acid and acid glycosphingolipids from naïve porcine aortic and pulmonary valve cusps. Total non-acid and acid glycosphingolipids were isolated from porcine aortic and pulmonalis valve cusps of 20 animals. Glycosphingolipid components were structurally characterized by thin-layer chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and binding of monoclonal antibodies and lectins. The non-acid glycosphingolipids were characterized as globotetraosylceramide, H-type 2 pentaosylceramide, fucosyl-gangliotetraosylceramide, and Galα3neolactotetraosylceramide. The acid glycosphingolipid fractions had both sulfatide and gangliosides (GM3, GM2, GM1, fucosyl-GM1, GD3 and GD1a), and all gangliosides contained N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. Significantly, the N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (NeuGc) variant, a major component in many pig organs and to which humans can develop antibodies, was not detected among the gangliosides. Pig valve cusps contain several complex lipid-bound carbohydrate structures that may be targets for the human immune system. Notable, the NeuGc determinant was absent in the cusp gangliosides. This work forms a platform for further characterizing the antibody

  11. Ligation-mediated PCR with a back-to-back adapter reduces amplification bias resulting from variations in GC content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Satoru; Kotomura, Naoe; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ochiai, Hiroshi

    2017-08-15

    Ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LM-PCR) is a common technique for amplification of a pool of DNA fragments. Here, a double-stranded oligonucleotide consisting of two primer sequences in back-to-back orientation was designed as an adapter for LM-PCR. When DNA fragments were ligated with this adapter, the fragments were sandwiched between two adapters in random orientations. In the ensuing PCR, ligation products linked at each end to an opposite side of the adapter, i.e. to a distinct primer sequence, were preferentially amplified compared with products linked at each end to an identical primer sequence. The use of this adapter in LM-PCR reduced the impairment of PCR by substrate DNA with a high GC content, compared with the use of traditional LM-PCR adapters. This result suggested that our method has the potential to contribute to reduction of the amplification bias that is caused by an intrinsic property of the sequence context in substrate DNA. A DNA preparation obtained from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using pulldown of a specific form of histone H3 was successfully amplified using the modified LM-PCR, and the amplified products could be used as probes in a fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages as affected by antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromatteo, Marianna; Incoronato, Anna Lucia; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2011-10-17

    The combined use of antimicrobial compounds and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on shelf life of reduced pork back-fat content sausages was investigated in this study. First, a pre-screening of different antimicrobial compounds and MAP was addressed. In particular, the consumer test was used as a tool to select the most pleasant antimicrobial compounds, whereas both sausage color and cell load of main spoilage microorganisms were used to choose optimal MAP. Afterwards, antimicrobial compounds (lemon alkott and thymol) and MAP (MAP1: 20% CO(2), 5% O(2), 75% N(2)) that had shown the best performance were used to run the shelf life tests. In order to assess the influence of the variables described beforehand on the shelf life of investigated sausages, the sensorial and microbiological (mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria and coccus-shaped lactic acid bacteria) quality was monitored during storage. Results recorded in this study suggested that Pseudomonas spp. were responsible for sausage unacceptability in all samples, except for thymol and thymol-MAP samples. For these samples, the sensorial quality was the limiting factor while the microbial growth did not limit the shelf life. In particular, for thymol and thymol-MAP samples a shelf life value of more than 5 days with respect to the other samples (2 days) was obtained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct analysis of sialylated or sulfated glycosphingolipids and other polar and neutral lipids using TLC-MS interfaces[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejung; Zhou, Ying; Costello, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Gangliosides and sulfatides (STs) are acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) that have one or more sialic acids or sulfate substituents, in addition to neutral sugars, attached to the C-1 hydroxyl group of the ceramide long chain base. TLC is a widely employed and convenient technique for separation and characterization of GSLs. When TLC is directly coupled to MS, it provides both the molecular mass and structural information without further purification. Here, after development of the TLC plates, the structural analyses of acidic GSLs, including gangliosides and STs, were investigated using the liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA™) and CAMAG TLC-MS interfaces coupled to an ESI QSTAR Pulsar i quadrupole orthogonal TOF mass spectrometer. Coupling TLC with ESI-MS allowed the acquisition of high resolution mass spectra of the acidic GSLs with high sensitivity and mass accuracy, without the loss of sialic acid residues that frequently occurs during low-pressure MALDI MS. These systems were then applied to the analysis of total lipid extracts from bovine brain. This allowed profiling of many different lipid classes, not only gangliosides and STs, but also SMs, neutral GSLs, and phospholipids. PMID:24482490

  14. A major fraction of glycosphingolipids in model and cellular cholesterol-containing membranes is undetectable by their binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Radhia; Manis, Adam; Binnington, Beth; Ackerley, Cameron; Lingwood, Clifford A

    2010-11-12

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) accumulate in cholesterol-enriched cell membrane domains and provide receptors for protein ligands. Lipid-based "aglycone" interactions can influence GSL carbohydrate epitope presentation. To evaluate this relationship, Verotoxin binding its receptor GSL, globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb(3)), was analyzed in simple GSL/cholesterol, detergent-resistant membrane vesicles by equilibrium density gradient centrifugation. Vesicles separated into two Gb(3/)cholesterol-containing populations. The lighter, minor fraction (Vero cell membrane-derived vesicles into minor "binding," and major "non-binding" fractions when probed with VT1, CTx, or anti-SSEA4 (a human GSL stem cell marker), demonstrates potential physiological relevance. Cell membrane GSL masking was cholesterol- and actin-dependent. Cholesterol depletion of Vero and HeLa cells enabled differential VT1B subunit labeling of "available" and "cholesterol-masked" plasma membrane Gb(3) pools by fluorescence microscopy. Thus, the model GSL/cholesterol vesicle studies predicted two distinct membrane GSL formats, which were demonstrated within the plasma membrane of cultured cells. Cholesterol masking of most cell membrane GSLs may impinge many GSL receptor functions.

  15. Direct analysis of sialylated or sulfated glycosphingolipids and other polar and neutral lipids using TLC-MS interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejung; Zhou, Ying; Costello, Catherine E

    2014-04-01

    Gangliosides and sulfatides (STs) are acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) that have one or more sialic acids or sulfate substituents, in addition to neutral sugars, attached to the C-1 hydroxyl group of the ceramide long chain base. TLC is a widely employed and convenient technique for separation and characterization of GSLs. When TLC is directly coupled to MS, it provides both the molecular mass and structural information without further purification. Here, after development of the TLC plates, the structural analyses of acidic GSLs, including gangliosides and STs, were investigated using the liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA™) and CAMAG TLC-MS interfaces coupled to an ESI QSTAR Pulsar i quadrupole orthogonal TOF mass spectrometer. Coupling TLC with ESI-MS allowed the acquisition of high resolution mass spectra of the acidic GSLs with high sensitivity and mass accuracy, without the loss of sialic acid residues that frequently occurs during low-pressure MALDI MS. These systems were then applied to the analysis of total lipid extracts from bovine brain. This allowed profiling of many different lipid classes, not only gangliosides and STs, but also SMs, neutral GSLs, and phospholipids.

  16. Effects of continuous LED lighting on reducing nitrate content and enhancing edible quality of lettuce during pre-harvest stage

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, C.; Yang, Q.; Bian, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce easily accumulates higher nitrate content during production, especially in hydroponic system, and higher ni\\ud trate content poses a threat to human health. Light condition (light quality, intensity and duration) significantly affects nitrate content in plants. Lighting\\ud -emitting diodes (LEDs) have showed the great potential for plant growth and development with the higher luminous\\ud efficiency and positive impact compared with other artificial light. The effects of combination of...

  17. Technological approach to reduce NaCl content of traditional smoked dry-cured hams: effect on quality properties and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martuscelli, Maria; Lupieri, Laura; Chaves-Lopez, Clemencia; Mastrocola, Dino; Pittia, Paola

    2015-12-01

    The modification of the salting procedure (from a three- to a two-salt coverage steps) and its effects on quality and stability properties has been investigated to reduce NaCl content of traditional dry-cured ham. The study was applied on green hams of small-S and large-L weight classes. Results evidenced that a two-salt coverage steps salting could be applied to reduce significantly NaCl content of S-size hams and to reach the physico-chemical conditions required for microbial stability at the end of ripening. The final salt content of the products results (p < 0.05) to depend on salting procedure and initial weight of the hams, while limited differences on quality properties have been observed being the latter mainly associated to the pattern of the volatile compounds. In particular, aldehydes and hexanal content were lower in hams undergone to a 2-steps salting. Sensory analysis evidenced that the hams with reduced NaCl (2s-S and 2s-L) were less easy to chew, less salty and with a lower intensity of the smoky flavour in respect to the 3s- ones. The study confirmed the feasibility of salt content reduction of traditional dry-cured hams by modifying the salting process. However, the weight of the initial tights resulted a critical factor in affecting salting diffusion, salt content and water activity of the ripened products, their quality and stability properties.

  18. Reduced intracellular c-di-GMP content increases expression of quorum sensing-regulated genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chua, Song Lin; Liu, Yang; Li, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    cells leads to increased motility and biofilm dispersal. While the effect of high c-di-GMP levels on bacterial lifestyles is well studied, the physiology of cells at low c-di-GMP levels remains unclear. Here, we showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells with high and low intracellular c-di-GMP contents......-di-GMP content compared with cells with higher c-di-GMP content. The induced expression of pqs and rhl QS required a functional PqsR, the transcriptional regulator of pqs QS. Next, we observed increased production of pqs and rhl-regulated virulence factors, such as pyocyanin and rhamnolipids, in P. aeruginosa...

  19. Overfeeding reduces insulin sensitivity and increases oxidative stress, without altering markers of mitochondrial content and function in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Samocha-Bonet

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. High fat feeding induces insulin resistance and increases skeletal muscle oxidative stress in rodents, but there is controversy as to whether skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and function is altered.Forty (37 ± 2 y non-obese (25.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2 sedentary men (n = 20 and women (n = 20 were overfed (+1040 ± 100 kcal/day, 46 ± 1% of energy from fat for 28 days. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed at baseline and day 28 of overfeeding and skeletal muscle biopsies taken at baseline, day 3 and day 28 of overfeeding in a sub cohort of 26 individuals (13 men and 13 women that consented to having all 3 biopsies performed. Weight increased on average in the whole cohort by 0.6 ± 0.1 and 2.7 ± 0.3 kg at days 3 and 28, respectively (P<0.0001, without a significant difference in the response between men and women (P = 0.4. Glucose infusion rate during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp decreased from 54.8 ± 2.8 at baseline to 50.3 ± 2.5 µmol/min/kg FFM at day 28 of overfeeding (P = 0.03 without a significant difference between men and women (P = 0.4. Skeletal muscle protein carbonyls and urinary F2-isoprostanes increased with overfeeding (P<0.05. Protein levels of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1α and subunits from complex I, II and V of the electron transport chain were increased at day 3 (all P<0.05 and returned to basal levels at day 28. No changes were detected in muscle citrate synthase activity or ex vivo CO(2 production at either time point.Peripheral insulin resistance was induced by overfeeding, without reducing any of the markers of mitochondrial content that were examined. Oxidative stress was however increased, and may have contributed to the reduction in insulin sensitivity observed.

  20. Skeletal Muscle Fibre-Specific Knockout of p53 Does Not Reduce Mitochondrial Content or Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Stocks

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumour protein 53 (p53 has been implicated in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, with whole-body p53 knockout mice displaying impairments in basal mitochondrial content, respiratory capacity, and enzyme activity. This study aimed to determine the effect of skeletal muscle-specific loss of p53 on mitochondrial content and enzyme activity. Mitochondrial protein content, enzyme activity and mRNA profiles were assessed in skeletal muscle of 8-week-old male muscle fibre-specific p53 knockout mice (p53 mKO and floxed littermate controls (WT under basal conditions. p53 mKO and WT mice displayed similar content of electron transport chain proteins I-V and citrate synthase enzyme activity in skeletal muscle. In addition, the content of proteins regulating mitochondrial morphology (MFN2, mitofillin, OPA1, DRP1, FIS1, fatty acid metabolism (β-HAD, ACADM, ACADL, ACADVL, carbohydrate metabolism (HKII, PDH, energy sensing (AMPKα2, AMPKβ2, and gene transcription (NRF1, PGC-1α, and TFAM were comparable in p53 mKO and WT mice (p > 0.05. Furthermore, p53 mKO mice exhibited normal mRNA profiles of targeted mitochondrial, metabolic and transcriptional proteins (p > 0.05. Thus, it appears that p53 expression in skeletal muscle fibres is not required to develop or maintain mitochondrial protein content or enzyme function in skeletal muscle under basal conditions.

  1. Phosphocholine-containing, zwitterionic glycosphingolipids of adult Onchocerca volvulus as highly conserved antigenic structures of parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuhrer, M; Rickhoff, S; Dennis, R D; Lochnit, G; Soboslay, P T; Baumeister, S; Geyer, R

    2000-01-01

    Human Onchocerca volvulus infection sera were found to recognize zwitterionic glycolipids of O. volvulus and to cross-react with those of other parasitic nematodes (Ascaris suum, Setaria digitata and Litomosoides sigmodontis). By the use of an epitope-specific monoclonal antibody, zwitterionic glycolipids of all these nematode species were observed to contain the antigenic determinant phosphocholine. A hyperimmune serum specific for arthro-series glycolipid structures reacted with the various neutral glycolipids of all these nematodes, which demonstrated that their oligosaccharide moieties belonged to the arthro-series of protostomial glycolipids. These results indicated that arthro-series glycosphingolipids carrying, in part, phosphocholine substituents, represent highly conserved, antigenic glycolipid markers of parasitic nematodes. Three glycolipid components of the O. volvulus zwitterionic fraction were structurally characterized by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS, methylation analysis and exoglycosidase treatment. Their chemical structures were elucidated to be phosphocholine-6GlcNAc(beta1-3)Man(beta1-4)Glc(1-1)ceramide, GalNAc(beta1-4)[phosphocholine-6]GlcNAc(beta1-3)Man(beta1-4)Glc(1-1) ceramide and Gal(alpha1-3)GalNAc(beta1-4)[phosphocholine-6]GlcNAc(beta1-3)Man(beta 1-4)Glc(1-1)ceramide for the zwitterionic ceramide tri-, tetra- and penta-hexosides respectively. The ceramide composition was found to be dominated by 2-hydroxylated docosanoic (C(22h:0)), tricosanoic (C(23h:0)) and tetracosanoic (C(24h:0)) acids, and C(17) sphingosine (C(d17:1)) (where (h) is hydroxylated and (d) is dihydroxylated). PMID:10816437

  2. Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptors of Vero-B4 kidney epithelial cells and their membrane microdomain lipid environment1[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steil, Daniel; Schepers, Catherine-Louise; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Legros, Nadine; Runde, Jana; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Karch, Helge; Müthing, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stxs) are produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), which cause human infections with an often fatal outcome. Vero cell lines, derived from African green monkey kidney, represent the gold standard for determining the cytotoxic effects of Stxs. Despite their global use, knowledge about the exact structures of the Stx receptor glycosphingolipids (GSLs) and their assembly in lipid rafts is poor. Here we present a comprehensive structural analysis of Stx receptor GSLs and their distribution to detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), which were prepared from Vero-B4 cells and used as lipid raft equivalents. We identified globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer) as the GSL receptors for Stx1a, Stx2a, and Stx2e subtypes using TLC overlay detection combined with MS. The uncommon Stx receptor, globopentaosylceramide (Gb5Cer, Galβ3GalNAcβ3Galα4Galβ4Glcβ1Cer), which was specifically recognized (in addition to Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer) by Stx2e, was fully structurally characterized. Lipoforms of Stx receptor GSLs were found to mainly harbor ceramide moieties composed of sphingosine (d18:1) and C24:0/C24:1 or C16:0 fatty acid. Moreover, co-occurrence with lipid raft markers, SM and cholesterol, in DRMs suggested GSL association with membrane microdomains. This study provides the basis for further exploring the functional impact of lipid raft-associated Stx receptors for toxin-mediated injury of Vero-B4 cells. PMID:26464281

  3. Shiga toxin glycosphingolipid receptors of Vero-B4 kidney epithelial cells and their membrane microdomain lipid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steil, Daniel; Schepers, Catherine-Louise; Pohlentz, Gottfried; Legros, Nadine; Runde, Jana; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Karch, Helge; Müthing, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    Shiga toxins (Stxs) are produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), which cause human infections with an often fatal outcome. Vero cell lines, derived from African green monkey kidney, represent the gold standard for determining the cytotoxic effects of Stxs. Despite their global use, knowledge about the exact structures of the Stx receptor glycosphingolipids (GSLs) and their assembly in lipid rafts is poor. Here we present a comprehensive structural analysis of Stx receptor GSLs and their distribution to detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs), which were prepared from Vero-B4 cells and used as lipid raft equivalents. We identified globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer) as the GSL receptors for Stx1a, Stx2a, and Stx2e subtypes using TLC overlay detection combined with MS. The uncommon Stx receptor, globopentaosylceramide (Gb5Cer, Galβ3GalNAcβ3Galα4Galβ4Glcβ1Cer), which was specifically recognized (in addition to Gb3Cer and Gb4Cer) by Stx2e, was fully structurally characterized. Lipoforms of Stx receptor GSLs were found to mainly harbor ceramide moieties composed of sphingosine (d18:1) and C24:0/C24:1 or C16:0 fatty acid. Moreover, co-occurrence with lipid raft markers, SM and cholesterol, in DRMs suggested GSL association with membrane microdomains. This study provides the basis for further exploring the functional impact of lipid raft-associated Stx receptors for toxin-mediated injury of Vero-B4 cells. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Expression of ceramide glucosyltransferases, which are essential for glycosphingolipid synthesis, is only required in a small subset of C. elegans cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marza, Esther; Simonsen, Karina T; Færgeman, Nils J

    2009-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are glycosylated derivatives of ceramide in the lipid bilayer. Their ubiquitous distribution and complexity suggest that they have important functions, but what these are in vivo is still poorly understood. Here, we characterize the phenotype of Caenorhabditis elegans...... mutants with essentially no GSLs. The C. elegans genome encodes three ceramide glucosyltransferase (CGT) genes, which encode enzymes required for GSL biosynthesis. Animals lacking CGT do not synthesize GSLs, arrest growth at the first larval stage, and display defects in a subset of cells...... suggest that GSLs are dispensable in most C. elegans cells, including those of the nervous system....

  5. Acrylamide formation in plantain (Musa paradisiaca) chips influenced by different ripening stages: A correlation study with respect to reducing sugars, amino acids and phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2017-05-01

    The effect of ripening on the formation of acrylamide in deep fried plantain chips made from Nendran variety (Musa paradisiaca) was investigated. The precursors of acrylamide formation, reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and ten major amino acids, were quantified during different stages of ripening using HPLC and correlated with acrylamide formation. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were also estimated and correlated with acrylamide formation. Both glucose and fructose increased during ripening and demonstrated a positive correlation on formation of acrylamide (correlation coefficient of r=0.95 and 0.94 respectively (p0.05). The decreased levels of phenolic content during ripening of plantain were negatively correlated with acrylamide formation in the deep fried chips prepared. Thus the selection of proper ripening stage renders reduced formation of acrylamide in plantain chips to a reasonable extend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary vaccination of adults with reduced antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeten, H.; Rumke, H.C.; Hoppener, F.J.; Vilatimo, R.; Narejos, S.; Damme, P. van; Hoet, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus (dTpa-IPV) vaccine compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines (Td) in adults > or = 40 years of age without

  7. The SCRI Acrylamide Project: Improved breeding and variety evaluation methods to reduce acrylamide content and increase quality in processed potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highest priority of the US potato industry is the need to introduce new varieties that reduce the acrylamide content of processed products and minimize health concerns related to acrylamide consumption. The SCRI acrylamide project is a national, coordinated effort that addresses this need. Thi...

  8. Interactive effect of reduced pollen availability and Varroa destructor infestation limits growth and protein content of young honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, van C.; Stam, E.; Gerritsen, L.J.M.; Cornelissen, B.; Steen, van der J.J.M.; Langevelde, van F.; Blacquiere, T.

    2013-01-01

    Varroa destructor in combination with one or more stressors, such as low food availability or chemical exposure, is considered to be one of the main causes for honey bee colony losses. We examined the inter-active effect of pollen availability on the protein content and body weight of young bees

  9. Reduced Intracellular c-di-GMP Content Increases Expression of Quorum Sensing-Regulated Genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Lin Chua

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP is an intracellular secondary messenger which controls the biofilm life cycle in many bacterial species. High intracellular c-di-GMP content enhances biofilm formation via the reduction of motility and production of biofilm matrix, while low c-di-GMP content in biofilm cells leads to increased motility and biofilm dispersal. While the effect of high c-di-GMP levels on bacterial lifestyles is well studied, the physiology of cells at low c-di-GMP levels remains unclear. Here, we showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells with high and low intracellular c-di-GMP contents possessed distinct transcriptome profiles. There were 535 genes being upregulated and 432 genes downregulated in cells with low c-di-GMP, as compared to cells with high c-di-GMP. Interestingly, both rhl and pqs quorum-sensing (QS operons were expressed at higher levels in cells with low intracellular c-di-GMP content compared with cells with higher c-di-GMP content. The induced expression of pqs and rhl QS required a functional PqsR, the transcriptional regulator of pqs QS. Next, we observed increased production of pqs and rhl-regulated virulence factors, such as pyocyanin and rhamnolipids, in P. aeruginosa cells with low c-di-GMP levels, conferring them with increased intracellular survival rates and cytotoxicity against murine macrophages. Hence, our data suggested that low intracellular c-di-GMP levels in bacteria could induce QS-regulated virulence, in particular rhamnolipids that cripple the cellular components of the innate immune system.

  10. A study of adriamycin-reduced wound breaking strenght in rats. An evaluation by light and electron microscopy, induction of collagen maturation, and hydroxyproline content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, D F; Triche, T J; Webber, B L; Thibault, L E; Brennan, M F

    1980-06-01

    The cause of the reduced wound breaking strength (WBS) in adriamycin-treated animals is unknown. Differential staining of histologic sections, collagen fiber diameter measurements by electron microscopy (EM), induction of maturation, and hydroxyproline content analysis were used to examine this defect. Differential staining and formaldehyde induction of maturation revealed no differences between mature and immature collagen content in scars of adriamycin-treated and control animals. Mean collagen fiber diameters in control rats were 76 +/- 27 nm and, in adriamycin treated rats, 62 +/- 10 nm (mean +/- SD) at 21 days. There was no difference in total hydroxyproline content between ADR and C animals. However, significant differences existed between the specific activity of new or 3H-hydroxyproline (scar collagen) at 14 days (controls, 372 +/- 9 cpm; adriamycin-treated, 129 +/- 5 cpm) and at 21 days (controls, 365 +/- 11 cpm; adriamycin treated, 172 +/- 14 cpm; mean +/- SEM; P less than 0.001). It appears that the defect contributing to reduced WBS in adriamycin treated animals is not due to a collagen maturation defect but rather to a reduction in scar collagen accumulation as measured by new hydroxyproline content and reduced fiber diameter as determined by EM measurements.

  11. The influence of ethephon applied before harvesting on vitamin C, reducing sugars, protein total, and carotenoids content in the fruits of sweet pepper PCR (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Perucka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes were examined in vitamin C, protein total, reducing sugars, and carotenoids content in fruits of sweet pepper treated with ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid before harvesting the fruits. The obtained results show that epplying ethephon caused an increase in vitamin C and carotenoids total content in fruits of pepper harvested 35 days after spraying. With an increase of xantophyll concentration (capsanthin + capsorubin effected by ethephon, a decrease in ß-carotene occurred, and with an increase in the amount of ß-carotene a decrease in the amount of red carotenoids in pepper fruits was found.

  12. Accounting for GC-content bias reduces systematic errors and batch effects in ChIP-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Mingxiang; Irizarry, Rafael A

    2017-11-01

    The main application of ChIP-seq technology is the detection of genomic regions that bind to a protein of interest. A large part of functional genomics' public catalogs is based on ChIP-seq data. These catalogs rely on peak calling algorithms that infer protein-binding sites by detecting genomic regions associated with more mapped reads (coverage) than expected by chance, as a result of the experimental protocol's lack of perfect specificity. We find that GC-content bias accounts for substantial variability in the observed coverage for ChIP-seq experiments and that this variability leads to false-positive peak calls. More concerning is that the GC effect varies across experiments, with the effect strong enough to result in a substantial number of peaks called differently when different laboratories perform experiments on the same cell line. However, accounting for GC content bias in ChIP-seq is challenging because the binding sites of interest tend to be more common in high GC-content regions, which confounds real biological signals with unwanted variability. To account for this challenge, we introduce a statistical approach that accounts for GC effects on both nonspecific noise and signal induced by the binding site. The method can be used to account for this bias in binding quantification as well to improve existing peak calling algorithms. We use this approach to show a reduction in false-positive peaks as well as improved consistency across laboratories. © 2017 Teng and Irizarry; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Both resistance training and aerobic training reduce hepatic fat content in type 2 diabetic subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (the RAED2 Randomized Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Negri, Carlo; Targher, Giovanni; Faccioli, Niccolò; Lanza, Massimo; Zoppini, Giacomo; Zanolin, Elisabetta; Schena, Federico; Bonora, Enzo; Moghetti, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Although lifestyle interventions are considered the first-line therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is extremely common in people with type 2 diabetes, no intervention studies have compared the effects of aerobic (AER) or resistance (RES) training on hepatic fat content in type 2 diabetic subjects with NAFLD. In this randomized controlled trial, we compared the 4-month effects of either AER or RES training on insulin sensitivity (by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp), body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), as well as hepatic fat content and visceral (VAT), superficial (SSAT), and deep (DSAT) subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (all quantified by an in-opposed-phase magnetic resonance imaging technique) in 31 sedentary adults with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. After training, hepatic fat content was markedly reduced (P AER and the RES training groups (mean relative reduction from baseline [95% confidence interval] -32.8% [-58.20 to -7.52] versus -25.9% [-50.92 to -0.94], respectively). Additionally, hepatic steatosis (defined as hepatic fat content >5.56%) disappeared in about one-quarter of the patients in each intervention group (23.1% in the AER group and 23.5% in the RES group). Insulin sensitivity during euglycemic clamp was increased, whereas total body fat mass, VAT, SSAT, and hemoglobin A1c were reduced comparably in both intervention groups. This is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate that resistance training and aerobic training are equally effective in reducing hepatic fat content among type 2 diabetic patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2013 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Supplementation of alkaline phytase (Ds11) in whole-wheat bread reduces phytate content and improves mineral solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun-Jong; Park, Jiwon; Park, Ki-Hwan; Oh, Byung-Chul; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2011-08-01

    In this study, alkaline phytase was added to whole-wheat bread and the phytate content and mineral profiles were compared to commercially available acidic phytase. At neutral pH, some phytate (approximately 20%) was degraded by endogenous phytase in wheat flour, while 40% of phytate was hydrolyzed by alkaline phytase DS11 and a 35% reduction was observed with acidic phytase. Most of the enzymatic activity occurred during the proofing stage, and the rate of reaction depended on pH. DS11 phytase effectively degraded the phytate level within a 30 min treatment at pH 7; however, at least 60 min was needed with acidic phytase to achieve the same hydrolysis level. Mineral profiles were also dramatically affected by the phytate reduction. The biggest increase was observed in Fe²⁺ by the phytase treatment. The Fe²⁺ content increased 10-fold at pH 7 and 8-fold at pH 5 with alkaline phytase DS11. Alkaline phytase DS11 was shown to be effective at phytate reduction in whole-wheat bread preparation. Additionally, phytate degradation enhanced the mineral availability of bread. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Effect of Reducing the Nicotine Content of Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking Behavior and Tobacco Smoke Toxicant Exposure: Two Year Follow Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Nardone, Natalie; Dains, Katherine M.; Hall, Sharon M.; Stewart, Susan; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims A broadly mandated reduction of the nicotine content (RNC) of cigarettes has been proposed in the USA to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether following 7 months of smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNC), and then returning to their own cigarettes, smokers would demonstrate persistently reduced nicotine intake compared with baseline or quit smoking. Methods In a community-based clinic 135 smokers not interested in quitting were randomized to one of two groups. A research group smoked their usual brand of cigarettes followed by 5 types of research cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine content, each for one month, followed by 6 months at the lowest nicotine level (0.5 mg/cigarette) (53 subjects) and then 12 months with no intervention (30 subjects completed). A control group smoked their usual brand for the same period of time (50 subjects at 6 months, 38 completed). Smoking behavior, biomarkers of nicotine intake and smoke toxicant exposure were measured. Results After 7 months smoking VLNC, nicotine intake remained below baseline (plasma cotinine 149 vs 250 ng/ml, p<0.005) with no significant change in cigarettes per day or expired CO. During the 12 months follow-up, cotinine levels in RNC smokers rose to baseline levels and to those of control smokers. Quit rates among RNC smokers were very low (7.5% vs 3 % in controls, N.S.). Conclusions In smokers not interested in quitting, reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes over 12 months does not appear to result in extinction of nicotine dependence, assessed by persistently reduced nicotine intake or quitting smoking over the subsequent 12 months. PMID:26198394

  16. Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Nardone, Natalie; Dains, Katherine M; Hall, Sharon M; Stewart, Susan; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-10-01

    A broadly mandated reduction of the nicotine content (RNC) of cigarettes has been proposed in the United States to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether following 7 months of smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNC), and then returning to their own cigarettes, smokers would demonstrate persistently reduced nicotine intake compared with baseline or quit smoking. In a community-based clinic 135 smokers not interested in quitting were randomized to one of two groups. A research group smoked their usual brand of cigarettes, followed by five types of research cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine content, each for 1 month, followed by 6 months at the lowest nicotine level (0.5 mg/cigarette) (53 subjects) and then 12 months with no intervention (30 subjects completed). A control group smoked their usual brand for the same period of time (50 subjects at 6 months, 38 completed). Smoking behavior, biomarkers of nicotine intake and smoke toxicant exposure were measured. After 7 months smoking VLNC, nicotine intake remained below baseline (plasma cotinine 149 versus 250 ng/ml, P<0.005) with no significant change in cigarettes per day or expired carbon monoxide (CO). During the 12-month follow-up, cotinine levels in RNC smokers rose to baseline levels and to those of control smokers. Quit rates among RNC smokers were very low [7.5 versus 2% in controls, not significant). In smokers not interested in quitting, reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes over 12 months does not appear to result in extinction of nicotine dependence, assessed by persistently reduced nicotine intake or quitting smoking over the subsequent 12 months. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Reduced susceptibility of tomato stem to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is associated with a specific adjustment of fructose content in the host sugar pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, François; Nicot, Philippe C; Ripoll, Julie; Abro, Manzoor A; Raimbault, Astrid K; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Bertin, Nadia

    2017-03-01

    Plant soluble sugars, as main components of primary metabolism, are thought to be implicated in defence against pathogenic fungi. However, the function of sucrose and hexoses remains unclear. This study aimed to identify robust patterns in the dynamics of soluble sugars in sink tissues of tomato plants during the course of infection by the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea . Distinct roles for glucose and fructose in defence against B. cinerea were hypothesized. We examined sugar contents and defence hormonal markers in tomato stem tissues before and after infection by B. cinerea , in a range of abiotic environments created by various nitrogen and water supplies. Limited nitrogen or water supplies increased tomato stem susceptibility to B. cinerea . Glucose and fructose contents of tissues surrounding infection sites evolved differently after inoculation. The fructose content never decreased after inoculation with B. cinerea , while that of glucose showed either positive or negative variation, depending on the abiotic environment. An increase in the relative fructose content (defined as the proportion of fructose in the soluble sugar pool) was observed in the absence of glucose accumulation and was associated with lower susceptibility. A lower expression of the salicylic acid marker PR1a , and a lower repression of a jasmonate marker COI1 were associated with reduced susceptibility. Accordingly, COI1 expression was positively correlated with the relative fructose contents 7 d after infection. Small variations of fructose content among the sugar pool are unlikely to affect intrinsic pathogen growth. Our results highlight distinct use of host glucose and fructose after infection by B. cinerea and suggest strongly that adjustment of the relative fructose content is required for enhanced plant defence.

  18. Processing of Kansui Roots Stir-Baked with Vinegar Reduces Kansui-Induced Hepatocyte Cytotoxicity by Decreasing the Contents of Toxic Terpenoids and Regulating the Cell Apoptosis Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia kansui is a Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for the treatment of oedema, ascites and asthma. However, its serious hepatotoxicity hinders its safe clinical application. The process of stir-baking with vinegar is regularly used to reduce the toxicity of kansui. Up till now, the exact mechanism of the reduction in hepatotoxicity of kansui stir-baked with vinegar has been poorly defined. In this study, decreased  contents of five diterpene and one triterpene in kansui (GS-1 after stir-baking with vinegar (GS-2 was investigated by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Flow cytometry and Hoechst staining were used to show that the stir-baking with vinegar process reduces kansui-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the result also indicated that kansui stir-baked with vinegar protects LO2 cells from apoptosis by increasing the cell mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, decreasing the release of cytochrome c and inhibiting the activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as evidenced by means of high content screening (HCS, ELISA and western blotting. These results suggested that the stir-baking vinegar could reduce the hepatotoxicity of kansui by effectively decreasing the contents of toxic terpenoids and inhibiting the intrinsic pathway of hepatocyte cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the study provided significant data for promoting safer and better clinical use of this herb.

  19. Why is VO2 max after altitude acclimatization still reduced despite normalization of arterial O2 content?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Radegran, G

    2003-01-01

    Acute hypoxia (AH) reduces maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max), but after acclimatization, and despite increases in both hemoglobin concentration and arterial O2 saturation that can normalize arterial O2 concentration ([O2]), VO2 max remains low. To determine why, seven lowlanders were studied at VO...

  20. Community structure, cellular rRNA content, and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in marine Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravenschlag, K.; Sahm, K.; Knoblauch, C.

    2000-01-01

    The community structure of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) of a marine Arctic sediment (Smeerenburg-fjorden, Svalbard) a-as characterized by both fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and rRNA slot blot hybridization by using group- and genus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes...

  1. Fibromodulin deficiency reduces collagen structural network but not glycosaminoglycan content in a syngeneic model of colon carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, P Olof; Kalamajski, Sebastian; Maccarana, Marco; Oldberg, Åke; Rubin, Kristofer

    2017-01-01

    Tumor barrier function in carcinoma represents a major challenge to treatment and is therefore an attractive target for increasing drug delivery. Variables related to tumor barrier include aberrant blood vessels, high interstitial fluid pressure, and the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix. One of the proteins associated with dense extracellular matrices is fibromodulin, a collagen fibrillogenesis modulator expressed in tumor stroma but scarce in normal loose connective tissues. Here, we investigated the effects of fibromodulin on stroma ECM in a syngeneic murine colon carcinoma model. We show that fibromodulin deficiency decreased collagen fibril thickness but glycosaminoglycan content and composition were unchanged. Furthermore, vascular density, pericyte coverage and macrophage amount were unaffected. Fibromodulin can therefore be a unique effector of dense collagen matrix assembly in tumor stroma and, without affecting other major matrix components or the cellular composition, can function as a main agent in tumor barrier function.

  2. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-10-11

    A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O2 for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (psize via decreased glucose uptake and lipogenic protein expression and increased basal lipolysis. Such an hypoxia-induced decrease in lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against lipid-associated metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Feasibility of Reducing the Fiber Content in Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete under Flexure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Jun; Yoo, Doo-Yeol; Park, Gi-Joon; Kim, Sung-Wook

    2017-01-28

    In this study, the flexural behavior of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is examined as a function of fiber length and volume fraction. Straight steel fiber with three different lengths (lf) of 13, 19.5, and 30 mm and four different volume fractions (vf) of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% are considered. Test results show that post-cracking flexural properties of UHPFRC, such as flexural strength, deflection capacity, toughness, and cracking behavior, improve with increasing fiber length and volume fraction, while first-cracking properties are not significantly influenced by fiber length and volume fraction. A 0.5 vol % reduction of steel fiber content relative to commercial UHPFRC can be achieved without deterioration of flexural performance by replacing short fibers (lf of 13 mm) with longer fibers (lf of 19.5 mm and 30 mm).

  4. Multidisciplinary care of obese children and adolescents for one year reduces ectopic fat content in liver and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Ohrt, Johanne Dam

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle tissue is related to cardiovascular disease risk and is a common metabolic complication in obese children. We evaluated the hypotheses of ectopic fat in these organs could be diminished following 1 year of multidisciplinary care...... specialized in childhood obesity, and whether this reduction would associate with changes in other markers of metabolic function. METHODS: This observational longitudinal study evaluated 40 overweight children and adolescents enrolled in a multidisciplinary treatment protocol at the Children's Obesity Clinic......, Holbæk, Denmark. The participants were assessed by anthropometry, fasting blood samples (HbA1c, glucose, insulin, lipids, and biochemical variables of liver function), and liver and muscle fat content assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy at enrollment and following an average of 12.2 months...

  5. Effects of reducing fat content on the proteolytic and rheological properties of Cheddar-like caprine milk cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-moisture Cheddar-like cheeses made from caprine milk containing 3.6, 2.0, 1.0, and 0.1-0.5% fat were manufactured and their proteolytic and rheological properties compared after 1, 3, and 6 mo of aging at 4 deg C. The full-fat (FF), reduced fat (RF), low-fat (LF), and non-fat (NF) cheeses conta...

  6. Chlorination and ozonation differentially reduced the microcystin content and tumour promoting activity of a complex cyanobacterial extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Sovadinova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite intensive research and management efforts in the past decades, cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins, such as microcystins (MCs, continue to represent a major ecological and health problem in fresh waters throughout the world. Our objective was to compare the efficacy of two commonly used drinking water treatment technologies, chlorination and ozonation, in removing MCs and in reducing tumour promotion-related effects of cyanobacteria, such as inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC and activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs in a rat liver epithelial stem-like cell line (WB-F344. This combined chemical and bioassay approach demonstrated that ozone effectively removed all MCs from an extract of a globally important bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis sp. Ozone also significantly reduced the overall tumour promotional potency of the cyanobacterial extract, as indicated by a substantial reduction in the ability of the extract to inhibit GJIC and activate extracellular receptor kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. Although comparable reduction of total organic carbon was achieved by ozone and chlorine treatment, chlorination was much less effective in removing MCs and reducing the effects on GJIC. Chlorination had a biphasic effect with an observed decrease of extract-induced activation of ERK1/2 at the lower chlorine doses; whereas at high doses of chlorine the by-products of chlorination actually induced the activation of ERK1/2. The extracts induced p38 activation, and chlorination was not effective in reversing this effect, while ozone did reverse this effect, albeit not as much as the activation of ERK1/2. Thus, ozone was effective in reducing the toxicity of cyanobacterial extracts while chlorination was not only lacking efficacy, but at high doses of chlorination further produced by-products that were equally toxic as the untreated samples. Our study indicates the value of using an effect-based approach to

  7. Testing the influence of the temperature, RH and filler type and content on the universal power law for new reduced graphene oxide TPU composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J.; Villaro, E.; Navas, A.; Recio, I.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, 6 different reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were prepared by a modified Hummers’ method and reduced by thermochemical methods. rGO materials were intentionally prepared to obtain different BET and thickness and oxygen content maintaining constant the lateral size to compare its performance on thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix. Microstructure and the effect of the incorporation of rGO on the hardness and electrical properties of TPU were investigated. The temperature and humidity dependence of the electrical conductivity have been studied and the sensitivity and the response time to humidity changes have been determined. Influence of the filler content, temperature and humidity on the Jonscher’s universal power law (UPL) for ac conductivity versus frequency and its fitting parameters A and n were determined. An anomalous behaviour (according to UPL) has been observed and a linear correlation between logA and n independently of the filler content, humidity and temperature, however there is an influence of the rGO used for the preparation of the composite. To study the transport mechanisms the experimental results were adjusted to the equation σ  =  σ 0exp[-(T Mott/T)γ] and the maximum adjustment for γ  =  1/4 like other carbon nanocomposites however there is not an unequivocal behaviour.

  8. Multidisciplinary care of obese children and adolescents for one year reduces ectopic fat content in liver and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Nielsen, Louise Aas; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Thomsen, Henrik S; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2015-12-30

    Ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle tissue is related to cardiovascular disease risk and is a common metabolic complication in obese children. We evaluated the hypotheses of ectopic fat in these organs could be diminished following 1 year of multidisciplinary care specialized in childhood obesity, and whether this reduction would associate with changes in other markers of metabolic function. This observational longitudinal study evaluated 40 overweight children and adolescents enrolled in a multidisciplinary treatment protocol at the Children's Obesity Clinic, Holbæk, Denmark. The participants were assessed by anthropometry, fasting blood samples (HbA1c, glucose, insulin, lipids, and biochemical variables of liver function), and liver and muscle fat content assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy at enrollment and following an average of 12.2 months of care. Univariate linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, treatment duration, baseline degree of obesity, and pubertal developmental stage were used for investigating possible associations. The standard deviation score (SDS) of baseline median body mass index (BMI) was 2.80 (range: 1.49-3.85) and the median age was 14 years (10-17). At the end of the observational period, the 40 children and adolescents (21 girls) significantly decreased their BMI SDS, liver fat, muscle fat, and visceral adipose tissue volume. The prevalence of hepatic steatosis changed from 28 to 20 % (p = 0.26) and the prevalence of muscular steatosis decreased from 75 to 45 % (p = 0.007). Changes in liver and muscle fat were independent of changes in BMI SDS, baseline degree of obesity, duration of treatment, age, sex, and pubertal developmental stage. A 1-year multidisciplinary intervention program in the setting of a childhood obesity outpatient clinic confers a biologically important reduction in liver and muscle fat; metabolic improvements that are independent of the magnitude of concurrent weight loss

  9. Effects of personality and semantic content of stimuli on augmenting and reducing in the event-related potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, R J; Saron, C; McClelland, D C

    1980-01-01

    Two groups of subjects classified as high vs. low in the need for power (n power) were assessed for augmenting versus reducing in the event-related potential (ERP) elicited by neutral and power-related words. Words at four different intensity levels in each of these two classes were randomly presented and ERPs in response to each word class at each of the four intensity levels were computed from EEG recorded at Fz. The results indicated that the two groups responded differentially to the power-related vs. neutral words. HIgh n power subjects showed reduction in response to both power-related and neutral words while low n power subjects showed augmentation in response to the power-related words.

  10. Effect of Thiamine, Ascorbic acid and Gibberellic acid (GA3 on Growth Characteristics, Pigment Content and Reduced Sugars of Petunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    moslem salehi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bedding plants, especially petunia is important element for urban landscaping and attracted the attention of landscapers. This is due to some properties such as growth habit and color. The petunia (Petunia hybrida L. belongs to Solanaceae family that has annual and perennial varieties. This plant is originally from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Some plant growth regulators such as gibberellic acid (GA3 and vitamins including thiamine and ascorbic acid affect plant growth and development and may extend flowering period. Vitamin C affects cell division and cell growth in plants and is effective on the feeding cycle activity in higher plants and it has an important role in electron transport system. The concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm of vitamin C and thiamine can increase the plant height, leaf number, leaf area, fresh and dry weight, and chemical compounds of the Syngonium plant. The application of 100 mg/l of GA3 significantly increased plant height and the number of leaves of gladiolus. Material and methods: The experiment was arranged in a factorial based on a completely randomized design with five replications. In this research, growth characteristics (lateral branch number, flower number, flower diameter, stem diameter, root length, and lateral branch length and biochemical characteristics (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, and reducing sugar were measured. After seeding and transplanting the seedling at 6 leaf stage, plants sprayed at 4 various growth stages with following treatments: 1-\tControl 2-\tVitamin C(100 mg/l 3-\tThiamin (100 mg/l 4-\tGibberellic acid (100 mg/l 5-\tVitamin C and Thiamin (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 6-\tVitamin C and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 7-\tThiamin and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 8-\tVitamin C, Thiamin and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of three 100 mg/l Data obtained from the measured parameters

  11. High-oleic canola oil consumption enriches LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content and reduces LDL proteoglycan binding in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter J H; MacKay, Dylan S; Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Fleming, Jennifer A; Hantgan, Roy R; Rudel, Lawrence L

    2015-02-01

    Oleic acid consumption is considered cardio-protective according to studies conducted examining effects of the Mediterranean diet. However, animal models have shown that oleic acid consumption increases LDL particle cholesteryl oleate content which is associated with increased LDL-proteoglycan binding and atherosclerosis. The objective was to examine effects of varying oleic, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid consumption on human LDL-proteoglycan binding in a non-random subset of the Canola Oil Multi-center Intervention Trial (COMIT) participants. COMIT employed a randomized, double-blind, five-period, cross-over trial design. Three of the treatment oil diets: 1) a blend of corn/safflower oil (25:75); 2) high oleic canola oil; and 3) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil were selected for analysis of LDL-proteoglycan binding in 50 participants exhibiting good compliance. LDL particles were isolated from frozen plasma by gel filtration chromatography and LDL cholesteryl esters quantified by mass-spectrometry. LDL-proteoglycan binding was assessed using surface plasmon resonance. LDL particle cholesterol ester fatty acid composition was sensitive to the treatment fatty acid compositions, with the main fatty acids in the treatments increasing in the LDL cholesterol esters. The corn/safflower oil and high-oleic canola oil diets lowered LDL-proteoglycan binding relative to their baseline values (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.0012, respectively). At endpoint, high-oleic canola oil feeding resulted in lower LDL-proteoglycan binding than corn/safflower oil (p = 0.0243) and DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (p = 0.0249), although high-oleic canola oil had the lowest binding at baseline (p = 0.0344). Our findings suggest that high-oleic canola oil consumption in humans increases cholesteryl oleate percentage in LDL, but in a manner not associated with a rise in LDL-proteoglycan binding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genótipos de batata com baixo teor de açúcares redutores Potato genotypes with low reducing sugar content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arione da S Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar genótipos de batata quanto ao teor de açúcares redutores e condições pós-colheita que favoreçam a identificação daqueles com baixo teor. Oito clones, previamente selecionados para cor clara de fritura, e a cultivar Atlantic foram avaliados nos períodos de outono de 2004 e 2005. Os experimentos foram conduzidos na Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas-RS, Brasil (31°52'S, 52°21'W, em blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Em 2004, o teor de açúcares redutores foi quantificado após três condições: cura; quatro semanas refrigerados a 4°C; e refrigeração seguida por recondicionamento durante duas semanas. Em 2005, os açúcares redutores foram analisados somente após a refrigeração. O teste F revelou diferenças significativas entre genótipos para todas as variáveis, exceto para açúcares redutores após a cura dos tubérculos. Os clones 'C-1883-22-97', 'C-1881-16-97', 'C-1786-9-96', 'C-1786-7-96' e 'C-1787-14-96' contiveram os teores mais baixos de açúcares redutores. A refrigeração foi a condição que permitiu a identificação de genótipos com baixos teores de açúcares redutores.The objectives of this work were to evaluate potato genotypes for reducing sugar content and post-harvest conditions that favored the identification of those with low content. Eight potato clones, previously selected for light frying color, and the cultivar Atlantic were evaluated in autumn seasons of 2004 and 2005. The experiments were carried out at Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas-RS, Brazil (31°52'S, 52°21'W, in a randomized complete block design with four replications. In 2004, the reducing sugar content was quantified after three conditions: curing the tubers; four weeks of refrigerated storage at 4°C; and refrigeration followed by reconditioning for two weeks. In 2005, the reducing sugars were analyzed only after refrigeration. Besides that the genotypes were evaluated for chip color, dry

  13. Increased malonyl-CoA and diacylglycerol content and reduced AMPK activity accompany insulin resistance induced by glucose infusion in muscle and liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraegen, Edward W; Saha, Asish K; Preston, Elaine; Wilks, Donna; Hoy, Andrew J; Cooney, Gregory J; Ruderman, Neil B

    2006-03-01

    Glucose infusion in rats for 1-4 days results in insulin resistance and increased triglyceride, whole tissue long-chain fatty acyl-CoA (LCA-CoA), and malonyl-CoA content in red skeletal muscle. Despite this, the relation between these alterations and the onset of insulin resistance has not been defined. We aimed to 1) identify whether the changes in these lipids and of diacylglycerol (DAG) precede or accompany the onset of insulin resistance in glucose-infused rats, 2) determine whether the insulin resistance is associated with alterations in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and 3) assess whether similar changes occur in liver and in muscle. Hyperglycemia (17-18 mM) was maintained by intravenous glucose infusion in rats for 3 or 5 h; then euglycemia was restored and a 2-h hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed. Significant (P < 0.01) muscle and liver insulin resistance first appeared in red quadriceps and liver of the glucose-infused group at 5 h and was associated with a twofold increase in DAG and malonyl-CoA content and a 50% decrease in AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylation and AMPK activity. White quadriceps showed qualitatively similar changes but without decreases in AMPK or ACC phosphorylation. Triglyceride mass was increased at 5 h only in liver, and whole tissue LCA-CoA content was not increased in liver or either muscle type. We conclude that the onset of insulin resistance induced by glucose oversupply correlates temporally with increases in malonyl-CoA and DAG content in all three tissues and with reduced AMPK phosphorylation and activity in red muscle and liver. In contrast, it was not associated with increased whole tissue LCA-CoA content in any tissue or triglyceride in muscle, although both are observed at later times.

  14. Phytase improves apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in piglets fed diets with adequate or reduced phosphorus content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, I; Partanen, K

    2012-12-01

    The effect of a thermotolerant 6-phytase produced by Trichoderma reesei on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 192 weaned piglets (randomized block design; 16 replicates; 2 piglets each). Diets based on wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa), soybean (Glycine max) meal, and whey protein with adequate [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] Ca and P levels were fed for 46 d after weaning. The PC and NC diets contained 8.0 and 6.4 g/kg Ca and 2.9 and 1.9 g/kg digestible P, respectively. Pelleted diets contained 0, 500, or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg. Growth performance and G:F were measured during starter (25 d) and weaner pig (21 d) periods. The ATTD of Ca and P was determined by spot sampling at the end of the weaner pig period (8 pens per treatment over 5 consecutive d). Data were analyzed using a mixed model with random block effect and fixed effect of dietary P and phytase level and their interaction. Dietary P level did not affect ADG or G:F of piglets over the entire feeding period (P > 0.10) whereas phytase increased G:F (P 0.10). A P × phytase interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for ATTD of P, more so for NC (48, 61, and 68%, respectively) than PC diets (52, 62, and 61%). The ATTD of Ca was higher (P < 0.05) for PC than NC diets (68 vs. 58%) and increased quadratically by phytase (61, 65, and 63%). In conclusion, the phytase tested enhanced piglet performance during the postweaning period and increased ATTD of P and Ca.

  15. A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel-base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing. Ph.D. ThesisFinal Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, William O.

    1987-01-01

    A study of reduced chromium content in a nickel base superalloy via element substitution and rapid solidification processing was performed. The two elements used as partial substitutes for chromium were Si and Zr. The microstructure of conventionally solidified materials was characterized using microscopy techniques. These alloys were rapidly solidified using the chill block melt spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures were characterized using electron microscopy. The spinning technique and the rapidly solidified microstructures was assessed following heat treatments at 1033 and 1272 K. Rapidly solidified material of three alloys was reduced to particulate form and consolidated using hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The consolidated materials were also characterized using microscopy techniques. In order to evaluate the relative strengths of the consolidated alloys, compression tests were performed at room temperature and 1033 K on samples of as-HIPed and HIPed plus solution treated material. Yield strength, porosity, and oxidation resistance characteristics are given and compared.

  16. Resuscitation with Pooled and Pathogen-Reduced Plasma Attenuates the Increase in Brain Water Content following Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Bentzer, Peter; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye

    2017-01-01

    of this study was to investigate whether pooled and pathogen-reduced plasma (OctaplasLG(®) [OCTA]; Octapharma, Stockholm, Sweden) was comparable to FFP with regard to effects on brain water content, BBB permeability, and plasma biomarkers of endothelial glycocalyx shedding and cell damage. After fluid...... pressure, and biomarkers of systemic glycocalyx shedding (syndecan-1) and cell damage (histone-complexed DNA) were measured at 0 and 23 h. At 24 h, brain water content was 80.44 ± 0.39%, 80.82 ± 0.82%, and 81.15 ± 0.86% in the OCTA, FFP, and NS groups (lower in OCTA vs. NS; p = 0.026), with no difference......)-treated plasma attenuates the post-traumatic increase in brain water content, and that this effect may, in part, be explained by a high crystalloid and colloid osmotic pressure in SD-treated plasma....

  17. Ipragliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, reduces intrahepatic lipid content and abdominal visceral fat volume in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Akio; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Satoshi; Sasaki, Yosuke; Nakamura, Yuta; Nakagawa, Tomoko; Nagai, Yoshio; Tanaka, Yasushi

    2017-10-01

    We recently investigated the effect of ipragliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT-2I), in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes by a 24-week. SGLT-2Is also have an anti-obesity effect, and reduction of body fat has been demonstrated by indirect methods. However, evaluation of the effect on the total visceral fat volume and intrahepatic lipid content has not been performed. We measured the abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (SFV) and visceral fat volume (VFV) by whole abdominal CT scanning, the intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), and the fat mass index (FI) and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 20 patients from our previous study. Administration of ipragliflozin at 50 mg/day for 24 weeks significantly reduced SFV, VFV, and IHL. FI and ASMI were also significantly decreased. Changes of VFV and IHL content at 12 weeks were significantly correlated with the change of HbA1c, but no correlation was observed at 24 weeks. These findings demonstrate that ipragliflozin decreases visceral and hepatic fat, with improvement of glycemic control possibly being attributable to these changes at least up to 12 weeks.

  18. The application of non-Saccharomyces yeast in fermentations with limited aeration as a strategy for the production of wine with reduced alcohol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Schmidt, S; Henschke, P A; Curtin, C; Varela, C

    2015-07-16

    High alcohol concentrations reduce the complexity of wine sensory properties. In addition, health and economic drivers have the wine industry actively seeking technologies that facilitate the production of wines with lower alcohol content. One of the simplest approaches to achieve this aim would be the use of wine yeast strains which are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol, however commercially available wine yeasts produce very similar ethanol yields. Non-conventional yeast, in particular non-Saccharomyces species, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeasts are naturally present in the early stages of fermentation but in general are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 48 non-Saccharomyces isolates to identify strains that, with limited aeration and in sequential inoculation regimes with S. cerevisiae, could be used for the production of wine with lower ethanol concentration. Two of these, Torulaspora delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Zygosaccharomyces bailii AWRI1578, enabled the production of wine with reduced ethanol concentration under limited aerobic conditions. Depending on the aeration regime T. delbrueckii AWRI1152 and Z. bailii AWRI1578 showed a reduction in ethanol concentration of 1.5% (v/v) and 2.0% (v/v) respectively, compared to the S. cerevisiae anaerobic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. RNA interference of the nicotine demethylase gene CYP82E4v1 reduces nornicotine content and enhances Myzus persicae resistance in Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Qin, Li-Jun; Zhao, De-Gang

    2016-10-01

    The CYP82E4v1 gene was identified to encode nicotine demethylase, which catalyzed the conversion of nicotine to nornicotine. In this study, we constructed CYP82E4v1-RNAi vector and genetically transformed tobacco variety K326. The determination results of nicotine and nornicotine content via HPLC demonstrated that there was significant increase of nicotine content and reduction of nornicotine content in transgenic plants compared with those in wild-type plants. Exogenous application of IAA or GA3 could reduce the nicotine content in tobaccos, while ABA or 6-BA could increase the content of nicotine. And the more significant difference of nicotine content change in transgenic plants. Aphid-inoculation experiment demonstrated the number of aphid population in transgenic plants was significantly lower than wild-type plants at 12 d after aphid-inoculation. Meanwhile, the activity of AOEs and PAL in transgenic and wild-type tobacco plants after aphid-inoculation was measured. At 3 d after aphid-inoculation, both AOEs and PAL activity were significantly higher than controls, including wild-type plants with aphid-inoculation and transgenic plants with mock-inoculation. Also, the relative expression of these genes involved in salicylic acid/jasmonic acid (SA/JA) signaling pathways was analyzed at different stages after aphid-inoculation and the results demonstrated that there was significantly higher expression of JA-induced LOX gene in both transgenic and wild-type plants inoculated by aphid than the non-inoculated ones while no significant difference in the expression of SA-induced PR-1a gene among them was found, which indicated the JA-mediated resistance response was activated during aphid infestation. Moreover, although the expression level of BGL (another JA-induced gene) was less significant between the two inoculated tobaccos, it was significantly higher than the plant without inoculation, which was 1.4 and 2.2 folds higher than the non-inoculated controls

  20. Transgenic and mutation-based suppression of a berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBL) gene family reduces alkaloid content in field-grown tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramsey S; Lopez, Harry O; Bowen, Steve W; Andres, Karen R; Steede, William T; Dewey, Ralph E

    2015-01-01

    Motivation exists to develop tobacco cultivars with reduced nicotine content for the purpose of facilitating compliance with expected tobacco product regulations that could mandate the lowering of nicotine levels per se, or the reduction of carcinogenic alkaloid-derived tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). A berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBL) gene family was recently characterized for N. tabacum and found to catalyze one of the final steps in pyridine alkaloid synthesis for this species. Because this gene family acts downstream in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway, it may represent an attractive target for genetic strategies with the objective of reducing alkaloid content in field-grown tobacco. In this research, we produced transgenic doubled haploid lines of tobacco cultivar K326 carrying an RNAi construct designed to reduce expression of the BBL gene family. Field-grown transgenic lines carrying functional RNAi constructs exhibited average cured leaf nicotine levels of 0.684%, in comparison to 2.454% for the untransformed control. Since numerous barriers would need to be overcome to commercialize transgenic tobacco cultivars, we subsequently pursued a mutation breeding approach to identify EMS-induced mutations in the three most highly expressed isoforms of the BBL gene family. Field evaluation of individuals possessing different homozygous combinations of truncation mutations in BBLa, BBLb, and BBLc indicated that a range of alkaloid phenotypes could be produced, with the triple homozygous knockout genotype exhibiting greater than a 13-fold reduction in percent total alkaloids. The novel source of genetic variability described here may be useful in future tobacco breeding for varied alkaloid levels.

  1. High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Phospholipid Content and Cholesterol Efflux Capacity Are Reduced in Patients With Very High HDL Cholesterol and Coronary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Anandita P; Rodrigues, Amrith; Risman, Marjorie; McCoy, Mary; Trindade, Kevin; Qu, Liming; Cuchel, Marina; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Rader, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are strongly inversely associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), and high HDL-C is generally associated with reduced risk of CAD. Extremely high HDL-C with CAD is an unusual phenotype, and we hypothesized that the HDL in such individuals may have an altered composition and reduced function when compared with controls with similarly high HDL-C and no CAD. Fifty-five subjects with very high HDL-C (mean, 86 mg/dL) and onset of CAD at the age of ≈ 60 years with no known risk factors for CAD (cases) were identified through systematic recruitment. A total of 120 control subjects without CAD, matched for race, sex, and HDL-C level (controls), were identified. In all subjects, HDL composition was analyzed and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was assessed. HDL phospholipid composition was significantly lower in cases (92 ± 37 mg/dL) than in controls (109 ± 43 mg/dL; P=0.0095). HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was significantly lower in cases (1.96 ± 0.39) than in controls (2.11 ± 0.43; P=0.04). In people with very high HDL-C, reduced HDL phospholipid content and cholesterol efflux capacity are associated with the paradoxical development of CAD. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Glycosphingolipides et fusion virus-cellule : données actuelles montrant le rôle des micro-domaines membranaires dans le cycle d’infection du VIH-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammache Djilali

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Depuis plusieurs années, nous étudions les mécanismes moléculaires responsables de la fusion du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH avec la membrane plasmique des cellules cibles. Ces travaux ont permis de préciser le rôle essentiel joué par les micro-domaines de glycosphingolipides au cours de la fusion virus-cellule. En particulier, nous avons pu reconstituer un complexe de fusion fonctionnel faisant intervenir les différents partenaires moléculaires de la fusion : un micro-domaine de glycosphingolipide se présentant sous la forme d’un film monomoléculaire à l’interface eau-air, le récepteur CD4 et la glycoprotéine externe de l’enveloppe du virus, la gp120. La dynamique des interactions moléculaires dans ce complexe de fusion a pu être mesurée à l’aide d’un micro-tensiomètre. Ce système expérimental pourrait permettre d’évaluer l’activité d’inhibiteurs de fusion tels que des analogues synthétiques de glycosphingolipides.

  3. Ultrastructure and mechanical properties of populus wood with reduced lignin content caused by transgenic down-regulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjurhager, Ingela; Olsson, Anne-Mari; Zhang, Bo; Gerber, Lorenz; Kumar, Manoj; Berglund, Lars A; Burgert, Ingo; Sundberg, Björn; Salmén, Lennart

    2010-09-13

    Several key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis of Populus have been down-regulated by transgenic approaches to investigate their role in wood lignification and to explore their potential for lignin modification. Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase is an enzyme in the early phenylpropanoid pathway that has not yet been functionally analyzed in Populus . This study shows that down-regulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase reduced Klason lignin content by 30% with no significant change in syringyl to guaiacyl ratio. The lignin reduction resulted in ultrastructural differences of the wood and a 10% decrease in wood density. Mechanical properties investigated by tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analysis showed a decrease in stiffness, which could be explained by the lower density. The study demonstrates that a large modification in lignin content only has minor influences on tensile properties of wood in its axial direction and highlights the usefulness of wood modified beyond its natural variation by transgene technology in exploring the impact of wood biopolymer composition and ultrastructure on its material properties.

  4. Determination of mesenchymal stem cell fate by pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) results in increased adiposity and reduced bone mineral content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattu, Arijeet K.; Swenson, E. Scott; Iwakiri, Yasuko; Samuel, Varman T.; Troiano, Nancy; Berry, Ryan; Church, Christopher D.; Rodeheffer, Matthew S.; Carpenter, Thomas O.; Chung, Chuhan

    2013-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), the protein product of the SERPINF1 gene, has been linked to distinct diseases involving adipose or bone tissue, the metabolic syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type VI. Since mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation into adipocytes vs. osteoblasts can be regulated by specific factors, PEDF-directed dependency of murine and human MSCs was assessed. PEDF inhibited adipogenesis and promoted osteoblast differentiation of murine MSCs, osteoblast precursors, and human MSCs. Blockade of adipogenesis by PEDF suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), adiponectin, and other adipocyte markers by nearly 90% compared with control-treated cells (P50% compared with controls, illustrating its systemic role as a negative regulator of adipogenesis. Bones from KO mice demonstrated a reduction in mineral content recapitulating the OI type VI phenotype. These results demonstrate that the human diseases associated with PEDF reflect its ability to modulate MSC differentiation.—Gattu, A. K., Swenson, E. S., Iwakiri, Y., Samuel, V. T., Troiano, N., Berry, R., Church, C. D., Rodeheffer, M. S., Carpenter, T. O., Chung, C. Determination of mesenchymal stem cell fate by pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) results in increased adiposity and reduced bone mineral content. PMID:23887690

  5. Ascorbic acid, but not dehydroascorbic acid increases intracellular vitamin C content to decrease Hypoxia Inducible Factor -1 alpha activity and reduce malignant potential in human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Adam P; Miles, Sarah L

    2017-02-01

    Accumulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) in malignant tissue is known to contribute to oncogenic progression and is inversely associated with patient survival. Ascorbic acid (AA) depletion in malignant tissue may contribute to aberrant normoxic activity of HIF-1α. While AA supplementation has been shown to attenuate HIF-1α function in malignant melanoma, the use of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) as a therapeutic means to increase intracellular AA and modulate HIF-1α function is yet to be evaluated. Here we compared the ability of AA and DHA to increase intracellular vitamin C content and decrease the malignant potential of human melanoma by reducing the activity of HIF-1α. HIF-1α protein accumulation was evaluated by western blot and transcriptional activity was evaluated by reporter gene assay using a HIF-1 HRE-luciferase plasmid. Protein expressions and subcellular localizations of vitamin C transporters were evaluated by western blot and confocal imaging. Intracellular vitamin C content following AA, ascorbate 2-phosphate (A2P), or DHA supplementation was determined using a vitamin C assay. Malignant potential was accessed using a 3D spheroid Matrigel invasion assay. Data was analyzed by One or Two-way ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparisons test as appropriate with pascorbic acid as an adjuvant cancer therapy remains under investigated. While AA and A2P were capable of modulating HIF-1α protein accumulation/activity, DHA supplementation resulted in minimal intracellular vitamin C activity with decreased ability to inhibit HIF-1α activity and malignant potential in advanced melanoma. Restoring AA dependent regulation of HIF-1α in malignant cells may prove beneficial in reducing chemotherapy resistance and improving treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulsed electric field processing reduces the oxalate content of oca (Oxalis tuberosa) tubers while retaining starch grains and the general structural integrity of tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Burritt, David John; Eyres, Graham T; Oey, Indrawati

    2018-04-15

    The aims of this research were to investigate if pulsed electric field (PEF) treatments caused cellular/structural alterations in Oxalis tuberosa (oca) tubers and if PEF treatment could reduce tuber oxalate levels. Whole oca tubers were treated with PEF at different electric field strengths up to 1.2 kV/cm. PEF treatments above 0.5 kV/cm caused tubers to soften, but differences in the electrical properties of the tuber tissues led to an uneven PEF effect with the tuber inner cores softening more than the middle regions. Cell viability tests confirmed the unevenness of the PEF effect, however PEF caused no changes in overall tuber/tissue structure. Even at high electric field strengths the cell remained largely intact and most starch grains were retained within the cells. Despite the retention of starch, PEF treatment reduced tuber oxalate contents by almost 50% in some tissues and could potentially aid the development of low oxalate oca-based foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selection of non-Saccharomyces yeasts to be used in grape musts with high alcoholic potential: a strategy to obtain wines with reduced ethanol content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre Furlani, María Victoria; Maturano, Yolanda Paola; Combina, Mariana; Mercado, Laura Analía; Toro, María Eugenia; Vazquez, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    Ethanol content of wine has increased over the last decades as consequence of searching phenolic maturity, requiring increased grape maturity. This may result in the production of wines with excessive alcohol levels (sometimes more than 15% (v/v)), sluggish and stuck fermentations and excessive volatile acidity. Many strategies to reduce ethanol in wines are being studied, and microbial methods have some additional advantages. However, because of the broad intra- and interspecies variability, new selection criteria should be included. Therefore, the goal of the present work was to design and evaluate a simple and integral procedure for non-Saccharomyces yeast selection. This strategy allowed selection of yeasts that presented successful implantation in grape must with high alcohol potential and their use in co-cultures could reduce the ethanol in wines. A total of 114 native non-Saccharomyces yeasts were assayed to determine their respiratory, fermentative and physiological characteristics of enological interest. Hanseniaspora uvarum BHu9 and BHu11, H. osmophila BHo51, Starmerella bacillaris BSb55 and Candida membranaefaciens BCm71 were selected as candidates to design co-culture starters. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Reduced lignin content and altered lignin composition in the warm season forage grass Paspalum dilatatum by down-regulation of a Cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Andrea; Liu, Zhiqian; Panter, Stephen N; Dimech, Adam M; Shang, Yongjin; Wijesinghe, Hewage; Fulgueras, Karen; Ran, Yidong; Mouradov, Aidyn; Rochfort, Simone; Patron, Nicola J; Spangenberg, German C

    2014-06-01

    C4 grasses are favoured as forage crops in warm, humid climates. The use of C4 grasses in pastures is expected to increase because the tropical belt is widening due to global climate change. While the forage quality of Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass) is higher than that of other C4 forage grass species, digestibility of warm-season grasses is, in general, poor compared with most temperate grasses. The presence of thick-walled parenchyma bundle-sheath cells around the vascular bundles found in the C4 forage grasses are associated with the deposition of lignin polymers in cell walls. High lignin content correlates negatively with digestibility, which is further reduced by a high ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) lignin subunits. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) catalyses the conversion of cinnamoyl CoA to cinnemaldehyde in the monolignol biosynthetic pathway and is considered to be the first step in the lignin-specific branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. We have isolated three putative CCR1 cDNAs from P. dilatatum and demonstrated that their spatio-temporal expression pattern correlates with the developmental profile of lignin deposition. Further, transgenic P. dilatatum plants were produced in which a sense-suppression gene cassette, delivered free of vector backbone and integrated separately to the selectable marker, reduced CCR1 transcript levels. This resulted in the reduction of lignin, largely attributable to a decrease in G lignin.

  9. LA and ALA prevent glucose intolerance in obese male rats without reducing reactive lipid content, but cause tissue-specific changes in fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matravadia, Sarthak; Zabielski, Piotr; Chabowski, Adrian; Mutch, David M; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-04-01

    While the cause of Type 2 diabetes remains poorly defined, the accumulation of reactive lipids within white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver have been repeatedly implicated as underlying mechanisms. The ability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to prevent the development of insulin resistance has gained considerable interest in recent years; however, the mechanisms-of-action remain poorly described. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of diets supplemented with either linoleic acid (LA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) in preventing insulin resistance and reactive lipid accumulation in key metabolic tissues of the obese Zucker rat. Obese Zucker rats displayed impaired glucose homeostasis and reduced n-3 and n-6 PUFA content in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT). After the 12-wk feeding intervention, both LA- and ALA-supplemented diets prevented whole body glucose and insulin intolerance; however, ALA had a more pronounced effect. These changes occurred in association with n-3 and n-6 accumulation in all tissues studied, albeit to different extents (EWAT > liver > muscle). Triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramide, and sphingolipid accumulation were not attenuated in obese animals supplemented with either LA or ALA, suggesting that preservation of glucose homeostasis occurred independent of changes in reactive lipid content. However, PUFA-supplemented diets differentially altered the fatty acid composition of TAGs, DAGs, and PLs in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting essential fatty acid metabolism differs between tissues. Together, our results indicate that remodeling of the fatty acid composition of various lipid fractions may contribute to the improved glucose tolerance observed in obese rats fed PUFA-supplemented diets. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Trans-chalcone and quercetin down-regulate fatty acid synthase gene expression and reduce ergosterol content in the human pathogenic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Massaroto, Bruna Gabriele; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2013-09-17

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a promising antifungal target due to its marked structural differences between fungal and mammalian cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of flavonoids described in the scientific literature as FAS inhibitors (quercetin, trans-chalcone, ellagic acid, luteolin, galangin, and genistein) against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and their effects on fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis. The antifungal activity of the natural products was tested by the microdilution assay for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The effect of the compounds on the cell membrane was evaluated using a protoplast regeneration assay. Ergosterol content was quantified by spectrophotometry. Inhibition of FAS by flavonoids was evaluated by an enzymatic assay to determine IC50 values. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure transcription levels of the FAS1 and ERG6 genes involved in fatty acid and ergosterol biosynthesis, respectively, during exposure of T. rubrum to the flavonoids tested. The flavonoids quercetin and trans-chalcone were effective against T. rubrum, with MICs of 125 and 7.5 μg/mL for the wild-type strain (MYA3108) and of 63 and 1.9 μg/mL for the ABC transporter mutant strain (ΔTruMDR2), respectively. The MICs of the fluconazole and cerulenin controls were 63 and 125 μg/mL for the wild-type strain and 30 and 15 μg/mL for the mutant strain, respectively. Quercetin and trans-chalcone also reduced ergosterol content in the two strains, indicating that interference with fatty acid and ergosterol synthesis caused cell membrane disruption. The MIC of quercetin reduced the number of regenerated protoplasts by 30.26% (wild-type strain) and by 91.66% (mutant strain). Half the MIC (0.5 MIC) of quercetin did not reduce the number of regenerated wild-type fungal colonies, but caused a 36.19% reduction in the number of mutant strain protoplasts. In contrast, the MIC and 0.5 MIC of trans-chalcone and

  11. Characterization of the binding of Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) to glycosphingolipids, using a solid-phase overlay approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, N.K.; Karlsson, K.A. (Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1990-07-05

    Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 12104) and Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 19246) were radiolabeled externally (125I) or metabolically (35S) and analyzed for their ability to bind glycosphingolipids separated on thin layer chromatograms or coated in microtiter wells. Two binding properties were found and characterized in detail. (i) Both bacteria showed binding to lactosylceramide (LacCer) in a fashion similar to bacteria characterized earlier. The activity of free LacCer was dependent on the ceramide structure; species with 2-hydroxy fatty acid and/or a trihydroxy base were positive, while species with nonhydroxy fatty acid and a dihydroxy base were negative binders. Several glycolipids with internal lactose were active but only gangliotriaosylceramide and gangliotetraosylceramide were as active as free LacCer. The binding to these three species was half-maximal at about 200 ng of glycolipid and was not blocked by preincubation of bacteria with free lactose or lactose-bovine serum albumin. (ii) A. naeslundii, unlike A. viscosus, showed a superimposed binding concluded to be to terminal or internal GalNAc beta and equivalent to a lactose-inhibitable specificity previously analyzed by other workers. Terminal Gal beta was not recognized in several glycolipids, although free Gal and lactose were active as soluble inhibitors. The binding was half-maximal at about 10 ng of glycolipid. A glycolipid mixture prepared from a scraping of human buccal epithelium contained an active glycolipid with sites for both binding specificities.

  12. Tissue Localization of Glycosphingolipid Accumulation in a Gaucher Disease Mouse Brain by LC-ESI-MS/MS and High-Resolution MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E Ellen; Zhang, Wujuan; Zhao, Xueheng; Quiason, Cristine; Dale, Stephanie; Shahidi-Latham, Sheerin; Grabowski, Gregory A; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Drake, Richard R; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    To better understand regional brain glycosphingolipid (GSL) accumulation in Gaucher disease (GD) and its relationship to neuropathology, a feasibility study using mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry was conducted using brains derived from a GD mouse model (4L/PS/NA) homozygous for a mutant GCase (V394L [4L]) and expressing a prosaposin hypomorphic (PS-NA) transgene. Whole brains from GD and control animals were collected using one hemisphere for MALDI FTICR IMS analysis and the other for quantitation by LC-ESI-MS/MS. MALDI IMS detected several HexCers across the brains. Comparison with the brain hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) revealed differential signal distributions in the midbrain, brain stem, and CB of the GD brain versus the control. Quantitation of serial brain sections with LC-ESI-MS/MS supported the imaging results, finding the overall HexCer levels in the 4L/PS-NA brains to be four times higher than the control. LC-ESI-MS/MS also confirmed that the elevated hexosyl isomers were glucosylceramides rather than galactosylceramides. MALDI imaging also detected differential analyte distributions of lactosylceramide species and gangliosides in the 4L/PS-NA brain, which was validated by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Immunohistochemistry revealed regional inflammation, altered autophagy, and defective protein degradation correlating with regions of GSL accumulation, suggesting that specific GSLs may have distinct neuropathological effects.

  13. HPTLC-MALDI MS for (glyco)sphingolipid multiplexing in tissues and blood: A promising strategy for biomarker discovery and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, Enrica; Fania, Chiara; Vasso, Michele; Gelfi, Cecilia

    2016-07-01

    Sphingolipids have hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties, different saturation and combination of the oligosaccharide chains and mass homology of species located in a narrow m/z region hampering their recognition. To target sphingolipids for diagnostic purposes, standardized methods for lipid extraction, quali- and quantitative assessments are required. In this study, HPTLC-MALDI MS was adopted to establish sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid profiles in muscle, brain and serum to create a database of molecules to be searched in the preclinical and clinical investigations. Specific protocols for lipid extraction were set up based on the characteristics of the tissue or/and fluids; this approach maximizes the HPTLC-MALDI MS analytical throughput both for lipids extracted in organic and aqueous phase. This study indicates that alkaline hydrolysis is necessary for the detection of low abundant species such as Gb3Cer and ceramides in serum and Gb4Cer, CerP and HexCer in muscle tissue. The high hydrophobicity of ceramides has been overcome by the development of HPTLC plate in chloroform:methanol/50:3.5, which increases the number and the intensity of low abundant Cer species. MS/MS analysis has been conducted directly on HPTLC plate allowing the molecular recognition; furthermore a dataset of spectra was acquired to create a database for future profiling of these molecules. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The signal effect of nitrate supply enhances active forms of cytokinins and indole acetic content and reduces abscisic acid in wheat plants grown with ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnica, Maria; Houdusse, Fabrice; Zamarreño, Angel M; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2010-10-15

    Ammonium can result in toxicity symptoms in many plants when supplied as a sole nitrogen source. Nitrate reduces the negative effects caused by ammonium and promotes plant growth. In order to explore the mechanism responsible of this beneficial effect, we investigated whether nitrate application causes significant changes in the indoleacetic acid (IAA)- and cytokinin-plant distribution and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown with ammonium. Two different doses of nitrate were supplied to ammonium-fed plants (100 microM and 5mM), to determine whether the effects of nitrate require significant doses (nutritional character), or can be promoted by very low doses (signal effect). The results showed that the presence of NO(3)(-) was associated with clear increases in the active forms of cytokinins (zeatine (Z), trans-zeatine riboside (tZR), isopentenyl adenosine (IPR)) and reduction of the levels of the lower active forms (cis-zeatine riboside (cZR)), independently of the dose applied. Likewise, the presence of nitrate also enhanced IAA shoot content, which correlated with higher cytokinin levels and a tendency toward lower ABA concentration. This study presents further evidence that the possible signal effect of NO(3)(-) involved in its beneficial effect on the growth of wheat plants fed with NH(4)(+) could be mediated by a coordinated action of the levels of cytokinins, IAA and ABA in the shoot. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Synergy between Glomus fasciculatum and a beneficial Pseudomonas in reducing root diseases and improving yield and forskolin content in Coleus forskohlii Briq. under organic field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakshapal; Soni, Sumit K; Kalra, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Root rot and wilt, caused by a complex involving Fusarium chlamydosporum (Frag. and Cif.) and Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith), are serious diseases affecting the cultivation of Coleus forskohlii, a crop with economic potential as a source of the medicinal compound forskolin. The present 2-year field experiments were conducted with two bioinoculants (a native Pseudomonas monteilii strain and the exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum) alone and in combination under organic field conditions in order to evaluate their potential in controlling root rot and wilt. Combined inoculation of P. monteilii with G. fasciculatum significantly increased plant height, plant spread, and number of branches; reduced disease incidence; and increased tuber dry mass of C. forskohlii, compared to vermicompost controls not receiving any bioinoculants. Increase in tuber yields was accompanied by an increase in plant N, P, and K uptake. Co-inoculation of P. monteilii with G. fasciculatum significantly improved the percent AM root colonization and spore numbers retrieved from soil. This suggests P. monteilii to be a mycorrhiza helper bacterium which could be useful in organic agriculture. The forskolin content of tubers was significantly increased by the inoculation treatments of P. monteilii, G. fasciculatum, and P. monteilii + G. fasciculatum.

  16. Excess of methyl donor in the perinatal period reduces postnatal leptin secretion in rat and interacts with the effect of protein content in diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Giudicelli

    Full Text Available Methionine, folic acid, betaine and choline interact in the one-carbon metabolism which provides methyl groups for methylation reactions. An optimal intake of these nutrients during pregnancy is required for successful completion of fetal development and evidence is growing that they could be involved in metabolic long-term programming. However, the biological pathways involved in the action of these nutrients are still poorly known. This study investigated the interaction between methyl donors and protein content in maternal diet during the preconceptual, pregnancy and lactation periods and the consequences on the rat offspring in the short and long term. Methyl donor supplementation reduced leptin secretion in offspring, whereas insulin levels were mostly affected by protein restriction. The joint effect of protein restriction and methyl donor excess strongly impaired postnatal growth in both gender and long term weight gain in male offspring only, without affecting food intake. In addition, rats born from protein restricted and methyl donor supplemented dams gained less weight when fed a hypercaloric diet. Methylation of the leptin gene promoter in adipose tissue was increased in methyl donor supplemented groups but not affected by protein restriction only. These results suggest that maternal methyl donor supplementation may influence energy homeostasis in a gender-dependent manner, without affecting food intake. Moreover, we showed that macronutrients and micronutrients in maternal diet interact to influence the programming of the offspring.

  17. Effect of salt reduction on wheat-dough properties and quality characteristics of puff pastry with full and reduced fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Axel, Claudia; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-11-01

    Puff pastry is a major contributor of fat and sodium intake in many countries. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of salt (0-8.4g/100g flour) on the structure and quality characteristics of puff pastry with full and reduced (-40%) fat content as well as the rheological properties of the resulting dough. Therefore, empirical rheological tests were carried out including dough extensibility, dough stickiness and GlutoPeak test. The quality of the puff pastry was characterized with the VolScan, Texture Analyzer and C-Cell. NaCl reduction significantly changed rheological properties of the basic dough as well as a number of major quality characteristics of the puff pastry. Significant differences due to NaCl addition were found in particular for dough resistance, dough stickiness, Peak Maximum Time and Maximum Torque (ppuff pastry containing full fat. Likewise, maximal lift, specific volume, number of cells and slice brightness increased with increasing NaCl at both fat levels. Although a sensorial comparison of puff pastries revealed that salt reduction (30%) was perceptible, no significant differences were found for all other investigated attributes. Nevertheless, a reduction of 30% salt and 40% fat in puff pastry is achievable as neither the perception and visual impression nor attributes such as volume, firmness and flavour of the final products were significantly affected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content--a 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas; Shepherd, Louise V T; Conner, Sean; Davies, Howard V; Meyer, Otto; Danier, Jürgen; Rychlik, Michael; Belknap, William R; McCue, Kent F; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Stewart, Derek; Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2012-10-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore depend on their ratio in the potato. To determine the influence of α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio in potatoes on toxicity, a GM potato line (SGT 9-2) with reduced α-solanine content, and the parental control line (Desirée wild-type) having a traditional α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio were (1) studied for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional differences between the GM line and its wildtype control these did not raise concerns related to nutritional value or safety. Results of the feeding trials showed a low number of significant differences between potato lines with different α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio but none were considered to raise safety concerns with regard to human (or animal) consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced cortical BACE1 content with one bout of exercise is accompanied by declines in AMPK, Akt, and MAPK signaling in obese, glucose-intolerant mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, P.; Peppler, W. T.; Wright, D. C.; Little, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are significant risk factors in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. A variety of cellular mechanisms, such as altered Akt and AMPK and increased inflammatory signaling, contribute to neurodegeneration. Exercise training can improve markers of neurodegeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a single bout of exercise on markers of neurodegeneration and inflammation in brains from mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low (LFD; 10% kcal from lard)- or a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 7 wk. HFD mice underwent an acute bout of exercise (treadmill running: 15 m/min, 5% incline, 120 min) followed by a recovery period of 2 h. The HFD increased body mass and glucose intolerance (both P exercise, there was a decrease in beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1; P exercise in HFD mice to a level similar to that of the LFD mice (P exercise can reduce BACE1 content and activity independent of changes in adiposity. This effect is associated with reductions in Akt, ERK, and AMPK signaling in the cortex. PMID:26404616

  20. Evaluation of a new syringe presentation of reduced-antigen content diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine in healthy adolescents--A single blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Abarca, Katia; Lepetic, Alejandro; Cervantes-Apolinar, Maria Yolanda; Hardt, Karin; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay; de la O, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccine, Boostrix™, is indicated for booster vaccination of children, adolescents and adults. The original prefilled disposable dTpa syringe presentation was recently replaced by another prefilled-syringe presentation with latex-free tip-caps and plunger-stoppers. 671 healthy adolescents aged 10-15 years who had previously received 5 or 6 previous DT(P)/dT(pa) vaccine doses, were randomized (1:1) to receive dTpa booster, injected using the new (dTpa-new) or previous syringe (dTpa-previous) presentations. Immunogenicity was assessed before and 1-month post-booster vaccination; safety/reactogenicity were assessed during 31-days post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of dTpa-new versus dTpa-previous was demonstrated for all antigens (ULs 95% CIs for GMC ratios ranged between 1.03-1.13). 1-month post-booster, immune responses were in similar ranges for all antigens with both syringe presentations. dTpa delivered using either syringe presentation was well-tolerated. These clinical results complement the technical data and support the use of the new syringe presentation to deliver the dTpa vaccine.

  1. Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: II. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on intake, performance, and liver and bone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, L F; Sathler, D F T; Silva, B C; Zanetti, D; Valadares Filho, S C; Alhadas, H M; Detmann, E; Santos, S A; Mariz, L D S; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-04-01

    0.52) among diets. Supplementation of microminerals decreased ( < 0.01) plasma Ca concentration; nevertheless, all analyzed blood metabolites were within the reference values. Supplementation of Ca and P increased ( < 0.01) fecal excretion of these minerals. These results indicate that mineral supplementation (Ca, P, Zn, Mn, and Cu) of conventional feedlot diets for Nellore bulls may be not necessary. Dietary reductions in these minerals would represent a decrease in the cost of feedlot diets. Dietary reduction in Ca and P content cause a decrease in fecal excretion of these minerals, which, in turn, represents an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of feedlot operations.

  2. Expressão de glicoesfingolipídeos no carcinoma espinocelular do trato aerodigestivo superior Glycosphingolipid expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilio Ferreira Marques Filho

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os glicoesfingolipídios (GSLs são importantes componentes da membrana celular, organizados em microdomínios, relacionados a receptores de membrana e comportamento anti-social da célula neoplásica como crescimento descontrolado, invasão e ocorrência de metástases. OBJETIVO: Como a expressão de GSLs no carcinoma espinocelular (CEC é tema pouquíssimo estudado decidiu-se realizar estudo prospectivo visando avaliar a expressão de GSLs no CEC do trato aerodigestivo superior. MÉTODO: Coletou-se 33 amostras de CEC e mucosa normal e GSLs extraídos e purificados por cromatografia de fase reversa em coluna de C-18 e hidrólise alcalina em metanol. Os GSLs foram quantificados por densitometria das placas de cromatografia de alta resolução em camada delgada coradas com orcinol. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento significativo de GSLs no CEC (3,57µg/mg em comparação à mucosa normal (1,92µg/mg, principalmente do monosialogangliosídeo (GM3, trihexosilceramida (CTH, dihexosilceramida (CDH, globosídeo (Gb4. A expressão de monohexosilceramida (CMH foi semelhante no CEC e na mucosa normal. O aumento do GM3 no CEC foi demonstrado por métodos imunoquímicos empregando-se MAb DH2 (anti-GM3. Analisando-se os carboidratos do CMH por cromatografia gasosa acoplado a espectrômetro de massa constatou-se que a mucosa normal expressa glucosilceramida e o CEC glucosilceramida e galactosilceramida. CONCLUSÃO: O aumento de GSLs no tecido tumoral pode representar alterações dos microdomínios da membrana celular resultantes do processo de transformação maligna, responsáveis por uma maior interação célula-célula e célula-matriz aumentando seu potencial de infiltração e metástase, possibilitando o emprego dos GSLs e de MAbs no diagnóstico e no tratamento do CEC, a exemplo do que ocorre no melanoma.Glycosphingolipids are integral constituents of cellular membrane, arranged in rafts, and with neoplasic cell anti-social behavior, like uncontrolled

  3. A new approach to the modification of cell membrane glycosphingolipids: Ganglioside composition of JTC-12 P3 cells altered by feeding with galactose as a sole carbohydrate source in protein- and lipid-free synthetic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Tatsuya (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan) Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan)); Takaoka, Toshiko; Yoshida, Eiko (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Iwamori, Masao; Nagai, Yoshitaka (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan) Niigata Univ. (Japan)); Takatsuki, Kiyoshi (Kumamoto Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1988-12-01

    A significant difference in the glycosphingolipid composition of JTC-12 P3 cells established from monkey kidney tissue was observed when cells cultured in a protein- and lipid-free synthetic medium containing glucose (DM-160) as a sole carbohydrate source were transferred and cultured in the same medium containing galactose and pyruvic acid (DM-170) in place of glucose. In particular, the amounts of gangliosides GM3, GM2, and GD3 in the cells cultured in DM-170 were 5.3-, 17.8-, and more than 8-fold those in the cells cultured in DM-160, respectively, indicating that anabolism of gangliosides is greatly enhanced in cells cultured in the presence of galactose and pyruvic acid, as compared with cells cultured in the presence of glucose. In fact, after cultivation of cells in the medium with N-acetyl-D-({sup 14}C)mannosamine for 96 h, the radioactivity incorporated into the gangliosides of the cells in DM-170 was 10-fold that of the cells in DM-160. Among the gangliosides of the cells in DM-170, highly sialylated molecules such as GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b were preferentially labeled, indicating that the sialytransferases responsible for the synthesis of gangliosides are significantly more activated in cells cultured in DM-170 than in DM-160. These observations reveal that the glycosphingolipid composition of the plasma membrane can be modified epigenetically under well-defined conditions and provide important clues for clarifying the roles of glycosphingolipids associated with particular cell functions.

  4. Differential expression profiles of glycosphingolipids in human breast cancer stem cells vs. cancer non-stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Yuh-Jin; Ding, Yao; Levery, Steven B

    2013-01-01

    through epithelial-mesenchymal transition, using mass spectrometry, TLC immunostaining, and cell staining. We found that (i) Fuc-(n)Lc4Cer and Gb3Cer were drastically reduced in CSCs, whereas GD2, GD3, GM2, and GD1a were greatly increased in CSCs; (ii) among various glycosyltransferases tested, m...

  5. High vitamin A content in some small indigenous fish species in Bangladesh: perspectives for food-based strategies to reduce vitamin A deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, N.; Leth, Torben; Jakobsen, Jette

    2002-01-01

    Recognising the importance of fish in the Bangladeshi diet, the objective of the present study was to screen commonly consumed fish species for vitamin A content to evaluate the potential of fish as a vitamin A source in food-based strategies to combat vitamin A deficiency. Samples of 26 commonly...... consumed fish species and one crustacean were collected in Kishoreganj and Mymensingh, Bangladesh. To obtain edible parts, the fish were cleaned by Bangladeshi women according to traditional practices. Distribution of vitamin A in parts of the fish and the effect of the cleaning practices on the vitamin...... A content in edible parts were assessed. The content of vitamin A compounds was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The vitamin A content in small fish ranged from 2680 retinol equivalents (RE) /100 g raw edible parts in mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) to 20 RE/100 g raw edible parts in chata...

  6. Effects of Tamm-Horsfall protein with normal and reduced sialic acid content upon the crystallization of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate in human urine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallson, P C; Choong, S K; Kasidas, G P; Samuell, C T

    1997-01-01

    To examine the effects of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) of normal and low sialic acid content on urinary crystallization, and establish whether there are changes conducive to the formation of kidney stones...

  7. Reduced malonyl-CoA content in recovery from exercise correlates with improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig, Christian; Roepstorff, Carsten; Brandt, Nina

    2009-01-01

    uptake. Four days of Fat diet resulted in an increased content of intramyocellular triacylglycerol (Pbody insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. However, at the muscular level proximal insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake appeared...

  8. Decennial administration in young adults of a reduced-antigen content diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis vaccine containing two different concentrations of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeulen, Corinne; Theeten, Heidi; Rathi, Niraj; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay; Sokal, Etienne; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Van Damme, Pierre

    2015-06-12

    Regular booster vaccination might be necessary throughout life to protect against pertussis infection. Nevertheless the duration of protection after booster vaccination remains unclear. In this study, antibody persistence up to 10 years after previous vaccination of adolescents (N=478) with combined reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (dTpa, Boostrix™, GlaxoSmithKline Belgium) containing 0.5mg, 0.3mg or 0.133mg of aluminium was assessed. The immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of a decennial booster dTpa dose were also investigated. Young adults vaccinated as adolescents in the initial booster study were invited to participate in an assessment of antibody persistence at years 8.5 and 10, and to receive a dTpa booster dose at year 10 with immunogenicity assessment one month later. Those who originally received the 0.5mg or 0.3mg formulations received the same vaccine at year 10. Those in the 0.133mg group received the 0.5mg formulation. Reactogenicity and safety endpoints were captured until 30 days after booster vaccination. Prior to the decennial booster at year 8.5 and year 10, all participants had seroprotective antibodies for diphtheria (ELISA or neutralisation assay) and tetanus. At least 77.8% were seropositive for anti-pertussis toxin (PT) antibodies at year 8.5 and 82.8% at year 10. All participants were seropositive for antibodies for filamentous haemagglutinin and pertactin at both time points. The decennial booster dose induced robust increases in antibody GMCs to all antigens. The post-booster anti-PT geometric mean concentration was 82.5EL.U/ml (95%CI 67.0-101.6) and 124.0 (103.5-148.5) in the 0.3mg and 0.5mg groups, respectively. The reactogenicity and safety profile of the decennial booster dose was consistent with the known safety profile of dTpa. No serious adverse events were reported. Decennial booster vaccination with either of the two licensed formulations of dTpa was highly immunogenic and well

  9. Application of direct HPTLC-MALDI for the qualitative and quantitative profiling of neutral and acidic glycosphingolipids: the case of NEU3 overexpressing C2C12 murine myoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, Enrica; Vasso, Michele; Fania, Chiara; Capitanio, Daniele; Bergante, Sonia; Piccoli, Marco; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi; Gelfi, Cecilia

    2014-05-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are a class of ubiquitous lipids characterized by a wide structural repertoire and a variety of functional implications. Importantly, altered levels have been correlated with different diseases, suggesting their crucial role in health. Conventional methods for the characterization and quantification are based on high-performance TLC (HPTLC) separation and comparison with the migration distance of standard samples or on MS. We set up and herein report the application of an ImagePrep method for glycosphingolipids qualitative and quantitative profiling through direct HPTLC-MALDI with particular application to wild-type and NEU3 sialidase-overexpressing C2C12 myoblasts. Lipids were analyzed by HPTLC, coupled with MALDI-TOF, and the resulting GSLs profiles were compared to the [³H]sphingolipids HPTLC patterns obtained after metabolic radiolabeling. GSLs detection by HPTLC-MALDI was optimized by testing different methods for matrix delivery and by performing quantitative analyses using serial dilutions of GSLs standards. Through this approach an accurate analysis of each variant of neutral and acidic GSLs, including the detection of different fatty-acid chain variants for each GSL, was provided and these results demonstrated that HPTLC-MALDI is an easy and high-throughput analytical method for GSLs profiling, suggesting its use for an early detection of markers in different diseases, including cancer and heart ischemia. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Delayed gastric emptying and reduced postprandial small bowel water content of equicaloric whole meal bread versus rice meals in healthy subjects: novel MRI insights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marciani, L; Pritchard, S E; Hellier-Woods, C; Costigan, C; Hoad, C L; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2013-01-01

    ... kJ WMB or an equicaloric RP meal. Subjects underwent serial MRI scans every 45 min up to 270 min to assess gastric volumes and small bowel water content, and completed a GI symptom questionnaire...

  11. Functional and Structural Characterization of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase from Kluyveromyces lactis and Its Potential Applications in Reducing Purine Content in Food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga Mahor

    Full Text Available Consumption of foods and beverages with high purine content increases the risk of hyperuricemia, which causes gout and can lead to cardiovascular, renal, and other metabolic disorders. As patients often find dietary restrictions challenging, enzymatically lowering purine content in popular foods and beverages offers a safe and attractive strategy to control hyperuricemia. Here, we report structurally and functionally characterized purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP from Kluyveromyces lactis (KlacPNP, a key enzyme involved in the purine degradation pathway. We report a 1.97 Å resolution crystal structure of homotrimeric KlacPNP with an intrinsically bound hypoxanthine in the active site. KlacPNP belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase-I (NP-I family, and it specifically utilizes 6-oxopurine substrates in the following order: inosine > guanosine > xanthosine, but is inactive towards adenosine. To engineer enzymes with broad substrate specificity, we created two point variants, KlacPNPN256D and KlacPNPN256E, by replacing the catalytically active Asn256 with Asp and Glu, respectively, based on structural and comparative sequence analysis. KlacPNPN256D not only displayed broad substrate specificity by utilizing both 6-oxopurines and 6-aminopurines in the order adenosine > inosine > xanthosine > guanosine, but also displayed reversal of substrate specificity. In contrast, KlacPNPN256E was highly specific to inosine and could not utilize other tested substrates. Beer consumption is associated with increased risk of developing gout, owing to its high purine content. Here, we demonstrate that KlacPNP and KlacPNPN256D could be used to catalyze a key reaction involved in lowering beer purine content. Biochemical properties of these enzymes such as activity across a wide pH range, optimum activity at about 25°C, and stability for months at about 8°C, make them suitable candidates for food and beverage industries. Since KlacPNPN256D has broad substrate

  12. Dietary omega-3 deficiency reduces BDNF content and activation NMDA receptor and Fyn in dorsal hippocampus: implications on persistence of long-term memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Simone Azevedo; de Siqueira, Letícia V; Müller, Alexandre P; Oses, Jean P; Quatrim, Andreia; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Vinadé, Lúcia; Souza, Diogo O; Moreira, Júlia D

    2014-07-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are important for adequate brain function and cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how n-3 fatty acids influence the persistence of long-term memory (LTM) in an aversive memory task and to explore the putative mechanism involved. Female rats received isocaloric diets that included n-3 (n-3 group) or not (D group). The adult litters were subjected to an inhibitory avoidance task (0.7 mA, 1.0 seconds foot shock) to elicit persistent LTM. Twelve hours after the training session, the fatty acid profile and the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content of the dorsal hippocampus were assessed. In addition, we measured the activation of the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and the SRC family protein Fyn. Despite pronounced learning in both groups, the persistence of LTM was abolished in the D group 7 days after the training session. We also observed that the D group presented reductions in hippocampal DHA (22:6 n-3) and BDNF content. Twelve hours after the training session, the D group showed decreased NR2B and Fyn phosphorylation in the dorsal hippocampus, with no change in the total content of these proteins. Further, there was a decrease in the interaction of Fyn with NR2B in the D group, as observed by co-immunoprecipitation. Taken together, these data suggest that n-3 fatty acids influence the persistence of LTM by maintaining adequate levels of DHA and BDNF as well as by influencing the activation of NR2B and Fyn during the period of memory formation.

  13. Reduced levels of histones H1o and H1b, and unaltered content of methylated DNA in rainbow trout hepatocellular carcinoma chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, J R; Delcuve, G P; Nickel, B E; Moirier, R; Bailey, G

    1987-10-15

    The levels of histone subtypes and DNA methylation of aflatoxin-induced rainbow trout hepatocellular carcinoma and adult liver nuclei were compared. The hepatocellular carcinoma nuclei were enriched in the ubiquitinated species of histone H2A and depleted in histones H1o and H1b. The 5-methylcytosine content and methylation patterns of the vitellogenin genes and the transcriptionally inactive TPG-3 protamine gene were not altered in the trout hepatocellular carcinoma DNA. Thus, undermethylation of DNA is not a general feature of chemically induced tumors in vivo.

  14. A survey on different types of water treatment equipment and their ability to reduce the radon content in drinking water from private wells; Orienterande undersoekning av effekten av vattenbehandlingsutrustning paa radonhalten i vatten fraan borrade brunnar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boox, C. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-08-01

    The cause of the investigation is that recent research has reported on the health risks associated with high radon content in drinking water. Different types of water treatment equipment, normally installed for other types of non-wanted elements, were tested for their ability to remove radon. The measurements show that the only types of equipment that reduces radon content in water to a high degree are osmosis filters and radon separators. Of these two, the radon separator is judged to be the only one to have the capacity to treat the volumes needed in a house. The reduction of radon is more than 85 percent for the equipment specially constructed to reduce radon in water. There is however no experiences today about the technical lifetime or the long time performance of this equipment.

  15. Dietary supplementation of chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Seo, Kunho; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2014-02-26

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated using male Golden Syrian hamsters fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd), or Syrah (SyrSd) pomace as compared to a HF control diet for 3 weeks. Hamsters fed the ChrSd diet had significantly lowered plasma total-, VLDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the CabSd, SyrSd, and control diets. The improved plasma cholesterol after ChrSd was correlated with the up-regulation of hepatic genes related to cholesterol (CYP51) and bile acid (CYP7A1) synthesis as well as LDL-cholesterol uptake (LDLR). A reduction of hepatic lipid content was associated with altered expression of the genes related to lipid metabolism. However, fecal total lipid content was not changed. Expression of ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) was not affected by ChrSd, indicating unchanged ileal bile acid reabsorption. The antiobesity effect of the ChrSd diet appears to be related to expression of adipogenesis- and inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour induced cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, and anti-inflammatory health benefits and attenuation of hepatic steatosis via regulation of gene expression related to cholesterol, bile acid, and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.

  16. A genome scan for milk production traits in dairy goats reveals two new mutations in Dgat1 reducing milk fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Pauline; Palhière, Isabelle; Maroteau, Cyrielle; Bardou, Philippe; Canale-Tabet, Kamila; Sarry, Julien; Woloszyn, Florent; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Racke, Ines; Besir, Hüseyin; Rupp, Rachel; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola

    2017-05-12

    The quantity of milk and milk fat and proteins are particularly important traits in dairy livestock. However, little is known about the regions of the genome that influence these traits in goats. We conducted a genome wide association study in French goats and identified 109 regions associated with dairy traits. For a major region on chromosome 14 closely associated with fat content, the Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene turned out to be a functional and positional candidate gene. The caprine reference sequence of this gene was completed and 29 polymorphisms were found in the gene sequence, including two novel exonic mutations: R251L and R396W, leading to substitutions in the protein sequence. The R251L mutation was found in the Saanen breed at a frequency of 3.5% and the R396W mutation both in the Saanen and Alpine breeds at a frequencies of 13% and 7% respectively. The R396W mutation explained 46% of the genetic variance of the trait, and the R251L mutation 6%. Both mutations were associated with a notable decrease in milk fat content. Their causality was then demonstrated by a functional test. These results provide new knowledge on the genetic basis of milk synthesis and will help improve the management of the French dairy goat breeding program.

  17. Dermatan Sulfate Epimerase 1-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Content and Changed Distribution of Iduronic Acids in Dermatan Sulfate and an Altered Collagen Structure in Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarana, M.; Kalamajski, S.; Kongsgaard, M.

    2009-01-01

    that the skin collagen architecture was altered, and electron microscopy showed that the DS-epi1-null fibrils have a larger diameter than the wild-type fibrils. The altered chondroitin/dermatan sulfate chains carried by decorin in skin are likely to affect collagen fibril formation and reduce the tensile...

  18. The effect of reduced amino acid level and increasing levels of lupin on growth performance and meat content in organic reared pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suitable protein sources for organic pig production are scarce. This project was aimed at studying the effect of a reduced amino acid level and thus crude protein level, and the inclusion of lupin in diets for grower-finisher pigs fed under organic conditions. Two hundred pigs (females......:male castrates, 1:1) were fed either 100% or 85% of amino acid recommendations and lupin inclusions levels of 0%, 12.5% or 25% from 30 to 105 kg....

  19. Effect of anti-glycosphingolipid monoclonal antibodies in pathogenic fungal growth and differentiation. Characterization of monoclonal antibody MEST-3 directed to Manpα1→3Manpα1→2IPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus Anita H

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies carried out during the 1990's demonstrated the presence of fungal glycoinositol phosphorylceramides (GIPCs with unique structures, some of them showed reactivity with sera of patients with histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis or aspergillosis. It was also observed that fungal GIPCs were able to inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation "in vitro", and studies regarding the importance of these molecules to fungal survival showed that many species of fungi are vulnerable to inhibitors of sphingolipid biosynthesis. Results In this paper, we describe a detailed characterization of an IgG2a monoclonal antibody (mAb, termed MEST-3, directed to the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis glycolipid antigen Pb-2 (Manpα1→3Manpα1→2IPC. mAb MEST-3 also recognizes GIPCs bearing the same structure in other fungi. Studies performed on fungal cultures clearly showed the strong inhibitory activity of MEST-3 on differentiation and colony formation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum and Sporothrix schenckii. Similar inhibitory results were observed when these fungi where incubated with a different mAb, which recognizes GIPCs bearing terminal residues of β-D-galactofuranose linked to mannose (mAb MEST-1. On the other hand, mAb MEST-2 specifically directed to fungal glucosylceramide (GlcCer was able to promote only a weak inhibition on fungal differentiation and colony formation. Conclusions These results strongly suggest that mAbs directed to specific glycosphingolipids are able to interfere on fungal growth and differentiation. Thus, studies on surface distribution of GIPCs in yeast and mycelium forms of fungi may yield valuable information regarding the relevance of glycosphingolipids in processes of fungal growth, morphological transition and infectivity.

  20. The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana de-Magistris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i non-obese with good body image; (ii non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii obese with good body image; (iv obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers’ willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people.

  1. The Use of Mixed Populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii to Reduce Ethanol Content in Wine: Limited Aeration, Inoculum Proportions, and Sequential Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alonso-del-Real

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widespread microorganism responsible for wine alcoholic fermentation. Nevertheless, the wine industry is currently facing new challenges, some of them associate with climate change, which have a negative effect on ethanol content and wine quality. Numerous and varied strategies have been carried out to overcome these concerns. From a biotechnological point of view, the use of alternative non-Saccharomyces yeasts, yielding lower ethanol concentrations and sometimes giving rise to new and interesting aroma, is one of the trendiest approaches. However, S. cerevisiae usually outcompetes other Saccharomyces species due to its better adaptation to the fermentative environment. For this reason, we studied for the first time the use of a Saccharomyces kudriavzevii strain, CR85, for co-inoculations at increasing proportions and sequential inoculations, as well as the effect of aeration, to improve its fermentation performance in order to obtain wines with an ethanol yield reduction. An enhanced competitive performance of S. kudriavzevii CR85 was observed when it represented 90% of the cells present in the inoculum. Furthermore, airflow supply of 20 VVH to the fermentation synergistically improved CR85 endurance and, interestingly, a significant ethanol concentration reduction was achieved.

  2. The Impact of Body Image on the WTP Values for Reduced-Fat and Low-Salt Content Potato Chips among Obese and Non-Obese Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Magistris, Tiziana; López-Galán, Belinda; Caputo, Vincenzina

    2016-12-21

    The aim of this study is to assess the influence of body image on consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for potato chips carrying nutritional claims among obese and non-obese people. About 309 non-clinical individuals participated in a Real Choice Experiment. They were recruited by a company and grouped in: (i) non-obese with good body image; (ii) non-obese with body image dissatisfaction; (iii) obese with good body image; (iv) obese with body image dissatisfaction. Results indicate differences in consumers' willingness to pay among consumer groups. Body image dissatisfaction of normal people did not influence the WTP for healthier chips. Obese people with body image dissatisfaction were willing to pay more for healthier chips (i.e., low-salt content potato chips) than normal ones with body image dissatisfaction. Examining the role of knowledge in the light of how this could impact on body image is relevant to improve the health status of individuals and their diet. Knowledge about nutrition could improve the body image of obese people.

  3. High resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy reveals that pectoralis muscle dystrophy in chicken is associated with reduced muscle content of anserine and carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Rasmussen, Martin K; Young, Jette F; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2017-02-15

    Increased incidences of pectoralis muscle dystrophy are observed in commercial chicken products, but the muscle physiological causes for the condition remain to be identified. In the present study a high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) proton ((1)H) NMR spectroscopic examination of intact pectoralis muscle samples (n=77) were conducted to explore metabolite perturbations associated with the muscle dystrophy condition for the very first time. Both in chicken with an age of 21 and 31days, respectively, pectoralis muscle dystrophy was associated with a significantly lower content of anserine (p=0.034), carnosine (p=0.019) and creatine (p=0.049). These findings must be considered intriguing as they corroborate that characteristic muscle di-peptides composed of β-alanine and histidine derivatives such as anserine are extremely important in homeostasis of contractile muscles as a results of their role as buffering, anti-oxidative, and anti-glycation capacities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Katiéli Caroline; Martins, Cristian Marlon de Magalhães Rodrigues; de Palma, André Soligo Vizeu; Martins, Mellory Martinson; Dos Reis, Bárbara Roqueto; Schmidt, Bárbara Laís Unglaube; Saran Netto, Arlindo

    2016-01-01

    To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4) kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil), 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis). The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA) by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA) by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  5. Canola Oil in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets Reduces Milk Saturated Fatty Acids and Improves Its Omega-3 and Oleic Fatty Acid Content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiéli Caroline Welter

    Full Text Available To produce milk that is healthier for human consumption, the present study evaluated the effect of including canola oil in the diet of dairy cows on milk production and composition as well as the nutritional quality of this milk fat. Eighteen Holstein cows with an average daily milk yield of 22 (± 4 kg/d in the middle stage of lactation were used. The cows were distributed in 6 contemporary 3x3 Latin squares consisting of 3 periods and 3 treatments: control diet (without oil, 3% inclusion of canola oil in the diet and 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet (dry matter basis. The inclusion of 6% canola oil in the diet of lactating cows linearly reduced the milk yield by 2.51 kg/d, short-chain fatty acids (FA by 41.42%, medium chain FA by 27.32%, saturated FA by 20.24%, saturated/unsaturated FA ratio by 39.20%, omega-6/omega-3 ratio by 39.45%, and atherogenicity index by 48.36% compared with the control treatment. Moreover, with the 6% inclusion of canola oil in the diet of cows, there was an increase in the concentration of long chain FA by 45.91%, unsaturated FA by 34.08%, monounsaturated FA by 40.37%, polyunsaturated FA by 17.88%, milk concentration of omega-3 by 115%, rumenic acid (CLA by 16.50%, oleic acid by 44.87% and h/H milk index by 94.44% compared with the control treatment. Thus, the inclusion of canola oil in the diet of lactating dairy cows makes the milk fatty acid profile nutritionally healthier for the human diet; however, the lactating performance of dairy cows is reduce.

  6. Optimized blanching reduces the host cell protein content and substantially enhances the recovery and stability of two plant derived malaria vaccine candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eMenzel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants provide an advantageous expression platform for biopharmaceutical proteins because of their low pathogen burden and potential for inexpensive, large-scale production. However, the purification of target proteins can be challenging due to issues with extraction, the removal of host cell proteins (HCPs, and low expression levels. The heat treatment of crude extracts can reduce the quantity of HCPs by precipitation thus increasing the purity of the target protein and streamlining downstream purification. In the overall context of downstream process development for plant-derived malaria vaccine candidates, we applied a design-of-experiments approach to enhance HCP precipitation from Nicotiana benthamiana extracts generated after transient expression, using temperatures in the 20−80°C range, pH values of 3.0−8.0 and incubation times of 0−60 min. We also investigated the recovery of two protein-based malaria vaccine candidates under these conditions and determined their stability in the heat-treated extract while it was maintained at room temperature for 24 h. The heat precipitation of HCPs was also carried out by blanching intact plants in water or buffer prior to extraction in a blender. Our data show that all the heat precipitation methods reduced the amount of HCP in the crude plant extracts by more than 80%, simplifying the subsequent downstream processing steps. Furthermore, when the heat treatment was performed at 80°C rather than 65°C, both malaria vaccine candidates were more stable after extraction and the recovery of both proteins increased by more than 30%.

  7. Energy Efficient Content Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo J.; Giroire F.; Liu Y; Modrzejewski R.; Moulierac J.

    2016-01-01

    To optimize energy efficiency in network, operators try to switch off as many network devices as possible. Recently, there is a trend to introduce content caches as an inherent capacity of network equipment, with the objective of improving the efficiency of content distribution and reducing network congestion. In this work, we study the impact of using in-network caches and CDN cooperation on an energy-efficient routing. We formulate this problem as Energy Efficient Content Distribution. The ...

  8. Loss of the Human Cytomegalovirus US16 Protein Abrogates Virus Entry into Endothelial and Epithelial Cells by Reducing the Virion Content of the Pentamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luganini, Anna; Cavaletto, Noemi; Raimondo, Stefania; Geuna, Stefano; Gribaudo, Giorgio

    2017-06-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US12 gene family encodes a group of predicted seven-transmembrane proteins whose functions have yet to be established. While inactivation of individual US12 members in laboratory strains of HCMV does not affect viral replication in fibroblasts, disruption of the US16 gene in the low-passage-number TR strain prevents viral growth in endothelial and epithelial cells. In these cells, the US16-null viruses fail to express immediate early (IE), early (E), and late (L) viral proteins due to a defect which occurs prior to IE gene expression. Here, we show that this defective phenotype is a direct consequence of deficiencies in the entry of US16-null viruses in these cell types due to an impact on the gH/gL/UL128/UL130/UL131A (pentamer) complex. Indeed, viral particles released from fibroblasts infected with US16-null viruses were defective for the pentamer, thus preventing entry during infections of endothelial and epithelial cells. A link between pUS16 and the pentamer was further supported by the colocalization of pUS16 and pentamer proteins within the cytoplasmic viral assembly compartment (cVAC) of infected fibroblasts. Deletion of the C-terminal tail of pUS16 reproduced the defective growth phenotype and alteration of virion composition as US16-null viruses. However, the pentamer assembly and trafficking to the cVAC were not affected by the lack of the C terminus of pUS16. Coimmunoprecipitation results then indicated that US16 interacts with pUL130 but not with the mature pentamer or gH/gL/gO. Together, these results suggest that pUS16 contributes to the tropism of HCMV by influencing the content of the pentamer into virions.IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is major pathogen in newborns and immunocompromised individuals. A hallmark of HCMV pathogenesis is its ability to productively replicate in an exceptionally broad range of target cells. The virus infects a variety of cell types by exploiting different forms of the envelope

  9. A HIGHER PROPORTION OF PUFA IN DIET INCREASES THE PUFA CONTENT IN RABBIT MEAT, BUT REDUCES THE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Trebušak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the changes in the fatty acid composition of rabbit meat, if palm fat (99% of saturated fatty acids (SFA, as a source of fat in rabbit diet, was replaced with linseed oil (71% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, containing 52% of α-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA. The Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves were added in the diet as potential antioxidant in order to protect the PUFA against oxidation. 48 SIKA rabbits were randomly divided by mass and gender in four groups: CONT- 6% palm fat, CONT+ 6% linseed oil, REISHI 6% linseed oil and 1% Ganoderma lucidum, OLIVE 6% linseed oil and 1% olive leaves. After 22 days of the experimental procedure, the samples of back muscle were taken and divided in 7 portions. One was for fatty acid determination, other six for malondialdehyde (MDA determination after different storage condition; fresh, 6 days at 4°C or 3 months at -20°C, raw or cooked (60 minutes, 85°C. Addition of linseed oil resulted in a significant higher proportion of PUFA (n-3 PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and lower proportion of SFA in the back muscle, but the oxidative stability of meat was reduced, since the level of MDA was significantly higher. After cooking, the level of MDA increased in all the groups, but more in the groups with linseed oil in the diet, the addition of Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves slightly decreased the level of MDA, but the difference was not significant.

  10. Production of improved infant porridges from pearl millet using a lactic acid fermentation step and addition of sorghum malt to reduce viscosity of porridge with high protein, energy and solids (30%) content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thaoge, ML

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available porridges from pearl millet using a lactic acid fermentation step and addition of sorghum malt to reduce viscosity of porridges with high protein, energy and solids (30%) content M.L. Thaoge1,2,3,*, M.R. Adams5, M.M. Sibara2,3, T.G. Watson4, J.R.N. Taylor....g. refri- gerators), proper sanitation facilities and water supply. Controlled fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) gives food a longer shelf life. It inhibits growth, survival of and toxin production by pathogenic bacteria, due to rapid growth...

  11. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available is also delineated in order to demonstrate the implications of local content on building design, construction and operation. The advantages and disadvantages of local content approaches are discussed and illustrated through examples. Finally, broad...

  12. Mandatory trans fat labeling regulations and nationwide product reformulations to reduce trans fatty acid content in foods contributed to lowered concentrations of trans fat in Canadian women's breast milk samples collected in 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wm Nimal; Swist, Eleonora; Zoka, Rana; Gagnon, Claude; Lillycrop, William; Pantazapoulos, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Recent efforts in Canada to reduce industrial trans fatty acids (TFAs) in foods include mandated inclusion of TFA content on food labels and recommendations by Health Canada that encourage the food industry to voluntarily limit TFA content in all vegetable oils and soft margarines and in all other prepackaged foods to milk samples. The TFA content in 639 breast milk samples collected in 2009, 2010, and 2011 from breastfeeding mothers in 10 major cities across Canada was analyzed by gas chromatography. The mean (±SD) TFA contents were 2.7 ± 0.9% (n = 153, range: 1.4-7.2%), 2.2 ± 0.7% (n = 309, range: 1.0-6.8%), and 1.9 ± 0.5% (n = 177, range: 0.9-3.4%) of total milk fat for samples collected in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. These values are considerably lower than the value of 7.2 ± 3.0% (range: 0.1-17.2%) found previously for Canadian human milk in 1992. On the basis of a linear correlation between the percentage of TFAs in the diet and human milk fat established by Craig-Schmidt et al, and assuming that 30% of energy of a lactating mother's diet is derived from fat, we estimated from the TFA human milk fat data that TFA intake of Canadian breastfeeding mothers was 0.9%, 0.5%, and 0.3% of total energy in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. These estimated values are lower than the WHO's maximum recommended intake of 1% of total energy for a healthy diet. The results suggest that the trans fat labeling regulations introduced in 2003 and recommendations by Health Canada in 2007 instructing the food manufacturers and restaurants to limit TFAs in foods have resulted in significant reductions in TFAs in the diets of Canadian breastfeeding mothers and their breast milk. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Enzymic glycosphingolipid synthesis on polymer supports. III. Synthesis of GM3, its analog [NeuNAcalpha(2-3)Galbeta(1-4)Glcbeta(1-3)Cer] and their lyso-derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehavi, U; Tuchinsky, A

    1998-07-01

    Two water-soluble polymers, carrying 0.24 meq g(-1) of lactosyl-beta(1-1)-sphingosine (7) and 0.13 meq g(-1) of lactosyl-beta(1-3)-sphingosine (8) were prepared. The polymers served as acceptors in the alpha-(2-3)-sialyltransferase reaction (up to 55.3 and 38.5% transfer yields, respectively). Subsequent photolysis, released compounds 11 (lyso-GM3) and 12 (lyso-GM3 analog), respectively; acylation and chromatography afforded (5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-alpha-galacto-2-nonulopyranosyloni c acid)-(2-3)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-1)-(2 S, 3R, 4E)-2-octadecanoylamino-4-octadecene-1,3-diol (13, GM3) and (5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-alpha-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosylo nic acid)-(2-3)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-(2 S, 3R, 4E)-2-octadecanoylamino-4-octadecene-1,3-diol (14, GM3 analogue), respectively, thus presenting a route to glycosphingolipids possessing the unusual glycosyl-beta(1-3)-spingosine linkage.

  14. Investigation of the minimization of the gas content in aluminium diecastings to reduce gas pores. Final report; Untersuchung der Minimierung des Gasgehalts von Aluminium-Druckguss zur Verminderung der Gasporositaet sowie zur Verbesserung der Schweisseignung und Warmaushaertbarkeit. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-10-04

    The objective of the documented research project was to investigate various possibilities of influencing the diecasting process with respect to their effect on the gas content in diecastings. In detail, this involved analyses of the influences of the parting agent, the sequence of die filling, and ingate and vent design. The investigations have shown that weldable and heat-treatable aluminum diecastings can be produced under industrial conditions. Of significant importance is the selection of a suitable parting agent. A fact to be judged favorably is a piston spray lubrication using a water-graphite-oil emulsion. As compared to drip-feed lubrication this leads to reduced gas exposure. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Ziel des dokumentierten Forschungsvorhabens war es, die verschiedenen Einflussmoeglichkeiten auf den Druckgiessprozess bezueglich ihrer Wirksamkeit auf den Gasgehalt von Druckguss zu untersuchen. Im einzelnen wurde der Einfluss des Formtrennstoffs, des Ablaufs der Formfuellung und der Anschnitt- und Entlueftungsgestaltung auf den Gasgehalt sowie die Schweisseignung und Waermebehandelbarkeit analysiert. Die Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass schweiss- und waermebehandelbarer Aluminium-Druckguss unter industriellen Bedingungen herstellbar ist. Von erheblicher Bedeutung ist die Wahl eines geeigneten Trennstoffs. Positiv zu bewerten ist eine Kolbenspruehschmierung mit einer Wasser-Graphit-Oel-Emulsion. Sie fuehrt im Vergleich zur Tropfschmierung zu einer geringeren Begasung. (orig./RHM)

  15. Salinity reduced growth PS2 photochemistry and chlorophyll content in radish Crescimento reduzido por salinidade, fotoquímica PS2 e conteúdo de clorofila em rabanete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jamil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When plants are grown under saline conditions, photosynthetic activity decreases leading to reduced plant growth, leaf area, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence. Seeds and seedlings of radish (Raphanus sativus L. were grown in NaCl solutions under controlled greenhouse conditions. The NaCl concentrations in complete nutrient solutions were 0 (control, 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS m-1. The salinity reduced germination percentage and also delayed the germination rate as the salt level increased. Lengths and fresh weights of root and shoot decreased with the increasing salt concentration. Furthermore, photochemical efficiency of PS2 (Fv/Fm, photochemical quenching coefficient (qP, non photochemical quenching coefficient (qN, leaf area and chlorophyll content (SPAD value were also reduced (P Quando plantas crescem sob condições de salinidade, sua atividade fotossintética diminui levando a um crescimento reduzido, menor área foliar, conteúdo de clorofila e fluorescência de clorofila. Sementes e plântulas de rabanete (Raphanus sativus L. foram germinadas e conduzidas em soluções de NaCl sob condições controladas de casa de vegetação. As concentrações de NaCl adicionado a solução nutritiva completa foram 0 (Controle, 4,7; 9,4 e 14,1 dS m-1. A salinidade diminui a percentagem de germinação e também atrasou a taxa de germinação com o aumento do nível de sal. Comprimento e peso fresco da parte aérea e da raiz decresceram com o aumento da concentração salina. Além disso, a eficiência fotoquímica de PS2 (Fv/Fm, o coeficiente fotoquímico de 'quenchin" (q p, o coeficiente não fotoquímico de "quenching" (q n, a área foliar e o teor de clorofila (valor SPAD também foram reduzidos (P < 0,001 por estresse de sal. Ao contrário, a relação Fo/Fm aumentou com a concentração salina, ao passo que a salinidade não teve efeito sobre a eficiência de excitação capturada pelo PS2 aberto (Fv'/Fm', taxa de transporte eletr

  16. Systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of product reformulation measures to reduce the sugar content of food and drink on the population's sugar consumption and health: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity, type 2 diabetes and dental caries are all major public health problems in the UK, with significant costs to the healthcare service. We aim to conduct a systematic review to summarise the evidence on the effectiveness of product reformulation measures to reduce the sugar content of food and drink on the population's sugar consumption and health. Methods and analysis Electronic database will be systematically searched using a combination of terms, tailored to optimise sensitivity, specificity, and the syntax and functionality of each database. The databases searched will include the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE (Ovid) and Scopus. The bibliographies of those papers that match inclusion criteria will be searched by hand to identify any further, relevant references, which will be subject to the same screening and selection process. The database search results will be supplemented by hand searches. In addition to the peer-reviewed literature, a number of grey literature searches will be undertaken using the broad search terms ‘sugar’ and ‘food’ or ‘drink’ and ‘reduction’, these searches will include key government and organisation websites as well as general searches in Google. The selection of the studies, data collection and quality appraisal will be performed independently by 2 reviewers. Data will be initially analysed through a narrative synthesis method. If a subset of data we analyse appears comparable, we will investigate the possibility of performing a meta-analysis. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval will not be required as this is a protocol for a systematic review. The findings will be disseminated widely through conference presentations and published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO registration number CRD42016034022. PMID:27288379

  17. Educating restaurant owners and cooks to lower their own sodium intake is a potential strategy for reducing the sodium contents of restaurant foods: a small-scale pilot study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Heeseung; Seo, Dong-Il; Oh, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Taik Gun; Choi, Bo Youl

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of a sodium reduction program at local restaurants through nutrition education and examination of the health of restaurant owners and cooks. The study was a single-arm pilot intervention using a pre-post design in one business district with densely populated restaurants in Seoul, South Korea. The intervention focused on improving nutrition behaviors and psychosocial factors through education, health examination, and counseling of restaurant personnel. Forty-eight restaurant owners and cooks completed the baseline survey and participated in the intervention. Forty participants completed the post-intervention survey. The overweight and obesity prevalences were 25.6% and 39.5%, respectively, and 74.4% of participants had elevated blood pressure. After health examination, counseling, and nutrition education, several nutrition behaviors related to sodium intake showed improvement. In addition, those who consumed less salt in their baseline diet (measured with urine dipsticks) were more likely to agree that providing healthy foods to their customers is necessary. This study demonstrated the potential to reduce the sodium contents of restaurant foods by improving restaurant owners' and cooks' psychological factors and their own health behaviors. This small pilot study demonstrated that working with restaurant owners and cooks to improve their own health and sodium intake may have an effect on participation in restaurant-based sodium reduction initiatives. Future intervention studies with a larger sample size and comparison group can focus on improving the health and perceptions of restaurant personnel in order to increase the feasibility and efficacy of restaurant-based sodium reduction programs and policies.

  18. Systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of product reformulation measures to reduce the sugar content of food and drink on the population's sugar consumption and health: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-09

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes and dental caries are all major public health problems in the UK, with significant costs to the healthcare service. We aim to conduct a systematic review to summarise the evidence on the effectiveness of product reformulation measures to reduce the sugar content of food and drink on the population's sugar consumption and health. Electronic database will be systematically searched using a combination of terms, tailored to optimise sensitivity, specificity, and the syntax and functionality of each database. The databases searched will include the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE (Ovid) and Scopus. The bibliographies of those papers that match inclusion criteria will be searched by hand to identify any further, relevant references, which will be subject to the same screening and selection process. The database search results will be supplemented by hand searches. In addition to the peer-reviewed literature, a number of grey literature searches will be undertaken using the broad search terms 'sugar' and 'food' or 'drink' and 'reduction', these searches will include key government and organisation websites as well as general searches in Google. The selection of the studies, data collection and quality appraisal will be performed independently by 2 reviewers. Data will be initially analysed through a narrative synthesis method. If a subset of data we analyse appears comparable, we will investigate the possibility of performing a meta-analysis. Ethics approval will not be required as this is a protocol for a systematic review. The findings will be disseminated widely through conference presentations and published in a peer-reviewed journal. CRD42016034022. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a decennial booster dose of a combined reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus booster vaccine (dTpa-IPV) in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Martina; Rathi, Niraj; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Hardt, Karin; Schwarz, Tino F

    2015-05-21

    Pertussis in adults and adolescents could be reduced by replacing traditional tetanus and diphtheria (Td) boosters with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccines. This study evaluated the administration of dTpa-IPV (dTpa-inactivated poliovirus) in adults ten years after they received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV in trial NCT01277705. Open multicentre, phase IV study (www.clinicaltrials.govNCT01323959) in which healthy adults, who had received a previous dose of dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV ten years earlier, received a single decennial booster dose of dTpa-IPV (Boostrix-polio, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines). Blood samples were collected before and one month after booster vaccination. Antibody concentrations against all vaccine antigens were measured and reactogenicity and safety were assessed. A total of 211 subjects (mean age 50.3 years) received vaccination of whom 201 were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity. Before the decennial dTpa-IPV booster, ≥71.0% subjects were seroprotected/seropositive against all vaccine antigens. One month after the booster dose, all subjects were seroprotected against tetanus and poliovirus types 2 and 3; ≥95.7% subjects were seroprotected against diphtheria and ≥98.3% against poliovirus type 1. Anti-pertussis booster responses for the various antigens were observed in ≥76.5% (pertussis toxoid; PT), ≥85.1% (filamentous haemagglutinin; FHA) and ≥63.2% (pertactin; PRN) of subjects. During the 4-day follow-up, the overall incidence of local AEs was 71.6%, 75.0% and 72.2% in dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV and Td-IPV groups, respectively. Pain was the most frequent solicited local adverse event (AE; ≥62.7% subjects) and fatigue the most frequent solicited general AE (≥18.5%). No serious AEs were reported during the study. A booster dose of dTpa-IPV was immunogenic and well tolerated in adults who had received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, d

  20. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  1. Experimental determination of dissolved CO2 content in nominally anhydrous andesitic melts at graphite/diamond saturation - Remobilization of deeply subducted reduced carbon via partial melts of MORB-like eclogite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, J.; Dasgupta, R.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental phase relations of carbonated lithologies [1] and geochemistry of deep diamonds [2] suggest that deep recycling of carbon has likely been efficient for a significant portion of Earth's history. Both carbonates and organic carbon subduct into the mantle, but with gradual decrease of fO2 with depth [3] most carbon in deep mantle rocks including eclogite could be diamond/graphite [4]. Previous studies investigated the transfer of CO2 from subducted eclogite to the ambient mantle by partial melting in the presence of carbonates, i.e., by generation of carbonate-rich melts [5]. However, the transfer of carbon from subducted eclogite to the mantle can also happen, perhaps more commonly, by extraction of silicate partial melt in the presence of reduced carbon; yet, CO2 solubility in eclogite-derived andesitic melt at graphite/diamond saturation remains unconstrained. CO2content of eclogite melts is also critical as geochemistry of many ocean island basalts suggest the presence of C and eclogite in their source regions [6]. In the present study we determine CO2 concentration in a model andesitic melt [7] at graphite/diamond saturation at conditions relevant for partial melting of eclogite in the convecting upper mantle. Piston cylinder and multi anvil experiments were conducted at 1-6 GPa and 1375-1550 °C using Pt/Gr double capsules. Oxygen fugacity was monitored with Pt-Fe sensors in the starting mix. Completed experiments at 1-3 GPa show that CO2 concentration increases with increasing P, T, and fO2 up to ~0.3 wt%. Results were used to develop empirical and thermodynamic models to predict CO2 concentration in partial melts of graphite saturated eclogite. This allowed us to quantify the extent to which CO2 can mobilize from eclogitic heterogeneities at graphite/diamond saturated conditions. With estimates of eclogite contribution to erupted basaltic lavas, the models developed here allow us to put constraints on the flux of CO2 to mantle source regions

  2. Antibodies against glycolipids enhance antifungal activity of macrophages and reduce fungal burden after infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Amelia eBueno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus.

  3. Standards-based Content Resources: A Prerequisite for Content Integration and Content Interoperability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galinski

    2010-05-01

    applications, e.g. in eAccessibility/ eInclusion. New methods and tools for certification, verification and validation are largely facilitated by standards-based data-models and standardized content, which will have an impact on future ICT-related standards in general. While thus increasing the reliability of data, risk of all sorts and liability will be reduced.

  4. Novel 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors reduce cortisol levels in keratinocytes and improve dermal collagen content in human ex vivo skin after exposure to cortisone and UV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie M Boudon

    Full Text Available Activity and selectivity assessment of new bi-aryl amide 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1 inhibitors, prepared in a modular manner via Suzuki cross-coupling, are described. Several compounds inhibiting 11β-HSD1 at nanomolar concentrations were identified. Compounds 2b, 3e, 7b and 12e were shown to selectively inhibit 11β-HSD1 over 11β-HSD2, 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD2. These inhibitors also potently inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in intact HEK-293 cells expressing the recombinant enzyme and in intact primary human keratinocytes expressing endogenous 11β-HSD1. Moreover, compounds 2b, 3e and 12e were tested for their activity in human skin biopsies. They were able to prevent, at least in part, both the cortisone- and the UV-mediated decreases in collagen content. Thus, inhibition of 11β-HSD1 by these compounds can be further investigated to delay or prevent UV-mediated skin damage and skin aging.

  5. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements, regardless of their zinc content, increase growth and reduce the prevalence of stunting and wasting in young burkinabe children: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Y Hess

    Full Text Available Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS are promising home fortification products, but the optimal zinc level needed to improve growth and reduce morbidity is uncertain. We aimed to assess the impact of providing SQ-LNS with varied amounts of zinc, along with illness treatment, on zinc-related outcomes compared with standard care. In a placebo-controlled, cluster-randomized trial, 34 communities were stratified to intervention (IC or non-intervention cohorts (NIC. 2435 eligible IC children were randomly assigned to one of four groups:1 SQ-LNS without zinc, placebo tablet; 2 SQ-LNS containing 5mg zinc, placebo tablet; 3 SQ-LNS containing 10mg zinc, placebo tablet; or 4 SQ-LNS without zinc and 5mg zinc tablet from 9–18 months of age. During weekly morbidity surveillance, oral rehydration salts were provided for reported diarrhea and antimalarial therapy for confirmed malaria. Children in NIC (n = 785 did not receive SQ-LNS, tablets, illness surveillance or treatment. At 9 and 18 months, length, weight and hemoglobin were measured in all children. Reported adherence was 97 ± 6% for SQ-LNS and tablets. Mean baseline hemoglobin was 89 ± 15g/L. At 18 months, change in hemoglobin was greater in IC than NIC (+8 vs -1g/L, p<0.0001, but 79.1% of IC were still anemic (vs. 91.1% in NIC. Final plasma zinc concentration did not differ by group. During the 9-month observation period, the incidence of diarrhea was 1.10 ± 1.03 and of malaria 0.54 ± 0.50 episodes per 100 child-days, and did not differ by group. Length at 18 months was significantly greater in IC compared to NIC (77.7 ± 3.0 vs. 76.9 ± 3.4 cm; p<0.001 and stunting prevalence was significantly lower in IC (29.3% than NIC (39.3%; p<0.0001, but did not differ by intervention group within IC. Wasting prevalence was also significantly lower in IC (8.7% than in NIC (13.5%; p = 0.0003. Providing SQ-LNS daily with or without zinc, along with malaria and diarrhea treatment

  6. 36 CFR 294.14 - Petition contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; protecting human health and safety; reducing hazardous fuels and restoring essential wildlife habitats... biology, fish and wildlife management, forest management, outdoor recreation, and other important... environmental analysis for a rulemaking process. (b) The petition contents described in paragraphs (a)(1...

  7. Publishing and Revising Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editors and Webmasters can publish content without going through a workflow. Publishing times and dates can be set, and multiple pages can be published in bulk. Making an edit to published content created a revision.

  8. Wpływ linuronu (Afalonu i nawożenia mineralnego na zawartość cukrów redukujqeych oraz niektórych skladników sciany komórkowej w peluszce (Pisum arvense L. [The influence of linuron (Afalon and mineral fertilization on the content of reducing sugars and some components of cell wall in field pea (Pisum arvense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ciszewska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The content of reducing sugars, soluble pectins, protopectins and free and bound calcium in above-ground parts of field pea (Pisum arvense L. during budding and flowering in field conditions was determined. In this experiment different mineral fertilization and Afalon (linuron were used. Afalon was applied to the soil in weed control dose (1 kg/ha A.S.. The significant influence of linuron and the level of fertilization on the content of determined components in investigated material was not corroborated. The content of pectic substances, first of all, was dependend on phase of vegetation. The differences in the content of calcium were related to distribution in above-ground parts of investigated plants. The tendency to reduction of the content of reducing sugars after application of linuron was observed only during budding of field pea. The received resultes show that linuron used in weed control doses has not evoked unprofitable changes in the content of investigated components of cell wall which they could the significance in the growth and development and in some immunity reactions of plants.

  9. Reducing cement content in concrete mixtures : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Concrete mixtures contain crushed rock or gravel, and sand, bound together by Portland cement in combination with supplemental cementitious materials (SCMs), which harden through a chemical reaction with water. Portland cement is the most costly comp...

  10. Simple evaporative cooling method reduces bacterial content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. A simple procedure for reducing lead content in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, A; Hassanin, M A; Zohair, A

    2003-04-01

    The efficiencies of medicinal herbs (damaseisa, and rosemary); plants solutions (radish and barley); polypeptide solutions (nisin); neutral solutions (sodium chloride) and acidic solutions (acetic acid), as well as tap water, in the elimination of lead from naturally contaminated bolty fish were examined. The results indicate the efficient role of washing by nisin, damaseisa, radish, barley and rosemary compared with acetic acid and sodium sodium chloride solutions. It was noticed that nisin and damaseisa solutions (10%) eliminated lead completely. On the other hand, washing with tap water provided the least effective role in elimination of lead from fish. Copyright 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Plants as Useful Vectors to Reduce Environmental Toxic Arsenic Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosheen Mirza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As toxicity in soil and water is an increasing menace around the globe. Its concentration both in soil and environment is due to natural and anthropogenic activities. Rising arsenic concentrations in groundwater is alarming due to the health risks to plants, animals, and human beings. Anthropogenic As contamination of soil may result from mining, milling, and smelting of copper, lead, zinc sulfide ores, hide tanning waste, dyes, chemical weapons, electroplating, gas exhaust, application of municipal sludge on land, combustion of fossil fuels, As additives to livestock feed, coal fly ash, and use of arsenical pesticides in agricultural sector. Phytoremediation can be viewed as biological, solar-driven, pump-and-treat system with an extensive, self-extending uptake network (the root system that enhances the natural ecosystems for subsequent productive use. The present review presents recent scientific developments regarding phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated environments and its possible detoxification mechanisms in plants.

  13. Reducing fat and sodium content in pork sausage | Junior | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /KCl) to replace the fat and common salt (NaCl), respectively, and to assess the impact of the changes in the chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. The consumers evaluated sensory acceptance with respect to flavor, odor, texture ...

  14. Simple evaporative cooling method reduces bacterial content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of milk container placement during transport, treatment, and time on milk attributes were assessed using an analysis of variance for a randomized complete block design, with blocks based on eight instances of milk being transported to market. A factorial treatment structure also incorporated time as a repeated ...

  15. Reduced Tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Hegglin, Django; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli

    2014-01-01

    Reduced tillage can significantly contribute to soil quality and fertility. By avoiding a deep and intense loosening of the soil, the soil structure and soil biology is better conserved and humus decomposition is slowed down. Furthermore, the load capacity, erosion sensitivity and water household of the soil are improved. However, avoiding the use of a plough brings certain challenges, especially in organic farming. For example, weed pressure can increase or nutrient supply can becom...

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals (ID 646, 1224, 1238, 1339

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims....... The claimed effects are “lactose intolerance”, “decrease lactose malabsorption symptoms” and “lactose digestion”. The target population is assumed to be lactose intolerant individuals. The Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake...... in lactose intolerant individuals. The Panel considers that decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals is a beneficial physiological effect for lactose intolerant individuals. Symptoms of lactose intolerance, which may develop one to three hours after...

  17. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  18. Branded content infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl RODRÍGUEZ-FERRÁNDIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  19. Branded content infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Ferrándiz, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  20. Content Analysis: Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Content analyses of the depiction of aggression and images of reality on Canadian television were performed on 109 program tapes of top-rated Toronto programs. Content was coded in terms of global messages communicated, character portrayals, context and setting of the program, amount and nature of conflict portrayed, and detailed information on…

  1. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  2. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in

  3. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  4. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  5. Encryption for digital content

    CERN Document Server

    Kiayias, Aggelos

    2010-01-01

    Encryption for Digital Content is an area in cryptography that is widely used in commercial productions (e.g., Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs). This book provides a comprehensive mathematical treatment of combinatorial encryption techniques used in digital content distribution systems and related attack models. A complete description of broadcast encryption with various revocation and tracing functionalities is included. ""Encryption for Digital Content"" introduces the subset cover framework (currently used in AACS, Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs,) and tracking/revocation mechanisms in various attack models. Pirat

  6. Learning Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache JURUBESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  7. COVER AND CONTENTS PAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1998-01-01

    Includes: Front Cover, Editorial Information, Contents Pages, Dr. Carl G. Anderson: Lifetime Achievement Award, Dr. Eldon D. Smith: Lifetime Achievement Award, Dr. Kenneth R. Tefertiller: Lifetime Achievement Award, Eduardo Segarra: 1998-99 President

  8. Contents of Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Contents of Presentation. Introduction on Power Quality (PQ). PQ Definitions. PQ Standards. Causes of PQ problems. PQ Mitigation Methods. Improved Power Quality Converters. Conclusion.

  9. Total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant activity of Rhamnus kurdica Boiss for flower and leaves in flowering and ... The antioxidant capability, total phenol, total flavonoid, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents, and reducing power contents of polar and non-polar extracts for flower and ...

  10. Reduced Magmatic Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.; Ardia, P.; Stanley, B. D.; Foley, N.

    2012-12-01

    Volatiles in Earth's upper mantle are dominated by H2O and CO2, but under more reduced conditions likely deeper in the mantle, other volatile species may be important or dominant. However, the speciation, solubilities, and effect on physical properties of reduced magmatic volatiles are poorly constrained. Here we summarize results from an experimental campaign to better understand reduced volatiles in magmas. Experiments emphasize spectroscopic and SIMS characterization of dissolved species in experiments for which fluid fugacities are known, thereby facilitating thermodynamic parameterization. Experimental determinations of molecular H2 solubility in basaltic and andesitic liquids show concentrations that are proportional to H2 fugacity. Because H2 increases with fH2 whereas dissolved H2O increases with fH2O1/2, the relative importance of H2 increases with pressure and for more hydrous magmas. At 1 GPa and IW-1, solubility in basalt reaches 0.3 wt.% (equivalent to 2.7 wt.% H2O). Solubilities at pressures of the deep upper mantle have not been explored experimentally (as is also true for H2O and CO2), but H2 could become the dominant hydrous species at 400 km and deeper, and so deep hydrous melts may have chiefly H2 rather than H2O or OH. Experiments suggest an extremely low partial specific density (0.18 kg/m3) for dissolved H2 at low pressure, and so appreciable dissolved H2 in melt atop the 410 km discontinuity or in the lower mantle may promote positive buoyancy. Solubilities of reduced C-species remain poorly known. In contrast to results in Na2O-SiO2 liquids (Mysen et al., 2009), experiments with a haplobasaltic liquid at controlled CH4 fugacities indicated very small (<0.05 wt.%) CH4 solubilities even at very reduced conditions (content, increasing approximately with the cube of total H. Experiments with Fe-rich (martian) basalt under reduced conditions and in

  11. Tourist-created Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    study of social media sites and destination brands, relying on qualitative research methods, content analysis and field research. Findings – Tourists are largely contributing to destination image formation, while avoiding the use of the formal elements of the brands. The most popular strategies used...... by destination management organizations exhibit some crucial weaknesses. However, a strategy based on analytics brings new opportunities for destination branding. Originality/value – The study provides an innovative analysis of tourist-created content and its impact on destination branding and presents......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between tourists' user-generated content on the web and destination branding, as well as to discuss the online strategies used by destination management organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an exploratory...

  12. Lead content of foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D G; Aldous, K M

    1974-05-01

    The lead content of a number of foodstuffs, particularly baby fruit juices and milk, is reported. Samples were analyzed in quadruplicate by using an automated Delves cup atomic absorption procedure. A large proportion of the products examined contained significant amounts of lead. Of 256 metal can examined, the contents of 62% contained a lead level of 100 mug/l. or more, 37% contained 200 mug/l. or more and 12% contained 400 mug/l. lead or more. Of products in glass and aluminum containers, only 1% had lead levels in excess of 200 mug/l. Lead levels of contents also correlate with the seam length/volume ratio of the leaded seam can. A survey of bulk milk showed a mean lead level of 40 mug/l. for 270 samples; for canned evaporated milk the mean level was 202 mug/l. These data indicate a potential health hazard.

  13. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  14. Enhanced antitumor efficacy and reduced systemic toxicity of sulfatide-containing nanoliposomal doxorubicin in a xenograft model of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Lin

    Full Text Available Sulfatide is a glycosphingolipid known to interact with several extracellular matrix proteins, such as tenascin-C which is overexpressed in many types of cancer including that of the colon. In view of the limited success of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer and high toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX, a sulfatide-containing liposome (SCL encapsulation approach was taken to overcome these barriers. This study assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity, biodistribution, therapeutic efficacy and systemic toxicity in vivo of sulfatide-containing liposomal doxorubicin (SCL-DOX using human colonic adenocarcinoma HT-29 xenograft as the experimental model. In vitro, SCL-DOX was shown to be delivered into the nuclei and displayed prolonged retention compared with the free DOX. The use of this nanodrug delivery system to deliver DOX for treatment of tumor-bearing mice produced a much improved therapeutic efficacy in terms of tumor growth suppression and extended survival in contrast to the free drug. Furthermore, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with SCL-DOX resulted in a lower DOX uptake in the principal sites of toxicity of the free drug, namely the heart and skin, as well as reduced myelosuppression and diminished cardiotoxicity. Such natural lipid-guided nanodrug delivery systems may represent a new strategy for the development of effective anticancer chemotherapeutics targeting the tumor microenvironment for both primary tumor and micrometastases.

  15. Changes in amylase activity starch and sugars contents in mango fruits pulp cv. Tommy Atkins with spongy tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Carlos de Oliveira Lima; Adimilson Bosco Chitarra; Chitarra,Maria Isabel F.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in amylase activity, starch and reducing and non-reducing sugars contents were monitored during ripening of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.). The climateric raising in mango fruit is marked by an appreciable increase in the activity of amylase, reducing and non-reducing sugars contents and decrease in the starch content. The fruit affected with spongy tissue exhibited much lower amylase activity and reducing and non-reducing sugars, but exhibited much higher starch content during st...

  16. The Pursuit of Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library and information studies curriculum and suggests six areas that need to be addressed in addition to information access and collection development: assessing and filtering content, intermediation between the user and technology, negotiating ethical and regulatory difficulties, designing user-oriented services, managing knowledge…

  17. Loser Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Mørk

    2008-01-01

    , is that the Internet functions as a double–edged sword; the infrastructure does foster democracy, participation, joy, creativity and sometimes creates zones of piracy. But, at the same time, it has become evident how this same infrastructure also enables companies easily to piggyback on user generated content...

  18. Video Content Foraging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Ynze; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Verhagen, Pleunes Willem; Enser, Peter; Kompatsiaris, Yiannis; O’Connor, Noel E.; Smeaton, Alan F.; Smeulders, Arnold W.M.

    2004-01-01

    With information systems, the real design problem is not increased access to information, but greater efficiency in finding useful information. In our approach to video content browsing, we try to match the browsing environment with human information processing structures by applying ideas from

  19. Vitamin contents of archaebacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Noll, K M; Barber, T S

    1988-01-01

    The levels of six water-soluble vitamins of seven archaebacterial species were determined and compared with the levels found in a eubacterium, Escherichia coli. Biotin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, and lipoic acid contents of Halobacterium volcanii, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H, "Archaeoglobus fulgidus" VC-16, Thermococcus celer, Pyrodictium occultum, Thermoproteus tenax, and Sulfolobus solfataricus were measured by using bioassays. The archaebacte...

  20. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibes, Ronaldo

    2017-02-01

    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution, we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  1. Content Maps: A Teaching and Assessment Tool for Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Lehwald, Harry; Lee, Yun Soo

    2015-01-01

    Developing content knowledge in teachers presents a constant challenge for teacher educators. This article introduces a teaching and assessment tool called a "content map," which allows teacher educators, teachers, and coaches to conceptualize the scope, sequence, and relational characteristics of the content being taught. Content maps…

  2. A membrane-located glycosphingolipid of monocyte/granulocyte lineage cells induces growth arrest and triggers the lytic viral cycle in Epstein-Barr virus genome-positive Burkitt lymphoma lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaade, L; Kleines, M; Walter, R; Thomssen, R; Ritter, K

    1999-08-01

    Gangliosides are known to influence cell growth and differentiation. The neolacto series ganglioside IV3NeuAc-nLc4 (2-->3-sialosylparagloboside) is present in members of the monocyte/granulocyte lineage, but is not found in cells that belong to the lymphocyte lineage. In this study we demonstrated that IV3NeuAc-nLc4 inhibits the proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome-positive Burkitt lymphoma cells of the lines Raji and P3HR-1K. IV3NeuAc-nLc4-induced growth inhibition is associated with an increase in G0/G1 phase cells and a reduced expression of CD21 and HLA-DR antigens on Raji cells. These data suggest that IV3NeuAc-nLc4 may affect differentiation of lymphoma cells. Additionally, the increased expression of viral mRNA species which are characteristic for the lytic viral cycle in the non-producer line Raji and the enhanced release of virions from the producer line P3HR-1K demonstrate that IV3NeuAc-nLc4 activates the replication of EBV. Growth inhibition and termination of the viral latency suggest that IV3NeuAc-nLc4 present in monocyte/granulocyte lineage cells may be an effector of the natural defense against EBV persistency and transformation.

  3. Beyond Content of Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2017-02-01

    Social interaction is pivotal to the formation of social relationships and groups. Much is known about the importance of interaction content (e.g., the transfer of information). The present review concentrates on the influence of the act of conversing on the emergence of a sense of solidarity, more or less independently of the content. Micro-characteristics of the conversation (e.g., brief silences, smooth turn-taking) can profoundly influence the emergence and the regulation of relationships and of solidarity. We suggest that this might be because the form of a conversation is experienced as an expression of the social structures within the group. Because of its dynamic nature, moreover, the form of conversation provides group members with a continuous gauge of the group's structural features (e.g., its hierarchy, social norms, and shared reality). Therefore, minor changes in the form and flow of group conversation can have considerable consequences for the regulation of social structure.

  4. Digital Content Licensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    the Digital Single Market (DSM). National and European authorities and legislators have created a host of – often industry- and sometimes business model-specific – initiatives, proposals and rules in order to facilitate the DSM and reconcile it with the territorial nature of copyright and its business......Copyright is territorial. But is the Internet? The Internet has changed the way we consume copyright-protected material. Yet, territorial segmentation of online content is a reality in the 28 EU Member States. Licensing and access practices do not reflect the digital reality, in which end......-legislative) initiatives, which support the facilitation of multi-territorial licensing and cross-border access to content. It investigates the regulation of two online markets, which have recently been subject to scrutiny by the EU institutions: the audiovisual and the music sector, both addressed by ex ante sector...

  5. Radioactive content of charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio Montero, M.P. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, University of Extremadura, Sta.Teresa de Jornet, 06800 Merida (Badajoz) (Spain)], E-mail: pilar@unex.es; Duran Valle, C.J. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, University of Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Jurado Vargas, M. [Departamento de Fisica, University of Extremadura, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Botet Jimenez, A. [Instituto del Corcho, la Madera y el Carbon, 06800 Merida (Badajoz) (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Coal and charcoal present similar physical and chemical characteristics. There is no standardized procedure to distinguish them. However, their differences in age and origin result in several differences in their natural radionuclide content. Moreover, charcoal can be contaminated with fallout. In this work, activity concentrations of {sup 228}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 40}K, and {sup 137}Cs were determined in charcoal and coal samples in order to obtain evidence to distinguish the two kinds of sample.

  6. The content of intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Pacherie, Elisabeth

    2000-01-01

    By distinguishing between prior intentions and intentions in action, Searle has helped solve a number of difficulties confronted by the earlier versions of the causal theory of actions. Yet this distinction also raises important new issues. In particular, once a distinction is posited between two types of intentions, one must specify what the exact nature of their respective contents is and explain how the two types of intentions are connected. I suggest that in addressing those issues we cou...

  7. Determination of Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  8. Content Documents Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  9. A Contents Encryption Mechanism Using Reused Key in IPTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yoon-Su; Kim, Yong-Tae; Cho, Young-Bok; Lee, Ki-Jeong; Park, Gil-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Ho

    Recently IPTV is being spotlighted as a new stream service to stably provide video, audio and control signals to subscribers through the application of IP protocol. However, the IPTV system is facing more security threats than the traditional TV. This study proposes a multicasting encryption mechanism for secure transmission of the contents of IPTV by which the content provider encrypts their contents and send the encrypted contents and the key used for encryption of the contents to the user. In order to reduce the time and cost of Head-End, the proposed mechanism encrypts the media contents at the Head-End, embeds the code of the IPTV terminal used at the Head-End in the media contents for user tracking, and performs desynchronization for protection of the media contents from various attacks.

  10. Math: Basic Skills Content Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document presents content standards tables for math. [CASAS content standards tables are designed for educators at national, state and local levels to inform the alignment of content standards, instruction and assessment. The Content Standards along with the CASAS Competencies form the basis of the CASAS integrated assessment and curriculum…

  11. Content Marketing Practices in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Suuronen, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to draw attention to increasingly important business phenomenon of content marketing. This paper defines content marketing, identifies its key elements and phases, and explores content marketing practices. The theorethical part is based on Pam Didner's 4P model that describes the stages of content marketing cycle: plan, produce, promote and perfect. The empirical part of the study is based on semi-structured interviews of seasoned content marketing professionals t...

  12. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charmaine du Plessis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Content marketing has become a leading marketing technique in digital marketing communication and uses the point of view of consumers to build relationships by creating and sharing engaging content...

  13. TABLE OF CONTENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mariana Ciacciariello

    and by the use of management practices that work for laying hens, the latter particularly with regard to ... reducing rearing costs and maximising settable egg production by subjecting broiler breeders to early ..... target body weight at photostimulation as recommended for conventional broiler breeder management (2100.

  14. Energy Efficient Content Distribution in an ISP Network

    OpenAIRE

    Modrzejewski, Remigiusz; Chiaraviglio, Luca; Tahiri, Issam; Giroire, Frédéric; Rouzic, Esther Le; Bonetto, Edoardo; Masumeci, Francesco; Gonzalez, Roberto; Guerro, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    International audience; We study the problem of reducing power consump- tion in an Internet Service Provider (ISP) network by designing the content distribution infrastructure managed by the operator. We propose an algorithm to optimally decide where to cache the content inside the ISP network. We evaluate our solution over two case studies driven by operators feedback. Results show that the energy-efficient design of the content infrastructure brings substantial savings, both in terms of ene...

  15. Cognitive Content Engagement in Content-Based Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Stella; Hoare, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study of aspects of pedagogy that can bring about students' cognitive engagement with academic content and, thus, use of the academic language in content-based language lessons in three middle schools in Xi'an, China. Two criteria--academic content level and depth of processing--were used to determine cognitive content…

  16. Multimedia content analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical backgrounds and practical aspects of image, video and audio feature expression, e.g., color, texture, edge, shape, salient point and area, motion, 3D structure, audio/sound in time, frequency and cepstral domains, structure and melody. Up-to-date algorithms for estimation, search, classification and compact expression of feature data are described in detail. Concepts of signal decomposition (such as segmentation, source tracking and separation), as well as composition, mixing, effects, and rendering, are discussed. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the aspects covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by problem-solving exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia content analysis systems in industry. .

  17. Image Content Engine (ICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J M

    2007-03-26

    The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

  18. Free Flowing Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cass, Andrew Knox; Kravchenko, Mariia

    2017-01-01

    of being recorded.This paper is the result of an action research process where researchers lookedat teachers’ embedded practices to discover hidden skillsets and content.Teachers who were intimidated by moving from the presentation style lecture tovideo based one, are focused on the process and sometimes......Higher education institutions are moving to exploit information andcommunication technologies by increasing the use of videos both online and inclass. This is led, by definition, by ‘early adopters’ and most of the research intothis process reflects this. Increasingly, institutions are making...... of the presented self and enablingparticipation in creating active learning environments. This unlocks the potentialfor whole institutions to make course and department wide moves towardsbetter classroom practice and e-learning opportunities....

  19. Oil and Fatty Acid Content Among Diverse Sesame Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesame, Sesamum indicum contains oil used for salads, cooking while the seeds are used on hamburger buns, candies, and are used to make tahini. Sesame oil is known to reduce cholesterol due to the high polyunsaturated fat content in the oil. Oil content ranges from about 40 to 63% among sesame acces...

  20. Management ofwater content of soil in cultivation of greenhouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement and control of water content of soil is an essential factor in irrigation management, to apply the best management practice for reducing water consumption and improving product quality. The water content of soil is an important factor in greenhouse where it is directly related to the total amount of water ...

  1. Determination of Sugar and Some Trace Metals Content in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juices were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar and total sugar trace metals contents. The pH was determined using a Hanna pH meter. Sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry ...

  2. Total phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mmpa

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... The antioxidant capability, total phenol, total flavonoid, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid contents, and reducing power contents of polar and non-polar extracts for flower and leaves in two stages of growth for Rhamnus kurdica Boiss in flowering were evaluated in this work. The polar extraction of flower of R.

  3. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit pulp was analyzed for its chemical and nutritional content and the results compared with those of the same species from other parts of the world. The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and vitamin C. Total ...

  4. Breeding elite japonica-type soft rice with high protein content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rice grains. In an attempt to analyze whether the anti-Waxy gene could increase protein content while reducing amylose content in the rice grains, and develop good soft rice varieties with high protein content, an anti-Waxy gene was introduced into the high-yield japonica rice strain, Shangshida No. 2. The amylose contents ...

  5. Effects of Simple Processing Techniques on the Nutrient Content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percolation for 2 hours reduced the levels of tannins from 9.4% to 2.1% and of caffeine from 1.2% to 0.4% while boiling for 2 hours reduced the levels of tannins to 3.8% and caffeine to 0.6%. Crude Protein content of the pulp was not affected by boiling, percolation or soaking. The crude fibre content was increased by boiling ...

  6. Real time release testing of tablet content and content uniformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Daniel J; van den Ban, Sander; Denham, Mike; Barylski, Ian

    2017-12-09

    A comprehensive commercial control strategy for tablet content and content uniformity focussed on the unit operation of compression is presented and is proposed to enable real time release for these critical quality attributes. The control strategy is based on process understanding, process control through compaction force weight control on the tablet press, periodic checks of mean and individual tablet weight combined with at-line testing of tablet content by near infrared (NIR). The application of the at-line NIR tablet content method is discussed and an acceptance criteria based on a parametric tolerance interval test (PTIT) is proposed. Sample handling limitations and spectral acquisition time for the NIR content method limit the sample size, however the chosen PTIT assures an appropriate level of batch coverage. Data are presented for ten commercial-scale batches that demonstrates the control strategy delivered the quality standard for content and content uniformity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Self glycosphingolipids: new antigens recognized by autoreactive T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Libero, Gennaro; Mori, Lucia

    2003-04-01

    T cells may recognize glycolipids and lipids of bacterial and self origin associated with the CD1 antigen-presenting molecules. Understanding the mechanisms governing CD1-self glycolipid interaction will provide information on the molecular rules of glycolipid presentation and suggest new approaches to immunotherapy.

  8. Digital content contracts for consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Loos, M.B.M.; Guibault, L.; Mak, C.; Pessers, L.

    2013-01-01

    The application of consumer law to digital content contracts encounters a number of obstacles. Some of these are rather typical for digital content markets, e.g., the legal consequences of the classification of digital content as "goods" or "services" and, more importantly, the absence of general

  9. Data content standards in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Cooper_2005.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 109 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Cooper_2005.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 /var...

  10. 78 FR 13876 - Content Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... UNITED STATES Content Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States is in the process of reviewing its content policy. A list of the questions and issues that the Bank is addressing can be accessed here: http://www.exim.gov/generalbankpolicies/content/2013...

  11. Shear stress regulates occludin content and phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio, L; Chang, Y S; Gardner, T W; Tarbell, J M; Antonetti, D A

    2001-07-01

    Previous studies determined that shear stress imposed on bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) monolayers increased the hydraulic conductivity (L(P)); however, the mechanism by which shear stress increases L(P) remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that shear stress regulates paracellular transport by altering the expression and phosphorylation state of the tight junction protein occludin. The effect of shear stress on occludin content was examined by Western blot analysis. Ten dyn/cm(2) significantly reduced occludin content in a time-dependent manner such that after a 3 h exposure to shear, occludin content decreased to 44% of control. Twenty dyn/cm(2) decreased occludin content to 50% of control and increased L(P) by 4.7-fold after 3 h. Occludin expression and L(P) depend on tyrosine kinase activity because erbstatin A (10 microM) attenuated both the shear-induced decrease in occludin content and increase in L(P). Shear stress increased occludin phosphorylation after 5 min, 15 min, and 3 h exposures. The shear-induced increase in occludin phosphorylation was attenuated with dibutyryl (DB) cAMP (1 mM), a reagent previously shown to reverse the shear-induced increase in L(P). We conclude that shear stress rapidly (shear stress increases L(P).

  12. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial IJRED

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES PAGEPotency of Solar Energy Applications in Indonesia pp.33-38 N.A. Handayani and D. AriyantiThe Social Aspects and Public Acceptance of Biomass Giving the Example of aHungarian Region pp.29-43 Z. Bujdosó, C. Patkós, T. Kovács, Z. Radics and Z. BarosCultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME pp. 45-49 H. Hadiyanto, M.M. Azimatun Nur, and G.D. HartantoThermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a BiomassGasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine pp.51-55 P.V. Aravind, C. Schilt, B. Türker, and T. WoudstraBiodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process pp. 57-60 W. Widayat and S. SuhermanBiogas Production from Cow Manure pp.61-64 D.A. Putri, R.R. Saputro, and Budiyono

  13. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJRED Editorial

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES PAGEPassive Design of Buildings for Extreme Weather EnvironmentS.N. Al-Zubaidy, S. Tokbolat, R. Tokpatayeva 1-11 Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource SubstitutionK.J. Sreekanth, S. Jayaraj, N. Sudarsan 13-18 Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi KenyaMary Njenga, A Yonemitsu, N Karanjaa, M Iiyama, J Kithinji, M Dubbeling C Sundberge, R R Jamnadass 19-29 A Novel Design of Multi-Chambered Biomass BatteryK. Sudhakar, R. Ananthakrishnan, A. Goyal, H.K. Darji 31-34 Power Quality Improvement Wind Energy System Using Cascaded Multilevel InverterJ.S. Sathiyanarayanan, A. S. Kumar 35-43 Solar PV Lighting and Studying after Sunset: Analysis of Micro-benefits in Off-grid Rural GhanaGeorge Y. Obeng 45-51 Innovative Green Technology for Sustainable Industrial Estate DevelopmentR. Hadiwijoyo, P Purwanto, Sudharto P Hadi 53-58 Empowering Distributed Solar PV Energy For Malaysian Rural Housing: Towards Energy Security And Equitability Of Rural CommunitiesN.A. Ahmad, H. Byrd 59-68

  14. Content validity and its estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmale F

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measuring content validity of instruments are important. This type of validity can help to ensure construct validity and give confidence to the readers and researchers about instruments. content validity refers to the degree that the instrument covers the content that it is supposed to measure. For content validity two judgments are necessary: the measurable extent of each item for defining the traits and the set of items that represents all aspects of the traits. Purpose: To develop a content valid scale for assessing experience with computer usage. Methods: First a review of 2 volumes of International Journal of Nursing Studies, was conducted with onlyI article out of 13 which documented content validity did so by a 4-point content validity index (CV! and the judgment of 3 experts. Then a scale with 38 items was developed. The experts were asked to rate each item based on relevance, clarity, simplicity and ambiguity on the four-point scale. Content Validity Index (CVI for each item was determined. Result: Of 38 items, those with CVIover 0.75 remained and the rest were discarded reSulting to 25-item scale. Conclusion: Although documenting content validity of an instrument may seem expensive in terms of time and human resources, its importance warrants greater attention when a valid assessment instrument is to be developed. Keywords: Content Validity, Measuring Content Validity

  15. Accuracy of Stated Energy Contents of Restaurant Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E.; McCrory, Megan A.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Das, Sai Krupa; Saltzman, Edward; Weber, Judith L.; Roberts, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Context National recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake. Foods purchased in restaurants provide approximately 35% of the daily energy intake in US individuals but the accuracy of the energy contents listed for these foods is unknown. Objective To examine the accuracy of stated energy contents of foods purchased in restaurants. Design and Setting A validated bomb calorimetry technique was used to measure dietary energy in food from 42 restaurants, comprising 269 total food items and 242 unique foods. The restaurants and foods were randomly selected from quick-serve and sit-down restaurants in Massachusetts, Arkansas, and Indiana between January and June 2010. Main Outcome Measure The difference between restaurant-stated and laboratory-measured energy contents, which were corrected for standard metabolizable energy conversion factors. Results The absolute stated energy contents were not significantly different from the absolute measured energy contents overall (difference of 10 kcal/portion; 95% confidence interval [CI], −15 to 34 kcal/portion; P=.52); however, the stated energy contents of individual foods were variable relative to the measured energy contents. Of the 269 food items, 50 (19%) contained measured energy contents of at least 100 kcal/portion more than the stated energy contents. Of the 10% of foods with the highest excess energy in the initial sampling, 13 of 17 were available for a second sampling. In the first analysis, these foods contained average measured energy contents of 289 kcal/portion (95% CI, 186 to 392 kcal/portion) more than the stated energy contents; in the second analysis, these foods contained average measured energy contents of 258 kcal/portion (95% CI, 154 to 361 kcal/portion) more than the stated energy contents (Prestaurant foods were accurate overall. However, there was substantial inaccuracy for some individual foods, with understated energy contents for those with lower

  16. The role of content marketing in social media content communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charmaine du Plessis

    2017-01-01

    ... in social media that enhance their daily lives. Existing research on social media communities has focused mainly on social media marketing and virtual brand community perspectives while content...

  17. List of Article Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Section

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES Premixed combustion of coconut oil in a hele-shaw cell DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.155-160 155-160 Hadi Saroso, I.N.G. Wardana, Rudy Soenoko, Nurkholis Hamidi   Analysing the potential of retrofitting ultra-low heat loss triple vacuum glazed windows to an existing UK solid wall dwelling DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.161-174 161-174 Saim Memon   Study of Gasohol as Alternative Fuel for Gasoline Substitution: Characteristics and Performances DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.175-183 175-183 Bardi Murachman, Dicky Pranantyo, Eddie Sandjaya Putra   Thermal effects investigation on electrical properties of silicon solar cells treated by laser irradiation DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.184-187 184-187 Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Bahman Deldadeh Barani   Synthesis of Trimethylolpropane Esters of Calophyllum Methyl Esters : Effect of Temperatur and Molar Ratio DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.188-192 188-192 Yeti Widyawati, Ani Suryani, Muhammad Romli, Sukardi Sukardi   Incorporating Root Crops under Agro-Forestry as the Newly Potential Source of Food, Feed and Renewable Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.193-206 193-206 Yudi Widodo, St. A. Rahayuningsih, Nasir Saleh, Sri Wahyuningsih   Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.207-216 207-216 Indradip Mitra, Kaushal Chhatbar, Ashvini Kumar, Godugunur Giridhar, Ramdhan Vashistha, Richard Meyer, Marko Schwandt   Thermo-economic Optimization of Solar Assisted Heating and Cooling (SAHC System DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.217-227 217-227 A. Ghafoor, A. Munir   Combustion characteristics of diesel engine using producer gas and blends of Jatropha methyl ester with diesel in mixed fuel mode DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.3.228-235 228-235 Hifjur Raheman, Debasish Padhee    

  18. List of Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Tin (II Chloride Catalyzed Esterification of High FFA Jatropha Oil: Experimental and Kinetics Study DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.75-81 75-81 Ratna Dewi Kusumaningtyas, Prima Astuti Handayani, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Suryo Purwono, Arief Budiman   Utilization of Iles-Iles and Sorghum Starch for Bioethanol Production DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.83-89 83-89 Kusmiyati Kusmiyati, Agus Sulistiyono   Premixed Combustion of Kapok (ceiba pentandra seed oil on Perforated Burner DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.91-97 91-97 I.K.G. Wirawan, I.N.G. Wardana,        Rudy Soenoko, Slamet Wahyudi   Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3. 3.2.99-105 99-105 Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa, Haimanot Gebrehiwot Moges, Ramesh Babu, Daniel Bisrat   Economic feasibility of large scale PV water pumping applications utilizing real field data for a case study in Jordan DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.107-117 107-117 Ibrahim Odeh   Development of Briquette from Coir Dust and Rice Husk Blend: An Alternative Energy Source DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.119-123 119-123 Md. Hamidul Islam, Md. Mosharraf Hossain,Md. Abdul Momin   Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.125-131 125-131 Debasish Padhee, Hifjur Raheman   The characteristic changes of betung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper pretreated by fungal pretreatment DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.133-143 133-143 Widya Fatriasari, Wasrin Syafii, Nyoman J Wistara, Khaswar Syamsu, Bambang Prasetya   Influence of the Determination Methods of K and C Parameters on the Ability of Weibull Distribution to Suitably Estimate Wind Potential and Electric Energy DOI: 10.14710/ijred.3.2.145-154 145-154 Ruben M. Mouangue, Myrin Y. Kazet, Alexis Kuitche, Jean-Marie Ndjaka    

  19. 45 CFR 98.102 - Content of Error Rate Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... taken to correct those causes in order to reduce the error rates; (9) Description of the information... to correct those causes in order to reduce the error rates; and (5) Such other information as... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of Error Rate Reports. 98.102 Section 98...

  20. Webizing mobile augmented reality content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.

  1. Reduced CD300LG mRNA tissue expression, increased intramyocellular lipid content and impaired glucose metabolism in healthy male carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG a novel genometabolic cross-link between CD300LG and common metabolic phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Julie; Kampmann, Ulla; Mengel, Annette

    2015-01-01

    by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, intrahepatic lipid content (IHLC) and intramyocellular lipid content (IMCL) by MR spectroscopy, and β-cell function by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Changes in insulin signaling and CD300LG mRNA expression were determined by western blotting and quantitative PCR...... with extracellular lipids. We tested whether this specific polymorphism results in abnormal lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and liver and other indices of metabolic dysfunction. METHODS: 40 healthy men with a mean age of 55 years were characterized metabolically including assessment of insulin sensitivity......: The CD300LG polymorphism was associated with decreased CD300LG mRNA expression in muscle and adipose tissue, increased IMCL, and abnormalities of glucose metabolism. CD300LG mRNA levels correlated with IMCL and forearm glucose uptake. These findings link a specific CD300LG polymorphism with features...

  2. Sodium content on processed foods for snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Mariana Vieira dos Santos; Oliveira, Renata Carvalho de; Gonzalez-Chica, David Alejandro; Proença, Rossana Pacheco da Costa

    2016-04-01

    To assess the Na content reported on the labels of processed foods sold in Brazil that are usually consumed as snacks by children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study that assessed Na content and serving size reporting on processed food labels. A supermarket that is part of a large chain in Brazil. All foods available for sale at the study's location and reported in the literature as snacks present in the diets of Brazilian children and adolescents. Of the 2945 processed foods, 87 % complied with the reference serving sizes, although variability in reporting was observed in most of the food subgroups. In addition, 21 % of the processed foods had high Na levels (>600 mg/100 g) and 35 % had medium Na levels (>120 and ≤600 mg/100 g). The meats, oils, fats and seeds groups as well as the prepared dishes had higher percentages of foods classified as high Na (81 %, 58 % and 53 %, respectively). Most of the processed foods had high or medium Na content. We emphasize the importance of revising Brazilian nutrition labelling legislation to standardize reference serving sizes to avoid variation. Besides, we point out the potential for reducing Na levels in most processed foods, as evidenced by the variability in Na content within subgroups. Finally, we have identified the need to develop a method to classify Na levels in processed foods with specific parameters for children and adolescents.

  3. Sequential Fermentation with Selected Immobilized Non-Saccharomyces Yeast for Reduction of Ethanol Content in Wine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canonico, Laura; Comitini, Francesca; Oro, Lucia; Ciani, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    .... In the present study, to reduce ethanol content in wine, a microbiological approach was investigated, using immobilized selected strains of non-Saccharomyces yeasts namely Starmerella bombicola...

  4. Understanding Content-and-Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Marx, M.J.; de Rijke, M.; Sigurbjörnsson, B.; Trotman, A.; Lalmas, M.; Fuhr, N.

    2005-01-01

    Document-centric XML is a mixture of text and structure. +With the increased availability of document-centric XML content comes a need for query facilities in which both structural constraints and constraints on the content of the documents can be expressed. This has generated considerable interest

  5. Statistical Model for Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features to predict significance of the node towards overall content...

  6. North Dakota Drama Content Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Roger; Lindekugel-Willis, Paula; Nilsen, Cheryl; Opp, Dean; Rauschenberger, Paula

    This document outlines the content standards for drama in North Dakota public schools, grades K-12. Following an introduction, the document lists the drama content standards: (1) Dramatic Literature; (2) Acting; (3) Production; (4) Cultural Context of Drama; (5) Consumer of Theatre; (6) Drama and Human Development; and (7) Drama and Other…

  7. Content layer progressive coding of digital maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Jensen, Ole Riis

    2000-01-01

    A new lossless context based method is presented for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images, such as maps, company logos, etc., common on the WWW. Progressive encoding is achieved by separating the image into content layers based on other predefined information. Information from...... already coded layers are used when coding subsequent layers. This approach is combined with efficient template based context bi-level coding, context collapsing methods for multi-level images and arithmetic coding. Relative pixel patterns are used to collapse contexts. The number of contexts are analyzed....... The new methods outperform existing coding schemes coding digital maps and in addition provide progressive coding. Compared to the state-of-the-art PWC coder, the compressed size is reduced to 60-70% on our layered test images....

  8. Content Layer progressive Coding of Digital Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Jensen, Ole Riis

    2002-01-01

    for calculating the resulting number of contexts are given. The new methods outperform existing schemes coding digital maps and in addition provide progressive coding. Compared to the state-of-the-art PWC coder, the compressed size is reduced to 50-70% on our layered map test images.......A new lossless context based method is presented for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images, such as maps, company logos, etc., common on the World Wide Web. Progressive encoding is achieved by encoding the image in content layers based on color level or other predefined...... information. Information from already coded layers are used when coding subsequent layers. This approach is combined with efficient template based context bilevel coding, context collapsing methods for multilevel images and arithmetic coding. Relative pixel patterns are used to collapse contexts. Expressions...

  9. Evaluation of garlic cultivars for polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuxia; Shen, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar '74-x' had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar 'Hanzhong purple'; the bulbs of cultivar 'Gailiang' had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of 'Hanzhong purple' also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar '74-x' had highest protection capability, following by cultivar 'Hanzhong purple', and the bulbs of cultivar 'No. 105 from Korea' had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.

  10. Evaluation of Garlic Cultivars for Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siqiong; Li, Panpan; Du, Junna; Chang, Yanxia; Meng, Huanwen

    2013-01-01

    Two phenolic compound parameters (total phenolic and flavonoid contents) and 5 antioxidant parameters (DPPH [2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging activity, HRSC (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity), FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), and MCA (metal chelating activity) were measured in bulbs and bolts of 43 garlic cultivars. The bulbs of cultivar ‘74-x’ had the highest phenolic content (total phenolic, flavonoids) and the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC), followed by bulbs of cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’; the bulbs of cultivar ‘Gailiang’ had the lowest phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP, CUPRAC, MCA). The bolts of ‘Hanzhong purple’ also had higher phenolic content. Principal components analysis (PCA) separated the cultivars into 3 groups according to phenolic and flavonoid contents and strength of antioxidant activity. The first group had higher HRSC, FRAP, and flavonoid content; the second group had higher total phenolic content and MCA; some cultivars in the third group had higher HRSC and FRAP. All 8 test garlic bulb extracts successfully prevented Human Vascular Endothelial Cell death and significantly prevented reactive-oxygen species (ROS) formation in oxidative stress model, in which cultivar ‘74-x’ had highest protection capability, following by cultivar ‘Hanzhong purple’, and the bulbs of cultivar ‘No. 105 from Korea’ had the lower protection capability against cell death and ROS formation. The protection capability in vivo of these garlic cultivars was consistent with their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. PMID:24232741

  11. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  12. Evolution of broadcast content distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses opportunities for broadcasters that arise with the advent of broadband networks, both fixed and mobile. It discusses how the traditional way of distributing audio-visual content over broadcasting networks has been complemented by the usage of broadband networks. The author shows how this also gives the possibility to offer new types of interactive or so-called nonlinear services. The book illustrates how change in distribution technology is accelerating the need for broadcasters around the world to adapt their content distribution strategy and how it will impact the portfolios of content they offer. Outlines the shift in broadcast content distribution paradigms and related strategic issues Provides an overview of the new broadcasting ecosystem encompassing new types of content, user habits, expectations, and devices Discusses complementary usage of different distribution technologies and platforms.

  13. TECHNOLOGIES OF REDUCING YOUNG ADOLESCENTS’ AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Matuszak (Prisyazhnaya) Alla Fedorovna; Bogdanowicz-Jaz Beata Irena

    2012-01-01

    The problem of young adolescents’ aggressive behaviour causes a deterioration of microclimate in the classroom and students’ lower academic achievement. The paper describes the experience of reducing aggressive behaviour of 10-11 year-olds in a primary school in Poland. The purpose is to describe an experiment to reduce young adolescents’ aggressive behaviour. Methodology. In the research methods of content analysis, theoretical and methodological analyses, as well as the empirical method of ...

  14. A Study about Personalized Content Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRITO, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recommendation systems have been proposed as efficient strategies to deal with the information overload which is an Internet reality. In order to study personalized content recommendation, this paper aims at identifying and analyzing, systematically, methods and techniques adopted in the recommendation context. In the systematic review process, 22 papers have been accepted from the main digital databases in the area. The final results suggest a tendency in the use of strategies to reduce the limitations and to increase the efficiency of the recommendation methods.

  15. Visual Analysis of Weblog Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Payne, Deborah A.; McColgin, Dave; Cramer, Nick O.; Love, Douglas V.

    2007-03-26

    In recent years, one of the advances of the World Wide Web is social media and one of the fastest growing aspects of social media is the blogosphere. Blogs make content creation easy and are highly accessible through web pages and syndication. With their growing influence, a need has arisen to be able to monitor the opinions and insight revealed within their content. In this paper we describe a technical approach for analyzing the content of blog data using a visual analytic tool, IN-SPIRE, developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. We highlight the capabilities of this tool that are particularly useful for information gathering from blog data.

  16. Web content a writer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mizrahi, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The explosion of electronic sources, whether in the form of news, commentary, sales and marketing, or information, has created boundless opportunities for producing content. Whether you're an entrepreneur with a start-up business who needs a website, an executive who uses social media to connect with various stakeholders, or a content provider blogging about topical issues, you'll need to know how to write for the web and address the unique environment of the digital world. This book will help you produce web content that generates results. Writing for the screen differs from writing for a pri

  17. Content Literacy: A Definition and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Michael C.; Robinson, Richard D.

    1990-01-01

    Defines "content literacy" as the ability to use reading and writing for the acquisition of new content in a given discipline. Identifies three principal cognitive components: general literacy skills; content-specific literacy skills; and prior knowledge of content. Discusses the implications of content literacy for content area reading…

  18. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  19. Televised sexual content and parental mediation: Influences on adolescent sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Gruber, Enid L.

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in oral sex and sexual intercourse, future intentions to eng...

  20. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating e...... eigenvalues and eigenvectors. We give a number of different applications to regression and time series analysis, and show how the reduced rank regression estimator can be derived as a Gaussian maximum likelihood estimator. We briefly mention asymptotic results......The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  1. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  2. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences.

  3. Marketing engagement through visual content

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marius Manic

    2015-01-01

      Engaging visual is a must in the modern marketing world. Wide access to mass communication devices, with extended visuals enhancements, made visual content an important point of interest for any publisher, on all media channels...

  4. Global Content in Global Coursebooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimoun Melliti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the issue of “globality” in global coursebooks as manifested in investing features of connectedness, avoiding inappropriacy, and preserving inclusivity. To do this exploration, two research methods, content analysis and the questionnaire, were adopted. The content of an example of global coursebooks, Headway Intermediate (H/I, in addition to the perception of 251 of its users at Institute Bourguiba for Living Languages (IBLV were investigated. The results obtained revealed that “globality,” in terms of connectedness, inappropriacy, and inclusivity is partial in H/I as learners’ perceptions of it do not map with the content in the coursebook. This study raises questions about the suitability of global coursebooks to globally diverse learners and reveals the necessity of taking measures in the direction of localizing the content of English as a foreign language (EFL coursebooks.

  5. Effect of moisture content and storage conditions on the storability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Biochemical analysis revealed that starch, sugar, proteins and lipids were greatly reduced with time and increasing moisture content. Market survey in this study showed that garri samples sold in Ilorin generally have high moisture contents. Key words: Storage, fungi, moisture content. INTRODUCTION.

  6. Enhanced Contention Resolution Aloha - ECRA

    OpenAIRE

    Clazzer, Federico; Kissling, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Random Access (RA) Medium Access (MAC) protocols are simple and effective when the nature of the traffic is unpredictable and random. In the following paper, a novel RA protocol called Enhanced Contention Resolution ALOHA (ECRA) is presented. This evolution, based on the previous Contention Resolution ALOHA (CRA) protocol, exploits the nature of the interference in unslotted Aloha-like channels for trying to resolve most of the partial collision that can occur there. I...

  7. Marketing engagement through visual content

    OpenAIRE

    Marius MANIC

    2015-01-01

    Engaging visual is a must in the modern marketing world. Wide access to mass communication devices, with extended visuals enhancements, made visual content an important point of interest for any publisher, on all media channels. The decreasing costs and huge variety of types are premises for an easy and effective marketing investment, with strong benefits for any company and its brands. Loyal customers are achieved and kept through visual content; the lack of it in the general ...

  8. Marketing engagement through visual content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engaging visual is a must in the modern marketing world. Wide access to mass communication devices, with extended visuals enhancements, made visual content an important point of interest for any publisher, on all media channels. The decreasing costs and huge variety of types are premises for an easy and effective marketing investment, with strong benefits for any company and its brands. Loyal customers are achieved and kept through visual content; the lack of it in the general marketing

  9. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied.

  10. Contents

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Yayın Kurulu: Prof.Dr. Uğur ALPAGUT Prof.Dr. Murat ALTUN Prof.Dr. Yasemin AYDOĞAN Prof.Dr. Cemal AVCI Prof.Dr. Soner DURMUŞ Prof.Dr. Nesrin KALYONCU Prof.Dr. Metin ORBAY Prof.Dr. Murat ÖZBAY Prof.Dr. Mehmet TAŞPINAR Doç.Dr. Türkan ARGON Doç.Dr. Zeki ARSAL Doç.Dr. Bayram BIÇAK Doç.Dr. Bahri AYDIN Doç.Dr. Mehmet CANBULAT Doç.Dr. Eyüp COŞKUN Doç.Dr. Nihal DOĞAN Doç.Dr. Tolga ERDOĞAN Doç.Dr. Halit KARATAY Doç.Dr. Kemalettin KUZUCU Doç.Dr. Salih Paşa MEMİŞOĞLU Doç.Dr. Şenay Se...

  11. Contents

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Yayın Kurulu: Prof.Dr. Uğur ALPAGUT Prof.Dr. Murat ALTUN Prof.Dr. Yasemin AYDOĞAN Prof.Dr. Cemal AVCI Prof.Dr. Soner DURMUŞ Prof.Dr. Nesrin KALYONCU Prof.Dr. Metin ORBAY Prof.Dr. Murat ÖZBAY Prof.Dr. Mehmet TAŞPINAR Doç.Dr. Türkan ARGON Doç.Dr. Zeki ARSAL Doç.Dr. Bayram BIÇAK Doç.Dr. Sefa BULUT Doç.Dr. Mehmet CANBULAT Doç.Dr. Eyüp COŞKUN Doç.Dr. Nihal DOĞAN Doç.Dr. Tolga ERDOĞAN Doç.Dr. Halit KARATAY Doç.Dr. Kemalettin KUZUCU Doç.Dr. Salih Paşa MEMİŞOĞLU...

  12. Does content knowledge matter for new teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Todd D.

    reduce the plausibility of selection threats to internal validity. The study found no evidence for relationships between teacher content knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge and student mathematics and science achievement in fourth and eighth grade. Furthermore, the results indicated no interactive relationships between forms of teacher knowledge and teaching experience, and student achievement in these grades/subjects. The limitations of cross-sectional, observational studies using large-scale data and directions for further research are discussed.

  13. A Content Specification for Business Process Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Bajaj

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process modeling is an essential prerequisite to business process reengineering (BPR, and workflow management (WFM. Process models have been traditionally used to model software processes, and many business process models are adaptations of these process models. Using these process models to represent business processes results in two problems. First, since these process models usually represent different perspectives of systems (or in this case, businesses the user needs to integrate multiple existing models to completely represent the business processes. This reduces the ease of use, and leads to a lower acceptance by users. Second, business processes contain concepts not found in software processes (e.g., physical objects, roles, etc.. Traditional process models cannot represent these new concepts, and hence traditional process models model business processes inadequately. These two problems can be easily solved if a comprehensive business process model exists, that models all perspectives of a business process, and that allows representation of these new concepts. As a first step towards this goal, we propose a content specification that would need to be satisfied by such a business process model. The primary contribution of this work is a comprehensive content specification for a business process model that will solve the two problems listed above. This content specification also serves as a framework to analyze process models in detail, and to compare them based on their content (i.e., what concepts they model and the degree to which they model each aspect of a business process (i.e., how much of a business process they model.

  14. Safeguarding Digital Library Contents: Charging for Online Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Amir

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the need for mechanisms for charging by digital libraries and other providers of online content, in particular for micropayments, i.e., charging for small amounts. The SSL (Secure Socket Layer) and SET (Secure Electronic Transactions) protocols for charge card payments and the MiniPay micropayment mechanism for charging small amounts…

  15. Learning Language through Content: Learning Content through Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Met, Myriam

    1991-01-01

    A definition and description of elementary school content-based foreign language instruction notes how it promotes natural language learning and higher-order thinking skills, and also addresses curriculum development, language objective definition, and specific applications in mathematics, science, reading and language arts, social studies, and…

  16. Does thermophoresis reduce aggregate stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Eyal; Sarah, Pariente

    2017-04-01

    Thermophoresis is mass flow driven by a thermal gradient. As a result of Seebeck effect and Soret effect, colloids can move from the hot to the cold region or vice versa, depending on the electrolyte composition and on the particle size. This migration of colloids can weaken aggregates. The effect of raindrop temperatures on runoff generation and erosion on clayey soil was investigated in sprinkling experiments with a laboratory rotating disk rain simulator. The experiments were applied to Rhodoxeralt (Terra Rossa) soil with two pre-prepared moisture contents: hygroscopic and field capacity. For each moisture content three rainfall temperatures were applied: 2, 20, and 35°C. Erosion was generally lower in the pre-wetted soil than in the dry soil (12.5 and 24.4 g m-2 per 40 mm of rain,respectively). Whereas there was no significant effect of raindrop temperature on the dry soil the soil that was pre-moistened to field capacity was affected by rainwater temperature: runoff and erosion were high when the temperature difference between rainfall and soil surface was high, sediment yields were 13.9, 5.2, and 18.3 g m-2 per 40 mm of rain, for rain temperature of 2, 20, and 35 °C, respectively. It is reasonable to conclude that thermophoresis caused by thermal gradients within the soil solution reduces the stability of aggregates and then increase the soil losses.

  17. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... model outperformed other existing content extraction models. We present a browser based implementation of the proposed model as proof of concept and compare the implementation strategy with various state of art implementations. We also discuss various applications of the proposed model with special...

  18. Long-term enzyme replacement therapy is associated with reduced proteinuria and preserved proximal tubular function in women with Fabry disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabakaran, Thaneas; Birn, Henrik; Bibby, Bo M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene. Deficiency of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A) causes intracellular accumulations of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) and related glycosphingolipids in all organs, including the kidney, often leading t...

  19. Photosynthesis, light use efficiency, and yield of reduced-chlorophyll soybean mutants in field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing chlorophyll (chl) content may improve the conversion efficiency of absorbed radiation into biomass (ec) and therefore yield in dense monoculture crops by improving light penetration and distribution within the canopy. Modeling suggests that reducing chl content may also reduce leaf temperat...

  20. Content Themes in Marital Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillars, Alan L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that prominent themes in the conversations of spouses are metacommunication about relationships. Compares content themes of different marital types (traditional, separate, and independent) and more or less satisfied spouses. Finds marital satisfaction tends to be positively associated with communal and impersonal themes and negatively…

  1. Quality Content in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ezgi Pelin; Isman, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    In parallel with technological advances in today's world of education activities can be conducted without the constraints of time and space. One of the most important of these activities is distance education. The success of the distance education is possible with content quality. The proliferation of e-learning environment has brought a need for…

  2. Place prioritization for biodiversity content

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The prioritization of places on the basis of biodiversity content is part of any systematic biodiversity conservation planning process. The place prioritization procedure implemented in the ResNet software package is described. This procedure is primarily based on the principles of rarity and complementarity. Application of the ...

  3. Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer-Brodowski, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's purpose is to describe students' learning processes in a project-based and self-organized seminar on sustainability. A detailed knowledge of typical learning processes is part of a pedagogical content knowledge of sustainability and can therefore contribute to the professional development of university educators.…

  4. Minerals and Total Polyphenolic Content of Some Vegetal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana E. TUFEANU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The total polyphenolic content and minerals were determined for chia seeds, Psyllium husks and watermelon rind powder. The minerals content was performed by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, technique FIAS-Furnace (for Se. The sample with the highest content of polyphenols was chia (2.69 mg GAE/g s. followed by the watermelon rind powder. Reduced amounts of polyphenols were found in the Psyllium husks. Also, the total polyphenol concentration increased with the increase of the extraction time on the ultrasonic water bath. Minerals analysis indicated that powders obtained from chia seeds and watermelon rind contained large amounts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The most abundant mineral in the Psyllium husks powder was found potassium, followed by calcium. In conclusion, these powders can be used as ingredients for functional food and food supplements production due to the high nutritional content and bioactive properties.

  5. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  6. Analysis of Grain Protein, Tryptophan and Lysine Contents of Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    have poor nutritional value for humans, because of reduced content of essential amino acids such ... essential amino acids are either incorporated or increased in grain proteins. Significant advances have been made in genetic enhancement of crop plants for nutritional ..... Supplementacion con aminoacidos del maiz y de ...

  7. Nutrient content of water spinach ( Ipomoea aquatica ) under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water spinach is very perishable and it does not store well even in the refrigerator. It requires special processing treatments to reduce post-harvest losses. Nutrient content analysis of the water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) was carried out at different harvest stages and under different preservation methods. Standard ...

  8. A Content Analysis of Internet Health Rumors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wen-Ling Lo; Ming-Hsin Phoebe Chiu

    2015-01-01

    This study used content analysis method to investigate Internet health rumors on Rumor Breaker, specifically on the characteristics of content and format, the similarities and differences by themes...

  9. Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI PRARTONO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

  10. Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI PRARTONO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world's thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

  11. Enterprise Content Management Implementation and Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Klegová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Content Management (ECM solutions are commonly used in many areas such as document management, record management, digital asset management, etc. Key features of ECM systems are capturing, indexing, preserving and retrieving of digital information. The state-of-the- art ECM solution can help revolutionize document management and further automated business processes which can lead to better decisions and competitive advantage. Risk management can reduce project failure and that is why controlling risk in ECM implementation projects is considered to be a major contributor to project success. To manage software risk, the first step is to identify a list of ECM projects’ risks. The present paper provides an overview of ECM implementation risks and contains findings from a small survey on experience of ECM implementation and risk in Czech enterprises. Risk of implementation in the public sector is discussed more deeply with case study examples.

  12. Content Analysis of HUMINT Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    11.1.2006). KIEForschungsinstitut für Kommunikation , Informationsverarbeitung und ErgonomieFGAN Dr. M. Hecking Dr. Matthias Hecking...Forschungsgesellschaft für Angewandte Naturwissenschaften e.V. (FGAN) Forschungsinstitut für Kommunikation , Informationsverarbeitung und Ergonomie (FKIE) Abtl...KIEForschungsinstitut für Kommunikation , Informationsverarbeitung und ErgonomieFGAN Dr. M. HeckingContent 1. Introduction 2. Information Extraction 3. Project

  13. Political bias: a content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jarochová, Erika

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to chart political bias in the news coverage during the election campaigns in years 2006, 2010 and 2013 in three the most widely read serious newspapers in the Czech Republic. The thesis summarizes theoretical framework of political bias. Newspapers in liberal-democratic countries should inform about political parties balanced. Content analysis was used to analyze the newspapers. This thesis compares the information balance in newspapers from several perspectives. It compares...

  14. Detecting Malicious Content on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Dewan, Prateek; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam

    2015-01-01

    Online Social Networks (OSNs) witness a rise in user activity whenever an event takes place. Malicious entities exploit this spur in user-engagement levels to spread malicious content that compromises system reputation and degrades user experience. It also generates revenue from advertisements, clicks, etc. for the malicious entities. Facebook, the world's biggest social network, is no exception and has recently been reported to face much abuse through scams and other type of malicious conten...

  15. Content, Context & Connectivity Persuasive Interplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christian Grund

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between content, context and connectivity and suggesting a model of Dynamic Interplay. This is done in relation to a specific learning environment concerning cultural mediation, in casu the Kaj Munk Case of the EuroPLOT-project (an EU-supported......The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between content, context and connectivity and suggesting a model of Dynamic Interplay. This is done in relation to a specific learning environment concerning cultural mediation, in casu the Kaj Munk Case of the EuroPLOT-project (an EU......-supported research project under EACEA). In the development of this project several categories of content have been implemented in technology enhanced learning tools. These have been designed to support learning in different contexts and eventually the role of the connectivity of these learning objects and tools...... is discussed. Focus is here on The Kaj Munk Study Edition, The Conceptual Pond, Immersive Layers Design, and Generative Learning Objects (GLOs) which are applications affiliated with the Munk case. This paper explores the persuasive potential of the interplay between the different applications for the benefit...

  16. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  17. Reduced Extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  18. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bouhlal

    Full Text Available Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g, not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002, and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  19. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  20. Reduction of acrylamide content in bread crust by starch coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Xiaojie; Man, Yong; Liu, Yawei

    2018-01-01

    A technique of starch coating to reduce acrylamide content in bread crust was proposed. Bread was prepared in accordance with a conventional procedure and corn or potato starch coating was brushed on the surface of the fermented dough prior to baking. Corn starch coating caused a decrease in acrylamide of 66.7% and 77.1% for the outer and inner crust, respectively. The decrease caused by the potato starch coating was 68.4% and 77.4%, respectively. Starch coating reduced asparagine content significantly (43.4-82.9%; P bread crust were a result of starch coating, which effectively shortened the time span (4-8 min) over which acrylamide could form and accumulate. The present study demonstrates that starch coating could be a simple, effective and practical application for reducing acrylamide levels in bread crust without changing the texture and crust color of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated. Any...

  2. Facilitating personal content management in smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaltonen, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Smart phones, which combine, e.g., communication and mobile multimedia features, store increasing amount of media content and so they face content management challenges similar to what desktop computers are experiencing. Content management refers to actions performed on content (e.g., capture image,

  3. Reducing sodium intake from meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero

    2005-07-01

    Sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations in many industrialized countries. Excessive intake of sodium has been linked to hypertension and consequently to increased risk of stroke and premature death from cardiovascular diseases. The main source of sodium in the diet is sodium chloride. It has been established that the consumption of more than 6g NaCl/day/person is associated with an age-increase in blood pressure. Therefore, it has been recommended that the total amount of dietary salt should be maintained at about 5-6g/day. Genetically salt susceptible individuals and hypertensives would particularly benefit from low-sodium diets, the salt content of which should range between 1 and 3g/day. In industrialized countries, meat products and meat meals at home and in catering comprise one of the major sources of sodium, in the form of sodium chloride. Sodium chloride affects the flavour, texture and shelf life of meat products. The salt intake derived from meat dishes can be lowered by, whenever possible, adding the salt, not during preparation, but at the table. In most cases, salt contents of over 2% can be markedly lowered without substantial sensory deterioration or technological problems causing economical losses. Salt contents down to 1.4% NaCl in cooked sausages and 1.75% in lean meat products are enough to produce a heat stable gel with acceptable perceived saltiness as well as firmness, water-binding and fat retention. A particular problem with low-salt meat products is, however, that not only the perceived saltiness, but also the intensity of the characteristic flavour decreases. Increased meat protein content (i.e. lean meat content) in meat products reduces perceived saltiness. The required salt content for acceptable gel strength depends on the formulation of the product. When phosphates are added or the fat content is high, lower salt additions provide a more stable gel than in non-phosphate and in low-fat products. Small differences in salt

  4. Heavy Sexual Content Versus Safer Sex Content: A Content Analysis of the Entertainment Education Drama Shuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Nancy Achieng'; Miller, Ann Neville; Ngure, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Extremely popular with Kenyan youth, the entertainment-education drama Shuga was designed with specific goals of promoting condom use, single versus multiple sexual partners, and destigmatization of HIV. Almost as soon as it aired, however, it generated controversy due to its extensive sexual themes and relatively explicit portrayal of sexual issues. To determine how safer sex, antistigma messages, and overall sexual content were integrated into Shuga, we conducted a content analysis. Results indicated that condom use and HIV destigmatization messages were frequently and clearly communicated. Negative consequences for risky sexual behavior were communicated over the course of the entire series. Messages about multiple concurrent partnerships were not evident. In addition, in terms of scenes per hour of programming, Shuga had 10.3 times the amount of sexual content overall, 8.2 times the amount of sexual talk, 17.8 times the amount of sexual behavior, and 9.4 times the amount of sexual intercourse as found in previous analysis of U.S. entertainment programming. Research is needed to determine how these factors may interact to influence adolescent viewers of entertainment education dramas.

  5. Caffeine content of decaffeinated coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J

    2006-10-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.

  6. Rapid determination of phenol content in extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favati, F.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available A quick extraction methodology was developed to reduce the time usually required to determine the phenol content in olive oil. The validity of this method, based on SPE technique, was tested against two other phenol extraction techniques.
    The statistical analysis of the analytical data showed that over a phenol content range of 110-550 μg/g oil, the proposed method can be a reliable alternative for a rapid extraction of the phenols from olive oil.

    No disponible.

  7. Assessing the Evaluative Content of Personality Questionnaires Using Bifactor Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biderman, Michael D; McAbee, Samuel T; Job Chen, Zhuo; Hendy, Nhung T

    2018-01-10

    Exploratory bifactor models with keying factors were applied to item response data for the NEO-FFI-3 and HEXACO-PI-R questionnaires. Loadings on a general factor and positive and negative keying factors correlated with independent estimates of item valence, suggesting that item valence influences responses to these questionnaires. Correlations between personality domain scores and measures of self-esteem, depression, and positive and negative affect were all reduced significantly when the influence of evaluative content represented by the general and keying factors was removed. Findings support the need to model personality inventories in ways that capture reactions to evaluative item content.

  8. Preparation of low strategic metal content superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczerzenie, F. E.; Maurer, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of modified NIMONIC 115 and UDIMET 720 with reduced levels of cobalt were evaluated. Vacuum induction melted and vacuum arc remelted ingots were hot rolled to 3/4 inch diameter bar. Hot workability was evaluated in terms of the ingot rolling behavior and the hot ductility of the as-rolled bar. Variations in workability and bar ductility were correlated to variations in incipient melting temperature and gamma prime solvus, both of which varied with cobalt content. Heat treatments were defined to yield, as far as possible, similar structures from alloy to alloy. At the lowest cobalt levels N-115 workability was severely limited and the alloys could not be worked to bar. It is suggested that incipient melting in combination with heavy grain boundary carbide precipitation reduced ingot workability. Final heat treatment of modified alloys was difficult in the situation where the gamma prime solvus temperature was close to the incipient melting point, indicating that it may not be feasible to fully solution low cobalt alloys to obtain the large grain size required for optimum creep resistance.

  9. [Ochratoxin A content in blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, I V; ELler, K I; Tutel'ian, V A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ochratoxin A content in blood plasma. The analysis of ochratoxin A were performed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. The detection limit was 0.05 microg/l. Ochratoxin A was detected in all of 50 plasma samples up to 7.44 microg/l. Mean level was 1.54 microg/l. Ochratoxin A level was higher in men than in women and in August than in December. Calculations made on the basis of the obtained mean showed that the daily ochratoxin A dietary intake awere 3.03 ng/kg b.w.

  10. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  11. Alcohol Use Disorders, Tips to Reduce Consumption | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Abuse Tips You Can Try to Reduce Alcohol Consumption Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Small changes can make a big difference in reducing your chances of having alcohol-related problems. If you have tried cutting down ...

  12. Error image aware content restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Lee, Moonsik; Jung, Byunghee

    2015-12-01

    As the resolution of TV significantly increased, content consumers have become increasingly sensitive to the subtlest defect in TV contents. This rising standard in quality demanded by consumers has posed a new challenge in today's context where the tape-based process has transitioned to the file-based process: the transition necessitated digitalizing old archives, a process which inevitably produces errors such as disordered pixel blocks, scattered white noise, or totally missing pixels. Unsurprisingly, detecting and fixing such errors require a substantial amount of time and human labor to meet the standard demanded by today's consumers. In this paper, we introduce a novel, automated error restoration algorithm which can be applied to different types of classic errors by utilizing adjacent images while preserving the undamaged parts of an error image as much as possible. We tested our method to error images detected from our quality check system in KBS(Korean Broadcasting System) video archive. We are also implementing the algorithm as a plugin of well-known NLE(Non-linear editing system), which is a familiar tool for quality control agent.

  13. POLYAMIDE WITH REDUCED CRYSTALLINITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HARINGS, JULES; DESHMUKH, YOGESH SHESHRAO; VINKEN, ESTHER; RASTOGI, SANJAY

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a novel process for making compositions comprising a polyamid, water and a salt, having reduced crystallinity, wherein the process comprising the steps of: a. mixing the polyamide, water and a salt b. heating the mixture to a temperature above 100°C in a range between 120°C

  14. The effect of the germination temperature on the phytochemical content of broccoli and rocket sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, Lucia; Picchi, Valentina; Tribulato, Alessandro; Cavallaro, Chiara; Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Branca, Ferdinando

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the effect of different germination temperatures (10, 20 and 30 °C) on the phytochemical content as well as reducing and antioxidant capacity of broccoli and rocket sprouts. In both seeds and sprouts, the total glucosinolates and ascorbic acid contents did not differ between vegetables, while broccoli exhibited exceptionally higher polyphenols and greater reducing and antioxidant capacity compared to rocket. In both species, an increase in germination temperature positively affected the glucosinolate content. Ascorbic acid increased during germination without a difference among the three tested temperatures. The phenol content in broccoli sprouts increased when they were grown at 30 °C, but the amount decreased at the highest temperatures in rocket. The reducing and antioxidant capacities increased with germination, and higher indexes were detected at 10 °C, particularly in rocket. Different germination temperatures differentiate the health-promoting phytochemical content and antioxidant properties in broccoli and rocket sprouts.

  15. Blind summarization: content-adaptive video summarization using time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Peker, Kadir A.

    2006-01-01

    Severe complexity constraints on consumer electronic devices motivate us to investigate general-purpose video summarization techniques that are able to apply a common hardware setup to multiple content genres. On the other hand, we know that high quality summaries can only be produced with domain-specific processing. In this paper, we present a time-series analysis based video summarization technique that provides a general core to which we are able to add small content-specific extensions for each genre. The proposed time-series analysis technique consists of unsupervised clustering of samples taken through sliding windows from the time series of features obtained from the content. We classify content into two broad categories, scripted content such as news and drama, and unscripted content such as sports and surveillance. The summarization problem then reduces to finding either finding semantic boundaries of the scripted content or detecting highlights in the unscripted content. The proposed technique is essentially an event detection technique and is thus best suited to unscripted content, however, we also find applications to scripted content. We thoroughly examine the trade-off between content-neutral and content-specific processing for effective summarization for a number of genres, and find that our core technique enables us to minimize the complexity of the content-specific processing and to postpone it to the final stage. We achieve the best results with unscripted content such as sports and surveillance video in terms of quality of summaries and minimizing content-specific processing. For other genres such as drama, we find that more content-specific processing is required. We also find that judicious choice of key audio-visual object detectors enables us to minimize the complexity of the content-specific processing while maintaining its applicability to a broad range of genres. We will present a demonstration of our proposed technique at the conference.

  16. Risk-reducing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Faulkner, Brent C; Lin, Kant Y

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is a malignant proliferation of epithelial cells lining the ducts or lobules of the breast. Excluding skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Only lung cancer accounts for more cancer deaths in women. Breast cancer may exist for a long period either as an invasive or noninvasive disease, but not as a nonmetastatic disease. Consequently, timely diagnosis and appropriate management are lifesaving. Approximately 10% of human breast cancers are linked to germline mutations, such BRCA1 and BRCA2. Correct staging of breast cancer patients is critical. It permits an accurate diagnosis, as well as in many cases, therapeutic decisions based largely on the TNM classification. Staging provides the most important prognostic variable. Second opinions of the staging of breast cancer by pathologic examination of the tissue is recommended. There are some variables in which the association with disease-free survival and overall survival seem clear and include estrogen and progesterone receptor cells, S-phase analysis using flow cytometry, histologic classification, molecular changes in the tumor as well as neovasculature semi-quantitative scoring systems. There are four objectives to risk-reducing mastectomy. First, risk-reducing mastectomy should reduce the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women, for example, BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. It should reduce mortality from breast cancer in high-risk women. Moreover, it should have psychological benefits in relieving anxiety about developing breast cancer. Finally, there must be a balance in the reduction in risk against cosmetic outcome, with subsequent quality of life issues. Women should be offered risk reduction mastectomy only on the basis of a strict selection and management plan, like that used in Manchester protocol. This protocol involves a minimum of two sessions with a geneticist/oncologist, a session with a psychiatrist and two sessions with a plastic and reconstructive surgeon with

  17. Why reduce health inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A; Kawachi, I

    2000-12-01

    It is well known that social, cultural and economic factors cause substantial inequalities in health. Should we strive to achieve a more even share of good health, beyond improving the average health status of the population? We examine four arguments for the reduction of health inequalities.1 Inequalities are unfair. Inequalities in health are undesirable to the extent that they are unfair, or unjust. Distinguishing between health inequalities and health inequities can be contentious. Our view is that inequalities become "unfair" when poor health is itself the consequence of an unjust distribution of the underlying social determinants of health (for example, unequal opportunities in education or employment).2 Inequalities affect everyone. Conditions that lead to marked health disparities are detrimental to all members of society. Some types of health inequalities have obvious spillover effects on the rest of society, for example, the spread of infectious diseases, the consequences of alcohol and drug misuse, or the occurrence of violence and crime.3 Inequalities are avoidable. Disparities in health are avoidable to the extent that they stem from identifiable policy options exercised by governments, such as tax policy, regulation of business and labour, welfare benefits and health care funding. It follows that health inequalities are, in principle, amenable to policy interventions. A government that cares about improving the health of the population ought therefore to incorporate considerations of the health impact of alternative options in its policy setting process.3 Interventions to reduce health inequalities are cost effective. Public health programmes that reduce health inequalities can also be cost effective. The case can be made to give priority to such programmes (for example, improving access to cervical cancer screening in low income women) on efficiency grounds. On the other hand, few programmes designed to reduce health inequalities have been formally

  18. RNA content in spinal cord motoneurons during hypokinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a diminished motor activity of rats upon the ribonucleic and (RNA) content in a single isolated motoneuron of frontal of their spinal cord was studied. Within a 1 to 30 day exposure of rats to the hypokinetic conditions, RNA content was found to decrease on the 1st, 3rd, and 5th day and to return to the initial level by the 7th day. No changes in RNA content were observed during the subsequent stages of the xperiments. The volume of the nerve cells declined on the 3rd and 5th day, whereas RNA concentration reduced on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 30th day.

  19. Characteristics and contents of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Dreams have been studied from different perspectives: psychoanalysis, academic psychology, and neurosciences. After presenting the definition of dreaming and the methodological tools of dream research, the major findings regarding the phenomenology of dreaming and the factors influencing dream content are briefly reviewed. The so-called continuity hypothesis stating that dreams reflect waking-life experiences is supported by studies investigating the dreams of psychiatric patients and patients with sleep disorders, i.e., their daytime symptoms and problems are reflected in their dreams. Dreams also have an effect on subsequent waking life, e.g., on daytime mood and creativity. The question about the functions of dreaming is still unanswered and open to future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATIVE CONTENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kushnir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The tasks of integrative content requires the use of knowledge and skills on various themes both one discipline and different disciplines. Mostly in the classroom (or in homework the tasks on the properties absorption of different concepts using different theories are considered. Thus knowledge within only one discipline is formed, knowledge of the narrow sense (one subject. Such knowledge is "prescriptional", we call it idealized. After all, it is far from models of the real professional problems and problems of life in general, in order to solve them it is necessary to apply knowledge and skills acquired in different themes of the same objects,life experience. Practical formation of integrative knowledge requires statement of the educational problems before the subjects of studying, the problems within the "narrow objectivity" can not be resolved at all, or such kind of solving is too difficult to solve, for example, the nature and the context of solving problems (scientific approaches to solving problems, creating mathematical models, methods for solving such models, means of solving, application of methods, analysis of the models solution and the right choice, the inspection of solutions, etc. will sink in the conglomeration of technical operations. The problems with integrative content are usually more complicated than the problems of "narrow objectivity." In our problems the index of such difficulty is the essence of educational content, which is disclosed in the previous paragraph. The problems solution proposed in this article requires knowledge of the structural geometry (circle construction, touching two or three laps: with analytic geometry (method of coordinates on the plane; the distance between two points on the coordinate plane; algebra (system drawing irrational equations, method for solving such system, the solution of the system, analysis of the results and the right choose of the desired solution for found criterion, testing

  1. Language context guides memory content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Viorica; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between language and memory was examined by testing accessibility of general knowledge across two languages in bilinguals. Mandarin-English speakers were asked questions such as "name a statue of someone standing with a raised arm while looking into the distance" and were more likely to name the Statue of Liberty when asked in English and the Statue of Mao when asked in Mandarin. Multivalent information (i.e., multiple possible answers to a question) and bivalent information (i.e., two possible answers to a question) were more susceptible to language dependency than univalent information (i.e., one possible answer to a question). Accuracy of retrieval showed language-dependent memory effects in both languages, while speed of retrieval showed language-dependent memory effects only in bilinguals' more proficient language. These findings suggest that memory and language are tightly connected and that linguistic context at the time of learning may become integrated into memory content.

  2. Caffeine content of common beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, M L; McWilliams, M

    1979-01-01

    Tea, coffee, carbonated and chocolate beverages were analyzed for caffeine, and results compared in terms of usual serving sizes. Significant differences in caffeine levels were found to result from the preparation method of coffee or brewing time of tea. It is possible for a cup of tea, instant coffee, or can of cola beverage to have similar caffeine content (55 to 65 mg.); however, the mean values per cup of black tea (28 to 46 mg.) are considerably lower than for brewed coffee (107 to 151 mg.). Caffeine is readily absorbed and can have pharmacologic effects on adults or on children who consume quantities of cola beverages or chocolate. Both preparation method and quantity of beverage consumed should be considered in taking dietary histories or estimating caffeine intake.

  3. Inverse statistics and information content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, H.; Bolgorian, Meysam; Jafari, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    Inverse statistics analysis studies the distribution of investment horizons to achieve a predefined level of return. This distribution provides a maximum investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. There exists a significant difference between inverse statistics of financial market data and a fractional Brownian motion (fBm) as an uncorrelated time-series, which is a suitable criteria to measure information content in financial data. In this paper we perform this analysis for the DJIA and S&P500 as two developed markets and Tehran price index (TEPIX) as an emerging market. We also compare these probability distributions with fBm probability, to detect when the behavior of the stocks are the same as fBm.

  4. Perception of Simultaneous Auditive Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Christian

    Based on a model of pluralistic music, we may approach an aesthetic concept of music, which employs dichotic listening situations. The concept of dichotic listening stems from neuropsychological test conditions in lateralization experiments on brain hemispheres, in which each ear is exposed to a different auditory content. In the framework of such sound experiments, the question which primarily arises concerns a new kind of hearing, which is also conceivable without earphones as a spatial composition, and which may superficially be linked to its degree of complexity. From a psychological perspective, the degree of complexity is correlated with the degree of attention given, with the listener's musical or listening experience and the level of his appreciation. Therefore, we may possibly also expect a measurable increase in physical activity. Furthermore, a dialectic interpretation of such "dualistic" music presents itself.

  5. Psychoactive drug advertising: content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Patrícia C; Vaz, Amanda Cristina R; Noto, Ana Regina; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the human figures portrayed in psychoactive drug advertising in terms of gender, age, ethnic group, and social context. Content analysis for 86 new pieces of printed advertisements released in 2005 was carried out. Fisher exact test was used to analyze the association between categories. There was a preponderance of women (62.8%) who were four times more present in advertisements for antidepressants and anxyolitics than men. Most of the people shown were Caucasian (98.8%) young adults (72%). These people were pictured in leisure activities (46.5%), at home (29%), or in contact with nature (16.2%). The message conveyed was that the drugs treat routinely felt subjective symptoms of discomfort, inducing in an irrational appeal that may affect drug prescription.

  6. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  7. Awareness, Attitudes and Participation of Teaching Staff towards the Open Content Movement in One University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the current awareness of, and participation in, the open content movement at one UK institution for higher education. The open content movement and the open educational resources can be seen as potential methods for reducing time and cost of technology-enhanced learning developments; however, its sustainability and, to…

  8. Increasing the amylose content of maize through silencing of sbe2a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the amylose content of maize through silencing of sbe2a genes. Shuyan Guan, Yiyong Ma, Huijing Liu, Siyan Liu, Guangna Liu, Lina Zhao, Piwu Wang. Abstract. Improved amylose content in maize has been achieved by reducing the starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity via transgenic maize inbred line ...

  9. Reducing teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Debbie

    2011-03-01

    The Teenage Pregnancy Independent Advisory Group (TPIAG) was established in 2000 to advise the government about reducing teenage pregnancy rates and supporting teenage parents to continue with their education. The group reached the end of its tenure in December 2010. This short article highlights some of the key issues from the final report and provides some insights into past achievements and future directions from an interview with Gill Frances, TPIAG's chair.

  10. Interruption Practice Reduces Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    dangers of errors at the PCS. Electronic health record systems are used to reduce certain errors related to poor- handwriting and dosage...Arlington VA 22202-4302 Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to...RESPONSIBLE PERSON a REPORT unclassified b ABSTRACT unclassified c THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39

  11. Obtaining and Organophilisation of Smectite Clays with Reduced Iron Oxide Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karasa Jūlija

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raw clays from the Baltic region are characterized as smectite containing clays with significant amount of naturally occurring impurities that limiting the potential applications of crude Baltic clay resources. Purification of clay samples from Šaltiškių deposit (Venta basin was carried out by varied concentration hydrochloric acid solutions and resulted in fine removal of carbonates and iron oxide. The main idea of this work is to widen the possible applications of local clay resources providing a new type of raw material for further organoclay production.

  12. Doxycycline therapy for abdominal aneurysm: Improved proteolytic balance through reduced neutrophil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul-Hussien, H.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Verheijen, J.H.; Bockel, J.H. van; Geelkerken, R.H.; Lindeman, J.H.N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is thought to play a central role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) initiation. Doxycycline, a tetracycline analogue, has direct MMP-9-inhibiting properties in vitro, and it effectively suppresses AAA development in rodents. Observed inhibition of AAA

  13. Endurance interval training in obese mice reduces muscle inflammation and macrophage content independently of weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Samaan, M. Constantine; Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Ziafazeli, Tahereh; Khan, Mohammad I.; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is associated with chronic low‐grade inflammation that involves infiltration of macrophages into metabolic organs such as skeletal muscle. Exercise enhances skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity independently of weight loss; but its role in regulating muscle inflammation is not fully understood. We hypothesized that exercise training would inhibit skeletal muscle inflammation and alter macrophage infiltration into muscle independently of weight loss. Wild type C57BL/6 male mice...

  14. Method of reducing multipole content in a conductor assembly during manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Rainer

    2013-08-20

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly. The assembly is of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In an example embodiment one or more first coil rows are formed. The assembly has multiple coil rows about an axis with outer coil rows formed about inner coil rows. A determination is made of deviations from specifications associated with the formed one or more first coil rows. One or more deviations correspond to a magnitude of a multipole field component which departs from a field specification. Based on the deviations, one or more wiring patterns are generated for one or more second coil rows to be formed about the one or more first coil rows. The one or more second coil rows are formed in the assembly. The magnitude of each multipole field component that departs from the field specification is offset.

  15. Process for reducing the oxygen content of biomass using molybdenum-based catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention concerns a process for converting biomass into useful organic building blocks for the chemical industry. The process involves the reduction of a polyol wherein at least two of the hydroxyl groups are located on adjacent carbon atoms in the presence of a molybdenum...

  16. Reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum content of releasable Ca2+ in rat soleus muscle fibres after eccentric contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J S; Sahlin, K; Ørtenblad, N

    2007-01-01

    % and 16/100 Hz force ratio by 33%. The eSRCa2+ in fibres from non-stimulated muscles was 45 +/- 5% of the maximal loading capacity. After EC, eSRCa2+ per fibre CSA decreased by 38% (P = 0.05), and the maximal capacity of SR Ca2+ loading was depressed by 32%. There were no effects of EC on either...

  17. Reducing Content Variance and Improving Student Learning Outcomes: The Value of Standardization in a Multisection Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuter, Matthew L.; Chapman, Kenneth J.; Toy, Daniel; Wright, Lauren K.; McGowan, William

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a standardization process for an introductory marketing course with multiple sections. The authors first outline the process used to develop a standardized set of marketing concepts to be used in all introductory marketing classes. They then discuss the benefits to both students and faculty that occur as a result of…

  18. Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I [Greensburg, PA

    2010-07-06

    A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

  19. Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I [Greensburg, PA

    2011-08-23

    A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

  20. Method of reducing multipole content in a conductor assembly during manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Rainer

    2016-05-24

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly. The assembly is of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In an example embodiment one or more first coil rows are formed. The assembly has multiple coil rows about an axis with outer coil rows formed about inner coil rows. A determination is made of deviations from specifications associated with the formed one or more first coil rows. One or more deviations correspond to a magnitude of a multipole field component which departs from a field specification. Based on the deviations, one or more wiring patterns are generated for one or more second coil rows to be formed about the one or more first coil rows. The one or more second coil rows are formed in the assembly. The magnitude of each multipole field component that departs from the field specification is offset.

  1. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Abimbola Allison; Aliyar Fouladkhah

    2018-01-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium...

  2. Reducing the acrylamide content of processed potato products through germplasm improvement: opportunities, challenges and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processed potato products, including french fries and potato chips, make a substantial contribution to total dietary acrylamide. Health safety concerns raised by acrylamide in food increase financial risks to the potato industry and have encouraged industry to take a proactive response toward acryla...

  3. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  4. 75 FR 41989 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... 111 Content of Periodicals Mail AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal....3, to update present ``content requirements'' on materials eligible for mailing at Periodicals prices with authorized Periodicals publications. DATES: Effective September 7, 2010. FOR FURTHER...

  5. The contents of whiting stomachs: statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Degnbol, P

    1992-01-01

    .... The total stomach contents from 8292 non-regurgitated stomachs was measured. The distribution of the stomach contents/body weight ratio was found to conform to a delta distribution for most length-time-station combinations...

  6. Airline Facebook pages – a content analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grančay, Martin

    .... This topic has not been covered by scientific literature so far.This paper uses content analysis to identify types of content provided by airlines on their official Facebook pages and extent of services offered...

  7. Content Espresso: A Distributed Large File Sharing System for Digital Content Productions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ANDO, Daisuke; TERAOKA, Fumio; KANEKO, Kunitake

    2017-01-01

    With rapid growth of producing high-resolution digital contents such as Full HD, 4K, and 8K movies, the demand for low cost and high throughput sharing of content files is increasing at digital content productions...

  8. Magnesium content of mononuclear blood cells in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallai, V; Sarchielli, P; Morucci, P; Abbritti, G

    1994-03-01

    Recent research has shown that magnesium levels in serum, salivary secretions and red blood cells are reduced in migraine patients with and without aura, both ictally and interictally. This suggests that lower magnesium levels can contribute to the etiopathogenetic mechanisms underlying migraine attacks. It has been suggested that mononuclear magnesium content is a reliable index of magnesium nutritional status, as it is more closely related to the total body stores than other biochemical indices. Therefore we determined mononuclear magnesium content in adult migraine patients with and without aura, in headache-free periods and, in a number of patients, during attacks. Migraine patients with and without aura, assessed in interictal periods, had a reduced mononuclear magnesium content compared to age-matched healthy control subjects. No significant variations were observed between ictal and interictal periods in migraine patients with aura and without aura. The lower magnesium content in mononuclear cells could indirectly indicate the reduction of brain magnesium concentration, which has recently been demonstrated in the course of migraine.

  9. Optimal content delivery with network coding

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Derek; Ho, Tracey; Cathey, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    We present a unified linear program formulation for optimal content delivery in content delivery networks (CDNs), taking into account various costs and constraints associated with content dissemination from the origin server to storage nodes, data storage, and the eventual fetching of content from storage nodes by end users. Our formulation can be used to achieve a variety of performance goals and system behavior, including the bounding of fetch delay, load balancing, and robustness against...

  10. Smart Content Factory—Approaching the Vision

    OpenAIRE

    G. Güntner; Reich, S.

    2005-01-01

    In our paper we describe the objectives and achievements of a project called “Smart Content Factory”. The project aims at the creation of a knowledge-aware system infrastructure to support the utilization of audiovisual content. We will provide an overview of the project objectives and introduce “digital content engineering” as a scientific discipline dealing with concepts, methodologies, techniques and tools for a quantifiable approach towards the vision of smart content, thereby addressing ...

  11. Enabling DRM-preserving Digital content Redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan Nair, S.; Popescu, B.C.; Gamage, C.D.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the process of online digital content distribution has involved a limited number of centralised distributors selling protected contents and licenses authorising the use of the se contents, to consumers. In this paper, we extend this model by introducing a security scheme that enables

  12. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 false Content. 1506.303-2... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1506.303-2 Content. The... incorporate the evaluation of responses to the synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of the...

  13. 49 CFR 1121.3 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Content. 1121.3 Section 1121.3 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE RAIL EXEMPTION PROCEDURES § 1121.3 Content. Link to an amendment published at 78.... For the convenience of the user, the added and revised text is set forth as follows: § 1121.3 Content...

  14. 46 CFR 160.041-4 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 160.041-4 Section 160.041-4 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-4 Contents. (a... Recommendation R178-41, properly labeled to designate the name, size of contents, and method of use, and shall...

  15. 46 CFR 160.054-4 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 160.054-4 Section 160.054-4 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-4 Contents. (a) Individual cartons. Cartons and their contents shall be the type indicated in Specification...

  16. 46 CFR 160.041-4 - Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents. 160.041-4 Section 160.041-4 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-4 Contents. (a... Recommendation R178-41, properly labeled to designate the name, size of contents, and method of use, and shall...

  17. Open content licensing: from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guibault, L.; Angelopoulos, C.

    2011-01-01

    Although open content licences only account for a fraction of all copyright licences currently in force in the copyright world, the mentality change initated by the open content movement is here to stay. To promote the use of open content licences, it is important to better understand the

  18. RSS: Lo-Fi Content Syndication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannan, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    Rich Site Summary (RSS) is an XML format designed to let content providers share news headlines and content with other sites without having to create a completely new Web page. Discusses three issues to consider before creating a newsfeed: content integrity, bandwidth issues, and spellcheck. Identifies resources for getting started and the two…

  19. Disciplinary Literacy and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Michelle; Indrisano, Roselmina

    2013-01-01

    This review reports selected literature on theory, research, and practice in disciplinary literacy, primarily reading. The authors consider the ways this literature can be viewed through the lens of Lee S. Shulman's theory of Pedagogical Content Knowledge, which includes: subject matter content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and…

  20. Breast milk nutrient content and infancy growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prentice, Philippa; Ong, Ken K.; Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Tol, van Eric A.F.; Vervoort, Jacques; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Dunger, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Benefits of human breast milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient content. We tested the hypothesis that differential HM total calorie content (TCC) or macronutrient contents may be associated with infancy growth. Methods: HM hindmilk

  1. 48 CFR 1506.303-2 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Content. 1506.303-2... PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 1506.303-2 Content. The... incorporate the evaluation of responses to the synopsis in the JOFOC. (See 1506.371(d) for contents of the...

  2. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the volume of wine within the container, except that the following tolerances shall be allowed: (1... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.37 Net contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is...

  3. An Introduction to Content Analysis. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemler, Steve

    This digest provides an introduction to content analysis, a systematic, replicable technique for compressing many words of a text into fewer content categories based on explicit rules of coding. This allows inferences to be made that can then be corroborated using other methods of data collection. In a technical sense, content analysis is not…

  4. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  5. On contention resolution in the data vortex optical interconnection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Assaf; Bergman, Keren

    2007-06-01

    Alternative contention resolution techniques are studied in the data vortex interconnection network, namely, the insertion of fiber-delay-line (FDL) buffers into the switching nodes. The performance of each technique is evaluated according to relevant performance metrics: acceptance rate, mean latency, and latency variance. A detailed discussion concludes that while traditional data vortex networks perform better in terms of throughput, FDL-based switching nodes have a favorable impact in reducing the system latency.

  6. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, R C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2009-08-01

    Grape juice processing by-products, grape seed and pomace are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against chronic disease. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monomers and dimers at the expense of large molecular weight procyanidin oligomers and polymers in grape seed and pomace. Extrusion variables, temperature (160, 170, and 180 degrees C in grape seed, and 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C in pomace) and screw speed (100, 150, and 200 rpm in both) were tested using mixtures of grape seed as well as pomace with decorticated white sorghum flour at a ratio of 30 : 70 and moisture content of 45%. Samples of grape seed and pomace were analyzed for procyanidin composition before and after extrusion, and total anthocyanins were determined in pomace. Additionally, chromatograms from diol and normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography were compared for the separation of procyanidins. Extrusion of both grape by-products increased the biologically important monomer and dimers considerably across all temperature and screw speeds. Highest monomer content resulted when extruded at a temperature of 170 degrees C and screw speed of 200 rpm, which were 120% and 80% higher than the unextruded grape seed and pomace, respectively. Increases in monomer and dimer contents were apparently the result of reduced polymer contents, which declined by 27% to 54%, or enhanced extraction facilitated by disruption of the food matrix during extrusion. Extrusion processing reduced total anthocyanins in pomace by 18% to 53%. Extrusion processing can be used to increase procyanidin monomer and dimer contents in grape seed and pomace. Procyanidins in grape by-products have many health benefits, but most are present as large molecular weight compounds, which are poorly absorbed. Extrusion processing appears to be a promising technology to increase levels of the bioactive low molecular weight

  7. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  8. The effect of clothing care activities on textile formaldehyde content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Rachel M; Nelson, Mindy L; McKinley, Meg A; Anderson, Grace L; Keenan, James J

    2013-01-01

    Textiles are commonly treated with formaldehyde-based residues that may potentially induce allergic contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. This study examined the initial formaldehyde content in clothing and resulting changes due to care activities. Twenty clothing articles were examined and 17 of them did not have detectable levels of formaldehyde. One shirt contained a formaldehyde concentration of 3172 ppm, and two pairs of pants had formaldehyde concentrations of 1391 ppm and 86 ppm. The two highest results represent formaldehyde levels that are up to 40-fold greater than international textile regulations. The two items with the greatest formaldehyde content were washed and dried in a manner similar to that used by consumers, including hand and machine washing in hot or cold water followed by air or machine drying. The washing and drying procedures reduced formaldehyde levels to between 26 and 72% of untreated controls. Differences in the temperature or type of washing and drying did not result in a clear trend in the subsequent formaldehyde content. In addition, samples were hot ironed, which did not affect the formaldehyde content as significantly. Understanding the formaldehyde content in clothing and its potential reduction through care activities may be useful for manufacturers and formaldehyde-sensitive individuals.

  9. Content and fluorescence of chlorophyll in eucalypt exposed to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the response of eucalypt clonal (Eucalyptus urograndis regarding on chlorophyll content and fluorescence of chlorophyll after glyphosate spraying to verify if the herbicide affects the photochemical process of photosynthesis. Plants of four eucalypt clonal (C219, GG100, I144, and I224, having four expanded leaves, were sprayed with glyphosate in range of doses varying from 0 up to 720 g ae ha-1. We evaluated the chlorophyll content and the relation Fv/Fm during 30 days after spraying glyphosate. The chlorophyll content of the clone C219 reduced by 12% at doses ≥ 360 g ae ha-1. In addition, chlorophyll content was higher (≥ 12% in all clonal from 7 days after spraying. The relation Fv/Fm did not alter after glyphosate spraying. We concluded that the efficiency of the photosystem II is not influenced by glyphosate in any studied eucalypt clonal, although doses of glyphosate from 360 g ae ha-1 affect the chlorophyll content of the clonal C219.

  10. Chemometric analysis of metal contents in different types of chocolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevrić Lidija R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the contents of various metals (Cu, Ni, Pb and Al in 38 different milk chocolate samples were studied using a chemometric approach. The chemometric expressions were generated using a training set of 25 chocolate samples and the predictive ability of the resulting models was evaluated against a test set of 13 chocolate samples. The chemometric analysis was based on the application of multiple linear regression analysis (MLR. MLR was performed in order to select the significant models for predicting the metal contents. The MLR equations that represent the content of one metal as a function of the contents of other metals were established. High agreement between experimental and predicted values, obtained in the validation procedure, indicated the good quality of the models. It enables the researchers to establish reliable relationships between the contents of various metals which can be used for their prediction in different types of chocolate prior to their analysis. This can reduce the trial-and-error element and experimental costs in the production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31055, br. 172012 i br. 172014

  11. Feature representation and compression for content-based retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hua; Ortega, Antonio

    2000-12-01

    In semantic content-based image/video browsing and navigation systems, efficient mechanisms to represent and manage a large collection of digital images/videos are needed. Traditional keyword-based indexing describes the content of multimedia data through annotations such as text or keywords extracted manually by the user from a controlled vocabulary. This textual indexing technique lacks the flexibility of satisfying various kinds of queries requested by database users and also requires huge amount of work for updating the information. Current content-based retrieval systems often extract a set of features such as color, texture, shape motion, speed, and position from the raw multimedia data automatically and store them as content descriptors. This content-based metadata differs from text-based metadata in that it supports wider varieties of queries and can be extracted automatically, thus providing a promising approach for efficient database access and management. When the raw data volume grows very large, explicitly extracting the content-information and storing it as metadata along with the images will improve querying performance since metadata requires much less storage than the raw image data and thus will be easier to manipulate. In this paper we maintain that storing metadata together with images will enable effective information management and efficient remote query. We also show, using a texture classification example, that this side information can be compressed while guaranteeing that the desired query accuracy is satisfied. We argue that the compact representation of the image contents not only reduces significantly the storage and transmission rate requirement, but also facilitates certain types of queries. Algorithms are developed for optimized compression of this texture feature metadata given that the goal is to maximize the classification performance for a given rate budget.

  12. Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongjian; Acton, Scott T

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides the derivation of speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), a diffusion method tailored to ultrasonic and radar imaging applications. SRAD is the edge-sensitive diffusion for speckled images, in the same way that conventional anisotropic diffusion is the edge-sensitive diffusion for images corrupted with additive noise. We first show that the Lee and Frost filters can be cast as partial differential equations, and then we derive SRAD by allowing edge-sensitive anisotropic diffusion within this context. Just as the Lee and Frost filters utilize the coefficient of variation in adaptive filtering, SRAD exploits the instantaneous coefficient of variation, which is shown to be a function of the local gradient magnitude and Laplacian operators. We validate the new algorithm using both synthetic and real linear scan ultrasonic imagery of the carotid artery. We also demonstrate the algorithm performance with real SAR data. The performance measures obtained by means of computer simulation of carotid artery images are compared with three existing speckle reduction schemes. In the presence of speckle noise, speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion excels over the traditional speckle removal filters and over the conventional anisotropic diffusion method in terms of mean preservation, variance reduction, and edge localization.

  13. An emerging role: the nurse content curator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Beth A

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, the inverted or "flipped" classroom, assumes that students are no longer acquiring knowledge exclusively through textbooks or lectures. Instead, they are seeking out the vast amount of free information available to them online (the very essence of open source) to supplement learning gleaned in textbooks and lectures. With so much open-source content available to nursing faculty, it benefits the faculty to use readily available, technologically advanced content. The nurse content curator supports nursing faculty in its use of such content. Even more importantly, the highly paid, time-strapped faculty is not spending an inordinate amount of effort surfing for and evaluating content. The nurse content curator does that work, while the faculty uses its time more effectively to help students vet the truth, make meaning of the content, and learn to problem-solve. Brooks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Towards Player-Driven Procedural Content Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor

    Generating immersive game content is one of the ultimate goals for a game designer. This goal can be achieved taken into account that players’ perceptions of the same game differ according to a number of factors including: players’ personality, playing styles, expertise and cultural background. One...... of generating personalized content for the player: how can we measure player experience, how can we represent game content, playing style and the in-game interaction, what features should be used to capture player experience and how can they be extracted, how can we model the unknown function between game...... content, player behavior and affect, how can we generate game content that is tailored to particular player needs and style, how often game content should be adapted, and how the adaptation mechanism can be tested? We focus on 2D platform game genre as a testbed for our player-driven procedural content...

  15. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  16. Reducing GWAS Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelett, Dennis J; Conti, David V; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A; Coetzee, Gerhard A

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 2015 (1,2) from our groups.

  17. Embodied intervention reduce depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  18. 78 FR 22518 - Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... COMMISSION Request for Information Regarding Third Party Testing for Lead Content, Phthalate Content, and the... primarily intended for children 12 years old and younger, the lead content must be no greater than 100 parts per million (ppm), and the lead content of paints or surface coatings must be no greater than 90 ppm...

  19. Using Content Maps to Measure Content Development in Physical Education: Validation and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip; Dervent, Fatih; Lee, Yun Soo; Ko, Bomna; Kim, Insook; Tao, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports on our efforts toward extending the conceptual understanding of content development in physical education by validating content maps as a measurement tool, examining new categories of instructional tasks to describe content development and validating formulae that can be used to evaluate depth of content development.…

  20. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchu, Nancy; Patel, Bhavini; Sebastian, Blaise; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium.

  1. Microbial Biofertilizer Decreases Nicotine Content by Improving Soil Nitrogen Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Cui; Chen, Anwei; Chen, Guiqiu; Li, Huanke; Guan, Song; He, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Biofertilizers have been widely used in many countries for their benefit to soil biological and physicochemical properties. A new microbial biofertilizer containing Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Bacillus thuringiensis was prepared to decrease nicotine content in tobacco leaves by regulating soil nitrogen supply. Soil NO 3 - -N, NH 4 + -N, nitrogen supply-related enzyme activities, and nitrogen accumulation in plant leaves throughout the growing period were investigated to explore the mechanism of nicotine reduction. The experimental results indicated that biofertilizer can reduce the nicotine content in tobacco leaves, with a maximum decrement of 16-18 % in mature upper leaves. In the meantime, the total nitrogen in mature lower and middle leaves increased with the application of biofertilizer, while an opposite result was observed in upper leaves. Protein concentration in leaves had similar fluctuation to that of total nitrogen in response to biofertilizer. NO 3 - -N content and nitrate reductase activity in biofertilizer-amended soil increased by 92.3 and 42.2 %, respectively, compared to those in the control, whereas the NH 4 + -N and urease activity decreased by 37.8 and 29.3 %, respectively. Nitrogen uptake was improved in the early growing stage, but this phenomenon was not observed during the late growth period. Nicotine decrease is attributing to the adjustment of biofertilizer in soil nitrogen supply and its uptake in tobacco, which result in changes of nitrogen content as well as its distribution in tobacco leaves. The application of biofertilizer containing P. chrysosporium and B. thuringiensis can reduce the nicotine content and improve tobacco quality, which may provide some useful information for tobacco cultivation.

  2. Factors affecting the methanol content and yield of plum brandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Woodams, Edward E; Hang, Yong D

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of plum cultivar, harvest year, and plum component on the methanol content and the yield of plum brandy. Seven plum cultivars (Geneva Mirabelle, French Damson, Pozegaca, Oblinaya, Early Golden, Lohr, and Rosy Gage) grown in the Finger Lakes fruit region of New York State were processed into mash and juice. The samples of plum mash or juice were fermented with commercial Red Star wine yeast Montrachet (Sachharomyces cerevisiae Davis 522) for 12 d. The fermented samples were distilled, and the distillates were analyzed for methanol, ethanol, and higher alcohols by high-performance liquid chromatography. Duncan's multiple range tests show significant differences in the methanol content and the yield of plum brandy made from 7 plum cultivars. The harvest year also had a significant effect on the methanol content and the yield of plum brandy. Student's t-test results indicate that plum juices gave a lower methanol content of brandy than plum mashes without significantly reducing the brandy yield. The results of the current research can be used by the industry to select the better plum cultivar and to adopt the process to improve the product yield and quality. The brandy industry can apply the results of the current research to improve product yield and to reduce the methanol content of plum brandy. The economic benefits to the brandy producers adopting the brandy production process will be significant due to the sales of new products with an acceptable level of methanol. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Effect of Tantalum content on the low cycle fatigue properties of CLAM steel at 823 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Xiangwei [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Liu, Shaojun, E-mail: shaojun.liu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Zhao, Yanyun; Wang, Kun [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The fatigue life initially decreased and then increased as the Ta content was increased from 0.027 wt% to 0.18 wt%. • The softening rate had declined with Ta content increased and the reduced softening rate was attributed to the increased number of Ta-rich MX particles. • The grain size and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} were closely associated with the Ta content. • The crack distribution was quite sensitive to the Ta content. - Abstract: The effect of tantalum (Ta) content on the low cycle fatigue (LCF) properties of CLAM steel at 823 K was investigated in this paper. Low cycle fatigue tests were carried out on four ingots of CLAM steel with Ta contents of 0.027 wt%, 0.078 wt%, 0.15 wt% and 0.18 wt%, respectively. The results showed that the fatigue life and softening behavior of CLAM steel were influenced by Ta content. The fatigue life initially decreased and then increased as the Ta content was increased from 0.027 wt% to 0.18 wt%. The softening rate had declined with Ta content increased and the reduced softening rate was attributed to the increased number of Ta-rich MX particles.

  4. Changes in amylase activity starch and sugars contents in mango fruits pulp cv. Tommy Atkins with spongy tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Luiz Carlos de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in amylase activity, starch and reducing and non-reducing sugars contents were monitored during ripening of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.. The climateric raising in mango fruit is marked by an appreciable increase in the activity of amylase, reducing and non-reducing sugars contents and decrease in the starch content. The fruit affected with spongy tissue exhibited much lower amylase activity and reducing and non-reducing sugars, but exhibited much higher starch content during storage at 12 ± 2° C and 90 ± 5% RH for 28 days, when compared to healthy tissue of ?Tommy Atkins?. Whether this is caused due to adverse effects on certain enzyme activities during ripening is not clearly known. These dates showed that carbohydrate metabolism is an important feature during ripening of mango.

  5. Content Delivery and Vertical Integration in O-L Content Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Lanzi, Diego; Marzo, Massimiliano

    2004-01-01

    On-line content delivery and vertical alliances between conduit and content providers are nowadays crucial issues in digital markets. In this paper, we discuss and compare a push and a pull model for on-line content delivery in the case of non-zero marginal cost for network transits because of network services for content delivery (like data caching). Under both models, we show that rationales for vertical strategic integration between conduit and content providers phase out in successive mon...

  6. Genomic Prediction of Sunflower Hybrids Oil Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mangin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of hybrid performance using incomplete factorial mating designs is widely used in breeding programs including different heterotic groups. Based on the general combining ability (GCA of the parents, predictions are accurate only if the genetic variance resulting from the specific combining ability is small and both parents have phenotyped descendants. Genomic selection (GS can predict performance using a model trained on both phenotyped and genotyped hybrids that do not necessarily include all hybrid parents. Therefore, GS could overcome the issue of unknown parent GCA. Here, we compared the accuracy of classical GCA-based and genomic predictions for oil content of sunflower seeds using several GS models. Our study involved 452 sunflower hybrids from an incomplete factorial design of 36 female and 36 male lines. Re-sequencing of parental lines allowed to identify 468,194 non-redundant SNPs and to infer the hybrid genotypes. Oil content was observed in a multi-environment trial (MET over 3 years, leading to nine different environments. We compared GCA-based model to different GS models including female and male genomic kinships with the addition of the female-by-male interaction genomic kinship, the use of functional knowledge as SNPs in genes of oil metabolic pathways, and with epistasis modeling. When both parents have descendants in the training set, the predictive ability was high even for GCA-based prediction, with an average MET value of 0.782. GS performed slightly better (+0.2%. Neither the inclusion of the female-by-male interaction, nor functional knowledge of oil metabolism, nor epistasis modeling improved the GS accuracy. GS greatly improved predictive ability when one or both parents were untested in the training set, increasing GCA-based predictive ability by 10.4% from 0.575 to 0.635 in the MET. In this scenario, performing GS only considering SNPs in oil metabolic pathways did not improve whole genome GS prediction but

  7. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  8. The energy content of restaurant foods without stated calorie information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Gary, Christine E; Fierstein, Jamie L; Equi, Ashley; Kussmaul, Carolyn; Dallal, Gerard E; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-07-22

    National recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake through self-monitoring food consumption. However, little information is available on the energy content of foods offered by nonchain restaurants, which account for approximately 50% of restaurant locations in the United States. To measure the energy content of foods from independent and small-chain restaurants that do not provide stated information on energy content. We used bomb calorimetry to determine the dietary energy content of the 42 most frequently purchased meals from the 9 most common restaurant categories. Independent and small-chain restaurants were randomly selected, and 157 individual meals were analyzed. Area within 15 miles of downtown Boston. A random sample of independent and small-chain restaurants. Dietary energy. All meal categories provided excessive dietary energy. The mean energy content of individual meals was 1327 (95% CI, 1248-1406) kcal, equivalent to 66% of typical daily energy requirements. We found a significant effect of food category on meal energy (P ≤ .05), and 7.6% of meals provided more than 100% of typical daily energy requirements. Within-meal variability was large (average SD, 271 kcal), and we found no significant effect of restaurant establishment or size. In addition, meal energy content averaged 49% greater than those of popular meals from the largest national chain restaurants (P restaurants have been criticized for offering meals with excess dietary energy. This study finds that independent and small-chain restaurants, which provide no nutrition information, also provide excessive dietary energy in amounts apparently greater than popular meals from chain restaurants or information in national food databases. A national requirement for accurate calorie labeling in all restaurants may discourage menus offering unhealthy portions and would allow consumers to make informed choices about ordering meals that promote weight

  9. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

    2008-04-18

    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  10. Reducing medical waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrardy, Julie; Hillanbrand, Mary; Myers, Sandra; Nussbaum, George F

    2010-06-01

    Medical waste is a necessary by-product of any hospital environment; however, the majority of regulated medical waste is produced in the OR from the use of disposable surgical supplies (eg, drapes, gowns, basins, gloves, sponges). We conducted a concept comparison project in the ORs of two large medical centers in Bethesda, Maryland, and Washington, DC, to evaluate the effects of using reusable surgical basins, gowns, and table and Mayo stand covers in place of disposable products. Survey results indicated that surgeons and surgical technologists found the reusable products to be preferable to the disposable products currently in use. In addition, using reusable products provided a means to decrease regulated medical waste generated in the OR by an average of 65% as well as reduce the cost of waste disposal. AORN recommends evaluating the environmental effects of using reusable, reposable, and disposable products; our findings provide evidence that may be useful to surgical facilities that seek to adopt a "green" approach. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. TV content analysis techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of digital multimedia technologies has not only revolutionized the production and distribution of audiovisual content, but also created the need to efficiently analyze TV programs to enable applications for content managers and consumers. Leaving no stone unturned, TV Content Analysis: Techniques and Applications provides a detailed exploration of TV program analysis techniques. Leading researchers and academics from around the world supply scientifically sound treatment of recent developments across the related subject areas--including systems, architectures, algorithms,

  12. Towards art content in original graphic arts

    OpenAIRE

    Grdina, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Graphic art defines numerous graphic art techniques; from classical original graphic art techniques to the new media techniques. The new media reproduction and communication capacity influences contemporary art works in such way that more attention is on non-artistic content, while artistic content with its visual efficiency becomes less important. Reproductibility is one of the non-artistic contents which plays a key role in original graphic arts, where it is a means of making o...

  13. Gaucher disease: plasmalogen levels in relation to primary lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraitou, Marina; Dimitriou, Evangelia; Dekker, Nick; Monopolis, Ioannis; Aerts, Johannes; Michelakakis, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Plasmalogens represent a unique class of phospholipids. Reduced red blood cell plasmalogen levels in Gaucher disease patients were reported, correlating to total disease burden. The relation between plasmalogen abnormalities in Gaucher disease patients and primary glycosphingolipid abnormalities,

  14. Impact of Online User-Generated Content on Retailers and Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwark, Young

    2013-01-01

    Online user-generated content has been ubiquitous. Consumers are eager to not only listen to the other consumers but provide opinion to the public. The former reduces the consumers' uncertainty about products and the latter reduces the firms' uncertainty about consumers. We examine the effect of online product reviews, a most common form of…

  15. Using Content Distribution Networks for Astronomy Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, M.; Christiansen, L. L.; André, M.

    2015-09-01

    Thousands of people from all over the world search the internet on a daily basis for the newest discoveries in astronomy: be it in the form of press releases, high resolution images, videos or even planetarium fulldome content. The growing amount of data available, combined with the increasing number of media files and users distributed across the globe, leads to a significant decrease in speed for those users located furthest from the server delivering the content. One solution for bringing astronomical content to users faster is to use a content delivery network.

  16. Content-Based Personalization Services Integrating Folksonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musto, Cataldo; Narducci, Fedelucio; Lops, Pasquale; de Gemmis, Marco; Semeraro, Giovanni

    Basic content-based personalization consists in matching up the attributes of a user profile, in which preferences and interests are stored, with the attributes of a content object. The Web 2.0 (r)evolution has changed the game for personalization, from ‘elitary’ Web 1.0, written by few and read by many, to web content generated by everyone (user-generated content - UGC), since the role of people has evolved from passive consumers of information to that of active contributors.

  17. Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactive content, hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of whole plant extract of Micromeria fruticosa (L) Druce ssp Serpyllifolia F Lamiaceae against Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

  18. Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and antinutrient content of pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) flour blends fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum , Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis.

  19. Does chemotherapy reduce stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Francisco; Costa, G; Pérez, F J

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychological care needs of cancer patients throughout the healthcare process: after diagnosis, after medical treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) and during follow-up. A total of 703 ambulatory cancer patients were assessed in this study. The inclusion period was from April 1, 2005 to April 30, 2007. The first psychological scales used were the 14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS), which has two sub-scales for anxiety (7 items) and for depression (7 items). All patients with a score ≥ 14 were assessed through the Structured Clinical Interview for Psychiatric Disorder (SCID-I) of the DSM-IV. All data were compared with sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Of the 703 cancer patients in the study, 349 were men and 354 women, with a mean age of 53 years. The median time between the cancer diagnosis and our clinical interview was 6 months (range, 12 days to 190 months). Overall, the screening tools indicated that one in four patients needed psychological care. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was adjustment disorder (129 cases), whereas 10 patients were diagnosed with major depression. Using a HADS cut-off score of > 7 for anxiety and depression, 28% and 17% of patients, respectively, were classified as "possible clinical cases." Risk factors for distress included age constipation, and a low performance status. However, chemotherapy treatment was found to be a protector against distress in cancer patients. Chemotherapy treatment is interpreted by the patients as a protector against cancer, thereby reducing distress levels.

  20. Dropping macadamia nuts-in-shell reduces kernel roasting quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, David A; Wallace, Helen M

    2010-10-01

    Macadamia nuts ('nuts-in-shell') are subjected to many impacts from dropping during postharvest handling, resulting in damage to the raw kernel. The effect of dropping on roasted kernel quality is unknown. Macadamia nuts-in-shell were dropped in various combinations of moisture content, number of drops and receiving surface in three experiments. After dropping, samples from each treatment and undropped controls were dry oven-roasted for 20 min at 130 °C, and kernels were assessed for colour, mottled colour and surface damage. Dropping nuts-in-shell onto a bed of nuts-in-shell at 3% moisture content or 20% moisture content increased the percentage of dark roasted kernels. Kernels from nuts dropped first at 20%, then 10% moisture content, onto a metal plate had increased mottled colour. Dropping nuts-in-shell at 3% moisture content onto nuts-in-shell significantly increased surface damage. Similarly, surface damage increased for kernels dropped onto a metal plate at 20%, then at 10% moisture content. Postharvest dropping of macadamia nuts-in-shell causes concealed cellular damage to kernels, the effects not evident until roasting. This damage provides the reagents needed for non-enzymatic browning reactions. Improvements in handling, such as reducing the number of drops and improving handling equipment, will reduce cellular damage and after-roast darkening. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.