Anne-Laura van Harmelen
Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications.We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17.We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms.Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and girls. Therefore
Mohr, Bettina; Stahl, Benjamin; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann
Background. Patients with brain lesions and resultant chronic aphasia frequently suffer from depression. However, no effective interventions are available to target neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with aphasia who have severe language and communication deficits. Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy of 2 different methods of speech and language therapy in reducing symptoms of depression in aphasia on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) using secondary analysis (BILAT-1 trial). Methods. In a crossover randomized controlled trial, 18 participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia following left-hemispheric brain lesions were assigned to 2 consecutive treatments: (1) intensive language-action therapy (ILAT), emphasizing communicative language use in social interaction, and (2) intensive naming therapy (INT), an utterance-centered standard method. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups, receiving both treatments in counterbalanced order. Both interventions were applied for 3.5 hours daily over a period of 6 consecutive working days. Outcome measures included depression scores on the BDI and a clinical language test (Aachen Aphasia Test). Results. Patients showed a significant decrease in symptoms of depression after ILAT but not after INT, which paralleled changes on clinical language tests. Treatment-induced decreases in depression scores persisted when controlling for individual changes in language performance. Conclusions. Intensive training of behaviorally relevant verbal communication in social interaction might help reduce symptoms of depression in patients with chronic nonfluent aphasia. PMID:29192534
Battes, Linda C; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M
Beta blocker therapy may induce depressive symptoms, although current evidence is conflicting. We examined the association between beta blocker therapy and depressive symptoms in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients and the extent to which there is a dose-response relationship between...... beta blocker dose and depressive symptoms....
Iverson, Katherine M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Resick, Patricia A.; Suvak, Michael K.; Smith, Kamala F.; Monson, Candice M.
Objective: Women who develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression subsequent to interpersonal trauma are at heightened risk for future intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms, yet limited research has investigated the…
Battes, L.C.; Pedersen, S.S.; Oemrawsingh, R.M.; van Geuns, R.-J.M.; Al Amri, I.; Regar, E.; de Jaegere, P.T.; Serruys, P.W.; van Domburg, R.T.
Background Beta blocker therapy may induce depressive symptoms, although current evidence is conflicting. We examined the association between beta blocker therapy and depressive symptoms in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients and the extent to which there is a dose–response
Bakker, Jindra Myrthe; Goossens, Liesbet; Lange, Iris; Michielse, Stijn; Schruers, Koen; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Marcelis, Machteld; van Amelsvoort, Therese; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke
Subclinical symptoms of depression are common in emerging adults. Anhedonia is one such symptom that specifically puts one at risk for developing clinical depression. Recently, important progress has been made in elucidating the underlying neurobiology of anhedonia. This progress rests on many
Battes, Linda C; Pedersen, Susanne S; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M; van Geuns, Robert J; Al Amri, Ibtihal; Regar, Evelyn; de Jaegere, Peter P T; Serruys, Patrick; van Domburg, Ron T
Beta blocker therapy may induce depressive symptoms, although current evidence is conflicting. We examined the association between beta blocker therapy and depressive symptoms in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients and the extent to which there is a dose-response relationship between beta blocker dose and depressive symptoms. Patients treated with PCI (N=685) completed the depression scale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 1 and 12 months post PCI. Information about type and dose of beta blocker use was extracted from medical records. Of all patients, 68% (466/685) were on beta blocker therapy at baseline. In adjusted analysis, beta blocker use at 1 month post PCI (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.53-1.26) was not significantly associated with depressive symptoms. At 12 months post PCI, there was a significant relationship between beta blocker use and depressive symptoms (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.84), with beta blocker therapy associated with a 49% risk reduction in depressive symptoms. There was a dose-response relationship between beta blocker dose and depressive symptoms 12 months post PCI, with the risk reduction in depressive symptoms in relation to a low dose being 36% (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.37-1.10) and 58% (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.24-0.76) in relation to a high dose. Patients treated with beta blocker therapy were less likely to experience depressive symptoms 12 months post PCI, with there being a dose-response relationship with a higher dose providing a more pronounced protective effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Heckman, Timothy G; Heckman, Bernadette D; Anderson, Timothy; Lovejoy, Travis I; Markowitz, John C; Shen, Ye; Sutton, Mark
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive rural individuals carry a 1.3-times greater risk of a depressive diagnosis than their urban counterparts. This randomized clinical trial tested whether telephone-administered interpersonal psychotherapy (tele-IPT) acutely relieved depressive symptoms in 132 HIV-infected rural persons from 28 states diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), partially remitted MDD, or dysthymic disorder. Patients were randomized to either 9 sessions of one-on-one tele-IPT (n = 70) or standard care (SC; n = 62). A series of intent-to-treat (ITT), therapy completer, and sensitivity analyses assessed changes in depressive symptoms, interpersonal problems, and social support from pre- to postintervention. Across all analyses, tele-IPT patients reported significantly lower depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems than SC controls; 22% of tele-IPT patients were categorized as a priori "responders" who reported 50% or higher reductions in depressive symptoms compared to only 4% of SC controls in ITT analyses. Brief tele-IPT acutely decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in depressed rural people living with HIV.
Chida, Yoichi; Schrempft, Stephanie; Steptoe, Andrew
This randomized controlled trial aimed to examine the effect of the Happy Science doctrine-based group psychotherapy on depressive symptoms in 118 Japanese mental disorder outpatients. The treatment group (n = 58) took part in five 90-min sessions at one-week intervals, while the control group (n = 60) received standard care including medication. Depressive symptoms were assessed before the intervention, 5 weeks after the intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Compared to the control group, the treatment group showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms both at post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. In conclusion, this group psychotherapy might be of benefit in treating depressive symptoms.
Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.
Charkhandeh, Mansoureh; Talib, Mansor Abu; Hunt, Caroline Jane
The main aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a complementary medicine method Reiki, in reducing depression scores in adolescents. We recruited 188 adolescent patients who were 12-17 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT, Reiki or wait-list. Depression scores were assessed before and after the 12 week interventions or wait-list. CBT showed a significantly greater decrease in Child Depression Inventory (CDI) scores across treatment than both Reiki (peffect for Reiki than did female participants. Both CBT and Reiki were effective in reducing the symptoms of depression over the treatment period, with effect for CBT greater than Reiki. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for treatment of depression using both cognitive and complementary medicine approaches. However, research that tests complementary therapies over a follow-up period and against a placebo treatment is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dix, Theodore; Moed, Anat; Anderson, Edward R
This study examined whether, as mothers' depressive symptoms increase, their expressions of negative emotion to children increasingly reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to minimize ongoing stress or discomfort. In multiple interactions over 2 years, negative affect expressed by 319 mothers and their children was observed across variations in mothers' depressive symptoms, the aversiveness of children's immediate behavior, and observed differences in children's general negative reactivity. As expected, depressive symptoms predicted reduced maternal negative reactivity when child behavior was low in aversiveness, particularly with children who were high in negative reactivity. Depressive symptoms predicted high negative reactivity and steep increases in negative reactivity as the aversiveness of child behavior increased, particularly when high and continued aversiveness from the child was expected (i.e., children were high in negative reactivity). The findings are consistent with the proposal that deficits in parenting competence as depressive symptoms increase reflect aversion sensitivity and motivation to avoid conflict and suppress children's aversive behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.
Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Visser, M.; Brouwer, I. A.; Snijder, M. B.; Mocking, R. J. T.; Derks, E. M.; Schene, A. H.; Nicolaou, M.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch,
Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Visser, M.; Brouwer, I. A.; Snijder, M. B.; Mocking, R. J.T.; Derks, E. M.; Schene, A. H.; Nicolaou, M.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch,
Giosan, Cezar; Mogoaşe, Cristina; Cobeanu, Oana; Szentágotai Tătar, Aurora; Mureşan, Vlad; Boian, Rareș
Depression is a major challenge worldwide, with significant increasing personal, economic, and societal costs. Although empirically supported treatments have been developed, they are not always available for patients in routine clinical care. Therefore, we need effective and widely accessible strategies to prevent the onset of the very first depressive symptoms. Mental health apps could prove a valuable solution for this desideratum. Although preliminary research has indicated that such apps can be useful in treating depression, no study has attempted to test their utility in preventing depressive symptoms. The aim of this exploratory study is to contrast the efficacy of a smartphone app in reducing cognitive vulnerability and mild depressive symptoms, as risk factors for the onset of depression, against a wait-list condition. More specifically, we aim to test an app designed to (1) decrease general cognitive vulnerability and (2) promote engagement in protective, adaptive activities, while (3) counteracting (through gamification and customization) the tendency of premature dropout from intervention. Romanian-speaking adults (18 years and older) with access to a computer and the Internet and who own a smartphone are included in the study. Two parallel randomized clinical trials are conducted: in the first one, 50 participants free of depressive symptoms (i.e., who obtain scores ≤4 on the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9) will be included, while in the second one 50 participants with minimal depressive symptoms (i.e., who obtain PHQ-9 scores between 5 and 9) will be included. Participants undergoing therapy, presenting with substance abuse problems, psychotic symptoms, and organic brain disorders, or serious legal or health issues that would prevent them from using the app, as well as participants reporting suicidal ideation are excluded. Participants randomized to the active intervention will autonomously use the smartphone app for 4 weeks, while the others
McFarland, Michael J; Wagner, Brandon G
Higher levels of educational attainment are consistently associated with better mental health. Whether this association represents an effect of education on mental health, however, is less clear as omitted variable bias remains a pressing concern with education potentially serving as a proxy for unobserved factors including family background and genetics. To combat this threat and come closer to a causal estimate of the effect of education on depressive symptoms, this study uses data on 231 monozygotic twin pairs from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and employs a twin-pair difference-in-difference design to account for both unobserved shared factors between twin pairs (e.g. home, school, and neighborhood environment throughout childhood) and a number of observed non-shared but theoretically relevant factors (e.g. cognitive ability, personality characteristics, adolescent health). We find an inverse association between possessing a college degree and depressive symptoms in both conventional and difference-in-difference models. Results of this study also highlight the potentially overlooked role of personality characteristics in the education and mental health literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frewen, Paul A.; Oremus, Carolina; Lanius, Ruth A.; McKinnon, Margaret C.
Background Although preliminary work suggests that dissociative symptoms may impact neuropsychological performance in trauma-exposed populations, the relation between dissociation and cognitive performance has not been explored in patients with depression. Objective The present study examined dissociative symptoms in relation to neuropsychological performance in participants with a primary diagnosis of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of trauma exposure. Method Twenty-three participants with MDD and 20 healthy controls who did not differ in age, sex, education, or IQ were assessed. In addition to a standardized neuropsychological battery assessing frontotemporally mediated cognitive processes, participants completed clinical measures assessing dissociative symptoms, illness severity, and past history of trauma exposure. Results Among participants with MDD, greater severity of derealization was associated with reduced performance on measures of delayed visuospatial recall and recognition on a task of verbal memory recognition. In addition, more severe depersonalization was associated with slower processing speed and a response style lending itself toward better performance in a less active environment. Conclusions These findings point toward dissociative symptoms as a transdiagnostic factor associated with neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with depression and a history of trauma. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26927902
Full Text Available Background: Although preliminary work suggests that dissociative symptoms may impact neuropsychological performance in trauma-exposed populations, the relation between dissociation and cognitive performance has not been explored in patients with depression. Objective: The present study examined dissociative symptoms in relation to neuropsychological performance in participants with a primary diagnosis of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD and a history of trauma exposure. Method: Twenty-three participants with MDD and 20 healthy controls who did not differ in age, sex, education, or IQ were assessed. In addition to a standardized neuropsychological battery assessing frontotemporally mediated cognitive processes, participants completed clinical measures assessing dissociative symptoms, illness severity, and past history of trauma exposure. Results: Among participants with MDD, greater severity of derealization was associated with reduced performance on measures of delayed visuospatial recall and recognition on a task of verbal memory recognition. In addition, more severe depersonalization was associated with slower processing speed and a response style lending itself toward better performance in a less active environment. Conclusions: These findings point toward dissociative symptoms as a transdiagnostic factor associated with neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with depression and a history of trauma. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Darragh, Margot; Yow, Boris; Kieser, Anel; Booth, Roger J; Kydd, Robert R; Consedine, Nathan S
With a healthcare system burdened by symptomatic and mental-health related conditions, the placebo effect may represent a useful clinical tool. First, however, there is a need to broaden research attention and investigate placebo effects outside laboratories and beyond experimental pain. This study investigated the effectiveness of a take-home placebo treatment in the short-term alleviation of stress, anxiety and symptoms of depression in a non-patient population. A sample of 77 participants was randomized to either the 'oxytocin' treatment group (n = 22), the 'serotonin' treatment group (n = 22) or the wait-list control group (n = 33). The two treatment groups were given an 'anti-stress treatment spray' (placebo) to self-administer for 3 days, and completed online measures of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale-10), anxiety (Cognitive Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire) and symptoms of depression (Centre for Epidemiological Studies - Depression) before and after the 3-day protocol. Both the 'serotonin' and 'oxytocin' treatment sprays were effective in reducing symptoms of depression; however, only those in the 'oxytocin' group reported less stress and anxiety as compared with controls. Overall, the 'oxytocin' was perceived as more effective. Placebo effects can be translated to a real-life setting in the short-term reduction of stress, anxiety and symptoms of depression in a non-patient population. In treating psychological distress, placebos may be useful addition to the treatment repertoire. The information given with treatment may also be an important consideration for practitioners. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Vermeulen, E; Stronks, K; Visser, M; Brouwer, I A; Snijder, M B; Mocking, R J T; Derks, E M; Schene, A H; Nicolaou, M
To investigate the association of dietary patterns derived by reduced rank regression (RRR) with depressive symptoms in a multi-ethnic population. Cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study were used. In total, 4967 men and women (18-70 years) of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan origin living in the Netherlands were included. Diet was measured using ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaires. Depressive symptoms were measured with the nine-item patient health questionnaire. By performing RRR in the whole population and per ethnic group, comparable dietary patterns were identified and therefore the dietary pattern for the whole population was used for subsequent analyses. We identified a dietary pattern that was strongly related to eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid, folate, magnesium and zinc (response variables) and which was characterized by milk products, cheese, whole grains, vegetables, legumes, nuts, potatoes and red meat. After adjustment for confounders, a statistically significant inverse association was observed in the whole population (B: -0.03, 95% CI: -0.06, -0.00, P=0.046) and among Moroccan (B: -0.09, 95% CI: -0.13, -0.04, P=0.027) and South-Asian Surinamese participants (B: -0.05, 95% CI: -0.09, -0.01, P=dietary pattern and significant depressed mood in any of the ethnic groups. No consistent evidence was found that consumption of a dietary pattern, high in nutrients that are hypothesized to protect against depression, was associated with lower depressive symptoms across different ethnic groups.
Schofield, Penelope; Gough, Karla; Lotfi-Jam, Kerryann; Bergin, Rebecca; Ugalde, Anna; Dudgeon, Paul; Crellin, Wallace; Schubach, Kathryn; Foroudi, Farshard; Tai, Keen Hun; Duchesne, Gillian; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Aranda, Sanchia
Radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer has many known and distressing side effects. The efficacy of group interventions for reducing psychological morbidity is lacking. This study investigated the relative benefits of a group nurse-led intervention on psychological morbidity, unmet needs, treatment-related concerns and prostate cancer-specific quality of life in men receiving curative intent radiotherapy for prostate cancer. This phase III, two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial included 331 men (consent rate: 72 %; attrition: 5 %) randomised to the intervention (n = 166) or usual care (n = 165). The intervention comprised four group and one individual consultation all delivered by specialist uro-oncology nurses. Primary outcomes were anxious and depressive symptoms as assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Unmet needs were assessed with the Supportive Care Needs Survey-SF34 Revised, treatment-related concerns with the Cancer Treatment Scale and quality of life with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index −26. Assessments occurred before, at the end of and 6 months post-radiotherapy. Primary outcome analysis was by intention-to-treat and performed by fitting a linear mixed model to each outcome separately using all observed data. Mixed models analysis indicated that group consultations had a significant beneficial effect on one of two primary endpoints, depressive symptoms (p = 0.009), and one of twelve secondary endpoints, procedural concerns related to cancer treatment (p = 0.049). Group consultations did not have a significant beneficial effect on generalised anxiety, unmet needs and prostate cancer-specific quality of life. Compared with individual consultations offered as part of usual care, the intervention provides a means of delivering patient education and is associated with modest reductions in depressive symptoms and procedural concerns. Future work should seek to confirm the clinical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of group
Full Text Available ... few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression ...
Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...
Rahim, Twana; Rashid, Roshe
This study exclusively aimed to clinically assess which symptom pattern discriminates primary depression from depression-secondary to-schizophrenia. A total of 98 patients with primary depression and 71 patients with secondary-to-schizophrenia depression were assessed for identifying the clinical phenomena of depression. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was confirmed by Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Each participant was, however, assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as well as Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) for possible concurrent depressive symptoms. Depressed mood, loss of interest, reduced energy and pathological guilt were more common in primary depression, whereas sleep disturbance and guilty ideas of reference were more amounting towards the diagnosis of depression secondary-to-schizophrenia. It is clinically hard to differentiate primary from secondary-to-schizophrenia depression, especially in the absence of obvious psychotic symptoms. However, the classical symptoms of depression like subjective depressed mood, anhedonia, reduced energy and pathological guilt are more prominent in the primary depression.
Nutt, David; Wilson, Sue; Paterson, Louise
Links between sleep and depression are strong. About three quarters of depressed patients have insomnia symptoms, and hypersomnia is present in about 40% of young depressed adults and 10% of older patients, with a preponderance in females. The symptoms cause huge distress, have a major impact on quality of life, and are a strong risk factor for suicide. As well as the subjective experience of sleep symptoms, there are well-documented changes in objective sleep architecture in depression. Mechanisms of sleep regulation and how they might be disturbed in depression are discussed. The sleep symptoms are often unresolved by treatment, and confer a greater risk of relapse and recurrence. Epidemiological studies have pointed out that insomnia in nondepressed subjects is a risk factor for later development of depression. There is therefore a need for more successful management of sleep disturbance in depression, in order to improve quality of life in these patients and reduce an important factor in depressive relapse and recurrence.
Leung, Sharron S K; Lam, T H
Intergenerational conflicts are a major source of stress, which might lead to depression in new mothers. The conflict is heightened when grandparents are involved in childcare. To examine the effectiveness of an interpersonal psychotherapy oriented group intervention to reduce stress and depressive symptoms in new mothers and enhance happiness and self-efficacy in managing intergenerational conflict in childcare. This study is one of the intervention projects of FAMILY: A Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society, funded by The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust. Multisite randomized controlled trial with two arms: an intervention group attended an additional 4-week program and a control group who received usual care only. Six Maternal and Child Health Centres in Hong Kong From September 2009 to January 2010, 156 pregnant women who would have grandparents involved in childcare were recruited at their 14-32 weeks' gestation. Participants were randomized to groups using computer generated random sequences by blinded recruitment staff. Primary outcomes were stress and depressive symptoms immediately after the intervention and 6-8 weeks after delivery. Secondary outcomes were happiness and self-efficacy in managing conflict. After screening 2870 pregnant women, 156 eligible participants were randomized. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that the intervention group (n=78) had significantly lower perceived stress (p=0.017; Cohen d=0.38) and greater happiness (p=0.004; Cohen d=0.41) than the control group (n=78) immediately after the intervention. However, the effects were not sustained at postnatal follow-up. Subgroup analysis showed that participants with depressive symptoms (EPDS>12) at baseline reported significantly lower stress, greater happiness (p=0.035 and 0.037, respectively; both Cohen d=0.61), greater self-efficacy in managing conflict (p=0.012; Cohen d=0.76) than the control group after the intervention. Also, after delivery, they had significantly
Hobfoll, Stevan E; Blais, Rebecca K; Stevens, Natalie R; Walt, Lisa; Gengler, Richard
Despite heightened rates of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans, the majority of distressed veterans will not receive mental health care. Overcoming barriers to mental health services requires innovative approaches to broaden the reach of evidence-based treatment. The current study examined the efficacy and acceptability of an innovative and dynamic online cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention for PTSD and depression called Vets Prevail. A randomized clinical trial conducted between 2011 and 2013 assessed changes in PTSD and depression in veterans with mild-to-moderate distress. Veterans randomized to Vets Prevail (n = 209) were aged 34.2 ± 7.6 years, mostly male (81.3%), and nonminority (73.7%). Veterans randomized to adjustment as usual (n = 94) were aged 34.7 ± 8.9, mostly male (81.9%), and White (67.0%). Veterans completed the PTSD Checklist-Military Version and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (10-item version) postintervention and at 12-week follow-up. Veterans in the Vets Prevail condition reported significantly greater reductions in PTSD, t(250) = 3.24, p = .001 (Mreduction = 5.51, SD = 9.63), and depression, t(252) = 4.37, p = .001 (Mreduction = 2.31, SD = 5.34), at 12-week follow-up compared with veterans in the adjustment as usual condition (PTSD Mreduction = 1.00, SD = 7.32; depression Mreduction = 0.48, SD = 4.95), with moderate effect sizes for PTSD (Cohen's d = 0.42) and depression (Cohen's d = 0.56). Exploratory analysis shows that Vets Prevail may be effective regardless of combat trauma exposure, gender, and ethnic minority status. Vets Prevail circumvents many barriers to care and effectively addresses the dire mental health needs of veterans. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Ehret, Anna M; Kowalsky, Judith; Rief, Winfried; Hiller, Wolfgang; Berking, Matthias
Major Depressive Disorder is one of the most challenging mental health problems of our time. Although effective psychotherapeutic treatments are available, many patients fail to demonstrate clinically significant improvements. Difficulties in emotion regulation have been identified as putative risk and maintaining factors for Major Depressive Disorder. Systematically enhancing adaptive emotion regulation skills should thus help reduce depressive symptom severity. However, at this point, no study has systematically evaluated effects of increasing adaptive emotion regulation skills application on symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder. In the intended study, we aim to evaluate stand-alone effects of a group-based training explicitly and exclusively targeting general emotion regulation skills on depressive symptom severity and assess whether this training augments the outcome of subsequent individual cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. In the evaluation of the Affect Regulation Training, we will conduct a prospective randomized-controlled trial. Effects of the Affect Regulation Training on depressive symptom severity and outcomes of subsequent individual therapy for depression will be compared with an active, common factor based treatment and a waitlist control condition. The study sample will include 120 outpatients meeting criteria for Major Depressive Disorder. Depressive symptom severity as assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale will serve as our primary study outcome. Secondary outcomes will include further indicators of mental health and changes in adaptive emotion regulation skills application. All outcomes will be assessed at intake and at 10 points in time over the course of the 15-month study period. Measures will include self-reports, observer ratings, momentary ecological assessments, and will be complemented in subsamples by experimental investigations and the analysis of hair steroids. If findings should support the hypothesis that enhancing
Milner, Allison; Witt, Katrina; Burnside, Lewis; Wilson, Caitlyn; LaMontagne, Anthony D
Males employed in the construction industry have high rates of suicide. Although reasons underpinning this risk are multifaceted, poor help-seeking and stigma are represent major contributors. Males in the construction industry are also exposed to other risk factors for mental ill health and suicide, including unemployment. Sigma-reducing interventions that are accessible and attractive to recently unemployed males in the construction industry could therefore improve help-seeking, and address depression and suicidal behaviour in this population. Contact&Connect will use a parallel individual randomized design to evaluate the effectiveness of a multimedia-based intervention aimed at reducing stigma. The intervention consists of a package of 12 brief contact interventions (BCIs) delivered over a six month period. BCIs will direct participants to informational programs and microsites. Content will address three major themes: debunking depression myths and stereotypes, normalisation, and empowerment. Target enrollment is 630 (315 in each arm), each to be followed for 12 months. Eligible participants will be males, between 30 and 64 years, unemployed at the time of recruitment, registered with Incolink (a social welfare trustee company for unemployed members of the construction industry), and own a smart phone with enabled internet connectivity. At present, there are no programs that have been shown to be effective in reducing stigma in the blue-collar male population. Contact&Connect promises to provide a tailored, efficient, and scalable approach to reducing stigma, depressive symptoms and suicidality among unemployed males. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12615000792527 (date of registration: 30 July, 2015).
Fang, Yihong; Mpofu, Elias; Athanasou, James
Background: About 30% of stroke survivors clinically have depressive symptoms at some point following stroke and anxiety prevalence is around 20-25%. Objective: The purpose of this brief report is to evaluate a pilot trial of a constructive integrative psychosocial intervention (CIPI) over standard care in post-stroke depression or anxiety. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to either CIPI (n = 23) or standard care (n = 19). Patients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months to monitor changes of mood. Results: A Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated that compared to admission baseline, patients with the intervention had significantly normal post-stroke depression symptom levels at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months (P < 0.005). Conclusion: CIPI appears to be of incremental value in treating depression as well as anxiety in subacute care. PMID:29085269
Full Text Available ... Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials ... Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. & ...
Full Text Available ... Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. & ... I felt like I was such an awful person that there was no real reason for me ...
Full Text Available ... a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in ... lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. ...
Full Text Available ... items) Training (1 item) Other Treatments (15 items) Alzheimer’s Disease (2 items) Coping with Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how ...
Fialho, Renata; Pereira, Marco; Harrison, Neil; Rusted, Jennifer; Whale, Richard
In this prospective study, we examined new-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) and the differential expression of depressive symptoms in a sample of 132 HCV mono-infected and 40 HIV/HCV co-infected patients initiating pegylated interferon-based treatment, including protease inhibitor therapy. The semi-structured clinical interview (SCID-I) was used to assess MDD. Severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Of the total sample, 60 patients (34.9%) developed SCID-I defined MDD during antiviral treatment. The proportion of HCV mono- and HIV/HCV patients developing MDD during treatment was not significantly different (37.9% vs. 25%; p=0.185). In both groups, there was a significant increase in HAMD total score from baseline to week 4, and a significant decrease between week 24 and 6 months post-treatment cessation. The greatest increase was observed in the symptoms of the neurovegetative syndrome. HCV mono-infected patients reported higher scores than co-infected patients, particularly impaired activity and somatic symptoms, but the differences were only significant at week 12. The finding that co-infected patients appear less vulnerable to the development of depressive symptoms during HCV treatment than HCV mono-infected patients warrants further exploration, including a thorough analysis of the biological and psychosocial factors associated with this emergence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gillig, Traci K; Miller, Lynn C; Cox, Courtney M
While summer camps are a recognized evidence-based strategy for building social and emotional skills among youth (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2009), no known studies have evaluated the effects of camp programming for LGBTQ youth in the United States. This pilot study evaluates a novel program (Brave Trails) for LGBTQ youth ages 12 to 20, using a pre-post camper survey (N = 56) and a post-camp parent survey (N = 54). Results show campers experienced increases in identity affirmation and hope and a reduction in depressive symptoms. Regression analyses found changes in identity affirmation predicted reductions in depressive symptoms and increases in resilience. Additionally, campers' experience of key camp programming features predicted changes in depressive symptoms. Findings from the parent survey were consistent with camper survey results. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
McGillivray, J. A.; Evert, H. T.
We examined the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) delivered in groups on the reduction of symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress in young people on the autism spectrum. Utilising a quasi-experimental design, comparisons were made between individuals allocated to a group intervention program and individuals allocated to a…
Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment. Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations
Full Text Available AIM: Art is known to be a tool which provides relaxation and helps therapy especially in psychiatric diseases and in many other health problems. But the effect of art in artists is not known well. The aim of this study was to ascertain if there is a difference in anxiety and depression symptom scores between students of conservatoire and the other faculties. METHOD: In this study, anxiety and depression scores of volunteer students in conservatoire and other faculties were determined via a self administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic questions and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Percentages, chi-square, student-t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used in statistical analyses. RESULTS: Study population was composed of 171 students in the ages of 1729 (mean=21.36±2.31 years and 89 (52% were female. Among 55 (32.2% conservatoire students and 116(67.8% other faculties students 104(60.8% were living in a hostel. Mean anxiety and depression scores were 7.21±3.37, 5.80±3.49 for conservatoire students and 7.56 ±3.62, 5.81±3.41 for the comparisons, respectively. There were symptoms above the cut off levels for anxiety in 28 students (16.4% and for depression in 47 students (27.5% in the whole group. While anxiety and depression symptoms percentages were 18.2 %( n=10 and 15.5 %( n=18 in conservatoire students, that were 32.7 %( n=18 and 25.0 %( n=29 in other students. The difference was not statistically significant for both anxiety and depression symptoms (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: We found that dealing with music as an art didnt made difference in anxiety and depression symptoms in this study population. Art is always accepted as a relaxation tool but individuals making art as a lesson, as a job or as a way to gain money can feel different. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 465-472
Vermeulen, E.; Stronks, K.; Visser, M de; Brouwer, I.A.; Schene, A.H.; Mocking, R.J.T.; Colpo, M.; Bandinelli, S.; Ferrucci, L.; Nicolaou, M.
This study aimed to identify dietary patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR) and to explore their associations with depressive symptoms over 9 years in the Invecchiare in Chianti study. At baseline, 1362 participants (55.4 % women) aged 18-102 years (mean age 68 (sd 15.5) years) were included
Vermeulen, Esther; Stronks, Karien; Visser, Marjolein; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Schene, Aart H; Mocking, Roel J T; Colpo, Marco; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Nicolaou, Mary
This study aimed to identify dietary patterns using reduced rank regression (RRR) and to explore their associations with depressive symptoms over 9 years in the Invecchiare in Chianti study. At baseline, 1362 participants (55·4 % women) aged 18-102 years (mean age 68 (sd 15·5) years) were included
Full Text Available ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ... Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov The National ...
Full Text Available ... for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress ... Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in activities they normally enjoyed, have feelings of ...
Full Text Available ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. Share ... Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool Expenditures and Results Recommendations for Reporting on Suicide ...
Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ...
Full Text Available ... to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help ... Mental Health Information Summaries of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH ...
Full Text Available ... few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in ... I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications called antidepressants can ... to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the ...
Full Text Available ... to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about depression on this Web page. If the symptoms fit, get help now. ... of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH RePORTER : Research Portfolio Online ...
Tiburcio, Marcela; Lara, Ma Asunción; Aguilar Abrego, Araceli; Fernández, Morise; Martínez Vélez, Nora; Sánchez, Alejandro
The development of Web-based interventions for substance abuse in Latin America is a new field of interest with great potential for expansion to other Spanish-speaking countries. This paper describes a project aimed to develop and evaluate the usability of the Web-based Help Program for Drug Abuse and Depression (Programa de Ayuda para Abuso de Drogas y Depresión, PAADD, in Spanish) and also to construct a systematic frame of reference for the development of future Web-based programs. The PAADD aims to reduce substance use and depressive symptoms with cognitive behavioral techniques translated into Web applications, aided by the participation of a counselor to provide support and guidance. This Web-based intervention includes 4 steps: (1) My Starting Point, (2) Where Do I Want to Be? (3) Strategies for Change, and (4) Maintaining Change. The development of the program was an interactive multistage process. The first stage defined the core structure and contents, which were validated in stage 2 by a group of 8 experts in addiction treatment. Programming of the applications took place in stage 3, taking into account 3 types of end users: administrators, counselors, and substance users. Stage 4 consisted of functionality testing. In stage 5, a total of 9 health professionals and 20 drug users currently in treatment voluntarily interacted with the program in a usability test, providing feedback about adjustments needed to improve users' experience. The main finding of stage 2 was the consensus of the health professionals about the cognitive behavioral strategies and techniques included in PAADD being appropriate for changing substance use behaviors. In stage 5, the health professionals found the functionalities easy to learn; their suggestions were related to the page layout, inclusion of confirmation messages at the end of activities, avoiding "read more" links, and providing feedback about every activity. On the other hand, the users said the information presented
Winnebeck, Emilia; Fissler, Maria; Gärtner, Matti; Chadwick, Paul; Barnhofer, Thorsten
Training in mindfulness has been introduced to the treatment of depression as a means of relapse prevention. However, given its buffering effects on maladaptive responses to negative mood, mindfulness training would be expected to be particularly helpful in those who are currently suffering from symptoms. This study investigated whether a brief and targeted mindfulness-based intervention can reduce symptoms in acutely depressed patients. Seventy-four patients with a chronic or recurrent lifetime history were randomly allocated to receive either a brief mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) encompassing three individual sessions and regular home practice or a control condition that combined psycho-educational components and regular rest periods using the same format as the MBI. Self-reported severity of symptoms, mindfulness in every day life, ruminative tendencies and cognitive reactivity were assessed before and after intervention. Treatment completers in the MBI condition showed pronounced and significantly stronger reductions in symptoms than those in the control condition. In the MBI group only, patients showed significant increases in mindfulness, and significant reductions in ruminative tendencies and cognitive reactivity. Brief targeted mindfulness interventions can help to reduce symptoms and buffer maladaptive responses to negative mood in acutely depressed patients with chronic or recurrent lifetime history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.
Luk, Jeremy W; Gilman, Stephen E; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce G
Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent depressive symptoms are well established, but reasons for these disparities are less well understood. We modeled sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into young adulthood and evaluated family satisfaction, peer support, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs as potential mediators. Data were from waves 2 to 6 of the NEXT Generation Health Study ( n = 2396), a population-based cohort of US adolescents. We used latent growth models to examine sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms in participants aged 17 to 21 years, conduct mediation analyses, and examine sex differences. Relative to heterosexual adolescents, sexual minority adolescents (those who are attracted to the same or both sexes or are questioning; 6.3% of the weighted sample) consistently reported higher depressive symptoms from 11th grade to 3 years after high school. Mediation analyses indicated that sexual minority adolescents reported lower family satisfaction, greater cyberbullying victimization, and increased likelihood of unmet medical needs, all of which were associated with higher depressive symptoms. The mediating role of cyberbullying victimization was more pronounced among male than female participants. Sexual minority adolescents reported higher depressive symptoms than heterosexual adolescents from late adolescence into young adulthood. Collectively, low family satisfaction, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs accounted for >45% of differences by sexual orientation. Future clinical research is needed to determine if interventions targeting these psychosocial and health care-related factors would reduce sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms and the optimal timing of such interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Cheung, Elaine O; Addington, Elizabeth L; Bassett, Sarah M; Schuette, Stephanie A; Shiu, Eva W; Cohn, Michael A; Leykin, Yan; Saslow, Laura R; Moskowitz, Judith T
Living with elevated symptoms of depression can have debilitating consequences for an individual's psychosocial and physical functioning, quality of life, and health care utilization. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that skills for increasing positive emotion can be helpful to individuals with depression. Although Web-based interventions to reduce negative emotion in individuals with depression are available, these interventions frequently suffer from poor retention and adherence and do not capitalize on the potential benefits of increasing positive emotion. The aim of this study was to develop and test a Web-based positive emotion skills intervention tailored for individuals living with elevated depressive symptoms, as well as to develop and test enhancement strategies for increasing retention and adherence to that intervention. This study protocol describes the development and testing for Mobile Affect Regulation Intervention with the Goal of Lowering Depression (MARIGOLD), a Web-based positive emotion skills intervention, adapted for individuals with elevated depressive symptomatology. The intervention development is taking place in three phases. In phase 1, we are tailoring an existing positive emotion skills intervention for individuals with elevated symptoms of depression and are pilot testing the tailored version of the intervention in a randomized controlled trial with two control conditions (N=60). In phase 2, we are developing and testing three enhancements aimed at boosting retention and adherence to the Web-based intervention (N=75): facilitator contact, an online discussion board, and virtual badges. In phase 3, we are conducting a multifactorial, nine-arm pilot trial (N=600) to systematically test these enhancement strategies, individually and in combination. The primary outcome is depressive symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include positive and negative emotion, psychological well-being, and coping resources. The project was funded in
Hedman, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Blom, Kerstin; El Alaoui, Samir; Kraepelien, Martin; Rück, Christian; Andersson, Gerhard; Svanborg, Cecilia; Lindefors, Nils; Kaldo, Viktor
Internet-administered self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties are widely used in clinical trials and in clinical routine care, but data loss is a common problem that could render skewed estimates of symptom levels and treatment effects. One way of reducing the negative impact of missing data could be to use telephone administration of self-report measures as a means to complete the data missing from the online data collection. The aim of the study was to compare the convergence of telephone and Internet administration of self-report measures of social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep difficulties. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Self-Report (LSAS-SR), Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self-Rated (MADRS-S), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) were administered over the telephone and via the Internet to a clinical sample (N=82) of psychiatric patients at a clinic specializing in Internet-delivered treatment. Shortened versions of the LSAS-SR and the ISI were used when administered via telephone. As predicted, the results showed that the estimates produced by the two administration formats were highly correlated (r=.82-.91; PInternet: Cronbach alpha=.79-.93). The correlation coefficients were similar across questionnaires and the shorter versions of the questionnaires used in the telephone administration of the LSAS-SR and ISI performed in general equally well compared to when the full scale was used, as was the case with the MADRS-S. Telephone administration of self-report questionnaires is a valid method that can be used to reduce data loss in routine psychiatric practice as well as in clinical trials, thereby contributing to more accurate symptom estimates.
Akram S Raesian; Mahmood Golzari; Ahmad Borjali
Introduction: The aim of the present research was the investigation of the effectiveness of hope therapy on reduction of the degree of depression symptoms and prevention of relapse in cure-seeker women with dependency to narcotic drugs. Method: In semi-experimental research method 20 clients who diagnosed as substance abuse disorder that completed detoxification period successfully, and they were scored more than 14 in depression symptoms (Beck depression questionnaire, second edition) select...
Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Simonson, R Bruce; Walling, David P; Schooler, Nina R; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Canuso, Carla M; Alphs, Larry
Schizoaffective disorder is a complex illness for which optimal treatment is not well established. Results of the first controlled, relapse-prevention study of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly injectable (paliperidone monthly) in schizoaffective disorder are presented. The study was conducted between September 20, 2010, and October 22, 2013. Patients with schizoaffective disorder (confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders) experiencing acute exacerbation of psychotic and depressive/manic symptoms were stabilized with paliperidone monthly as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy to mood stabilizers or antidepressants and randomly assigned (1:1) to paliperidone monthly or placebo in a 15-month, double-blind, relapse-prevention phase. Randomization was stratified by administration as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy and by study center. The primary endpoint was time to relapse. 334 patients were evaluated. Paliperidone monthly significantly delayed time to relapse for psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms compared with placebo (P schizoaffective disorder (5.9%, 3.0%), headache (3.5%, 5.5%), and nasopharyngitis (3.5%, 5.5%). Incidence of any extrapyramidal-related adverse event was 7.1% for placebo and 8.5% for paliperidone monthly. Paliperidone monthly as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy significantly delayed psychotic, depressive, and/or manic relapses; reduced their risk; and better maintained functioning in patients with schizoaffective disorder. Results support the value of maintenance treatment with paliperidone monthly in schizoaffective disorder. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01193153. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Improvement in Depressive Symptoms Is Associated with Reduced Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Response in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Subsyndromal Depression: The Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Psychoeducation, Physical Exercise, and Enhanced Treatment as Usual
Marijana Vučić Lovrenčić
Full Text Available Aims. To examine one-year changes in oxidative damage and inflammation level in type 2 diabetic patients undergoing behavioral treatment for subsyndromal depression. Materials and Methods. A randomized controlled comparison of psychoeducation (A, physical exercise (B, and enhanced treatment as usual (C was performed in 209 eligible subjects in a tertiary diabetes care setting. Depressive symptoms (primary outcome and selected biomarkers of oxidative damage and inflammation (secondary outcomes were assessed at baseline and six- and twelve-month follow-up. Results. Out of the 74, 67, and 68 patients randomised into groups A, B, and C, respectively, 201 completed the interventions, and 179 were analysed. Participants in all three groups equally improved in depressive symptoms from baseline to one-year follow-up (repeated measures ANOVA; F=12.51, p<0.0001, η2=0.07. Urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (u-8-oxodG decreased (F=10.66, p<0.0001, η2=0.06, as did sialic acid and leukocytes (F=84.57, η2=0.32 and F=12.61, η2=0.07, resp.; p<0.0001, while uric acid increased (F=12.53, p<0.0001, η2=0.07 in all subjects during one year. Improvement of depressive symptoms at 6 months significantly predicted one-year reduction in u-8-oxodG (β=0.15, p=0.044. Conclusion. Simple behavioral interventions are capable not only of alleviating depressive symptoms, but also of reducing the intensity of damaging oxidative/inflammatory processes in type 2 diabetic patients with subsyndromal depression. This trial is registered with ISRCTN05673017.
Patron, Elisabetta; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Lopriore, Vincenzo; Aratari, Jenny; Palomba, Daniela
Depression has been associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). However, to date, whether somatic-affective and cognitive-depressive symptoms differently contribute to poor HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity in patients with CHF has yet to be investigated. To examine the differential influence of somatic-affective vs cognitive-depressive symptoms on HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity in CHF patients. Overall, 55 patients with CHF completed a psychologic evaluation, including the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory for HRQoL, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The patients completed the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire and the 6-minute walk test for behavioral functional capacity. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity from Beck Depression Inventory-II and Beck Anxiety Inventory scores. Somatic-affective depressive symptoms were associated with physical (β = 0.37, p = 0.005) and emotional (β = 0.39, p = 0.008) Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire subscale scores. Likewise, somatic-affective depressive symptoms predicted Instrumental Activities of Daily Livings Scores (β = 0.43, p = 0.004) and distance ambulated during the 6-minute walk test (β = -0.36, p = 0.029). By contrast, cognitive-depressive symptoms and anxiety were unrelated to HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity (all p > 0.05). These findings showed that somatic-affective depressive symptoms, but not cognitive-depressive symptoms and anxiety, are associated with poor HRQoL and behavioral functional capacity independent of age, clinical functional status, and medical comorbidities. This study suggests that patients with CHF with somatic-affective rather than cognitive-depressive symptoms or anxiety may be at greater risk of poor HRQoL and
Huang, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Huey-Lan Hu, Sophia; Liu, Fang; Kuo, Ying-Ling; Chiu, Hsiao-Yean
Cognitive function impairments and depressive symptoms are common in elderly people with dementia. Previous meta-analyses of outdated and small-scale studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms; therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis by including more recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with large sample sizes to investigate the immediate and long-term (6-10 months) effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and Chinese databases were searched to select eligible articles. Primary outcome measures included the scores of cognitive functions and depressive symptoms. In total, 12 RCT studies investigating the effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data. All analyses were performed using a random-effects model. Reminiscence therapy had a small-size effect on cognitive functions (g = 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.30) and a moderate-size effect on depressive symptoms (g = -0.49, 95% CI -0.70 to -0.28) in elderly people with dementia. Long-term effects of reminiscence therapy on cognitive functions and depressive symptoms were not confirmed. Moderator analysis revealed that institutionalized elderly people with dementia exhibited greater improvement in depressive symptoms than community-dwelling people with dementia did (g = -0.59 vs. -0.16, P = .003). This meta-analysis confirms that reminiscence therapy is effective in improving cognitive functions and depressive symptoms in elderly people with dementia. Our findings suggest that regular reminiscence therapy should be considered for inclusion as routine care for the improvement
Souza, Rosely Almeida; Desani da Costa, Gislaine; Yamashita, Cintia Hitomi; Amendola, Fernanda; Gaspar, Jaqueline Correa; Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Faccenda, Odival; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos
To classify families of elderly with depressive symptoms regarding their functioning and to ascertain the presence of an association between these symptoms, family functioning and the characteristics of the elderly. This was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study performed with 33 teams of the Family Health Strategy in Dourados, MS. The sample consisted of 374 elderly divided into two groups (with and without depressive symptoms). The instruments for data collection were a sociodemographic instrument, the GeriatricDepression Scale (15 items) and the Family Apgar. An association was observed between depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, female gender, four or more people living together, and physical inactivity. The functional family may represent effective support for the elderly with depressive symptoms, because it offers a comfortable environment that ensures the well-being of its members. The dysfunctional family can barely provide necessary care for the elderly, which can exacerbate depressive symptoms.
Petkus, A. J.; Beam, C. R.; Johnson, W.
that genetic factors play a larger part in the association between depressive symptoms and physical illness for men than for women. For both sexes, across all ages, physical illness may similarly trigger social and health limitations that contribute to depressive symptoms.......Background Numerous factors influence late-life depressive symptoms in adults, many not thoroughly characterized. We addressed whether genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms differed by age, sex, and physical illness. Method The analysis sample included 24 436 twins aged 40......-90 years drawn from the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) Consortium. Biometric analyses tested age, sex, and physical illness moderation of genetic and environmental variance in depressive symptoms. Results Women reported greater depressive symptoms than men. After age 60...
Rosely Almeida Souza
Full Text Available Objective: To classify families of elderly with depressive symptoms regarding their functioning and to ascertain the presence of an association between these symptoms, family functioning and the characteristics of the elderly. Method: This was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study performed with 33 teams of the Family Health Strategy in Dourados, MS. The sample consisted of 374 elderly divided into two groups (with and without depressive symptoms. The instruments for data collection were a sociodemographic instrument, the GeriatricDepression Scale (15 items and the Family Apgar. Results: An association was observed between depressive symptoms and family dysfunction, female gender, four or more people living together, and physical inactivity. Conclusion: The functional family may represent effective support for the elderly with depressive symptoms, because it offers a comfortable environment that ensures the well-being of its members. The dysfunctional family can barely provide necessary care for the elderly, which can exacerbate depressive symptoms.
Crisp, Dimity; Griffiths, Kathleen; Mackinnon, Andrew; Bennett, Kylie; Christensen, Helen
Internet-based interventions are increasingly recognized as effective for the treatment and prevention of depression; however, there is a paucity of research investigating potential secondary benefits. From a consumer perspective, improvements in indicators of wellbeing such as perceived quality of life may represent the most important outcomes for evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention. This study investigated the 'secondary' benefits for self-esteem, empowerment, quality of life and perceived social support of two 12-week online depression interventions when delivered alone and in combination. Participants comprised 298 adults displaying elevated psychological distress. Participants were randomised to receive: an Internet Support Group (ISG); an automated Internet psycho-educational training program for depression; a combination of these conditions; or a control website. Analyses were performed on an intent-to-treat basis. Following the automated training program immediate improvements were shown in participants׳ self-esteem and empowerment relative to control participants. Improvements in perceived quality of life were reported 6-months following the completion of the intervention when combined with an ISG. These findings provide initial evidence for the effectiveness of this online intervention for improving individual wellbeing beyond the primary aim of the treatment. However, further research is required to investigate the mechanisms underlying improvement in these secondary outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akram S Raesian
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present research was the investigation of the effectiveness of hope therapy on reduction of the degree of depression symptoms and prevention of relapse in cure-seeker women with dependency to narcotic drugs. Method: In semi-experimental research method 20 clients who diagnosed as substance abuse disorder that completed detoxification period successfully, and they were scored more than 14 in depression symptoms (Beck depression questionnaire, second edition selected by available sampling and assigned to two experimental (n=10 and witness (n=10 groups randomly. Experimental group was trained for 8 sessions under training of hope therapy and witness group was not under any training. The experimental peple were evaluated by Snyder Hope scale and Beck depression questionnaire and morphine test before beginning of therapy. After it and after the completition of the two months follow-up period. For analyzing of data chi square test, Z test, and ANCOVA were applied. Results: The results showed that hope therapy education could create considerable reduction in degree of depression symptoms of women suffering from addiction. In addition, results of chi square test indicated significant difference between the number of relapsed women in experimental and witness groups. Conclusion: in general, results of this survey show that hope therapy education is effective in reduction of degree of depression symptoms and prediction of relapse in cure-seeker women suffering from addiction.
Caroline M. Pittard,
Full Text Available Depressive symptoms affect around half of students at some point during college. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, making negative inferences about stressful events is a vulnerability for developing depression. Negative and socioemotional teaching behavior can be stressors that are associated with depression in school students. First-time college freshmen completed the Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ, Teaching Behavior Questionnaire (TBQ, and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. While completing the TBQ, participants reported on a teacher from prior education to college. Multiple regression analysis found significant effects of the independent variables (four teaching behavior types, inferential style, and interactions between the four teaching behavior types and inferential style on the dependent variable (depressive symptoms. More specifically, negative and socio-emotional teaching behavior were positively associated with depressive symptoms and instructional and organizational teaching behavior were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Both organizational and negative teaching behavior interacted significantly with inferential style. Organizational and negative teaching behavior shared different relationships with depressive symptoms depending upon an individual‟s level of inferential style. Promotion of instructional and organizational teaching behavior in school as well as the reduction of negative teaching behavior may be useful in reducing students‟ depressive symptoms.
Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie
AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...
Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....
Truijens, S.E.M.; Spek, V.R.M.; van Son, M.J.M.; Oei, S.G.; Pop, V.J.M.
Recently, the US Preventive Services Task Force has advocated to screen pregnant and postpartum women for depression. However, we questioned the meaning of a single elevated depression score: does it represent just one episode of depression or do these symptoms persist throughout the entire
Köhler, Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete
-controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD...... investigated cytokine inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti-inflammatory treatment reduced depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.11; I2=90%) compared with placebo. This effect was observed in studies including patients with depression (SMD, -0.54; 95% CI, -1.......08 to -0.01; I2=68%) and depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01; I2=68%). The heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression vs depressive symptoms or use of NSAIDs vs cytokine inhibitors. Subanalyses emphasized the antidepressant...
Rosenthal, Samantha R; Buka, Stephen L; Marshall, Brandon D L; Carey, Kate B; Clark, Melissa A
To examine whether negative Facebook (FB) experiences were independently associated with depressive symptoms among young adults in a longitudinal family cohort. Negative FB experiences were measured by type (e.g., bullying or meanness, unwanted contact, misunderstandings, or any), recency, number of experiences, and severity of upset. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for sibling correlation; adjusted models were constructed for each negative FB experience measure accounting for sex, race/ethnicity, social support, adolescent depressive symptoms, parental psychological distress, average monthly income, educational attainment, and employment. In a sample of 264 young adults, all negative FB experience measures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. There is a clear association between negative FB experience and depressive symptoms. Future work should examine: (1) whether negative FB experiences cause incident depression or exacerbate preexisting depression; and (2) who is most prone to being upset by negative FB experiences. With further research, recommendations for limiting or altering FB use among high-risk subpopulations could be useful in reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bouzinova, Elena; Bødtkjer, Donna Marie Briggs; Kudryavtseva, Olga
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases have high comorbidity with major depression. Endothelial dysfunction may explain the adverse cardiovascular outcome in depression; therefore, we analyzed it in vitro. In the chronic mild stress model, some rats develop depression-like symptoms (including...... "anhedonia"), whereas others are stress resilient. METHODS: After 8 weeks of chronic mild stress, anhedonic rats reduced their sucrose intake by 55% (7%), whereas resilient rats did not. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of norepinephrine-preconstricted mesenteric arteries was analyzed......-like response) was reduced in anhedonic rats (p depression-like symptoms are associated with reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation due to suppressed...
Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; Mrklas, Kelly; Suen, Victoria Yung Mei; Rose, Marianne Sarah; Jahn, Megan; Gladue, Irene; Kozak, Jody; Leslie, Maureen; Dursun, Serdar; Ohinmaa, Arto; Greenshaw, Andrew
Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) are two leading causes of disability worldwide and are associated with significant treatment challenges requiring new, innovative, cost-effective and technologically-based therapies including the use of supportive text messages. To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of supportive text messages in long-term follow-up to reduce mood symptoms and problem drinking in patients with Depression or AUD respectively and to explore the usefulness of self-reports of health services utilization as an outcomes measure. This will be a longitudinal, prospective, parallel-design, two-arm, placebo-controlled single-rater-blinded randomized clinical trial with a recruitment period of 6 months and an observation period of 12 months for each participant, with two strata based on primary diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder or AUD. The sample size will be 120, with about 60 patients randomized from each primary diagnostic grouping. Patients in all intervention groups will receive twice-daily supportive SMS text messages for 3 months and then daily supportive text messages for the next three months. Patients will also receive a phone call every two weeks from the research assistant assigning treatment allocation to confirm that they are still receiving the text messages and to thank them for taking part in the study. Patients in the control group will receive no text messages but will also receive a phone call from the same research assistant every two weeks to thank them for taking part in the study. The study starts in April 2015 and ends in September 2016. It is envisaged that both qualitative and quantitative primary and secondary outcomes, including patient perceptions of the intervention, will shed light on the feasibility of using automated supportive text message interventions in long term for patients with Depression and AUD. This will inform a full-scale clinical trial. The paradigm for behavior change using text messages
Full Text Available ... Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress ... Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress ...
Full Text Available ... reason for me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of ... at all. I gained a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and ...
Full Text Available ... Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression ( ... Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression ( ...
Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ...
Full Text Available ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...
Full Text Available ... for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT ... For many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the best choice. Depression can be ...
Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ...
Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...
Cucciare, Michael A; Gray, Heather; Azar, Armin; Jimenez, Daniel; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores
The present study examined the relationship between self-reported physical health, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of depression diagnosis in Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Participants were 89 Hispanic female dementia caregivers. This study used a cross-sectional design. Baseline depression and physical health data were collected from participants enrolled in the 'Reducing Stress in Hispanic Anglo Dementia Caregivers' study sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Physical health was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), a one-item self-report health rating, body mass index, and the presence or history of self-reported physical illness. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The occurrence of depression diagnosis was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which indices of physical health and depressive symptoms accounted for variance in participants' depressive symptoms and depressive diagnoses. Self-reported indices of health (e.g., SF-36) accounted for a significant portion of variance in both CES-D scores and SCID diagnoses. Caregivers who reported worsened health tended to report increased symptoms of depression on the CES-D and increased likelihood of an SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Self-reported health indices are helpful in identifying Hispanic dementia caregivers at risk for clinical levels of depression.
Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy
The current prospective study investigated transactional relations between maternal depressive symptoms and children's depressive and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 240 children (M age = 11.86 years, SD = 0.56; 53.9% female) and their mothers who were part of a 6-year longitudinal study. Measures of maternal depression (Beck…
Eller, Lucille S; Kirksey, Kenn M; Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Holzemer, William L; Wantland, Dean J; Willard, Suzanne S; Robinson, Linda; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie
Abstract Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH), and are associated with poorer health outcomes. This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of the HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual self-care symptom management strategies compared with a nutrition manual on depressive symptoms in an international sample of PLWH. The sample consisted of a sub-group (N=222) of participants in a larger study symptom management study who reported depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms of the intervention (n=124) and control (n=98) groups were compared over three months: baseline, one-month, and two-months. Use and effectiveness of specific strategies were examined. Depressive symptom frequency at baseline varied significantly by country (χ (2) 12.9; p=0.04). Within the intervention group there were significant differences across time in depressive symptom frequency [F(2, 207) = 3.27, p=0.05], intensity [F(2, 91) = 4.6, p=0.01], and impact [F(2, 252) = 2.92, p= 0.05), and these were significantly lower at one month but not at two months, suggesting that self-care strategies are effective in reducing depressive symptoms, however effects may be short term. Most used and most effective self-care strategies were distraction techniques and prayer. This study suggests that people living with HIV can be taught and will employ self-care strategies for management of depressive symptoms and that these strategies are effective in reducing these symptoms. Self-care strategies are noninvasive, have no side-effects, and can be readily taught as an adjunct to other forms of treatment. Studies are needed to identify the most effective self-care strategies and quantify optimum dose and frequency of use as a basis for evidence-based practice.
Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Mackenbach, Johan; Whitehead, Margaret; Stuckler, David
Does increasing incomes improve health? In 1999, the UK government implemented minimum wage legislation, increasing hourly wages to at least £3.60. This policy experiment created intervention and control groups that can be used to assess the effects of increasing wages on health. Longitudinal data were taken from the British Household Panel Survey. We compared the health effects of higher wages on recipients of the minimum wage with otherwise similar persons who were likely unaffected because (1) their wages were between 100 and 110% of the eligibility threshold or (2) their firms did not increase wages to meet the threshold. We assessed the probability of mental ill health using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. We also assessed changes in smoking, blood pressure, as well as hearing ability (control condition). The intervention group, whose wages rose above the minimum wage, experienced lower probability of mental ill health compared with both control group 1 and control group 2. This improvement represents 0.37 of a standard deviation, comparable with the effect of antidepressants (0.39 of a standard deviation) on depressive symptoms. The intervention group experienced no change in blood pressure, hearing ability, or smoking. Increasing wages significantly improves mental health by reducing financial strain in low-wage workers. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available ... News & Events Science News Meetings and Events Multimedia Social Media Press ... Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder ( ...
alcohol disorder can both serve to initiate the other. ... (unlike that previously identified), and a J-shaped association between binge drinking frequency and depressive symptoms and ..... O'Donnell K, Wardle J, Dantzer C, Steptoe A. Alcohol.
Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...
Full Text Available ... Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia ( ... Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia ( ...
Full Text Available ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ...
Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...
Full Text Available ... alone. NARRATOR : If you have depression, telling friends, family, or someone you trust, and finding a doctor or therapist are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read more about ...
Full Text Available ... why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...
Full Text Available ... depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute to depression. RODOLFO : I had one really good therapist and through her I think I started ...
Full Text Available ... Funded Science on EurekAlert EEG signals accurately predict autism as early as 3 months of age Researchers identify 44 genomic variants associated with depression Brain activity can predict success of depression treatment More News From the Field... Contact Us The ...
Lívia Maria Santiago
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals.
Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Hardicre, J.; Byrne, J.; McCollum, C.N.; Burns, A.
BACKGROUND: The vascular depression hypothesis and our recent findings of increased frequency of spontaneous cerebral emboli in dementia suggest that such emboli may be involved in the causation of depressive symptoms in dementia. AIMS: To evaluate the association between spontaneous cerebral emboli
Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E.
The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms…
Sergio Gonçalves Henriques
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the recognition of depressive symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD by general practitioners. INTRODUCTION: MDD is underdiagnosed in medical settings, possibly because of difficulties in the recognition of specific depressive symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 316 outpatients at their first visit to a teaching general hospital. We evaluated the performance of 19 general practitioners using Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD to detect depressive symptoms and compared them to 11 psychiatrists using Structured Clinical Interview Axis I Disorders, Patient Version (SCID I/P. We measured likelihood ratios, sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and false negative frequencies. RESULTS: The lowest positive likelihood ratios were for psychomotor agitation/retardation (1.6 and fatigue (1.7, mostly because of a high rate of false positive results. The highest positive likelihood ratio was found for thoughts of suicide (8.5. The lowest sensitivity, 61.8%, was found for impaired concentration. The sensitivity for worthlessness or guilt in patients with medical illness was 67.2% (95% CI, 57.4-76.9%, which is significantly lower than that found in patients without medical illness, 91.3% (95% CI, 83.2-99.4%. DISCUSSION: Less adequately identified depressive symptoms were both psychological and somatic in nature. The presence of a medical illness may decrease the sensitivity of recognizing specific depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Programs for training physicians in the use of diagnostic tools should consider their performance in recognizing specific depressive symptoms. Such procedures could allow for the development of specific training to aid in the detection of the most misrecognized depressive symptoms.
Full Text Available ... depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the ...
Full Text Available ... NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so ... the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert EEG signals accurately predict autism as ...
Full Text Available ... NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and ... to NIMH Email Updates Type email address... Privacy Notice Policies FOIA Accessibility Topic Finder Publicaciones en Español ...
Full Text Available ... Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home ... 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help.   Watch on YouTube. Transcript RODOLFO : ...
Full Text Available ... most, and how to make better, more effective ones. For many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the best choice. Depression can be successfully treated in many ...
Full Text Available ... Mental Illnesses Clinical Trials Outreach Outreach Home Stakeholder Engagement Outreach Partnership Program Alliance for Research Progress Coalition ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...
Full Text Available ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home ... alone. NARRATOR : If you have depression, telling friends, family, or someone you trust, and finding a doctor ...
Full Text Available ... are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so ... Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov The National ...
Full Text Available ... Video and Audio about Depression Contact the Press Office 301-443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov Press Resources ... and Spanish Mail: National Institute of Mental Health Office of Science Policy, Planning, and Communications 6001 Executive ...
Full Text Available ... problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep ... happened, where I would sleep 10, 12, 15 hours a day even. NARRATOR : People who are depressed ...
Full Text Available ... family, or someone you trust, and finding a doctor or therapist are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take ... Health Information Summaries of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH ...
Full Text Available ... I felt like I was such an awful person that there was no real reason for me ... I gained a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can feel irritable and restless, and ...
Full Text Available ... to anyone. I didn't really want to do anything for myself because I felt so, I ... there was no real reason for me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than ...
Full Text Available ... Home Opportunities & Announcements Funding Strategy for Grants Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research ... are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so ...
Full Text Available ... not yet completely understood. We do know that the brains of people with depression are different from those ... National Institutes of Health (NIH), a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Top
Full Text Available ... predict autism as early as 3 months of age Researchers identify 44 genomic variants associated with depression ... Mental Health Office of Science Policy, Planning, and Communications 6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 6200, MSC 9663 Bethesda, ...
Full Text Available ... CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute ... and through her I think I started really thinking about that I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications ...
Full Text Available ... for weeks. And then but most of the time the opposite happened, where I would sleep 10, ... depressed can feel numb and tired all the time. In some cases it can even lead to ...
Full Text Available ... with depression are different from those without the illness, but we aren't sure why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who ...
Full Text Available ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ... closer to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the most, and how ...
Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia ( ...
Full Text Available ... 2010 2009 Multimedia by Topic Disorders Anxiety Disorders (5 items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ...
Full Text Available ... is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that ... I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications called antidepressants can also help. NIMH researchers are getting closer to figuring out ...
Gjerdingen, Dwenda; McGovern, Patricia; Attanasio, Laura; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes
The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and employment and whether it is mediated by social support. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 700 US women who gave birth in 2005 and completed 2 surveys in the Listening to Mothers series, the first in early 2006, an average of 7.3 months postpartum, and the second an average of 13.4 months postpartum. A dichotomous measure of depressive symptoms was calculated from the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and women reported their employment status and levels of social support from partners and others. We modeled the association between maternal employment and depressive symptoms using multivariate logistic regression, including social support and other control variables. Maternal employment and high support from a nonpartner source were both independently associated with significantly lower odds of depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.35 and P = .011, and AOR, 0.40, P = .011, respectively). These relationships remained significant after controlling for mothers' baseline mental and physical health, babies' health, and demographic characteristics (AOR, 0.326 and P = .015, and AOR, 0.267 and P = .025, respectively). Maternal employment and strong social support, particularly nonpartner support, were independently associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Clinicians should encourage mothers of young children who are at risk for depression to consider ways to optimize their employment circumstances and "other" social support.
Medeiros, Gustavo C; Seger, Liliana; Grant, Jon E; Tavares, Hermano
It is estimated that between 1.7 and 2.6 million people have had intermittent explosive disorder (IED) during their life in the United States alone. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders are very common in IED, being major depressive disorder arguably the most common. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical correlates of IED and depressive manifestations in 74 treatment-seeking subjects. After controlling for confounders, there were associations between major depressive disorder and severity of depressive symptoms, and (a) higher assault scores, (b) more severe hostile behavior and (c) worse social adjustment. Management of depressive symptoms may be an important for IED treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bob, Petr; Fedor-Freybergh, Peter; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Susta, Marek; Pavlat, Josef; Zima, Tomas; Benakova, Hana; Raboch, Jiri
Dissociative symptoms are traditionally attributed to psychological stressors that produce dissociated memories related to stressful life events. Dissociative disorders and dissociative symptoms including psychogenic amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity-disorder, depersonalization, derealization and other symptoms or syndromes have been reported as an epidemic psychiatric condition that may be coexistent with various psychiatric diagnoses such as depression, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder or anxiety disorders. According to recent findings also the somatic components of dissociation may occur and influence brain, autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. At this time there are only few studies examining neuroendocrine response related to dissociative symptoms that suggest significant dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The aim of the present study is to perform examination of HPA axis functioning indexed by basal cortisol and prolactin and test their relationship to psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms. Basal cortisol and prolactin and psychic and somatoform dissociative symptoms were assessed in 40 consecutive inpatients with diagnosis of unipolar depression mean age 43.37 (SD=12.21). The results show that prolactin and cortisol as indices of HPA axis functioning manifest significant relationship to dissociative symptoms. Main results represent highly significant correlations obtained by simple regression between psychic dissociative symptoms (DES) and serum prolactin (R=0.55, p=0.00027), and between somatoform dissociation (SDQ-20) and serum cortisol (R=-0.38, p=0.015). These results indicate relationship between HPA-axis reactivity and dissociative symptoms in unipolar depressive patients that could reflect passive coping behavior and disengagement.
Friborg, Maria K; Hansen, Jørgen V; Aldrich, Per T
employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. RESULTS: Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly......BACKGROUND: Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work....... This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate. Further, we investigated if psychosocial...
Friborg, Maria K.; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Aldrich, Per T.
Background: Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work...... workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. Methods: We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD) and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW) collected...... employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Results: Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly...
Full Text Available ... Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the time the opposite happened, where I would sleep 10, 12, 15 hours a day even. NARRATOR : People who are depressed can feel ...
Full Text Available ... to do anything for myself because I felt so, I felt like I was such an awful ... out of the house. I was in college so I wouldn't go to classes at all. ... genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and better treatments can be developed. ...
Full Text Available ... depressed can feel numb and tired all the time. In some cases it can even lead to thoughts of suicide. RODOLFO : It was like I had big huge weights on my legs and I was trying to swim and just kept sinking. And I'd get a little ...
Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) Diversity and Ethnic Groups (4 items) ...
Full Text Available ... problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the time the opposite happened, where I would sleep 10, 12, 15 hours a day even. NARRATOR : People who are depressed ...
Full Text Available ... Multimedia by Topic Disorders Anxiety Disorders (5 items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...
Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) ...
Nugent, J. Kevin; Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Valim, Clarissa
Relationship-based interventions are an effective means for reducing postpartum depression (PPD), but few cost-effective tools that can be administered efficiently in medical and home settings are available or well-studied. This study examines the efficacy of the Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO), an infant-centered relationship-based…
Sonia María López C
Full Text Available Depression has been related with alterations of glucose metabolism, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, adiposity and dislipidemias, which constitute the metabolic syndrome (m s. Objective: to determine the frequency of depressive symptoms in patients with m s. Material and methods: an observational, descriptive, transverse study was carried out in 101 patients with m s(69 women and 32 men. The Beck inventory for depression was applied. Vasodilatation in the brachial artery and the thickness of the carotid intimae-media were evaluated by means of ultrasonographic measurement. Abdominal perimeter, trygliceridemia, cholesterolemia and insulin resistance were calculated. The statistic treatment was performed by means of descriptive and inferential through mean, standard deviation, and correlation proofs. Insulin resistance was calculated by the h o m a method. Results:prevalence of depressive symptoms: 46.34% between patients with m s (correlation of 0.42 significative at p = 0.05. A higher number of components of the syndrome correlates with higher severity of the depression. Depressive symptoms were associated to a higher insulin resistance, low levels of c- h d l, hypertension and carotid atherosclerosis. Conclusion: depression has a high prevalence in the m s and its associates with a higher number of metabolic and vascular disturbances
Secades-Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba; Reed, Derek D; Fernández-Hermida, José R
Individuals with depression smoke more than smokers without depression. Research has shown that cigarette demand is a useful tool for quantifying tobacco reinforcement and supposes a clinical predictor of treatment outcomes. Despite previous studies examining the relative reinforcing efficacy of nicotine among different populations of smokers, to date, no study has assessed cigarette demand among individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare cigarette demand among samples of smokers with low and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, it also sought to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the individual CPT demand indices. Participants (80 non-depressed smokers and 85 depressed smokers) completed the 19-item version of the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT). Depression symptomatology was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). Depressed smokers needed to present at least moderate depressive symptoms as indicated by scoring ≥ 20 on the BDI-II. Depressive symptomatology and nicotine dependence were significantly associated with elasticity of demand (R 2 = 0.112; F(2, 155) = 9.756, p = ≤ 0.001). Depressive symptoms, cigarettes per day, and years of regular smoking also predicted breakpoint scores (R 2 = 0.088; F(4, 153) = 3.697, p = 0.007). As smokers with elevated depressive symptoms are less sensitive to increases in cigarette prices than those with low depressive symptomatology, future studies should consider these cigarette demand indices when designing depression-focused smoking cessation treatments. Providing this difficult-to-treat population with interventions that promote both pleasurable and alternative reinforcing activities is highly encouraged.
Roepke, Ann Marie; Jaffee, Sara R; Riffle, Olivia M; McGonigal, Jane; Broome, Rose; Maxwell, Bez
Technological advances have sparked the development of computer- and smartphone-based self-help programs for depressed people, but these programs' efficacy is uncertain. This randomized controlled trial evaluated an intervention called SuperBetter (SB), which is accessed via smartphone and/or the SB Web site. Online, we recruited 283 adult iPhone(®) (Apple, Cupertino, CA) users with significant depression symptoms according to the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression questionnaire (CES-D). They were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) a version of SB using cognitive-behavioral therapy and positive psychotherapy strategies to target depression (CBT-PPT SB); (b) a general SB version focused on self-esteem and acceptance (General SB); or (c) a waiting list control group (WL). The two SB groups were instructed to use SB for 10 minutes daily for 1 month. All participants completed psychological distress and well-being measures online every 2 weeks through follow-up. An intent-to-treat analysis was conducted using hierarchical linear modeling. As hypothesized, SB participants achieved greater reductions in CES-D scores than WL participants by posttest (Cohen's d=0.67) and by follow-up (d=1.05). Contrary to prediction, CBT-PPT SB did not perform better than General SB; both versions of SB were more effective than the WL control. Differences between SB versions favored General SB but were not statistically significant. These large effect sizes should be interpreted cautiously in light of high attrition rates and the motivated, self-selected sample. Nonetheless, smartphone-based/Internet-based self-help may play an important role in treating depression.
Background Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience. Method In this two-part online study (Ntotal = 721) we investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms of web users and basic website characteristics (i.e., content, subjective and objective usability, aesthetics). Participants completed search and memory tasks on different fully-functional websites. In addition, they were asked to evaluate the given websites with standardized measures and were screened for symptoms of depression using the PHQ-9. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine whether depression severity affects users’ perception of and performance in using information websites. Results We found significant associations between depressive symptoms and subjective user experience, specifically of website content, usability, and aesthetics, as well as an effect of content perception on the overall appraisal of a website in terms of the intention to visit it again. Small yet significant negative effects of depression severity on all named subjective website evaluations were revealed, leading to an indirect negative effect on the intention to revisit a website via impaired content perceptions. However, objective task performance was not influenced by depressiveness of users. Discussion Depression emerges as capable of altering the subjective perception of a website to some extend with respect to the main features content, usability, and aesthetics. The
Thielsch, Meinald T; Thielsch, Carolin
Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience. In this two-part online study ( N total = 721) we investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms of web users and basic website characteristics (i.e., content, subjective and objective usability, aesthetics). Participants completed search and memory tasks on different fully-functional websites. In addition, they were asked to evaluate the given websites with standardized measures and were screened for symptoms of depression using the PHQ-9. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine whether depression severity affects users' perception of and performance in using information websites. We found significant associations between depressive symptoms and subjective user experience, specifically of website content, usability, and aesthetics, as well as an effect of content perception on the overall appraisal of a website in terms of the intention to visit it again. Small yet significant negative effects of depression severity on all named subjective website evaluations were revealed, leading to an indirect negative effect on the intention to revisit a website via impaired content perceptions. However, objective task performance was not influenced by depressiveness of users. Depression emerges as capable of altering the subjective perception of a website to some extend with respect to the main features content, usability, and aesthetics. The user experience of a website is
Meinald T. Thielsch
Full Text Available Background Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience. Method In this two-part online study (Ntotal = 721 we investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms of web users and basic website characteristics (i.e., content, subjective and objective usability, aesthetics. Participants completed search and memory tasks on different fully-functional websites. In addition, they were asked to evaluate the given websites with standardized measures and were screened for symptoms of depression using the PHQ-9. We used structural equation modeling (SEM to determine whether depression severity affects users’ perception of and performance in using information websites. Results We found significant associations between depressive symptoms and subjective user experience, specifically of website content, usability, and aesthetics, as well as an effect of content perception on the overall appraisal of a website in terms of the intention to visit it again. Small yet significant negative effects of depression severity on all named subjective website evaluations were revealed, leading to an indirect negative effect on the intention to revisit a website via impaired content perceptions. However, objective task performance was not influenced by depressiveness of users. Discussion Depression emerges as capable of altering the subjective perception of a website to some extend with respect to the main features content, usability, and
Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Gray, Heather L; Tang, Paulette C Y; Pu, Chun Yu; Leung, Laurie Y L; Wang, Peng-Chih; Tse, Collins; Hsu, Shannon; Kwo, Elizabeth; Tong, Hui-Qi; Long, James; Thompson, Larry W
Recent work has shown that Chinese Americans caring for a family member with dementia experience considerable psychological distress. However, few studies evaluate treatments for them. This study evaluated the efficacy of in-home intervention, based on cognitive behavior therapy principles, to relieve stress and depression in female Chinese American caregivers (CGs). Fifty-five CGs who met inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to a telephone support condition (TSC) or to an in-home behavioral management program (IHBMP) for 4 months. In the TSC, biweekly calls were made and relevant material was mailed. In the IHBMP, specific psychological skills were taught to deal with caregiving stress. CGs were assessed before and after treatment. Outcome measures evaluated overall perceived stress, caregiving-specific stress, and depressive symptoms. CGs in IHBMP were less bothered by caregiving-specific stressors and had lower depression levels than CGs in TSC. There was no difference in overall stress. CGs with low baseline level of self-efficacy for obtaining respite benefited from IHBMP, but showed little improvement in the TSC. CGs with higher self-efficacy benefited from both treatments. This intervention is promising and warrants replication in future studies. Additional research is needed to evaluate longer-term effects and to identify individual differences associated with improvement.
Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E; Wang, Yan; Black, Maureen M
This study examines potential mechanisms linking maternal depressive symptoms over 2 years postpartum with child behavior problems at school-age in a sample of adolescent mothers and their first-born child. Potential mechanisms include: mother-reported caregiving engagement at 6 months; observed parental nurturance and control, and child competence and affect at 24 months; and mother-reported resilience at 7 years based on achievement of adult developmental tasks. One hundred eighteen low-income African American adolescent mothers were recruited at delivery and followed through child age 7 years. Maternal depressive symptom trajectories over 24 months were estimated (low, medium, and high) based on mother-reported depressive symptoms. Direct and indirect associations between depressive symptom trajectories with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems were examined. The high maternal depressive symptom trajectory was associated with 7-year maternal depressive symptoms (b = 5.52, SE = 1.65, p child internalizing problems (b = 7.60, SE = 3.12, p = .02) and externalizing problems (b = 6.23, SE = 3.22, p = .05). Caregiving engagement among high depressive symptom trajectory mothers was significantly associated with observed child affect (b = -0.21, SE = 0.11, p = 0.05). Parental nurturance in toddlerhood mediated the association between high maternal depressive symptom trajectory and child internalizing problems at 7 years (indirect effect b = 2.33, 95% CI: 0.32-5.88). Findings suggest that family based interventions to promote parenting and adolescent resiliency strengthening may be beneficial in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of bipolar-II disorder (BP-II) as a major depressive disorder (MDD) are frequently reported. The study aim was to find which symptoms of depression could be possible cross-sectional markers of BP-II, in order to reduce underdiagnosing BP-II. Consecutive 379 BP-II and 271 MDD major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hypomania Interview Guide, and the Family History Screen, by a senior psychiatrist in a private practice. Inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms (elevated mood and increased self-esteem always absent by definition) were systematically assessed. Mixed depression was defined as an MDE plus 3 or more inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms, a definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi. The MDE symptoms significantly more common in BP-II versus MDD were weight gain, increased eating, hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation, worthlessness, and diminished ability to concentrate. The inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms significantly more common in BP-II were distractibility, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, psychomotor agitation, more talkativeness, increased risky and goal-directed activities. Multiple logistic regression showed that hypersomnia, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, and psychomotor agitation were independent predictors of BP-II. Irritability had the most balanced combination of sensitivity and specificity predicting BP-II. Psychomotor agitation had the highest specificity but the lowest sensitivity. Racing/crowded thoughts had the highest sensitivity but the lowest specificity. These symptoms had a similar positive predictive value (PPV) for BP-II, which was around 70% (PPV is more clinically useful than sensitivity and specificity), which in turn was similar to the PPV of mixed depression and atypical depression (two diagnostic clinical markers of BP-II). All possible combinations of these symptoms had a PPV similar to that of the individual symptoms. The
Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina; Era, Pertti
Fatigue is considered an important indicator of aging-related declines in health and functional abilities. Previous studies have indicated strong associations between fatigue and depressive symptoms among younger populations and in patient groups with specific diseases. However, it is not known h...
Preiss, M.; Fráňová, Lenka
Roč. 48, č. 1 (2006), s. 57-67 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/05/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : academic achievement * depressive symptoms * intelligence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2006
Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel
of Ageing” (3398 men) aged 50–91 years were followed until 2012/2013, after baseline assessment of depressive symptoms, social support, relational strain, and network size. Hazard ratios (HR) for incident diabetes were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for relevant confounders...... behaviour, and body mass index the associations were attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Depressive symptoms were associated with higher diabetes risk. This effect was not modified by any of the social variables. Conclusions People with stronger social relations are at lower risk...... of developing T2DM; however, this effect is largely explained by known diabetes risk factors. No evidence was found that stronger social relations reduce the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM....
Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR = 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women.
Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Mitchell, Richard J; Shortt, Niamh K; Pearce, Jamie R
Common mental disorders are an increasing global public health concern. The least advantaged in society experience a greater burden of mental illness, but inequalities in mental health vary by social, political, and economic contexts. This study investigates whether spending on different types of social protection alters the extent of social inequality in depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the 2006 and 2012 cross-sectional waves of the European Social Survey, which included 48,397 individuals from 18 European countries. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D 8). Statistical interactions between country-level social protection spending and individuals' education level, employment and family status were explored using multilevel regression models. Higher spending on active labour market programmes was related to narrower inequality in depressive symptoms by education level. Compared to men with high education, the marginal effect of having low education was 1.67 (95 % CI, 1.46-1.87) among men in countries with lower spending and 0.85 (95 % CI, 0.66-1.03) in higher spending countries. Single parents exhibited fewer depressive symptoms, as spending on family policies increased. Little evidence was found for an overall association between spending on unemployment benefits and employment-related inequalities in depressive symptoms, but in 2012, unemployment spending appeared beneficial to mental health among the unemployed. Greater investment in social protection may act to reduce inequalities in depressive symptoms. Reductions in spending levels or increased conditionality may adversely affect the mental health of disadvantaged social groups.
Jorm Anthony F
for helpful longer-term effects was found for autogenic training, light therapy, omega 3 fatty acids, pets, and prayer. Many of the trials were poor quality and may not generalise to self-help without professional guidance. Conclusion A number of self-help interventions have promising evidence for reducing subthreshold depressive symptoms. Other forms of evidence such as expert consensus may be more appropriate for interventions that are not feasible to evaluate in randomised controlled trials. There needs to be evaluation of whether promotion to the public of effective self-help strategies for subthreshold depressive symptoms could delay or prevent onset of depressive illness, reduce functional impairment, and prevent progression to other undesirable outcomes such as harmful use of substances.
Krieger, Tobias; Altenstein, David; Baettig, Isabelle; Doerig, Nadja; Holtforth, Martin Grosse
Self-compassion involves being kind to oneself when challenged with personal weaknesses or hardship and has been claimed to be associated with resilience in various areas. So far, there are only a handful of studies that investigate self-compassion and its relation to clinical depression. Therefore, the principal goals of the present study were (a) to compare self-compassion in clinically depressed patients and never-depressed subjects, (b) to investigate self-compassion and its relation to cognitive-behavioral avoidance and rumination in depressed outpatients, and (c) to investigate rumination and avoidance as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. One hundred and forty-two depressed outpatients and 120 never-depressed individuals from a community sample completed a self-report measure of self-compassion along with other measures. Results indicate that depressed patients showed lower levels of self-compassion than never-depressed individuals, even when controlled for depressive symptoms. In depressed outpatients, self-compassion was negatively related to depressive symptoms, symptom-focused rumination, as well as cognitive and behavioral avoidance. Additionally, symptom-focused rumination and cognitive and behavioral avoidance mediated the relationship between self-compassion and depressive symptoms. These findings extend previous research on self-compassion, its relation to depression, as well as processes mediating this relationship, and highlight the importance of self-compassion in clinically depressed patients. Since depressed patients seem to have difficulties adopting a self-compassionate attitude, psychotherapists are well advised to explore and address how depressed patients treat themselves. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E
The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Gruhn, Meredith A.; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Reising, Michelle M.; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A.; Compas, Bruce E.
The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15-years-old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. PMID:26882467
Collibee, Charlene; Rizzo, Christie J; Kemp, Kathleen; Hood, Erik; Doucette, Hannah; Gittins Stone, Daniel I; DeJesus, Brett
Few dating violence prevention programs assess how variations in initial violence risk affects responsiveness. This study examines the efficacy of Date SMART, a dating violence and sexual risk prevention program designed to target high-risk adolescent girls, in preventing dating violence in the context of varying initial levels of depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of N = 109 female adolescents with a history of physical dating violence participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Date SMART program and a knowledge only (KO) comparison. Using baseline depression level as a primary risk factor, a series of multilevel models revealed significant main effects of baseline depression such that higher baseline depression was associated with greater physical dating violence perpetration and victimization. Results also showed a three-way interaction for assessment point, depressive symptoms, and condition for physical dating violence perpetration. Specifically, those with higher baseline depression in Date SMART showed significantly less physical dating violence perpetration at follow-ups compared with those with higher baseline depression in the KO group. This difference in violence reduction between conditions was not observed for those with lower baseline depression. Date SMART appears to effectively reduce physical dating violence perpetration in those with higher levels of initial risk. Current findings support that adolescents with different risk profiles respond differently to violence prevention programs.
Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric
We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199
Hibbeln, Joseph R; Northstone, Kate; Evans, Jonathan; Golding, Jean
Vegetarian diets are associate with cardiovascular and other health benefits, but little is known about mental health benefits or risks. To determine whether self-identification of vegetarian dietary habits is associated with significant depressive symptoms in men. Self-report data from 9668 adult male partners of pregnant women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) included identification as vegetarian or vegan, dietary frequency data and the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale (EPDS). Continuous and binary outcomes were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression taking account of potential confounding variables including: age, marital status, employment status, housing tenure, number of children in the household, religion, family history of depression previous childhood psychiatric contact, cigarette and alcohol consumption. Vegetarians [n = 350 (3.6% of sample)], had higher depression scores on average than non-vegetarians (mean difference 0.96 points [95%CI + 0.53, + 1.40]) and a greater risk for EPDS scores above 10 (adjusted OR = 1.67 [95% CI: 1.14,2.44]) than non-vegetarians after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Vegetarian men have more depressive symptoms after adjustment for socio-demographic factors. Nutritional deficiencies (e.g. in cobalamin or iron) are a possible explanation for these findings, however reverse causation cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Auvinen, Piritta; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Korniloff, Katariina; Ahonen, Tiina; Vanhala, Mauno
Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor disorder and it is associated with several other diseases especially mental illnesses. To analyze the relationship between the symptoms of restless legs syndrome and the severity of depressive symptoms and the prevalence of restless legs symptoms in depression subtypes. A cross-sectional study of primary care patients in the Central Finland Hospital District. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was studied in 706 patients with increased depressive symptoms and 426 controls without a psychiatric diagnosis by using a structured questionnaire. The depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed by means of a diagnostic interview (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview). The subjects with increased depressive symptoms were divided into three groups (subjects with depressive symptoms without a depression diagnosis, melancholic depression and non-melancholic depression). In the whole study population, the prevalence of restless legs symptoms increased with the severity of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was highest in the melancholic and non-melancholic depressive patients (52 and 46%, respectively) and then in subjects with depressive symptoms without a depression diagnosis (43.4%), but the prevalence was also substantial (24.6%) in subjects without a psychiatric diagnosis. Restless legs symptoms are very common in primary care among subjects with depression, regardless of the depression type. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms increased with increasing severity of depressive symptoms, regardless of the diagnosis. These findings should be considered in clinical evaluation and treatment of patients visiting their physician due to restless legs or depressive symptoms.
Conclusion: Dentists may face burnout and depressive symptoms during their professional life. Increased burnout level can give an idea on depressive symptoms, and may provide an opportunity to identify depression earlier. Creating and raising awareness about burnout are important to avoid and prevent depression among dentists. Further longitudinal studies analyzing the effects of interdisciplinary client-centered self-management programs for dentists on depressive symptoms and burnout must be planned.
Smith, Patrick J; Attix, Deborah K; Weldon, B Craig; Monk, Terri G
Previous studies have shown that elevated depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of postoperative delirium. However, to our knowledge no previous studies have examined whether different components of depression are differentially predictive of postoperative delirium. One thousand twenty patients were screened for postoperative delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method and through retrospective chart review. Patients underwent cognitive, psychosocial, and medical assessments preoperatively. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form. Thirty-eight patients developed delirium (3.7%). Using a factor structure previously validated among geriatric medical patients, the authors examined three components of depression as predictors of postoperative delirium: negative affect, cognitive distress, and behavioral inactivity. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, education, comorbidities, and cognitive function, the authors found that greater behavioral inactivity was associated with increased risk of delirium (OR: 1.95 [1.11, 3.42]), whereas negative affect (OR: 0.65 [0.31, 1.36]) and cognitive distress (OR: 0.95 [0.63, 1.43]) were not. Different components of depression are differentially predictive of postoperative delirium among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pinto, Melissa D; Hickman, Ronald L; Clochesy, John; Buchner, Marc
Major depressive disorder is prevalent among American young adults and predisposes young adults to serious impairments in psychosocial functioning. Without intervention, young adults with depressive symptoms are at high risk for worsening of depressive symptoms and developing major depressive disorder. Young adults are not routinely taught effective depression self management skills to reduce depressive symptoms and preempt future illness. This study reports initial results of a randomized controlled trial among young adults (18-25 years of age) with depressive symptoms who were exposed to an avatar-based depression self-management intervention, eSMART-MH. Participants completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks follow-up. Participants who received eSMART-MH had a significant reduction in depressive symptoms over 3 months, while individuals in the attention-control condition had no change in symptoms. In this study, eSMART-MH demonstrated initial efficacy and is a promising developmentally appropriate depression self-management intervention for young adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dekker, Rebecca L; Lennie, Terry A; Doering, Lynn V; Chung, Misook L; Wu, Jia-Rong; Moser, Debra K
Among patients with heart failure (HF), anxiety symptoms may co-exist with depressive symptoms. However, the extent of overlap and risk factors for anxiety symptoms have not been thoroughly described. The aim of this study was to describe the coexistence of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and to determine the predictors of anxiety symptoms in patients with HF. The sample consisted of 556 outpatients with HF (34% female, 62±12 years, 54% New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV) enrolled in a multicenter HF quality of life registry. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory-anxiety subscale. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI). We used a cut-point of 0.35 to categorize patients as having anxiety symptoms or no anxiety symptoms. Logistic regression was used to determine whether age, gender, minority status, educational level, functional status, comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant use were predictors of anxiety symptoms. One-third of patients had both depressive and anxiety symptoms. There was a dose-response relationship between depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms; higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with a higher level of anxiety symptoms. Younger age (odds ratio (OR)= 0.97, p=0.004, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-0.99) and depressive symptoms (OR =1.25, panxiety symptoms. Patients with HF and depressive symptoms are at high risk for experiencing anxiety symptoms. Clinicians should assess these patients for comorbid anxiety symptoms. Research is needed to test interventions for both depressive and anxiety symptoms.
Jakobsen, Louise M.; Jorgensen, Anette F. B.; Thomsen, Birthe L.
Background: Danish professional caregivers have high rates of depressive symptoms. One proposed cause is exposure to emotion work. However, emotion work is usually measured by self-report which may bias results. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the association of emotion work......, externally observed at the workplace, with self-reported depressive symptoms of professional caregivers. Design and data sources: The study was a cross-sectional observational study. Data was collected by 9 observers who assessed emotion work stressors and emotion work resources in 124 individual...... professional caregivers working in 56 work units across 10 eldercare homes. Emotion work stressors were defined as i) barriers for empathetic care, ii) taxing aggressive events, and iii) taxing non-aggressive events. Emotion work resources were defined as i) meaningful events, and ii) social interactions...
Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.
The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…
Atkeson, Beverly M.; And Others
Investigated depressive symptoms in rape victims (N=115) for one year following their assaults. Depressive symptoms were higher in victims than in controls. By four months postrape, depressive symptoms in the victim group had diminished, and the victims were no longer significantly different from the nonvictim control group. (Author)
Din, Meriam Omar; Noor, Noraini M
Due to a dearth of research on depressive symptoms in Malaysia, particularly in Malay women, a community study was conducted to examine the prevalence and factors associated with current depressive symptoms in rural and urban Malay women with low socioeconomic status. Four hundred eighty-seven women (N rural = 242, N urban = 245) were interviewed. Information on socio-demographic variables, potential risk factors (family history of mental health problems, lifetime major depressive symptoms, and current life stressors), and current depressive symptoms (measured by the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D) was collected. The prevalence of current depressive symptoms (CES-D scores > or = 16) reported was 34.5%, while the prevalence of lifetime major depressive symptoms was 27.5%. A significantly higher rate of current depressive symptoms was observed in urban women compared to rural women, chi(2) (1, N = 487) = 3.99, p depressive symptoms. The results of the multiple hierarchical regression analysis indicated that three potential factors (family history of mental health problems, lifetime major depressive symptoms, and current life stressors) were positively associated with current depressive symptoms, accounting for 17.8% of the variance, over and above the socio-demographic variables. The prevalence of depressive symptoms reported in the study was comparable to past studies. Among the factors associated with current depressive symptoms, the single most important was lifetime major depressive symptoms, followed by current life stressors, and family history of mental health problems. Among the socio-demographic variables used, perceived health status was the most important. The factors associated with depressive symptoms found in this study are consistent with past findings in the West, implying the universality of the phenomenon and common factors related to depressive symptoms in women.
Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi
Depression and dementia, among the most common conditions in clinical practice, sometimes coexist, sometimes succeed each other, and often confuse clinicians. In the present paper, the clinical concept of 'depression-dementia medius' (which includes pseudodementia and depression in Alzheimer's disease as exemplars) is proposed, in reference to Janet's concept of psychological tension. Because psychosomatically complex human lives are always in a state of dynamic equilibrium, it seems sensible to propose that pseudodementia and depression in Alzheimer's disease are located within a spectrum extending from depression without dementia symptoms to dementia without depression. From the Janetian viewpoint, pseudodementia is regarded as uncovered latent dementia as a result of reduced psychological tension. Dementia is more than a fixed progressive condition under this view, and is a manifestation of dynamic mental activities. Characterizing these entities through perspectives such as psychological tension may yield deep insights in clinical practice. © 2011 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2011 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Linardon, Jake; Wade, Tracey; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl; Brennan, Leah
Depressive symptoms are an important risk factor and consequence of binge eating and purging behavior in bulimia nervosa (BN). Although psychotherapy is effective in reducing symptoms of BN in the short- and long-term, it is unclear whether psychotherapy for BN is also effective in reducing depressive symptoms. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of psychotherapy for BN on depressive symptoms in the short- and long-term. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on BN that assessed depressive symptoms as an outcome were identified. Twenty-six RCTs were included. Psychotherapy was more efficacious at reducing symptoms of depression at post-treatment (g = 0.47) than wait-lists. This effect was strongest when studies delivered therapist-led, rather than guided self-help, treatment. No significant differences were observed between psychotherapy and antidepressants. There was no significant post-treatment difference between CBT and other active psychological comparisons at reducing symptoms of depression. However, when only therapist-led CBT was analyzed, therapist-led CBT was significantly more efficacious (g = 0.25) than active comparisons at reducing depressive symptoms. The magnitude of the improvement in depressive symptoms was predicted by the magnitude of the improvement in BN symptoms. These findings suggest that psychotherapy is effective for reducing depressive symptoms in BN in the short-term. Whether these effects are sustained in the long-term is yet to be determined, as too few studies conducted follow-up assessments. Moreover, findings demonstrate that, in addition to being the front-running treatment for BN symptoms, CBT might also be the most effective psychotherapy for improving the symptoms of depression that commonly co-occur in BN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh
Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published....... In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence...... interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association...
Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Madsen, Ida Eh
. In the majority of cohorts, long working hours was defined as working ≥55 hours per week. In multivariable-adjusted meta-analyses of 189 729 participants from 35 countries [96 275 men, 93 454 women, follow-up ranging from 1-5 years, 21 747 new-onset cases), there was an overall association of 1.14 (95% confidence......Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis combined published study-level data and unpublished individual-participant data with the aim of quantifying the relation between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for published...... interval (CI) 1.03-1.25] between long working hours and the onset of depressive symptoms, with significant evidence of heterogeneity (I 2=45.1%, P=0.004). A moderate association between working hours and depressive symptoms was found in Asian countries (1.50, 95% CI 1.13-2.01), a weaker association...
Idusohan-Moizer, H; Sawicka, A; Dendle, J; Albany, M
Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a range of health and psychological disorders in adults and young people without intellectual disabilities (ID). Clinical studies are emerging reporting on the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions as a stand-alone treatment for common clinical disorders in adults with ID. This paper aims to evaluate the efficacy of an innovative structured mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) group programme adapted for adults with ID with a diagnosis of either recurrent depression, anxiety or both clinical conditions and a history of deliberate self-harm behaviour. Two groups ran consecutively consisting of a total of fifteen participants and seven carers. All participants were recorded as having either a borderline, mild, or moderate ID. The group programme ran over a period of 9 weeks with a follow-up session at 6 weeks post group intervention. Outcome measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and two sub-scales from the Self-Compassion Scale administered at baseline, post therapy and at 6-week follow-up. The evaluation showed that participants reported an improvement in their experience of depression, anxiety, self-compassion and compassion for others. The most significant impact was in the reduced levels of anxiety reported. Improvements across all outcomes were maintained at 6-week follow-up. The results of the evaluation suggest that people with intellectual disabilities benefit from a structured MBCT group intervention and the results are maintained at 6-week follow-up. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Levintow, Sara N; Pence, Brian W; Ha, Tran Viet; Minh, Nguyen Le; Sripaipan, Teerada; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Pham The; Quan, Vu Minh; Frangakis, Constantine; Go, Vivian F
HIV infection is common among people who inject drugs (PWID), and HIV-positive PWID may be particularly vulnerable to depression. This study measured the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the factors associated with severe symptoms among 455 HIV-positive PWID in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. We used cross-sectional data from PWID in a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce high-risk injecting and sexual behaviors in Thai Nguyen from 2009-2013. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). We used logistic regression to assess demographic, clinical, and psychosocial predictors of severe depressive symptoms (CES-D≥23) with prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The prevalence of severe depressive symptoms (CES-D≥23) was 44%. 25% of participants had mild to moderate depressive symptoms (16≤CES-D<23), and 31% experienced no depressive symptoms (CES-D<16). Not being married, self-rated poor health, greater frequency of injection drug use, history of overdose, no alcohol use, and daily cigarette smoking were positively associated with severe depressive symptoms in unadjusted models and remained predictive in a multivariable model. The strongest predictors of depressive symptoms were self-reported poor health (POR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.82, 4.76), no current alcohol use (POR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.47, 3.77), and not currently married or cohabitating (POR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.40, 3.47). Severe depressive symptoms were common among HIV-positive PWID in Thai Nguyen and were strongly associated with demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Interventions that promote social support from family and reduce drug dependence may particularly benefit PWID experiencing severe depressive symptoms. Greater recognition and treatment of depressive symptoms has the potential to enhance quality of life and improve HIV clinical outcomes for PWID.
Bennett, David S; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael
Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed.
McKee, Laura G.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Moos, Rudolf H.
Objective: This study employed a prospective design to examine the role of friend and partner relationship quality 1 year following substance use disorder treatment in the association between depressive symptoms at discharge from treatment and abstinence from substance use 2 years after treatment. Method: The sample consisted of 1,453 male veterans who used alcohol and at least one other substance in the 3 months before treatment admission, who completed treatment, and who were abstinent from substances during the 2 weeks before discharge. Results: Fewer depressive symptoms at treatment discharge predicted better relationship quality with friends and a partner at 1 -year follow-up, as well as abstinence from substance use at 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, friend and partner relationship quality at 1 year predicted abstinence from substance use at 2 years. Friend relationship quality at 1 year mediated part of the association between fewer depressive symptoms at treatment discharge and abstinence at 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: A stronger focus in treatment on reducing depressive symptoms and enhancing the quality of patients' relationships with their friends and partner may increase the likelihood of long-term abstinence. PMID:21138721
Lako, Irene M.; Bruggeman, R.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.; Schoevers, R. A.; Slooff, C. J.; Taxis, K.
Background: Depressive symptoms require accurate recognition and monitoring in clinical practice of patients with schizophrenia. Depression instruments developed for use in depressed patients may not discriminate depressive symptoms from negative psychotic symptoms. Objective: We reviewed depression
Nexo, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm; Sejbaek, Camilla Sandal
BACKGROUND: Depression increases the risk of disability pension and represents a health related strain that pushes people out of the labour market. Although early voluntary retirement is an important alternative to disability pension, few studies have examined whether depressive symptoms incur...... early voluntary retirement. This study examined whether depressive symptoms and changes in depressive symptoms over time were associated with early retirement intentions. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional (n = 4041) and a prospective (n = 2444) population from a longitudinal study on employees...... of the Danish eldercare sector. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Major Depression Inventory and the impact of different levels of depressive symptoms (severe, moderately severe, moderate, mild and none) and changes in depressive symptoms (worsened, improved, unaffected) on early retirement intentions...
Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M
Mothers caring for technology-dependent children at home often suffer clinically significant and unrecognized depressive symptoms. The study aim was to determine factors related to elevated depressive symptoms and provide information to target interventions that assists mothers in self-management of their mental health. Secondary data analysis from a descriptive, correlational study of 75 mothers was performed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis results indicate that younger, unpartnered mothers with lower normalization efforts and personal resourcefulness, and less care hours, had increased depressive symptoms. The importance of personal resourcefulness and the potential for a resourcefulness training intervention to reduce depressive symptoms are discussed.
Smallheer, Benjamin A; Vollman, Michael; Dietrich, Mary S
Psychosocial factors are known to impact depressive symptoms across clinical populations. Learned helplessness has the potential of affecting depressive symptoms following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), though little is known about this relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between learned helplessness and depressive symptoms in patients following an AMI. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, participants with a diagnosed AMI within the past 12 months were recruited. Standardized instruments and measures were used to evaluate learned helplessness and depressive symptoms. A statistically significant direct relationship was found between learned helplessness and depressive symptoms, suggesting that individuals with higher self-reported levels of learned helplessness also reported more depressive symptoms. These results indicate learned helplessness is associated with depressive symptoms in individuals following an AMI. In developing post-AMI treatment plans, health care staff should focus on psychologic points of intervention to the same extent as physiologic interventions.
Berking, Matthias; Wirtz, Carolin M; Svaldi, Jennifer; Hofmann, Stefan G
Deficits in emotion regulation have been identified as an important risk and maintaining factor for depression. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of emotion regulation on symptoms of depression. Moreover, we investigated which specific emotion regulation skills were associated with subsequent symptoms of depression. Participants were 116 individuals (78% women, average age 35.2 years) who registered for an online-based assessment of depression and its risk-factors and reported at least some symptoms of depression. Successful application of emotion regulation skills and depressive symptom severity were assessed twice over a 5-year period. We utilized cross-lagged panel analyses to assess whether successful skills application would be negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptom severity. Cross-lagged panel analyses identified successful skills application as a significant predictor for depressive symptom severity even when controlling for the effects of initial symptoms of depression. A comparison of the effect sizes for different emotion regulation skills on subsequent depressive symptoms suggests that most of the skills included have similar predictive value. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the hypotheses that deficits in emotion regulation may contribute to the development of depression and that interventions systematically enhancing adaptive emotion regulation skills may help prevent and treat depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beydoun, Hind A; Beydoun, May A; Kaufman, Jay S; Lo, Bruce; Zonderman, Alan B
To date, few systematic reviews of observational studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate the co-morbidity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and specific depression outcomes in women. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we summarize the extant literature and estimate the magnitude of the association between IPV and key depressive outcomes (elevated depressive symptoms, diagnosed major depressive disorder and postpartum depression). PubMed (January 1, 1980-December 31, 2010) searches of English-language observational studies were conducted. Most of the selected 37 studies had cross-sectional population-based designs, focused on elevated depressive symptoms and were conducted in the United States. Most studies suggested moderate or strong positive associations between IPV and depression. Our meta-analysis suggested two to three-fold increased risk of major depressive disorder and 1.5-2-fold increased risk of elevated depressive symptoms and postpartum depression among women exposed to intimate partner violence relative to non-exposed women. A sizable proportion (9%-28%) of major depressive disorder, elevated depressive symptoms, and postpartum depression can be attributed to lifetime exposure to IPV. In an effort to reduce the burden of depression, continued research is recommended for evaluating IPV preventive strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O’Connor, Erin E.; Langer, David A.; Tompson, Martha C.
Maternal depression is a well-documented risk factor for youth depression, and taking into account its severity and chronicity may provide important insight into the degree of risk conferred. This study explored the degree to which the severity/chronicity of maternal depression history explained variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms above and beyond current maternal depressive symptoms among 171 youth (58% male) ages 8 to 12 over a span of three years. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression and current maternal depressive symptoms were examined as predictors of parent-reported youth internalizing and externalizing symptomatology, as well as youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Severity and chronicity of past maternal depression did not account for additional variance in youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at Time 1 beyond what was accounted for by maternal depressive symptoms at Time 1. Longitudinal growth curve modeling indicated that prior severity/chronicity of maternal depression predicted levels of youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each time point when controlling for current maternal depressive symptoms at each time point. Chronicity of maternal depression, apart from severity, also predicted rate of change in youth externalizing symptoms over time. These findings highlight the importance of screening and assessing for current maternal depressive symptoms, as well as the nature of past depressive episodes. Possible mechanisms underlying the association between severity/chronicity of maternal depression and youth outcomes, such as residual effects from depressive history on mother–child interactions, are discussed. PMID:27401880
Hu, Xiaolin; Huang, Wenxia; Su, Yonglin; Qu, Moying; Peng, Xingchen
Abstract Depressive symptoms are related to negative health outcomes in caregivers of patients with HF. Understanding the factors that are associated with depressive symptoms among caregivers is essential to providing appropriate interventions. Little is known about which status and factors are related to depressive symptoms among Chinese caregivers of patients with heart failure. This study aimed to investigate the status of depressive symptoms and to identify the factors that are associated with depressive symptoms in family caregivers of patients with heart failure in China. A cross-sectional design and a convenience sample were used. Participants (N = 134) from 1 hospital in Chengdu were recruited from June 2013 to June 2014. The following measurement tools were used in this study: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Coping Strategies Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Zarit Burden Interview. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with depressive symptoms. The results showed that 31% of the caregivers experienced depressive symptoms. The type of payment for treatment (b = −0.312, P caregiving (b = −0.213, P caregiver burden (b = 0.299, P caregivers’ depressive symptoms. Fifty-four percent of the variance in caregivers’ depressive symptoms was explained by these factors. The caregiver depressive symptoms in China were higher than those reported in studies that were conducted in Western countries. Caregiver depressive symptoms can be improved by providing support for new caregivers (with a caregiving duration of less than 1 year), reducing readmissions, easing caregiver burden, and promoting their coping strategies. PMID:28353589
Saha, Sayoni; Hatch, Daniel J; Hayden, Kathleen M; Steffens, David C; Potter, Guy G
Identify depression symptoms during active late-life depression (LLD) that predict conversion to dementia. The authors followed a cohort of 290 participants from the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly study. All participants were actively depressed and cognitively normal at enrollment. Depression symptom factors were derived from prior factor analysis: anhedonia and sadness, suicidality and guilt, appetite and weight loss, sleep disturbance, and anxiety and tension. Cox regression analysis modeled time to Alzheimer disease (AD) and non-AD dementia onset on depression symptom factors, along with age, education, sex, and race. Significant dementia predictors were tested for interaction with age at depression onset. Higher scores on the appetite and weight loss symptom factor were associated with an increased hazard of both AD and non-AD dementia. This factor was moderated by age at first depression onset, such that higher scores were associated with higher risk of non-AD dementia when depression first occurred earlier in life. Other depression symptom factors and overall depression severity were not related to risk of AD or non-AD dementia. Results suggest greater appetite/weight loss symptoms in active episodes of LLD are associated with increased likelihood of AD and non-AD dementia, but possibly via different pathways moderated by age at first depression onset. Results may help clinicians identify individuals with LLD at higher risk of developing AD and non-AD dementia and design interventions that reduce this risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chou, Y C; Pu, C-Y; Fu, L-Y; Kröger, T
This survey study aims to examine the prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among primary older female family carers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In total, 350 female family carers aged 55 and older took part and completed the interview in their homes. The survey package contained standardised scales to assess carer self-reported depressive symptoms, social support, caregiving burden and disease and health, as well as adult and carer sociodemographic information. Multiple linear regressions were used to identify the factors associated with high depressive symptoms in carers. Between 64% and 72% of these carers were classified as having high depressive symptoms. The factors associated with carer self-reported depressive symptoms were carer physical health, social support and caregiving burden; overall, the carer self-reported physical health was a stronger factor associated with depressive symptoms than their physical disease status. The level of the adult with ID's behavioural functioning and the carer age, marital status, employment status, education level and the family income level were not significantly associated with carer depressive symptoms. The factors identified in this study as correlating with self-reported depressive symptoms suggest that researchers and mental health professionals should collaborate to help improve the physical health and social support networks of the most vulnerable older female family carers. This should reduce depressive symptoms directly among this high-risk group. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Dinger, Ulrike; Ehrenthal, Johannes C; Nikendei, Christoph; Schauenburg, Henning
Reduced self-esteem is a core symptom of depression, but few studies have investigated within-treatment change of self-esteem as a predictor of long-term outcome in depression. This study investigated change in self-esteem during 8 weeks of multimodal, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy for 40 depressed patients and tested whether it would predict outcome 6 months after termination. Data was drawn from a randomized clinical pilot trial on day-clinic versus inpatient psychotherapy for depression. Findings supported the association between change in self-esteem and follow-up depression severity, even when controlling for within-treatment symptom change. Change in self-esteem was not related to overall symptoms and interpersonal problems at follow-up. Thus, change in self-esteem may be an important variable in preventing relapse for depression. Self-esteem is related to depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems. Improvement of self-esteem during psychotherapy correlates with improvements of symptoms and interpersonal problems. Change of self-esteem during psychotherapy predicts depressive symptoms 6 months after termination of therapy. When treating depressed patients, psychotherapists should work towards an improvement of self-esteem in order to prevent relapse. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bus, B. A. A.; Molendijk, M. L.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Prickaerts, J.; Elzinga, B. M.; Oude Voshaar, R. C.
OBJECTIVES: Low serum BDNF levels have been found in depressed patients. No study has systematically investigated whether individual symptoms or symptom profiles within a depressed population contribute to low BDNF levels found in depressed subjects. METHODS: All 1070 patients with a past 6-month
Vafai, Yassaman; Steinberg, Julia R; Shenassa, Edmond D
Maternal postpartum depression has been shown to be one of the main predictors of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in toddlers and adolescents. Research suggests that presence of such behaviors can be observed as early as infancy. The current study uses longitudinal data from 247 mothers to examine the relationship between postpartum depressive symptoms at 8 weeks and the infant's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 12 months. In unadjusted linear regression models, there were associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing behaviors (β=0.082, SE=0.032, p=0.012) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.111, SE=0.037, p=0.003). After controlling for potential confounding factors, including maternal age, race, education, home ownership, smoking status in the postpartum period, marital status, parenting stress, and happiness from becoming a parent, the associations between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing (β=0.051, SE=0.034, p=0.138) and internalizing behaviors (β=0.077, SE=0.040, p=0.057) were reduced and became non-significant. Furthermore, in these models the total amount of variance explained was 17.2% (pexternalizing behaviors and 10.5% (pexternalizing behaviors was maternal age (β=-0.074, SE=0.030, p=0.014), and of internalizing behaviors was white non-Hispanic ethnicity (β=-1.33, SE=0.378, p=0.0005). A combined effect of the confounding factors seems to explain the finding of no significant independent association between postpartum depressive symptoms and infant externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vasconcelos, Eduardo Motta de; Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo De; França, Salomão Patrício de Souza
To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.
Eduardo Motta de Vasconcelos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. Method: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Results: Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.
Tomko, Rachel L; Gilmore, Amanda K; Gray, Kevin M
Relative to adults, adolescents are at greater risk of developing a cannabis use disorder (CUD) and risk may be exacerbated by co-occurring depressive symptoms. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter antioxidant, is thought to normalize glutamate transmission. Oxidative stress and glutamate transmission are disrupted in both depression and CUD. Thus, NAC may be particularly effective at promoting cannabis abstinence among adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms. Secondary analyses were conducted using a sub-sample of adolescents with CUD (N = 74) who participated in an 8-week randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial examining the efficacy of NAC for cannabis cessation. It was hypothesized that NAC would reduce severity of depressive symptoms, and that decreases depressive symptom severity would mediate decreases in positive weekly urine cannabinoid tests (11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). Additionally, it was expected that adolescents with greater severity of baseline depressive symptoms would be more likely to become abstinent when assigned NAC relative to placebo. Results from linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations did not suggest that NAC reduced severity of depressive symptoms, and the hypothesis that NAC's effect on cannabis cessation would be mediated by reduced depressive symptoms was not supported. However, an interaction between treatment condition and baseline severity of depressive symptoms as a predictor of weekly urine cannabinoid tests was significant, suggesting that NAC was more effective at promoting abstinence among adolescents with heightened baseline depressive symptoms. These secondary findings, though preliminary, suggest a need for further examination of the role of depressive symptoms in treatment of adolescent CUD with NAC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Thomas, Neil; Ribaux, Darryl; Phillips, Lisa J
Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia. Previous studies have observed that depressive symptoms are associated with both insight and negative appraisals of illness, suggesting that the way in which the person thinks about their illness may influence the occurrence of depressive responses. In affective disorders, one of the most well-established cognitive processes associated with depressive symptoms is rumination, a pattern of perseverative, self-focused negative thinking. This study examined whether rumination focused on mental illness was predictive of depressive symptoms during the subacute phase of schizophrenia. Forty participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and in a stable phase of illness completed measures of rumination, depressive symptoms, awareness of illness, and positive and negative symptoms. Depressive symptoms were correlated with rumination, including when controlling for positive and negative symptoms. The content of rumination frequently focused on mental illness and its causes and consequences, in particular social disability and disadvantage. Depressive symptoms were predicted by awareness of the social consequences of mental illness, an effect that was mediated by rumination. Results suggest that a process of perseveratively dwelling upon mental illness and its social consequences may be a factor contributing to depressive symptoms in people with chronic schizophrenia.
The objectives of this study were to determine if depression or depressive symptoms were significant problems in this population and to identify possible risk ..... student population in 1991, and results were comparable with those in previous ...
Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women: Shedding ... and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21. ... and which had negative effects on the quality of life among Arabian women.
Palfai, T P; Cheng, D M; Coleman, S M; Bridden, C; Krupitsky, E; Samet, J H
Depressive symptoms have been linked to HIV progression through a number of biobehavioral mechanisms including increased alcohol use. Although research supports an association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms among HIV patients, there have been few studies that have examined whether depressive symptoms predict subsequent drinking, especially among heavy drinking HIV-infected patients. Heavy drinking Russian HIV-infected patients (n=700) were recruited from addiction and HIV care settings for a randomized controlled trial of a risk reduction intervention [HERMITAGE]. GEE overdispersed Poisson regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption 6-months later. In adjusted analyses, depressive symptom severity was significantly associated with drinks per day (global p=.02). Compared to the non-depressed category, mild depressive symptoms were significantly associated with more drinks per day [IRR=1.55, (95% CI: 1.14, 2.09)], while moderate [IRR=1.14, (95% CI: 0.83, 1.56)] and severe [IRR=1.48, (95% CI: 0.93, 2.34)] depressive symptoms were not. Associations between depressive symptom severity and heavy drinking days were not statistically significant (global p=.19). Secondary analyses using the BDI-II screening threshold (BDI-II>14) and the BDI-II cognitive subscale suggested an association between depressive symptoms and drinks per day over time but not heavy episodic drinking. Among heavy drinking HIV-infected patients, elevated depressive symptoms were associated with greater subsequent alcohol use. These findings suggest that depressive symptoms may be important to address in efforts to reduce alcohol-related risks among HIV-infected populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amy H. Mezulis
Full Text Available This study examined prospective associations between negative emotionality, rumination, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of 301 youths (158 females followed longitudinally from birth to adolescence. Mothers reported on youths' negative emotionality (NE at age 1, and youths self-reported rumination at age 13 and depressive symptoms at ages 13 and 15. Linear regression analyses indicated that greater NE in infancy was associated with more depressive symptoms at age 15, even after controlling for child gender and depressive symptoms at age 13. Moreover, analyses indicated that rumination significantly mediated the association between infancy NE and age 15 depressive symptoms in the full sample. When analyzed separately by gender, however, rumination mediated the relationship between NE and depressive symptoms for girls but not for boys. The results confirm and extend previous findings on the association between affective and cognitive vulnerability factors in predicting depressive symptoms and the gender difference in depression in adolescence, and suggest that clinical interventions designed to reduce negative emotionality may be useful supplements to traditional cognitive interventions for reducing cognitive vulnerability to depression.
Sánchez-Vidaña, Dalinda Isabel; Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong
Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms...
Morgado, P; Ribeiro, R; Cerqueira, JJ
Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient Introduction . Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method . We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Res...
Nutt, David J
A relationship appears to exist between the 3 main monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) and specific symptoms of major depressive disorder. Specific symptoms are associated with the increase or decrease of specific neurotransmitters, which suggests that specific symptoms of depression could be assigned to specific neurochemical mechanisms, and subsequently specific antidepressant drugs could target symptom-specific neurotransmitters. Research on electroconvulsive therapy has supported a correlation between neurotransmitters and depression symptoms. A 2-dimensional model of neurotransmitter functions is discussed that describes depression as a mixture of 2 separate components--negative affect and the loss of positive affect--that can be considered in relation to the 3 amine neurotransmitters. Owing to the different methods of action of available antidepressant agents and the depression symptoms thought to be associated with dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, current treatments can be targeted toward patients' specific symptoms.
Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Several studies report a significant association between religiosity and depressive symptoms among adolescents; but, other researches do not. Up to date, this relation has not investigated in adolescent students who live in a violent and low-income country. Objective: To establish the correlation between religiosity and depressive symptoms among students in Cartagena, Colombia. Method: A cross-sectional study was done with participation of adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Students completed two scales: the five-item form of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity (Francis-5, which asked about God, Jesus and prayer (higher scores suggest higher religiosity; and the WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5 inquired depressive symptoms last two weeks (lower scores suggest higher depressive symptoms. It was accepted as a significant Pearson correlation (rho, r a coefficient value higher than 0.20. A total of 1,730 students answered the questionnaires. The mean age was 14.7 (SD = 1.2. According to gender, 912 (52.7% students were girls; and 818 (47.3%, boys. Francis-5 showed high internal consistency, coefficient alpha of 0.909; and coefficient omega of 0.910. WHO-5 presented coefficient alpha of 0.757; and omega of 0.759. The Francis-5 scores were between zero and twenty (Mean = 18.2, SD = 3.0, median = 20, mode = 20; and WHO-5 scores, between zero and fifteen (Mean = 10.2, SD = 3.1, median = 10, mode = 10. Religiosity had not significant correlation with depressive symptoms (r = 0.080. Conclusions: Religiosity is not associated with depressive symptoms among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. (DUAZARY 2013 No. 1, 15 - 19Keywords: Depressive symptoms; religiosity; adolescents; students; cross-sectional studyResumenIntroducción: varios estudios informan asociación significativa entre religiosidad y síntomas depresivos en adolescentes; sin embargo, otras investigaciones no. Hasta la fecha, esta relación no se
Johansson, Sverker; Gottberg, Kristina; Kierkegaard, Marie; Ytterberg, Charlotte
There is limited knowledge regarding how depressive symptoms and a cluster of specific mood symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) vary over time and how they are influenced by contributing factors. Therefore, the aims of this study were a) to describe variations over 2 years in the occurrence of depressive symptoms and mood symptoms in a sample of people with MS, and b) to investigate the predictive value of sex, age, coping capacity, work status, disease severity, disease course, fatigue, cognition, frequency of social/lifestyle activities, and perceived impact of MS on health, on the occurrence of depressive symptoms and mood symptoms. Through using a protocol of measures of functioning and perceived impact of MS on health, comprising of the Beck Depression Inventory, 219 people with MS were assessed at 0, 12 and 24 months. Predictive values were explored with Generalised Estimating Equations. Proportions with depressive symptoms varied significantly (p < 0.001) from 21 to 30% between the three time points. Proportions with mood symptoms varied significantly (p < 0.001) from 14 to 17% between the three time points. Weak coping capacity and reduced frequency of social/lifestyle activities predicted the occurrence of depressive symptoms and mood symptoms, as did the psychological impact of MS on health in interaction with time. For people with MS of working age, not working predicted the occurrence of depressive symptoms and mood symptoms, as did the physical impact of MS on health on the occurrence of mood symptoms. The occurrence of depressive symptoms and mood symptoms in people with MS vary over a 2-year time period; almost half have depressive symptoms at least once. Health care services should develop strategies aimed at identifying people with MS who are depressed or who develop depressive symptoms. Interventions for alleviating depressive symptoms should consider the individual's coping capacity and perceived impact of MS on health, and
Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack
Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663
Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per
Survey 2003. Work demands, decision authority, support and conflicts at work were measured in 2003. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 2006 by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: After adjusting......PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...... authority, support and conflicts at work are predictive of depressive symptoms in the general Swedish working population....
Smith, Patrick J; Byrd, Rebecca; Lusby, Megan; Clausen, Emily; Snyder, Laurie D
Depressive symptoms are common among lung transplant recipients and have been associated with worse clinical outcomes. However, few studies have examined the association between depressive symptoms assessed at multiple time points or behavioral mechanisms by which posttransplant depressive symptoms may confer greater clinical risk. We therefore examined the associations between depressive symptoms, exercise capacity, chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), and mortality prospectively in a large sample of lung transplant recipients. Between July 2009 and February 2016, 251 lung transplant recipients were assessed before transplantation and again approximately 3 weeks and 3 months after transplant. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale. Functional exercise capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms, exercise capacity, CLAD, and mortality. During a median (range) follow-up of 4.5 (0.1 to 6.3) years, 53 participants (21%) died. Greater depressive symptoms (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39 [95% CI = 1.05 to 1.84], p = .021) and poorer exercise capacity (HR = 0.58 [95% CI = 0.38 to 0.90], p = .021) assessed 3 months after transplant were both independently associated with mortality. Although greater depressive symptoms were associated with lower exercise capacity (β = -0.14, p = .039), exercise capacity did not mediate the association between depressive symptoms and mortality. In secondary analyses, depressive symptoms were independently predictive of CLAD (HR = 1.29 [95% CI = 1.01 to 1.65], p = .045) and the composite outcome of CLAD and mortality in a clustered event model (HR = 1.30 [1.09 to 1.56], p = .005). Depressive symptoms are associated with mortality and CLAD after lung transplantation, independent of exercise capacity.
Anderson, Rob; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Sayal, Kapil; Phillips, Rhiannon; Taylor, John A.; Spears, Melissa; Araya, Ricardo; Lewis, Glyn; Millings, Abigail; Montgomery, Alan A.; Stallard, Paul
Background: A substantial minority of adolescents suffer from depression and it is associated with increased risk of suicide, social and educational impairment, and mental health problems in adulthood. A recently conducted randomized controlled trial in England evaluated the effectiveness of a manualized universally delivered age-appropriate CBT…
Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; DeHaney, Suzanne; Ciampi, Antonio
Recent decades have seen a tremendous increase in the complexity of work arrangements, through job sharing, flexible hours, career breaks, compressed work weeks, shift work, reduced job security, and part-time, contract and temporary work. In this study, we focus on one specific group of workers that arguably most embodies non-standard employment, namely temporary workers, and estimate the effect of this type of employment on depressive symptom severity. Accounting for the possibility of mental health selection into temporary work through propensity score analysis, we isolate the direct effects of temporary work on depressive symptoms with varying lags of time since exposure. We use prospective data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which has followed, longitudinally, from 1979 to the present, a nationally representative cohort of American men and women between 14 and 22 years of age in 1979. Three propensity score models were estimated, to capture the effect of different time lags (immediately following exposure, and 2 and 4 years post exposure) between the period of exposure to the outcome. The only significant effects were found among those who had been exposed to temporary work in the two years preceding the outcome measurement. These workers report 1.803 additional depressive symptoms from having experienced this work status (than if they had not been exposed). Moreover, this difference is both statistically and substantively significant, as it represents a 50% increase from the average level of depressive symptoms in this population. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fisher, Carolyn J; Heinberg, Leslie J; Lapin, Brittany; Aminian, Ali; Sullivan, Amy B
Bariatric surgery has been shown to be a safe and effective intervention for patients with comorbid obesity and multiple sclerosis (MS); however, this sub-population may be at heightened risk for pre- and postoperative depressive symptoms. This current exploratory study aims to describe the prevalence and nature of depressive symptoms in a sample of patients with MS who undergo bariatric surgery. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who received bariatric surgery and had a diagnosis of MS (n = 31) and a control sample of non-surgical MS patients with severe obesity (n = 828). Longitudinal outcome measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Multiple Sclerosis Performance Scale (MSPS). There were no significant differences in PHQ-9 total and item scores between groups at baseline. PHQ-9 scores significantly improved at years 1 (p bariatric surgery when compared to non-surgical controls. Higher BMI (p = 0.03) and worse overall quality of life (p bariatric group. When compared to controls, the bariatric group demonstrated improved MSPS scores on a trend level 1 year post-surgery (p = 0.08). Consistent with the literature on more general bariatric surgery populations, current findings highlight the possible early benefits of bariatric surgery for reducing depressive symptoms in this population when compared to controls. Importantly, results should be viewed as preliminary and additional research is needed to examine bariatric surgery and associations with depressive symptoms and performance in the MS population.
van der Waerden, Judith; Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Peyre, Hugo; Heude, Barbara; Melchior, Maria
This study assessed the association between timing and course of maternal depression from pregnancy onwards and children's cognitive development at ages 5 to 6. Potential interaction effects with child sex and family socioeconomic status were explored. One thousand thirty-nine mother-child pairs from the French EDEN mother-child birth cohort were followed from 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy onwards. Based on Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores assessed at six timepoints, longitudinal maternal depressive symptom trajectories were calculated with a group-based semiparametric method. Children's cognitive function was assessed at ages 5 to 6 by trained interviewers with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition (WPPSI-III), resulting in three composite scores: Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ). Five trajectories of maternal symptoms of depression could be distinguished: no symptoms, persistent intermediate-level depressive symptoms, persistent high depressive symptoms, high symptoms in pregnancy only, and high symptoms in the child's preschool period only. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that, compared to children of mothers who were never depressed, children of mothers with persistent high levels of depressive symptoms had reduced VIQ, PIQ, and FSIQ scores. This association was moderated by the child's sex, boys appearing especially vulnerable in case of persistent maternal depression. Chronicity of maternal depression predicts children's cognitive development at school entry age, particularly in boys. As maternal mental health is an early modifiable influence on child development, addressing the treatment needs of depressed mothers may help reduce the associated burden on the next generation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf
Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-IIalcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kennard, Betsy D; Hughes, Jennifer L; Stewart, Sunita M; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J
In the present study, we assess maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of treatment to investigate the possible reciprocal relationship of maternal illness with the child's depressive illness and treatment. We present data on 146 children and their mothers who were participating in a pediatric acute treatment study of fluoxetine. Patients were assessed with the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised at baseline and at each treatment visit. Mothers completed the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report at baseline and end of acute treatment. Thirty percent of mothers had moderate to severe levels of depressive symptoms at the child's baseline assessment. Overall, mothers reported improvement in maternal depressive symptoms at the end of their child's acute treatment, although maternal depression was not specifically targeted for intervention. Furthermore, mother's depressive symptoms appear to be associated with the child's depression severity both at the beginning and end of treatment. Mothers with higher levels of depressive symptoms had children with higher levels of depression severity at baseline and over the course of treatment. However, maternal depressive symptoms at baseline had no association with the rate of improvement of child depression severity. This study indicates a positive relationship between the depression severity of mothers and their children. These findings highlight potential areas of intervention in the acute treatment of childhood depression.
Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.
This study examined the relations of school-age children's depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using…
Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following termination of pregnancy in South African women: A longitudinal study measuring the effects of ... The relationship between demographic characteristics, resilience and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression before, 1 month after and 3 ...
Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira
This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brose, Annette; Schmiedek, Florian; Koval, Peter; Kuppens, Peter
The autocorrelation or inertia of negative affect reflects how much negative emotions carry over from moment to moment and has been associated with increased depressive symptoms. In this study, we posed three challenges to this association by examining: (1) whether emotional inertia is relevant for depressive symptoms when assessed on a longer timescale than usual; (2) whether inertia is uniquely related to depressive symptoms after controlling for perseverative thoughts; and (3) whether inertia is related to depressive symptoms over and above the within-person association between affect and perseverative thoughts. Participants (N = 101) provided ratings of affect and perseverative thoughts for 100 days; depressive symptoms were reported before and after the study, and again after 2.5 years. Day-to-day emotional inertia was related to depressive symptoms over and above trait and state perseverative thoughts. Moreover, inertia predicted depressive symptoms when adjusting for its association with perseverative thoughts. These findings establish the relevance of emotional inertia in depressive symptoms independent of perseverative thoughts.
Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.
This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive-positive and harsh-negative parenting behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children's depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports…
Walters, Kenneth S.; Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Troiano, Peter F.; Obiaka, Uzoma; Bonhomme, Rebecca
Research on college substance use and mental illness is limited and inconsistent. Measures of substance use, and anxiety and depressive symptoms, were completed by 1,316 undergraduates within a major drug transportation corridor. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to test associations between anxious and depressive symptoms and substance…
Osler, Merete; Sørensen, Lauge; Rozing, Maarten
and brain structure outcomes were tested using Pearson's correlation, t test, and linear regression. Depressive symptoms at age 51 showed clear inverse correlations with total gray matter, pallidum, and hippocampal volume with the strongest estimate for hippocampal volume (r = -.22, p ... exclusion of men (n = 3) with scores in the range of clinical depression the inverse correlation between depressive symptoms and hippocampal volume became insignificant (r = -13, p = .08). Depressive symptoms at age 59 correlated positively with hippocampal and amygdala texture-potential early markers...
Full Text Available Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life.
Coronary artery disease and symptoms of depression in a Kenyan population. ... death. Little is known about the co-morbidity of heart disease and depression in Africa. Objective: To describe the prevalence of depression in Black Africans with and without. Coronary Artery Disease as documented on coronary angiography ...
Objective: Depression is the most common psychiatric illness in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Depression has been shown to affect mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of depressive symptoms among CKD patients. Materials and Methods: A ...
Munir, Fehmidah; Nielsen, Karina; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes
The aim of this study was to examine the association between transformational leadership and depressive symptoms in employees working within healthcare. 447 employees completed a baseline survey and 274 completed a follow-up survey 18 months later. 188 completed both baseline and follow-up survey. Transformational leadership was measured using the Global Transformational Leadership Scale and depression was measured using with the Major Depression Inventory. Transformational leadership was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at baseline (beta=-0.31, ptransformational leadership style may help toward protecting employees from developing major depression.
Pedersen, Susanne S; Andersen, Christina M; Denollet, Johan
OBJECTIVE: Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and co-morbid depression are at greater risk of poor quality of life and premature death. We examined if treatment expectations predict depressive symptoms 12months post implant. METHODS: First-time implant patients from...... of 12-months depressive symptoms: Model 1: Negative treatment expectations (β=0.202; p=0.020) and baseline depression (β=0.376; pdepression (β=0.350; p....051). Model 3: Baseline depression (β=0.353; p
Jung, Alissa; Spira, Dominik; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja; Norman, Kristina
Zinc plays an important role for behavioral and mental function, maintaining the correct functions of intracellular signal transduction, cellular and trans-membrane transport, protein synthesis, and antioxidant system. We investigated both dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc levels and the correlation with depressive symptoms in a large sample of community-dwelling old. One thousand five hundred fourteen older people (aged 60-84 years, 772 women) from the Berlin Aging Study II were included. Zinc intake was assessed by the EPIC Food Frequency Questionnaire. Plasma zinc levels were assessed with atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the "Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale" and the "Geriatric Depression Scale." Zinc deficiency in blood plasma was found in 18.7% of participants, and depressive symptoms in 15.7%. Participants with depressive symptoms had lower energy-adjusted zinc intake (median 11.1 vs 11.6 µmol/L; p = .048) and lower plasma zinc levels (median 12.2 vs12.3 mg/dL; p = .037). Even after adjustment for known predictors of depression, plasma zinc deficiency remained significantly associated with depressive symptoms (odds ratio: 1.490, 95% confidence interval: 1.027-2.164; p = .036). In the multiple logistic regression model stratified by sex, we found that plasma zinc deficiency was strongly associated with a higher risk for depressive symptoms in women (odds ratio: 1.739, 95% confidence interval: 1.068-2.833; p = .026). Plasma zinc deficiency was common in our old study population. An increase in dietary zinc and higher plasma zinc levels may reduce the risk of depressive symptoms. A screening for reduced dietary zinc intake or plasma zinc deficiency might be beneficial in older people at risk of depressive symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chamberlain, Jude; Huprich, Steven K
The Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI; Huprich, Margrett, Barthelemy, & Fine, 1996; see Appendix) was created to assess Depressive Personality Disorder in clinical and nonclinical samples. Since its creation, the DPDI has been used in multiple studies, and the psychometric properties of the measure have generally supported its reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity; however, evidence for the measure's discriminant validity has been mixed. Specifically, the DPDI tends to correlate highly with measures of current depressive symptoms, which limits its efficacy in differentiating current depressive symptoms from a depressive personality structure. A principal components analysis of 362 individuals who completed both the DPDI and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) found that 49% of the variance was accounted for in two components. Seven items from the DPDI loaded more strongly on the first component composed of many BDI-II items. These items were removed in order to create a measure believed to assess DPD without the confounding influence of current depressive symptomology. Principal components analysis of the revised measure yielded three components, accounting for 46% of the variance. The revised DPDI was used to calculate convergent, discriminant, and construct validity coefficients from measures used in former studies. Virtually no improvement in the validity coefficients was observed. It is concluded that assessing DPD via self-report is limited in its utility.
Li, Yingtao; Zeng, Yingchun; Zhu, Wei; Cui, Ying; Li, Jie
Antenatal maternal mental health problems have numerous consequences for the well-being of both mother and child. This study aimed to test and construct a pertinent model of antenatal depressive symptoms within the conceptual framework of a stress process model. This study utilized a cross-sectional study design. participants were adult women (18 years or older) having a healthy pregnancy, in their third trimester (the mean weeks gestation was 34.71). depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by Zung's Self-rating Depressive and Anxiety Scale, stress was measured by Pregnancy-related Pressure Scale, social support and coping strategies were measured by Social Support Rating Scale and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, respectively. path analysis was applied to examine the hypothesized causal paths between study variables. A total of 292 subjects were enrolled. The final testing model showed good fit, with normed χ (2) = 32.317, p = 0.061, CFI = 0.961, TLI = 0.917, IFI = 0.964, NFI = 0.900, RMSEA = 0.042. This path model supported the proposed model within the theoretical framework of the stress process model. Pregnancy-related stress, financial strain and active coping have both direct and indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Psychological preparedness for delivery, social support and anxiety levels have direct effects on antenatal depressive symptoms. Good preparedness for delivery could reduce depressive symptoms, while higher levels of anxiety could significantly increase depressive symptoms. Additionally, there were indirect effects of miscarriage history, irregular menstruation, partner relationship and passive coping with depressive symptoms. The empirical support from this study has enriched theories on the determinants of depressive symptoms among Chinese primipara, and could facilitate the formulation of appropriate interventions for reducing antenatal depressive symptoms, and enhancing the mental health of
Pott, Wilfried; Albayrak, Ozgür; Hebebrand, Johannes; Pauli-Pott, Ursula
The study investigates whether preintervention depressive symptoms predict weight loss and whether an increase in depressive symptoms during a group-based lifestyle intervention of 1 year's duration is associated with failure in weight reduction while controlling for the influence of psychosocial risks. Participants were 136 overweight and obese children and adolescents between 7 and 15 years, who had been referred for weight reduction treatment by local pediatric practices. Depressive symptoms in the child/adolescent were screened by a German version of the Children's Depression Inventory, in accordance with DSM-IV criteria, at baseline and conclusion of the program. Family adversity was assessed using the Psychosocial Risk Index at baseline. Preintervention maternal depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Preintervention depressive symptoms in the child/adolescent did not predict reduction in body mass index-standard deviation score. High number of psychosocial risks predicted an increase in depressive symptoms. Independently of this association, failure to reduce weight within the 1-year duration of the program was significantly associated with an increase in depressive symptoms. It is necessary to identify cases at risk to offer further and more specific support.
Cooper, Jessica A; Gorlick, Marissa A; Denny, Taylor; Worthy, Darrell A; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd
Depression is often characterized by attentional biases toward negative items and away from positive items, which likely affects reward and punishment processing. Recent work has reported that training attention away from negative stimuli reduced this bias and reduced depressive symptoms. However, the effect of attention training on subsequent learning has yet to be explored. In the present study, participants were required to learn to maximize reward during decision making. Undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms received attention training toward positive stimuli prior to performing the decision-making task (n = 20; active training). The active-training group was compared to two other groups: undergraduates with elevated self-reported depressive symptoms who received placebo training (n = 22; placebo training) and a control group with low levels of depressive symptoms (n = 33; nondepressive control). The placebo-training depressive group performed worse and switched between options more than did the nondepressive controls on the reward maximization task. However, depressives that received active training performed as well as the nondepressive controls. Computational modeling indicated that the placebo-trained group learned more from negative than from positive prediction errors, leading to more frequent switching. The nondepressive control and active-training depressive groups showed similar learning from positive and negative prediction errors, leading to less-frequent switching and better performance. Our results indicate that individuals with elevated depressive symptoms are impaired at reward maximization, but that the deficit can be improved with attention training toward positive stimuli.
Increase Ibukun Adeosun
Full Text Available The therapeutic strategies in managing patients with psychotic major depression (PMD differ from those with non-psychotic major depression (NMD, because of differences in clinical profile and outcome. However, there is underrecognition of psychotic symptoms in depressed patients. Previous studies in Western population suggest that certain symptom patterns, apart from psychosis which may be concealed, can facilitate the discrimination of PMD from NMD. These studies may have limited applicability to sub-Saharan Africa due to cross-cultural differences in the phenomenology of depression. This study compared the rates and severity of depressive symptoms in outpatients with PMD (n=129 and NMD (n=117 using the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D. Patients with PMD had statistically significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, psychomotor agitation, insomnia, and reduced appetite. Patients with NMD were more likely to manifest psychomotor retardation and somatic symptoms. PMD was associated with greater symptom severity. On logistic regression analysis, suicidal ideation, psychomotor disturbances, insomnia, and somatic symptoms were predictive of diagnostic status. The presence of these symptoms clusters may increase the suspicion of occult psychosis in patients with depression, thereby informing appropriate intervention strategies.
Full Text Available Although underground coal miners are quite susceptible to depressive symptoms due to a highly risky and stressful working environment, few studies have focused on this issue. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2500 underground coal miners (1,936 effective respondents. Depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance (ERI, overcommitment (OC, perceived physical environment (PPE, work-family conflict (WFC, and some demographic and working characteristics were measured anonymously. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 62.8%, and the mean level was 20.00 (9.99. Hierarchical linear regression showed that marital status, education, monthly income, and weekly working time were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. A high level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with high ERI, PPE, WFC, and OC. Accordingly, most Chinese underground coal miners probably have depressive symptoms that are mainly predicted by some occupational psychosocial factors. Efforts should be made to develop strategies to reduce ERI and OC, improve physical working environment, and care for workers’ family well-being, thereby mitigating the risk of depression among Chinese underground coal miners.
Kalibatseva, Z; Leong, F T L; Ham, E H
Theoretical and clinical publications suggest the existence of cultural differences in the expression and experience of depression. Measurement non-equivalence remains a potential methodological explanation for the lower prevalence of depression among Asian Americans compared to European Americans. This study compared DSM-IV depressive symptoms among Asian Americans and European Americans using secondary data analysis of the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Of the entire sample, 310 Asian Americans and 1974 European Americans reported depressive symptoms and were included in the analyses. Measurement variance was examined with an item response theory differential item functioning (IRT DIF) analysis. χ2 analyses indicated that, compared to Asian Americans, European American participants more frequently endorsed affective symptoms such as 'feeling depressed', 'feeling discouraged' and 'cried more often'. The IRT analysis detected DIF for four out of the 15 depression symptom items. At equal levels of depression, Asian Americans endorsed feeling worthless and appetite changes more easily than European Americans, and European Americans endorsed feeling nervous and crying more often than Asian Americans. Asian Americans did not seem to over-report somatic symptoms; however, European Americans seemed to report more affective symptoms than Asian Americans. The results suggest that there was measurement variance in a few of the depression items.
Lu, Qian; Man, Jenny; You, Jin; LeRoy, Angie S
Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) is the conflict between wanting to express emotion yet fearing the consequences of such expression. Recent literature reveals a close link between AEE and depressive symptoms among college students. Although cancer survivors experience intense emotions, few studies have examined the relationship between AEE and depressive symptoms and the underlying mechanisms among cancer survivors. Furthermore, relevant research is absent among Asians, whose culture discourages emotional expression. The present study investigated AEE's associations with depressive symptoms in Asian breast cancer survivors, and examined intrusive thoughts as a mediator. Intrusive thoughts are repetitive and unwanted thoughts about stressful events. We hypothesized that AEE would increase intrusive thoughts which in turn would increase depressive symptoms. A total of 118 Chinese American breast cancer survivors completed a questionnaire packet containing the Ambivalence over Emotional Expression Questionnaire (AEQ), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Impact of Event Scale (IES). AEE was positively associated with depressive symptoms (β=.45, pChinese breast cancer survivors who are highly ambivalent over emotional expression may have increased risk for depressive symptoms, and such relationships can be partially explained by a cognitive mechanism: intrusive thoughts. Future research may explore other mediators and design interventions specifically targeted at reducing AEE and intrusive thoughts with the ultimate goal of reducing depression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; McCoy, Katryna; Ownby, Raymond L
Adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains critical in management of HIV infection. This study evaluated depression as a potential mechanism by which HIV-related symptoms affect medication adherence and explored if particular clusters of HIV symptoms are susceptible to this mechanism. Baseline data from a multi-visit intervention study were analyzed among 124 persons living with HIV (PLWH). A bifactor model showed two clusters of HIV-related symptom distress: general HIV-related symptoms and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that both general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were related to higher levels of depressive symptoms, and higher levels of depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of medication adherence. Although general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were not directly related to adherence, they were indirectly associated with adherence via depression. The findings highlight the importance of early recognition and evaluation of symptoms of depression, as well as the underlying physical symptoms that might cause depression, to improve medication adherence.
Keeley, R; Smith, M; Miller, J
To examine whether somatoform symptoms, specifically symptoms of conversion, somatization, and hypochondriasis, are associated with side-effect reporting and treatment nonadherence in depressed family medicine outpatients, and to measure whether symptoms improve with pharmacotherapy. Inception cohort study with 14-week follow-up. Inner-city family medicine residency clinic. Thirty-nine consecutive adults with major depressive disorder were asked to participate, and 30 consented. Antidepressants for 14 weeks. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was administered before treatment. The PAI is a self-reported inventory compatible with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, designed to measure a broad range of personality characteristics. After 14 weeks, the side-effect incidence and treatment nonadherence rates were determined, and 12 patients were readministered the PAI. Depressed family medicine patients demonstrated trends toward elevated Somatic Complaints scale and conversion subscale scores and a lower Suicidal Ideation scale score relative to those of a standardized depressed psychiatric patient profile. Conversion and hypochondriacal symptoms were associated with side-effect reporting and treatment nonadherence. Somatization and hypochondriacal symptoms improved clinically and statistically during treatment for depression. Somatoform distress is a complex, common, and understudied phenomenon in primary care that can adversely affect the treatment of depression. Somatoform symptoms of conversion and hypochondriasis, but not somatization, were found to be risk factors for treatment nonadherence. Somatization and hypochondriacal symptoms may represent personality states that improve with pharmacotherapy, and conversion symptoms may be a personality trait resistant to medical treatment for depression.
Tobin, Karin; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Nonyane, Bareng A S; Knowlton, Amy; Wissow, Lawrence; Latkin, Carl A
Depression and depressive symptoms mediate the association between drug use and HIV risk. Yet, there are few interventions that target depressive symptoms and HIV risk for people who use drugs (PWUD). This study was a randomized controlled trial of an integrated cognitive behavioral therapy and HIV prevention intervention to reduce depressive symptoms, injection risk behaviors and increase condom use in a sample of urban people who used heroin or cocaine in the prior 6 months. A total of 315 individuals aged 18-55, who self-reported at least one HIV drug and sex risk behavior and scored ≥16 and symptoms, but weak impact on HIV risk. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under the title "Neighborhoods, Networks, Depression, and HIV Risk" number NCT01380613.
Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy
National survey data suggest that new mothers have high prevalences of alcohol and illicit drug use. Depression correlates with substance use, and new mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) may be at high risk for substance use. Understanding postpartum substance use and its relationship to PPD can inform future research and intervention. A literature search was conducted resulting in 12 studies published from 1999–2012 examining postpartum alcohol use, drug use, or combined postpartum depression and substance use. Postpartum alcohol (prevalence range 30.1%−49%) and drug use (4.5%–8.5%) were lower than use among not pregnant, not postpartum women (41.5%–57.5%; 7.6%–10.6%, respectively) but higher than use among pregnant women (5.4%–11.6%; 3.7%–4.3%, respectively). Correlates of postpartum problem drinking were being unemployed, unmarried, and a cigarette smoker. Prevalence of drug use was highest among white new mothers, followed by Blacks and Hispanics, but Black new mothers appeared at greater risk of drug use. No identified studies examined correlates of postpartum drug use beyond race/ethnicity. Postpartum depressive symptoms were prevalent among postpartum substance users and those with a substance use history (19.7%–46%). The postpartum period is a critical time. Prevalent substance use and the scarcity of studies warrant research to identify means to reduce maternal substance use. PMID:23879459
Alexandrowicz, Rainer W; König, Daniel; Unger, Annemarie; Klug, Günter; Soulier, Nathalie; Freidl, Marion; Friedrich, Fabian
The purpose of the present study was to investigate if depression symptomatology of patients' parents is predicted by the symptoms of schizophrenia. 101 mothers and 101 fathers of the same patients suffering from schizophrenia were included into this study. Parents filled in the "Beck Depression Inventory". Patients were assessed by means of the "Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale". For statistical analyses a Multidimensional Random Coefficients Multinomial Logit Model was applied. We found a significant positive association between negative symptoms and depression severity of fathers and mothers. Further, a significant positive association between positive symptoms and depression severity of fathers, but not of mothers was found. Our results show that depression of mothers and of fathers is associated with symptoms of schizophrenia even when controlling for potential predictors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S
adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which......BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with depressive symptoms in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data and data on subclinical hyperthyroidism are scarce. METHODS: In the Leiden sub-study of the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) among...
Torres, Elisa R; Sampselle, Carolyn M; Ronis, David L; Neighbors, Harold W; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A
The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of gardening/yard work in relation to depressive symptoms in African-Americans while controlling for biological and social factors. A secondary analysis was performed on the National Survey of American Life (n=2,903) using logistic regression for complex samples. Gardening/Yard work was measured by self-reported frequency. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Biological and social factors, not gardening/yard work, were associated with depressive symptoms. Biological and social factors may need to be addressed before the association between gardening/yard work and depressive symptoms can be determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Win, Sithu; Parakh, Kapil; Eze-Nliam, Chete M; Gottdiener, John S; Kop, Willem J
Background Depressed older individuals have a higher mortality than older persons without depression. Depression is associated with physical inactivity, and low levels of physical activity have been shown in some cohorts to be a partial mediator of the relationship between depression and cardiovascular events and mortality. Methods A cohort of 5888 individuals (mean 72.8±5.6 years, 58% female, 16% African-American) from four US communities was followed for an average of 10.3 years. Self-reported depressive symptoms (10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were assessed annually and self-reported physical activity was assessed at baseline and at 3 and 7 years. To estimate how much of the increased risk of cardiovascular mortality associated with depressive symptoms was due to physical inactivity, Cox regression with time-varying covariates was used to determine the percentage change in the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality after adding physical activity variables. Results At baseline, 20% of participants scored above the cut-off for depressive symptoms. There were 2915 deaths (49.8%), of which 1176 (20.1%) were from cardiovascular causes. Depressive symptoms and physical inactivity each independently increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality and were strongly associated with each other (all pphysical inactivity had greater cardiovascular mortality than those with either individually (pPhysical inactivity reduced the log HR of depressive symptoms for cardiovascular mortality by 26% after adjustment. This was similar for persons with (25%) and without (23%) established coronary heart disease. Conclusions Physical inactivity accounted for a significant proportion of the risk of cardiovascular mortality due to depressive symptoms in older adults, regardless of coronary heart disease status. PMID:21339320
de Moor, M.H.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Stubbe, J.H.; Willemsen, G.; de Geus, E.J.C.
Context: In the population at large, regular exercise is associated with reduced anxious and depressive symptoms. Results of experimental studies in clinical populations suggest a causal effect of exercise on anxiety and depression, but it is unclear whether such a causal effect also drives the
Funderburk, Jennifer S.; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Krenek, Marketa
Objective: To describe how behavioral activation (BA) for depression and stimulus control (SC) for insomnia can be modified to a brief format for use in a university primary care setting, and to evaluate preliminarily their effectiveness in reducing symptoms of depression and insomnia, respectively, using data collected in routine clinical care.…
A cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of classroom-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in reducing symptoms of depression in high-risk adolescents.
Stallard, P; Phillips, R; Montgomery, A A; Spears, M; Anderson, R; Taylor, J; Araya, R; Lewis, G; Ukoumunne, O C; Millings, A; Georgiou, L; Cook, E; Sayal, K
Depression in adolescents is a significant problem that impairs everyday functioning and increases the risk of severe mental health disorders in adulthood. Although this is a major problem, relatively few adolescents with, or at risk of developing, depression are identified and referred for treatment. This suggests the need to investigate alternative approaches whereby preventative interventions are made widely available in schools. To investigate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of classroom-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in reducing symptoms of depression in high-risk adolescents. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Year groups ( n = 28) randomly allocated on a 1 : 1 : 1 basis to one of three trial arms once all schools were recruited and balanced for number of classes, number of students, Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE) lesson frequency, and scheduling of PSHE. Year groups 8 to 11 (ages 12-16 years) in mixed-sex secondary schools in the UK. Data were collected between 2009 and 2011. Young people who attended PSHE at participating schools were eligible ( n = 5503). Of the 5030 who agreed to participate, 1064 (21.2%) were classified as 'high risk': 392 in the classroom-based CBT arm, 374 in the attention control PSHE arm and 298 in the usual PSHE arm. Primary outcome data on the high-risk group at 12 months were available for classroom-based CBT ( n = 296), attention control PSHE ( n = 308) and usual PSHE ( n = 242). The Resourceful Adolescent Programme (RAP) is a focused CBT-based intervention adapted for the UK (RAP-UK) and delivered by two facilitators external to the school. Control groups were usual PSHE (usual school curriculum delivered by teachers) and attention control (usual school PSHE with additional support from two facilitators). Interventions were delivered universally to whole classes. Clinical effectiveness: symptoms of depression [Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ)] in adolescents at high risk
Vanessa Agustinho Cardillo
Full Text Available The study objectives were to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers and to characterize them regarding sociodemographic, behavioral and mental health aspects. An observational study, descriptive and cross-sectional, developed in health units with 72 adolescent mothers through the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Within the participants, 20.8% presented depressive symptoms by the EPDS. The most frequent questions referred to the feelings of guilt, anxiety, and ideas to self-harm. We highlighted the feelings of guilt (60% and feelings of not being worth living (40%. Most participants (73.3% did not recognize to be depressed. The results show the importance to have an individualized prenatal, when is possible to know vulnerabilities, psychosocial and family aspects, to include tracking of depressive symptoms in the anamnesis and, to use it the attention network, the reference and the counter-reference.
Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F
Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via…
Hu, Hongwei; Cao, Qi; Shi, Zhenzhen; Lin, Weixia; Jiang, Haixia; Hou, Yucheng
Depressive symptom disparity between urban and rural older adults is an important public health issue in China. Social support is considered as an effective way to alleviate depression of older adults. This study aimed to investigate the extent to which social support could explain the depressive symptom disparity between urban and rural older adults in China. This study used data drawn from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study with 6,772 observations. Multiple data analysis strategies were adopted, including descriptive analyses, bivariate analyses, regression analyses and decomposition analyses. There were significant depressive symptom disparities between urban and rural older adults in China. Social support had significant association with depressive symptom of older adults while adjusting for covariates. About 25%-28% of the depressive symptom disparities could be attributed to urban-rural gaps in social support, in which community support contributed 21%-25%. Educational level and physical health status also contributed to the disparities. This study only established correlations between social support and depressive symptom disparity rather than casual relationships; and the self-reported measurement of depressive symptom and the unobservable cultural factors might cause limitations. The urban-rural gap in social support, especially community support was a prime explanation for depressive symptom disparities between urban and rural older adults in China. To reduce the depressive symptom disparities, effective community construction in rural China should be put into place, including improving the infrastructure construction, strengthening the role of social organizations, and encouraging community interpersonal interactions for older adults. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sieverdes, John C; Ray, Billy M; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-Chul; Hand, Gregory A; Baruth, Meghan; Blair, Steven N
We examined the association between depressive symptoms and physical activity (PA) in a sample of men from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Secondary analysis included stratification by age and body mass index (BMI). Our cross-sectional analysis included 9580 men, age 20-87 yr, who completed the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale during 1996-2006. A score of 10 or higher defined depressive symptoms. Four PA categories based on the 2008 PA guidelines were created from a self-report leisure time PA questionnaire: inactive (0 MET·min·wk(-1)), low (1-499 MET·min·wk(-1)), medium (500-999 MET·min·wk(-1)), and high (≥1000 MET·min·wk(-1)). There were 727 men with depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional analyses showed a significant inverse relationship between PA categories and depressive symptoms (P for trend leisure time activities (odds ratios = 0.36-0.58). Compared with the inactive group, the light, medium, and high PA categories were 24%, 51%, and 51% less likely to exhibit depressive symptoms, respectively. The inverse relationship was maintained for age and BMI groups except for those 60 yr or older, who exhibited fewer depressive symptoms than other ages. Men with a BMI of 30 kg·m(-2) or higher lowered their odds of depressive symptoms for all PA categories, whereas those with a BMI less than 30 kg·m(-2) needed at least 500 MET·min·wk(-1) to show a similar association. Overall, our analyses found an inverse association between PA and depressive symptoms. Most of this benefit was seen in the medium PA category, which seemed to plateau around 500 MET·min·wk(-1). This indicates that men meeting the 2008 PA Guidelines may not only experience physical health benefits but also reduce the likelihood of depressive symptoms.
Hanklang, Suda; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Morioka, Ikuharu; Plernpit, Suwan-ampai
This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depression symptoms and risk factors by gender among rice farmers in Nakhon Ratchasima Province in Thailand. A cross-sectional study was designed using interviewed questionnaire on lifestyle, work, and depression symptoms. To examine the factors associated with depression symptoms, multiple logistic regression analysis was used. Depression symptoms were found in 39.0% of males and 48.1% of females. Eating healthy food, preparing to prevent the problem, having community integration, hearing loud machines, and using personal protective equipment during work with chemical substances were associated factors among males with depression symptoms. Having family connection, being an accepted person in community, hearing loud machines, and having work-related financial hardship were predictors among females with depression symptoms. The prevalence of depression symptoms among Thai rice farmers was high. To prevent mental health problems, it is important to give males the support for health action and working styles, and females an accepting atmosphere. Corresponding to the aim, we have to define the factor by gender. © 2015 APJPH.
Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Wenhui
To explore the influence of occupational stress related factors on depression symptoms among 244 policemen in a city in China. In May 2011, 287 policemen from a city public security bureau were recruited to this survey by cluster sampling method. We deleted questionnaires which include missing variables on demographic characteristics and factors associated with occupational stress questionnaires which include over 3 missing items. 244 policemen were included in this study. Depression symptoms and occupational stressors were measured using Chinese version of depression self-reported questionnaire, job content questionnaire, Chinese version of effort-reward imbalances questionnaire, job hazard scale and occupational stress inventory. Depression symptom scores and the relationship between the variables and occupational stress were analyzed by Spearman correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The Median (P25-P75) of depression symptom scores of all respondents was 16.50 (11.00-25.00). 144 were policemen with no depression symptoms and 100 were with depression symptoms. The median (P25-P75) of depression symptoms scores among policemen with length of serves stress and negative affectivity among policemen with depression symptoms were 17.00 (8.00-26.00), 16.00 (11.00-24.50), 19.00 (12.00-27.00), and 12.00 (6.25-15.00), respectively, which were higher than those with no depression symptoms (24.00 (22.00-25.00), 8.00 (5.00-13.00), 8.00 (6.00-10.00), 1.00 (0-2.75)), and the differences were significant (Z=3.82, 5.39, 5.15, 6.41, Pstress, negative affectivity and job hazards scores. Correlations coefficient were 0.44, 0.28, 0.28, 0.33, 0.38, 0.44, and 0.38, respectively (Pstress and negative affectivity had bigger contribution on the depression symptoms scores. The standard regression coefficient was -0.46, 0.19 and 0.13, respectively (Pstress, negative affectivity and job hazards scores were the inducement of depression symptoms for policemen. To reduce the
Roley, Michelle E; Claycomb, Meredith A; Contractor, Ateka A; Dranger, Paula; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are highly comorbid (Elhai et al., 2008. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 69, (4), 597-602). Rumination is a cognitive mechanism found to exacerbate and maintain both PTSD and MDD (Elwood et al., 2009. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 29, (1), 87-100; Olatunji et al., 2013. Clin. Psychol.: Sci. Pract. 20, (3), 225-257). Assess whether four rumination subtypes moderate the relationship between comorbid PTSD and MDD symptoms. We consecutively sampled patients (N=45) presenting to a mental health clinic using self-report measures of PTSD and MDD symptoms, and rumination in a cross-sectional design. Repetitive rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at one standard deviation above the mean (β=.044, p=.016), while anticipatory rumination moderates the relationship between PTSD and MDD symptoms at mean levels and higher levels of anticipatory rumination (mean β=.030, p=.042; higher β=.060, p=.008). Repetitive and anticipatory rumination should be assessed in the context of comorbid PTSD and MDD and interventions should focus on reducing these rumination subtypes. Results should be replicated with other trauma populations because the number and complexity of traumatic events may impact the assessed symptoms. Constructs should also be assessed longitudinally, in order to establish causality. We are unable to confirm why rumination styles moderated the relationship between PTSD and depression or why counterfactual thinking and problem-focused thinking did not moderate the relationship between the two constructs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Leggett, Amanda; Burgard, Sarah; Zivin, Kara
Sleep problems are common across the adult life span and may exacerbate depressive symptoms and the effect of common risk factors for depressive symptoms such as life stress. We examine sleep disturbance as a moderator of the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms across five waves (25 years) of the nationally representative, longitudinal American Changing Lives Study. The sample includes 3,597 adults aged 25 years or older who were surveyed up to five times over 25 years. Multilevel models were run to examine between- and within-person variability in sleep disturbance and life event stress as predictors of depressive symptoms, and an interaction to test sleep disturbance as a moderator is included in a second step. Life events and sleep disturbance were associated with elevated depressive symptoms at the between- and within-person levels. A significant sleep disturbance by interaction of life events was found, indicating that when individuals experienced an above average number of life events and slept more restlessly than usual, they had a higher risk for depressive symptoms than individuals who experienced above average stress but slept well. Sleeping restfully may allow individuals the rejuvenation needed to manage stress adaptively and reduce depressive symptom burden. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyake, Hirotsugu; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Furukaw, Toshiaki A
In a previous study, we reported that the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a general population is stable throughout middle adulthood and follows an exponential pattern except for at the lowest end of the symptom score. Furthermore, the individual distributions of 16 negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibit a common mathematical pattern. To confirm the reproducibility of these findings, we investigated the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores and 16 negative symptom items in a sample of Japanese employees. We analyzed 7624 employees aged 20-59 years who had participated in the Northern Japan Occupational Health Promotion Centers Collaboration Study for Mental Health. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D. The CES-D contains 20 items, each of which is scored in four grades: "rarely," "some," "much," and "most of the time." The descriptive statistics and frequency curves of the distributions were then compared according to age group. The distribution of total depressive symptoms scores appeared to be stable from 30-59 years. The right tail of the distribution for ages 30-59 years exhibited a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the 16 individual negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibited a common mathematical pattern which displayed different distributions with a boundary at "some." The distributions of the 16 negative symptom items from "some" to "most" followed a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items in a Japanese occupational setting show the same patterns as those observed in a general population. These results show that the specific mathematical patterns of the distributions of total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items can be reproduced in an occupational population.
Colman, Ian; Kingsbury, Mila; Sucha, Ewa; Horton, Nicholas J; Murphy, Jane M; Gilman, Stephen E
Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid, and share significant symptom overlap. Whereas depression has been consistently associated with excess mortality, the association between anxiety and mortality is less clear. Our aim was to identify constellations of anxious and depressive symptoms and examine their associations with mortality. This study considers respondents from the 1970 (n = 1203) and 1992 (n = 1402) cohorts of the Stirling County study. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed using structured at-home interviews. Vital status of participants through 2011 was determined using probabilistic linkages to the Canadian Mortality Database. Exploratory factor analysis yielded three correlated factors in each cohort. Items loading on each factor varied slightly between cohorts, but roughly corresponded to (1) depressive symptoms, (2) anxious symptoms, and (3) somatic symptoms. The depressive factor was associated with increased risk of mortality in both the 1970 (HR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.62) and 1992 (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.48) cohorts. Anxious symptoms were associated with a reduced risk of mortality in the 1992 sample (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.90). Somatic symptoms were associated with a reduced risk of mortality in the 1970 sample (HR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.99), but an elevated risk of mortality in the 1992 sample (HR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.51). This study provides evidence that symptoms of depression and anxiety may have differential associations with early mortality. Somatic symptoms such as upset stomach and loss of appetite may be protective against mortality, perhaps through increased use of health care services. Conversely, symptoms such as weakness and cold sweats may be indicative of failing health. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Yu, Shan-fa; Yao, San-qiao; Ding, Hui; Ma, Liang-qing; Yang, Yan; Wang, Zhi-hui
To explore the relationship between the depression symptoms and occupational stress in occupational populations. Depression symptoms were measured by using the center for epidemiological survey-depression scale. The occupational stress instrument were employed to investigate the stressors, personalities, social support, and coping strategies as well as the subject's age, length of service, sex, educational level and marriage status. Chi(2) test was used for analyzing the difference of depression. The multiple covariance analysis was used for testing the difference of stressors, personalities, social support, and coping strategies among the groups with different scores of depression. The variables obtained in the optional prediction equation were identified by multiple stepwise regression analysis. The incidence rate of definite depression symptoms was 40.2%. The total average score was 21.74 +/- 8.99. Henan province had the highest incidence rate of depression symptoms, 43.8%, Hebei 39.4%, and Beijing the lowest, 23.4%. The male workers had the higher incidence rate of depression symptoms, 43. 0% than female, 35.4% (P affect the mental health.
Moo-Estrella, Jesús; Pérez-Benítez, Hugo; Solís-Rodríguez, Francisco; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria
Increasing evidence suggests that sleep alterations could favor subsequent depression development. In order to identify the simultaneous occurrence of these parameters in young people, in this work we evaluated the prevalence of depressive symptoms, sleep habits, and possible sleep disturbances in college students. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and a Sleep Habits Questionnaire were applied to students registered at the Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida (mean age 20.2 +/- 2.6 years). The final sample was composed of 340 (53%) women and 298 (47%) men. Reliability of the BDI and ESS was assessed by Cronbach's alpha method. Taking 10 as ESS cut-off point, it was found that 31.6% of the students had a high level of sleepiness. Students with depressive symptoms had a greater number of days with somnolence during class (p students without symptoms. In comparison to subjects without depressive symptoms, students with those symptoms rated their sleep quality as poor (p sleep after going to bed (p sleep alterations in a large proportion of the studied subjects, which were more severe in those who showed depressive symptoms. Educating students for appropriate sleep hygiene and encouraging them to seek professional advice to treat sleep disturbances may be useful to prevent depression.
Hoyt, Michael A; Carpenter, Kristen M
The years following prostate cancer treatment are characterized by changes in sexual functioning and risk for depressive symptoms. Sexual self-schema (SSS) is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self that are associated with sexual behavior, affect, and the processing of sexually relevant information. This study tested if men's SSS moderates the impact of sexual morbidity on depressive symptoms. Men (N = 66) treated for localized prostate cancer in the preceding 2 years were assessed at T1 and 4 months later (T2). Questionnaires included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Sexual Self-schema Scale for Men, Sexual Experience Scale, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. Regressions controlled for age, sexual activity, and T1 depressive symptoms revealed no significant effect of SSS on depressive symptoms; however, better sexual functioning was related to fewer depressive symptoms (B = -0.25, p < 0.05). Results showed significant interactions between SSS and sexual outcomes. Among men with high SSS, poor sexual functioning was associated with increased depressive symptoms; loss of sexual function was particularly distressing. There was no significant effect of sexual functioning. Among men with high SSS, there was an inverse relationship between sexual engagement and depressive symptoms. Among men with lower SSS, greater frequency of sexual behavior was associated with increased depressive symptoms. SSS may be an important individual difference in determining the impact of sexual morbidity on psychological adjustment. Men high on SSS are more vulnerable to psychological consequences of lower sexual functioning and less engagement in sexual activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.
Technow, Jessica R.; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.
Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors’ roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every three months over the course of two years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of stress sensitization and generation processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression. PMID:25123081
Technow, Jessica R; Hazel, Nicholas A; Abela, John R Z; Hankin, Benjamin L
Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors' roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every 3 months over the course of 2 years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of dependent stress and stress sensitization processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression.
Maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements during pregnancy and lactation does not reduce depressive symptoms at 6 months postpartum in Ghanaian women: a randomized controlled trial.
Okronipa, Harriet; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Lartey, Anna; Ashorn, Per; Vosti, Stephen A; Young, Rebecca R; Dewey, Kathryn G
We examined the impact on depression at 6 months postpartum of maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) compared to supplementation with iron and folic acid (IFA) or multiple micronutrients (MMN). In this partially double-blinded randomized controlled trial, pregnant women ≤20 weeks gestation (n = 1320) were recruited from antenatal clinics and randomly assigned to receive either (1) SQ-LNS during pregnancy and for 6 months postpartum, or (2) IFA during pregnancy only, or (3) MMN during pregnancy and for 6 months postpartum. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured at 6 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Women who scored 12 or more on the EPDS were considered to show symptoms of depression. One thousand one hundred fifty-one women were included in this analysis (LNS = 382, IFA = 387 and MMN = 382). Characteristics of the three groups were similar at baseline, and there were no significant differences between women who were included in the analysis (n = 1151) and those who were not (n = 169). At 6 months postpartum, 13% of the women overall showed symptoms of depression, and this did not differ by group (LNS = 13.1%, IFA = 11.2% and MMN = 14.7%. P = 0.36). The median (25, 75 percentile) EPDS score did not differ by group (LNS 4.0 (1.0, 8.0), IFA 4.0 (1.0, 8.0), MMN 5.0 (2.0, 9.0), P transformed = 0.13). Adjustment for covariates did not alter these findings. Maternal supplementation with SQ-LNS compared to MMN or IFA did not affect postnatal depressive symptoms in this sample of Ghanaian women.
Full Text Available Elite young athletes have to cope with multiple psychological demands such as training volume, mental and physical fatigue, spatial separation of family and friends or time management problems may lead to reduced mental and physical recovery. While normative data regarding symptoms of anxiety and depression for the general population is available (Hinz and Brähler, 2011, hardly any information exists for adolescents in general and young athletes in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess overall symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes as well as possible sex differences. The survey was carried out within the scope of the study “Resistance Training in Young Athletes” (KINGS-Study. Between August 2015 and September 2016, 326 young athletes aged (mean ± SD 14.3 ± 1.6 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD Scale. Regarding the analysis of age on the anxiety and depression subscales, age groups were classified as follows: late childhood (12–14 years and late adolescence (15–18 years. The participating young athletes were recruited from Olympic weight lifting, handball, judo, track and field athletics, boxing, soccer, gymnastics, ice speed skating, volleyball, and rowing. Anxiety and depression scores were (mean ± SD 4.3 ± 3.0 and 2.8 ± 2.9, respectively. In the subscale anxiety, 22 cases (6.7% showed subclinical scores and 11 cases (3.4% showed clinical relevant score values. When analyzing the depression subscale, 31 cases (9.5% showed subclinical score values and 12 cases (3.7% showed clinically important values. No significant differences were found between male and female athletes (p ≥ 0.05. No statistically significant differences in the HADS scores were found between male athletes of late childhood and late adolescents (p ≥ 0.05. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing questionnaire based indicators of symptoms of anxiety and depression in young
Bouzinova, Elena; Andresen, Jørgen; Wiborg, Ove
Major depression and cardiovascular diseases have strong co-morbidity but the reason for this is unknown. In Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) model of depression only some rats develop depression-like symptoms (i.e. anhedonia, measured by sucrose intake) while others are resilient to 8 weeks of CMS...... and reduced expression of extra-neuronal transporter (OCT-2) in anhedonic arteries. The contractility of middle cerebral arteries to 5-HT was reduced by CMS but recovered by anti-depressant treatment. Resistance arteries from anhedonic rats were less sensitive to acetylcholine compared to non......-like response) was significantly reduced in anhedonic rats. This was associated with decreased transcription of intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels. Our results indicate that CMS-induced depression-like symptoms in rats are associated with changes in monoamine uptake and endothelial dysfunctions...
Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F.
Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via functional impairment. We estimated a latent variable causal model using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,832)....
Young-Hyman, Deborah L.; Peterson, Claire M.; Fischer, Sarah; Markowitz, Jessica T.; Muir, Andrew B.; Laffel, Lori M.
This study evaluated the associations between depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation and bulimic symptoms in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the context of the diagnosis and treatment of T1D. Study participants were 103 youth in 2 distinct groups: newly diagnosed (New) or transitioning to pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]; “Pump”), who completed questionnaires regarding symptoms of depression, emotion dysregulation, and bulimia. Glycemic control (A1c), height, weight, and questionnaires were evaluated within 10 days of diagnosis (n = 58) or at education/clinic visit before starting insulin utilizing CSII (n = 45). In the newly diagnosed group, only depression accounted for significant variance in bulimia scores (β = .47, P symptoms and emotion dysregulation were associated with greater bulimic symptoms. Depressive symptoms and emotion dysregulation, an indicator of poor coping/behavioral control, could help explain adoption of disordered eating behaviors in youth with T1D who are transitioning to pump therapy. PMID:27137457
Whitworth, Stephanie; Bruce, David; Starkstein, Sergio
Aims To describe the long‐term trajectories of depression symptom severity in people with Type 2 diabetes, and to identify predictors and associates of these trajectories. Methods A community‐dwelling cohort of 1201 individuals with Type 2 diabetes from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II was f...... benefit from early and intensive depression management and ongoing follow‐up as part of routine Type 2 diabetes care.......Aims To describe the long‐term trajectories of depression symptom severity in people with Type 2 diabetes, and to identify predictors and associates of these trajectories. Methods A community‐dwelling cohort of 1201 individuals with Type 2 diabetes from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II...... was followed for 5 years. The nine‐item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire was administered annually to assess depression symptoms, and biomedical and psychosocial measures were assessed at baseline and biennially. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify classes of depression severity...
Strober, Bruce; Gooderham, Melinda; de Jong, Elke M G J; Kimball, Alexa B; Langley, Richard G; Lakdawala, Nikita; Goyal, Kavitha; Lawson, Fabio; Langholff, Wayne; Hopkins, Lori; Fakharzadeh, Steve; Srivastava, Bhaskar; Menter, Alan
Patients with psoriasis are at an increased risk for depression. However, the impact of treatment on this risk is unclear. Evaluate the incidence and impact of treatment on depression among patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We defined a study population within the Psoriasis Longitudinal Assessment and Registry and measured the incidence of depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression score ≥8) and adverse events (AEs) of depression within cohorts receiving biologics, conventional systemic therapies, or phototherapy. Patients were evaluated at approximately 6-month intervals. Multivariate modeling determined the impact of treatment on risk. The incidence rates of depressive symptoms were 3.01 per 100 patient-years (PYs) (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.73-3.32), 5.85 per 100 PYs (95% CI, 4.29-7.97), and 5.70 per 100 PYs (95% CI, 4.58-7.10) for biologics, phototherapy, and conventional therapy, respectively. Compared with conventional therapy, biologics reduced the risk for depressive symptoms (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.98), whereas phototherapy did not (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.71-1.54). The incidence rates for AEs of depression were 0.21 per 100 PYs (95% CI, 0.15-0.31) for biologics, 0.55 per 100 PYs (95% CI, 0.21-1.47) for phototherapy, and 0.14 per 100 PYs (95% CI, 0.03-0.55) for conventional therapy; the fact that there were too few events (37 AEs) precluded modeling. Incomplete capture of depression and confounders in the patients on registry. Compared with conventional therapy, biologics appear to be associated with a lower incidence of depressive symptoms among patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that alcohol problems negatively affect therapeutic interventions for depression. This study examines the patterns of change in depressive symptoms following an intervention for depression, in participants with or without comorbid unhealthy alcohol use.Methods: Depressive symptoms (BDI–II, perceived control of depressive symptoms (UNCONTROL and unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT were assessed in 116 patients before and after attending a cognitive behavioral psychoeducational intervention for depression. At pretest the mean score of AUDIT was 8.1, indicating a, on average, risk of harmful level of alcohol abuse. At pretest the majority of the total sample had a moderate degree of depressive symptoms, with a mean BDI–II score of 25.1 and 36.2% had a risky use of alcohol as measured with AUDIT score at 8 points or above. To assess the relationship between depressive symptoms, perceived uncontrollability of depression and alcohol use across time, a cross-lagged panel model was estimated.Results: A clinical significant reduction of depressive symptoms, and a parallel and statistically significant increase in the perceived control of depressive symptoms, was identified after attending a cognitive behavioral psychoeducational intervention for depression. At posttest, the mean BDI–II score was 17.8, demonstrating a statistically significant decrease of 7.3 points in depressive symptoms from before starting the course to 6 months later. The effect size (d-value of 0.83 can be interpreted as a large decrease in depressive symptoms. In this sample alcohol use and depressive symptoms seemed to be unrelated. The cross-lagged correlation panel analysis indicated that a high degree of perceived control of depressive symptoms leads to a reduction in depressive symptoms, and not vice versa.Conclusion: We found that this intervention for depression were effective in reducing depressive symptoms. The patterns of change seemed to
Wagner, Janelle L; Smith, Gigi; Ferguson, Pamela L; Horton, Stephanie; Wilson, Erin
To test the cognitive diathesis-stress and mediational components of the theory of learned hopelessness in youth with epilepsy. Seventy-seven participants ages 9-17 (35 girls, 42 boys) completed measures of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, self-efficacy for seizure management, and attitude toward epilepsy. Caregivers provided information on seizure activity. Diagnostic and treatment information was obtained via medical record review. Regression analyses revealed that hopelessness mediated the attitude towards epilepsy-depressive symptom relationship. While attitude toward epilepsy and self-efficacy were independent predictors of depressive symptoms, the relationship of attitudes toward epilepsy and depressive symptoms was not enhanced with low self-efficacy for seizure management. Findings support the mediation component of the learned hopelessness theory in youth with epilepsy, suggesting the importance of interventions that assist youth in identifying epilepsy-related aspects of functioning over which they can realistically exercise control and challenging negative thoughts about situations they cannot control.
Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Shibusawa, Tazuko; Yoo, Grace J
This study examined the interactive effects of social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older Korean Americans (KAs). Using data from a sample of 200 elders in a large metropolitan area (M age = 72.50, SD = 5.15), hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the interaction between social network support and depressive symptoms on life satisfaction among older KAs. After controlling for demographic variables, both social network support and depressive symptoms were identified as predictors for life satisfaction. Interaction effects indicated strong associations between higher social network support specifically from friends and lower depressive symptoms with higher levels of life satisfaction. Findings highlight the important role that friends play in terms of social network support for the mental health of older KAs, and the need for geriatric practitioners to monitor and assess the quality of social network support-including friendships-when working with older KAs.
The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and syndromes in Kenyan children and adolescents. David M Ndetei, Lincoln Khasakhala, Lambert Nyabola, Francisca Ongecha-Owuor, Soraya Seedat, Victoria Mutiso, Donald Kokonya, Gideon Odhiambo ...
Miller, Michelle L.; Kroska, Emily B.; Grekin, Rebecca
Background Negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in the early postpartum period have been associated with postpartum depressive symptoms, but the exact relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to determine if NA and PA in the immediate postpartum period predicted postpartum depressive symptoms over and above well-established predictors (previous trauma, history of depression). Methods Participants were prospectively recruited from a Mother-Baby Unit at a large Midwestern academic medical center in the United States from April 2011 to April 2014. Participants (N = 526) completed the Daily Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), a self-report measure which assessed NA and PA, within three days post-delivery. Participants then reported their depressive symptoms at two weeks (n = 364) and twelve weeks postpartum (n = 271). Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that low PA and high NA after birth significantly predicted depressive symptoms early (at 2 weeks) and later (at 12 weeks) in the postpartum period, over and above previous traumatic experiences and history of depression. Limitations The sample was relatively homogenous, and data were from self-report instruments. Conclusions The current study found NA and PA in the days immediately after birth predicted depressive symptoms at multiple time points in the postpartum period. Because the perinatal period places women at a higher risk for depressive symptomatology, prevention and early intervention are critical. Measuring affect in hospitals immediately after birth may provide a more normalized set of items that is predictive of later depression, which will allow physicians to identify those at highest risk for developing depressive symptoms. PMID:27716540
Miller, Michelle L; Kroska, Emily B; Grekin, Rebecca
Negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in the early postpartum period have been associated with postpartum depressive symptoms, but the exact relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to determine if NA and PA in the immediate postpartum period predicted postpartum depressive symptoms over and above well-established predictors (previous trauma, history of depression). Participants were prospectively recruited from a Mother-Baby Unit at a large Midwestern academic medical center in the United States from April 2011 to April 2014. Participants (N=526) completed the Daily Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), a self-report measure which assessed NA and PA, within three days post-delivery. Participants then reported their depressive symptoms at two weeks (n=364) and twelve weeks postpartum (n=271). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that low PA and high NA after birth significantly predicted depressive symptoms early (at 2 weeks) and later (at 12 weeks) in the postpartum period, over and above previous traumatic experiences and history of depression. The sample was relatively homogenous, and data were from self-report instruments. The current study found NA and PA in the days immediately after birth predicted depressive symptoms at multiple time points in the postpartum period. Because the perinatal period places women at a higher risk for depressive symptomatology, prevention and early intervention are critical. Measuring affect in hospitals immediately after birth may provide a more normalized set of items that is predictive of later depression, which will allow physicians to identify those at highest risk for developing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI), Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR), Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI), Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment. Results. Two models were examined: one ...
Full Text Available Francesca Assogna,1 Sabrina Fagioli,1 Luca Cravello,1 Giuseppe Meco,2 Mariangela Pierantozzi,3 Alessandro Stefani,3 Francesca Imperiale,2 Carlo Caltagirone,1,3 Francesco E Pontieri,4 Gianfranco Spalletta11I.R.C.C.S. Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry (Parkinson’s Centre and Research Centre of Social Diseases (CIMS, University “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Neuroscience, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health and Sensory Systems, University “Sapienza”, Movement Disorder Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients with that of control subjects (CS suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses.Methods: One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD and minor depressive disorder (MIND, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR, criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were also administered to measure depression severity.Results: When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP, comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of
Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Boyle, Chloe C; Irwin, Michael R; Ganz, Patricia A; Crespi, Catherine M; Asher, Arash; Petersen, Laura; Bower, Julienne E
Childhood maltreatment is associated with elevated risk for depression across the human lifespan. Identifying the pathways through which childhood maltreatment relates to depressive symptoms may elucidate intervention targets that have the potential to reduce the lifelong negative health sequelae of maltreatment exposure. In this cross-sectional study, 271 women with early-stage breast cancer were assessed after their diagnosis but before the start of adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, endocrine therapy). Participants completed measures of childhood maltreatment exposure, psychological resources (optimism, mastery, self-esteem, mindfulness), and depressive symptoms. Using multiple mediation analyses, we examined which psychological resources uniquely mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was robustly associated with lower psychological resources and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, lower optimism and mindfulness mediated the association between childhood maltreatment and elevated depressive symptoms. These results support existing theory that childhood maltreatment is associated with lower psychological resources, which partially explains elevated depressive symptoms in a sample of women facing breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. These findings warrant replication in populations facing other major life events and highlight the need for additional studies examining childhood maltreatment as a moderator of treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Druss, B G; Schlesinger, M; Allen, H M
The relationship of depressive symptoms, satisfaction with health care, and 2-year work outcomes was examined in a national cohort of employees. A total of 6,239 employees of three corporations completed surveys on health and satisfaction with health care in 1993 and 1995. This study used bivariate and multivariate analyses to examine the relationships of depressive symptoms (a score below 43 on the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey mental component summary), satisfaction with a variety of dimensions of health care in 1993, and work outcomes (sick days and decreased effectiveness in the workplace) in 1995. The odds of missed work due to health problems in 1995 were twice as high for employees with depressive symptoms in both 1993 and 1995 as for those without depressive symptoms in either year. The odds of decreased effectiveness at work in 1995 was seven times as high. Among individuals with depressive symptoms in 1993, a report of one or more problems with clinical care in 1993 predicted a 34% increase in the odds of persistent depressive symptoms and a 66% increased odds of decreased effectiveness at work in 1995. There was a weaker association between problems with plan administration and outcomes. Depressive disorders in the workplace persist over time and have a major effect on work performance, most notably on "presenteeism," or reduced effectiveness in the workplace. The study's findings suggest a potentially important link between consumers' perceptions of clinical care and work outcomes in this population.
Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N
Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academ...
Tulloch, Heather; Heenan, Adam; Sweet, Shane; Goldfield, Gary S; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Sigal, Ronald J
The objective of the present study was to test if outcome expectancy mediated the relationship between fitness and self-efficacy, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms.Adolescents with obesity ( n = 228) completed measures of perceived stress and depressive symptoms at baseline, self-efficacy and outcome expectancy at baseline and 3 months, and fitness at baseline and 6 months. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. Results showed that self-efficacy was positively associated with fitness via outcome expectancies. For females, fewer depressive symptoms were linked to fitness via self-efficacy and outcome expectancies. Exercise interventions that enhance exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and reduce depressive symptoms may increase fitness.
Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong
Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms on any type of patients. Methods. A systematic database search was carried out using predefined search terms in 5 databases: AMED, CINHAL, CCRCT, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Outcome measures included scales measuring depressive symptoms levels. Results. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included and two administration methods for the aromatherapy intervention including inhaled aromatherapy (5 studies) and massage aromatherapy (7 studies) were identified. Seven studies showed improvement in depressive symptoms. Limitations. The quality of half of the studies included is low, and the administration protocols among the studies varied considerably. Different assessment tools were also employed among the studies. Conclusions. Aromatherapy showed potential to be used as an effective therapeutic option for the relief of depressive symptoms in a wide variety of subjects. Particularly, aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy. PMID:28133489
Morrissey, Taryn W
This study examined associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and parenting behaviors related to children's nutrition and physical activity. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children from infancy through kindergarten entry. Contemporaneous and lagged associations between maternal depressive symptoms and mothers' parenting behaviors were tested, controlling for background characteristics. The mediating effect of use of a physician's office or clinic as a source for routine care was tested. At each wave, between 18 and 20 % of mothers were considered as having moderate or severe depressive symptoms. These mothers were 1.3 percentage points more likely to put their infants to bed with a bottle, 2.6 percentage points less likely to have rules about the foods their children eat, and their children were 3.0 percentage points less likely to be in bed by 9:00 p.m. than mothers lacking depressive symptoms. These mothers also reported that their families ate dinner together fewer nights per week, and their children watched more television per day, than non-depressed mothers. The use of a physician's office or clinic partially mediated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and whether infants went to bed with a bottle. Interventions that identify maternal depression early may be useful in promoting healthy parenting behaviors and weight outcomes among young children.
Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Danielsen, A K; Hageman, I
Circadian- and sleep disturbances may be central for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. The effect of melatonin on depression/depressive symptoms has been investigated previously. This systematic review assesses the current evidence of a therapeutic- and prophylactic e...
Winkens, L.H.H.; van Strien, T.; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, Brenda; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. METHODS: Data were collected in Denmark (n =
Winkens, L.H.H.; van Strien, T.; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, Brenda; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. METHODS: Data were collected in Denmark (n =
Winkens, L.H.H.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Visser, M.; Lähteenmäki, L.
Objective: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite - with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. Methods: Data were collected in Denmark
Romeo B Lee
Full Text Available Depression can be prevented if its symptoms are addressed early and effectively. Prevention against depression among university students is rare in the Philippines, but is urgent because of the rising rates of suicide among the group. Evidence is needed to systematically identify and assist students with higher levels of depressive symptoms. We carried out a survey to determine the social and demographic factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among 2,436 Filipino university students. The University Students Depression Inventory with measures on lethargy, cognition-emotion, and academic motivation, was used. Six of the 11 factors analyzed were found to be statistically significantly associated with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: frequency of smoking, frequency of drinking, not living with biological parents, dissatisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. Sex, age category, course category, year level and religion were not significantly related. In identifying students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to lifestyle, financial condition, parents and peers are crucial. There is a need to carry out more surveys to develop the pool of local knowledge on student depression.
Georgiades, Katholiki; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Seeley, John R.
Objective: To examine the longitudinal association between individual subthreshold symptoms and onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Method: Data for analysis come from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a prospective epidemiological study of psychological disorders among adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from the…
Luppino, Floriana S.; Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Bouvy, Paul F.; Giltay, Erik J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objective: To investigate the association between depression and anxiety symptoms and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), using a dimensional approach. The association between depression and anxiety, on the one hand, and the MetSyn as a cluster or its individual components, on the other hand, is
Nelson, Scott; Rustad, James K; Catalano, Glenn; Stern, Theodore A; Kozel, F Andrew
Delirium and depression are often thought of as mutually exclusive conditions. However, several studies cite depression as a risk factor for delirium whereas others note that patients with delirium often manifest depressive symptoms. Whether these depressive symptoms persist after delirium resolves remains unclear. This article reviews published studies that have investigated the relationship between depression and delirium. Literature searches on PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PsycInfo were conducted using search criteria "delirium" AND "depress⁎" as keywords or MeSH terms. Of 722 search results, 10 prospective cohort studies were identified for inclusion. These studies were categorized regarding the time of assessment for depressive symptoms. Included studies varied greatly (regarding their index population, their methods of assessment, and their timing of assessments). Of the studies, 3 involved patients undergoing hip fracture repair. They demonstrated more severe depressive symptoms both during delirium and after delirium ended. Conversely, the other studies did not find any statistically significant correlations between the 2 conditions. The literature suggests a correlation between depression and delirium in patients with hip fracture. Whether other specific populations have higher comorbidity is unclear. Unfortunately, studies varied widely in their methods, precluding a meta-analysis. Nonetheless, our review provides a foundation for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. All rights reserved.
Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Rose, Amanda J.
This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents’ friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes. PMID:25640911
Contreras, Mónica Yicette Sánchez; Vargas, Paula Alejandra Osorio; Ramos, Lucero Rengifo; Velandia, Rafael Alarcón
The authors describe a family group studied by the Centro de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, and the Clínica de la Memoria, las Demencias y el Envejecimiento (Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia), and evaluate the association of depressive symptoms with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This family presented a hereditary pattern for AD characterized by an early onset of dementia symptoms, a long preclinical depressive course, and, once the first symptoms of dementia appeared, a rapid progression to severe cognitive function impairment. The authors found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in this family and propose that the symptoms could be an important risk factor for developing AD in the presence of other risk factors such as the APOE E4 allele.
Danny J O'Sullivan
Full Text Available The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II and anxiety (BAI. Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of 'uncontrollability', accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed.
O'Sullivan, Danny J; O'Sullivan, Maura E; O'Connell, Brendan D; O'Reilly, Ken; Sarma, Kiran M
The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI). Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global) predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of 'uncontrollability', accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed.
O’Sullivan, Danny J.; O’Sullivan, Maura E.; O’Connell, Brendan D.; O’Reilly, Ken; Sarma, Kiran M.
The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI). Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global) predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of ‘uncontrollability’, accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:29444084
Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Johnson, Dayna A; Li, Jia; Rao, D Sudhaker
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depression; however, no studies have examined the relationship of vitamin D and antenatal depression. Antenatal depression increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and poorer postpartum maternal and infant health. African American women are at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency and antenatal depression. Thus, we examined if early pregnancy vitamin D nutrition (VDN) was associated with antenatal depressive symptoms among African American women in the second trimester of pregnancy. Women (n=178) were recruited from obstetrics clinics of a large health system. VDN was assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD). Depression symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale; CES-D≥16 equates with criteria for clinical depression. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of log-transformed 25-OHD and elevated depression symptoms (CES-D≥16). Mean 25-OHD was 13.4±8.4 ng/mL; most women (82.6%, n=147) were vitamin D inadequate or deficient (25-OHD<20 ng/mL). Mean CES-D was 15.2±10.7, and 74 (41.6%) women had a CES-D≥16, suggestive of clinical depression. A significant inverse relationship was found between log (25-OHD) and CES-D≥16 (odds ratio [OR] 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29-0.99, p=0.046). For every 1-unit increase in log (25-OHD) (corresponding to ~2.72 ng/mL increase in 25-OHD), the odds of CES-D≥16 decreased by 46%. African American women with lower VDN exhibit increased depressive symptoms. Research on vitamin D supplementation for reducing antenatal depressive symptoms is needed.
Jin, Jingwen; Narayanan, Ananth; Perlman, Greg; Luking, Katherine; DeLorenzo, Christine; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Mohanty, Aprajita
Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of disability worldwide; however, little is known about pathological mechanisms involved in its development. Research in adolescent depression has focused on reward sensitivity and striatal mechanisms implementing it. The contribution of loss sensitivity to future depression, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) mechanisms critical for processing losses and rewards, remain unexplored. Furthermore, it is unclear whether OFC functioning interacts with familial history in predicting future depression. In this longitudinal study we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while 229 adolescent females with or without parental history of depression completed a monetary gambling task. We examined if OFC blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response and functional connectivity during loss and win feedback was associated with depression symptoms concurrently and prospectively (9 months later), and whether this relationship was moderated by parental history of depression. Reduced OFC response during loss was associated with higher depression symptoms concurrently and prospectively, even after controlling for concurrent depression, specifically in adolescents with parental history of depression. Similarly, increased OFC-posterior insula connectivity during loss was associated with future depression symptoms but this relationship was not moderated by parental history of depression. This study provides the first evidence for loss-related alterations in OFC functioning and its interaction with familial history of depression as possible mechanisms in the development of depression. While the current fMRI literature has mainly focused on reward, the present findings underscore the need to include prefrontal loss processing in existing developmental models of depression.
Lozano, B E; Johnson, S L
There has been limited research investigating personality traits as predictors of manic and depressive symptoms in bipolar individuals. The present study investigated the relation between personality traits and the course of bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to identify specific personality traits that predict the course of manic and depressive symptoms experienced by bipolar individuals. The sample consisted of 39 participants with bipolar I disorder assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Personality was assessed using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale were used to assess symptom severity on a monthly basis. Consistent with previous research on unipolar depression, high Neuroticism predicted increases in depressive symptoms across time while controlling for baseline symptoms. Additionally, high Conscientiousness, particularly the Achievement Striving facet, predicted increases in manic symptoms across time. The current study was limited by the small number of participants, the reliance on a shortened version of a self-report personality measure, and the potential state-dependency of the personality measures. Specific personality traits may assist in predicting bipolar symptoms across time. Further studies are needed to tease apart the state-dependency of personality.
Parker, Gordon; Fletcher, Kathryn; Paterson, Amelia; Anderson, Josephine; Hong, Michael
Lifetime rates of depression are distinctly higher in women reflecting both real and artefactual influences. Most prevalence studies quantifying a female preponderance have examined severity-based diagnostic groups such as major depression or dysthymia. We examined gender differences across three depressive sub-type conditions using four differing measures to determine whether any gender differences emerge more from severity or symptom prevalence, reflect nuances of the particular measure, or whether depressive sub-type is influential. A large clinical sample was recruited. Patients completed two severity-weighted depression measures: the Depression in the Medically Ill 10 (DMI-10) and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self-Report (QIDS-SR) and two measures weighting symptoms and illness correlates of melancholic and non-melancholic depressive disorders - the Severity of Depressive Symptoms (SDS) and Sydney Melancholia Prototype Index (SMPI). Analyses were undertaken of three diagnostic groups comprising those with unipolar melancholic, unipolar non-melancholic and bipolar depressive conditions. Women in the two unipolar groups scored only marginally (and non-significantly) higher than men on the depression severity measures. Women in the bipolar depression group, did however, score significantly higher than men on depression severity. On measures weighted to assessing melancholic and non-melancholic symptoms, there were relatively few gender differences identified in the melancholic and non-melancholic sub-sets, while more gender differences were quantified in the bipolar sub-set. The symptoms most commonly and consistently differentiating by gender were those assessing appetite/weight change and psychomotor disturbance. Our analyses of several measures and the minimal differentiation of depressive symptoms and symptom severity argues against any female preponderance in unipolar depression being contributed to distinctly by these depression rating measures
Zaers, Stefanie; Waschke, Melanie; Ehlert, Ulrike
This study examined the course of psychological problems in women from late pregnancy to six months postpartum, the rates of psychiatric, especially depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms and possible related antecedent variables. During late pregnancy, one to three days postpartum, six weeks and six months postpartum, 47 of the 60 participating women completed a battery of questionnaires including the General Health Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the PTSD Symptom Scale. In general, most women recovered from psychiatric and somatic problems over the period of investigation. However, depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in particular were not found to decline significantly. Six weeks postpartum, 22% of the women had depressive symptoms, with this figure remaining at 21.3% six months postpartum. In addition, 6% of the women studied reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms at six weeks postpartum with 14.9% reporting such symptoms at six months postpartum. The most important predictor for depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms was the block variable "anxiety in late pregnancy". Other predictors were the variables "psychiatric symptoms in late pregnancy", "critical life events" and the "experience of delivery". The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of psychiatric symptoms in women after childbirth and suggest, besides the experience of the delivery itself, a vulnerability or predisposing history that makes the development of psychiatric symptoms after childbirth more probable.
Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St
Full Text Available Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs. Nearly half (52.1% of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.
Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N
The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.
To determine the pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depressive disorders. Design: Cross Sectional Comparative study Place of Study: Department of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration of Study: From May to November 2002. Patients and Methods: Patients were divided in Group I of anxiety and group II of depression. Fifty patients considered in each group by convenience sampling. The organic basis of their symptoms was ruled out. The patterns of their somatic symptoms and other information like educational and economic status were recorded on Semi Structured Proforma. The patient's diagnosis was made on schedule based ICD-10 research criteria. The severity of anxiety and depression was assessed by using HARS and HDRS respectively. The pattern of somatic symptoms in both groups was then analyzed by the urdu version of Bradford Somatic Inventory. Patterns of somatic complaints were then analyzed by chi square test. Results: Out of 100 patients we placed 50 each in group I (anxiety) and group II (Depression). Males were higher in depression whereas females were higher in anxiety disorder group. P-value for headache was 0.017 while in rest of the somatic symptoms it was insignificant ranging from 0.4 to 1. Conclusion: We found that the patterns of somatic symptoms are present in both the groups of anxiety and depression like symptoms related to musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal system were commonly observed in cases of depression whereas symptoms related to autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system is more significantly somatized in patients of anxiety. A larger sample is required for further studies to get better results. (author)
Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J
Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Wagner, Julie A; Abbott, Gina L; Heapy, Alicia; Yong, Lynne
This study of African Americans with diabetes investigated: (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and glycemic control; (2) the relationship between depressive symptoms and long-term diabetes complications; (3) the relationship between depressive symptoms and medication usage; and (4) the effects of demographic and diabetes variables on these relationships. One-hundred twenty five African American diabetic adults who were attending health fairs reported demographic and medical history and provided blood samples for A1c assessment of glycemic control. They also completed the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression questionnaire, and the Diabetes Self-Care Inventory. After controlling for confounders, higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher A1c, more long-term diabetes complications, and more diabetes medications. Diabetes self-care did not fully account for these relationships. The relationship between depression and poor diabetes control exists in African Americans as it does in Whites. Providers are encouraged to attend to depression in their African American patients with diabetes.
Full Text Available The current study was designed to determine the percentage of children “at-risk” of depression or evidencing clinical levels of depression. In addition, the study examined how the “at-risk” and the clinical groups differed from children who demonstrated no depressive symptoms on positive and negative affect, four aspects of self-concept, and peer ratings of popularity. Respondents were 510 children (270 boys 240 girls who ranged in age from 7 to 13 years (mean = 9.39. The results demonstrated that 23% of children were either in the “at-risk” or clinical range of depression. Children in both the clinical and the “at-risk” range demonstrated higher negative affect but lower positive affect and lower self-concepts than children in the normal range. However, children's peers only differentiated between the “clinical” and “normal” groups. It is harder for peers, and other informants such as teachers and parents, to detect the problems of children with elevated depressive symptoms but who do not meet the diagnostic criteria. It is important to implement intervention programs for children who evidence depression symptoms, as well as “at-risk” children. “At-risk” children with elevated levels of depressive symptoms may be more disadvantaged, as their problems are less likely to be detected and treated.
Foli, Karen J; Lim, Eunjung; South, Susan C
Grounded in a theoretical model specific to adoptive parents, we examined the relationship between parental expectations and depressive symptoms across time. Assessments of 129 adoptive parents of 64 children were performed at three time points before and after placement of an adopted child with the family: 4-6 weeks pre-placement and 4-6 weeks and 5-6 months post-placement. Expectations were assessed in four dimensions: expectations of self as parents, of the child, of family and friends, and of society. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Associations between parental expectations and depressive symptoms were analyzed, and longitudinal multilevel modeling was conducted to explore influences on expectations over time. Parental expectations changed from pre- to post-placement. With the exception of expectations of self as parent, adoptive parents' pre-adoption expectations were affirmed in the post-adoption time periods. In each expectation dimension, higher affirmation of expectations was correlated with decreased depressive symptoms before and after placement of a child. While parental expectations are not unique to adoptive parents, the essence and characteristics of certain expectations are unique to these parents. When working with adoptive parents, nurses who care for families should assess expectations both pre- and post-placement with awareness of their relationship to depressive symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Flores-Cornejo, Fiorela; Kamego-Tome, Mayumi; Zapata-Pachas, Mariana A; Alvarado, German F
To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest. Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest. Conclusions: Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.
Arnold, S E; Xie, S X; Leung, Y-Y; Wang, L-S; Kling, M A; Han, X; Kim, E J; Wolk, D A; Bennett, D A; Chen-Plotkin, A; Grossman, M; Hu, W; Lee, V M-Y; Mackin, R Scott; Trojanowski, J Q; Wilson, R S; Shaw, L M
The pathophysiology of negative affect states in older adults is complex, and a host of central nervous system and peripheral systemic mechanisms may play primary or contributing roles. We conducted an unbiased analysis of 146 plasma analytes in a multiplex biochemical biomarker study in relation to number of depressive symptoms endorsed by 566 participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) at their baseline and 1-year assessments. Analytes that were most highly associated with depressive symptoms included hepatocyte growth factor, insulin polypeptides, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and vascular endothelial growth factor. Separate regression models assessed contributions of past history of psychiatric illness, antidepressant or other psychotropic medicine, apolipoprotein E genotype, body mass index, serum glucose and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) τ and amyloid levels, and none of these values significantly attenuated the main effects of the candidate analyte levels for depressive symptoms score. Ensemble machine learning with Random Forests found good accuracy (~80%) in classifying groups with and without depressive symptoms. These data begin to identify biochemical biomarkers of depressive symptoms in older adults that may be useful in investigations of pathophysiological mechanisms of depression in aging and neurodegenerative dementias and as targets of novel treatment approaches.
Padilla Paredes, Patricia; Calvete, Esther
This study tested whether childhood parental emotional abuse and peer emotional bullying serve as antecedents of depression in adolescence and identified the cognitive mechanisms involved in this process. It was hypothesized that the experience of emotional abuse would predict depressive symptoms via development of rumination and negative inferences. A 3-wave longitudinal study was carried out with 998 adolescents (471 girls and 526 boys) between 13 and 17 years of age. Results showed that emotional abuse by parents and peers at Time 1 predicted a worsening of several cognitive vulnerabilities at Time 2. In addition, brooding mediated between the experiences of abuse and the increase of depressive symptoms at Time 3. Thus, findings suggest that the experiences of childhood emotional abuse by parents and peers serve as antecedents to develop a negative cognitive style, vulnerability that, once developed, is a risk factor for the onset of depressive symptoms in adolescence.
Wang, Jinghui; Wu, Xiaohang; Lai, Weiyi; Long, Erping; Zhang, Xiayin; Li, Wangting; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Chuan; Zhong, Xiaojian; Liu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Dongni; Lin, Haotian
Depression and depressive symptoms are common mental disorders that have a considerable effect on patients' health-related quality of life and satisfaction with medical care, but the prevalence of these conditions varies substantially between published studies. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a precise estimate of the prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms among outpatients in different clinical specialties. Systematic review and meta-analysis. The PubMed and PsycINFO, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify observational studies that contained information on the prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in outpatients. All studies included were published before January 2016. Data characteristics were extracted independently by two investigators. The point prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms was measured using validated self-report questionnaires or structured interviews. Assessments were pooled using a random-effects model. Differences in study-level characteristics were estimated by meta-regression analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed using standard χ 2 tests and the I 2 statistic. The study protocol has been registered with PROSPERO under number CRD42017054738. Eighty-three cross-sectional studies involving 41 344 individuals were included in this study. The overall pooled prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms was 27.0% (10 943/41 344 individuals; 95% CI 24.0% to 29.0%), with significant heterogeneity between studies (pdepression and depressive symptoms was observed in outpatients than in the healthy controls (OR 3.16, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.76, I 2 =72.0%, χ 2 =25.33). The highest depression/depressive symptom prevalence estimates occurred in studies of outpatients from otolaryngology clinics (53.0%), followed by dermatology clinics (39.0%) and neurology clinics (35.0%). Subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence of depression and depressive
Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena
Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO, and orientation towards the host culture (HC. Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI. Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9, while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7. Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3 reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001. In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001, lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001, and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001 were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9. Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.
Zhan, Weihai; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Abdala, Nadia
Background Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms are inconsistent, and few studies have addressed this issue in Russia. Because this finding may have important implications for interventions to reduce alcohol misuse or alcohol related problems in Russia, we conducted a study to investigate whether the association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differs by gender at high risk for HIV. Methods We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale to measure alcohol use and depressive symptoms among 307 patients who attended a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Logistic regression models were applied for the analysis. Results The comparison of data between men and women revealed a significant quadratic term of alcohol use and significant interactions between alcohol use and gender on depressive symptoms. Men with an AUDIT score in the first and fourth quartiles were more likely to report depressive symptoms in comparison to men in the second quartile. Their odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 7.54 (2.00–28.51) and 5.06 (1.31–19.63), respectively. Among women, a linear trend was observed such that those who misused alcohol were three times more likely to have depressive symptoms than those who did not misuse alcohol (OR = 3.03, 95% CI, 1.05–8.80). Conclusion The association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differed by gender. Additional research is needed to investigate this relationship in Russia. Strategies to reduce alcohol-related problems in Russia may need to consider these differences. PMID:23240098
Clum, Gretchen A; Rice, Janet C; Broussard, Marsha; Johnson, Carolyn C; Webber, Larry S
This article explores cross-sectional associations between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in women working in schools in the Greater New Orleans area. Self-efficacy for eating and exercise, eating styles, and exercise are examined as potential pathways. This is a secondary data analysis of 743 women who were participating in a workplace wellness randomized controlled trial to address environmental factors influencing eating and exercise behaviors using baseline data prior to the intervention. BMI was the primary outcome examined. Path analysis suggested that increased depressive symptoms were associated with increased BMI in women. Indirect effects of depressive symptoms on BMI were found for increased healthy eating self-efficacy, increased emotional eating, and decreased exercise self-efficacy. The association between greater healthy eating self efficacy and BMI was unexpected, and may indicate a suppressor effect of eating self-efficacy in the relationship between depressive symptoms and BMI in women. The findings suggest the importance of depressive symptoms to BMI in women. Targets for interventions to reduce BMI include targeting depressive symptoms and related sequelae including self-efficacy for exercise, and emotional eating. Further investigation of eating self-efficacy and BMI are recommended with particular attention to both efficacy for health eating and avoidance of unhealthy foods.
Ysseldyk, Renate; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie
The present investigation assessed the mediating role of appraisal-coping processes in the relation between forgiveness and depressive symptoms associated with intimate relationship conflicts. Study 1 assessed the role of forgiveness in the context of a severe relationship stressor, namely women experiencing dating abuse, along with the appraisal-coping responses and depressive symptoms associated with such a stressor. Study 2 evaluated the function served by forgiveness among men and women in response to non-abusive relationship stressors, including the dissolution of the relationship, and also assessed the relations among forgiveness, appraisal-coping processes, and depressive symptoms. Women who encountered dating abuse were less likely to forgive their partners, and this was linked to higher levels of depressive symptoms. The relation between forgiveness and lower depressive symptoms was partially mediated by lower threat appraisals, secondary appraisals of the effectiveness of emotion-focused coping, and the reduced endorsements of this coping strategy (Study 1). Appraisal-coping processes similarly mediated the relation between forgiveness and depressive symptoms among men and women reporting conflict in an ongoing (non-abusive) relationship or a relationship break-up (Study 2). It is suggested that the relation between forgiveness and diminished distress operates primarily by guiding individuals' appraisals of the conflict and by diminishing the reliance on emotion-focused coping.
Poelke, Gina; Ventura, Maria I; Byers, Amy L; Yaffe, Kristine; Sudore, Rebecca; Barnes, Deborah E
Depressive symptoms are common in older adults and associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment. Leisure activities are often promoted for individuals with mood symptoms but few studies compare the effects of different types of leisure activities on reducing depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed from participants enrolled from 2008-2009 in the Mental Activity and eXercise (MAX) Trial, which examined the effects of physical plus mental activity over 12 weeks in inactive older adults with cognitive complaints. There were no significant differences between intervention groups on the primary outcome of cognitive function or the secondary outcome of depressive symptoms; therefore, all participants were combined for the current analyses in which we examined changes in leisure activity engagement (Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS)), and changes in depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)) as a function of changes in leisure activity engagement from baseline to post-intervention. Participants' mean age was 73.0 years, 61.6% were female, and 63.6% were non-Hispanic white. There was a significant change in total hours per week engaged in leisure activities from baseline (36.7 hours, SD = 12.7) to post-intervention (40.4 hours, SD = 15.7; paired t-test p = 0.02), and mean change in depressive symptoms was significantly inversely correlated with change in leisure activity hours such that increases in total leisure activity were associated with decreases in depressive symptoms (r = -0.21, p = 0.04). Increasing the total amount of leisure activity levels may help lower depressive symptoms in inactive older adults with cognitive complaints.
Zohsel, Katrin; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred
Depressed mood is prevalent during pregnancy, with accumulating evidence suggesting an impact on developmental outcome in the offspring. However, the long-term effects of prenatal maternal depression regarding internalizing psychopathology in the offspring are as yet unclear. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, prenatal maternal depressed mood was assessed at the child's age of 3 months. In a sample of n=307 offspring, depressive symptoms were obtained via questionnaire at the ages of 19, 22, 23 and 25 years. At age 25 years, diagnoses of depressive disorder were obtained using a diagnostic interview. In a subsample of currently healthy participants, voxel-based morphometry was conducted and amygdala volume was assessed. In n=85 young adults exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood, no significantly higher risk for a diagnosis of depressive disorder was observed. However, they reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms. This association was especially pronounced when prenatal maternal depressed mood was present during the first trimester of pregnancy and when maternal mood was depressed pre- as well as postnatally. At an uncorrected level only, prenatal maternal depressed mood was associated with decreased amygdala volume. Prenatal maternal depressed mood was not assessed during pregnancy, but shortly after childbirth. No diagnoses of maternal clinical depression during pregnancy were available. Self-reported depressive symptoms do not imply increased, but rather decreased symptom levels in young adults who were exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood. A long-term perspective may be important when considering consequences of prenatal risk factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Cognitive impairment represents a common mental health problem in community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults, and the prevalence increases with age. Multidisciplinary teams are often asked to assess cognitive and functional impairment in this population. The Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota was created by occupational therapists for this purpose and is frequently used, but has not been extensively validated. This study examined the performance of the CAM and compared it to the MMSE with 113 outpatient clinic patients over the age of 60. Subgroups were established based on scores on a depression inventory to determine if the presence of depressed mood altered the relationship between the measures. Both measures demonstrated good internal consistency. The overall correlation between the two measures was high, statistically significant and remained high regardless of depression status. We offer recommendations about the utility of each measure in screening cognitive functioning for older adults.
Peitl, Vjekoslav; Štefanović, Mario; Karlović, Dalibor
Although depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia they have received significantly less attention than other symptom domains. As impaired serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia this study sought to investigate the putative association between several functional gene polymorphisms (SERT 5-HTTLPR, MAO-A VNTR, COMT Val158Met and DAT VNTR) and schizophrenia. Other objectives of this study were to closely examine schizophrenia symptom domains by performing factor analysis of the two most used instruments in this setting (Positive and negative syndrome scale - PANSS and Calgary depression rating scale - CDSS) and to examine the influence of investigated gene polymorphisms on the schizophrenia symptom domains, focusing on depressive scores. A total of 591 participants were included in the study (300 schizophrenic patients and 291 healthy volunteers). 192 (64%) of schizophrenic patients had significant depressive symptoms. Genotype distribution revealed no significant differences regarding all investigated polymorphisms except the separate gender analysis for MAO-A gene polymorphism which revealed significantly more allele 3 carriers in schizophrenic males. Factor analysis of the PANSS scale revealed the existence of five separate factors (symptom domains), while the CDSS scale revealed two distinct factors. Several investigated gene polymorphisms (mostly SERT and MAO-A, but also COMT) significantly influenced two factors from the PANSS (aggressive/impulsive and negative symptoms) and one from the CDSS scale (suicidality), respectively. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be influenced by functional gene polymorphisms, especially those implicated in serotonergic neurotransmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
O'Shea, D M; Dotson, V M; Fieo, R A
Personality traits have been shown to be predictors of depressive symptoms in late life. Thus, we examined whether other more modifiable sources of individual differences such as self-efficacy and self-perceptions of aging would mediate the association between personality traits and depressive symptoms in older adults. Data were obtained from 3,507 older adult participants who took part in the 2012 Health and Retirement Study. The "Big Five" personality traits, self-efficacy, aging perceptions, and depressive symptoms were assessed. Mediation analyses tested the hypothesis that self-efficacy and aging perceptions would mediate the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms. All five personality traits were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Neuroticism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and had the greatest effect compared with the other personality traits. There was a significant indirect effect of neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness on depressive symptoms (including both mediators). The mediating effect of aging perceptions on the relationship between neuroticism and depressive symptoms was the strongest compared with self-efficacy, accounting for approximately 80% of the total indirect effect. Our results provide support for interventions aimed at improving self-perceptions related to efficacy and aging in order to reduce depressive symptoms in older adults. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Objectives: Depression is acommon mental health disorder. The aim of this study is to determine the level of public awareness regarding this illness, its symptoms, associated factors, available forms of treatment, and the attitude towards depressed people. Methods: A self administered questionnaire was filled in by approximately 5000 individuals selected from various regions of Jordan. Results: The majority of participants thought that depression is a treatable condition that can affect patient at any age, and may be controlled by the will power. Loss of interest in things and presence of negative feelings were the most commonly recognized symptoms of depression, while, unemployment and poverty were found to be the most recognized risk factors for depression. In addition, most participants considered support from family and friends (93.6% as well as exercise (80.4% to be the best available forms of depression treatment. Respondents found it acceptable to work, make friends with, or marry depressed individuals. The first choice persons for seeking help by most participants were family members and friends (49.8%. Conclusion: Collectively, the level of awareness of depression was acceptable. However, further efforts are necessary to establish public educational programs related to depression in order to raise awareness regarding the disease.
Anyan, Frederick; Hjemdal, Odin
This cross-sectional study investigated the relation of sociocultural prescriptions of gender role socializations to differences in stress at home and to anxiety and depressive symptoms for adolescent girls and boys, with family cohesion as a mediator. A total of 244 boys and 285 girls aged 13-17 years recruited from Accra, Ghana completed the Short Mood Feeling Questionnaire, Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory, Stress of Home Life and Family Cohesion self-report scales in April 2015. In each sample, two mediation analyses were conducted using Structural Equation Modelling. Exposure to stress at home that was perceived to result from sociocultural prescriptions of gender role norms largely accounted for anxiety and depressive symptoms among girls, whereas this relation was non-significant among boys. Significant indirect relations through low family cohesion to anxiety symptoms were observed for girls and boys but not to depressive symptoms for boys. These findings suggest that differences in gender role socializations at home may account for individual differences in associations between exposure to stress at home and anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as explain the differential indirect relations through low family cohesion. Improving family cohesion while reducing stress at home may contribute to reducing stress and thus anxiety and depressive symptoms.
Cunningham, Maddy; Zayas, Luis H.
High levels of stress on low-income, inner-city women from ethnic minority groups often causes both poor maternal functioning and infant development outcomes. This article reviews literature that proposes using several social work treatment options instead a single approach to reduce maternal depression, expand mothers' social networks, and…
Mowery, Danielle; Smith, Hilary; Cheney, Tyler; Stoddard, Greg; Coppersmith, Glen; Bryan, Craig; Conway, Mike
queries alone might not be suitable for public health monitoring because context can change the meaning of keyword in a statement. However, postprocessing approaches could be useful for reducing the noise and improving the signal needed to detect depression symptoms using social media. ©Danielle Mowery, Hilary Smith, Tyler Cheney, Greg Stoddard, Glen Coppersmith, Craig Bryan, Mike Conway. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 28.02.2017.
Hellström, Charlotta; Nilsson, Kent W; Leppert, Jerzy; Åslund, Cecilia
To investigate whether adolescent online gaming time and the additive effect of gaming motives were associated with depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. The hypothesis was that adolescents who engage in online gaming with escape motives and increased online gaming time have higher probability for depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms compared to adolescents with other online gaming motives and/or less online gaming time. An anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was completed during class hours by 7,757 Swedish adolescents aged 13-18 years. The questionnaire included demographic background, gaming habits, and depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. It was found that increased online gaming time during weekdays increased the probability of having depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. However, these relations with time spent gaming were further explained by online gaming motives. Weekday online gaming for more than five hours a day, in combination with escape motives, was associated with an increased probability of depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 4.614, 95% CI 3.230-6.590), musculoskeletal symptoms (OR 2.494, 95% CI 1.598-3.892), and psychosomatic symptoms (OR 4.437, 95% CI 2.966-6.637). The probability of ill health decreased when gaming was for fun or had social motives. Excessive gaming time and escape motives were found to be associated with increased probability of ill health among adolescents. Gaming motives may identify gamers in need of support to reduce unhealthy gaming behaviour as well as identify individuals at risk for ill health.
Di Manno, Laura; Macdonald, Jacqui A; Knight, Tess
Parental separation is associated with increased risk for offspring depression; however, depression outcomes are divergent. Knowledge of moderators could assist in understanding idiosyncratic outcomes and developing appropriately targeted prevention programs for those at heightened risk of depression following parental separation. Therefore, the objective of the review was to identify and evaluate studies that examined moderators of the relationship between parental separation and offspring depression A search of scientific, medical and psychological databases was conducted in April 2015 for longitudinal research that had evaluated any moderator/s of the relationship between parental separation or divorce and offspring depression or depressive symptoms. Papers were assessed for quality by evaluating the study's sample, attrition rates, methodology and measurement characteristics. Fourteen quantitative studies from five countries assessed sixteen moderating factors of the relationship between parental separation and offspring depression or depressive symptoms. A number of factors were found to moderate this relationship, including offspring gender, age (at assessment and at depression onset), genotype, preadolescent temperament, IQ, emotional problems in childhood and maternal sensitivity. While robust longitudinal research was selected for inclusion, common issues with longitudinal studies such as low rates of participation and attrition were among the methodological concerns evident in some of the reviewed papers. The current review is the first to assess interaction effects of the relationship between parental separation and offspring depression or depressive symptoms. While further research is recommended, this assessment is critical in understanding variation in heterogeneous populations and can inform targeted policy and prevention.
Full Text Available Ran Jinnin,1 Yasumasa Okamoto,1 Koki Takagaki,1 Yoshiko Nishiyama,1 Takanao Yamamura,1 Yuri Okamoto,2 Yoshie Miyake,2 Yoshitake Takebayashi,3 Keisuke Tanaka,4 Yoshinori Sugiura,5 Haruki Shimoda,6 Norito Kawakami,6 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Shigeto Yamawaki1 1Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, 2Health Service Center, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 3Risk Analysis Research Center, The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Tokyo, Japan; 4Graduated School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan; 5Graduated School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan; 6Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 7Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: Despite its clinical importance, adolescent subthreshold depression remains a largely neglected topic. The aims of this study were to accurately identify the natural course of depressive symptoms and the risk for developing major depressive episode (MDE in late adolescents with subthreshold depression over 1 year.Patients and methods: One hundred and seventy-two participants <20 years of age (mean age: 18.32 years, standard deviation: 0.50, who did not meet the full criteria for an MDE, were selected from 2,494 screened freshmen based on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II. We conducted a cohort study of three groups (low-, middle-, and high-symptom groups divided based on BDI-II scores, over a 1 year period with the use of bimonthly assessments. Temporal changes of depressive symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed modeling and growth mixture modeling.Results: First, we found that late adolescents with subthreshold depression (high depressive symptoms were split between the increasing and decreasing depressive symptoms groups, whereas the majority of the less-symptoms group remained
their sample, the depression rate was still higher in their adolescent sample compared ..... KwaZulu-Natal provincial Department of Education, as well as the. Ethics Review ... obtained from the relevant school authorities, teachers and parents. ..... Integrative guide for the 1991 CBCL 4-18, YSR, and TRF profiles. Burlington,.
Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim
The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p acculturation and mental health.
Pabayo, Roman; Dunn, Erin C; Gilman, Stephen E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Molnar, Beth E
Although recent evidence has shown that area-level income inequality is related to increased risk for depression among adults, few studies have tested this association among adolescents. We analysed the cross-sectional data from a sample of 1878 adolescents living in 38 neighbourhoods participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. Using multilevel linear regression modelling, we: (1) estimated the association between neighbourhood income inequality and depressive symptoms, (2) tested for cross-level interactions between sex and neighbourhood income inequality and (3) examined neighbourhood social cohesion as a mediator of the relationship between income inequality and depressive symptoms. The association between neighbourhood income inequality and depressive symptoms varied significantly by sex, with girls in higher income inequality neighbourhood reporting higher depressive symptom scores, but not boys. Among girls, a unit increase in Gini Z-score was associated with more depressive symptoms (β=0.38, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.47, p=0.01) adjusting for nativity, neighbourhood income, social cohesion, crime and social disorder. There was no evidence that the association between income inequality and depressive symptoms was due to neighbourhood-level differences in social cohesion. The distribution of incomes within an urban area adversely affects adolescent girls' mental health; future work is needed to understand why, as well as to examine in greater depth the potential consequences of inequality for males, which may have been difficult to detect here. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Anita de Paula Eduardo Garavello
Full Text Available Abstract There is no consensus in the medical literature about the impact of depressive symptoms on the evolution of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Objective: To compare the evolution of AD patients, with and without depressive symptoms, in terms of cognition, functionality and caregiver stress. Methods: The study entailed 2 stages: an initial retrospective stage involving review of medical charts of patients with mild and moderate AD. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms, defined by medical interview and questions on depressed mood from the CAMDEX (Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Twenty-nine patients were evaluated, 37.9% with depression (Group D+ and 62.1% without depression (Group D-. The groups were compared regarding demographic and medical characteristics, cognitive and functional performance, presence of apathy as a separate symptom, and caregiver stress, using standardized tests and questionnaires. In the second transversal step, the same tools were reapplied after 2 to 4 years of follow-up, and evolution for the two groups was compared. Results: The two groups were highly homogeneous in demographic and clinic characteristics, as well as in length of follow-up, and presented no significant difference in cognitive or functional evaluation at the time of diagnoses or after follow-up. Only caregiver stress was greater in Group D+ at the two time points (p<0.001. Conclusions: No differences in the evolution of AD patients with or without depressive symptoms were evident. Nevertheless, these symptoms were associated to emotional burden of caregivers.
Chen, Ying-Yeh; Subramanian, S V; Acevedo-Garcia, Doloros; Kawachi, Ichiro
The effects of state-level women's status and autonomy on individual-level women's depressive symptoms were examined. We conducted a multi-level analysis of the 1991 longitudinal follow up of the 1988 National Maternal Infant Health Survey (NMIHS), with 7789 women nested within the fifty American states. State-level women's status was assessed by four composite indices measuring women's political participation, economic autonomy, employment & earnings, and reproductive rights. The main outcome measure was symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CES-D). The participants were a nationally representative stratified random sample of women in the USA aged between 17 and 40 years old who gave birth to live babies in 1988, were successfully contacted again in 1991 and provided complete information on depressive symptoms. Women who were younger, non-white, not currently married, less educated or had lower household income tended to report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Compared with states ranking low on the employment & earnings index, women residing in states that were high on the same index scored 0.85 points lower on the CES-D (peconomic autonomy index scored 0.83 points lower in depressive symptoms (p<0.01), compared with women who lived in states low on the same index. Finally, women who resided in states with high reproductive rights scored 0.62 points lower on the CES-D (p<0.05) compared with women who lived in states with lower reproductive rights. Gender inequality appears to contribute to depressive symptoms in women.
Débora Maria Mendonça da Cunha
Full Text Available Objective.To assess the presence of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease in the preoperative period for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Methods. A cross-sectional study with 63 hospitalized patients prior to CABG. Two instruments were used for data collection; one for the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and the other to evaluate the presence of depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results. The mean age was 58 years; most were male (60.3%; with a partner (81% low educational level (71.4% attended school through elementary school. Among the patients, 36.5% were classified with dysphoria, and 25.4% had some degree of depression (6.3% mild, 17.5% moderate, and 1.6% severe. The group of patients with lower educational level presented higher depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Six of every ten patients with coronary artery disease showed dysphoria or some degree of depression. The results of this study can support the planning of nursing care for patients before and after CABG, as well as the development of public health policies to ensure complete, quality care for these patients, understanding depression as a variable that can interfere with recovery after cardiac surgery.
Zavala, Gerardo A; Kolovos, Spyros; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Bosmans, Judith E; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P
Obesity and depression are among the leading causes of disability in Mexico, but their association has not been explored yet. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between obesity and depression in Mexican population. We used data from the health and nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2012), which is representative of the Mexican population. Obesity was determined using the body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity by measuring waist circumference. Depressive symptoms were reported using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Short-Form (CES-D-SF, scale 0-21). Regression analyses were performed between obesity and depression, adjusting for gender, age, living with a partner, education, and diabetes history. Obese women had 1.28 (95% CI 1.07-1.53) times the odds of having depression in comparison with normal-weight women, whereas no association was found for men (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.74-1.19). A significant association between BMI and depressive symptoms score (β = 0.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) was present in women, but no association was found for men (β = - 0.02, 95% CI - 0.05 to 0.00). There was a statistically significant association between waist circumference and depression scores again for women (β = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.04) but not for men (β = 0.00, 95% CI - 0.01 to 0.01). No associations were found between abdominal obesity and depression for both genders. No association was found between different obesity severity levels and depression for both genders. Obesity was associated with depression in Mexican women, whereas no association was found between obesity and depression in men.
Bottiroli, Sara; Allena, Marta; Sances, Grazia
Aims To evaluate the impact of treatment success on depression and anxiety symptoms in medication-overuse headache (MOH) and whether depression and anxiety can be predictors of treatment outcome. Methods All consecutive patients entering the detoxification program were analysed in a prospective......, non-randomised fashion over a six-month period. Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results A total of 663 MOH patients were evaluated, and 492 completed the entire protocol. Of these, 287 ceased overuse and reverted to an episodic pattern (responders......) and 23 relapsed into overuse. At the final evaluation, the number of patients with depressive symptoms was reduced by 63.2% among responders ( p
Kemp, Joshua J; Lickel, James J; Deacon, Brett J
Although the chemical imbalance theory is the dominant causal explanation of depression in the United States, little is known about the effects of this explanation on depressed individuals. This experiment examined the impact of chemical imbalance test feedback on perceptions of stigma, prognosis, negative mood regulation expectancies, and treatment credibility and expectancy. Participants endorsing a past or current depressive episode received results of a bogus but credible biological test demonstrating their depressive symptoms to be caused, or not caused, by a chemical imbalance in the brain. Results showed that chemical imbalance test feedback failed to reduce self-blame, elicited worse prognostic pessimism and negative mood regulation expectancies, and led participants to view pharmacotherapy as more credible and effective than psychotherapy. The present findings add to a growing literature highlighting the unhelpful and potentially iatrogenic effects of attributing depressive symptoms to a chemical imbalance. Clinical and societal implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; González-Forteza, Catalina; Jiménez-Tapia, Alberto; Gallo, Joseph J; Wagner, Fernando A
Determine the structure of depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults through the person-centered approach of latent class analysis (LCA). The study is based on data from two independent samples collected in Mexico City (2,444 adolescents and 2,223 older adults) which included the revised version of the CES-D. The presence or absence of depressed mood (dysphoria), diminished pleasure (anhedonia), drastic change in weight, sleep problems, thinking and concentration difficulties, excessive or inappropriate guilt, fatigue, psychomotor agitation/retardation, and suicide ideation were used in LCA to determine the structure of depressive symptoms for adolescents and older adults. Adolescents reported higher excessive or inappropriate guilt compared to older adults, while older adults had higher proportions of anhedonia, sleep problems, fatigue, and psychomotor agitation/retardation. Similar proportions were found in other symptoms. The LCA analysis showed the best fit with four latent classes (LC): LC 1, "symptoms suggestive of major depressive episode (MDE)" with prevalence of 5.9 % (n = 144) and 10.3 % (n = 230) among adolescents and older adults, respectively; LC 2, "probable MDE symptoms" 18.2 % (n = 446) and 23.0 % (n = 512); LC 3, "possible MDE" 27.7 % (n = 676) and 21.8 % (n = 485); LC 4, "without significant depressive symptoms" 48.2 % (n = 1,178) and 44.8 % (n = 996). The differences in item thresholds between the two groups (adolescents vs. older adults) were statistically significant (Wald test = 255.684, df = 1, p depressive symptoms between adolescents and older adults that merit acknowledgment, further study, and consideration of their potential clinical and public health implications.
Navarrete, Laura Elena; Lara-Cantú, María Asunción; Navarro, Claudia; Gómez, María Eugenia; Morales, Francisco
To study perinatal anxiety symptoms in a sample of Mexican mothers. A) To evaluate the effect of certain psychosocial factors during pregnancy on anxiety symptoms at two postpartum time intervals; and B) to determine whether this symptomatology is related to symptoms of postnatal depression. In this secondary data analysis, 156 women were interviewed during pregnancy (T1): 149 were interviewed again at 6 weeks postpartum (T2) and 156 at 4-6 months postpartum (T3). Subjects were selected from women seeking prenatal attention at three health centers in Mexico City who presented with depressive symptomatology and/or previous history of depression. Two models were subjected to multivariate regression analysis to determine the influence of psychosocial factors in pregnancy (age, education, partner status, social support [APGAR], stress events, self-esteem [Coopersmith], depressive symptomatology [BDI-II], and anxiety [SCL-90]) on anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) in T2 and T3. Two additional linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of prenatal anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) on postpartum depression symptoms (BDI-II), one for each postnatal period (T2, T3). The variables that predicted postpartum anxiety symptomatology in T2 were anxiety symptoms and lack of social support; in T3 they were anxiety symptoms, lack of a partner, and lack of social support. Prenatal anxiety symptoms predicted postpartum depressive symptomatology at both postpartum intervals (T2, T3). Untreated prenatal anxiety symptomatology is predictive of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the postpartum period, suggesting the need for timely detection and treatment. Women lacking social support or partners are a population particularly vulnerable to anxiety symptoms, and merit interventions that address these issues.
Pol, G. van de; Brummen, H.J. van; Bruinse, H.W.; Heintz, A.P.M.; Vaart, C.H. van der
Depressive symptoms and urinary symptoms are both highly prevalent in pregnancy. In the general population, an association is reported between urinary symptoms and depressive symptoms. The association of depressive and urinary symptoms has not yet been assessed in pregnancy. In this study, we
Lewis, Gemma; Neary, Martha; Polek, Ela; Flouri, Eirini; Lewis, Glyn
Incidence of depression increases markedly around age 13 years, and nearly three-quarters of adults report that their mental health problems started in adolescence. Although maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression, evidence about the association between paternal and adolescent depression is inconclusive, and many studies have methodological limitations. We aimed to assess the association between paternal and adolescent depressive symptoms in two large population-based cohort studies. We used data for two-parent families from two representative prospective cohorts in Ireland (Growing up in Ireland [GUI]) and the UK (Millennium Cohort Study [MCS]). Parental depressive symptoms were measured with the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale in the GUI cohort when children were 9 years old, and the Kessler six-item psychological distress scale in the MCS cohort when children were 7 years old. Adolescent depressive symptoms were measured with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) at age 13 years in the GUI cohort and age 14 years in the MCS cohort. We analysed data using linear regression models, before and after adjustment for confounders, in both multiply imputed and complete case samples. There were 6070 families in GUI and 7768 in MCS. After all adjustments, a 1 SD (three-point) increase in paternal depressive symptoms was associated with an increase of 0·24 SMFQ points (95% CI 0·03-0·45; p=0·023) in the GUI cohort and 0·18 SMFQ points (0·01-0·36; p=0·041) in the MCS cohort. This association was independent of, and not different in magnitude to, the association between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms (Wald test p=0·435 in the GUI cohort and 0·470 in the MCS cohort). Our results show an association between depressive symptoms in fathers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent offspring. These findings support the involvement of fathers as well as mothers in early interventions to reduce the
Flouri, Eirini; Ioakeimidi, Sofia
Longitudinal patterns of maternal depressive symptoms have yet to be linked to risky behaviours, such as substance use or violence, in early adolescence, when such behaviours may be particularly detrimental. This study was carried out to do this. Using data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, it modelled the effect of trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms at child ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years on antisocial behaviour and delinquency at age 11 years (N = 12,494). It also explored their role in predicting moral judgement and attitudes to alcohol at age 11, important predictors of delinquent or antisocial behaviour and alcohol use, respectively. Latent class analysis showed four longitudinal types of maternal depressive symptoms (chronically high, consistently low, moderate-accelerating and moderate-decelerating). Maternal symptom typology predicted antisocial behaviour in males and attitudes to alcohol in females, even after adjusting for youth's age and pubertal status and after correcting for confounding. Specifically, compared to males growing up with never-depressed mothers, those exposed to chronically high or accelerating maternal depressive symptoms were more likely to report engaging in loud and rowdy behaviour, alcohol use and bullying. Females exposed to chronically high maternal depressive symptoms were more likely than those growing up with never-depressed mothers to support the view that alcohol use is harmless. While causal conclusions cannot be drawn, these findings suggest that preventing or treating maternal depressive symptoms in childhood may be a useful approach to reducing future externalising and health-risk behaviours in offspring.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD. Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated from logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2–4.4, while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1–9.6 increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.
Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to analyze the relationships among explanatory styles, coping strategies and depressive symptoms. Path analyses conducted with data of 234 individuals showed that Negative Explanatory Style (tendency to explain negative outcomes through internal, stable, and global causes had both a positive direct effect on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect on them through the use of avoidant strategies. On the contrary, Enhancing Explanatory Style (tendency to explain positive outcomes through internal, stable, and global causes had negative direct and indirect effects on these symptoms, but in this case, the indirect effect occurs through the use of problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring coping and the non-use of avoidant strategies. As a whole, the results suggest that to prevent the onset of depressive symptoms or to reduce them once they appear, enhancing explanatory style and problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring strategies should be promoted.
Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Heine, R. J.
.28] and women with DM2 (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.31 to 7.74). In men, depression was not associated with IGM (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.32 to 2.57) and non-significantly more common in DM2 (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 0.75 to 5.49). Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and diabetes symptoms...... reduced the strength of these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms are more common in women with IGM, but not men. Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and diabetes symptoms partially attenuated these associations, suggesting that these variables could......OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms, comparing subjects with normal glucose metabolism (NGM), impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from a population-based cohort study conducted...
McAvay, Gail J; Van Ness, Peter H; Bogardus, Sidney T; Zhang, Ying; Leslie, Douglas L; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Inouye, Sharon K
To determine whether specific subsets of symptoms from the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), assessed at hospital admission, were associated with the incidence of delirium. Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of patients from the Delirium Prevention Trial. General medicine service at Yale New Haven Hospital, March 25, 1995, through March 18, 1998. Four hundred sixteen patients aged 70 and older who were at intermediate or high risk for delirium and were not taking antidepressants at hospital admission. Depressive symptoms were assessed GDS, and daily assessments of delirium were obtained using the Confusion Assessment Method. Of the 416 patients in the analysis sample, 36 (8.6%) developed delirium within the first 5 days of hospitalization. Patients who developed delirium reported 5.7 depressive symptoms on average, whereas patients without delirium reported an average of 4.2 symptoms. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, it was found that depressive symptoms assessing dysphoric mood and hopelessness were predictive of incident delirium, controlling for measures of physical and mental health. In contrast, symptoms of withdrawal, apathy, and vigor were not significantly associated with delirium. These findings suggest that assessing symptoms of dysphoric mood and hopelessness could help identify patients at risk for incident delirium. Future studies should evaluate whether nonpharmacological treatment for these symptoms reduces the risk of delirium.
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth C.
This study draws from a life-course perspective in examining trajectories of mothers’ depressive symptoms across their adolescent daughters’ adjustment to parenthood in 204 Mexican-origin families using latent class growth analysis. Four distinct trajectories were identified based on mothers’ depressive symptoms prior to the birth and 10 and 24 months postpartum. Two trajectories were characterized by stable levels of depressive symptoms but were differentiated in their levels of symptoms (i.e., High/Stable and Low/Stable). The remaining two trajectories were characterized by changes from pre- to post-birth, with one group exhibiting increases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Increase) and the other group characterized by decreases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Decrease). Consistent with a risk and resilience perspective, mothers with more disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances and fewer intrapersonal resources (i.e., self-esteem, ethnic identity affirmation) were more likely to be members of the High/Stable group. In addition, daughters of mothers in the High/Stable group were more likely to have lower self-esteem as compared to daughters in the other three groups. Collectively, these findings suggested that the High/Stable group was at risk for adjustment difficulties from the third trimester to two years postpartum. In contrast, membership in the Low/Post-Birth Decrease trajectory group was associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem for mothers and daughters. Findings point to the need to identify mothers who are at risk for depressive symptoms during their adolescent daughters’ pregnancy and offer prevention and intervention programs that reduce risks and enhance protective factors. PMID:23750520
Beeber, Linda S; Schwartz, Todd A; Martinez, Maria I; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Bledsoe, Sarah E; Canuso, Regina; Lewis, Virginia S
Low-income mothers develop depressive symptoms at higher rates than the general population, adding to the existing risk that economic hardship places on their infants and toddlers. Emphasizing a few key intervention targets, an approach that is especially relevant to mothers when depressive symptoms compromise their energy and concentration, can improve interventions with populations facing adversity. The goal of this study was to identify contextual risk factors that significantly contributed to depressive symptoms and that, in combination with depressive symptoms, were associated with compromised parenting. Using baseline data from 251 ethnically diverse mothers from six Early Head Start programs in the Northeastern and Southeastern US, who were recruited for a clinical trial of an in-home intervention, Belsky's ecological framework of distal to proximal levels of influence was used to organize risk factors for depressive symptoms in hierarchical regression models. Under stress, mothers of toddlers reported more severe depressive symptoms than mothers of infants, supporting the need for depressive symptom screening and monitoring past the immediate postpartum period. Multivariate models revealed intervention targets that can focus depression prevention and intervention efforts, including helping mothers reduce chronic day-to-day stressors and conflicts with significant others, and to effectively handle challenging toddler behaviors, especially in the face of regional disciplinary norms. Presence of a live-in partner was linked to more effective parenting, regardless of participants' depressive symptom severity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hirsch, Jameson K; Sirois, Fuschia M; Molnar, Danielle; Chang, Edward C
Pain and its disruptive impact on daily life are common reasons that patients seek primary medical care. Pain contributes strongly to psychopathology, and pain and depressive symptoms are often comorbid in primary care patients. Not all those who experience pain develop depression, suggesting that the presence of individual-level characteristics, such as positive and negative affect, that may ameliorate or exacerbate this association. We assessed the potential moderating role of positive and negative affect on the pain-depression linkage. In a sample of 101 rural, primary care patients, we administered the Brief Pain Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised positive and negative affect subclusters, and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression. In moderation models, covarying age, sex, and ethnicity, we found that positive affect, but not negative affect, was a significant moderator of the relation between pain intensity and severity and depressive symptoms. The association between pain and depressive symptoms is attenuated when greater levels of positive affects are present. Therapeutic bolstering of positive affect in primary care patients experiencing pain may reduce the risk for depressive symptoms.
Yeh, Sherri S; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Ying-Hsuan; Tu, Nai-Chi; Guo, Yue-Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chen, Chi-Hsien
The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of exposure to occupational hazards and depressive mood with associated underlying risk factors among pregnant workers. Women at 12 weeks of gestation (n = 172) were recruited during regular prenatal screening. Data were obtained via questionnaires that explored job details and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The most commonly encountered hazard was prolonged standing. The majority of women reported that the workplace provided no information on the safety or rights of pregnant women, but those exposed to at least four hazards had more access to such services (P workplace support were significantly associated with possible antenatal depressive symptoms. Pregnant workers are exposed to substantial levels of occupational hazards and may experience depressive symptoms; thus, their work conditions require monitoring and improvement.
River, Laura M; Borelli, Jessica L; Nelson-Coffey, S Katherine
Evidence has suggested that parental romantic attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms are related to experiences of caregiving (Creswell, Apetroaia, Murray, & Cooper, 2013; Jones, Cassidy, & Shaver, 2014; Lovejoy, Graczyk, O'Hare, & Neuman, 2000), but more research is necessary to clarify the nature of these relations, particularly in the context of attachment-salient events such as reunions. In a cross-sectional study of 150 parents of children ages 1 to 3 years, we assessed participants' attachment styles (self-reported anxiety and avoidance) and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Participants generated a narrative describing their most recent reunion with their child, which we coded for caregiving outcomes of negative emotion and secure base script content. Attachment style and depressive and anxiety symptoms separately predicted each caregiving outcome. Depressive and anxiety symptoms mediated the associations between attachment style and caregiving outcomes. These results suggest that parental attachment insecurity and depressive and anxiety symptoms contribute to negative emotion and reduced secure base script content. Further, depressive and anxiety symptomatology partially accounts for the relation between attachment insecurity and caregiving outcomes, suggesting that parental mental health is a critical point for intervention. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Hooker, S A; MacGregor, K L; Funderburk, J S; Maisto, S A
Depressive symptoms and obesity are highly prevalent in primary care settings. Depressive symptoms and obesity are positively related; as body weight increases, individuals are more likely to display depressive symptoms. This study examines the moderating roles of health behaviours (alcohol use, smoking status and vigorous exercise) on the relationship between body mass index and depressive symptoms. Exercise attenuates the relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity. Primary care patients often report multiple health risk behaviours and symptoms, including obesity and depressive symptomatology. This study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptomatology among primary care patients and tested its moderation by health behaviours. Primary care patients (n = 497) completed self-report questionnaires. Using three multilevel models, we tested the moderation of health behaviours on the BMI-depressive symptoms relationship. After controlling for relevant covariates, BMI was positively related to depressive symptoms. Smokers reported more depressive symptoms (P exercisers reported fewer (P 0.05). Only vigorous exercise significantly moderated the BMI-depression relationship (P < 0.05). BMI is positively related to depressive symptoms among patients who do not participate in vigorous activity, suggesting that vigorous activity reduces the risk for depressive symptoms among patients with higher BMI. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Miles, Margaret Shandor; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Schwartz, Todd A; Scher, Mark
This longitudinal, descriptive study described the level of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants from birth through 27 months corrected age and examined factors associated with depressive symptoms. The framework for the study was guided by an ecological developmental systems perspective and an adaptation of the Preterm Parental Distress Model. In this model, we hypothesize that a mother's emotional distress to the birth and parenting of a prematurely born child is influenced by personal and family factors, severity of the infant's health status, and illness-related stress and worry. Participants were 102 mothers of preterm infants who were off the ventilator and not otherwise dependent on major technology at enrollment. Mean depressive symptoms scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during hospitalization were high and more than half the mothers (63%) had scores of > or =16 indicating risk of depression. Depressive scores declined over time until 6 months and then were fairly stable. Unmarried mothers, mothers of infants who were rehospitalized, and mothers who reported more maternal role alteration stress during hospitalization and worry about the child's health had more depressive symptoms through the first year. Mothers who reported more parental role alteration stress during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 1.570, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.171-2.104) and more worry about the child's health (OR = 2.350, 95% CI: 1.842-2.998) were more likely to experience elevated CES-D scores that put them at risk of depression. Also, mothers of rehospitalized infants had decreasing odds of elevated CES-D scores over time (OR = 0.982 per week, 95% CI: 0.968-0.996). Findings have implications for the support of mothers during hospitalization and in the early years of parenting a preterm infant.
Rolf, Linda; Muris, Anne-Hilde; Bol, Yvonne; Damoiseaux, Jan; Smolders, Joost; Hupperts, Raymond
Depressive symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and both depression and MS have been associated with a poor vitamin D status. As cytokine-mediated inflammatory processes play a role in the pathogenesis of both disorders, we hypothesized that vitamin D 3 supplementation reduces depressive symptoms in MS via its immunomodulatory properties. In this randomized pilot study relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients received either vitamin D 3 supplementation (n=20; 14.000IU/day) or placebo (n=20) during 48weeks. Pre- and post-supplementation depression scores, measured using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) depression subscale (HADS-D), showed a significant decrease within the vitamin D 3 group (median HADS-D 4.0 to 3.0, p=0.02), a trend towards a decrease within the placebo group (median HADS-D 3.0 to 2.0, p=0.06), but no significantly different reductions between groups (p=0.78). Furthermore, no reductions in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balances, secreted by stimulated leukocytes and CD8 + T cells, were found in the vitamin D 3 compared to the placebo arm. Therefore, we found no evidence for a reduction of depressive symptoms or related biomarkers upon vitamin D 3 supplementation in RRMS patients in this exploratory study. Whether vitamin D 3 supplementation is of benefit in manifest depression in MS needs to be assessed by additional studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jefferson, Kevin; Neilands, Torsten B.; Sevelius, Jae
Purpose Trans women of color contend with multiple marginalizations; the purpose of this study is to examine associations between experiencing discriminatory (racist/transphobic) events and depression symptoms. It uses a categorical measure of combined discrimination, and examines a protective association of transgender identity on depression symptoms. Design/methodology/approach Data from a subset of trans women of color participants in the Sheroes study were analyzed with linear and logistic regression. Associations of depression symptoms with racist and transphobic events, combined discrimination, coping self-efficacy, and transgender identity were assessed with odds ratios. Findings Exposure to discriminatory events and combined discrimination positively associated with depression symptom odds. Increased transgender identity associated with increased coping self-efficacy, which negatively associated with depression symptom odds. Research limitations/implications Cross-sectional study data prohibits inferring causality; results support conducting longitudinal research on discrimination’s health effects, and research on transgender identity. Results also support operationalizing intersectionality in health research. The study’s categorical approach to combined discrimination may be replicable in studies with hard to reach populations and small sample sizes. Practical implications Health programs could pursue psychosocial interventions and anti-discrimination campaigns. Interventions might advocate increasing participants’ coping self-efficacy while providing space to explore and develop social identity. Social implications There is a need for policy and health programs to center trans women of color concerns. Originality/value This study examines combined discrimination and identity in relation to depression symptoms among trans women of color, an underserved population. Paper type Research paper PMID:25346778
Roest, Annelieke M.; Heideveld, Anne; Martens, Elisabeth J.; de Jonge, Peter; Denollet, Johan
Objective: Differential associations of symptom dimensions with prognosis in myocardial infarction (MI) patients have been shown for depression, but no studies have focused on anxiety dimensions. The aim of this study was to assess the association between somatic and psychological symptoms of
Klaassen, Rianne M. C.; Velthorst, Eva; Nieman, Dorien H.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Becker, Hiske E.; Dingemans, Peter M.; van de Fliert, J. Reinaud; van der Gaag, Mark; Linszen, Don H.
This study examines the ability of the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) to differentiate between negative and depression symptoms in a young help-seeking ultrahigh risk (UHR) group. SOPS data of 77 help-seeking patients at UHR for psychosis were analyzed with an exploratory factor analysis. The
Ebert, David D; Hopfinger, Lisa; Bockting, Claudi L H; Berking, Matthias
Relapse following response in psychotherapy for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major concern. Emotion regulation (ER) has been discussed as a putative emerging and maintaining factor for depression. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether ER protects against recurrence of depression over and above residual symptoms of depression following inpatient care for MDD. ER skills (ERSQ-ES) and depression (HEALTH-49) were assessed in 193 patients with MDD (age, M = 47.4, SD = 9.6, 75.1% female, 100% Caucasian) at treatment discontinuation, 3 and 12 months after treatment. Multiple hierarchical regressions were used to examine general and specific ER as predictors of depressive symptoms at follow-ups. Higher general ER predicted lower depression over and beyond residual symptoms of depression at 3-month follow-up among treatment responders but not among treatment nonresponders. With regard to specific ER skills, readiness to confront and acceptance of undesired emotions predicted lower depressive symptoms beyond residual symptoms of depression 12 months, respectively 3 and 12 months after treatment. Findings of the present study indicate that targeting general ER might be more important for remitted and less important for nonremitted patients. Enhancing ER should hence be realized in a sequential treatment design, in which a continuation phase treatment with a specific focus on ER directly follows, once patients sufficiently responded to treatment. Acceptance of undesired emotion and readiness to confront situations that cue these emotions appear to be particularly important for protecting against recurrence of depression. Future research should clarify whether findings can be generalized to outpatient care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Arnberg, Alexandra; Ost, Lars-Göran
Pediatric depression entails a higher risk for psychiatric disorders, somatic complaints, suicide, and functional impairment later in life. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is recommended for the treatment of depression in children, yet research is based primarily on adolescents. The present meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of CBT in children aged 8-12 years with regard to depressive symptoms. We included randomized controlled trials of CBT with participants who had an average age of ≤ 12 years and were diagnosed with either depression or reported elevated depressive symptoms. The search resulted in 10 randomized controlled trials with 267 participants in intervention and 256 in comparison groups. The mean age of participants was 10.5 years. The weighted between-group effect size for CBT was moderate, Cohen's d = 0.66. CBT outperformed both attention placebo and wait-list, although there was a significant heterogeneity among studies with regard to effect sizes. The weighted within-group effect size for CBT was large, d = 1.02. Earlier publication year, older participants, and more treatment sessions were associated with a larger effect size. In conclusion, the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of pediatric depression symptoms was supported. Differences in efficacy, methodological shortcomings, and lack of follow-up data limit the present study and indicate areas in need of improvement.
Groffen, Daniëlle A I; Koster, Annemarie; Bosma, Hans; van den Akker, Marjan; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; van Eijk, Jacques Th M; van Gool, Coen H; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Harris, Tamara B; Rubin, Susan M; Pahor, Marco; Schulz, Richard; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Perry, Sara E; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Kritchevsky, Stephen B
The relationship between low socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms is well described, also in older persons. Although studies have found associations between low SES and unhealthy lifestyle factors, and between unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms, not much is known about unhealthy lifestyles as a potential explanation of socioeconomic differences in depressive symptoms in older persons. To study the independent pathways between SES (education, income, perceived income, and financial assets), lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and physical activity), and incident depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression [CES-D 10] and reported use of antidepressant medication), we used 9 years of follow-up data (1997-2007) from 2,694 American black and white participants aged 70-79 years from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. At baseline, 12.1% of the study population showed prevalent depressive symptoms, use of antidepressant medication, or treatment of depression in the 5 years prior to baseline. These persons were excluded from the analyses. Over a period of 9 years time, 860 participants (31.9%) developed depressive symptoms. Adjusted hazard ratios for incident depressive symptoms were higher in participants from lower SES groups compared with the highest SES group. The strongest relationships were found for black men. Although unhealthy lifestyle factors were consistently associated with low SES, they were weakly related to incident depressive symptoms. Lifestyle factors did not significantly reduce hazard ratios for depressive symptoms by SES. In generally healthy persons aged 70-79 years, lifestyle factors do not explain the relationship between SES and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cangussu, Renata de Oliveira; Soares, Thiago Barbabela de Castro; Barra, Alexandre de Almeida; Nicolato, Rodrigo
Objetivos: Verificar a prevalência de sintomas depressivos em mulheres com câncer de mama e identificar os fatores de risco associados à sua ocorrência. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, em que foram entrevistadas 71 mulheres com câncer de mama. Foram empregados dois instrumentos: um questionário para verificar os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck – Short Form (BDI-SF), para avaliação dos sintomas depressivos. Para análise dos da...
Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita
Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…
Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; McCoy, Katryna; Ownby, Raymond L
Adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains critical in management of HIV infection. This study evaluated depression as a potential mechanism by which HIV-related symptoms affect medication adherence and explored if particular clusters of HIV symptoms are susceptible to this mechanism. Baseline data from a multi-visit intervention study were analyzed among 124 persons living with HIV (PLWH). A bifactor model showed two clusters of HIV-related symptom distress: general HIV-rela...
Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.
Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between...
Kammerer, Martin; Marks, Maureen N; Pinard, Claudia; Taylor, Alyx; von Castelberg, Brida; Künzli, Hansjörg; Glover, Vivette
Pregnancy and the postpartum may affect symptoms of depression. However it has not yet been tested how the symptoms used for the DSM IV diagnosis of depression discriminate depressed from non depressed women perinatally. A modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV (SCID interview) was used that allowed assessment of all associated DSM IV symptoms of depression with depressed and non depressed women in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Loss of appetite was not associated with depression either ante or postnatally. The antenatal symptom pattern was different from the postnatal. The sensitivity of the symptoms ranged from 0.7% to 51.6%, and specificity from 61.3% to 99.1%. The best discriminating symptoms were motor retardation/agitation and concentration antenatally, and motor retardation/agitation, concentration and fatigue postnatally. Depression in pregnancy and postpartum depression show significantly different symptom profiles. Appetite is not suitable for the diagnosis of depression in the perinatal period.
Van den Berg, Julia F; Kivelä, Liia; Antypa, Niki
Individuals with an evening chronotype are at increased risk of experiencing emotional problems, including depressive symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. The present study aimed to determine whether poor sleep quality, substance use and cognitive emotion regulation difficulties - which have been implicated in the etiology of depression - mediate the relationship between chronotype and depressive symptoms in a student sample, which was assessed cross-sectionally and after 1 year. A total of 742 Dutch students (75% women, mean age 21.4 ± 2.9 years) completed the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a questionnaire assessing alcohol, caffeine, tobacco and cannabis use, the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scale. A subsample (n = 115) was assessed 1 year later with the same questionnaires. Cross-sectional analyses showed that evening chronotype was associated with more depressive symptoms, adjusted for age and gender (β = -0.082, p = 0.028). The relationship between eveningness and depressive symptoms was mediated by sleep quality, alcohol consumption and the cognitive emotion regulation strategies of self-blame and positive reappraisal. In longitudinal analyses, eveningness at baseline predicted more depressive symptoms at follow-up, adjusted for age and gender (β = -0.29, p = 0.002); after additional adjustment for baseline depressive symptoms, chronotype remained a significant predictor of depressive symptoms at T2 (β = -0.16, t = -2.01, p = 0.047). Only poor sleep quality at follow-up was a significant mediator of this relationship. Even though the effect is small in terms of explained variance, eveningness is related to depressive symptoms and this relationship is mediated by poor sleep quality, also in a prospective design. Self-blame and reduced positive
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of personality factors and antenatal depressive symptomatology in postnatal depression. A prospective ex post facto design was carried out. The sample consisted of 116 women, recruited in their first trimester of pregnancy and followed up until four months postpartum. The measurement instruments used were the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to assess postpartum depression, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI to analyse personality traits and the depression subscale of the Symptoms Check List 90 (SCL-90-R to assess depressive symptomatology in the first half of pregnancy. Socio-demographic variables (age, parity, educational level, employment status, and planned pregnancy and clinical variables (neonatal Apgar score and mode of delivery were also taken into account. A positive correlation was found between postpartum depression and depressive symptomatology in the first trimester; however after the regression analysis neuroticism was the only factor that predicted postpartum depressive symptoms, explaining 24.8% of the variance. Neuroticism significantly influences psychological health during life events such as motherhood. Due to its stable condition, personality could be assessed from the beginning of pregnancy, contributing to the care of pregnant women with high scores in neuroticism, to prevent, detect and treat early postnatal depression.
Hayashi, Yumi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Okada, Go; Toki, Shigeru; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanabe, Hajime; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Yamawaki, Shigeto
It is known that the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder are affected by interactions between a number of factors. This study investigated how childhood abuse, personality, and stress of life events were associated with symptoms of depression in depressed people. Patients with major depressive disorder (N = 113, 58 women and 55 men) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES), which are self-report scales. Results were analyzed with correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), by using SPSS AMOS 21.0. Childhood abuse directly predicted the severity of depression and indirectly predicted the severity of depression through the mediation of personality. Negative life change score of the LES was affected by childhood abuse, however it did not predict the severity of depression. This study is the first to report a relationship between childhood abuse, personality, adulthood life stresses and the severity of depression in depressed patients. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depression. These results suggest the need for clinicians to be receptive to the possibility of childhood abuse in patients suffering from depression. SEM is a procedure used for hypothesis modeling and not for causal modeling. Therefore, the possibility of developing more appropriate models that include other variables cannot be excluded.
Hock, Rebecca S; Mendelson, Tamar; Surkan, Pamela J; Bass, Judith K; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Hindin, Michelle J
Incidence of depressive disorders and symptoms increases during the transition to adulthood. The parenting relationship is a potential target for interventions to reduce risk for depression in offspring during this time period, and a four-category typology of parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) has been found to correlate with offspring psychological functioning. The majority of studies, however, have examined this four-category parenting style typology in Western populations. We used the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) from the Philippines to assess associations between parenting styles reported by offspring at age 18 and depressive symptoms reported by offspring at age 21 ( N = 1,723). Using adjusted linear regression models, we found that authoritarian and neglectful mothering styles were positively associated with daughters' depressive symptoms, whereas authoritarian mothering was negatively associated with sons' depressive symptoms. Findings suggest both cross-cultural similarities and variability in positive parenting. Results may have implications for family-based depression prevention interventions in the Philippines.
Huang, Si-Sheng; Liao, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Fu
The aim of this study was to investigate caregiver depression associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms in Taiwanese people. A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Two hundred seventy-six pairs of patients with dementia and their caregivers who visited the memory clinic of a general hospital from July 2001 to October 2008 were recruited. Caregiver depression was evaluated with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Demographic data of the patients and caregivers, including cognitive functions and clinical dementia ratings, were collected. In addition to descriptive statistics, we examined the relationship between each parameter and caregiver depression using Pearson correlation, independent t-test, or analysis of variance. The results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score and CES-D score (r = 0.345, P dementia, agitation/aggression, anxiety, nighttime behavior disturbances, irritability/lability, and hallucinations were the five leading symptoms significantly associated with caregiver depression (CES-D). Carefully managing these symptoms is likely to reduce depression in dementia caregivers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
El Ansari, Walid; Adetunji, Hamed; Oskrochi, Reza
The current study assessed, by university and sex, the association between nutritional behaviour (twelve independent variables), and stress and depressive symptoms (dependent variables) in a sample from three UK countries. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among undergraduates enrolled across seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (N = 3,706). Self-administered questionnaires included a 12-item food frequency questionnaire, Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale and modified Beck Depression Inventory. Sex and university comparisons were undertaken. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses were computed for each of the two outcomes--perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The frequencies of consuming of the various food groups differed by university and sex, as did depressive symptoms and perceived stress. Multivariable regression analyses indicated that consuming 'unhealthy' foods (e.g. sweets, cookies, snacks, fast food) was significantly positively associated with perceived stress (females only) and depressive symptoms (both males and females). Conversely, consuming 'healthy' foods (e.g. fresh fruits, salads, cooked vegetables) was significantly negatively associated with perceived stress and depressive symptoms scores for both sexes. There was significant negative association between consuming fish/sea food and depressive symptoms among males only. For males and for females, consuming lemonade/soft drinks, meat/sausage products, dairy/dairy products, and cereal/cereal products were not associated with either perceived stress or depressive symptoms. The associations between consuming 'unhealthy' foods and higher depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students as well as the associations between consuming 'healthy' foods and lower depressive symptoms and perceived stress among male and female students in three UK countries suggest that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and stress among students could
Vermeesch, Amber L; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Hall, Rosemary; McCabe, Brian E; Cianelli, Rosina; Peragallo, Nilda P
U.S. Hispanics, especially women, experience a disproportionate amount of disease burden for depression. This disparity among Hispanic women necessitates examination of factors associated with depression. The objective of this study was to use an adaptation of the Stress Process Model to test whether self-esteem mediated the relationship between Hispanic stress and depressive symptoms. Data for this secondary analysis were from a previous randomized-control HIV prevention trial. Participants were 548 Hispanic women (19-52 years). Data collection measures included the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Hispanic Stress Scale. The bootstrap method in Mplus 6 was used to test mediation. Results indicated that self-esteem was inversely related to depression, and Hispanic stress was found to be positively related to depression. Self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between stress and depression. Strategies to improve/maintain self-esteem should be considered in future interventions for Hispanic women with depression.
Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.
Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…
Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.
This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…
Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sawie, Hussein G; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Hosny, Eman N
Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The depressive-like rats showed a severe decrease in motor activity as assessed by open field test (OFT). This was accompanied by a decrease in monoamine levels and a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and hippocampus. Na + ,K + -ATPase activity increased in the cortex and decreased in the hippocampus of rat model. In addition, a state of oxidative stress was evident in the two brain regions. This was indicated from the significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. No signs of improvement were observed in the behavioral and neurochemical analyses in the depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis extract. Furthermore, Cannabis extract exacerbated the lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus. According to the present findings, it could be concluded that Cannabis sativa aggravates the motor deficits and neurochemical changes induced in the cortex and hippocampus of rat model of depression. Therefore, the obtained results could explain the reported increase in the depressive symptoms and memory impairment among Cannabis users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.
This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…
Effect of person centered counselling on depressive symptoms among Type II diabetic patients attending the general ... The clinic visits in both groups were repeated at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 making a total of six sessions for both groups.
Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.
This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…
Vieno, Alessio; Kiesner, Jeff; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo
The relations between antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms were examined both longitudinally and concurrently in a sample of Italian early-adolescents. Structural equation modelling was applied to 10-month longitudinal data from a sample of 107 youths (54 girls; mean age at baseline = M = 12.5). Early adolescents completed a questionnaire…
Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra
Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…
Background: Sex work is a high-risk occupation for mental health problems as sex workers are vulnerable to high rates of violence, sexual coercion, stigma and HIV. Aim: To determine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and substance use in sex workers.Method: A crosssectional questionnaire survey of all ...
Watkins, Daphne C.; Hudson, Darrell L.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Siefert, Kristine; Jackson, James S.
Purpose: This study examines the influence of discrimination and mastery on depressive symptoms for African American men at young (18-34), middle (35-54), and late (55+) adulthood. Method: Analyses are based on responses from 1,271 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Results: Discrimination was significantly…
Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis
The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…
Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita
The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…
Kim, Sangmoon; Thibodeau, Ryan; Jorgensen, Randall S.
Recent theoretical and empirical work has facilitated the drawing of sharp conceptual distinctions between shame and guilt. A clear view of these distinctions has permitted development of a research literature aimed at evaluating the differential associations of shame and guilt with depressive symptoms. This study quantitatively summarized the…
Zhang, Huaiyu; Carr, Erika R; Garcia-Williams, Amanda G; Siegelman, Asher E; Berke, Danielle; Niles-Carnes, Larisa V; Patterson, Bobbi; Watson-Singleton, Natalie N; Kaslow, Nadine J
Research has identified the experience of shame as a relevant predictor of depressive symptoms. Building upon resilience theory, this is the first study to investigate if self-compassion and/or contingent self-worth (i.e., family support and God's love) mediate the link between shame and depressive symptoms. Participants were 109 African Americans, within the age range of 18 and 64, who sought service following a suicide attempt from a public hospital that serves mostly low-income patients. Findings suggest that shame was related to depressive symptoms through self-compassion but not through contingent self-worth, underscoring the significant role that self-compassion plays in ameliorating the aggravating effect of shame on depressive symptoms. Results highlight the value of incorporating self-compassion training into interventions for suicidal African Americans in an effort to reduce the impact of shame on their depressive symptoms and ultimately their suicidal behavior and as a result enhance their capacity for resilience.
Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J
Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient's symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients.
Full Text Available Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient’s symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients.
Török, Eszter; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the depressive symptoms of the bullied respondents differed according to who the perpetrator was. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from two representative cohorts: the Danish Working Environment Cohort Study...... (DWECS 2010) and the Work and Health Study (WH 2012). After excluding respondents not having a leader, or being self-employed, assisting spouses, and those reporting multiple perpetrators in WH 2012, the statistical analysis included 2478 bullied individuals. We compared respondents reporting being...... bullied by their (1) leader, (2) subordinates, (3) clients / customers / patients / students, or (4) colleagues, respectively. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was measured by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). RESULTS: The most frequent perpetrator of bullying was clients (41.5 %) in DWECS 2010...
Krogh, Jesper; Benros, Michael E; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev
The purpose of this study was to assess the association between IL-6 and CRP with depressive items and cognitive function. We included 112 outpatients with major depression from an exercise trial and 57 healthy controls. IL-6, high sensitive CRP (hsCRP), and cognitive function were assessed in all...... subjects. After baseline assessment, patients were randomised to either a 3months exercise intervention or an exercise control group. Post-intervention IL-6, hsCRP, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function were reassessed in the patient group. IL-6 and hsCRP were significantly increased in depressed...... patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.02 and 0.04). These differences were no longer significant after adjustment for lifestyle associated variables. We found no association between immune markers and specific depressive symptoms at baseline or as change over time. Regarding the cognitive tests, IL-6...
Koekkoek, Paula S.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Kooistra, Minke; Janssen, Jolien; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Rutten, Guy E H M
Aims Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment. We examined whether undiagnosed cognitive impairment in T2DM-patients is associated with a reduced health status and depressive symptoms. Methods In an observational study, 225 T2DM-patients aged < 70 years were examined at their
Full Text Available The present study examined the link between perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, cultural identity and social support at school reported by immigrant adolescents. Participants were 214 mostly male, immigrant adolescents in grades 9 through 13 of high schools in two small cities in northern Italy. Results showed that discrimination has a significant detrimental effect on psychological well-being of foreign-born adolescents. Additionally, the current study outlined that the only protective factor for depressive symptoms, among the analyzed variables concerning cultural identity and school social support, was social support from teachers. None of the analyzed moderators buffered the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms reported by immigrant adolescents. These results have implications for preventive interventions for immigrant adolescents and suggest a protective role for teachers. Future research should detect strategies to reduce discrimination and prejudice toward immigrant adolescents and detect factors that may buffer detrimental effects of discrimination on psychological well-being.
Fan, L-B; Blumenthal, J A; Watkins, L L; Sherwood, A
In the evolving work environment of global competition, the associations between work and home stress and psychological well-being are not well understood. To examine the impact of psychosocial stress at work and at home on anxiety and depression. In medically healthy employed men and women (aged 30-60), serial regression analyses were used to determine the independent association of psychosocial stress at work and at home with depression symptoms, measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and anxiety symptoms, measured using the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Psychosocial stress at work was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire to assess job psychological demands, job control, job social support and job insecurity. Psychosocial stress at home was assessed by 12 questions including stress at home, personal problems, family demands and feelings about home life. Serial regression analyses in 129 subjects revealed that job insecurity and home stress were most strongly associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Job insecurity accounted for 9% of the variation both in BDI-II scores and in STAI scores. Home stress accounted for 13 and 17% of the variation in BDI-II scores and STAI scores, respectively. In addition, job social support was significantly and independently associated with STAI scores but not BDI-II scores. Work and home stress were associated with anxiety and depression symptoms in both men and women. Both work and home stress should be considered in studies evaluating anxiety and depression in working populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of positive psychotherapy on depression symptoms and character strengths in cancer affected patients. Based on a quasi-experimental design by available sampling, 58 cancer patients were investigated. 30 patients were assigned in two groups: 15 patients in positive psychotherapy group (treatment and 15 patients as control group. In the present research, Oxford Happiness-Depression Questionnaire (OHDQ and Values In Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS were used. The results showed that the positive psychotherapy was effective in reducing depression, increasing the character strengths and virtues, improving meaningful, pleasant and engaged life of cancer patients.
Full Text Available BackgroundThe degree by which depressive symptoms and clinical depression reflect each other may vary across populations. The present study compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the cross-sectional associations between various domains of depressive symptoms and endorsement of clinical disorders of depression. MethodsData came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001–2003. We included 3,570 Black (African Americans, and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Predictors were positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Outcomes were lifetime MDD, lifetime MDE, 12 month MDE, 30 days MDE, and 30 days MDDH based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Logistic regression models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as Blacks and Whites.ResultsRegarding CES-D, Blacks had lower total scores, positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems compared to Whites (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. Blacks also had lower odds of meeting criteria for lifetime MDD and MDE, 12 month MDE, and 30 days MDE and MDDH (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. For most depressive diagnoses, ethnicity showed a positive and significant interaction with the negative affect and interpersonal domains, suggesting stronger associations for Blacks compared to Whites. CES-D total and CES-D positive affect did not interact with ethnicity on CIDI based diagnoses.ConclusionStronger associations between multiple domains of depressive symptoms and clinical MDD may be due to higher severity of depression among Blacks, when they endorse the disorder. This finding may explain some of previously observed ethnic differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and clinical depression in the general population as well as clinical settings.
Allen, Karina L; Crosby, Ross D; Oddy, Wendy H; Byrne, Susan M
Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in males. Prevention
Allan, Louise M; Rowan, Elise N; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; O'Brien, John T; Kalaria, Raj N
Depression is common and an important consequence of stroke but there is limited information on the longer-term relationship between these conditions. To identify the prevalence, incidence and predictors of depression in a secondary-care-based cohort of stroke survivors aged over 75 years, from 3 months to up to 10 years post-stroke. Depression was assessed annually by three methods: major depression by DSM-IV criteria, the self-rated Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the observer-rated Cornell scale. We found the highest rates, 31.7% baseline prevalence, of depressive symptoms with the GDS compared with 9.7% using the Cornell scale and 1.2% using DSM-IV criteria. Incidence rates were 36.9, 5.90 and 4.18 episodes per 100 person years respectively. Baseline GDS score was the most consistent predictor of depressive symptoms at all time points in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Other predictors included cognitive impairment, impaired activities of daily living and in the early period, vascular risk factor burden and dementia. Our results emphasise the importance of psychiatric follow-up for those with early-onset post-stroke depression and long-term monitoring of mood in people who have had a stroke and remain at high risk of depression.
Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David
Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms.
Sepulcri, Rodrigo de P; do Amaral, Vivian F
To assess depressive symptoms, anxiety and quality of life in women with pelvic endometriosis. A prospective study of 104 women diagnosed with pelvic endometriosis. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) were used to evaluate depressive symptoms; the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) to evaluate anxiety symptoms; and the short (26-item) version of the World Health Organization Quality Of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF) to evaluate quality of life. Of the patients evaluated, 86.5% presented depressive symptoms (mild in 22.1%, moderate in 31.7%, and severe in 32.7%) and 87.5% presented anxiety (minor in 24% and major in 63.5%). Quality of life was found to be substandard. Age correlated positively with depressive symptoms, as determined using the BDI (P=0.013) and HAM-D (P=0.037). There was a positive correlation between current pain intensity and anxiety symptoms, as assessed using the STAI (state, P=0.009; trait, P=0.048) and HAM-A (P=0.0001). The complaints related to physical limitations increased in parallel with the intensity of pain (P=0.017). There was an inverse correlation between duration of treatment and quality of life (P=0.017). There was no correlation between psychiatric symptoms and endometriosis stage. A rational approach to endometriosis should include an evaluation of the emotional profile and quality of life. That approach would certainly reduce the functional damage caused by the endometriosis.
Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Drake, Christopher L
Nearly half of US adults endorse insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems increase risk for depression during stress, but the mechanisms are unclear. During high stress, individuals having difficulty falling or staying asleep may be vulnerable to cognitive intrusions after stressful events, given that the inability to sleep creates a period of unstructured and socially isolated time in bed. We investigated the unique and combined effects of insomnia symptoms and stress-induced cognitive intrusions on risk for incident depression. 1126 non-depressed US adults with no history of DSM-5 insomnia disorder completed 3 annual web-based surveys on sleep, stress, and depression. We examined whether nocturnal insomnia symptoms and stress-induced cognitive intrusions predicted depression 1y and 2y later. Finally, we compared depression-risk across four groups: non-perseverators with good sleep, non-perseverators with insomnia symptoms, perseverators with good sleep, and perseverators with insomnia symptoms. Insomnia symptoms (β = .10-.13, p good sleeping non-perseverators had the lowest rates (3.3%, Relative Risk = 3.94). Perseverators with sleep latency >30 m reported greater depression than good sleeping perseverators (t = 2.09, p stress creates a depressogenic mindset, and nocturnal wakefulness may augment the effects of cognitive arousal on depression development. Poor sleepers may be especially vulnerable to cognitive intrusions when having difficulty initiating sleep. As treatable behaviors, nighttime wakefulness and cognitive arousal may be targeted to reduce risk for depression in poor sleepers.
Stefania S. Grigoriou
Full Text Available Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed.
Lin, Chiao-Fan; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Wen, Jung-Kwang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I
The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of correlation between sexual dysfunction and depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to identify the dimension most predictive of sexual dysfunction. One-hundred and thirty-five outpatients with MDD were enrolled and were treated with open-label venlafaxine 75 mg daily for one month. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale-Chinese Version (ASEX-CV), Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered at baseline and at one-month follow-up and the improvement percentage (IP) of each scale posttreatment was calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the dimension most predictive of the total ASEX-CV score. Seventy subjects (20 men, 50 women) completed the one-month pharmacotherapy and the four scales. The depression subscale of the HADS was most strongly correlated with the ASEX-CV scale and was the only subscale to independently predict the total ASEX-CV score at the two points. However, the somatic subscale of the DSSS was not correlated with any ASEX-CV item. At the endpoint, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms were significantly improved (IP 48.5% to 26.0%); however, very little improvement was observed in the total ASEX-CV score (IP -1.6%). The severity of sexual dysfunction among patients with MDD was most correlated with the severity of the depressive dimension, but not the severity of the somatic dimension. Further studies are indicated to explore the relationships between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms.
McKercher, Charlotte; Patton, George C; Schmidt, Michael D; Venn, Alison J; Dwyer, Terence; Sanderson, Kristy
This study explored whether young adults with major depression who are physically active differ in their depression symptom profile from those physically inactive. Analyses included data from 950 (47.6%) men and 1045 women (mean [standard deviation] age = 31.5 [2.6] years) participating in a national study. Participants reported leisure physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and ambulatory activity (pedometer steps per day). Diagnosis and symptoms of major depression were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Prevalence of major depression was 5.5% (n = 52) for men and 11.6% (n = 121) for women. Interactions between physical activity and sex were observed for depressed mood, appetite changes, vacillating thoughts, and suicidality (all, p physically active men were significantly less likely to endorse the presence of insomnia (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.63-0.96), fatigue (PR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99), and suicidality (PR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.96) compared with inactive men. Physically active women were significantly less likely to endorse hypersomnia (PR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.27-0.95), excessive/irrational guilt (PR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97), vacillating thoughts (PR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.95), and suicidality (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.20-0.89) compared with inactive women. Associations were adjusted for age, physical health, educational attainment, depression severity, and other depressive symptoms. Among adults with major depression, those physically active seem to differ in their depression symptom profile from those physically inactive.
Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Ye, Zhaojia; Takamura, Noboru; Tomita, Masato; Osaki, Makoto; Honda, Sumihisa
The number of foreign workers in Japan, especially temporary workers, has been increasing recently. However, little is known about the mental health status of the foreign workers working temporarily in Japan. We examined the depressive symptoms in 81 Chinese factory workers and attempted to identify the determining factors. The subjects were requested to complete individual questionnaires on sociodemographic variables (sex, age group, and residence period in Japan), working condition variables (number of working days per week and working hours per day), health administration variables (health checkups and health education), a social support variable (interpreters at workplace), and health behavior variables (alcohol consumption, current smoking, and regular exercise). The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to measure the depressive symptoms. Of all the subjects, 95% and 84% received health checkups and health education, respectively, at their workplaces. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that long working hours per day were significantly associated with high CES-D score. Further, we found that older age (30-49 yr) was marginally associated with high CES-D score. Health administration considering working time and age would be important for decreasing depressive symptoms among foreign workers.
Cassidy, F; Ahearn, E; Murry, E; Forest, K; Carroll, B J
There is not yet consensus on the best diagnostic definition of mixed bipolar episodes. Many have suggested the DSM-III-R/-IV definition is too rigid. We propose alternative criteria using data from a large patient cohort. We evaluated 237 manic in-patients using DSM-III-R criteria and the Scale for Manic States (SMS). A bimodally distributed factor of dysphoric mood has been reported from the SMS data. We used both the factor and the DSM-III-R classifications to identify candidate depressive symptoms and then developed three candidate depressive symptom sets. Using ROC analysis we determined the optimal threshold number of symptoms in each set and compared the three ROC solutions. The optimal solution was tested against the DSM-III-R classification for crossvalidation. The optimal ROC solution was a set, derived from both the DSM-III-R and the SMS, and the optimal threshold for diagnosis was two or more symptoms. Applying this set iteratively to the DSM-III-R classification produced the identical ROC solution. The prevalence of mixed episodes in the cohort was 13.9% by DSM-III-R, 20.2% by the dysphoria factor and 27.4% by the new ROC solution. A diagnostic set of six dysphoric symptoms (depressed mood, anhedonia, guilt, suicide, fatigue and anxiety), with a threshold of two symptoms, is proposed for a mixed episode. This new definition has a foundation in clinical data, in the proved diagnostic performance of the qualifying symptoms, and in ROC validation against two previous definitions that each have face validity.
Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Huang, San-Yuan; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng
The military is a unique occupational group and, because of this, military personnel face different kinds of stress than civilian populations. Sleep problems are an example. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep problems, depression level and coping strategies among military personnel. In this cross-sectional study, military personnel completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. An evaluation of the test scores showed that officers had better sleep quality and fewer depressive symptoms than enlisted personnel. Military personnel with higher educational levels and less physical illness also had fewer depressive symptoms. Officers and noncommissioned officers preferred problem-focused strategies. Those with higher Beck Depression Inventory and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores and those who drank alcohol frequently preferred affective-focused strategies. Our results revealed that sleep quality, physical illness and alcohol consumption were associated with the mental health of military personnel. Treating these factors may improve the mental health of military personnel and enhance effective coping strategies. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, W; Kim, T-H; Lee, T-H; Ju, Y J; Chun, S Y; Park, E-C
In many countries, including South Korea, labour market changes have led to an increase in unstable, temporary jobs. There is evidence that workers in such jobs may experience poorer mental health than those in more stable employment. To investigate the association between temporary employment and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers. We analysed data from the 2010-2014 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS). Employment type was categorized into workers paid per day of labour (day labourers), those on short-term contracts (fixed-term workers) and permanent workers. The association between employment type and depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D 11), was examined using the generalized estimating equation model. A total of 3756 workers aged 20-59 were included in the 2010 baseline population. Day labourers had the highest mean CES-D 11 score, followed by fixed-term workers and permanent workers. With the day labourer group as reference, fixed-term workers (β: -1.5027, P < 0.001) and permanent workers (β: -2.1848, P < 0.001) showed statistically significant decreases in depression scores. Compared with day labourers, fixed-term workers and permanent workers had progressively lower depression scores. The findings of this study suggest that mental health inequalities based on employment type exist in South Korea. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F; Basu, Anirban; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Harris, Jeffrey R
Poor balance between work and family can be a major stressor for women with young children and have a negative impact on emotional well-being. Family-friendly workplace attributes may reduce stress and depressive symptoms among this population. However, few studies have analyzed the role of specific workplace attributes on mental health outcomes among women with young children because available data are limited. This study examines the impact of workplace attributes on changes in depressive symptoms among working women with young children between 6 and 24 months of age. This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) collected between 1991 and 1993 to examine the effects of work intensity, work schedule (night/day/variable), schedule flexibility, working from home, and work stress on changes in depressive symptoms among a national US sample of 570 women who returned to work within 6 months after childbirth. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D score. Treatment effects were estimated using fixed effects regression models. Working from home and work stress predicted within-individual changes in depressive symptoms between 6 and 24 months postchildbirth. Women who worked from home reported a statistically significant decrease in depression scores over time (β = -1.36, SE = 0.51, p = 0.002). Women who reported a one-unit increase in job concerns experienced, on average, a 2-point increase in depression scores over time (β = 1.73, SE = 0.37, p Work intensity, work schedule, and schedule flexibility were not associated with changes in depressive symptoms. This study is one of the few to use longitudinal data and causal-inference techniques to examine whether specific workplace attributes influence depressive symptoms among women with young children. Reducing stress in the workplace and allowing women to work from home may improve
Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu
to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the
Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.
It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship
Siegel, Miriam; Starks, Sarah E; Sanderson, Wayne T; Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A; Gerr, Fred
Although organic solvents are often used in agricultural operations, neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure have not been extensively studied among farmers. The current analysis examined associations between questionnaire-based metrics of organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among farmers. Results from 692 male Agricultural Health Study participants were analyzed. Solvent type and exposure duration were assessed by questionnaire. An "ever-use" variable and years of use categories were constructed for exposure to gasoline, paint/lacquer thinner, petroleum distillates, and any solvent. Depressive symptoms were ascertained with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); scores were analyzed separately as continuous (0-60) and dichotomous (distillates, and short duration of petroleum distillate exposure and continuous CES-D score (p < 0.05). Although nearly all associations were positive, fewer statistically significant associations were observed between metrics of solvent exposure and the dichotomized CES-D variable. Solvent exposures were associated with depressive symptoms among farmers. Efforts to limit exposure to organic solvents may reduce the risk of depressive symptoms among farmers.
Nitzsche, Anika; Jung, Julia; Pfaff, Holger; Driller, Elke
Depression is the leading cause of disability and high costs worldwide. One possibility for preventing depression in the workplace, which has received little consideration so far, is the promotion of a successful balance between work and personal life. The aim of this study was to investigate employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the micro- and nanotechnology sector in Germany. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using data from N = 213 employees. The results suggest that while negative work-home interaction is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms, positive work-home interaction is correlated with a lower risk. Neither positive nor negative interaction in the home-to-work direction demonstrated a significant association with depressive symptoms. When attempting to prevent mental illnesses, such as depression, it is important to develop strategies aimed at reducing conflict between work and personal life and promoting a positive exchange between these two domains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nardi, Bernardo; Massei, Micaela; Arimatea, Emidio; Moltedo-Perfetti, Andrés
Depression is among the most common psychological disorders of adolescents. Its management is based on pharmacological treatment, psychological therapy, or a combination thereof. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most extensively tested intervention for adolescent depression. A PubMed search was conducted for randomized controlled trials (RCT) of the efficacy of CBT in treating adolescents with depressive symptoms published in 2005-2015. Keywords were "cognitive behavioral therapy", "group therapy", "depression" and "adolescent". Of the 23 papers that were retrieved, only six met all inclusion criteria. Three of them reported a significant reduction in depressive symptom severity after either individual or group (G)-CBT compared with the control group, even with a small number of CBT sessions (six rather than 10-12), with a medium or medium-to-large effect size. One study reported improved self-awareness and a significantly greater increase in perceived friend social support compared with bibliotherapy and check with brochure. Two studies reported clinical symptom reduction without significant differences compared with the control group (activity contrast). This review highlighted primarily that very few RCT have applied CBT in adolescents; moreover, it confirmed the effectiveness of G-CBT, especially as psychotherapy, although it was not always superior to other interventions (e.g. other activities in prevention programs). Comparison showed that G-CBT and group interpersonal psychotherapy were both effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Successful G-CBT outcomes were related to the presence of peers, who were an important source of feedback and support to observe, learn, and practice new skills to manage depressive symptoms and improve social-relational skills.
Zhang, C-X; Tse, L-A; Ye, X-Q; Lin, F-Y; Chen, Y-M; Chen, W-Q
This study aimed to assess possible interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Three hundred and four patients with Type 2 diabetes underwent a face-to-face interview by trained research staff according to a standardized questionnaire including information on socio-demographic characteristics, psychological stress, coping styles and anxiety and depressive symptoms. The interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed by hierarchical multiple regression analyses. There were significant associations of the four domains of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms, except for the relationship between 'reduced economic condition' and depressive symptoms. 'Negative coping style' significantly increased the level of both anxiety and depressive symptoms; whereas, 'active coping style' and 'avoidant coping style' decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The interactions of 'negative coping style' with 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' and 'reduced economic condition' significantly increased the risk of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and the interaction of 'social/family crisis caused by the disease' with 'avoidance coping style' and 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' with 'active coping style' significantly decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The results of this study suggest that certain coping styles might moderate the association of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.
Cano, A; O'Leary, K D
This study examined whether humiliating marital events (HMEs; husbands' infidelity, threats of marital dissolution) precipitated Major Depressive Episodes (MDEs) when controlling for marital discord. Participants were 25 women who recently experienced an HME and 25 control women who did not experience an HME. Both groups reported similar levels of marital discord. Results indicated that HME participants were 6 times more likely to be diagnosed with an MDE than control participants. These results remained even after controlling for family and lifetime histories of depression. HME participants also reported significantly more symptoms of nonspecific depression and anxiety than control participants. However, HME and control participants did not report significantly different numbers of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal symptoms. The research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Salazar-Villanea, Monica; Liebmann, Edward; Garnier-Villarreal, Mauricio; Montenegro-Montenegro, Esteban; Johnson, David K
-age and education matched peers. CFA and SEM found that increased depressive symptomatology had deleterious effects on Working Memory made up of subtest scores sampling simple attention and vigilance for numbers. Verbal Memory, Verbal Reasoning, and Processing Speed were not affected by self-reported Positive Affect, Negative Affect or Depressive symptoms. Costa Rican older adults were happy, as evidenced by the high ratio of positive affect to relatively low negative affect. Thus, we were somewhat surprised to find that depressive symptoms were selectively correlated to decrements in working memory and that negative and positive affect contributed negligible amounts of variance to any of the cognitive factors. Because of the methodological rigor of latent variable analysis, these results are very specific. The Working Memory factor is not contaminated with Speed of Processing or other measured cognitive factors. Likewise, the measured Geriatric Depression represents symptoms that are richly cognitive, not overtly affective.
Tsai, Yun-Fang; Wong, Thomas K S; Tsai, Hsiu-Hsin; Ku, Yan-Chiou
The aim of this study is to report the effects of self-worth therapy on depressive symptoms of older nursing home residents. Depression in older people has become a serious healthcare issue worldwide. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been shown to have inconsistent effects, and drug treatment can have important side-effects. A quasi-experimental design was used. Older people were sampled by convenience from residents of a nursing home in northern Taiwan between 2005 and 2006. To be included in the study participants had to: (i) have no severe cognitive deficits; (ii) test positive for depressive status and (iii) take the same anti-depressant medication in the previous 3 months and throughout the study. Participants in the experimental group (n = 31) received 30 minutes of one-to-one self-worth therapy on 1 day a week for 4 weeks. Control group participants (n = 32) received no therapy, but were individually visited by the same research assistant, who chatted with them for 30 minutes on 1 day/week for 4 weeks. Depressive status, cognitive status and functional status were measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention and 2 months later. Data were analysed by mean, standard deviations, t-test, chi-squared test and univariate anova. Self-worth therapy immediately decreased depressive symptoms relative to baseline, but not relative to control treatment. However, 2 months later, depressive symptoms were statistically significantly reduced relative to control. Self-worth therapy is an easily-administered, effective, non-pharmacological treatment with potential for decreasing depressive symptoms in older nursing home residents.
Internalized homophobia has been linked to depression among gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Relatively little research has investigated the link between internalized homophobia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The current research investigated the interrelations among internalized homophobia, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation by testing additive, mediation, and moderation models. Self-identified Australian gay men (n = 360), lesbians (n = 444), and bisexual women (n = 114) completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the suicide subscale of the General Health Questionnaire. Results supported the additive and partial mediation models for gay men and the mediation and moderation models for lesbians. None of the models were supported for bisexual women. The findings imply that clinicians should focus on reducing internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men and lesbians, and depressive symptoms among bisexual women, to reduce suicidal ideation.
Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.
We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9-15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed…
Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong
The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…
Conclusion: This study provides compelling evidence that effects of elevated depressive symptomatology on LBW or PTB appear to be linked to a specific development period in adolescence. National policies to address social inequalities and stratification particularly in health at all stages of human development, will provide an important step in reducing depressive symptoms prior to early adulthood and in pregnancy and childbirth.
Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto; Mercante, Juliane P P; Tobo, Patricia R; Kamei, Helder; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo
Anxiety and mood disorders have been shown to be the most relevant psychiatric comorbidities associated with migraine, influencing its clinical course, treatment response, and clinical outcomes. Limited information is available on how specific anxiety and depression symptoms are related to migraine. Symptoms-based approach, a current trend in mental health research, may improve our understanding in migraine comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to analyze how anxiety and depression aspects are related to migraine through a symptom-based approach. We studied 782 patients from the general population who completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics, headache features, anxiety and depression symptoms. A binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the association between all four ratings in GAD-7 (anxiety) and PHQ-9 (depression) scales subitems as covariates, and migraine vs no headache as the outcome. The leading Odd Ratios (OR) observed in individuals with migraine relative to those without migraine were anxiety related, "Not being able to stop or control worrying" on a daily basis [OR (CI 95%)] 49.2 (13.6-178.2), "trouble relaxing" 25.7 (7.1-92.6), "Feeling nervous, anxious or on edge" on a daily basis 25.4 (6.9-93.8), and "worrying too much about different things" 24.4 (7.7-77.6). Although the hallmark symptoms of depression are emotional (hopelessness and sadness), the highest scores found were physical: apetite, fatigue, and poor sleep. Irritability had a significant increase in migraine risk [OR 3.8 (1.9-7.8) if experienced some days, 7.5 (2.7-20.7) more than half the days, and 22.0 (5.7-84.9) when experienced nearly every day]. Anxiety was more robustly associated with increase in migraine risk than depression. Lack of ability to properly control worrying and to relax are the most prominent issues in migraine psychiatric comorbidity. Physical symptoms in depression are more linked to migraine than emotional symptoms. A
Hyakutake, Aiko; Kamijo, Tomoko; Misawa, Yuka; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Inaba, Yuji; Tsukahara, Teruomi; Nomiyama, Tetsuo
Students' depressive symptoms might be related to their own risk factors and to their parents' status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship of depressive symptoms with lifestyle variables and parents' psychological and socio-demographic status among Japanese junior high school students. Of 477 students and their parents, 409 (85.7 %) students and 314 (65.8 %) parents participated in the study. Students answered self-reported questionnaire on depressive symptoms, their heights and weights, subjective stress, body dissatisfaction, lifestyles including sleep duration and extracurricular physical activity in school and other physical activity outside the school, and nutritional intake. Parents responded to questionnaire on depressive symptoms and socio-demographic status. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 24.9 %. Students with depressive symptoms were more likely to have stress. Students in shorter and longer sleep duration groups were more likely to have depressive symptoms. The students with depressive symptoms had smaller amount of energy intake than did those without depressive symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significant relationships between students' depressive symptoms and some independent variables. Sex, subjective stress, "almost-never"-categorized extracurricular physical activity in school and other physical activity outside the school, and having a parent with depressive symptoms were significantly associated with students' depressive symptoms. Reducing mental stress and taking care of lifestyles, especially, "almost-everyday"-categorized extracurricular physical activity in school and other physical activity outside the school, may have benefits for students' mental health, and having a parent with depressive symptoms may be associated with students' depressive symptoms.
Halbreich, Uriel; Karkun, Sandhya
The prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) is currently considered to be 10-15%. Most studies were performed with a brief unidimensional instruments (mostly the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-EPDS) with focus on depression and not on other symptoms and disorders. Most cited studies were conducted in Western economically developed countries. We reviewed the literature on prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms in a wide range of countries. 143 studies were identified reporting prevalence in 40 countries. It is demonstrated that there is a wide range of reported prevalence of PPD ranging from almost 0% to almost 60%. In some countries like Singapore, Malta, Malaysia, Austria and Denmark there are very few reports of PPD or postpartum depressive symptoms, whereas in other countries (e.g. Brazil, Guyana, Costa Rica, Italy, Chile, South Africa, Taiwan and Korea) reported postpartum depressive symptoms are very prevalent. We believe that the widely cited mean prevalence of PPD-10-15% is not representative of the actual global prevalence and magnitude of the problem, due to the wide range of reports. The variability in reported PPD might be due to cross-cultural variables, reporting style, differences in perception of mental health and its stigma, differences in socio-economic environments (e.g. poverty, levels of social support or its perception, nutrition, stress), and biological vulnerability factors. The elucidation of the underlying processes of this variability as well as the diversity of postpartum normal versus abnormal expressions of symptoms may contribute to better understanding of the diversified ante, peri- and postpartum phenomena.
Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Cui, Yufei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Shota; Ren, Zhongyu; Niu, Kaijun; Nagatomi, Ryoichi
Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Infor...
Bettis, Alexandra H.; Forehand, Rex; McKee, Laura; Dunbar, Jennifer P.; Watson, Kelly H.; Compas, Bruce E.
Research has documented the co-occurrence of symptoms of anxiety and depression across the lifespan, suggesting that these symptoms share common correlates and etiology. The present study aimed to examine potential specific and/or transdiagnostic correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in at-risk youth. The present study examined youth stress associated with parental depression and youth coping as potential correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression in a sample of children of d...
Chang, Hung-Hao; Chiang, Tung-Liang
To understand the association between depressive symptoms and smoking. In addition, we investigate how smokers with and without depressive symptoms may respond to cigarette price change differently. We used data drawn from a nationally representative survey in Taiwan. Totally, 13,030 male adults were included in the analysis. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Taiwanese depression questionnaire. A logistic regression model was estimated to examine the odds ratio of smoking for those with depressive symptoms versus those without depressive symptoms. Focused on smokers, the ordinary least squares multivariate regression method was used to estimate the cigarette price elasticity. Compared to those without depressive symptoms, those with depressive symptoms were more likely to smoke (44.5 vs. 50.1%) and consume more cigarettes per day (18.4 vs. 21.0). The odds ratio of smoking for those with depressive symptoms, adjusted for demographic variables, was 1.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.6). The cigarette price elasticity was estimated at -0.82 and -0.41 for depressive smokers and non-depressive smokers, respectively. Although the association between depression and smoking had been documented, this study contributes to previous literature by investigating the extent to which cigarette price elasticities may differ between smokers with and without depressive symptoms. Results indicate that depressive smokers are more sensitive to the change of cigarette price. Therefore, tax/price increases can also be a very effective means of tobacco control for depressive smokers.
Nilsson, Kent W; Leppert, Jerzy; Åslund, Cecilia
Aim. To investigate whether adolescent online gaming time and the additive effect of gaming motives were associated with depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. The hypothesis was that adolescents who engage in online gaming with escape motives and increased online gaming time have higher probability for depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms compared to adolescents with other online gaming motives and/or less online gaming time. Method. An anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was completed during class hours by 7,757 Swedish adolescents aged 13–18 years. The questionnaire included demographic background, gaming habits, and depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. Results. It was found that increased online gaming time during weekdays increased the probability of having depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. However, these relations with time spent gaming were further explained by online gaming motives. Weekday online gaming for more than five hours a day, in combination with escape motives, was associated with an increased probability of depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 4.614, 95% CI 3.230–6.590), musculoskeletal symptoms (OR 2.494, 95% CI 1.598–3.892), and psychosomatic symptoms (OR 4.437, 95% CI 2.966–6.637). The probability of ill health decreased when gaming was for fun or had social motives. Conclusion. Excessive gaming time and escape motives were found to be associated with increased probability of ill health among adolescents. Gaming motives may identify gamers in need of support to reduce unhealthy gaming behaviour as well as identify individuals at risk for ill health. PMID:26072677
Andersen, Johan Hviid; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas
) deteriorated slightly in adolescents (-0.24; 95% CI = -0.28 to -0.19) across all socioeconomic status (SES) groups and depressive symptoms increased (0.64; 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.75). High household income was protective for decrease in SRH (0.62; 0.43 - 0.91). Negative life-style changes were associated...... relationship between lifestyle changes and health and the possible positive effect of maintaining and enhancing positive lifestyle factors.......While the existence of social inequality in health in childhood as well as among adults is well established, research of mechanisms underlying this inequality is still sparse. The study aim was to report on the development of self-rated health and depressive symptoms from age 15 to18 years...
Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy
Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…
Conclusion: Depressive symptoms were common among mothers of young children. Family function and neurotic personality were highly correlated with depressive symptoms in mothers caring for young children. Pediatric health care providers are suggested to screen for maternal depressive symptoms and provide family-oriented support in Taiwan.
Although leisure activities benefit the mental health of the elderly population, the effect of changes in leisure activities on dimensions of depressive symptoms remains unclear. This investigation examined the influences of changes in intellectual, social, and physical activities between waves on four dimensions of depressive symptoms at follow-up. Random effects modeling was utilized with data from a nationwide longitudinal study conducted in Taiwan. The study data comprised 6,942 observations from 2,660 older adults over a 12-year period. The results suggested that changes in physical activities contributed to depressive symptoms which reflected positive affect in the later wave. Increased social activities between waves predicted higher positive affect and lower interpersonal difficulties scores at follow-up. Increased intellectual activities between waves did not substantially affect any domain of depressive symptoms. In contrast, declines in intellectual activities between waves predicted higher scores in three depressive symptoms domains, including depressed mood, somatic symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties. Engagement in a varied range of activities benefits mental health among elders more than participation in any single type of activity among elders. Reducing physical activities can lower positive affect, while the adverse effect may be balanced by increasing social activities. Also, the impact of decreasing intellectual activities on the interpersonal difficulties domain of depressive symptoms may be offset by increasing social activities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Thyrian, Jochen René; Eichler, Tilly; Reimann, Melanie; Wucherer, Diana; Dreier, Adina; Michalowsky, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Wolfgang
Dementia and depression are common syndromes in the elderly. There is lack of knowledge concerning the frequency of depressive symptoms in people with dementia (PWD) and factors associated with depression. The aim of this analysis is to (a) describe the frequency of depressive symptoms in people screened positive for dementia, (b) describe differences between PWD with and without depressive symptoms, and (c) analyze associations between depressive symptoms and other dementia-related variables. Analyses are based on data of the GP-based intervention trial DelpHi-MV. A sample of 430 (6.29%) people screened positive for dementia in primary care was analyzed regarding depression according to the German version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, 15-items), demographic variables, and dementia/depression-related variables. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms. The mean GDS-score of depressive symptoms in n = 430 PWD was m = 3.21 (SD 2.45) with 67 PWD (15.55%) showing clinically relevant depression (GDS depression and n = 62 (14.42%) received antidepressive drug treatment. Depressive symptoms are significantly associated with age (OR = 0.93), functional impairment (OR = 1.36), and quality of life (OR = 0.01, CI: 0.00-0.06). Our results support previous findings that clinically relevant depressive symptoms are more common in people screened positive for dementia than in the general population and are often missed or mismanaged. Our findings underline the importance of managing quality of life, functional status, or depressive symptoms. Also, the results highlight the benefit of including the partner (and probably other carers) for adequate treatment of PWD.
Dilek Sirvanli Ozen
Full Text Available The question if there is a valid distinction between depression and anxiety disorders remains controversial. These two disorders have various overlaps in the symptomatology and sometimes it is difficult to make a clear diagnosis. The difficulty in making a definite diagnosis destined researchers to determine the differences and the similarities between anxiety and depression. The negative affect which has multiple dimensions such as low self-esteem, negative mood and negative cognitions is seen as the common factor in both disorders. The positive affect which has been defined as the harmony and satisfaction with others and milieu, is regarded as the discriminating factor for the diagnosis of depression. Further research has characterized somatic arousal as the third dimension, a candidate to be the discriminating factor for anxiety disorders. Although phenotypic models appear to find a solution for this problem the facts that negative affect dimension is more loaded compared to the other two dimensions and predominance of negative affect on several symptom patterns prevent researchers to reach a conclusive results regarding the differences between these two disorders. In this review article, symptom similarities and differences of anxiety and depressive disorders are discussed within the frame of phenotypic models and some alternative ideas are provided for possible changes in upcoming versions of classification systems.
Takao, Tetsuya; Tsujimura, Akira; Okuda, Hidenobu; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), erectile dysfunction (ED) and depression in Japanese patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) symptoms. The study comprised 87 Japanese patients with LOH symptoms (>27 points on the Aging Males Symptoms Scale). Thirty-four patients were diagnosed as having depression and the remaining 53 patients were diagnosed as not having depression by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We compared the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) 5, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS quality-of-life (QOL) index, King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), endocrinological data, and free uroflow study between depression and non-depression patients and performed multiple logistic regression analysis. IIEF5 scores of depression patients were significantly lower than those of non-depression patients. In KHQ, only the category of general health perceptions was significantly higher in depression patients than non-depression patients. However, IPSS, QOL index, and endocrinological and uroflowmetric data showed no significant difference between the groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed moderate and severe ED to be risk factors for depression. However, LUTS are not related to depression. Moderate and severe ED is correlated with depression, whereas LUTS are not related to depression in Japanese LOH patients.
Bodell, Lindsay P; Hames, Jennifer L; Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Smith, April R; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E
The stress generation hypothesis posits that individuals actively contribute to stress in their lives. Although stress generation has been studied frequently in the context of depression, few studies have examined whether this stress generation process is unique to depression or whether it occurs in other disorders. Although evidence suggests that stress contributes to the development of eating disorders, it is unclear whether eating disorders contribute to subsequent stress. A prospective design was used to examine the influence of eating disorder symptoms on negative life stressors. Two hundred and ninety female undergraduates completed questionnaires at two time points that examined eating disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms and the presence of negative life events. Regression analyses found that while eating disorder symptoms (i.e. bulimic symptoms and drive for thinness) were independent, significant predictors of negative life events, they did not predict negative life events above and beyond symptoms of depression. Limitations include the use of self-report measures and a college-based sample, which may limit generalizability of the results. Findings suggest that if stress generation is present in individuals with symptoms of eating disorders, it is likely attributable to symptoms of depression. Thus, it may be important for clinicians to target depressive symptoms in order to reduce the frequency of negative life stressors among individuals with eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H
The present study extends earlier research identifying an increased risk of anxiety among children with chronic physical illness (CwCPI) by examining a more complete model that explains how physical illness leads to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. We tested a stress-generation model linking chronic physical illness to symptoms of anxiety and depression in a population-based sample of children aged 10 to 15 years. We hypothesized that having a chronic physical illness would be associated with more symptoms of anxiety and depression, increased levels of maternal depressive symptoms, more family dysfunction, and lower self-esteem; and, that maternal depressive symptoms, family dysfunction, and child self-esteem would mediate the influence of chronic physical illness on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 10,646). Mediating processes were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Childhood chronic physical illness was associated with increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression, β = 0.20, p self-esteem, and in turn, increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression. CwCPI are at-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Some of this elevated risk appears to work through family processes and child self-esteem. This study supports the use of family-centered care approaches among CwCPI to minimize burden on families and promote healthy psychological development for children.
Anding, Jana Eos; Röhrle, Bernd; Grieshop, Melita; Schücking, Beate; Christiansen, Hanna
Postnatal depression affects a significant number of parents; however, its co-occurrence in mothers and fathers has not been studied extensively. Identifying predictors and correlates of postnatal depressive symptoms can help develop effective interventions. Questionnaires on several socio-demographic and psychosocial factors were administered to 276 couples within two weeks after birth. Depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). After calculating the correlation coefficient between mothers and fathers' EPDS scores, univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify significant correlates of postnatal depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Prevalence of maternal and paternal postnatal depressive symptoms was 15.9% (EPDS>12) and 5.4% (EPDS>10), respectively. There was a moderate positive correlation between mothers and fathers' EPDS scores (r=.30, pparental stress was the strongest predictor for maternal and paternal postnatal depressive symptoms. Pregnancy- and birth-related distress and partners' EPDS scores were also associated with depressive symptoms in both parents. Relationship satisfaction was only inversely related with fathers' EPDS scores, while mothers' EPDS scores were additionally associated with critical life events, history of childhood violence, and birth-related physiological complaints. Since information about participation rates (those who declined) is unavailable, we cannot rule out sampling bias. Further, some psychosocial factors were assessed using single items. Since co-occurrence of depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers is high, developing and evaluating postnatal depression interventions for couples may be beneficial. Interventions to reduce parenting stress may help prevent parental postnatal depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stout, Madison E; Meints, Samantha M; Hirsh, Adam T
Previous research suggests that women who experience pain during intercourse also experience higher rates of depressive symptoms. Loneliness might be one factor that contributes to this relationship. We hypothesized that women who experience more severe and interfering pain during intercourse would report higher rates of loneliness and higher rates of depressive symptoms. Further, we hypothesized that loneliness would mediate the relationship between pain during intercourse and depressive symptoms. A total of 104 female participants (85.6% white, 74.03% partnered, 20.9 [3.01] years old) completed an online survey including demographic information, PROMIS Vaginal Discomfort Measure, PROMIS Depression Measure, and Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale. Pearson correlations and bootstrapped mediation analysis examined the relationships among pain during intercourse, loneliness, and depressive symptoms. Pain during intercourse, loneliness, and depressive symptoms were all significantly correlated (p pain during intercourse and depressive symptoms (indirect effect = 0.077; 95% CI 0.05-0.19). After accounting for loneliness, pain during intercourse was not significantly related to depressive symptoms, suggesting that loneliness fully mediated the relationship between pain during intercourse and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with previous studies highlighting that pain during intercourse is related to depressive symptoms. The current study adds to that literature and suggests that more frequent and severe pain during intercourse leads to more loneliness, which then leads to increased depressive symptoms. This line of work has important implications for treating women who experience depressive symptoms and pain during intercourse.
Ho, Samuel M Y; Cheng, Joseph; Dai, Darren Wai Tong; Tam, Titian; Hui, Otilia
To examine the interaction effect of anxiety and depression on the intentional forgetting of positive and negative valence words. One hundred fifty-five grade 7 to grade 10 students participated in the study. The item-method directed forgetting paradigm was used to examine the intentional forgetting of positive-valence, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words. Negative-valence words were recognized better than either positive-valence or neutral-valence words. The results revealed an anxiety main effect (p = .01, LLCI = -.09, and ULCI = -.01) and a depression main effect (p = .04, LLCI = .00, and ULCI = .24). The anxiety score was negative, whereas the depression score was positively related to the directed forgetting of negative-valence words. Regression-based moderation analysis revealed a significant anxiety × depression interaction effect on the directed forgetting of positive-valence words (p = .02, LLCI = .00, and ULCI = .01). Greater anxiety was associated with more directed forgetting of positive-valance words only among participants with high depression scores. With negative-valence words, the anxiety × depression interaction effect was not significant (p = .15, LLCI = - .00, and ULCI = .01). Therapeutic strategies to increase positive memory bias may reduce anxiety symptoms only among those with high depression scores. Interventions to reduce negative memory bias may reduce anxiety symptoms irrespective of levels of depression. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Li, Jian; Weigl, Matthias; Glaser, Jürgen; Petru, Raluca; Siegrist, Johannes; Angerer, Peter
We examined the impact of changes in the psychosocial work environment on depressive symptoms in a sample of junior physicians, a high risk group for stress and mental disorders. This is a three-wave prospective study in 417 junior physicians during their residency in German hospitals. The psychosocial work environment was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire at Waves 1 and 2, and the depressive symptoms were assessed with the State-Trait Depression Scales at all three waves. Multivariate linear regression was applied for prospective associations between ERI across Waves 1 and 2, and baseline-adjusted depressive symptoms at Wave 3. Compared with the ERI scores at Wave 1, at Wave 2, and mean scores between the two waves, the baseline-adjusted ERI change scores between the two waves showed slightly better statistical power, predicting depressive symptoms at Wave 3 (β = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.38-1.18 for increased ERI per SD, β = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.22-1.06 for increased effort per SD, β = -0.65, 95% CI = -1.06 to -0.24 for increased reward per SD, and β = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.27-1.09 for increased overcommitment per SD). Negative changes in the psychosocial work environment, specifically increased ERI, are associated with depressive symptoms in German junior physicians. Reducing the non-reciprocity of working life, particularly improving reward at work, may have beneficial effects on prevention of mental health problems in the hospital workplace. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vankova, Hana; Holmerova, Iva; Machacova, Katerina; Volicer, Ladislav; Veleta, Petr; Celko, Alexander Martin
To evaluate the effect of a dance-based therapy on depressive symptoms among institutionalized older adults. Randomized controlled trial. Nursing homes. Older adults (60 years or older) permanently living in a nursing home. Exercise Dance for Seniors (EXDASE) Program designed for the use in long-term care settings performed once a week for 60 minutes for 3 months. Baseline measures included sociodemographic characteristics, ability to perform basic as well as instrumental activities of daily living, basic mobility, self-rated health, and cognitive status. Outcome measures were collected before and after the intervention and included assessment of depressive symptoms using the geriatric depression scale (GDS). Comparison of participants with MMSE of 15 or higher showed that GDS scores in the intervention group significantly improved (P = .005), whereas the control group had a trend of further worsening of depressive symptoms (P = .081). GLM analysis documented highly statistically significant effect of dance therapy (P = .001) that was not influenced by controlling for intake of antidepressants and nursing home location. Dance therapy may have decreased depressive symptoms even in participants with MMSE lower than 15 and resulted in more discontinuations and fewer prescriptions of antidepressants in the intervention group than in the control group. This study provides evidence that dance-based exercise can reduce the amount of depressive symptoms in nursing home residents. In general, this form of exercise seems to be very suitable and beneficial for this population. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
te Wildt, Bert T; Putzig, Inken; Zedler, Markus; Ohlmeier, Martin D
In psychiatric contexts, the quick distribution of virtual techniques in private and professional everyday life gives rise to the question, if these can evoke a psychological addiction. Yet, the diagnostic assessment of internet or computer game dependency remains problematic. Within a study with 23 internet-dependent patients with significant psychological strain, 18 (77.8%) were diagnosed with a depressive mood disorder by thorough clinical examination and structured interviews. The presented work compares psychometric test results of the depressed subpopulation with healthy controls matched for age, sex and school education. In the Barrat Impulsiveness Scale patients with internet dependency scored significantly higher than the control group (p Internet Addiction Scale. Becks Depression Inventory and the Symptom-Checklist subscale for depression revealed significantly higher scores within the patient group as compared to controls (p internet dependent subjects showed significantly more pathological scores than the healthy subjects (p internet dependency can be understood as a novel psychopathology of well known psychiatric conditions, every psychiatrist should be able to detect and treat it adequately, as long as there is a willingness to deal with the contents and impacts of cyberspace. Especially with depressed patients, it seems to be crucial to include questions about media usage in psychiatric examination taking.
Ajilchi, Bita; Nejati, Vahid
This study aimed to investigate and compare the executive functions of students with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with those functions in healthy ones. This study was a comparative and non-clinical analysis. The study population comprised all students of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. A total of 448 students were recruited using convenience sampling method. They were also screened using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) test comprising 21 items. Of study participants, 30 people were depressed, 27 had anxiety, and 15 suffered from stress. Then, 50 control people were matched with them. Next, both groups were compared using the Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting, and cognitive ability test. Using MANOVA test, data analysis revealed no significant differences among 4 groups with regard to selective attention and shifting attention. Depressed group reacted rapidly as opposed to the anxiety group with regard to measures of shifting attention and cognitive abilities; it was observed that the memory, inhibition control, planning, and flexibility of the healthy group were better than those of the 3 other groups. The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.
Dorland, H F; Abma, F I; Roelen, C A M; Stewart, R; Amick, B C; Bültmann, U; Ranchor, A V
Cancer patients can experience work-specific cognitive symptoms post return to work (RTW). The study aims to: 1) describe the course of work-specific cognitive symptoms in the first 18 months post RTW, and 2) examine the associations of work characteristics, fatigue and depressive symptoms with work-specific cognitive symptoms over time. This study used data from the 18-months longitudinal "Work Life after Cancer" cohort. The Cognitive Symptom Checklist-Work, Dutch Version (CSC-W DV) was used to measure work-specific cognitive symptoms. Linear mixed models were performed to examine the course of work-specific cognitive symptoms during 18 months follow-up; linear regression analyses with generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine associations over time. Working cancer patients diagnosed with different cancer types were included (n=378). Work-specific cognitive symptoms were stable over 18 months. At baseline, cancer patients reported more working memory symptoms (M=31.9, CI=23.1, 26.4) compared to executive function symptoms (M=19.3; CI=17.6, 20.9). Cancer patients holding a job with both manual and non-manual tasks reported less work-specific cognitive symptoms (unstandardized regression coefficient b=-4.80; CI=-7.76, -1.83) over time, compared to cancer patients with a non-manual job. Over time, higher depressive symptoms were related to experiencing more overall work-specific cognitive symptoms (b=1.27; CI=1.00, 1.55) and a higher fatigue score was related to more working memory symptoms (b=0.13; CI=0.04, 0.23). Job type should be considered when looking at work-specific cognitive symptoms over time in working cancer patients. To reduce work-specific cognitive symptoms, interventions targeted at fatigue and depressive symptoms might be promising. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla
Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elder, Greg J; Colloby, Sean J; Lett, Debra J; O'Brien, John T; Anderson, Kirstie N; Burn, David J; McKeith, Ian G; Taylor, John-Paul
Sleep problems and depression are common symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), where patients typically experience subjectively poor sleep quality, fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness. However, whilst sleep disturbances have been linked to depression, this relationship has not received much attention in DLB. The present cross-sectional study addresses this by examining whether depressive symptoms are specifically associated with subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in DLB, and by examining other contributory factors. DLB patients (n = 32) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Motor and cognitive functioning was also assessed. Pearson correlations were used to assess the relationship between GDS-15, ESS and PSQI scores. GDS-15 scores were positively associated with both ESS (r = 0.51, p depressive symptoms in DLB. Given the cross-sectional nature of the present study, the directionality of this relationship cannot be determined, although this association did not appear to be mediated by sleep quality or daytime sleepiness. Nevertheless, these findings have clinical relevance; daytime sleepiness or poor sleep quality might indicate depression in DLB, and subsequent work should examine whether the treatment of depression can reduce excessive daytime sleepiness and improve sleep quality in DLB patients. Alternatively, more rigorous screening for sleep problems in DLB might assist the treatment of depression. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Herman, Sandra L.; Lester, David
Examined depression among 97 adolescents with and without psychosomatic stress symptoms and explored relationship between psychosomatic stress symptoms and preoccupation with suicide. Found that occurrence of minor physical symptoms of stress, but not major psychosomatic disorders, was associated with depression. Physical symptoms were not…
Galhardo, A; Moura-Ramos, M; Cunha, M; Pinto-Gouveia, J
Does the perception of failure without a solution or way forward of infertile couples have a mediator role between the importance couples attribute to parenthood and depressive symptoms? The perception of failure without a solution or way forward, assessed by feelings of entrapment and defeat, mediates the effect of the importance of parenthood on depressive symptoms of infertile men and women. Research has documented that the heightened importance of parenthood affects infertile couples' adjustment to infertility and medical treatments. However, it remains unclear which psychological mechanisms and perceptions may underlie the association between having parenthood as a nuclear aspect of life and presenting depressive symptoms related to difficulties in accomplishing that important life goal. Although these links have been scantly addressed in infertility, previous studies have pointed to the role that perceptions of defeat and entrapment have in several psychopathological conditions. The study was cross-sectional. Couples pursuing medical treatment for their fertility problems were invited to participate by their doctors in several public and private clinics. Data collection took place between July 2009 and 2011. One hundred forty-seven infertile couples consented to participate in the study. Both couple members (147 women and 147 men) completed a set of self-report instruments for the assessment of depressive symptoms, perceptions of defeat and entrapment, importance of parenthood and rejection of a childfree lifestyle. Analyses were conducted through Structural Equation Modeling and followed a dyadic analysis strategy, allowing for controlling the interdependence of the data. The hypothesized tested model showed a very good fit to the data [(χ(2) = 68.45, P = 0.014, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.06 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.06] and explained 67 and 58% of the variability in depressive symptoms in
Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Oberlander, Sarah E; Papas, Mia A; McNary, Scot W; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M
Maternal depressive symptomatology is an important public health issue with negative consequences for both mothers and infants. This study examined prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among 181 urban, low-income, first-time, African American adolescent mothers recruited from urban hospitals following delivery. Follow-up evaluations were conducted at 6 (N=148; 82%) and 24 (N=147; 81%) month home visits. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Half of mothers (49%) had BDI scores >9 at baseline, with significant correlations between BDI scores across all visits (r=0.28-0.50). Depressive symptom trajectories analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling revealed three trajectories of depressive symptoms: Low (41%), Medium (45%), and High (14%). The high depressive symptom group reported lower self-esteem, more negative life events, and lower parenting satisfaction than the low and moderate depressive symptoms groups. Depressive symptoms were self-reported and not verified with a clinical interview. Findings are limited to urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and may not be generalizable to other populations. The high prevalence and relative stability of depressive symptoms through 2years of parenting suggest the need for early identification and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms. Brief screening for maternal depressive symptoms conducted during pediatric well-child visits is a feasible and effective method for identifying mothers with depressive symptoms, however, screening measures can not differentiate between high and low levels of depressive symptoms. Brief intervention may be an effective treatment for mothers with mild symptoms of depression; mothers with moderate to severe symptoms may require more intensive intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Peer victimization can have a profound effect on children’s wellbeing and is a known risk factor for depression in childhood. Migrant children experience peer victimization at higher rates than non-migrant peers; however, limited research has examined psychological factors that may serve to reduce depression risk for this group. In particular, no studies have yet investigated whether resilience, including personal characteristics and a strong social support network, may moderate the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms for migrant children. This study utilized a latent interaction model to examine the effect of resilience on the relationship between peer victimization and depressive symptoms among 721 rural-to-urban migrant children in Beijing, China. Results indicated that peer victimization was positively associated with depressive symptoms. Resilience was found to be a protective factor for depressive symptoms and also mitigated the effects of peer victimization on depressive symptoms. Exploratory analyses suggest that enrollment in private migrant schools may be linked with poorer psychosocial outcomes for Chinese migrant children. Strengthening the internal resilience and social supports for all migrant children may be an effective strategy to lower their risk for depression. Implications for intervention are discussed.
Ju Ryoung Moon
Full Text Available ObjectivesParental rearing behavior is one factor that influences the strength of resilience. In turn, resilience influences depression. However, it is unclear whether resilience has a mediating effect on the relationship between parental rearing and depression in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD. Therefore, the associations between parental rearing behavior and resilience and between rearing behavior and symptoms of depression were investigated with respect to age, gender and disease severity.Subjects and methodsPatients completed a parental rearing behavior questionnaire, a resilience scale and the Children’s Depression Inventory during a routine clinic visit. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyze the data.ResultsThe median age of the 180 patients included in the study was 17.8 years, and 64% were male. Lower resilience was found to be associated with overprotection, punishment, rejection, and control. There was a strong relationship between resilience and symptoms of depression. Resilience varied according to gender, age group, and disease severity.ConclusionParental rearing behaviors such as emotional warmth, rejection, punishment, control, and overprotection have a significant influence on adolescent’s resilience. When developing intervention programs to increase resilience and reduce depression in adolescents with CHD, parenting attitudes, gender, age, and CHD severity should be considered.
Full Text Available Although sex difference in the mean level of depressive symptoms has been well established, the sex difference in genetic and environmental influences on adolescent depressive symptoms is unclear. The current study conducted a meta-analysis of twin studies on sex differences in self- and parent-reported adolescent depressive symptoms. For self-reports, genetic factors influenced adolescent depressive symptoms equally for boys and girls, accounting for 46% of variation, but shared environmental factors had stronger impacts on adolescent girls’ versus boys’ depressive symptoms (13% versus 1% of the variance. For parent-reports, genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors influenced adolescent depressive symptoms equally, with separate estimates of 34%, 35%, and 31%. The implications of sex difference in genetic and environmental etiologies of depressive symptoms are discussed.
Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J
The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning.
Trivedi, Madhukar H; Morris, David W; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Lesser, Ira; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Daly, Ella; Kurian, Benji T; Gaynes, Bradley N; Balasubramani, G K; Rush, A John
The authors sought to identify baseline clinical and sociodemographic characteristics associated with work productivity in depressed outpatients and to assess the effect of treatment on work productivity. Employed depressed outpatients 18-75 years old who completed the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment scale (N=1,928) were treated with citalopram (20-40 mg/day) in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study. For patients who did not remit after an initial adequate antidepressant trial (level 1), either a switch to sertraline, sustained-release bupropion, or extended-release venlafaxine or an augmentation with sustained-release bupropion or buspirone was provided (level 2). Participants' clinical and demographic characteristics and treatment outcomes were analyzed for associations with baseline work productivity and change in productivity over time. Education, baseline depression severity, and melancholic, atypical, and recurrent depression subtypes were all independently associated with lower benefit to work productivity domains. During level 1 treatment, work productivity in several domains improved with reductions in depressive symptom severity. However, these findings did not hold true for level 2 outcomes; there was no significant association between treatment response and reduction in work impairment. Results were largely confirmed when multiple imputations were employed to address missing data. During this additional analysis, an association was also observed between greater impairment in work productivity and higher levels of anxious depression. Patients with clinically significant reductions in symptom severity during initial treatment were more likely than nonresponders to experience significant improvements in work productivity. In contrast, patients who achieved symptom remission in second-step treatment continued to have impairment at work. Patients who have demonstrated some degree of treatment resistance are more prone to
Hodge, David R; Husain, Altaf; Zidan, Tarek
Hijab or veiling is commonly practiced by Muslim women but remains controversial in the broader secular society. Some Western feminists argue that veiling is an oppressive behavior that negatively affects women by, for example, engendering depression. This article tests this hypothesis with a national sample of American Muslim women (N = 194). The results of the regression analysis did not support the hypothesis. Indeed, women who veiled more frequently reported lower, rather than higher, levels of depressive symptoms. In other words, wearing the hijab appears to be a protective factor in the area of depression. Given the prevalence of depression among women, the results have important implications for practice with Muslim women at both the micro and the macro levels. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
McGovern, R J; Neale, M C; Kendler, K S
The relationship between physical attractiveness and symptoms of depression was investigated in a general population simple of 1,100 female twins. Photographs were rated by 4 raters. Symptoms of depression were measured by the Depression sub-scale of the SCL-54, by a self-rating based on the DSM-III-R, and by an MD diagnosis based on a structured interview (SCID). No relationships between ratings of physical attractiveness and symptoms of depression were found.
Full Text Available Compared to the general population, transpersons are exposed to higher levels of discrimination and violence. The stigmatization of transpersons can lead to physical and psychological problems. In particular, transindividuals exhibit a higher prevalence of depression compared to the cispopulation. The gender minority stress model (GMSM provides a comprehensive theoretical basis to interpret these biopsychosocial interactions. Using the GMSM, this study aimed to identify associations between experience of stigmatization and the mental health of transitioned transpersons using correlational analyses and multiple regression models. In total, 143 transpersons were recruited. Multivariate analyses identified three variables (i.e., unemployment, nonaffirmation of gender identity, and internalized transphobia to explain variance of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, a mediation of the proximal factors between distal factors and depressive symptoms was found. However, the moderating effect of resilience factors was not demonstrated. The results confirmed the importance of distal and proximal minority stressors for the mental health of transpersons. At the same time, the protective influence of resilience factors seemed to be surprisingly minor. In the treatment of transpersons, practitioners should not only focus on somatic aspects, but also consider the person’s previous experiences of stigmatization.
Corbisiero, Salvatore; Schaefer, Dirk J.; Jenewein, Josef; Schneeberger, Andres; Kuhn, Annette; Garcia Nuñez, David
Compared to the general population, transpersons are exposed to higher levels of discrimination and violence. The stigmatization of transpersons can lead to physical and psychological problems. In particular, transindividuals exhibit a higher prevalence of depression compared to the cispopulation. The gender minority stress model (GMSM) provides a comprehensive theoretical basis to interpret these biopsychosocial interactions. Using the GMSM, this study aimed to identify associations between experience of stigmatization and the mental health of transitioned transpersons using correlational analyses and multiple regression models. In total, 143 transpersons were recruited. Multivariate analyses identified three variables (i.e., unemployment, nonaffirmation of gender identity, and internalized transphobia) to explain variance of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, a mediation of the proximal factors between distal factors and depressive symptoms was found. However, the moderating effect of resilience factors was not demonstrated. The results confirmed the importance of distal and proximal minority stressors for the mental health of transpersons. At the same time, the protective influence of resilience factors seemed to be surprisingly minor. In the treatment of transpersons, practitioners should not only focus on somatic aspects, but also consider the person's previous experiences of stigmatization. PMID:29850581
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety and depression are common and treatable risk factors for re-hospitalisation and death in patients with COPD. The degree of lung function impairment does not sufficiently explain anxiety and depression. The BODE index allows a functional classification of COPD beyond FEV1. The aim of this cross-sectional study was (1 to test whether the BODE index is superior to the GOLD classification for explaining anxious and depressive symptoms; and (2 to assess which components of the BODE index are associated with these psychological aspects of COPD. Methods COPD was classified according to the GOLD stages based on FEV1%predicted in 122 stable patients with COPD. An additional four stage classification was constructed based on the quartiles of the BODE index. The hospital anxiety and depression scale was used to assess anxious and depressive symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of anxious and depressive symptoms was 49% and 52%, respectively. The prevalence of anxious symptoms increased with increasing BODE stages but not with increasing GOLD stages. The prevalence of depressive symptoms increased with both increasing GOLD and BODE stages. The BODE index was superior to FEV1%predicted for explaining anxious and depressive symptoms. Anxious symptoms were explained by dyspnoea. Depressive symptoms were explained by both dyspnoea and reduced exercise capacity. Conclusion The BODE index is superior to the GOLD classification for explaining anxious and depressive symptoms in COPD patients. These psychological consequences of the disease may play a role in future classification systems of COPD.
Lee, Chien-Ti; Stroo, Marissa; Fuemmeler, Bernard; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls
Background Although depressive symptoms are common postpartum, few studies have followed women beyond 12 months postpartum to investigate changes in the number and severity of these symptoms over time, especially in overweight and obese women. Using two complementary analytical methods, this study aims to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum among overweight or obese mothers, and assess the demographic, socio-economic , and health covariates for these trajectories. Methods Using longitudinal data from two behavioral intervention studies (KAN-DO and AMP; N = 844), we used latent growth modeling to identify the overall trajectory of depressive symptoms and how it was related to key covariates. Next, we used latent class growth analysis to assess the heterogeneity in the depressive symptom trajectories over time, and thereby, identify subgroups of women with distinct trajectories. Findings The overall trajectory of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum was relatively stable in our sample. However, the presence of three distinct latent class trajectories [stable-low (82.5%), decreasing symptoms (7.3%) and increasing symptoms (10.2%)], identified based on trajectory shape and mean depressive symptom score, supported heterogeneity in depressive symptom trajectories over time. Lower maternal education was related to a higher symptom score, and poorer subjective health status at baseline predicted inclusion in the increasing symptoms trajectory. Conclusions In some overweight or obese mothers postpartum depressive symptoms do not resolve quickly. Practitioners should be aware of this phenomenon and continue to screen for depression for longer periods of time postpartum. PMID:25213748
Patron, Elisabetta; Messerotti Benvenuti, Simone; Favretto, Giuseppe; Gasparotto, Renata; Palomba, Daniela
Heart rate variability (HRV), as an index of autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning, is reduced by depression after cardiac surgery, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood. Poor emotion regulation as a core symptom of depression has also been associated with altered ANS functioning. The present study aimed to examine whether emotion dysregulation could be a mediator of the depression-reduced HRV relationship observed after cardiac surgery. Self-reported emotion regulation and four-minute HRV were measured in 25 depressed and 43 nondepressed patients after cardiac surgery. Mediation analysis was conducted to evaluate emotion regulation as a mediator of the depression-reduced HRV relationship. Compared to nondepressed patients, those with depression showed lower standard deviation of normal-to-normal (NN) intervals (pbehavior partially mediated the effect of depression on LF n.u. and HF n.u. Results confirmed previous findings showing that depression is associated with reduced HRV, especially a reduced vagal tone and a sympathovagal imbalance, after cardiac surgery. This study also provides preliminary evidence that increased trait levels of suppression of emotion-expressive behavior may mediate the depression-related sympathovagal imbalance after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lebowitz, Matthew S; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung
Depression, like other mental disorders and health conditions generally, is increasingly construed as genetically based. This research sought to determine whether merely telling people that they have a genetic predisposition to depression can cause them to retroactively remember having experienced it. U.S. adults (men and women) were recruited online to participate (Experiment 1: N = 288; Experiment 2: N = 599). After conducting a test disguised as genetic screening, we randomly assigned some participants to be told that they carried elevated genetic susceptibility to depression, whereas others were told that they did not carry this genetic liability or were told that they carried elevated susceptibility to a different disorder. Participants then rated their experience of depressive symptoms over the prior 2 weeks on a modified version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Participants who were told that their genes predisposed them to depression generally reported higher levels of depressive symptomatology over the previous 2 weeks, compared to those who did not receive this feedback. Given the central role of self-report in psychiatric diagnosis, these findings highlight potentially harmful consequences of personalized genetic testing in mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kettunen, Pirjo; Koistinen, Eeva; Hintikka, Jukka
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common illness, but due to the underlying processes and the diversity of symptoms, some variability is exhibited. The risk of postpartum depression is great if the mother has previously suffered from depression, but there is some evidence that a certain subgroup of women only experience depression during the postpartum period. The study group consisted of 104 mothers with postpartum major depression and a control group of 104 postpartum mothers without depression. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was used for data collection. The severity of depression and other mental symptoms were assessed using several validated rating scales. A history of past depression (82%), including depression during pregnancy (42%) and during the postpartum period (53%), was very common in those with current PPD. Eighteen per cent of mothers with current PPD had previously not had any depressive episodes and four per cent had experienced depression only during the postpartum period. Therefore, pure PPD was rare. The onset of PPD was usually (84%) within six weeks of childbirth. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, depressed mood, diminished pleasure/interest, decreased energy, and psychomotor agitation/retardation were common with all kinds of depression histories. Pure PPD was the most similar to the first depressive episode. Nevertheless, the severity of depression, the level of hopelessness, somatisation, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, psychoticism, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation were lower, appetite changed less, and concentration was better than in other recurrent depressions. According to this study, PPD is not a homogenous disorder. The time of onset, severity, symptoms, level of hopelessness, and the course of depression vary. Recurrent depression is common. All mothers must be screened during the sixth week postpartum at the latest. Screening alone is not
Gould, Jacqueline F; Best, Karen; Makrides, Maria
Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mood disorder associated with childbirth. No single cause of PPD has been identified, however the increased risk of nutritional deficiencies incurred through the high nutritional requirements of pregnancy may play a role in the pathology of depressive symptoms. Three nutritional interventions have drawn particular interest as possible non-invasive and cost-effective prevention and/or treatment strategies for PPD; omega-3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), vitamin D and overall diet. We searched for meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCT's) of nutritional interventions during the perinatal period with PPD as an outcome, and checked for any trials published subsequently to the meta-analyses. Fish oil: Eleven RCT's of prenatal fish oil supplementation RCT's show null and positive effects on PPD symptoms. Vitamin D: no relevant RCT's were identified, however seven observational studies of maternal vitamin D levels with PPD outcomes showed inconsistent associations. Diet: Two Australian RCT's with dietary advice interventions in pregnancy had a positive and null result on PPD. With the exception of fish oil, few RCT's with nutritional interventions during pregnancy assess PPD. Further research is needed to determine whether nutritional intervention strategies during pregnancy can protect against symptoms of PPD. Given the prevalence of PPD and ease of administering PPD measures, we recommend future prenatal nutritional RCT's include PPD as an outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Koorevaar, A M L; Hegeman, J M; Lamers, F; Dhondt, A D F; van der Mast, R C; Stek, M L; Comijs, H C
This study examined the associations of personality characteristics with both subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression in older adults. Three hundred and seventy-eight depressed older adults participated in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons. Personality characteristics were assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression were determined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between personality and atypical, melancholic, and unspecified subtypes of major depression. Linear regression analyses examined the associations between personality and the IDS mood, somatic, and motivation symptom dimensions. The analyses were adjusted for confounders and additionally adjusted for depression severity. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness were associated with specified (atypical or melancholic) major depression compared with unspecified major depression in the bivariate analyses but lost their significance after adjustments for functional limitations and severity of depression. Neuroticism was positively associated with the IDS mood and motivation symptom dimensions, also in the adjusted models. Further, Extraversion and Agreeableness were negatively associated with the IDS mood symptom dimension, and Extraversion and Conscientiousness were negatively associated with the IDS motivation symptom dimension. None was associated with the IDS somatic symptom dimension. This study demonstrated the association of personality characteristics with mood and motivational symptoms of late-life depression. The lacking ability of personality to differentiate between melancholic and atypical depression seems to be largely explained by severity of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Olino, Thomas M; McMakin, Dana L; Nicely, Terri A; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Silk, Jennifer S
Although multiple studies find that offspring of depressed mothers are at risk for depressive disorders, there is uncertainty about the specific mechanisms that are at work--particularly with respect to modifiable factors that might be targeted for early intervention. The present work examines that parenting behaviors may operate as mediators, moderators, or independent influences on the development of youth depressive symptoms. One hundred one mothers and their early adolescent children participated in positive and negative interaction tasks. Maternal and youth self-reports of youth depressive symptoms were collected at baseline, 9-month, and 18-month assessments. Maternal history of depression was significantly associated with maternal-reported, but not youth self-reported, depressive symptomatology. Maternal positive and negative interaction behaviors in positive contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. Maternal positive interaction behaviors in positive contexts and maternal negative interactive behaviors in conflict contexts were associated with higher youth self-reported depressive symptoms. We found no evidence for maternal interaction behaviors serving as a mediator and little evidence of maternal interaction behaviors serving as a moderator of the relationship between maternal and offspring depression. Low maternal positive engagement tended to be more consistently associated with maternal- and self-reported youth depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that characteristics of mother-child interactions that are associated with youth depressive symptomatology are pertinent to youth with and without a mother with a history of depression.
Lu, Catherine; Winkelman, Megan; Wong, Shane Shucheng
Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of a tablet-based multimedia