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Sample records for reduced cortical vein

  1. The reversibility of reduced cortical vein compliance in normal-pressure hydrocephalus following shunt insertion

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    Bateman, G.A. [Department of Medical Imaging, John Hunter Hospital, Locked Bag 1, Newcastle Region Mail Centre, Newcastle (Australia)

    2003-02-01

    Superficial cortical venous compression secondary to alterations in craniospinal compliance is implicated in the pathogenesis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). A reduction in the pulsation in the outflow of the cortical veins would be expected to occur following compression of these veins and this has been shown in NPH. If cortical vein compression is a causative factor in NPH, it would be expected that cortical vein compliance as measured by pulsatility would be significantly altered by a curative procedure i.e. shunt tube insertion. My purpose is to compare the blood flow pulsatility characteristics in a group of patients with NPH before and after shunt tube insertion. I initially studied 18 subjects without pathology with MRI flow quantification studies of the cerebral arteries and veins to define the range of normality. The main study involved 18 patients with idiopathic dementia and mild leukoaraiosis who served as controls and seven patients with NPH studied before and after shunt insertion. Arterial, superior sagittal and straight sinus pulsatility was not significantly different between the patients with idiopathic dementia and those NPH patients before or after shunting. Cortical vein pulsatility before shunting in the patients with NPH was 43% lower than in those with idiopathic dementia (P =0.006). Following shunting, cortical vein pulsatility increased by 186% (P =0.007). There is thus reduced compliance in cortical veins in NPH which is significantly increased in patients who respond to insertion of a shunt tube. These findings suggest that reversible elevation in cortical vein pressure and reversal of the normal absorption pathway for cerebrospinal fluid may be behind the pathophysiology of NPH. (orig.)

  2. Assessment and Treatment of Peritumoral Cortical Veins in Parasagittal Meningiomas with Application of 3-Dimensional Imaging Fusion Model.

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    Yin, Tengkun; Gu, Jianjun; Huang, Yinxing; Wei, Liangfeng; Gao, Jinxi; Wang, Shousen

    2017-08-01

    Operation of cortical veins is the keystone of parasagittal meningioma (PSM) resection. Little is known about pathologic changes of the veins and proper treatment. We built 3-dimensional (3D) image fusion models by neuronavigation to analyze the features of peritumoral cortical veins for PSMs and explore intraoperative treatment options. We performed a prospective study of 42 consecutive surgically treated PSM patients who underwent preoperative evaluation of peritumoral cortical veins using a 3D venous-tumor fusion model established by a neuronavigation system. We categorized cortical veins into 3 types: single-end anastomosis (type a), tumor-to-end anastomosis (type b), and end-to-end anastomosis (type c). We present surgical strategies to operate these veins. Preoperative evaluation demonstrated 39 patients with peritumoral cortical veins. The 3D models show 100% of the veins (95 in total), which were confirmed intraoperation. The postoperative complication rates after vein injury were 60% (type a), 16.7% (type c), and 0% (type b). Ten patients (23.8%) had residual tumor because of venous protection (equal to Simpson grade III). After correlation analysis, type b and c cortical veins were positively correlated with tumor volume. The anastomoses of cortical veins may provide compensation for venous transaction. There may be a time-evolution relationship between different cortical veins (type a to c to b). Treatment of cortical veins should follow the following principles: single-end veins must be protected, tumor-to-end veins should be transacted directly, and end-to-end veins could be cut selectivity based on the degree of occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus. Detailed preoperative assessment of peritumoral cortical veins is critical for proper treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cortical vein thrombosis: the diagnostic value of different imaging modalities

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    Linn, Jennifer; Michl, Stefan; Katja, Bochmann; Hartz, Sabine; Brueckmann, Hartmut [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Dichgans, Martin [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Helios Kliniken Schwerin, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Schwerin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Cortical vein thrombosis (CVT) is a rare disorder, and its diagnosis is challenging. The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of different imaging modalities for the detection of CVT. Thirteen patients with CVT, either isolated (n = 3) or in combination with sinus thrombosis (n = 10), and 20 control patients without any venous pathologies were included in this study. The analysis was performed independently by three blinded readers who evaluated the following imaging modalities and sequences separately: non-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT); multi-detector row CT angiography (MDCTA); diffusion-weighted (DWI), T1-weighted (T1w), PD-weighted (PDw), T2*-weighted (T2*w), and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery-weighted (FLAIRw) magnetic resonance (MR) sequences; as well as venous MR angiography (vMRA). The sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values, and interobserver agreement of the different modalities were calculated. T2*w showed the highest sensitivity for the detection of CVT (97.4%), followed by T1w (70%). FLAIRw and vMRA had a sensitivity of 50% and 41.7%, respectively, whereas the sensitivity of NCCT, MDCTA, DWI, and PDw was below 30%. The specificity and PPV of all modalities was 100%, with good to perfect interobserver agreement. T2*w was the superior MR imaging sequence for diagnosing CVT. Besides T2*w, only T1w reached a sensitivity of over 50% for CVT, followed by FLAIRw, and vMRA. On the contrary, our results suggest that NCCT but also MDCTA might not be suitable for diagnosing CVT. (orig.)

  4. Occlusion of the pig superior sagittal sinus, bridging and cortical veins: multistep evolution of sinus-vein thrombosis.

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    Fries, G; Wallenfang, T; Hennen, J; Velthaus, M; Heimann, A; Schild, H; Perneczky, A; Kempski, O

    1992-07-01

    Cerebral sinus-vein thrombosis may lead to severe hemodynamic changes, elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), and brain edema. It is supposed that progression of the thrombus from the sinus into bridging and cortical veins plays a key role in the development of these pathophysiological changes, but this hypothesis lacks experimental proof. The aim of this study, using a novel animal model of sinus-vein thrombosis, was to evaluate the effects of a standardized occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus and its bridging and cortical veins on hemodynamic alterations, on brain water content, and on ICP in domestic pigs. In 10 animals, the middle third of the superior sagittal sinus was occluded with a catheter-guided balloon. Five of these pigs received an additional injection of 1 ml fibrin glue into the superior sagittal sinus anterior to the inflated balloon, leading to an obstruction of bridging and cortical veins. In five control animals the balloon was inserted but not inflated. Five pigs underwent cerebral angiography. Four hours after occlusion, the brains were frozen in liquid nitrogen, and coronal slices were examined for Evans blue dye extravasation, regional water content, and histological changes. Occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus alone did not affect ICP or cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). The additional injection of fibrin glue caused an obstruction of cortical and bridging veins as well as severe increases in mean (+/- standard deviation) ICP to 49.4 +/- 14.3 mm Hg, compared with 8.3 +/- 4.5 mm Hg in sham-treated controls and 7.1 +/- 3.9 mm Hg in animals with occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus alone. There was also a steep fall in the mean CPP to 34.2 +/- 19.6 mm Hg compared with 96.4 +/- 13.8 mm Hg in the control group. White-matter water content anterior to the occlusion site was elevated to 81.9 +/- 3.7 gm/100 gm frozen weight in the fibrin group as compared to 70.7 +/- 2.2 gm/100 gm in controls. Posterior to the occlusion site, water

  5. Atypical clinical and pathological findings in a patient with isolated cortical vein thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ding; Vance Fredrickson; Yicong Lin; Yueshan Piao; Xiangbo Wang; Dehong Lu; Cunjiang Li

    2012-01-01

    Isolated cortical vein thrombosis often produces a focal lesion. Because of the rapid development of collateral circulation, increased intracranial pressure has never been reported in a patient with isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The diagnosis of isolated cortical vein thrombosis is based mainly on MRI, catheter digital subtraction angiography, and histological findings, but may be challenging. We report a patient who presented with intermittent seizures and left-sided limb weakness. Her symptoms gradually progressed, and she eventually developed signs of increased intracranial pressure. Imaging studies showed a space-occupying lesion in the right frontal lobe of the brain. As we could not diagnose isolated cortical vein thrombosis based on the preoperative findings, surgical excision of the lesion was performed under general anesthesia. Histological examination showed destruction of the brain parenchyma with infiltration of macrophages, proliferation of reactive astrocytes and small vessels, and foci of hemorrhage. Further examination found that a number of small vessels in both the subarachnoid space and brain parenchyma were filled with thrombus, some of which was organized. Elastic fiber staining showed that the obstructed vessels were veins. We diagnosed isolated cortical vein thrombosis with atypical clinical features.

  6. Changes in renal cortical and medullary perfusion in a patient with renal vein thrombosis

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    Al-Said Jafar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic renal perfusion computerized tomographic (CT scan was performed to test the cortical and medullary perfusion in a patient with unilateral renal vein thrombosis secondary to idiopathic focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. Forty mL of Iohexol was injected intra-venously. Multiple fixed repeated axial renal CT scan cuts at specific intervals, over the mid pole, were recorded over 400 seconds. Radio density was measured over the aorta, cortex and medulla during that period. Graphs for the radio contrast density against time were plotted. Aortic, cortical and medullary perfusions were calculated by estimating the slopes of the curves. Based on the CT scan findings, perfusion of different parts of the kidney was measured. The reduction in kidney function with renal vein thrombosis seems to be secondary to hypoperfusion of renal cortex and medulla. Further studies are required to confirm this observation. The blood flow to the kidney im-proved within four days after therapy with anticoagulation and pulse steroids. The sequences of events that take place need further studies for validation.

  7. Flow velocity change in the cortical vein during motor activation and its effect on functional brain MRI

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    Nakajima, Kazuhiro [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    On the brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using the gradient-recalled echo technique with clinical MR scanner, the activated areas nearly correspond with the cortical veins. This suggests that the fMRI signal mainly originates from the cortical veins. In this study, we analyzed the flow velocity in the cortical vein quantitatively during brain activation and resting status using 2 dimensional time-of-flight cine MR venography (2D-TOF-cine-MRV) and 2 dimensional phase contrast MRV (2D-PC-MRV) techniques, and demonstrated that the flow velocity increased in the cortical vein corresponding to the activated area during activation status. The increase of flow velocity was calculated to be about 20%. The reason for the increased flow velocity is probably due to the increased regional cerebral blood flow and volume in the activated area. We should be careful to analyze the data of the fMRI because the flow velocity affects the fMRI signal such as the inflow effect and the oblique flow effect. When using the gradient echo method, the effect of the flow velocity is one of the important factors of the fMRI signal. (author)

  8. Reducing intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts harvested by a no-touch harvesting technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of no-touch harvesting technique in reducing vein graft intimal hyperplasia. Methods This longitudinal trial compared graft angiostenosis of two groups undergoing jugular vein to carotid artery interposition grafting in rabbit model. Conventional group:12 rabbits had their veins stripped,distended,and stored in heparinized saline solution. No-touch group:12 rabbits had veins removed with surrounding tissues,but were not distended,and stored in heparinized blood. The graft...

  9. Leptomeningeal collateralization in acute ischemic stroke: Impact on prominent cortical veins in susceptibility-weighted imaging

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    Verma, Rajeev K., E-mail: rajeev.verma@insel.ch [University Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Hsieh, Kety; Gratz, Pascal P.; Schankath, Adrian C.; Mordasini, Pasquale; Zubler, Christoph; Kellner-Weldon, Frauke [University Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Jung, Simon [Department of Neurology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Schroth, Gerhard; Gralla, Jan; El-Koussy, Marwan [University Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Background: The extent of hypoperfusion is an important prognostic factor in acute ischemic stroke. Previous studies have postulated that the extent of prominent cortical veins (PCV) on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) reflects the extent of hypoperfusion. Our aim was to investigate, whether there is an association between PCV and the grade of leptomeningeal arterial collateralization in acute ischemic stroke. In addition, we analyzed the correlation between SWI and perfusion-MRI findings. Methods: 33 patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a thromboembolic M1-segment occlusion underwent MRI followed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and were subdivided into two groups with very good to good and moderate to no leptomeningeal collaterals according to the DSA. The extent of PCV on SWI, diffusion restriction (DR) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and prolonged mean transit time (MTT) on perfusion-imaging were graded according to the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at admission and the time between symptom onset and MRI were documented. Results: 20 patients showed very good to good and 13 patients poor to no collateralization. PCV-ASPECTS was significantly higher for cases with good leptomeningeal collaterals versus those with poor leptomeningeal collaterals (mean 4.1 versus 2.69; p = 0.039). MTT-ASPECTS was significantly lower than PCV-ASPECTS in all 33 patients (mean 1.0 versus 3.5; p < 0.00). Conclusions: In our small study the grade of leptomeningeal collateralization correlates with the extent of PCV in SWI in acute ischemic stroke, due to the deoxyhemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin ratio. Consequently, extensive PCV correlate with poor leptomeningeal collateralization while less pronounced PCV correlate with good leptomeningeal collateralization. Further SWI is a very helpful tool in detecting tissue at risk but cannot replace PWI since MTT detects significantly more ill

  10. Peripartum Isolated Cortical Vein Thrombosis in a Mother with Postdural Puncture Headache Treated with an Epidural Blood Patch

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    Etienne Laverse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old woman presented with low pressure headache 3 days after delivery of her baby. An assessment of postdural puncture headache was made. This was initially treated with analgesia, caffeine, and fluids for the presumed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leak. The woman was readmitted two days after her hospital discharge with generalised seizures. A brain scan showed features of intracranial hypotension, and she was treated for CSF leak using an epidural blood patch. Her symptoms worsened and three days later, she developed a left homonymous quadrantanopia. An MRI scan confirmed a right parietal haematoma with evidence of isolated cortical vein thrombosis (ICVT.

  11. Decreased PGE₂ content reduces MMP-1 activity and consequently increases collagen density in human varicose vein.

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    Ingrid Gomez

    Full Text Available Varicose veins are elongated and dilated saphenous veins. Despite the high prevalence of this disease, its pathogenesis remains unclear.In this study, we investigated the control of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs expression by prostaglandin (PGE₂ during the vascular wall remodeling of human varicose veins.Varicose (small (SDv and large diameter (LDv and healthy saphenous veins (SV were obtained after surgery. Microsomal and cytosolic PGE-synthases (mPGES and cPGES protein and mRNA responsible for PGE₂ metabolism were analyzed in all veins. cPGES protein was absent while its mRNA was weakly expressed. mPGES-2 expression was similar in the different saphenous veins. mPGES-1 mRNA and protein were detected in healthy veins and a significant decrease was found in LDv. Additionally, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH, responsible for PGE₂ degradation, was over-expressed in varicose veins. These variations in mPGES-1 and 15-PGDH density account for the decreased PGE₂ level observed in varicose veins. Furthermore, a significant decrease in PGE₂ receptor (EP4 levels was also found in SDv and LDv. Active MMP-1 and total MMP-2 concentrations were significantly decreased in varicose veins while the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP -1 and -2, were significantly increased, probably explaining the increased collagen content found in LDv. Finally, the MMP/TIMP ratio is restored by exogenous PGE₂ in varicose veins and reduced in presence of an EP4 receptor antagonist in healthy veins.In conclusion, PGE₂ could be responsible for the vascular wall thickening in human varicose veins. This mechanism could be protective, strengthening the vascular wall in order to counteract venous stasis.

  12. Reducing intimal hyperplasia in vein grafts harvested by a no-touch harvesting technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-chen Wang; Wu-jun Xue; Miao-miao Liu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of no-tonch harvesting technique in reducing vein graft intimal hyperplasin. A4othods This longitudinal trial compared graft ungiestenosis of two groups undergoing jugular vein to carotid artery interposition grafting in rabbit model. Conventional group: 12 rabbits had their veins stripped, distended, and stored in heparinized saline solution. No-touch group: 12 rabbits had veins removed with surrounding tissues, but were not distended, and stored in heparinized blood. The grafts were removed 4 weeks following grafting, and morphometry and immunohistochemistry assessment were performed. Results The intimal thickness, degree of anginstennsis and proliferation index of vascular smooth muscle cells of no-touch group were significantly reduced (P< 0.01) compared with those of the conventional group. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen pnsitive-staining cells were significantly increased (P<0.01) in the conventional group compared with whose in the no-touch group. Conclusion Harvesting the vein graft with no-touch harvesting technique could significantly reduce intimul hyperpinsin of the vein graft.

  13. Reduced cortical renal GLUT1 expression induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    M.S. Souza

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes in spontaneously hypertensive rats is associated with cortical renal GLUT1 and GLUT2 overexpression. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme blockade on cortical renal GLUT1 and GLUT2 expression, urinary albumin and urinary TGF-β1. Streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg, or citrate buffer (N = 16 was administered as a single injection into the tail vein in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (~260 g. Thirty days later, these diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats received ramipril by gavage: 0.01 mg·kg-1·day-1 (D0.01, N = 14, 1 mg·kg-1·day-1 (D1, N = 9 or water (D, N = 11 for 15 days. Albumin and TGF-β1 (24-h urine, direct arterial pressure, renal tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (fluorometric assay, and GLUT1 and GLUT2 protein levels (Western blot, renal cortex were determined. Glycemia and glycosuria were higher (P < 0.05 in the diabetic rats compared with controls, but similar between the diabetic groups. Diabetes in spontaneously hypertensive rats lowered renal tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (40%, which was reduced further when higher ramipril doses were used. Diabetes associated with hypertension raised GLUT1 by 28% (P < 0.0001 and GLUT2 by 76% (P = 0.01, and both doses of ramipril equally reduced cortical GLUT1 (D vs D1 and vs D0.01, P ≤ 0.001. GLUT2 levels were reduced in D0.01 (P < 0.05 vs D. Diabetes increased urinary albumin and TGF-β1 urinary excretion, but the 15-day ramipril treatment (with either dose did not reduce them. In conclusion, ramipril is effective in lowering renal tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, as well as blocking cortical GLUT1 overexpression, which may be beneficial in arresting the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Role of PTFE Patch Saphenoplasty in Reducing Neovascularization and Recurrence in Varicose Veins.

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    Vashist, M G; Singhal, Nitin; Verma, Manish; Sen, Jyotsana

    2015-12-01

    Varicose veins have a high recurrence rate following surgery. Besides poor surgical technique, majority of these recurrences are attributable to neovascularization after both primary and repeat surgery. Authors have studied the effectiveness of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) patch interposition between the ligated vein stump and the overlying soft tissue at saphenofemoral junction in decreasing recurrence of varicose veins after initial surgery. Study was conducted on 50 patients of varicose veins with saphenofemoral junction incompetence. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, group A and group B alternately. In group A, standard surgical procedure was done followed by PTFE patch application. In group B, same surgical procedure was applied as in group A, with the exception of PTFE patch application. Patients in both groups were given similar postoperative care. A full venous duplex ultrasound assessment was performed in all the patients postoperatively. Neovascularization was observed in five patients (20 %) of group B, while it was not seen in any of the patients in group A at 1-year follow-up. This difference in neovascularization across the two groups was found to be statistically significant with a p value of 0.0251. Hence, authors concluded that patch saphenoplasty helps in reducing recurrence in varicose veins by decreasing neovascularization at saphenofemoral junction.

  15. Is the Cortical Deficit in Amblyopia Due to Reduced Cortical Magnification, Loss of Neural Resolution, or Neural Disorganization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clavagnier, Simon; Dumoulin, S.O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314406514; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of amblyopia is a matter of debate. The following possibilities have been suggested: loss of foveal cells, reduced cortical magnification, loss of spatial resolution of foveal cells, and topographical disarray in the cellular map. To resolve this we undertook a population receptive

  16. Is the Cortical Deficit in Amblyopia Due to Reduced Cortical Magnification, Loss of Neural Resolution, or Neural Disorganization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clavagnier, Simon; Dumoulin, S.O.; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of amblyopia is a matter of debate. The following possibilities have been suggested: loss of foveal cells, reduced cortical magnification, loss of spatial resolution of foveal cells, and topographical disarray in the cellular map. To resolve this we undertook a population receptive

  17. Reduced cortical thickness associated with visceral fat and BMI

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    Ralf Veit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural brain imaging studies have shown that obesity is associated with widespread reductions in gray matter (GM volume. Although the body mass index (BMI is an easily accessible anthropometric measure, substantial health problems are more related to specific body fat compartments, like visceral adipose tissue (VAT. We investigated cortical thickness measures in a group of 72 healthy subjects (BMI range 20–35 kg/m2, age range 19–50 years. Multiple regression analyses were performed using VAT and BMI as predictors and age, gender, total surface area and education as confounds. BMI and VAT were independently associated with reductions in cortical thickness in clusters comprising the left lateral occipital area, the left inferior temporal cortex, and the left precentral and inferior parietal area, while the right insula, the left fusiform gyrus and the right inferior temporal area showed a negative correlation with VAT only. In addition, we could show significant reductions in cortical thickness with increasing VAT adjusted for BMI in the left temporal cortex. We were able to detect widespread cortical thinning in a young to middle-aged population related to BMI and VAT; these findings show close resemblance to studies focusing on GM volume differences in diabetic patients. This may point to the influence of VAT related adverse effects, like low-grade inflammation, as a potentially harmful factor on brain integrity already in individuals at risk of developing diabetes, metabolic syndromes and arteriosclerosis.

  18. Sensory stimuli reduce the dimensionality of cortical activity

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    Mazzucato, Luca; Fontanini, Alfredo; La Camera, Giancarlo

    Neural ensembles in alert animals generate complex patterns of activity. Although cortical activity unfolds in a space whose dimension is equal to the number of neurons, it is often restricted to a lower dimensional subspace. Dimensionality is the minimal number of dimensions that accurately capture neural dynamics, and may be related to the computational tasks supported by the neural circuit. Here, we investigate the dimensionality of neural ensembles from the insular cortex of alert rats during periods of `ongoing' (spontaneous) and stimulus-evoked activity. We find that the dimensionality grows with ensemble size, and does so significantly faster during ongoing compared to evoked activity. We explain both results using a recurrent spiking network with clustered architecture, and obtain analytical results on the dependence of dimensionality on ensemble size, number of clusters, and pair-wise noise correlations. The theory predicts a characteristic scaling with ensemble size and the existence of an upper bound on dimensionality, which grows with the number of clusters and decreases with the amount of noise correlations. To our knowledge, this is the first mechanistic model of neural dimensionality in cortex during both spontaneous and evoked activity.

  19. Is the Cortical Deficit in Amblyopia Due to Reduced Cortical Magnification, Loss of Neural Resolution, or Neural Disorganization?

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    Clavagnier, Simon; Dumoulin, Serge O; Hess, Robert F

    2015-11-04

    The neural basis of amblyopia is a matter of debate. The following possibilities have been suggested: loss of foveal cells, reduced cortical magnification, loss of spatial resolution of foveal cells, and topographical disarray in the cellular map. To resolve this we undertook a population receptive field (pRF) functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis in the central field in humans with moderate-to-severe amblyopia. We measured the relationship between averaged pRF size and retinal eccentricity in retinotopic visual areas. Results showed that cortical magnification is normal in the foveal field of strabismic amblyopes. However, the pRF sizes are enlarged for the amblyopic eye. We speculate that the pRF enlargement reflects loss of cellular resolution or an increased cellular positional disarray within the representation of the amblyopic eye. The neural basis of amblyopia, a visual deficit affecting 3% of the human population, remains a matter of debate. We undertook the first population receptive field functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis in participants with amblyopia and compared the projections from the amblyopic and fellow normal eye in the visual cortex. The projection from the amblyopic eye was found to have a normal cortical magnification factor, enlarged population receptive field sizes, and topographic disorganization in all early visual areas. This is consistent with an explanation of amblyopia as an immature system with a normal complement of cells whose spatial resolution is reduced and whose topographical map is disordered. This bears upon a number of competing theories for the psychophysical defect and affects future treatment therapies. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514740-16$15.00/0.

  20. Synthesis of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide by needle platy natural vein graphite

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    Rathnayake, R. M. N. M.; Wijayasinghe, H. W. M. A. C.; Pitawala, H. M. T. G. A.; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Huang, Hsin-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Among natural graphite varieties, needle platy vein graphite (NPG) has very high purity. Therefore, it is readily used to prepare graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). In this study, GO and rGO were prepared using chemical oxidation and reduction process, respectively. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD studies confirmed the increase of the interlayer spacing of GO and rGO in between 3.35 to 8.66 A°. AFM studies showed the layer height of rGO to be 1.05 nm after the reduction process. TEM micrographs clearly illustrated that the prepared GO has more than 25 layers, while the rGO has only less than 15 layers. Furthermore, the effect of chemical oxidation and reduction processes on surface morphology of graphite were clearly observed in FESEM micrographs. The calculated RO/C of GO and rGO using XPS analysis are 5.37% and 1.77%, respectively. The present study revealed the successful and cost effective nature of the chemical oxidation, and the reduction processes for the production of GO and rGO out of natural vein graphite.

  1. Focus on Varicose Veins

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    ... veins, which are the visible purple or greenish-blue veins that appear in our legs. Spider veins or teleangiectesias are tiny veins that you ... reduce leg swelling and decrease the risk of blood clots. Prescription ... sclerosing solution into spider, reticular or varicose veins. This is a minimally ...

  2. MEC-17 deficiency leads to reduced α-tubulin acetylation and impaired migration of cortical neurons.

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    Li, Lei; Wei, Dan; Wang, Qiong; Pan, Jing; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xu; Bao, Lan

    2012-09-12

    Neuronal migration is a fundamental process during the development of the cerebral cortex and is regulated by cytoskeletal components. Microtubule dynamics can be modulated by posttranslational modifications to tubulin subunits. Acetylation of α-tubulin at lysine 40 is important in regulating microtubule properties, and this process is controlled by acetyltransferase and deacetylase. MEC-17 is a newly discovered α-tubulin acetyltransferase that has been found to play a major role in the acetylation of α-tubulin in different species in vivo. However, the physiological function of MEC-17 during neural development is largely unknown. Here, we report that MEC-17 is critical for the migration of cortical neurons in the rat. MEC-17 was strongly expressed in the cerebral cortex during development. MEC-17 deficiency caused migratory defects in the cortical projection neurons and interneurons, and perturbed the transition of projection neurons from the multipolar stage to the unipolar/bipolar stage in the intermediate zone of the cortex. Furthermore, knockdown of α-tubulin deacetylase HDAC6 or overexpression of tubulin(K40Q) to mimic acetylated α-tubulin could reduce the migratory and morphological defects caused by MEC-17 deficiency in cortical projection neurons. Thus, MEC-17, which regulates the acetylation of α-tubulin, appears to control the migration and morphological transition of cortical neurons. This finding reveals the importance of MEC-17 and α-tubulin acetylation in cortical development.

  3. Increased intra-cortical porosity reduces bone stiffness and strength in pediatric patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.

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    Vardakastani, V; Saletti, D; Skalli, W; Marry, P; Allain, J M; Adam, C

    2014-12-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable disease occurring in one out of every 20,000 births. Although it is known that Type I collagen mutation in OI leads to increased bone fragility, the mechanism of this increased susceptibility to fracture is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess the microstructure of cortical bone fragments from patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) using polarized light microscopy, and to correlate microstructural observations with the results of previously performed mechanical compression tests on bone from the same source. Specimens of cortical bone were harvested from the lower limbs of three (3) OI patients at the time of surgery, and were divided into two groups. Group 1 had been subjected to previous micro-mechanical compression testing, while Group 2 had not been subjected to any prior testing. Polarized light microscopy revealed disorganized bone collagen architecture as has been previously observed, as well as a large increase in the areal porosity of the bone compared to typical values for healthy cortical bone, with large (several hundred micron sized), asymmetrical pores. Importantly, the areal porosity of the OI bone samples in Group 1 appears to correlate strongly with their previously measured apparent Young's modulus and compressive strength. Taken together with prior nanoindentation studies on OI bone tissue, the results of this study suggest that increased intra-cortical porosity is responsible for the reduction in macroscopic mechanical properties of OI cortical bone, and therefore that in vivo imaging modalities with resolutions of ~100 μm or less could potentially be used to non-invasively assess bone strength in OI patients. Although the number of subjects in this study is small, these results highlight the importance of further studies in OI bone by groups with access to human OI tissue in order to clarify the relationship between increased porosity and reduced macroscopic mechanical integrity.

  4. Cortical inhibition reduces information redundancy at presentation of communication sounds in the primary auditory cortex.

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    Gaucher, Quentin; Huetz, Chloé; Gourévitch, Boris; Edeline, Jean-Marc

    2013-06-26

    In all sensory modalities, intracortical inhibition shapes the functional properties of cortical neurons but also influences the responses to natural stimuli. Studies performed in various species have revealed that auditory cortex neurons respond to conspecific vocalizations by temporal spike patterns displaying a high trial-to-trial reliability, which might result from precise timing between excitation and inhibition. Studying the guinea pig auditory cortex, we show that partial blockage of GABAA receptors by gabazine (GBZ) application (10 μm, a concentration that promotes expansion of cortical receptive fields) increased the evoked firing rate and the spike-timing reliability during presentation of communication sounds (conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations), whereas GABAB receptor antagonists [10 μm saclofen; 10-50 μm CGP55845 (p-3-aminopropyl-p-diethoxymethyl phosphoric acid)] had nonsignificant effects. Computing mutual information (MI) from the responses to vocalizations using either the evoked firing rate or the temporal spike patterns revealed that GBZ application increased the MI derived from the activity of single cortical site but did not change the MI derived from population activity. In addition, quantification of information redundancy showed that GBZ significantly increased redundancy at the population level. This result suggests that a potential role of intracortical inhibition is to reduce information redundancy during the processing of natural stimuli.

  5. GABAergic synaptic inhibition is reduced before seizure onset in a genetic model of cortical malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Stacey A; Kapur, Jaideep; Anzivino, Matthew J; Lee, Kevin S

    2006-10-18

    Malformations of the neocortex are a common cause of human epilepsy; however, the critical issue of how disturbances in cortical organization render neurons epileptogenic remains controversial. The present study addressed this issue by studying inhibitory structure and function before seizure onset in the telencephalic internal structural heterotopia (tish) rat, which is a genetic model of heightened seizure susceptibility associated with a prominent neocortical malformation. Both normally positioned (normotopic) and misplaced (heterotopic) pyramidal neurons in the tish neocortex exhibited lower resting membrane potentials and a tendency toward higher input resistance compared with pyramidal neurons from control brains. GABAergic synaptic transmission was attenuated in the tish cortex, characterized by significant reductions in the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) and miniature IPSCs recorded from pyramidal neurons. In addition, the amplitudes of sIPSCs were reduced in the tish neocortex, an effect that was more profound in the normotopic cells. Immunohistochemical assessment of presynaptic GABAergic terminals showed a reduction in terminals surrounding pyramidal cell somata in normotopic and heterotopic tish neocortex. The attenuation of inhibitory innervation was more prominent for normotopic neurons and was associated with a reduction in a subset of GABAergic interneurons expressing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin. Together, these findings indicate that key facets of inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission are disturbed before seizure onset in a brain predisposed to developing seizures. Such alterations represent a rational substrate for reduced seizure thresholds associated with certain cortical malformations.

  6. Fatal deep vein thrombosis after allogeneic reduced intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of metastatic gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitsuji, Yuri; Mori, Shin-Ichiro; Kami, Masahiro; Yamada, Hirofumi; Shirakawa, Kazuo; Kishi, Yukiko; Murashige, Naoko; Kim, Sung-Won; Heike, Yuji; Takaue, Yoichi

    2004-08-01

    A 61-year-old man received reduced intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST) for the treatment of metastatic gastric cancer. The cytoreductive course of RIST was uneventful until day 0, when fever suddenly developed and his performance status deteriorated. Edema developed in the bilateral lower extremities by day 7, which was diagnosed by Doppler ultrasonography as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) involving the femoral veins to the inferior vena cava. While the edema improved with anticoagulation treatment, gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) followed on day 13. Diarrhea subsided spontaneously, but hypoalbuminemia persisted, with the subsequent development of oliguria and jaundice on day 18. He died of sepsis on day 30, without any evidence of cancer progression. This case demonstrates that DVT is a potentially significant problem following RIST for solid tumors.

  7. Reduced cortical call to arms differentiates psychopathy from antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drislane, L E; Vaidyanathan, U; Patrick, C J

    2013-04-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are both characterized by impulsive, externalizing behaviors. Researchers have argued, however, that psychopathy is distinguished from ASPD by the presence of interpersonal-affective features that reflect an underlying deficit in emotional sensitivity. No study to date has tested for differential relations of these disorders with the brain's natural orienting response to sudden aversive events. Method Electroencephalography was used to assess cortical reactivity to abrupt noise probes presented during the viewing of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures in 140 incarcerated males diagnosed using the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised and DSM-IV criteria for ASPD. The primary dependent measure was the P3 event-related potential response to the noise probes. Psychopaths showed significantly smaller amplitude of P3 response to noise probes across trials of all types compared with non-psychopaths. Follow-up analyses revealed that this overall reduction was attributable specifically to the affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy. By contrast, no group difference in general amplitude of probe P3 was evident for ASPD versus non-ASPD participants. The findings demonstrate a reduced cortical orienting response to abrupt aversive stimuli in participants exhibiting features of psychopathy that are distinct from ASPD. The specificity of the observed effect fits with the idea that these distinctive features of psychopathy reflect a deficit in defensive reactivity, or mobilization of the brain's defensive system, in the context of threat cues.

  8. Coupling (reduced Graphene Oxide to Mammalian Primary Cortical Neurons In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina M. Monaco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal nanoscale interfacing aims at identifying or designing nanostructured smart materials and validating their applications as novel biocompatible scaffolds with active properties for neuronal networks formation, nerve regeneration, and bidirectional biosignal coupling. Among several carbon-based nanomaterials, Graphene recently attracted great interest for biological applications, given its unique mechanical, optical, electronic properties, and its recent technological applications. Here we explore the use of Graphene Oxide (GO and reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO as biocompatible culture substrates for primary neuronal networks developing ex vivo. We quantitatively studied cytotoxicity and cellular viability as well as single-cell and network-level electrophysiological properties of neurons in vitro. Our results confirm previous reports, employing immortalized cell lines or pluripotent stem cells, and extend them to mammalian primary cortical neurons: GO and rGO are biocompatible substrates and do not alter neuronal excitable properties.

  9. Reduced cortical bone compositional heterogeneity with bisphosphonate treatment in postmenopausal women with intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Eve; Meredith, Dennis S; Nguyen, Joseph T; Gladnick, Brian P; Rebolledo, Brian J; Shaffer, Andre D; Lorich, Dean G; Lane, Joseph M; Boskey, Adele L

    2012-03-01

    Reduction of bone turnover with bisphosphonate treatment alters bone mineral and matrix properties. Our objective was to investigate the effect of bisphosphonate treatment on bone tissue properties near fragility fracture sites in the proximal femur in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The mineral and collagen properties of corticocancellous biopsies from the proximal femur were compared in bisphosphonate-naive (-BIS, n = 20) and bisphosphonate-treated (+BIS, n = 20, duration 7 ± 5 years) patients with intertrochanteric (IT) and subtrochanteric (ST) fractures using Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). The mean values of the FTIRI parameter distributions were similar across groups, but the widths of the parameter distributions tended to be reduced in the +BIS group relative to the -BIS group. Specifically, the widths of the cortical collagen maturity and crystallinity were reduced in the +BIS group relative to those of the -BIS group by 28% (+BIS 0.45 ± 0.18 versus -BIS 0.63 ± 0.28, p = 0.03) and 17% (+BIS 0.087 ± 0.012 versus -BIS 0.104 ± 0.036, p = 0.05), respectively. When the tissue properties were examined as a function of fracture morphology within the +BIS group, the FTIR parameters were generally similar regardless of fracture morphology. However, the cortical mineral:matrix ratio was 8% greater in tissue from patients with atypical ST fractures (n = 6) than that of patients with typical (IT or spiral ST) fractures (n = 14) (Atypical 5.6 ± 0.3 versus Typical 5.2 ± 0.5, p = 0.03). Thus, although the mean values of the FTIR properties were similar in both groups, the tissue in bisphosphonate-treated patients had a more uniform composition than that of bisphosphonate-naive patients. The observed reductions in mineral and matrix heterogeneity may diminish tissue-level toughening mechanisms.

  10. Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varicose veins are swollen, twisted veins that you can see just under the skin. They usually occur in ... of the body. Hemorrhoids are a type of varicose vein. Your veins have one-way valves that help ...

  11. Reduced short interval cortical inhibition correlates with atomoxetine response in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tina H; Wu, Steve W; Welge, Jeffrey A; Dixon, Stephan G; Shahana, Nasrin; Huddleston, David A; Sarvis, Adam R; Sallee, Floyd R; Gilbert, Donald L

    2014-12-01

    Clinical trials in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show variability in behavioral responses to the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. The objective of this study was to determine whether transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked short interval cortical inhibition might be a biomarker predicting, or correlating with, clinical atomoxetine response. At baseline and after 4 weeks of atomoxetine treatment in 7- to 12-year-old children with ADHD, transcranial magnetic stimulation short interval cortical inhibition was measured, blinded to clinical improvement. Primary analysis was by multivariate analysis of covariance. Baseline short interval cortical inhibition did not predict clinical responses. However, paradoxically, after 4 weeks of atomoxetine, mean short interval cortical inhibition was reduced 31.9% in responders and increased 6.1% in nonresponders (analysis of covariance t 41 = 2.88; P = .0063). Percentage reductions in short interval cortical inhibition correlated with reductions in the ADHD Rating Scale (r = 0.50; P = .0005). In children ages 7 to 12 years with ADHD treated with atomoxetine, improvements in clinical symptoms are correlated with reductions in motor cortex short interval cortical inhibition.

  12. Reduced chemical and electrical connections of fast-spiking interneurons in experimental cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fu-Wen; Roper, Steven N

    2014-09-15

    Aberrant neural connections are regarded as a principal factor contributing to epileptogenesis. This study examined chemical and electrical connections between fast-spiking (FS), parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive (FS-PV) interneurons and regular-spiking (RS) neurons (pyramidal neurons or spiny stellate neurons) in a rat model of prenatal irradiation-induced cortical dysplasia. Presynaptic action potentials were evoked by current injection and the elicited unitary inhibitory or excitatory postsynaptic potentials (uIPSPs or uEPSPs) were recorded in the postsynaptic cell. In dysplastic cortex, connection rates between presynaptic FS-PV interneurons and postsynaptic RS neurons and FS-PV interneurons, and uIPSP amplitudes were significantly smaller than controls, but both failure rates and coefficient of variation of uIPSP amplitudes were larger than controls. In contrast, connection rates from RS neurons to FS-PV interneurons and uEPSPs amplitude were similar in the two groups. Assessment of the paired pulse ratio showed a significant decrease in synaptic release probability at FS-PV interneuronal terminals, and the density of terminal boutons on axons of biocytin-filled FS-PV interneurons was also decreased, suggesting presynaptic dysfunction in chemical synapses formed by FS-PV interneurons. Electrical connections were observed between FS-PV interneurons, and the connection rates and coupling coefficients were smaller in dysplastic cortex than controls. In dysplastic cortex, we found a reduced synaptic efficiency for uIPSPs originating from FS-PV interneurons regardless of the type of target cell, and impaired electrical connections between FS-PV interneurons. This expands our understanding of the fundamental impairment of inhibition in this model and may have relevance for certain types of human cortical dysplasia.

  13. Oxygen flux reduces Cux1 positive neurons and cortical growth in a gestational rodent model of growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Elaine; Wade, Jean; Georgala, Petrina A; Gillespie, Trudi L; Price, David J; Pilley, Elizabeth; Becher, Julie-Clare

    2017-03-01

    The mammalian cerebral cortex forms in an inside-out manner, establishing deep cortical layers before superficial layers and is regulated by transcription factors which influence cell differentiation. Preterm birth interrupts the trajectory of normal neurodevelopment and adverse perinatal exposures have been implicated in cortical injury. We hypothesise that growth restriction (GR) and fluctuating hyperoxia (ΔO2) impair cortical laminar development. Sprague-Dawley rats received 18% (non-restricted, NR) or 9% (growth restricted, GR) protein diet from E15-P7. Litters were reared in air or fluctuating hyperoxia (circa 10kPa) from P0 to P7. Cortical laminae were stained and measured. Neuronal subtypes were quantified using immunofluorescence for subtype-specific transcription factors (Satb2, Cux1, Ctip2, Tbr1). ΔO2 did not affect brain weight at P7 but reduced cortical thickness in both NR (pdevelopment in a rodent model with preferential disadvantage to superficial neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced GABAergic inhibition explains cortical hyperexcitability in the wobbler mouse model of ALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto-Gonzalez, Jose Luis; Moser, Jakob; Lauritzen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Symptomatic and presymptomatic ALS patients demonstrate cortical hyperexcitability, which raises the possibility that alterations in inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system could...

  15. Spider Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Spider Veins Treatment Options Learn more about treatment options ... severe venous disease. What you should know about spider veins The exact cause of spider veins is ...

  16. Reduced cortical innervation of the subthalamic nucleus in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Abraham; Ma, Yuxian; Paré, Jean-Francois; Villalba, Rosa M; Wichmann, Thomas; Smith, Yoland

    2015-04-01

    The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus are the main entry points for cortical information to the basal ganglia. Parkinson's disease affects not only the function, but also the morphological integrity of some of these inputs and their synaptic targets in the basal ganglia. Significant morphological changes in the cortico-striatal system have already been recognized in patients with Parkinson's disease and in animal models of the disease. To find out whether the primate cortico-subthalamic system is also subject to functionally relevant morphological alterations in parkinsonism, we used a combination of light and electron microscopy anatomical approaches and in vivo electrophysiological methods in monkeys rendered parkinsonian following chronic exposure to low doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). At the light microscopic level, the density of vesicular glutamate transporter 1-positive (i.e. cortico-subthalamic) profiles in the dorsolateral part of the subthalamic nucleus (i.e. its sensorimotor territory) was 26.1% lower in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys than in controls. These results were confirmed by electron microscopy studies showing that the number of vesicular glutamate transporter 1-positive terminals and of axon terminals forming asymmetric synapses in the dorsolateral subthalamic nucleus was reduced by 55.1% and 27.9%, respectively, compared with controls. These anatomical findings were in line with in vivo electrophysiology data showing a 60% reduction in the proportion of pallidal neurons that responded to electrical stimulation of the cortico-subthalamic system in parkinsonian monkeys. These findings provide strong evidence for a partial loss of the hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic projection in MPTP-treated parkinsonian monkeys.

  17. Low level laser therapy reduces oxidative stress in cortical neurons in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Tedford, Clark E.; McCarthy, Thomas; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-03-01

    It is accepted that the mechanisms of low level laser therapy (LLLT) involves photons that are absorbed in the mitochondria of cells and lead to increase of mitochondrial metabolism resulting in more electron transport, increase of mitochondrial membrane potential, and more ATP production. Intracellular calcium changes are seen that correlate with mitochondrial stimulation. The situation with two other intermediates is more complex however: reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Evidence exists that low levels of ROS are produced by LLLT in normal cells that can be beneficial by (for instance) activating NF-kB. However high fluences of light can produce large amounts of ROS that can damage the cells. In oxidatively stressed cells the situation may be different. We exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or cobalt chloride (CoCl2) oxidative insults in the presence or absence of LLLT (810-nm laser at 0.3 or 3 J/cm2). Cell viability of cortical neurons was determined by lactate dehydrogenase assay. ROS in neurons was detected using an ROS probe, MitoRox with confocal microscopy. Results showed that LLLT dose-dependently reversed ROS production and protected cortical neurons against H2O2 or CoCl2 induced oxidative injury in cultured cortical neurons. Conclusion: LLLT can protect cortical neurons against oxidative stress by reversing the levels of ROS.

  18. Perivenous application of fibrin glue reduces early injury to the human saphenous vein graft wall in an ex vivo model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stooker, W; Niessen, HWM; Wildevuur, WR; van Hinsbergh, VWM; Fritz, J; Jansen, EK; Wildevuur, CRH; Eijsman, L

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: From animal and clinical studies it is known that prevention of 'overdistention' of vein grafts by using extravascular support ameliorates the arterialization process in vein grafts with subsequent more favorable patency. The most ideal support is a biodegradable, porous, elastic graft (

  19. Mild traumatic brain injury is associated with reduced cortical thickness in those at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jasmeet P; Logue, Mark W; Sadeh, Naomi; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Verfaellie, Mieke; Hayes, Scott M; Reagan, Andrew; Salat, David H; Wolf, Erika J; McGlinchey, Regina E; Milberg, William P; Stone, Annjanette; Schichman, Steven A; Miller, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predictors of reduced cortical thickness in brain regions previously associated with early Alzheimer's disease, and their relationship with episodic memory. Participants were 160 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans between the ages of 19 and 58, many of whom carried mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses. Whole-genome polygenic risk scores for the development of Alzheimer's disease were calculated using summary statistics from the largest Alzheimer's disease genome-wide association study to date. Results showed that mild traumatic brain injury moderated the relationship between genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease and cortical thickness, such that individuals with mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk showed reduced cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable regions. Among males with mild traumatic brain injury, high genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease was associated with cortical thinning as a function of time since injury. A moderated mediation analysis showed that mild traumatic brain injury and high genetic risk indirectly influenced episodic memory performance through cortical thickness, suggesting that cortical thinning in Alzheimer's disease-vulnerable brain regions is a mechanism for reduced memory performance. Finally, analyses that examined the apolipoprotein E4 allele, post-traumatic stress disorder, and genetic risk for schizophrenia and depression confirmed the specificity of the Alzheimer's disease polygenic risk finding. These results provide evidence that mild traumatic brain injury is associated with greater neurodegeneration and reduced memory performance

  20. Reduced cortical thickness of brain areas involved in pain processing in patients with chronic pancreatitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frokjaer, J.B.; Bouwense, S.A.W.; Olesen, S.S.; Lundager, F.H.; Eskildsen, S.F.; Goor, H. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) might have abnormal brain function. We assessed cortical thickness in brain areas involved in visceral pain processing. METHODS: We analyzed brain morphologies of 19 patients with painful CP and compared them with 15 healthy individu

  1. Cortical surface-based analysis reduces bias and variance in kinetic modeling of brain PET data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Douglas N; Svarer, Claus; Fisher, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    intersubject variance than when volume smoothing was used. This translates into more than 4 times fewer subjects needed in a group analysis to achieve similarly powered statistical tests. Surface-based smoothing has less bias and variance because it respects cortical geometry by smoothing the PET data only...

  2. CT Venography for Deep Vein Thrombosis Using a Low Tube Voltage (100 kVp) Setting Could Increase Venous Enhancement and Reduce the Amount of Administered Iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun-Suk; Chung, Jae-Joon; Kim, Sungjun; Kim, Joo Hee; Yu, Jeong-Sik; Yoon, Choon-Sik [Department of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the validity of the 100 kVp setting in CT venography (CTV) in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and to evaluate the feasibility of reducing the amount of administered iodine in this setting. After receiving the contrast medium (CM) of 2.0 mL/kg, 88 patients underwent CTV of the pelvis and lower extremities by using one of four protocols: Group A, 120 kVp setting and 370 mgI/mL CM; group B, 120 kVp and 300 mgI/mL; group C, 100 kVp and 370 mgI/mL; group D, 100 kVp and 300 mgI/mL. The groups were evaluated for venous attenuation, vein-to-muscle contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR{sub VEIN}), DVT-to-vein contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR{sub DVT}), and subjective degree of venous enhancement and image quality. Venous attenuation and CNR{sub VEIN} were significantly higher in group C (144.3 Hounsfield unit [HU] and 11.9), but there was no significant difference between group A (118.0 HU and 8.2) and D (122.4 HU and 7.9). The attenuation value of DVT was not significantly different among the four groups, and group C had a higher absolute CNR{sub DVT} than the other groups. The overall diagnostic image quality and venous enhancement were significantly higher in group C, but there was no difference between groups A and D. The 100 kVp setting in CTV substantially help improve venous enhancement and CNR{sub VEIN}. Furthermore, it enables to reduce the amount of administered iodine while maintaining venous attenuation, as compared with the 120 kVp setting.

  3. Does intermittent pneumatic compression reduce the risk of post stroke deep vein thrombosis? The CLOTS 3 trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 80,000 patients each year are admitted to UK hospitals with an acute stroke and are immobile. At least 10% will develop a proximal Deep Vein Thrombosis in the first month and 1.5% a pulmonary embolus. Although hydration, antiplatelet treatment and early mobilisation may reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis, there are currently no preventive strategies which have been clearly shown to be both effective and safe. Anticoagulation increases the risks of bleeding and compression stockings are ineffective. Systematic reviews of small randomized trials of intermittent pneumatic compression have shown that this reduces the risk of deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing surgery, but that there are few data concerning its use after stroke. The CLOTS trial 3 aims to determine whether, compared with best medical care, best medical care plus intermittent pneumatic compression in immobile stroke patients reduces the risk of proximal deep vein thrombosis. Methods/Design CLOTS Trial 3 is a parallel group multicentre trial; with centralized randomisation (minimisation to ensure allocation concealment. Over 80 centres in the UK will recruit 2800 immobile stroke patients within the first 3 days of their hospital admission. Patients will be allocated to best medical care or best medical care plus intermittent pneumatic compression. Ultrasonographers will perform a Compression Duplex Ultrasound Scan to detect deep vein thrombosis in each treatment group at about 7-10 days and 25-30 days. The primary outcome cluster includes symptomatic or asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis in the popliteal or femoral veins detected on either scan. Patients are then followed up by postal or telephone questionnaire at 6 months from randomisation to detect later symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary emboli and to establish their functional outcome (Oxford handicap scale and quality of life (EQ5D-3 L. The ultrasonographers performing the

  4. Reduced cortical distribution volume of iodine-123 iomazenil in Alzheimer's disease as a measure of loss of synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soricelli, A; Postiglione, A; Grivet-Fojaja, M R

    1996-01-01

    Iodine-123 labelled iomazenil (IMZ) is a specific tracer for the GABAA receptor, the dominant inhibitory synapse of the brain. The cerebral distribution volume (Vd) of IMZ may be taken as a quantitative measure of these synapses in Alzheimer's disease (AD), where synaptic loss tends...... indiscriminately to affect all cortical neurons, albeit more so in some areas than in others. In this pilot study we measured Vd in six patients with probable AD and in five age-matched controls using a brain-dedicated single-photon emission tomography scanner allowing all cortical levels to be sampled...... simultaneously. Reduced values were found in all regions except in the occipital (visual) cortex. In particular, temporal and parietal cortex Vd was significantly (P...

  5. Reduced cortical and subcortical volumes in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Julia; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Stieltjes, Bram; Henze, Romy

    2014-03-30

    Volumetric alterations in limbic structures have been detected in adults, but not in adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD). We examined adolescents in the early stages of BPD to provide a unique opportunity to investigate which parts of the brain are initially affected by the disorder before confounding factors such as long-term medication or chronicity can mask them. A group of 60 right-handed female adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age (20 patients with BPD, 20 clinical controls, and 20 healthy controls) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Focus was on the examination of hippocampal and amygdalar volume differences. Furthermore, a cortical thickness analysis was conducted. FreeSurfer software detected significant group differences in the right and left hippocampus and in the right amygdala. Additionally, significant volume reductions in frontal (right middle frontal gyrus, orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally), and parietal regions (superior parietal gyrus bilaterally) were found in adolescents with BPD compared with controls. No group differences in cortical thickness were revealed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced frontal cortex thickness and cortical volume associated with pathological narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Sang, Na; Wang, Yongchao; Hou, Xin; Huang, Hui; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Jinfu; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-07-22

    Pathological narcissism is often characterized by arrogant behavior, a lack of empathy, and willingness to exploit other individuals. Generally, individuals with high levels of narcissism are more likely to suffer mental disorders. However, the brain structural basis of individual pathological narcissism trait among healthy people has not yet been investigated with surface-based morphometry. Thus, in this study, we investigated the relationship between cortical thickness (CT), cortical volume (CV), and individual pathological narcissism in a large healthy sample of 176 college students. Multiple regression was used to analyze the correlation between regional CT, CV, and the total Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) score, adjusting for age, sex, and total intracranial volume. The results showed that the PNI score was significantly negatively associated with CT and CV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, key region of the central executive network, CEN), which might be associated with impaired emotion regulation processes. Furthermore, the PNI score showed significant negative associations with CV in the right postcentral gyrus, left medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and the CT in the right inferior frontal cortex (IFG, overlap with social brain network), which may be related to impairments in social cognition. Together, these findings suggest a unique structural basis for individual differences in pathological narcissism, distributed across different gray matter regions of the social brain network and CEN. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human β-Defensin 3 Reduces TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Monocyte Adhesion in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianying Bian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the role of human β-defensin 3 (hBD3 in the initiation stage of atherosclerosis with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs triggered by tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. The effects of hBD3 on TNF-α-induced endothelial injury and inflammatory response were evaluated. Our data revealed that first, hBD3 reduced the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, hBD3 significantly prevented intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production by HUVECs. Second, western blot analysis demonstrated that hBD3 dose-dependently suppressed the protein levels of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 in TNF-α-induced HUVECs. As a result, hBD3 inhibited monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-treated endothelial cells. Additionally, hBD3 suppressed TNF-α-induced F-actin reorganization in HUVECs. Third, hBD3 markedly inhibited NF-κB activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of IKK-α/β, IκB, and p65 subunit within 30 min. Moreover, the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway were also inhibited by hBD3 in HUVECs. In conclusion, hBD3 exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects in endothelial cells in response to TNF-α by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK signaling.

  8. Human β-Defensin 3 Reduces TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Monocyte Adhesion in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Tianying; Li, Houxuan; Zhou, Qian; Ni, Can; Zhang, Yangheng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) in the initiation stage of atherosclerosis with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) triggered by tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. The effects of hBD3 on TNF-α-induced endothelial injury and inflammatory response were evaluated. Our data revealed that first, hBD3 reduced the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, hBD3 significantly prevented intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by HUVECs. Second, western blot analysis demonstrated that hBD3 dose-dependently suppressed the protein levels of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in TNF-α-induced HUVECs. As a result, hBD3 inhibited monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-treated endothelial cells. Additionally, hBD3 suppressed TNF-α-induced F-actin reorganization in HUVECs. Third, hBD3 markedly inhibited NF-κB activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of IKK-α/β, IκB, and p65 subunit within 30 min. Moreover, the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were also inhibited by hBD3 in HUVECs. In conclusion, hBD3 exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects in endothelial cells in response to TNF-α by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK signaling.

  9. Reduced cortical distribution volume of iodine-123 iomazenil in Alzheimer`s disease as a measure of loss of synapses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soricelli, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Postiglione, A. [Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Univ. of Naples Federico II (Italy); Grivet-Fojaja, M.R. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Mainenti, P.P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Discepolo, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Varrone, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Salvatore, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Lassen, N.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine/Clinical Physiology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-10-01

    Iodine-123 labelled iomazenil (IMZ) is a specific tracer for the GABA{sub A} receptor, the dominant inhibitory synapse of the brain. The cerebral distribution volume (V{sub d}) of IMZ may be taken as a quantitative measure of these synapses in Alzheimer`s disease (AD), where synaptic loss tends indiscriminately to affect all cortical neurons, albeit more so in some areas than in others. In this pilot study we measured V{sub d} in six patients with probable AD and in five age-matched controls using a brain-dedicated single-photon emission tomography scanner allowing all cortical levels to be sampled simultaneously. Reduced values were found in all regions except in the occipital (visual) cortex. In particular, temporal and parietal cortex V{sub d} was significantly (P<0.02) reduced: Temporal V{sub d} averaged 69 ml/ml in normals and 51 ml/ml in AD, and parietal V{sub d} averaged 71 ml/ml in normals and 48 ml/ml in AD. These results accord well with emission tomographic studies of blood flow or labelled glucose. This supports the idea that while only measuring a subpopulation of synapses, the IMZ method reflects synaptic loss and hence functional loss in AD. The method constitutes an in vivo version of synaptic quantitation that in histopathological studies has been shown to correlated closely with the mental deterioration in AD. (orig.)

  10. Reduced density of glutamine synthetase immunoreactive astrocytes in different cortical areas in major depression but not in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Meyer-Lotz, Gabriela; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Bannier, Jana; Steiner, Johann; Walter, Martin; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for disturbances within the glutamate system in patients with affective disorders, which involve disruptions of the glutamate-glutamine-cycle. The mainly astroglia-located enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to form glutamine, thus playing a central role in glutamate and glutamine homoeostasis. However, GS is also expressed in numerous oligodendrocytes (OLs), another class of glial cells implicated in mood disorder pathology. To learn more about the role of glia-associated GS in mental illnesses, we decided to find out if numerical densities of glial cells immunostained for the enzyme protein differ between subjects with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder (BD), and psychically healthy control cases. Counting of GS expressing astrocytes (ACs) and OLs in eight cortical and two subcortical brain regions of subjects with mood disorder (N = 14), BD (N = 15), and controls (N = 16) revealed that in major depression the densities of ACs were significantly reduced in some cortical but not subcortical gray matter areas, whereas no changes were found for OLs. In BD no alterations of GS-immunoreactive glia were found. From our findings we conclude that (1) GS expressing ACs are prominently involved in glutamate-related disturbances in major depression, but not in BD and (2) GS expressing OLs, though being present in significant numbers in prefrontal cortical areas, play a minor (if any) role in mood disorder pathology. The latter assumption is supported by findings of others showing that - at least in the mouse brain cortex - GS immunoreactive oligodendroglial cells are unable to contribute to the glutamate-glutamine-cycle due to the complete lack of amino acid transporters (Takasaki et al., 2010).

  11. Combined heterozygosity of factor V leiden and the G20210A prothrombin gene mutation in a patient with cerebral cortical vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X Y; Gabig, T G; Bang, N U

    2000-07-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare type of stroke with a variety of causes. Several reports have suggested that either factor V Leiden or G20210A prothrombin gene mutation is associated with an increased risk of CVT. The genetic thrombophilias are typically associated with other predisposing factors. We report a unique case of CVT in a patient with both the factor V Leiden and the G20210A prothrombin gene mutations without other identifiable precipitating factors in a 28-year-old white male in good health. MRI and cerebral arterial angiography showed cerebral cortical venous thrombosis. This case suggests that combined heterozygous individuals may be particularly prone to spontaneous thrombosis, like CVT.

  12. Oxytocin receptors in brain cortical regions are reduced in haploinsufficient (+/-) reeler mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wensheng; Pappas, George D; Carter, C Sue

    2005-06-01

    Both oxytocin (OT) and reelin are particularly significant during development and the absence of either may interfere with normal brain development. In addition, reelin is critical to the development of the GABAergic system and GABA modulates the release of OT. Availability of the reelin haploinsufficient (+/-) reeler mouse (HRM) provides a model for examining the role of reelin in the development of the OT system and especially in the expression of the OT receptor (OTR). In this study we used immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization in HRM versus wild-type (+/-) mice (WTM) to quantify OTR abundance in regions of the brain cortex. Our findings reveal that the oxytocin receptor (OTR), measured either by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization, is significantly lower in HRM. Areas showing significant deficits included the piriform cortex, neocortex, retrosplenial cortex and certain regions of the hippocampus. Both reelin and OT play a role in regulating affect and mood. Down-regulation of reelin has been strongly correlated with schizophrenia and it is proposed that HRM may serve as a model for neural deficits seen in both schizophrenia and autism. We report that HRM show regionally specific reductions in OTRs, especially in cortical areas, which previously have been implicated in social memory and cognitive functions. These findings offer support for the more general hypothesis that down-regulation of reelin, of either genetic or epigenetic origin, through associated reductions in the OTRs, contributes to the deficiencies in social behavior that are characteristic of both schizophrenia and autism.

  13. Reduced cortical thickness and its association with social reactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Julia; Henze, Romy; Vomstein, Kilian; Stieltjes, Bram; Parzer, Peter; Haffner, Johann; Brandeis, Daniel; Poustka, Luise

    2015-10-30

    Symptomatology and behavioral characteristics in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have increasingly been linked to abnormalities in early brain growth patterns of affected children. Studies investigating specific components of gray matter structure, such as cortical thickness (CT), have produced conflicting results, and have rarely included additional measures of social impairment. In the present study, we applied a surface-based whole brain analysis to investigate CT in a sample of 36 pre-adolescent children [18 subjects with ASD (IQ mean: 111) and 18 healthy controls (IQ mean: 112.8), age range 6-12 years]. The CT analysis revealed widespread, but mostly left-hemispheric thinning in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain areas related to the theory-of-mind network and the heteromodal association cortex. In an exploratory analysis, CT was observed to be differently associated with social impairment in children with ASD compared with typically developing children. The affected neuroanatomical regions are related to characteristic deficits in language, cognition and behavior that are often observed in the disorder. The relationship between social impairment and CT in children with ASD and controls seems to indicate aberrant developmental trajectories in ASD emerging early in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The neuroprotective effects of taurine against nickel by reducing oxidative stress and maintaining mitochondrial function in cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shangcheng; He, Mindi; Zhong, Min; Li, Li; Lu, Yonghui; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-03-17

    Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the toxicity of nickel. Taurine is recognized as an efficient antioxidant and is essential for mitochondrial function. To investigate whether taurine could protect against the neurotoxicity of nickel, we exposed primary cultured cortical neurons to various concentrations of nickel chloride (NiCl2; 0.5mM, 1mM and 2mM) for 24h or to 1mM NiCl2 for various periods (0 h, 12h, 24h and 48 h). Our results showed that taurine efficiently reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by NiCl2. Along with this protective effect, taurine pretreatment not only significantly reversed the increase of ROS production and mitochondrial superoxide concentration, but also attenuated the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) concentration in neurons exposed to NiCl2 for 24h. Moreover, nickel exposure reduced ATP production, disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased mtDNA content. These types of oxidative damage in the mitochondria were efficiently ameliorated by taurine pretreatment. Taken together, our results indicate that the neuroprotective effects of taurine against the toxicity of nickel might largely depend on its roles in reducing oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. Taurine may have great pharmacological potential in treating the adverse effects of nickel in the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved dimensionally-reduced visual cortical network using stochastic noise modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Louis; Praissman, Jeremy; Sornborger, Andrew T

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we extend our framework for constructing low-dimensional dynamical system models of large-scale neuronal networks of mammalian primary visual cortex. Our dimensional reduction procedure consists of performing a suitable linear change of variables and then systematically truncating the new set of equations. The extended framework includes modeling the effect of neglected modes as a stochastic process. By parametrizing and including stochasticity in one of two ways we show that we can improve the systems-level characterization of our dimensionally reduced neuronal network model. We examined orientation selectivity maps calculated from the firing rate distribution of large-scale simulations and stochastic dimensionally reduced models and found that by using stochastic processes to model the neglected modes, we were able to better reproduce the mean and variance of firing rates in the original large-scale simulations while still accurately predicting the orientation preference distribution.

  16. Temporal lobe cortical electrical stimulation during the encoding and retrieval phase reduces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S Boggio

    Full Text Available A recent study found that false memories were reduced by 36% when low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS was applied to the left anterior temporal lobe after the encoding (study phase. Here we were interested in the consequences on a false memory task of brain stimulation throughout the encoding and retrieval task phases. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS because it has been shown to be a useful tool to enhance cognition. Specifically, we examined whether tDCS can induce changes in a task assessing false memories. Based on our preliminary results, three conditions of stimulation were chosen: anodal left/cathodal right anterior temporal lobe (ATL stimulation ("bilateral stimulation"; anodal left ATL stimulation (with a large contralateral cathodal electrode--referred as "unilateral stimulation" and sham stimulation. Our results showed that false memories were reduced significantly after the two active conditions (unilateral and bilateral stimulation as compared with sham stimulation. There were no significant changes in veridical memories. Our findings show that false memories are reduced by 73% when anodal tDCS is applied to the anterior temporal lobes throughout the encoding and retrieval stages, suggesting a possible strategy for improving certain aspects of learning.

  17. Pre-ablative high-resolution MRA facilitates electrophysiologic pulmonary vein ablation and reduces fluoroscopy time in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jeremy D.; Pereles, F. S.; Bello, David; Betts, Timothy; Zachariah, Anish; Kaliney, Ryan; Song, Gina K.; Shors, Stephanie M.; Carr, James C.; Finn, John P.

    2003-05-01

    Pulmonary MRA generates high-resolution images of the pulmonary veins (PV) and left atrium (LA), permitting characterization of complex PV anatomy, which is useful in electrophysiologic PV catheter ablation, a proven technique for the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The purpose of this study was to determine if pre-ablative pulmonary MRA with intra-ablative viewing facilitates ablation by reducing fluoroscopy time. We studied the morphology of the LA and PV at 1.5T (Magnetom Sonata, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen Germany) with breath-held gadolinium-enhanced 3D MRA in 7 patients with PAF undergoing PV ablation. Data was volume rendered (VR) on a stereoscopic workstation. PV ostial diameter and cross-sectional area measurements were obtained on multi-planar reformatted (MPR) images. VR datasets were converted into digital movies and were viewed on a laptop computer adjacent to real-time fluoroscopic images. Fluoroscopy times for patients undergoing pre-ablative MPA mapping were compared with a cohort of 22 consecutive patients diagnosed with PAF who underwent catheter ablation without pre-ablative MRA planning. Mean PV ablation fluoroscopic time with MRA planning versus fluoroscopic imaging alone were 84+/-20 minutes and 114+/-20 minutes respectively. Pre-ablative MRA planning resulted in a significant mean fluoroscopy time savings of 26% (p<0.05). In patients with PAF undergoing PV ablation, analysis of MRA datasets depicting PV anatomy confirms that there is great variability in anatomy between veins. Pre-ablative 3D PV mapping by MRA greatly facilitates fluoroscopic identification of individual veins and significantly reduces fluoroscopic radiation time.

  18. Renal vein stenting via the right internal jugular approach with a provocative Valsalva maneuver to reduce the risk of stent migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Mubin I; Yu, Benjamin; Akhter, Talal; Shaikh, Azim

    2011-12-01

    An adult male with nutcracker syndrome was treated successfully by placement of a self-expanding stent in the left renal vein via a right internal jugular vein approach with a provocative Valsalva maneuver. Previous case reports have described renal vein stenting for this condition via common femoral vein approach. However, this study proposes the right internal jugular vein approach as a safer method for the treatment of nutcracker syndrome since the stent can be easily captured along the guidewire if undersized. This technique is based on the realization that the left renal vein diameter may increase by 50% to 58% during the Valsalva maneuver.

  19. Reduced cortical complexity in children with Prader-Willi Syndrome and its association with cognitive impairment and developmental delay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akvile Lukoshe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS is a complex neurogenetic disorder with symptoms involving not only hypothalamic, but also a global, central nervous system dysfunction. Previously, qualitative studies reported polymicrogyria in adults with PWS. However, there have been no quantitative neuroimaging studies of cortical morphology in PWS and no studies to date in children with PWS. Thus, our aim was to investigate and quantify cortical complexity in children with PWS compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated differences between genetic subtypes of PWS and the relationship between cortical complexity and intelligence within the PWS group. METHODS: High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in 24 children with genetically confirmed PWS (12 carrying a deletion (DEL, 12 with maternal uniparental disomy (mUPD and 11 age- and sex-matched typically developing siblings as healthy controls. Local gyrification index (lGI was obtained using the FreeSurfer software suite. RESULTS: Four large clusters, two in each hemisphere, comprising frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, had lower lGI in children with PWS, compared to healthy controls. Clusters with lower lGI also had significantly lower cortical surface area in children with PWS. No differences in cortical thickness of the clusters were found between the PWS and healthy controls. lGI correlated significantly with cortical surface area, but not with cortical thickness. Within the PWS group, lGI in both hemispheres correlated with Total IQ and Verbal IQ, but not with Performance IQ. Children with mUPD, compared to children with DEL, had two small clusters with lower lGI in the right hemisphere. lGI of these clusters correlated with cortical surface area, but not with cortical thickness or IQ. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that lower cortical complexity in children with PWS partially underlies cognitive impairment and developmental delay, probably due to

  20. Reduced cortical gray matter volume in male adolescents with substance and conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalwani, Manish; Sakai, Joseph T; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Tanabe, Jody; Raymond, Kristen; McWilliams, Shannon K; Thompson, Laetitia L; Banich, Marie T; Crowley, Thomas J

    2011-11-01

    Boys with serious conduct and substance problems (Antisocial Substance Dependence (ASD)) repeatedly make impulsive and risky decisions in spite of possible negative consequences. Because prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in planning behavior in accord with prior rewards and punishments, structural abnormalities in PFC could contribute to a person's propensity to make risky decisions. We acquired high-resolution structural images of 25 male ASD patients (ages 14-18 years) and 19 controls of similar ages using a 3T MR system. We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric analysis (pbrain cluster-level) using Statistical Parametric Mapping version-5 and tested group differences in regional gray matter (GM) volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for total GM volume, age, and IQ; we further adjusted between-group analyses for ADHD and depression. As secondary analyses, we tested for negative associations between GM volume and impulsivity within groups and separately, GM volume and symptom severity within patients using whole-brain regression analyses. ASD boys had significantly lower GM volume than controls in left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), right lingual gyrus and bilateral cerebellum, and significantly higher GM volume in right precuneus. Left DLPFC GM volume showed negative association with impulsivity within controls and negative association with substance dependence severity within patients. ASD boys show reduced GM volumes in several regions including DLPFC, a region highly relevant to impulsivity, disinhibition, and decision-making, and cerebellum, a region important for behavioral regulation, while they showed increased GM in precuneus, a region associated with self-referential and self-centered thinking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pyruvate administration reduces recurrent/moderate hypoglycemia-induced cortical neuron death in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Choi

    Full Text Available Recurrent/moderate (R/M hypoglycemia is common in type 1 diabetes patients. Moderate hypoglycemia is not life-threatening, but if experienced recurrently it may present several clinical complications. Activated PARP-1 consumes cytosolic NAD, and because NAD is required for glycolysis, hypoglycemia-induced PARP-1 activation may render cells unable to use glucose even when glucose availability is restored. Pyruvate, however, can be metabolized in the absence of cytosolic NAD. We therefore hypothesized that pyruvate may be able to improve the outcome in diabetic rats subjected to insulin-induced R/M hypoglycemia by terminating hypoglycemia with glucose plus pyruvate, as compared with delivering just glucose alone. In an effort to mimic juvenile type 1 diabetes the experiments were conducted in one-month-old young rats that were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ, 50mg/kg, i.p. injection. One week after STZ injection, rats were subjected to moderate hypoglycemia by insulin injection (10 U/kg, i.p. without anesthesia for five consecutive days. Pyruvate (500 mg/kg was given by intraperitoneal injection after each R/M hypoglycemia. Three hours after last R/M hypoglycemia, zinc accumulation was evaluated. Three days after R/M hypoglycemia, neuronal death, oxidative stress, microglial activation and GSH concentrations in the cerebral cortex were analyzed. Sparse neuronal death was observed in the cortex. Zinc accumulation, oxidative injury, microglial activation and GSH loss in the cortex after R/M hypoglycemia were all reduced by pyruvate injection. These findings suggest that when delivered alongside glucose, pyruvate may significantly improve the outcome after R/M hypoglycemia by circumventing a sustained impairment in neuronal glucose utilization resulting from PARP-1 activation.

  2. Increased 20-HETE synthesis explains reduced cerebral blood flow but not impaired neurovascular coupling after cortical spreading depression in rat cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordsmann, Jonas Christoffer; ko, Rebecca; Choi, Hyun B

    2013-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is associated with release of arachidonic acid (AA), impaired neurovascular coupling, and reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF), caused by cortical vasoconstriction. We tested the hypothesis that the released AA is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme to produce...... neurovascular coupling after CSD. These findings suggest that CSD-induced increments in 20-HETE cause the reduction in CBF after CSD, and that the attenuation of stimulation-induced CBF responses after CSD has a different mechanism. We suggest that blockade of 20-HETE synthesis may be clinically relevant...

  3. Venlafaxine treatment after endothelin-1-induced cortical stroke modulates growth factor expression and reduces tissue damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Rodrigo; Contreras, Valentina; Pissani, Claudia; Stack, Katherine; Vargas, Macarena; Owen, Gareth I; Lazo, Oscar M; Bronfman, Francisca C

    2016-08-01

    Neuromodulators, such as antidepressants, may contribute to neuroprotection by modulating growth factor expression to exert anti-inflammatory effects and to support neuronal plasticity after stroke. Our objective was to study whether early treatment with venlafaxine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, modulates growth factor expression and positively contributes to reducing the volume of infarcted brain tissue resulting in increased functional recovery. We studied the expression of BDNF, FGF2 and TGF-β1 by examining their mRNA and protein levels and cellular distribution using quantitative confocal microscopy at 5 days after venlafaxine treatment in control and infarcted brains. Venlafaxine treatment did not change the expression of these growth factors in sham rats. In infarcted rats, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were reduced, while the mRNA and protein levels of FGF2 and TGF-β1 were increased. Venlafaxine treatment potentiated all of the changes that were induced by cortical stroke alone. In particular, increased levels of FGF2 and TGF-β1 were observed in astrocytes at 5 days after stroke induction, and these increases were correlated with decreased astrogliosis (measured by GFAP) and increased synaptophysin immunostaining at twenty-one days after stroke in venlafaxine-treated rats. Finally, we show that venlafaxine reduced infarct volume after stroke resulting in increased functional recovery, which was measured using ladder rung motor tests, at 21 days after stroke. Our results indicate that the early oral administration of venlafaxine positively contributes to neuroprotection during the acute and late events that follow stroke.

  4. C1-Inhibitor protects from focal brain trauma in a cortical cryolesion mice model by reducing thrombo-inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane eAlbert-Weissenberger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI induces a strong inflammatory response which includes blood-brain barrier damage, edema formation and infiltration of different immune cell subsets. More recently, microvascular thrombosis has been identified as another pathophysiological feature of TBI. The contact-kinin system represents an interface between inflammatory and thrombotic circuits and is activated in different neurological diseases. C1-Inhibitor counteracts activation of the contact-kinin system at multiple levels. We investigated the therapeutic potential of C1-Inhibitor in a model of TBI. Male and female C57BL/6 mice were subjected to cortical cryolesion and treated with C1-Inhibitor after 1 hour. Lesion volumes were assessed between day 1 and day 5 and blood-brain barrier damage, thrombus formation as well as the local inflammatory response were determined post TBI. Treatment of male mice with 15.0 IU C1-Inhibitor, but not 7.5 IU, 1 hour after cryolesion reduced lesion volumes by ~75% on day 1. This protective effect was preserved in female mice and at later stages of trauma. Mechanistically, C1-Inhibitor stabilized the blood-brain barrier and decreased the invasion of immune cells into the brain parenchyma. Moreover, C1-Inhibitor had strong antithrombotic effects. C1-Inhibitor represents a multifaceted antiinflammatory and antithrombotic compound that prevents traumatic neurodegeneration in clinically meaningful settings.

  5. Isolated cortical vein thrombosis was delayed diagnosis of venous sinus thrombosis:A case report and analysis%孤立皮质静脉血栓延误诊断为静脉窦血栓一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军杰; 宋晓微

    2015-01-01

    目的:加强对孤立皮质静脉血栓和静脉窦血栓的认识,重视病史和影像学特征分析,减少误诊。方法通过分析1例上矢状窦血栓误诊为皮质静脉血栓临床资料,并复习相关文献。结果男性青年患者,急性起病,以逐渐进展的双侧肢体无力和间断的癫痫发作为临床特点,无发热、头痛等。初诊为孤立性皮质静脉血栓,继而确诊静脉窦血栓。前者临床更少见,易误诊。结论通过对本例初诊为孤立皮质静脉血栓继而确诊静脉窦血栓患者临床诊治过程的观察,结合文献复习,认为系统性疾病通常容易导致静脉窦血栓,而局限性、尤其是局部病变更倾向于引起皮质静脉血栓。局灶性神经系统损害是皮质静脉血栓最常见的表现,包括运动和感觉缺失、失语、偏瘫等,而静脉窦血栓常见的颅内压增高导致呕吐、视物模糊以及意识障碍等。影像学上皮质静脉血栓相对较轻,部分病灶呈可逆性,预后相对较好。%Objective To promote recognization between isolated cortical venous thrombosis and venous sinus thrombosis, focus on their history and imaging features analysis, and reduce misdiagnosis.Methods Via analyzing one case of the superior sagittal sinus thromebosis misdiagnosed as cortical venous thrombosis and systematic reviews of relevant literatures.Results young male patients, acute onset and with progressive bilateral limb weakness and intermittent seizures as clinical features, no fever and headache.The pure isolated cortical venous thrombosis was rare and often misdiagnosed.Conclusion According observation the process of diagnosis and treatments of the case, and combination with related literatures, Intracranial venous system thrombosis is a special type of cerebrovascular disease caused by a variety of reasons and characterized by high intracranial pressure. Systemic diseases usually lead to venous sinus thrombosis, and

  6. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein ...

  7. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vein stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/p1289.html . ...

  8. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein ... the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  9. A single dose of PPARγ agonist pioglitazone reduces cortical oxidative damage and microglial reaction following lateral fluid percussion brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipović, Kristina; Župan, Željko; Dolenec, Petra; Mršić-Pelčić, Jasenka; Župan, Gordana

    2015-06-03

    Neuroprotective actions of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have been observed in various animal models of the brain injuries. In this study we examined the effects of a single dose of pioglitazone on oxidative and inflammatory parameters as well as on neurodegeneration and the edema formation in the rat parietal cortex following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by the lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI) method. Pioglitazone was administered in a dose of 1mg/kg at 10min after the brain trauma. The animals of the control group were sham-operated and injected by vehicle. The rats were decapitated 24h after LFPI and their parietal cortices were analyzed by biochemical and histological methods. Cortical edema was evaluated in rats sacrificed 48h following TBI. Brain trauma caused statistically significant oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, an increase of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression, reactive astrocytosis, the microglia activation, neurodegeneration, and edema, but it did not influence the superoxide dismutase activity and the expressions of interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the rat parietal cortex. Pioglitazone significantly decreased the cortical lipid and protein oxidative damage, increased the GSH-Px activity and reduced microglial reaction. Although a certain degree of the TBI-induced COX-2 overexpression, neurodegeneration and edema decrease was detected in pioglitazone treated rats, it was not significant. In the injured animals, cortical reactive astrocytosis was unchanged by the tested PPARγ agonist. These findings demonstrate that pioglitazone, administered only in a single dose, early following LFPI, reduced cortical oxidative damage, increased antioxidant defense and had limited anti-inflammatory effect, suggesting the need for further studies of this drug in the treatment of TBI.

  10. Different effects of reducing agents on ω-conotoxin GVIA inhibition of [3H]-acetylcholine release from rat cortical slices and guinea-pig myenteric plexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, T A A; Gomez, R S; Moraes-Santos, T; Romano-Silva, M A; Prado, M A M; Gomez, M V

    1996-01-01

    The effect of reducing reagents on ω-conotoxin GVIA (ω-CgTX) inhibition of the release of [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) induced by tityustoxin, K+ 50 mM and electrical stimulation was investigated in rat brain cortical slices.In cortical slices the inhibition of tityustoxin or electrically-stimulated [3H]-ACh release by ω-CgTX was dramatically increased by reducing reagents ascorbate or β-mercaptoethanol. Dehydroascorbic acid did not substitute for ascorbateDepolarization induced by K+ 50 mM caused [3H]-ACh release from cortical slices which was not inhibited by ω-CgTX, even in the presence of ascorbate.In the guinea-pig myenteric plexus, ω-CgTX inhibition of the tityustoxin induced release of [3H]-ACh was independent of ascorbate.It is suggested that N-type-like calcium channels in guinea-pig myenteric plexus may have pharmacological/biochemical diversity from similar channels of rat cerebral cortex. PMID:9117104

  11. Arecoline increases basic fibroblast growth factor but reduces expression of IL-1, IL-6, G-CSF and GM-CSF in human umbilical vein endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mafaz; Cox, Stephen; Kelly, Elizabeth; Moore, Malcolm A S; Zoellner, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Areca nut chewing is associated with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Raised vascular basic fibroblast growth factor may induce fibrosis. Arecoline is a muscarinic alkaloid in areca nut, which we earlier reported causes injury and necrosis of human endothelium. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to arecoline with or without tumor necrosis factor-α, and separately to acetylcholine, muscarine, or nicotine. Protein levels of basic fibroblast growth factor, as well as the inflammatory cytokines: granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, and Interleukins-6, 1-α and 1-β, were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. mRNA levels were established by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Basic fibroblast growth factor was released into the culture medium at arecoline levels causing necrosis (P arecoline on levels of the inflammatory cytokines (P arecoline reduced this stimulated expression (P Arecoline had no effect on mRNA for basic fibroblast growth factor, although there was reduced mRNA for the separate inflammatory cytokines studied. The effect of acetylcholine, muscarine, and nicotine was minimal and dissimilar to that of arecoline. Data raise the possibility that arecoline-induced, vascular basic fibroblast growth factor contributes to OSF, by combining increased growth factor expression with endothelial necrosis, and thus driving fibroblast proliferation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Demirci

    2016-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis commonly occurs in patient with cirrhosis, malignancy and prothrombotic states. Patients with acute portal vein thrombosis have immediate onset. Patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis have developed portal hypertension and cavernous portal transformation. Portal vein thrombosis is diagnosed with doppler ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy with low...

  13. Potassium Aspartate Attenuates Brain Injury Induced by Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats Through Increasing Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Levels, Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Reducing Brain Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yumei; Su, Yujin; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-12-13

    BACKGROUND Potassium aspartate (PA), as an electrolyte supplement, is widely used in clinical practice. In our previous study, we found PA had neuroprotective effects against apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In this study, we examine whether PA has protective effects on traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIAL AND METHODS TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats. Vehicle treatment (control) or PA treatment was administered intraperitoneally at 30 minutes after CCI. The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and cortical lesion volume were examined. Brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity were measured, as well as brain ATP contents, lactic acid levels, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. RESULTS We found that CCI induced cortical injury in rats. Acute PA treatment at the dose of 62.5 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg significantly improved neurological deficits (pATP (pATP levels, Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and reducing brain edema. It provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of PA.

  14. Disease-Modifying Drugs Reduce Cortical Lesion Accumulation and Atrophy Progression in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Results from a 48-Month Extension Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rinaldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical lesions (CLs and atrophy are pivotal in multiple sclerosis (MS pathology. This study determined the effect of disease modifying drugs (DMDs on CL development and cortical atrophy progression in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS over 48 months. Patients (n=165 were randomized to sc IFN β-1a 44 μg, im IFN β-1a 30 μg, or glatiramer acetate 20 mg. The reference population comprised 50 DMD-untreated patients with RRMS. After 24 months, 43 of the untreated patients switched to DMDs. The four groups of patients were followed up for an additional 24 months. At 48 months the mean standard deviation number of new CLs was significantly lower in patients treated with sc IFN β-1a (1.4 ± 1.0, range 0–5 compared with im IFN β-1a (2.3 ± 1.3, range 0–6, P=0.004 and glatiramer acetate (2.2 ± 1.5, range 0–7, P=0.03. Significant reductions in CL accumulation and new white matter and gadolinium-enhancing lesions were also observed in the 43 patients who switched to DMDs after 24 months, compared with the 24 months of no treatment. Concluding, this study confirms that DMDs significantly reduce CL development and cortical atrophy progression compared with no treatment.

  15. The addition of renal sympathetic denervation to pulmonary vein isolation reduces recurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Márcio Galindo; Chen, Shaojie; E Silva, Gustavo Ramalho; Rodrigues Paz, Luis Marcelo; Kiuchi, Tetsuaki; de Paula Filho, Ary Getulio; Lima Souto, Gladyston Luiz

    2017-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently complicates chronic kidney disease (CKD). AF treatment is challenging and requires complete pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Recently, renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) has been reported to reduce AF recurrence when performed alongside PVI. A prospective therapeutic study of patients with controlled hypertension and paroxysmal AF was undertaken. Renal function was evaluated using estimated glomerular filtration rate. Outcomes for patients with normal renal function who underwent PVI (n = 101) were compared with those for CKD patients who underwent either PVI alone (n = 96) or PVI + RSD (n = 39). The primary endpoint was recurrence of AF recorded by 24-h Holter monitoring. During the 22.4 ± 12.1 months following intervention, the incidence of AF recurrence was higher in CKD patients treated with PVI alone (61.5 %) than in CKD patients treated with PVI + RSD (38.5 %; HR 1.86, 95 % CI 1.14-3.03, P = 0.0251) or patients without CKD subjected to PVI (35.6 %; hazard ratio (HR) 2.27, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.51-3.42, P PVI significantly reduced AF recurrence in CKD stage 4, but not stage 2 or 3, patients. Ambulatory blood pressure and mean heart rate were not different between groups or time points. No complications of either procedure were observed. PVI + RSD is a safe treatment that is superior to PVI alone for treatment of paroxysmal AF in CKD patients.

  16. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Fernando R; Malerba, Paola; White, John A

    2015-04-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances.

  17. Spider Vein Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spider veins: How are they removed? I have spider veins on my legs. What options are available ... M.D. Several options are available to remove spider veins — thin red lines or weblike networks of ...

  18. Sclerotherapy of Varicose Veins and Spider Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you as to whether the procedure was a technical success when it is completed. Your interventional radiologist ... Varicose Veins) Phlebectomy of Varicose Veins Contrast Materials Anesthesia Safety Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is ...

  19. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... telangiectasias. Spider veins involve the capillaries, the smallest blood vessels in the body. Spider veins often appear on the legs and face. They're red or blue and usually look like a spider web or ...

  20. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. V...

  1. Reduced densities of parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons in experimental cortical dysplasia and heterotopia in early postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akakin, Dilek; Martinez-Diaz, Hildabelis; Chen, Huan-Xin; Roper, Steven N

    2013-05-01

    Cortical dysplasia (CD) is strongly associated with intractable epilepsy, probably due to hyperexcitability of neuronal networks. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. GABAergic interneurons provide major inhibitory function in the CNS and have different subtypes, but it is not clear how each subtype is affected in CD during early post-natal development. We have examined the developmental alterations of the densities of two major subtypes of interneurons, parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SS)-expressing interneurons in an animal model of CD, in utero irradiation, using immunocytochemistry. We found that the density of PV- and SS-positive interneurons increases significantly in CD and controls during the first three weeks of postnatal life. However, compared to controls, the densities of both subtypes are significantly decreased in CD and heterotopia at all age groups although the time of onset for both PV and SS expression remained unchanged. Our results indicate that the densities of both PV- and SS-positive interneurons are significantly decreased in CD and heterotopia, which may be one important mechanism leading to hyperexcitability of CD.

  2. [Cortical blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, S

    2014-02-01

    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system.

  3. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Demirci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis commonly occurs in patient with cirrhosis, malignancy and prothrombotic states. Patients with acute portal vein thrombosis have immediate onset. Patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis have developed portal hypertension and cavernous portal transformation. Portal vein thrombosis is diagnosed with doppler ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin achieves recanalization in more than half of acute cases.

  4. 经奶嘴甜味剂喂服对新生儿静脉穿刺疼痛的影响%Effects of Administering Glucose through a Nipple on Reducing Pain of Newborns During Scalp Veins Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高静迪; 刘燕; 吴春丽

    2013-01-01

      目的:了解经奶嘴甜味剂喂服对新生儿静脉穿刺疼痛的影响,为新生儿疼痛管理提供新的思路和方法.方法:选取180例新生儿作为研究对象,其中89例早产儿、91例足月儿,将患儿随机分为对照组和干预组,干预组穿刺前给予经奶嘴甜味剂喂服,对照组无干预,两组患儿穿刺时利用新生儿疼痛评分法对疼痛进行评估.结果:足月儿和早产儿中干预组疼痛评分明显低于对照组(P<0.01).结论:经奶嘴甜味剂喂服能有效减轻新生儿静脉穿刺时的疼痛反应.%Objective:To explore the effect of Administering glucose through a nipple on reducing pain of newborns during scalp veins puncture. Method:As research object,180 newborns were selected,there were 89 prematures and 91 Term infants,both group were randomized into intervention group and control group,intervention group were administed glucose through a nipple before scalp veins puncture,control group weren’t administed glucose before scalp veins puncture,Pain reaction was assessmented with Neonatal Infant Pain Scale.Result:Pain reaction scores of intervention group were lower than control group’s,There were significant differences(P<0.01).Conclusion:Administering glucose through a nipple can reduce pain of newborn during scalp veins puncture.

  5. Palm Vein Verification Using Gabor Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohsin Al-Juboori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm vein authentication is one of the modern biometric techniques, which employs the vein pattern in the human palm to verify the person. The merits of palm vein on classical biometric (e.g. fingerprint, iris, face are a low risk of falsification, difficulty of duplicated and stability. In this research, a new method is proposed for personal verification based on palm vein features. In the propose method, the palm vein images are firstly enhanced and then the features are extracted by using bank of Gabor filters. Then Fisher Discriminated Analysis (FDA is used to reduce the dimension of the features vectors. For vein pattern verification, this work uses Nearest Neighbors method. The EER of the proposed method is 0.2335%.

  6. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community.

  7. Perturbations in reward-related decision-making induced by reduced prefrontal cortical GABA transmission: Relevance for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Patrick T; Khayambashi, Shahin; Schluter, Magdalen G; Kutarna, Agnes; Floresco, Stan B

    2016-02-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for higher-order cognitive functions, including decision-making. In psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, prefrontal dysfunction co-occurs with pronounced alterations in decision-making ability. These alterations include a diminished ability to utilize probabilistic reinforcement in guiding future choice, and a reduced willingness to expend effort to receive reward. Among the neurochemical abnormalities observed in the PFC of individuals with schizophrenia are alterations in the production and function of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). To probe how PFC GABA hypofunction may contribute to alterations in cost/benefit decision-making, we assessed the effects GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 50 ng in 0.5 μl saline/hemisphere) infusion in the medial PFC of rats during performance on a series of well-validated cost/benefit decision-making tasks. Intra-PFC BIC reduced risky choice and reward sensitivity during probabilistic discounting and decreased the preference for larger rewards associated with a greater effort cost, similar to the behavioral sequelae observed in schizophrenia. Additional experiments revealed that these treatments did not alter instrumental responding on a progressive ratio schedule, nor did they impair the ability to discriminate between reward and no reward. However, BIC induced a subtle but consistent impairment in preference for larger vs. smaller rewards of equal cost. BIC infusion also increased decision latencies and impaired the ability to "stay on task" as indexed by reduced rates of instrumental responding. Collectively, these results implicate prefrontal GABAergic dysfunction as a key contributing factor to abnormal decision-making observed in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric conditions with similar neurobiological and behavioral alterations.

  8. Electrical Stimulation Using Conductive Polymer Polypyrrole Counters Reduced Neurite Outgrowth of Primary Prefrontal Cortical Neurons from NRG1-KO and DISC1-LI Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingsheng; Esrafilzadeh, Dorna; Crook, Jeremy M; Kapsa, Robert; Stewart, Elise M; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Wallace, Gordon G; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2017-02-15

    Deficits in neurite outgrowth, possibly involving dysregulation of risk genes neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) have been implicated in psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Electrical stimulation using conductive polymers has been shown to stimulate neurite outgrowth of differentiating human neural stem cells. This study investigated the use of the electroactive conductive polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) to counter impaired neurite outgrowth of primary pre-frontal cortical (PFC) neurons from NRG1-knock out (NRG1-KO) and DISC1-locus impairment (DISC1-LI) mice. Whereas NRG1-KO and DISC1-LI exhibited reduced neurite length and number of neurite branches compared to wild-type controls, this was not apparent for cultures on electroactive Ppy. Additionally, the use of the Ppy substrate normalised the synaptophysin and PSD95 protein and mRNA expression whereas both are usually reduced by NRG1-KO or DISC1-LI. Our findings support the utility of Ppy mediated electrical stimulation to prevent the reduction of neurite outgrowth and related synaptic protein expression in the primary PFC neurons from NRG1-KO and DISC1-LI mice, providing proof-of-concept for treating neurodevelopmental diseases including schizophrenia.

  9. Splenic vein thrombosis is associated with an increase in pancreas-specific complications and reduced survival in patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic exocrine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedania, Nishi; Agrawal, Nidhi; Winter, Jordan M; Koniaris, Leonidas G; Rosato, Ernest L; Sauter, Patricia K; Leiby, Ben; Pequignot, Edward; Yeo, Charles J; Lavu, Harish

    2013-08-01

    Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy (DPS) is the procedure of choice for the surgical treatment of pancreatic exocrine cancer localized to the body and tail of the pancreas. Splenic vein thrombosis (SVT) can occur in patients with malignant pancreatic exocrine tumors secondary to direct tumor invasion or compression of the splenic vein by mass effect. This study examines the effect of preoperative SVT on postoperative outcomes. In this retrospective cohort study, we queried our pancreatic surgery database to identify patients who underwent DPS from October 2005 to June 2011. These cases were evaluated for evidence of preoperative SVT on clinical records and cross-sectional imaging (CT,MRI, endoscopic US). Outcomes for patients with and without SVT were compared. From an overall cohort of 285 consecutive patients who underwent DPS during the study period, data were evaluated for 70 subjects who underwent surgery for pancreatic exocrine cancer (27 with SVT, 43 without SVT). The preoperative demographics and co-morbidities were similar between the groups, except the average age was higher for those without SVT (ppancreatic fistula (33 versus 7 %,ppancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma can be performed safely in patients with SVT, but with higher intraoperative blood loss, increased pancreas-specific complications, and a trend towards lower long-term survival rates. This paper was presented as a poster at the 53rd annual meeting of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract and at the 46th annual meeting of the Pancreas Club, San Diego, CA, May 2012.

  10. Temperament profiles of children with vein of Galen malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, R; Melnick, J; Berenstein, A

    1998-08-01

    Unlike many brain injured children who are often rather difficult, toddlers and school-aged children with congenital vein of Galen malformations (n = 20; age range, 4 months to 12 years with a mean of 4 years) evidence a relatively positive temperament profile (based on the Temperament Scales of Carey, McDevitt, Fullard, Hegvik, Medoff-Cooper). They do not, however, differ from normal children with regard to the frequency of easy, difficult, slow to warm up, and intermediate temperament clusters. The temperament profile of children with vein of Galen malformations appears unaffected by additional neurologic abnormalities (hydrocephalus, abnormal developmental quotient, seizure disorder, focal cortical lesions) or other factors including age at testing, sex, or socioeconomic status. Contrary to the findings in adults of right hemisphere dominance for attention, presence of additional right-sided focal cortical pathology was not associated with greater activity level, distractibility, or impersistence. In contrast to the findings in adults and children of right hemisphere dominance for emotions in general, children with vein of Galen malformations and additional right hemisphere cortical damage are not more difficult than those with additional left cortical pathology or no additional focal cortical pathology. The fact that the pathology in vein of Galen malformations is subcortical may explain their relatively easier temperament and the absence of lateralization effects.

  11. Cerebrolysin reduces amyloid-β deposits, apoptosis and autophagy in the thalamus and improves functional recovery after cortical infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shihui; Zhang, Jian; Dang, Chao; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Yusheng; Li, Jingjing; Fan, Yuhua; Pei, Zhong; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2014-02-15

    Focal cerebral infarction causes amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits and secondary thalamic neuronal degeneration. The present study aimed to determine the protective effects of Cerebrolysin on Aβ deposits and secondary neuronal damage in thalamus after cerebral infarction. At 24h after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) or saline as control was once daily administered for consecutive 13 days by intraperitoneal injection. Sensory function and secondary thalamic damage were assessed with adhesive-removal test, Nissl staining and immunofluorescence at 14 days after MCAO. Aβ deposits, activity of β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), apoptosis and autophagy were determined by TUNEL staining, immunofluorescence and immunoblot. The results showed that Cerebrolysin significantly improved sensory deficit compared to controls (pCerebrolysin, which was accompanied by decreases in neuronal loss and astroglial activation compared to controls (all p Cerebrolysin markedly inhibited cleaved caspase-3, conversion of LC3-II, downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax in the ipsilateral thalamus compared to controls (all pCerebrolysin reduces Aβ deposits, apoptosis and autophagy in the ipsilateral thalamus, which may be associated with amelioration of secondary thalamic damage and functional recovery after cerebral infarction.

  12. Hypoxia in high glucose followed by reoxygenation in normal glucose reduces the viability of cortical astrocytes through increased permeability of connexin 43 hemichannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Juan A.; Hernández, Diego E.; Ezan, Pascal; Velarde, Victoria; Bennett, Michael V. L.; Giaume, Christian; Sáez, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    Brain ischemia causes more extensive injury in hyperglycemic than normoglycemic subjects, and the increased damage is to astroglia as well as neurons. In the present work, we found that in cortical astrocytes from rat or mouse, reoxygenation after hypoxia in a medium mimicking interstitial fluid during ischemia increases hemichannel activity and decreases cell-cell communication via gap junctions as indicated by dye uptake and dye coupling, respectively. These effects were potentiated by high glucose during the hypoxia in a concentration-dependent manner (and by zero glucose) and were not observed in connexin 43−/− astrocytes. The responses were transient or persistent after short and long periods of hypoxia, respectively. The persistent responses were associated with a progressive reduction in cell viability that was prevented by La3+ or peptides that block connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels or by inhibition of p38 MAP kinase prior to hypoxia-reoxygenation but not by treatments that block pannexin hemichannels. Block of Cx43 hemichannels did not affect the reduction in gap junction mediated dye coupling observed during reoxygenation. Cx43 hemichannels may be a novel therapeutic target to reduce cell death following stroke, particularly in hyperglycemic conditions. PMID:19705457

  13. Improving the management of varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onida, Sarah; Lane, Tristan R A; Davies, Alun H

    2013-01-01

    Up to 30% of the UK population are affected by varicose veins. They are a manifestation of increased venous pressure in the lower limb caused by impaired venous return. Primary varicosities result from poor drainage from the superficial to the deep venous system. Secondary varicosities arise as a result of underlying pathology impeding venous drainage, such as deep venous thrombosis or increased intra-abdominal pressure caused by a mass, pregnancy or obesity. Patients with bleeding varicose veins should be referred to a vascular service immediately. Referral is also indicated in the following cases: symptomatic primary or recurrent varicose veins; lower limb skin changes thought to be caused by chronic venous insufficiency; superficial vein thrombosis and suspected venous incompetence; a venous leg ulcer or healed venous leg ulcer. Imaging is crucial in the assessment of the superficial and deep venous system to enable assessment of venous competence. The gold standard imaging technique is colour duplex ultrasonography. Duplex ultrasound should be used to confirm the diagnosis of varicose veins and the extent of truncal reflux, and to plan treatment for patients with suspected primary or recurrent varicose veins. Superficial vein ligation, phlebectomy and stripping have been the mainstay of treatment. In recent years, new techniques have been developed that are minimally invasive, enabling treatment of superficial venous incompetence with reduced morbidity. NICE recommends that endothermal ablation, in the form of radiofrequency or laser treatment, should be offered as treatment for patients with confirmed varicose veins and truncal reflux.

  14. Incidental Diagnosis of Cerebral Cortical Venous Thrombosis in Postdural Puncture Headache on Brain Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbertjean, Lisa; Ducrocq, Xavier; Lacour, Jean-Christophe; Mione, Gioia; Richard, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of cerebral cortical venous thrombosis in patients with postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is usually secondary to changes in headache pattern or cerebral infarctions. Nevertheless, incidental discovery of asymptomatic forms on brain imaging has never been reported before and its management thus remains ill-defined. We describe 2 cases of patients with asymptomatic cortical vein thrombosis in the context of PDPH. In both cases, brain computed tomography (CT) scans showed an isolated cortical vein thrombosis without cerebral damage. Neurological examination revealed the typical orthostatic feature of PDPH, independently of cortical vein thrombosis which was considered as a radiological incidental finding. Clinical and radiological signs resolved after bed rest, oral caffeine, and anticoagulation therapy. Asymptomatic cortical vein thrombosis may be found on radiological exploration, even basic like brain CT scan without contrast, of PDPH. Utility of anticoagulation therapy, which could increase the risk of cerebral hemorrhagic complications in this specific context, has to be assessed.

  15. [Right ovarian vein syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvis, G

    1985-01-01

    Right ovarian vein syndrome is revealed in pregnancy by right lumbar pains, and even by nephritic colics. It results from a congenital malposition of the right ovarian vein, which presses the right ureter on the external iliac artery. Diagnosis is by intravenous urography and retrograde ureteral pyelography. If pain persists despite treatment by analgesics, it may be necessary to place a double-J catheter, and to operate after delivery to ligate the ovarian vein.

  16. Postpartum renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, D; Sterns, R H; Segal, A J

    1985-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis in adults is usually a complication of the nephrotic syndrome. Rarely, it has been reported in nonnephrotic women postpartum. The thrombosis may be a complication of the hypercoagulable state associated with both the nephrotic syndrome and pregnancy. Two postpartum patients with renal vein thrombosis and no prior history of renal disease are reported here. Neither patient had heavy proteinuria. In both cases, pyelonephritis was suspected clinically and the diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis was first suggested and confirmed by radiologic examination. Renal vein thrombosis should be considered in women presenting postpartum with flank pain.

  17. What Causes Varicose Veins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood flow, and thin, stretched walls. The middle image shows where varicose veins might appear in a leg. Figure A shows ... blood flow, and thin, stretched walls. The middle image shows where varicose veins might appear in a leg. Older age or ...

  18. Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal cortical hemodynamic response in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirosawa R

    2013-07-01

    left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar areas. Results: During the verbal fluency task, significant task-related activation was detected in both the OCD group and the controls. Changes in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly smaller in the OCD group than in the controls, but were not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: Patients with OCD have reduced prefrontal, especially right dorsolateral prefrontal, cortical hemodynamic responses as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during the verbal fluency task. These results support the hypothesis that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a role in the pathophysiology of OCD. Keywords: functional neuroimaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, obsessive-compulsive disorder, prefrontal hemodynamic response, verbal fluency task, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

  19. Congenital preduodenal portal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Hwang, Mi Soo; Huh, Young Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [College of Medicine, Youngnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Congenital preduodenal portal vein, first reported by Knight in 1921, is an extremely rare congenital anomaly in which the portal vein passes anteriorly to the duodenum rather than posteriorly in its normal location. It is of surgical significance because it may cause difficulties in operations involving the gall bladder, biliary duct, or duodenum. Recently, we experienced 2 cases of preduodenal portal vein. One was found during surgical exploration for the diagnosis and correction of malrotation of the bowels and the other in a 3 day-old male newborn associated with dextrocardia, situs inversus, and duodenal obstruction by diaphragm. We report these 2 cases with a review of the literature.

  20. Umbilical and portal vein calcification following umbilical vein catheterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Hartl, M.

    1989-07-01

    Calcifications of the umbilical vein and intrahepatic branches of the portal vein developed in a newborn who had inserted an umbilical vein catheter for 11 days postnatally. The calcified intrahepatic portal veins can still be demonstrated sonographically at the age of three years, whereby these calcifications were no longer detectable radiologically. (orig.).

  1. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  2. Neonatal renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Leonardo R; Simpson, Ewurabena A; Lau, Keith K

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal renal vein thrombosis (RVT) continues to pose significant challenges for pediatric hematologists and nephrologists. The precise mechanism for the onset and propagation of renal thrombosis within the neonatal population is unclear, but there is suggestion that acquired and/or inherited thrombophilia traits may increase the risk for renal thromboembolic disease during the newborn period. This review summarizes the most recent studies of neonatal RVT, examining its most common features, the prevalence of acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors among these patients, and evaluates their short and long term renal and thrombotic outcomes as they may relate to these risk factors. Although there is some consensus regarding the management of neonatal RVT, the most recent antithrombotic therapy guidelines for the management of childhood thrombosis do not provide a risk-based algorithm for the acute management of RVT among newborns with hereditary prothrombotic disorders. Whereas neonatal RVT is not a condition associated with a high mortality rate, it is associated with significant morbidity due to renal impairment. Recent evidence to evaluate the effects of heparin-based anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy on the long term renal function of these patients has yielded conflicting results. Long term cohort studies and randomized trials may be helpful to clarify the impact of acute versus prolonged antithrombotic therapy for reducing the morbidity that is associated with neonatal RVT.

  3. Imaging characteristics of two patients with isolated cortical venous thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunchang Han; Hui Zhang; Guoguang Fan; Baohai Sun

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Over the past twenty years, improvements in neuroimaging have greatly improved the ability to diagnose cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, as well as isolated cortical venous thrombosis. Neuroimaging allows for variations to be detected in the cortical vein and venous sinus. Diagnosis of thromboses in the venous system should not depend entirely on angiography of undeveloped veins or venous sinus. Currently, the combination of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography is the gold standard for diagnosing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, rather than digital subtraction angiography. This article summarizes clinical manifestations, results from computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in two cases of isolated cortical venous thrombosis, analyzed relevant literature, and discussed the clinical and imaging characteristics of isolated cortical venous thromboses.

  4. Mortality after portal vein embolization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eung Chang; Park, Sang-Jae; Han, Sung-Sik; Park, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Duk; Kim, Seong Hoon; Lee, In Joon; Kim, Hyun Beom

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Portal vein embolization (PVE) is increasingly performed worldwide to reduce the possibility of liver failure after extended hepatectomy, by inducing future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy and atrophy of the liver planned for resection. The procedure is known to be very safe and to have few procedure-related complications. In this study, we described 2 elderly patients with Bismuth–Corlette type IV Klatskin tumor who underwent right trisectional PVE involving the embolization of the right portal vein, the left medial sectional portal branch, and caudate portal vein. Within 1 week after PVE, patients went into sepsis combined with bile leak and died within 1 month. Sepsis can cause acute liver failure in patients with chronic liver disease. In this study, the common patient characteristics other than sepsis, that is, trisectional PVE; chronic alcoholism; aged >65 years; heart-related comorbidity; and elevated serum total bilirubin (TB) level (7.0 mg/dL) at the time of the PVE procedure in 1 patient, and concurrent biliary procedure, that is, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in the other patient might have affected the outcomes of PVE. These cases highlight that PVE is not a safe procedure. Care should be taken to minimize the occurrence of infectious events because sepsis following PVE can cause acute liver failure. Additionally, prior to performing PVE, the extent of PVE, chronic alcohol consumption, age, comorbidity, long-lasting jaundice, concurrent biliary procedure, etc. should be considered for patient safety. PMID:28178122

  5. Deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Gargi; Roy, Subesha Basu; Haldar, Swaraj; Bhattacharya, Rabindra

    2010-12-01

    Occlusive clot formation in the veins causes venous thrombosis, the site most common in the deep veins of leg, called deep vein thrombosis. The clot can block blood flow and when it breaks off, called an embolism which in turn can damage the vital organs. Venous thrombosis occurs via three mechanisms ie, Virchow's triad. The mechanisms are decreased flow rate of blood, damage to the blood vessel wall and an increased tendency of the blood to clot. There are several factors which can increase a person's risk for deep vein thrombosis. The symptoms of deep vein thrombosis in the legs are pain, swelling and redness of the part. One variety of venous thrombosis is phlegmasia alba dolens where the leg becomes pale and cool. Investigations include Doppler ultrasound examination of the limb, D-dimer blood test, plethysmography of the legs, x-rays to show vein in the affected area (venography). Hospitalisation is necessary in some cases with some risk factors. The mainstream of treatment is with anticoagulants, mostly low molecular weight heparin for 6 months. Deep venous thrombosis is a rising problem. Early diagnosis and treatment is associated with a good prognosis.

  6. Mesenteric vein thrombosis: CT identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.; Kelvin, F.M.

    1984-07-01

    Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis was identified on computed tomographic scans in six patients. In each case, contrast-enhanced scans showed a high-density superior mesenteric vein wall surrounding a central filling defect. Four fo the six patients had isolated superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. A fifth patient had associated portal vein and splenic vein thrombosis, and the sixth patient had associated portal vein and inferior vena cava thrombosis. One of the six patients had acute ischemic bowel disease. The other five patients did not have acute ischemic bowel symptoms associated with their venous occlusion. This study defines the computed tomographic appearance of mesenteric vein thrombosis.

  7. Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased visual ...

  8. Portal vein thrombosis in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Graziela C M; Fagundes, Eleonora D T; Roquete, Mariza L V; Ferreira, Alexandre R; Penna, Francisco J

    2006-01-01

    To review the literature on portal vein thrombosis in children and adolescents, focusing on its diagnosis, complications and treatment. The medical literature of the past 10 years was reviewed using the PubMed and MEDLINE search engines, with major focus on portal vein thrombosis and its clinical outcomes. The following keywords or expressions were used for the web search: portal vein thrombosis, extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction, prognosis, children, portal hypertension, esophagogastric varices. Additionally, we also reviewed the articles cited in the references of the initially selected papers, as well as relevant textbooks. Portal vein thrombosis is one of the most common causes of portal hypertension among children. The initial clinical manifestation is characterized either by episodes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding or by splenomegaly on routine clinical examination. The major complications include upper gastrointestinal bleeding, hypersplenism secondary to splenomegaly, growth retardation, and portal biliopathy. The diagnosis is made by abdominal Doppler ultrasonography. Treatment is targeted at the complications and includes primary and secondary prophylaxis against upper gastrointestinal bleeding (which results from the rupture of esophageal varices), and portosystemic shunting in selected cases. Portal vein thrombosis is one of the major triggers of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children. Bleeding episodes have a remarkable effect on the quality of life of affected patients. Thus, appropriate diagnosis and treatment are needed in order to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  9. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  10. Fetal and neonatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor, methoxychlor, reduces lean body mass and bone mineral density and increases cortical porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnant, Heather S; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Buckendahl, Patricia; Dunn, Michael G; Shupper, Peter; Shapses, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous estrogen has beneficial effects on mature bone and negatively affects the developing skeleton, whereas the effect of environmental estrogens is not known. Methoxychlor (MXC) is a synthetic estrogen known as a persistent organochlorine and used as a pesticide. Methoxychlor and its metabolites display estrogenic, anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity and may therefore influence bone. Fifty-eight male fetal and neonatal rats were exposed to either: a negative control (DMSO), 0.020, 100 mg/kg MXC, or 1 mg/kg β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB; positive control). Rats were treated daily for 11 days, from embryonic day 19 to postnatal day (PND) 7 or for 4 days during the postnatal period (PND 0-7). All rats were analyzed at PND-84. Total body, femur, spine, and tibia areal bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), lean body mass (LBM) and fat were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone geometry and volumetric (v) BMD were measured using micro-computed tomography and biomechanical properties using three-point bending were assessed. Rats exposed to EB or MXC (at either the high and/or low dose), independent of exposure interval showed lower body weight, LBM, tibia and femur BMD and length, and total body BMD and BMC than DMSO control group (p ≤ 0.05). Methoxychlor and EB exposure increased cortical porosity compared to DMSO controls. Trabecular vBMD, number and separation, and cortical polar moment of inertia and cross-sectional area were lower due to EB exposure compared to control (p < 0.05). Early MXC exposure compromises cortical porosity and bone size at maturity, and could ultimately increase the risk of fracture with aging.

  11. Disorganization of cortical microtubules stimulates tangential expansion and reduces the uniformity of cellulose microfibril alignment among cells in the root of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Tobias I; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Judy-March, Jan E; Marga, Françoise

    2004-08-01

    To test the role of cortical microtubules in aligning cellulose microfibrils and controlling anisotropic expansion, we exposed Arabidopsis thaliana roots to moderate levels of the microtubule inhibitor, oryzalin. After 2 d of treatment, roots grow at approximately steady state. At that time, the spatial profiles of relative expansion rate in length and diameter were quantified, and roots were cryofixed, freeze-substituted, embedded in plastic, and sectioned. The angular distribution of microtubules as a function of distance from the tip was quantified from antitubulin immunofluorescence images. In alternate sections, the overall amount of alignment among microfibrils and their mean orientation as a function of position was quantified with polarized-light microscopy. The spatial profiles of relative expansion show that the drug affects relative elongation and tangential expansion rates independently. The microtubule distributions averaged to transverse in the growth zone for all treatments, but on oryzalin the distributions became broad, indicating poorly organized arrays. At a subcellular scale, cellulose microfibrils in oryzalin-treated roots were as well aligned as in controls; however, the mean alignment direction, while consistently transverse in the controls, was increasingly variable with oryzalin concentration, meaning that microfibril orientation in one location tended to differ from that of a neighboring location. This conclusion was confirmed by direct observations of microfibrils with field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, these results suggest that cortical microtubules ensure microfibrils are aligned consistently across the organ, thereby endowing the organ with a uniform mechanical structure.

  12. Disorganization of Cortical Microtubules Stimulates Tangential Expansion and Reduces the Uniformity of Cellulose Microfibril Alignment among Cells in the Root of Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Tobias I.; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Judy-March, Jan E.; Marga, Françoise

    2004-01-01

    To test the role of cortical microtubules in aligning cellulose microfibrils and controlling anisotropic expansion, we exposed Arabidopsis thaliana roots to moderate levels of the microtubule inhibitor, oryzalin. After 2 d of treatment, roots grow at approximately steady state. At that time, the spatial profiles of relative expansion rate in length and diameter were quantified, and roots were cryofixed, freeze-substituted, embedded in plastic, and sectioned. The angular distribution of microtubules as a function of distance from the tip was quantified from antitubulin immunofluorescence images. In alternate sections, the overall amount of alignment among microfibrils and their mean orientation as a function of position was quantified with polarized-light microscopy. The spatial profiles of relative expansion show that the drug affects relative elongation and tangential expansion rates independently. The microtubule distributions averaged to transverse in the growth zone for all treatments, but on oryzalin the distributions became broad, indicating poorly organized arrays. At a subcellular scale, cellulose microfibrils in oryzalin-treated roots were as well aligned as in controls; however, the mean alignment direction, while consistently transverse in the controls, was increasingly variable with oryzalin concentration, meaning that microfibril orientation in one location tended to differ from that of a neighboring location. This conclusion was confirmed by direct observations of microfibrils with field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, these results suggest that cortical microtubules ensure microfibrils are aligned consistently across the organ, thereby endowing the organ with a uniform mechanical structure. PMID:15299138

  13. Image Quality Enhancement Using the Direction and Thickness of Vein Lines for Finger-Vein Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ho Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the increased emphasis placed on the protection of privacy, biometric recognition systems using physical or behavioural characteristics such as fingerprints, facial characteristics, iris and finger-vein patterns or the voice have been introduced in applications including door access control, personal certification, Internet banking and ATM machines. Among these, finger-vein recognition is advantageous in that it involves the use of inexpensive and small devices that are difficult to counterfeit. In general, finger-vein recognition systems capture images by using near infrared (NIR illumination in conjunction with a camera. However, such systems can face operational difficulties, since the scattering of light from the skin can make capturing a clear image difficult. To solve this problem, we proposed new image quality enhancement method that measures the direction and thickness of vein lines. This effort represents novel research in four respects. First, since vein lines are detected in input images based on eight directional profiles of a grey image instead of binarized images, the detection error owing to the non-uniform illumination of the finger area can be reduced. Second, our method adaptively determines a Gabor filter for the optimal direction and width on the basis of the estimated direction and thickness of a detected vein line. Third, by applying this optimized Gabor filter, a clear vein image can be obtained. Finally, the further processing of the morphological operation is applied in the Gabor filtered image and the resulting image is combined with the original one, through which finger-vein image of a higher quality is obtained. Experimental results from application of our proposed image enhancement method show that the equal error rate (EER of finger-vein recognition decreases to approximately 0.4% in the case of a local binary pattern-based recognition and to approximately 0.3% in the case of a wavelet transform

  14. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-05

    This podcast discusses the risk for deep vein thrombosis in long-distance travelers and ways to minimize that risk.  Created: 4/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  15. Retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of retinal vein occlusion. These measures include: Eating a low-fat diet Getting regular exercise Maintaining an ideal weight Not smoking Aspirin or other blood thinners may help prevent blockages in the other eye. Controlling diabetes may ...

  16. The vein collar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    Randomized studies evaluating the effect of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-grafts show conflicting results. The study of the Joint Vascular Research Group (JVRG) of UK found improved primary patency while the Scandinavian Miller Collar Study (SCAMICOS) found neither any effect...

  17. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OWNER

    Il s'agissait de la main et les recherches en ligne. Des termes ..... Cerrato D, Ariano G, and Fiacchino F : Deep vein ... Surg 1988; 75: 1053–7. 19. Salzman ... Alikhan R, Cohen AT, Combe S, Samama .... Kakkar AK, Williamson RCN. Thrombo.

  18. [Ovarian vein syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero Doria, R; Guzmán Valls, P; López Alba, J; Tomás Ros, M; Rico Galiano, J L; Fontana Compiano, L O

    1996-04-01

    The Ovarian Vein Syndrome has been the subject of controversy ever since first described as such by Clark in 1964. This is an uncommon entity within urologic sings and symptoms which appears as a recurrent nephritic colic coinciding with menstruation or during the immediately preceding days. The authors review a clinical case from our Urology Service, including some considerations on the case.

  19. Cucumber vein yellowing virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of CVYV and the disease it causes....

  20. Squash vein yellowing virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of SqVYV and the disease it causes....

  1. Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Analysis of the Developmental Changes of Tourette Syndrome Reveal Reduced Diffusion in the Cortico-Striato-Thalamo-Cortical Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette; Jeppesen, Signe; Raghava, Jayachandra Mitta

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways are involved in Tourette syndrome. We performed a longitudinal imaging study in 22 patients and 21 healthy controls in order to examine the development of tics and its correlation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings....... Patients were divided in a group with persisting and a group with remission of tics. We found a decrease in volume of left putamen in controls, but not in patients. We found changes in mean diffusivity between patients and controls in right caudate nucleus, thalamus, and frontal lobe. In contrast...... to controls, parallel and perpendicular diffusivity decreased in patients and were most pronounced in the patients with persisting tics compared to those with remission. The findings suggest that the development of the brain in patients with remission resembles the normal development more than in patients...

  2. Microcomputed tomographic analysis of human condyles in unilateral condylar hyperplasia: increased cortical porosity and trabecular bone volume fraction with reduced mineralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssemakers, L H E; Nolte, J W; Tuinzing, D B; Langenbach, G E J; Raijmakers, P G; Becking, A G

    2014-12-01

    Unilateral condylar hyperplasia or hyperactivity is a disorder of growth that affects the mandible, and our aim was to visualise the 3-dimensional bony microstructure of resected mandibular condyles of affected patients. We prospectively studied 17 patients with a clinical presentation of progressive mandibular asymmetry and an abnormal single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scan. All patients were treated by condylectomy to arrest progression. The resected condyles were scanned with micro-CT (18 μm resolution). Rectangular volumes of interest were selected in 4 quadrants (lateromedial and superoinferior) of the trabecular bone of each condyle. Variables of bone architecture (volume fraction, trabecular number, thickness, and separation, degree of mineralisation, and degree of structural anisotrophy) were calculated with routine morphometric software. Eight of the 17 resected condyles showed clear destruction of the subchondral layer of cortical bone. There was a significant superoinferior gradient for all trabecular variables. Mean (SD) bone volume fraction (25.1 (6) %), trabecular number (1.69 (0.26) mm(-1)), trabecular thickness (0.17 (0.03) mm), and degree of mineralisation (695.39 (39.83) mg HA/cm(3)) were higher in the superior region. Trabecular separation (0.6 (0.16) mm) and structural anisotropy (1.84 (0.28)) were higher in the inferior region. The micro-CT analysis showed increased cortical porosity in many of the condyles studied. It also showed a higher bone volume fraction, greater trabecular thickness and trabecular separation, greater trabecular number, and less mineralisation in the condyles of the 17 patients compared with the known architecture of unaffected mandibular condyles.

  3. Endovenous treatments for varicose veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R. van den Bos (Renate)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractEndovenous treatment is currently one of the most frequently used methods for treating varicose veins in the Netherlands. Varicose veins are tortuous and enlarged veins due to weakening in the vein’s wall or valves. They are manifestations of chronic venous disease (CVD), which may lead

  4. Update of endovenous treatment modalities for insufficient saphenous veins-A review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekeren, Ramon R. J. P.; Boersma, Doeke; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Lower-limb venous insufficiency resulting from saphenous vein incompetence is a common disorder, increasing with age. For decades, surgical stripping of the great saphenous vein has been the gold standard in varicose vein treatment. The desire to optimize outcomes of treatment and reduce surgical tr

  5. Update of endovenous treatment modalities for insufficient saphenous veins-A review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eekeren, Ramon R. J. P.; Boersma, Doeke; de Vries, Jean-Paul P. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    Lower-limb venous insufficiency resulting from saphenous vein incompetence is a common disorder, increasing with age. For decades, surgical stripping of the great saphenous vein has been the gold standard in varicose vein treatment. The desire to optimize outcomes of treatment and reduce surgical

  6. DEGRADATION OF A SUPPORTING PROSTHESIS CAN OPTIMIZE ARTERIALIZATION OF AUTOLOGOUS VEINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWEEP, HP; SATOH, S; VANDERLEI, B; HINRICHS, WLJ; FEIJEN, J; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1993-01-01

    In a previous study, we implanted autologous vein grafts in the carotid artery of rabbits supported by a compliant, biodegradable prosthesis to prevent vein wall damage due to the higher arterial pressure. We showed that such a supporting prosthesis indeed reduces damage to these vein grafts and all

  7. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    % of the matrix. Surface roughness measurements show the vein to be as rough as the main tensile fracture in the matrix. The observations suggest that fracking through a deviated well reduces the breakdown pressure significantly and can activate a large number of veins with enhanced conductivity without the need for excessive proppant injection.

  8. Varicosity of the pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leicher-Dueber, A.; Lindner, P.; Schild, H.; Plewe, G.

    1986-04-01

    Varicosity of the pulmonary veins is a rare anomaly of the pulmonary vascular system. The varices do not usually change in size over years, do not cause symptoms and need no therapy. However, raised left atrial pressure can cause increase in the diameter of pulmonary vein varices. A case of lung vein varicosity in the right middle and upper lobe associated with coarctation of the aorta and an anomalous upper-middle lobe vein was observed over a period of 10 years. Increase in left atrial pressure (aortic and relative mitral regurgitation) led to enlargement of the pulmonary veins.

  9. 冠状动脉旁路移植术静脉移植物内膜增生的治疗策略%Therapeutic Strategies to Reduce Vein Graft Neointima Formation in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱雪峰; 董念国

    2009-01-01

    尽管冠状动脉旁路移植术中动脉桥血管被广泛使用且远期通畅率高,但大隐静脉移植物仍是冠状动脉旁路移植术使用最多的桥血管,而大隐静脉移植物术后10年通畅率大约60%.静脉移植物再狭窄的机制包括血栓形成、心内膜增生和粥样硬化等.防治静脉移植物再狭窄的方案包括药物治疗、基因治疗和血管外支架.现就上述治疗方案作一综述.%Although arterial conduits are widely used and have good long-term results in coronary artery bypass grafting, vein grafts remain using most in coronary surgery. Newer studies show a saphenous vein graft patency of about 60% at 10 years postoperatively. The pathology of vein graft disease consists of thrombosis, neointimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis. Therapeutic strategies to prevent vein graft disease include pharmacotherapy, gene therapy and external stenting. In this review we have summarized a variety of therapeutic strategies for vein graft disease.

  10. Topiramate reduces blood-brain barrier disruption and inhibits seizure activity in hyperthermia-induced seizures in rats with cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, Candan; Orhan, Nurcan; Ahishali, Bulent; Yilmaz, Canan Ugur; Kemikler, Gonul; Elmas, Imdat; Cevik, Aydin; Kucuk, Mutlu; Arican, Nadir; Kaya, Mehmet

    2013-02-04

    We investigated the effects of topiramate (TPM), a novel broad spectrum anticonvulsant, on seizure severity, survival rate and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity during hyperthermic seizures in rats with cortical dysplasia (CD). Offsprings of irradiated mothers were used in this study. To show the functional and morphological alterations in BBB integrity, quantitative analysis of Evans blue (EB) extravasation, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic assessment of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) permeability were performed. Rats with CD exposed to hyperthermia exhibited seizures with mean Racine's scores of 3.92 ± 1.2. Among the rats with CD pretreated with TPM, 21 of 24 rats showed no sign of seizure activity upon exposure to hyperthermia (pseizures increased BBB permeability to EB in animals with CD, but TPM pretreatment decreased the penetration of the tracer into the brain in these animals (pseizures, and TPM pretreatment prevented the development of HRP reaction products in these animals. The results of this study suggest that TPM inhibits seizure activity and maintains BBB integrity in the course of febrile seizures in the setting of CD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Downregulation of postsynaptic density-95-interacting regulator of spine morphogenesis reduces glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by differentially regulating glutamate receptors in rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Peng; Yang, Yuefan; Liu, Wei; Rao, Wei; Bian, Huan; Li, Xin; Chen, Tao; Liu, Mengdong; Zhao, Yongbo; Dai, Shuhui; Yan, Xu; Fei, Zhou

    2013-12-01

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is involved in many neurological diseases. Preso, a novel postsynaptic scaffold protein, mediates excitatory synaptic transmission and various synaptic functions. In this study, we investigated the role of Preso in the regulation of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. Knockdown of Preso with small interfering RNA improved neuronal viability and attenuated the elevation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release after glutamate treatment. Downregulation of Preso also inhibited an increase in the BAX/Bcl-2 ratio and cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Although the expression and distribution of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1/5, NR1, NR2A and NR2B were not changed by knockdown of Preso, downregulation of Preso protected neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by inhibiting mGluR and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function. However, downregulation of Preso neither affected the expression of GluR1 and GluR2 nor influenced the function of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor after glutamate treatment. Furthermore, intracellular Ca(2+) was an important downstream effector of Preso in the regulation of excitotoxicity. These results suggest that expression of Preso promotes the induction of excitotoxicity by facilitating different glutamate receptor signaling pathways. Therefore, Preso might be a potential pharmacological target for preventing and treating neurological diseases.

  12. Fat-Free Body Mass but not Fat Mass is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Volume of Cortical Brain Regions Implicated in Autonomic and Homeostatic Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Christopher M; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Reiman, Eric M; Chen, Kewei; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with alterations of both functional and structural aspects of the human central nervous system. In obese individuals both fat mass (FM; primarily consisting of adipose tissue) and fat-free mass (FFM; all non-adipose tissues) are increased and it remains unknown whether these compartments have separate effects on human brain morphology. We used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the relationships between measures of body composition and regional gray matter volume (GMV) in 76 healthy adults with a wide range of adiposity (24F/52M; age 32.1±8.8y; percentage of body fat [PFAT%] 25.5±10.9%; BMI 29.8±8.9). Faf-free mass index (FFMI kg*m-2) showed negative associations in bilateral temporal regions, the bilateral medial and caudolateral OFC, and the left insula. Fat mass index (FMI kg*m-2) showed similar, but less extensive negative associations within temporal cortical regions and the left caudolateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, negative associations were seen for FMI with GMV of the cerebellum. Associations of FFMI with temporal and medial orbitofrontal GMV appeared to be independent of adiposity. No associations were seen between measures of adiposity (i.e. FM and PFAT) and GMV when adjusted for FFM. The majority of regions that we find associated with FFM have been implicated in the regulation of eating behavior and show extensive projections to central autonomic and homeostatic core structures. These data indicate that not adipose tissue or relative adiposity itself, but obesity related increases in absolute tissue mass and particularly FFM may have a more predominant effect on the human brain. This might be explained by the high metabolic demand of FFM and related increases in total energy needs. PMID:22974975

  13. Disastrous Portal Vein Embolization Turned into a Successful Intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrocky, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.dobrocky@insel.ch [University of Bern, Department of Interventional, Pediatric and Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital, University Hospital (Switzerland); Kettenbach, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.kettenbach@stpoelten.lknoe.at [Universitätsklinikum St. Pölten-Lilienfeld, Institute of Medical Radiology, Diagnostic, Intervention (Austria); Lopez-Benitez, Ruben, E-mail: Ruben.lopez@insel.ch; Kara, Levent, E-mail: levent.kara@insel.ch [University of Bern, Department of Interventional, Pediatric and Diagnostic Radiology, Inselspital, University Hospital (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    Portal vein embolization (PVE) may be performed before hemihepatectomy to increase the volume of future liver remnant (FLR) and to reduce the risk of postoperative liver insufficiency. We report the case of a 71-year-old patient with hilar cholangiocarcinoma undergoing PVE with access from the right portal vein using a mixture of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodized oil. During the procedure, nontarget embolization of the left portal vein occurred. An aspiration maneuver of the polymerized plug failed; however, the embolus obstructing portal venous flow in the FLR was successfully relocated into the right portal vein while carefully bypassing the plug with a balloon catheter, inflating the balloon, and pulling the plug into the main right portal vein.

  14. Principal Component Analysis of Thermal Dorsal Hand Vein Pattern Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krishna Sree

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The quest of providing more secure identification system has lead to rise in developing biometric systems. Biometrics such as face, fingerprint and iris have been developed extensively for human identification purpose and also to provide authentic input to many security systems in the past few decades. Dorsal hand vein pattern is an emerging biometric which is unique to every individual. In this study principal component analysis is used to obtain Eigen vein patterns which are low dimensional representation of vein pattern features. The extraction of the vein patterns was obtained by morphological techniques. Noise reduction filters are used to enhance the vein patterns. Principle component analysis is able to reduce the 2-dimensional image database into 1-dimensional Eigen vectors and able to identify all the dorsal hand pattern images.

  15. Caudal shif ting of hepatic vein anastomosis inright liver living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheung Tat Fan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In right liver living donor liver trans-plantation, hepatic venous anastomosis is performed using the recipient's right hepatic vein oriifce. There may be situations that the portal vein is short or the right liver graft is small, leading to dififculty in portal vein, hepatic artery or duct-to-duct anastomosis. METHODS: The recipient's right hepatic vein oriifce is closed partially for 2 cm at the cranial end or totally, and a new venotomy is made caudal to the right hepatic vein oriifce. Hepatic vein anastomosis is performed with the new venotomy. RESULTS: The distance between the liver graft hilum and hepatoduodenal ligament is reduced. Portal vein, hepatic artery and biliary anastomosis could be performed without tension or conduit. CONCLUSION: Caudal shifting of hepatic vein anasto-mosis facilitates implantation of a right liver living donor graft.

  16. CT能谱成像用于减少锁骨下对比剂伪影的临床研究%Preliminary Study of Spectral CT Imaging in Reducing Beam-hardening Artifact around Subclavian Vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛慧婷; 薛韵菁; 段青

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the beam-hardening artifacts (BHAs) around axillary vein and subclavian vein due to the utility of contrast agent in the pulmonary enhanced CT scan by choosing the optimal keV of spectral CT imaging. Methods: Totally 66 patients who received pulmonary enhanced CT scan (Discovery CT750HD) in GSI (Gemstone spectral imaging) mode were included. Twelve sets of CT images were generated including 1 set of 140 kVp conventional polychromatic images and 11 sets of monochromatic images (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140keV). The measurement and comparison of image noise, signal to noise ratio (SNR), contrast to noise ratio (CNR), and average BHAs at 3 different anatomic sites were performed between polychromatic image and each monochromatic image in the arterial phase. BHA was calculated as square root of the difference of noise squares of regions of interest (ROIs) and background. Results: Compared between monochromatic images group and polychromatic images group, BHA could be minimized at 120 keV (p = 0.000), but at the same time, SNR and CNR were obviously decreases, and lead to a significant decrease in soft tissue contrast. Only at 70 keV, BHA could also be reduced (P = 0.042), and the SNR and CNR were the highest, and the artifact area background noise could be reduced, the best image quality could be gotten. Conclusion: For pulmonary enhanced CT scan, 120 keV monochromatic image, which is better than polychromatic images and other monochromatic images in reducing BHA, can be used as the best monochromatic image in reducing the BHA, but the contrast of soft tissue is poor; 70 keV monochromatic image, which provides better SNR and CNR, lower image noise, and lower BHA, is better than 140 kVp polychromatic images. In the practical application, we can combine with 120keV and 70 keV images to make the diagnosis.%目的:寻找CT能谱成像的最佳能量点以减少肺部增强CT扫描锁骨下腋静脉和锁骨下静脉对比剂伪影,

  17. Retroaortic left renal vein joining the left common iliac vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brancatelli, G.; Galia, M.; Finazzo, M.; Sparacia, G.; Pardo, S.; Lagalla, R. [Dept. of Radiology ' ' P. Cignolini' ' , Univ. of Palermo (Italy)

    2000-11-01

    Retroaortic left renal vein joining the left common iliac vein is a rare congenital anomaly in the development of the inferior vena cava. To our knowledge, only one case has been reported in the literature; however, its imaging features have never been described. A 27-year-old male presented with a 1-year history of recurrent right flank pain, dysuria, hematuria, and fever (39 C). Computed tomography and MR venography showed a retroaortic left renal vein joining the left common iliac vein. We present the CT and MR venography findings and discuss their feasibility in showing this congenital anomaly. (orig.)

  18. A RARE CASE OF EXTENSIVE THROMBOSIS OF INFERIOR VENA CAVA, PORTAL VEIN, SPLENIC VEIN AND SUPERIOR MESENTRIC VEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While the most common presentation of venous thromboembolic disease is deep vein thrombosis (DVT or pulmonary thromboembolism, rarer manifestations are thrombosis of jugular vein, cerebral sinus and inferior vena cava. Here we are presenting a rare case of inferior vena caval thrombosis with multiple thrombus in portal vein, splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein

  19. Cephalic vein aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Walid; Selmo, Francesca; Hindi, Mia; Haddad, Fadi; Khalil, Ismail

    2007-11-01

    Cephalic vein aneurysms are rare malformations that may develop in any part of the vascular system, and their history, presentation, and management vary depending on their site. The etiology of venous aneurysms remains unclear, although several theories have been elaborated. Venous aneurysms are unusual vascular malformations that occur equally between the sexes and are seen at any age; they can present as either a painful or a painless subcutaneous mass. No serious complications have been reported from upper extremity venous aneurysms. Surgical excision is the definitive management for most of these. The case reported here presented with a painless and mobile, soft, subcutaneous mass that caused only cosmetic concern.

  20. Puzzles in practice: splenic vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Brittany; Marsh, Melanie; Walden, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    This report details a 58-year-old gentleman who presented to his outpatient primary care physician's clinic several times over four weeks for ongoing epigastric pain radiating into his left flank, dry heaving, and constipation. He was presumed to have gastritis at each visit and prescribed escalating doses of proton pump inhibitors. Due to the unrelenting pain, he eventually was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with splenic vein thrombosis after computed tomography imaging of the abdomen. Our literature search revealed that pancreatic pathology is overwhelmingly the contributing factor to splenic vein thrombosis. Our patient had prominent collateral vasculature, suggesting that his splenic vein thrombosis was chronic in nature and likely the cause of his ongoing abdominal pain. Splenic vein thrombosis is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, but one that should be included in the treating physician's differential diagnoses when abdominal pain is ongoing despite medical therapy. Although he had no evidence of initial findings on radiography, our patient was eventually diagnosed with biopsy-proven pancreatic cancer. Our case report demonstrates how patients presenting with persistent or worsening abdominal pain despite the use of proton pump inhibitors or other acid reducing agents and potential 'red flag' findings such as decreased appetite and weight loss should be worked up for other potential sources of abdominal pathology.

  1. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  2. Portal vein arterialization increases hepatocellular apoptosis and inhibits liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleimer, Karina; Stippel, Dirk L; Kasper, Hans U; Prenzel, Klaus; Gaudig, Cindy; Tawadros, Samir; Hoelscher, Arnulf H; Beckurts, K Tobias E

    2008-10-01

    Portal vein arterialization is performed in particular situations to guarantee sufficient blood flow in the portal vein. In addition, some authors have postulated a proliferation-promoting influence of portal vein arterialization on the liver tissue. However, portal vein arterialization is an unphysiological procedure: It increases portal blood flow and blood pressure as well as oxygenation of the liver tissue. On the other hand, it reduces the influx of hepatotrophic factors from the portal venous blood. The aim of these experiments was to investigate apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocytes during various conditions of the portal perfusion. After 70% liver resection in Lewis rats, the following four experimental groups were formed differing in portal perfusion: (I) hyperperfused, nonarterialized; (II) flow-regulated, nonarterialized; (III) hyperperfused, arterialized; (IV) flow-regulated, arterialized. A warm ischemia of 30 min was kept in all groups. Portal vein arterialization of 70% reduced rat livers significantly reduced liver regeneration as shown by a significant reduction in liver weight, body weight, and liver function after 6 wk, in contrast to the group with 70% liver mass reduction and portal venous inflow of the portal vein. Furthermore, we found a significantly elevated number of apoptotic hepatocytes after portal vein arterialization. These results were independent from blood flow regulation of the arterialized portal vein, which caused no improvement of the results. Portal vein arterialization should be performed only temporarily and is clinically not recommended as a permanent option, because of the increased hepatocellular apoptosis and the very distinctive, negative long-term effects on liver weight.

  3. Historical Overview of Varicose Vein Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bremer, Jephta; Moll, Frans L.

    2010-01-01

    Varicose veins are as old as Hippocrates. Varicose vein treatments come and go. Surgery for varicose vein disease is one of the commonest elective general surgical procedures. The history of varicose vein surgery has been traced. We note the first descriptions of varicose veins, and we particularly

  4. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins. Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on August 26th, 2010 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability, and cost-effectiveness of RFA for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition Varicose veins (VV) are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad

  5. phenoVein - A software tool for leaf vein segmentation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bühler, Jonas; Rishmawi, Louai; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Huber, Gregor; Scharr, Hanno; Hülskamp, Martin; Koornneef, Maarten; SCHURR, ULRICH; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    phenoVein is a software tool dedicated to automated segmenting and analyzing images of leaf veins. It includes comfortable manual correction features. Advanced image filtering automatically emphasizes veins from background and compensates for local brightness inhomogeneities. Phenotypical leaf vein traits being calculated are total vein density, vein lengths and widths and skeleton graph statistics. For determination of vein widths, a model based vein edge estimation approach has been impleme...

  6. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Gustavo C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein is a rare tumor of complex diagnosis. We presented a case of renal vein leiomyosarcoma detected in a routine study. The primary treatment was complete surgical removal of the mass. In cases where surgical removal is not possible the prognosis is poor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant spread.

  7. Agenesis of the iliac veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M L; Posniak, H V

    1984-01-01

    Three case reports of patients with the rare anomaly of agenesis of the iliac veins are presented. It is emphasised that full phlebographic investigation should be carried out in such patients before surgical treatment is considered. It is pointed out that surgical ablation may exacerbate the symptoms of leg swelling and varicose veins for which the patients seek advice.

  8. Infrared imaging of varicose veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Zeeuw, Raymond; Verdaasdonk, Ruud M.; Wittens, Cees H. A.

    2004-06-01

    It has been established that varicose veins are better visualized with infrared photography. As near-infrared films are nowadays hard to get and to develop in the digital world, we investigated the use of digital photography of varicose veins. Topics that are discussed are illumination setup, photography and digital image enhancement and analysis.

  9. 10-Minute Conultation Varicose veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A 55 year old woman presents with a history of tortuous veins on both legs and a related ache towards the end of the day.She finds these veins unsightly and would like to know whether she can have them treated.

  10. Eldecalcitol, a vitamin D analog, reduces bone turnover and increases trabecular and cortical bone mass, density, and strength in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan Y; Doyle, Nancy; Boyer, Marilyne; Chouinard, Luc; Saito, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is common in elderly people worldwide, and intake of supplementary calcium and vitamin D is recommended to those with a high risk of fracture. Several clinical studies and meta-analyses have shown that calcium and vitamin D supplementation reduces osteoporotic fractures, and a strong correlation exists between vitamin D status and fracture risk. Vitamin D supplementations improve calcium balance in the body; however, it remains unclear whether vitamin D directly affects bone metabolism. Recently, eldecalcitol (ELD), an active form of vitamin D analog, has been approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan. A 3-year clinical trial showed ELD treatment increased lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. To evaluate the mechanism of ELD action in bone remodeling, ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys were treated with 0.1 or 0.3μg/day of ELD for 6months. This treatment increased lumbar BMD by 4.4% and 10.2%, respectively, and suppressed ovariectomy-induced increases in bone turnover markers compared to OVX-vehicle control. Histomorphometric analysis of bone revealed that both bone formation parameters and bone resorption parameters in the trabecular bone of the lumbar vertebrae were suppressed by ELD treatment. ELD treatment also improved biomechanical properties of the lumbar vertebrae and the femoral neck in the ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys. These results indicate that, in a bone-remodeling animal model, ELD increases BMD and improves bone biomechanical properties by normalizing bone turnover. Therefore, ELD has a direct and potentially beneficial effect on bone metabolism. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sagittal vein thrombosis caused by central vein catheter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis, including thrombosis of cerebral veins and major dural sinuses, is an uncommon disorder in the general population. However, it has a higher frequency among patients younger than 40 years of age, patients with thrombophilia, pregnant patients or those receiving hormonal contraceptive therapy or has foreign body such as catheter in their veins or arterial system. In this case report, we described clinical and radiological findings in a patient with protein C-S deficiency and malposition of central vein catheter.

  12. Reduced cortical BACE1 content with one bout of exercise is accompanied by declines in AMPK, Akt, and MAPK signaling in obese, glucose-intolerant mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, P.; Peppler, W. T.; Wright, D. C.; Little, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are significant risk factors in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. A variety of cellular mechanisms, such as altered Akt and AMPK and increased inflammatory signaling, contribute to neurodegeneration. Exercise training can improve markers of neurodegeneration, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a single bout of exercise on markers of neurodegeneration and inflammation in brains from mice fed a high-fat diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low (LFD; 10% kcal from lard)- or a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 7 wk. HFD mice underwent an acute bout of exercise (treadmill running: 15 m/min, 5% incline, 120 min) followed by a recovery period of 2 h. The HFD increased body mass and glucose intolerance (both P exercise, there was a decrease in beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1; P exercise in HFD mice to a level similar to that of the LFD mice (P exercise can reduce BACE1 content and activity independent of changes in adiposity. This effect is associated with reductions in Akt, ERK, and AMPK signaling in the cortex. PMID:26404616

  13. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  14. Finger vein recognition based on finger crease location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiying; Ding, Shumeng; Yin, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Finger vein recognition technology has significant advantages over other methods in terms of accuracy, uniqueness, and stability, and it has wide promising applications in the field of biometric recognition. We propose using finger creases to locate and extract an object region. Then we use linear fitting to overcome the problem of finger rotation in the plane. The method of modular adaptive histogram equalization (MAHE) is presented to enhance image contrast and reduce computational cost. To extract the finger vein features, we use a fusion method, which can obtain clear and distinguishable vein patterns under different conditions. We used the Hausdorff average distance algorithm to examine the recognition performance of the system. The experimental results demonstrate that MAHE can better balance the recognition accuracy and the expenditure of time compared with three other methods. Our resulting equal error rate throughout the total procedure was 3.268% in a database of 153 finger vein images.

  15. TIPS performed in a patient with complete portal vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar Sharma, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis is common in cirrhotic patients and results in increased morbidity and mortality. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS creation is a well-established therapy for refractory variceal bleeding and refractory ascites in patients who do not tolerate repeated large volume paracentesis. Experience and technical improvements have led to improved TIPS outcomes that have encouraged an expanded application. Complete portal vein thrombosis has come a long way from being a contraindication to an indication for TIPS procedure. As experience and technology have evolved, the ultrasound guidance transvenous access of portal vein from the hepatic vein help in overall higher success rate of performing the TIPS procedure and reducing the procedure-related complications.

  16. A Vein Map Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fuentes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing demand world-wide, from government agencies and the private sector for cutting-edge biometric security technology that is difficult to breach but userfriendly at the same time. Some of the older tools, such as fingerprint, retina and iris scanning, and facial recognition software have all been found to have flaws and often viewed negatively because of many cultural and hygienic issues associated with them. Comparatively, mapping veins as a human barcode, a new technology, has many advantages over older technologies. Specifically, reproducing a three-dimensional model of a human vein system is impossible to replicate. Vein map technology is distinctive because of its state-of-the-art sensors are only able to recognize vein patterns if hemoglobin is actively flowing through the person

  17. [Surgery of essential varicose veins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraval, M

    1994-03-15

    Idiopathic varicose veins of the lower limbs are a frequent but benign disorder. Surgery is only a moment in the course of the disease. Although not the only treatment of essential varicose veins, surgery by an experienced team performing crossectomy, stripping by intussusception using a stripper, and phlebectomy gives fully satisfactory results, both to patient and to physician, in over 80% of cases. New techniques were recently developed that, at present, have not confirmed early hopes.

  18. Portal Vein Thrombosis in non cirrhotic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Spaander (Manon)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExtrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (EPVT) is the most common cause of portal hypertension in non- cirrhotic patients. EPVT has been defined as an obstruction of the extrahepatic portal vein with or without involvement of the intrahepatic portal veins. Although the portal vein accounts f

  19. Evolution of cortical neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mannan, Omar; Cheung, Amanda F P; Molnár, Zoltán

    2008-03-18

    The neurons of the mammalian neocortex are organised into six layers. By contrast, the reptilian and avian dorsal cortices only have three layers which are thought to be equivalent to layers I, V and VI of mammals. Increased repertoire of mammalian higher cognitive functions is likely a result of an expanded cortical surface area. The majority of cortical cell proliferation in mammals occurs in the ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ), with a small number of scattered divisions outside the germinal zone. Comparative developmental studies suggest that the appearance of SVZ coincides with the laminar expansion of the cortex to six layers, as well as the tangential expansion of the cortical sheet seen within mammals. In spite of great variation and further compartmentalisation in the mitotic compartments, the number of neurons in an arbitrary cortical column appears to be remarkably constant within mammals. The current challenge is to understand how the emergence and elaboration of the SVZ has contributed to increased cortical cell diversity, tangential expansion and gyrus formation of the mammalian neocortex. This review discusses neurogenic processes that are believed to underlie these major changes in cortical dimensions in vertebrates.

  20. Reduced cortical thickness in gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2015-01-01

    Gambling disorder has recently been recognized as a prototype 'behavioral addiction' by virtue of its inclusion in the DSM-5 category of 'Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.' Despite its newly acquired status and prevalence rate of 1-3 % globally, relatively little is known regarding...

  1. Cortical Lewy Body Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. G. Gibb

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In cortical Lewy body dementia the distribution of Lewy bodies in the nervous system follows that of Parkinson's disease, except for their greater profusion in the cerebral cortex. The cortical tangles and plaques of Alzheimer pathology are often present, the likely explanation being that Alzheimer pathology provokes dementia in many patients. Pure cortical Lewy body dementia without Alzheimer pathology is uncommon. The age of onset reflects that of Parkinson's disease, and clinical features, though not diagnostic, include aphasias, apraxias, agnosias, paranoid delusions and visual hallucinations. Parkinsonism may present before or after the dementia, and survival duration is approximately half that seen in Parkinson's disease without dementia.

  2. Focal cortical dysplasia - review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-04-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults.Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed - from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized.Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe.Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes.New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life.Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias.THE MOST COMMON FINDINGS ON MRI IMAGING INCLUDE: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also in both types

  3. Postpartum cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Shakeel Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    A 30-years-old third gravida with previous normal pregnancies and an unremarkable prenatal course had an emergency lower segment caesarean section at a periphery hospital for failure of labour to progress. She developed bilateral cortical blindness immediately after recovery from anesthesia due to cerebral angiopathy shown by CT and MR scan as cortical infarct cerebral angiopathy, which is a rare complication of a normal pregnancy.

  4. Surgical Implications of Portal Vein Variations and Liver Segmentations: A Recent Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Showkathali; Iqbal, Raiz; Iqbal, Faiz

    2017-02-01

    The Couinaud's liver segmentation is based on the identification of portal vein bifurcation and origin of hepatic veins. It is widely used clinically, because it is better suited for surgery and is more accurate in localizing and monitoring various intra parenchymal lesions. According to standard anatomy, the portal vein bifurcates into right and left branches; the left vein drains segment II, III and IV and the right vein divides into two secondary branches - the anterior portal vein drains segments V and VIII, and the posterior drains segments VI and VII. The portal vein variants such as portal trifurcation, with division of the main portal vein into the left, right anterior, and posterior branches, and the early origin of the right posterior branch directly from the main portal vein were found to be more frequent and was seen in about 20 - 35% of the population. Accurate knowledge of the portal variants and consequent variations in vascular segments are essential for intervention radiologists and transplant surgeons in the proper diagnosis during radiological investigations and in therapeutic applications such as preparation for biopsy, Portal Vein Embolization (PVE), Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-Systemic Shunt (TIPS), tumour resection and partial hepatectomy for split or living donor transplantations. The advances in the knowledge will reduce intra and postoperative complications and avoid major catastrophic events. The purpose of the present review is to update the normal and variant portal venous anatomy and their implications in the liver segmentations, complex liver surgeries and various radiological intervention procedures.

  5. Automated image analysis for diameters and branching points of cerebral penetrating arteries and veins captured with two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugashi, Takuma; Yoshihara, Kouichi; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao; Yamada, Yukio; Masamoto, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to characterize 3-dimensional (3D) morphology of the cortical microvasculature (e.g., penetrating artery and emerging vein), using two-photon microscopy and automated analysis for their cross-sectional diameters and branching positions in the mouse cortex. We observed that both artery and vein had variable cross-sectional diameters across cortical depths. The mean diameter was similar for both artery (17 ± 5 μm) and vein (15 ± 5 μm), and there were no detectable differences over depths of 50-400 μm. On the other hand, the number of branches was slightly increased up to 400-μm depth for both the artery and vein. The mean number of branches per 0.1 mm vessel length was 1.7 ± 1.2 and 3.8 ± 1.6 for the artery and vein, respectively. This method allows for quantification of the large volume data of microvascular images captured with two-photon microscopy. This will contribute to the morphometric analysis of the cortical microvasculature in functioning brains.

  6. Minimally invasive treatments for perforator vein insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyumcu, Gokhan; Salazar, Gloria Maria; Prabhakar, Anand M; Ganguli, Suvranu

    2016-12-01

    Incompetent superficial veins are the most common cause of lower extremity superficial venous reflux and varicose veins; however, incompetent or insufficient perforator veins are the most common cause of recurrent varicose veins after treatment, often unrecognized. Perforator vein insufficiency can result in pain, skin changes, and skin ulcers, and often merit intervention. Minimally invasive treatments have replaced traditional surgical treatments for incompetent perforator veins. Current minimally invasive treatment options include ultrasound guided sclerotherapy (USGS) and endovascular thermal ablation (EVTA) with either laser or radiofrequency energy sources. Advantages and disadvantages of each modality and knowledge on these treatments are required to adequately address perforator venous disease.

  7. Extrahepatic Portal Vein Obstruction and Portal Vein Thrombosis in Special Situations: Need for a New Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Zeeshan A.; Bhat, Riyaz A.; Bhadoria, Ajeet S.; Maiwall, Rakhi

    2015-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is a vascular disorder of liver, which results in obstruction and cavernomatous transformation of portal vein with or without the involvement of intrahepatic portal vein, splenic vein, or superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein obstruction due to chronic liver disease, neoplasm, or postsurgery is a separate entity and is not the same as extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction are generally young and belong mostly to Asian countries. It is therefore very important to define portal vein thrombosis as acute or chronic from management point of view. Portal vein thrombosis in certain situations such as liver transplant and postsurgical/liver transplant period is an evolving area and needs extensive research. There is a need for a new classification, which includes all areas of the entity. In the current review, the most recent literature of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is reviewed and summarized. PMID:26021771

  8. Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction and portal vein thrombosis in special situations: Need for a new classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan A Wani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is a vascular disorder of liver, which results in obstruction and cavernomatous transformation of portal vein with or without the involvement of intrahepatic portal vein, splenic vein, or superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein obstruction due to chronic liver disease, neoplasm, or postsurgery is a separate entity and is not the same as extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction are generally young and belong mostly to Asian countries. It is therefore very important to define portal vein thrombosis as acute or chronic from management point of view. Portal vein thrombosis in certain situations such as liver transplant and postsurgical/liver transplant period is an evolving area and needs extensive research. There is a need for a new classification, which includes all areas of the entity. In the current review, the most recent literature of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is reviewed and summarized.

  9. Independent measurement of femoral cortical thickness and cortical bone density using clinical CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treece, G M; Gee, A H

    2015-02-01

    The local structure of the proximal femoral cortex is of interest since both fracture risk, and the effects of various interventions aimed at reducing that risk, are associated with cortical properties focused in particular regions rather than dispersed over the whole bone. Much of the femoral cortex is less than 3mm thick, appearing so blurred in clinical CT that its actual density is not apparent in the data, and neither thresholding nor full-width half-maximum techniques are capable of determining its width. Our previous work on cortical bone mapping showed how to produce more accurate estimates of cortical thickness by assuming a fixed value of the cortical density for each hip. However, although cortical density varies much less over the proximal femur than thickness, what little variation there is leads to errors in thickness measurement. In this paper, we develop the cortical bone mapping technique by exploiting local estimates of imaging blur to correct the global density estimate, thus providing a local density estimate as well as more accurate estimates of thickness. We also consider measurement of cortical mass surface density and the density of trabecular bone immediately adjacent to the cortex. Performance is assessed with ex vivo clinical QCT scans of proximal femurs, with true values derived from high resolution HRpQCT scans of the same bones. We demonstrate superior estimation of thickness than is possible with alternative techniques (accuracy 0.12 ± 0.39 mm for cortices in the range 1-3mm), and that local cortical density estimation is feasible for densities >800 mg/cm(3).

  10. Angiosarcoma of common iliac vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibis, Kamuran; Usta, Ufuk; Cosar, Rusen; Ibis, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumour of endothelial cells. Primary angiosarcoma of venous origin is extremely rare, and has a very poor prognosis. A 63-year-old woman with retroperitoneal mass underwent en bloc resection on a part of iliac vein followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was detected during 3 years of follow-up. PMID:25596292

  11. Effect of external stents on prevention of intimal hyperplasia in a canine vein graft model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Rong-jiang; ZOU Liang-jian; HUANG Sheng-dong; WANG Yin; HAN Lin; JI Guang-yu; XU Zhi-yun

    2007-01-01

    Background External stents have been used to reduce intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts.The aim of the present study was to define the size of an external stent appropriate for a particular graft by comparing vein grafts with different sizes of external stents.Methods A series of paired trials was performed to compare femoral vein grafts with different sizes of external stents,where 30 modeled canines were equally divided into three groups:6-mm external stent vs non-stent control,4-mm vs 6-mm external stent,and 4-mm vs 8-mm external stent.At day 3 after operation,color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI)was done to observe blood flow in the lumen.Four weeks later,CDFI was re-checked and the veins were harvested,stained and measured.Results All grafts were patent without formation of thrombosis.External stents significantly reduced intimal thickness of the vein grafts with a 6-mm external stent compared with the vein grafts without external stents(P<0.05).The vein grafts with the 4-mm external stent had similar intimal, medial and adventitial thicknesses compared with those with the 6-mm external stent and the 8-mm external stent.Conclusions External stents can reduce intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts.Stents of different diameters exert the similar effect on prevention of intimal hyperplasia.

  12. Clinical studies on inferior right hepatic veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xing; Hong Li; Wei-Guo Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Many small veins are called accessory, short hepatic veins in addition to the right, middle and left hepatic veins. The size of these veins varied from a pinhole to 1 cm; the size of inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs) is thicker than that of short hepatic veins or more than 1 cm occasionally. Adults have a higher incidence rate of the IRHV. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS:The size of IRHVs is related to the size of the right hepatic vein, i.e. the larger the diameter of the right hepatic vein, the smaller the diameter of the IRHVs, and vice versa. The IRHVs are divided into superior, medial and inferior groups, separately named the superior, medial and inferior right hepatic veins according to the position of the IRHV entering the inferior vena cava. The superior right hepatic vein mainly drains the superior part of segmentⅦ, and the medial right hepatic vein drains the middle part of segmentⅦ. A thicker IRHV mainly drains segmentⅥ and the inferior part of segmentⅦ and a thinner IRHV drains the inferior part of segmentⅤ. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical signiifcance of these studies on IRHVs is varied: (1) Hepatic caudate lobe resection could be introduced after study on the veins of that lobe. (2) It is very important to identify the draining region of the IRHV for guiding hepatic segmentectomy. The postero-inferior area of the right lobe can be preserved along with the hypertrophic IRHV even if the entire main right hepatic vein is resected during segmentectomy ofⅦ andⅧwith right hepatic vein resection for patients with primary liver cancer. (3) The ligation of the major hepatic vein for the treatment of juxtahepatic vein injury is recommended because of severe hemorrhagic shock and dififculty in

  13. Common femoral vein reconstruction using internal jugular vein after blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Andrew M; West, Charles A; Davis, James A; Gilani, Ramyar; Askenasy, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Common femoral vein traumatic injuries are rare. Surgical management is controversial and by nature case specific. In this report, we present an unusual case of an isolated common femoral vein injury from a gunshot blast repaired with an interposition internal jugular vein bypass. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an isolated common femoral vein reconstructed in this manner.

  14. Who Is at Risk for Varicose Veins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may raise your risk for varicose veins. The normal wear and tear of aging may cause the valves in your veins to weaken and not work well. Gender Women tend to get varicose veins more often than men. Hormonal changes that occur during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause (or ...

  15. Cephalic veins in coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, P; Jakobsen, Erik; Lerbjerg, G

    1996-01-01

    Various alternative conduits for aortocoronary bypass grafting have been suggested when the saphenous vein quality is inadequate. During a 10-year period we have used the cephalic vein in 39 patients. Eighteen entered an angiographic follow-up study. A total of 31 arm vein grafts were used with 4...

  16. Radiological aspects of portal vein embolization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lienden, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with liver regeneration after portal vein embolization (PVE) or portal vein ligation (PVL). Several aspects of these portal vein occlusion techniques are evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. In addition, the role of dynamic liver function tests and CT-volumetry in risk a

  17. Cephalic veins in coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, P; Jakobsen, Erik; Lerbjerg, G;

    1996-01-01

    Various alternative conduits for aortocoronary bypass grafting have been suggested when the saphenous vein quality is inadequate. During a 10-year period we have used the cephalic vein in 39 patients. Eighteen entered an angiographic follow-up study. A total of 31 arm vein grafts were used with 4...

  18. Selection and Outcome of Portal Vein Resection in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, Akimasa [Department of Surgery II, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2010-11-24

    Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Five-year survival of pancreatic cancer after pancreatectomy is very low, and surgical resection is the only option to cure this dismal disease. The standard surgical procedure is pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) for pancreatic head cancer. The morbidity and especially the mortality of PD have been greatly reduced. Portal vein resection in pancreatic cancer surgery is one attempt to increase resectability and radicality, and the procedure has become safe to perform. Clinicohistopathological studies have shown that the most important indication for portal vein resection in patients with pancreatic cancer is the ability to obtain cancer-free surgical margins. Otherwise, portal vein resection is contraindicated.

  19. Endovascular Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular laser therapy (ELT) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins (VV). Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on November 27, 2009 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost-effectiveness of ELT for the treatment of primary VV based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition VV are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad or worse as other chronic diseases such as

  20. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Thom, M; Ellison, DW; Wilkins, P; Barnes, D; Thompson, PD; Brown, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. Background: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  1. Cortical Abnormalities in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Grey-matter abnormalities at the cortical surface and regional brain size were mapped by high-resolution MRI and surface-based, computational image analytical techniques in a group of 27 children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and 46 controls, matched by age and sex, at the University of California at Los Angeles.

  2. A New Multimodal Biometric System Based on Finger Vein and Hand Vein Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Randa Boukhris Trabelsi; Alima Damak Masmoudi; Dorra Sellami Masmoudi

    2013-01-01

    As a reliable and robust biological characteristic, the vein pattern increases more and more the progress in biometric researches. Generally, it was shown that single biometric modality recognition is not able to meet high performances. In this paper, we propose a new multimodal biometric system based on fusion of both hand vein and finger vein modalities. For finger vein recognition, we employ the Monogenic Local Binary Pattern (MLBP), and for hand vein recognitionan Improved Gaussian Matche...

  3. Recurrence of superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karathanos, Christos; Spanos, Konstantinos; Saleptsis, Vassileios; Tsezou, Aspasia; Kyriakou, Despina; Giannoukas, Athanasios D

    2016-08-01

    To investigate which factors other than history of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) are associated with recurrent spontaneous SVT episodes in patients with varicose veins (VVs). Patients with a history of spontaneous SVT and VVs were followed up for a mean period of 55 months. Demographics, comorbidities, and thrombophilia screening test were analyzed. Patients were grouped according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology classification. A multiple logistic regression analysis with the forward likelihood ratio method was undertaken. Thirteen patients out of 97 had a recurrence SVT episode during the follow-up period. All those patients were identified to have a thrombophilia defect. Protein C and S, antithrombin, and plasminogen deficiencies were more frequently present in patients without recurrence. Gene mutations were present in 38% in the nonrecurrence group and 77% in the recurrence group. After logistic regression analysis, patients with dislipidemia and mutation in prothrombin G20210A (FII) had an increased risk for recurrence by 5.4-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively. No deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred. Dislipidemia and gene mutations of F II are associated with SVT recurrence in patients with VVs. A selection of patients may benefit from anticoagulation in the short term and from VVs intervention in the long term. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. CT Findings of Completely Regressed Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Main Portal Vein Tumor Thrombosis after Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the sequential CT findings of controlled hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with main portal vein (MPV) thrombosis with the use of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and additional intra-arterial cisplatin infusion. From January 2004 to September 2006, 138 patients with HCC invading MPV were referred to the angiography unit of our institution for chemoembolization and additional intra-arterial cisplatin infusion. Until August 2008, seven (5%) of 138 patients were followed-up and found not to have tumor recurrence. CT scans were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists, focusing on the following parameters: the extent of portal vein thrombosis, the diameter of the affected portal vein, and enhancement of portal vein thrombosis. The extent of portal vein thrombosis at the initial presentation was variable: left portal vein (LPV) and MPV (n = 1), right portal vein (RPV) and MPV (n = 3), as well as RPV, LPV and MPV (n = 3). The extent and diameter of the affected portal vein decreased during follow-up examinations. In addition, the degree of enhancement for tumor thrombi and serum alpha-feto-protein levels decreased after the transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. Portal vein thrombosis was found to be completely resolved in one patient, whereas residual thrombus without viability was persistent in six patients. If chemoembolization is effective in patients with HCC that invades the portal vein, the extent and enhancement of portal vein thrombosis is reduced, but residual thrombosis frequently persists for months or years, without evidence of a viable tumor.

  5. SLEEP AND OLFACTORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan eBarnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimulation and instead displays sharp-wave activity similar to that observed within the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and other cortical and limbic regions is enhanced during slow-wave sleep compared to waking. This combination of conditions may allow odor memory consolidation to occur during a state of reduced external interference and facilitate association of odor memories with stored hedonic and contextual cues. Evidence consistent with sleep-dependent odor replay within olfactory cortical circuits is presented. These data suggest that both the strength and precision of odor memories is sleep-dependent. The work further emphasizes the critical role of synaptic plasticity and memory in not only odor memory but also basic odor perception. The work also suggests a possible link between sleep disturbances that are frequently co-morbid with a wide range of pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and depression and the known olfactory impairments associated with those disorders.

  6. Quantitative radiology: radiogrammetry of cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dequeker, J

    1976-11-01

    Based on personal experience and data in the literature, an overview is given of radiogrammetry of cortical bone of the second metacarpal. There is a within- and between-observer error which amounts respectively to 1.2 and 1.5% for the outer diameter and 4.8 and 6.4% for the inner diameter. The systematic + or-- trend between observers indicates that one observer working according to certain defined rules obtains the most reliable results. There is a large variability in amount of bone within one age and sex group which is partly due to skeletal size differences, are insufficient since skeletal size differences still exist. The variability is reduced when the data are divided into strata of skeletal size. Since cortical area shows the best correlation with outer diameter within each age group and since cortical area represents best the ash content of the bones the values of this index are most suited to be grouped according to outer diameter. In differentiating pathological from physiological bone loss this procedure is an improvement on the previously published indices of amount of bone. When comparing different populations this method has advantages since skeletal size differences are eliminated. Comparing seven populations it was found that populations living in the United States of America have more bone for a given skeletal size than populations in Europe or Nigeria. Bone loss with age is a general phenomenon but differences in rate of loss are observed between the sexes and between ethnic different populations. The decrease of bone mass is faster after the age of 50 years in woman than in men. Blacks living in the United States loose less bone with age than whites. Radiogrammetry of cortical bone in groups gives useful information on bond remodelling during ageing and in pathological conditions. At an individual level, however, it is difficult to evaluate changes on a short term basis with radiogrammetry. Radiogrammetry of cortical bone is a simple and

  7. Management of varicose veins and venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Allen

    2012-12-26

    Chronic venous disease, reviewed herein, is manifested by a spectrum of signs and symptoms, including cosmetic spider veins, asymptomatic varicosities, large painful varicose veins, edema, hyperpigmentation and lipodermatosclerosis of skin, and ulceration. However, there is no definitive stepwise progression from spider veins to ulcers and, in fact, severe skin complications of varicose veins, even when extensive, are not guaranteed. Treatment options range from conservative (eg, medications, compression stockings, lifestyle changes) to minimally invasive (eg, sclerotherapy or endoluminal ablation), invasive (surgical techniques), and hybrid (combination of ≥1 therapies). Ms L, a 68-year-old woman with varicose veins, is presented. She has had vein problems over the course of her life. Her varicose veins recurred after initial treatment, and she is now seeking guidance regarding her current treatment options.

  8. [ENDOVENOUS LASER TREATMENT FOR VARICOSE VEINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Masahiro; Kanaoka, Yuji; Ohki, Takao

    2015-05-01

    Varicose veins are a common condition attecting approximately 10 million patients in Japan. The main cause of varicose veins is reflux of the saphenous vein, and conventional treatment for several decades was stripping the affected saphenous vein and phlebectomy. Endovenous laser treatment (EVLT) is a less-invasive treatment method in which the saphenous vein is ablated with a laser under local anesthesia. EVLT has been approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare since 2011, and we have performed EVLT on 5,160 legs with saphenous insufficiency with no severe complications including deep vein thrombosis except for one case of arteriovenous fistula. EVLT appears to be a safe, effective treatment option for varicose veins with saphenous insufficiency.

  9. Deep vein thrombosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman-Brochu, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a review of the incidence, pathophysiology, and treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in pregnancy, a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. The incidence of DVT in pregnancy varies widely, but it is a leading cause of maternal morbidity in both the United States and the United Kingdom. Risk factors during pregnancy include prolonged bed rest or immobility, pelvic or leg trauma, and obesity. Additional risk factors are preeclampsia, Cesarean section, instrument-assisted delivery, hemorrhage, multiparity, varicose veins, a previous history of a thromboembolic event, and hereditary or acquired thrombophilias such as Factor V Leiden. Heparin is the anticoagulant of choice to treat active thromboembolic disease or to administer for thromboprophylaxis, but low molecular-weight heparin is being used with increasing frequency in the pregnant woman. Perinatal nurses should be aware of the symptoms, diagnostic tools, and treatment options available to manage active thrombosis during pregnancy and in the intrapartum and postpartum periods.

  10. FINGER-VEIN RECOGNITION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Haritha Deepthi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the Person‟s/Organization‟s Private information‟s are becoming very easy to access, the demand for a Simple, Convenient, Efficient, and a highly Securable Authentication System has been increased. In considering these requirements for data Protection, Biometrics, which uses human physiological or behavioral system for personal Identification has been found as a solution for these difficulties. However most of the biometric systems have high complexity in both time and space. So we are going to use a Real time Finger-Vein recognition System for authentication purposes. In this paper we had implemented the Finger Vein Recognition concept using MATLAB R2013a. The features used are Lacunarity Distance, Blanket Dimension distance. This has more accuracy when compared to conventional methods.

  11. Blistered: a gene required for vein/intervein formation in wings of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristrom, D; Gotwals, P; Eaton, S; Kornberg, T B; Sturtevant, M; Bier, E; Fristrom, J W

    1994-09-01

    We have characterized the blistered (bs) locus phenotypically, genetically and developmentally using a set of new bs alleles. Mutant defects range from wings with ectopic veins and intervein blisters to completely ballooned wings where the distinction between vein and intervein is lost. Mosaic analyses show that severe bs alleles behave largely autonomously; homozygous patches having vein-like properties. Developmental analyses were undertaken using light and electron microscopy of wild-type and bs wings as well as confocal microscopy of phalloidin- and laminin-stained preparations. bs defects were first seen early in the prepupal period with the failure of apposition of dorsal and ventral wing epithelia. Correspondingly, during definitive vein/intervein differentiation in the pupal period (18-36 hours after puparium formation), the extent of dorsal/ventral reapposition is reduced in bs wings. Regions of the wing that fail to become apposed differentiate properties of vein cells; i.e. become constricted apically and acquire a laminin-containing matrix basally. To further understand bs function, we examined genetic interactions between various bs alleles and mutants of two genes whose products have known functions in wing development. (i) rhomboid, a component of the EGF-R signalling pathway, is expressed in vein cells and is required for specification of vein cell fate. rhove mutations (lacking rhomboid in wings) suppress the excess vein formation and associated with bs. Conversely, rho expression in prepupal and pupal bs wings is expanded in the regions of increased vein formation. (ii) The integrin genes, inflated and myospheroid, are expressed in intervein cells and are required for adhesion between the dorsal and ventral wing surfaces. Loss of integrin function results in intervein blisters. Integrin mutants interact with bs mutants to increase the frequency of intervein blisters but do not typically enhance vein defects. Both developmental and genetic analyses

  12. Purely Cortical Anaplastic Ependymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ramalho Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ependymomas are glial tumors derived from ependymal cells lining the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. It may occur outside the ventricular structures, representing the extraventicular form, or without any relationship of ventricular system, called ectopic ependymona. Less than fifteen cases of ectopic ependymomas were reported and less than five were anaplastic. We report a rare case of pure cortical ectopic anaplastic ependymoma.

  13. Continuous Perfusion of Saphenous Vein by Oxygenated Blood during Beating Coronary Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Mandegar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The saphenous vein remains the most commonly used conduit for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG. However, the long-term success of surgical revascularization is largely limited by development of occlusion in vein grafts. Objectives: We sought to reduce graft ischemia by maintaining the blood flow into the harvested vein throughout surgery at lowest costs and without special devices. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on three hundred patients aged 58.5 ± 8 years undergoing elective first-time off-pump CABG with saphenous veins. Results: In addition to preserving nutritional materials and oxygen, the veins harvested via this novel technique did not go into spasm and were not subjected to high-pressure distension, eventually resulting in minimal damage to the endothelium. Conclusions: This technique confers favorable myocardial function and protection in the presence of left ventricular dysfunction, especially in elderly patients.

  14. [Posterior cortical atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyga, Volker Moræus; Western, Elin; Solheim, Hanne; Hassel, Bjørnar; Kerty, Emilia

    2015-06-02

    Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative condition with atrophy of posterior parts of the cerebral cortex, including the visual cortex and parts of the parietal and temporal cortices. It presents early, in the 50s or 60s, with nonspecific visual disturbances that are often misinterpreted as ophthalmological, which can delay the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to present current knowledge about symptoms, diagnostics and treatment of this condition. The review is based on a selection of relevant articles in PubMed and on the authors' own experience with the patient group. Posterior cortical atrophy causes gradually increasing impairment in reading, distance judgement, and the ability to perceive complex images. Examination of higher visual functions, neuropsychological testing, and neuroimaging contribute to diagnosis. In the early stages, patients do not have problems with memory or insight, but cognitive impairment and dementia can develop. It is unclear whether the condition is a variant of Alzheimer's disease, or whether it is a separate disease entity. There is no established treatment, but practical measures such as the aid of social care workers, telephones with large keypads, computers with voice recognition software and audiobooks can be useful. Currently available treatment has very limited effect on the disease itself. Nevertheless it is important to identify and diagnose the condition in its early stages in order to be able to offer patients practical assistance in their daily lives.

  15. Undivided Retromandibular Vein Continuing As External Jugular Vein With Facial Vein Draining Into It : An Anatomical Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Choudhary, Ashwani K Sharma, Harbans Singh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the blueprint of the whole body is unravelled, faultlessly during the growth anddevelopment of an animal; but amazingly variations do occur. During routine dissection of head and neckin a middle aged cadaver in the Post Graduate Department of Anatomy of this medical college, we foundvariation in the formation of external jugular vein on both sides, which was formed by the continuation ofundivided trunk of retromandibular vein. The facial vein and posterior auricular vein were the tributaries ofexternal jugular vein. The sound anatomical knowledge of variations of the veins of head and neck isessential to the success of surgical procedures. The embryological evaluation of the above anomaly wasdone and compared with the available literature which showed that the observed variation was rare

  16. The umbilical and paraumbilical veins of man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B F; Tudor, R G

    1980-03-01

    During its transit through the umbilicus structural changes occur in the thick wall of the extra-abdominal segment of the umbilical vein whereby the components of the intra-abdominal segment acquire an essentially longitudinal direction and become arranged in fibro-elastic and fibro-muscular zones. The vein lumen becomes largely obliterated by asymmetrical proliferation of loose subendothelial conective tissue. The latter forms a new inner zone within which a small segment of the lumen persists in an eccentric position. This residual lumen transmits blood to the portal system from paraumbilical and systemic sources, and is retained in the upper part of the vein, even in old age. A similar process of lumen closure is observed in the ductus venosus. In early childhood the lower third of the vein undergoes breakdown, with fatty infiltration, resulting in its complete division into vascular fibro-elastic strands, and in old age some breakdown occurs in the outermost part of the wall of the upper two thirds. The paraumbilical veins are thick-walled and of similar structure to the umbilical vein. Together they constitute an accessory portal system which is confined between the layers of the falciform ligament and is in communication with the veins of the ventral abdominal wall. The constituents form an ascending series, namely, Burow's veins, the umbilical vein, and Sappey's inferior and superior veins. The main channel of Sappey's inferior veins may be the remnant of the right umbilical vein since it communicates with the right rectus sheath and often communicates directly with the portal system within the right lobe of the liver. The results are of significance in relation to clinical usage of the umbilical vein.

  17. [Injuries of the pleural cupula and lung apex during catheterization of the subclavian vein, and their prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barskiĭ, A V; Makharadze, N L

    1983-03-01

    In the clinic 1442 catheterizations were performed, 1156 of them being catheterizations of the subclavian vein. Dangerous complications such as punctures of the posterior wall of the subclavian vein in combination with injuries of the pleura cupola and apex pulmonis were observed three times. Hemo-, hydro- and pneumothorax accompanying these complications in different combinations are contraindications to repeated puncture and catheterization of the subclavian vein both in the left and in the right. Recommendations are given to reduced possible complications.

  18. [Analysis and computational fluid dynamics simulation of hemodynamic influences caused by splenic vein thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Gong, Peiyun; Du, Xuesen; Wang, Meng

    2015-02-01

    This paper aims to analyze the impact of splenic vein thrombosis (SVT) on the hemodynamic parameters in hepatic portal vein system. Based on computed tomography (CT) images of a patient with portal hypertension and commercial software MIMICS, the patient's portal venous system model was reconstructed. Color Doppler ultrasound method was used to measure the blood flow velocity in portal vein system and then the blood flow velocities were used as the inlet boundary conditions of simulation. By using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, we simulated the changes of hemodynamic parameters in portal venous system with and without splenic vein thrombosis and analyzed the influence of physiological processes. The simulation results reproduced the blood flow process in portal venous system and the results showed that the splenic vein thrombosis caused serious impacts on hemodynamics. When blood flowed through the thrombosis, blood pressure reduced, flow velocity and wall shear stress increased. Flow resistance increased, blood flow velocity slowed down, the pressure gradient and wall shear stress distribution were more uniform in portal vein. The blood supply to liver decreased. Splenic vein thrombosis led to the possibility of forming new thrombosis in portal vein and surroundings.

  19. Cortical inactivation by cooling in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben eCoomber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reversible inactivation of the cortex by surface cooling is a powerful method for studying the function of a particular area. Implanted cooling cryoloops have been used to study the role of individual cortical areas in auditory processing of awake-behaving cats. Cryoloops have also been used in rodents for reversible inactivation of the cortex, but recently there has been a concern that the cryoloop may also cool non-cortical structures either directly or via the perfusion of blood, cooled as it passed close to the cooling loop. In this study we have confirmed that the loop can inactivate most of the auditory cortex without causing a significant reduction in temperature of the auditory thalamus or other sub-cortical structures. We placed a cryoloop on the surface of the guinea pig cortex, cooled it to 2°C and measured thermal gradients across the neocortical surface. We found that the temperature dropped to 20-24°C among cells within a radius of about 2.5mm away from the loop. This temperature drop was sufficient to reduce activity of most cortical cells and led to the inactivation of almost the entire auditory region. When the temperature of thalamus, midbrain, and middle ear were measured directly during cortical cooling, there was a small drop in temperature (about 4°C but this was not sufficient to directly reduce neural activity. In an effort to visualise the extent of neural inactivation we measured the uptake of thallium ions following an intravenous injection. This confirmed that there was a large reduction of activity across much of the ipsilateral cortex and only a small reduction in subcortical structures.

  20. Preduodenal portal vein: its surgical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, D A; Bowen, J C

    1978-11-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare anatomical variant which may be one of many anomalies in the neonate with duodenal "atresia." Preduodenal portal vein also may be an occasional finding in an adult undergoing biliary, gastric, or pancreatic surgery. Awareness and recognition of the anomaly are essential for the avoidance of injury during such operations. We report here a symptomless patient whose preduodenal portal vein was discovered at cholecystectomy.

  1. Small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Oliviero; Marzano, Chiara; Papa, Alessia; Pasquale, Chiara; Gasperini, Maria Ludovica; Gigante, Antonietta; Valla, Dominique Charles; Plessier, Aurélie; Amoroso, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction at any level from the small hepatic veins to the atrio-caval junction, in the absence of heart failure or constrictive pericarditis. Various imaging modalities are available for investigating the gross hepatic vascular anatomy but there are rare forms of this disease where the obstruction is limited to the small intrahepatic veins, with normal appearance of the large hepatic veins at imaging. In this cases only a liver biopsy can demonstrate the presence of a small vessels outflow block. We report two cases of small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  2. Leiomyosarcoma of the external iliac vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Wakako; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2012-06-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the iliac vein is an uncommon tumor. We report a case of a 63-year-old Japanese woman with leiomyosarcoma of the right external iliac vein. The patient complained of right inguinal pain and swelling. Computed tomography demonstrated a mass surrounding the right external iliac artery and vein. Metastases in the lungs and liver were found. Complete resection of the tumor along with the involved vessels was performed. Polytetrafluoroethylene grafts were used to reconstruct the vessels. Pathological examination revealed leiomyosarcoma of the external iliac vein. Although the prognosis of leiomyosarcoma is poor, en bloc tumor resection is the treatment of choice.

  3. Sonographic Findings in Fetal Renal Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Rebecca E; Bromley, Bryann; Benson, Carol B; Frates, Mary C

    2015-08-01

    We present the sonographic findings of fetal renal vein thrombosis in a series of 6 patients. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 31.2 weeks. Four cases were unilateral, and 2 were bilateral. The most common findings were renal enlargement and intrarenal vascular calcifications, followed by increased renal parenchymal echogenicity. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was found in 4 patients and common iliac vein thrombosis in 2. Fetal renal vein thrombosis is an uncommon diagnosis with characteristic sonographic findings. The presence of these findings should prompt Doppler interrogation of the renal vein and inferior vena cava to confirm the diagnosis.

  4. Saphenous Vein Sparing Superficial Inguinal Dissection in Lower Extremity Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Beşir Öztürk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The classic inguinal lymph node dissection is the main step for the regional control of the lower extremity melanoma, but this surgical procedure is associated with significant postoperative morbidity. The permanent lymphedema is the most devastating long-term complication leading to a significant decrease in the patient’s quality of life. In this study we present our experience with modified, saphenous vein sparing, inguinal lymph node dissections for patients with melanoma of the lower extremity. Methods. Twenty one patients (10 women, 11 men who underwent saphenous vein sparing superficial inguinal lymph node dissection for the melanoma of lower extremity were included in this study. The effects of saphenous vein sparing on postoperative complications were evaluated. Results. We have observed the decreased rate of long-term lymphedema in patients undergoing inguinal lymphadenectomy for the lower extremity melanoma. Conclusion. The inguinal lymphadenectomy with saphenous vein preservation in lower extremity melanoma patients seems to be an oncologically safe procedure and it may offer reduced long-term morbidity.

  5. phenoVein - A tool for leaf vein segmentation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bühler, J.; Rishmawi, L.; Pflugfelder, D.; Huber, G; Scharr, H.; Hülskamp, M; Koornneef, M.; Schurr, U; Jahnke, S.

    2015-01-01

    Precise measurements of leaf vein traits are an important aspect of plant phenotyping for ecological and genetic research. Here, we present a powerful and user-friendly image analysis tool named phenoVein. It is dedicated to automated segmenting and analyzing of leaf veins in images acquired with different imaging modalities (microscope, macrophotography, etc.), including options for comfortable manual correction. Advanced image filtering emphasizes veins from the background and compensates f...

  6. Subclavian artery to internal jugular vein fistula following percutaneous internal jugular vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Angulo, J; Cortazar, J L; Saez-Garmendia, F; Montejo, M

    1984-01-01

    The percutaneous internal jugular vein approach is now a commonly performed procedure for central venous catheterization. Iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulae are a very infrequent complication. We report an asymptomatic subclavian artery to internal jugular vein fistula following two percutaneous internal jugular vein catheterization attempts.

  7. Transjugular Endovascular Recanalization of Splenic Vein in Patients with Regional Portal Hypertension Complicated by Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xuefeng; Nie, Ling; Wang, Zhu; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Tang, Chengwei; Li, Xiao, E-mail: simonlixiao@126.com [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Gastroenterology (China)

    2013-05-02

    PurposeRegional portal hypertension (RPH) is an uncommon clinical syndrome resulting from splenic vein stenosis/occlusion, which may cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from the esophagogastric varices. The present study evaluated the safety and efficacy of transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein in patients with GI bleeding secondary to RPH.MethodsFrom December 2008 to May 2011, 11 patients who were diagnosed with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and had undergone transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein were reviewed retrospectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed splenic vein stenosis in six cases and splenic vein occlusion in five. Etiology of RPH was chronic pancreatitis (n = 7), acute pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocyst (n = 2), pancreatic injury (n = 1), and isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (n = 1).ResultsTechnical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients via the transjugular approach, including six patients with splenic vein stenosis and two patients with splenic vein occlusion. Two patients underwent splenic vein venoplasty only, whereas four patients underwent bare stents deployment and two covered stents. Splenic vein pressure gradient (SPG) was reduced from 21.5 ± 7.3 to 2.9 ± 1.4 mmHg after the procedure (P < 0.01). For the remaining three patients who had technical failures, splenic artery embolization and subsequent splenectomy was performed. During a median follow-up time of 17.5 (range, 3–34) months, no recurrence of GI bleeding was observed.ConclusionsTransjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein is a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and is not associated with an increased risk of procedure-related complications.

  8. Stent Revascularization Restores Cortical Blood Flow and Reverses Tissue Hypoxia in Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis, But Fails To Reverse Inflammatory Pathways or GFR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Ahmed; Herrmann, Sandra M.S.; Crane, John; Glockner, James F; Mckusick, Michael A; Misra, Sanjay; Eirin, Alfonso; Ebrahimi, Behzad; Lerman, Lilach O.; Textor, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is known to reduce renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and amplify kidney hypoxia, but the relationships between these factors and tubulo-interstitial injury in the post-stenotic kidney are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of renal revascularization in ARAS on renal tissue hypoxia and renal injury. Methods and Results Inpatient studies performed in ARAS patients (n = 17), more than 60% occlusion) before and 3 months after stent revascularization, or patients with essential hypertension (EH) (n = 32), during fixed Na+ intake and ACE/ARB Rx. Single-kidney (SK) cortical, medullary perfusion and RBF measured using multidetector CT, and GFR by iothalamate clearance. Tissue deoxyhemoglobin levels (R2*) measured by Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI at 3T, as was fractional kidney hypoxia (% of axial area with R2* > 30/s). In addition, we measured renal vein levels of Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). Pre-stent SK-RBF, perfusion, and GFR were reduced in the post-stenotic kidney. Renal vein NGAL, TNF-α, MCP-1 and fractional hypoxia were higher in untreated ARAS than EH. After stent revascularization, fractional hypoxia fell (p < 0.002) with increased cortical perfusion and blood flow, while GFR and NGAL, MCP-1 and TNF-α remained unchanged. Conclusions These data demonstrate that despite reversal of renal hypoxia and partial restoration of RBF after revascularization, inflammatory cytokines and injury biomarkers remained elevated and GFR failed to recover in ARAS. Restoration of vessel patency alone failed to reverse tubulointerstitial damage and partly explains the limited clinical benefit of renal stenting. These results identify potential therapeutic targets for recovery of kidney function in renovascular disease. PMID:23899868

  9. Local SIFT analysis for hand vein pattern verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunxin; Wang, Dayong; Liu, Tiegen; Li, Xiuyan

    2009-11-01

    The newly emerging hand vein recognition technology has attracted remarkable attention for its uniqueness, noninvasion, friendliness and high reliability. It is unavoidable to produce small location deviation of human hand in the practical application; however, the existing recognition methods are sensitive to the hand shift or rotation. The test sample is matched with a series of registered images after affine transformation including the shift or rotation by most of researches, this affine transform method can remedy the location deviation to some extent, but the limited range for hand shift and rotation brings users much inconvenience and the computational cost also increases greatly. Aiming at this issue, a hand vein recognition algorithm based on local SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) analysis is developed in this contribution, which has practical significance due to its translation and rotation invariance. First, the hand vein image is preprocessed to remove the background and reduce image noises, and then SIFT features are extracted to describe the gradient information of hand vein. Many one-to-more matching pairs are produced by the common matching method of SIFT features, thus the matching rule is improved by appending a constrained condition to ensure the one-to-one matching, which is achieved by selecting feature point with the nearest distance as the optimal match. Finally the match ratio of features between the registered and test images is calculated as the similarity measurement to verify the personal identification. The experiment results show that FRR (False Rejection Rate) is only 0.93% when FAR (False Acceptance Rate) is 0.002%, and EER (Equal Error Rate) is low to 0.12%, which demonstrate the proposed approach is valid and effective for hand vein authentication.

  10. Generating and analyzing synthetic finger vein images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillerström, Fieke; Kumar, Ajay; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The finger-vein biometric offers higher degree of security, personal privacy and strong anti-spoofing capabilities than most other biometric modalities employed today. Emerging privacy concerns with the database acquisition and lack of availability of large scale finger-vein database have

  11. PORTAL VEIN THROMBOSIS-ULTRASOUND IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajkovska Meri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Portal venous system, apart from the main portal vein, includes its tributaries: superior and inferior mesenteric vein, as well as splenic vein, so the term portal venous thrombosis encompasses a broad spectrum of pathological conditions. Usually, one or more causative factors can be recognized, either local endothelial/ flow disturbances, or systemic inherited /acquired conditions. Portal vein thrombosis can be associated with benign or malignant disorders. Weather we are speaking about acute or chronic thrombosis, the clinical presentation is different. Acute thrombosis can be presented in a wide range, from mild abdominal discomfort to a state of intestinal ischemia and life-threatening infarction. Chronic thrombosis is usually recognized when variceal bleeding or other symptoms of portal hypertension express. Fast and accurate diagnosis sometimes is a life-saving procedure, especially in acute vascular alterations. Recently, due to the improvement of imaging procedures the number of patients with diagnosed portal vein thrombosis is increasingly growing. With a negative predictive value of 98% color Doppler ultrasound is considered as imaging modality of choice in detecting portal vein thrombosis. Based on large studies it is presumed that overall risk of getting portal vein thrombosis during lifetime is 1% in general population, but much bigger 5%-15% in cirrhotic patients. Existence of specific ultrasound criteria, if fulfilled, has ensured that diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis is fast and non-invasive. Procedure is convenient for the patient and healthcare providers, and above all, allows prompt treatment preventing further deterioration.

  12. Endovenous laser therapy for varicose veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disselhoff, B.C.V.M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the technique of endovenous laser ablation and the outcome of various series of patients with varicose veins due to reflux in the great saphenous vein, treated by endovenous laser ablation or cryostripping in a single-centre study. This study has shown clear advantages of endov

  13. Vein of foramen caecum: imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutar, Onur; Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Yildirim, Duzgun; Memis, Emine Sebnem; Bakan, Selim

    2016-07-01

    Vein of foramen caecum has been classically described as a vein that connects nasal mucosa to the superior sagittal sinus in classic anatomy textbooks. However, its existence is controversial in literature. Herein, we demonstrated computed tomography and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging findings of a tubular vascular structure extending to nasal mucosa and superior sagittal sinus.

  14. Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Niral Karia

    2010-01-01

    Niral KariaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Southend Hospital, Prittlewell Chase, Westcliff on Sea, Essex, United KingdomAbstract: This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms.Keywords: central, hemispheric, branch, retinal vein occlusion, visual loss

  15. 5-HT is a potent relaxant in rat superior mesenteric veins

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Stephanie W.; Darios, Emma S.; Seitz, Bridget M.; Janice M Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) reduces blood pressure of the conscious rat when administered chronically (1 week). 5-HT does not directly relax isolated arteries, and microsphere experiments in 5-HT-infused rats suggested that 5-HT increased flow to the splanchnic bed. We hypothesized that 5-HT increased splanchnic flow because of direct venous relaxation; our focus was thus on the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) as an important vein in splanchnic circulation. Real-time RT-PCR, immunohi...

  16. Assessment and management of patients with varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Louise

    Varicose veins are enlarged superficial veins found in the legs. This article explores the anatomy and physiology of the venous system to assist nurses to assess, manage and treat patients with varicose veins.

  17. Evaluating mandibular cortical index quantitatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Fusun; Akgunlu, Faruk

    2008-10-01

    The aim was to assess whether Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity analysis can discriminate patients having different mandibular cortical shape. Panoramic radiographs of 52 patients were evaluated for mandibular cortical index. Weighted Kappa between the observations were varying between 0.718-0.805. These radiographs were scanned and converted to binary images. Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity were calculated from the regions where best represents the cortical morphology. It was found that there were statistically significant difference between the Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity of radiographs which were classified as having Cl 1 and Cl 2 (Fractal Dimension P:0.000; Lacunarity P:0.003); and Cl 1 and Cl 3 cortical morphology (Fractal Dimension P:0.008; Lacunarity P:0.001); but there was no statistically significant difference between Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity of radiographs which were classified as having Cl 2 and Cl 3 cortical morphology (Fractal Dimension P:1.000; Lacunarity P:0.758). FD and L can differentiate Cl 1 mandibular cortical shape from both Cl 2 and Cl 3 mandibular cortical shape but cannot differentiate Cl 2 from Cl 3 mandibular cortical shape on panoramic radiographs.

  18. Cortico-cortical communication dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per E Roland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available IIn principle, cortico-cortical communication dynamics is simple: neurons in one cortical area communicate by sending action potentials that release glutamate and excite their target neurons in other cortical areas. In practice, knowledge about cortico-cortical communication dynamics is minute. One reason is that no current technique can capture the fast spatio-temporal cortico-cortical evolution of action potential transmission and membrane conductances with sufficient spatial resolution. A combination of optogenetics and monosynaptic tracing with virus can reveal the spatio-temporal cortico-cortical dynamics of specific neurons and their targets, but does not reveal how the dynamics evolves under natural conditions. Spontaneous ongoing action potentials also spread across cortical areas and are difficult to separate from structured evoked and intrinsic brain activity such as thinking. At a certain state of evolution, the dynamics may engage larger populations of neurons to drive the brain to decisions, percepts and behaviors. For example, successfully evolving dynamics to sensory transients can appear at the mesoscopic scale revealing how the transient is perceived. As a consequence of these methodological and conceptual difficulties, studies in this field comprise a wide range of computational models, large-scale measurements (e.g., by MEG, EEG, and a combination of invasive measurements in animal experiments. Further obstacles and challenges of studying cortico-cortical communication dynamics are outlined in this critical review.

  19. Cortical and spinal assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, I W; Gram, Mikkel; Hansen, T M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Standardized objective methods to assess the analgesic effects of opioids, enable identification of underlying mechanisms of drug actions in the central nervous system. Opioids may exert their effect on both cortical and spinal levels. In this study actions of morphine at both levels...... subjects was included in the data analysis. There was no change in the activity in resting EEG (P>0.05) after morphine administration as compared to placebo. During cold pressor stimulation, morphine significantly lowered the relative activity in the delta (1-4Hz) band (P=0.03) and increased the activity...... morphine administration (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cold pressor EEG and the nociceptive reflex were more sensitive to morphine analgesia than resting EEG and can be used as standardized objective methods to assess opioid effects. However, no correlation between the analgesic effect of morphine on the spinal...

  20. Hiperostosis cortical infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina; Orelvis Pérez Duerto

    2015-01-01

    La enfermedad de Caffey, o hiperostosis cortical infantil, es una rara enfermedad ósea autolimitada, que aparece de preferencia en lactantes con signos inespecíficos sistémicos; el más relevante es la reacción subperióstica e hiperostosis en varios huesos del cuerpo, con predilección en el 75-80 % de los casos por la mandíbula. Su pronóstico es bueno, la mayoría no deja secuelas. El propósito del presente trabajo es describir las características clínicas, presentes en un lactante de cinco mes...

  1. Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive posterior cortical dysfunction (PPCD is an insidious syndrome characterized by prominent disorders of higher visual processing. It affects both dorsal (occipito-parietal and ventral (occipito-temporal pathways, disturbing visuospatial processing and visual recognition, respectively. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman presenting with progressive impairment of visual functions. Neurologic examination showed agraphia, alexia, hemispatial neglect (left side visual extinction, complete Balint's syndrome and visual agnosia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed circumscribed atrophy involving the bilateral parieto-occipital regions, slightly more predominant to the right . Our aim was to describe a case of this syndrome, to present a video showing the main abnormalities, and to discuss this unusual presentation of dementia. We believe this article can contribute by improving the recognition of PPCD.

  2. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor blocking agents in retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Canning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the current status of the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF blocking agents in retinal vein occlusion. There have been no randomised controlled trials comparing this treatment with the current standard treatment (largely laser so the lower grade evidence of single treatment case series and anecdotal reports are discussed. VEGF blockers are good at reducing macular oedema in the short term, do improve visual acuity in many cases, and do not seem to adversely affect the long term revascularisation that is necessary to overcome the vein occlusion. VEGF blocking agents are not used in isolation in this condition - they will remain an adjunct to systemic and other local treatments. The literature was reviewed in online searches of Embase and Ovid and the papers quoted are a representative sample of a larger body of publications.

  4. UP states protect ongoing cortical activity from thalamic inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon O Watson

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo fluctuate spontaneously between two stable membrane potentials: a depolarized UP state and a hyperpolarized DOWN state. UP states temporally correspond with multineuronal firing sequences which may be important for information processing. To examine how thalamic inputs interact with ongoing cortical UP state activity, we used calcium imaging and targeted whole-cell recordings of activated neurons in thalamocortical slices of mouse somatosensory cortex. Whereas thalamic stimulation during DOWN states generated multineuronal, synchronized UP states, identical stimulation during UP states had no effect on the subthreshold membrane dynamics of the vast majority of cells or on ongoing multineuronal temporal patterns. Both thalamocortical and corticocortical PSPs were significantly reduced and neuronal input resistance was significantly decreased during cortical UP states -- mechanistically consistent with UP state insensitivity. Our results demonstrate that cortical dynamics during UP states are insensitive to thalamic inputs.

  5. Radiological features of azygous vein aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Moore, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Mediastinal masses are most commonly associated with malignancy. Azygous vein aneurysm is a very rare differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass. We report here three cases of azygous vein aneurysm including children and adult patients. In the pediatric patient it was further complicated by thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism. We describe the radiological features on CXR, MRI, CT, PET-CT, US and angiogram and their differential diagnosis. Imaging findings of continuity with azygous vein, layering of contrast medium on enhanced CT and dynamic MRA showing filling of the mass at the same time as the azygous vein without prior enhancement will be strongly suggestive of azygous vein aneurysm with transtracheal ultrasound being the definitive test in these patients. It is important to keep a vascular origin mass in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses. Also, in young healthy patients with pulmonary embolism, a vascular etiology such as azygous vein aneurysm should be carefully evaluated. This article will help the clinicians to learn about the imaging features of azygous vein aneurysm on different imaging modalities.

  6. Portal vein gas in emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Hind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portal vein gas is an ominous radiological sign, which indicates a serious gastrointestinal problem in the majority of patients. Many causes have been identified and the most important was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular accident. The presentation of patients is varied and the diagnosis of the underlying problem depends mainly on the radiological findings and clinical signs. The aim of this article is to show the clinical importance of portal vein gas and its management in emergency surgery. Methods A computerised search was made of the Medline for publications discussing portal vein gas through March 2008. Sixty articles were identified and selected for this review because of their relevance. These articles cover a period from 1975–2008. Results Two hundreds and seventy-five patients with gas in the portal venous system were reported. The commonest cause for portal vein gas was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular pathology (61.44%. This was followed by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (16.26%, obstruction and dilatation (9.03%, sepsis (6.6%, iatrogenic injury and trauma (3.01% and cancer (1.8%. Idiopathic portal vein gas was also reported (1.8%. Conclusion Portal vein gas is a diagnostic sign, which indicates a serious intra-abdominal pathology requiring emergency surgery in the majority of patients. Portal vein gas due to simple and benign cause can be treated conservatively. Correlation between clinical and diagnostic findings is important to set the management plan.

  7. Valsalva and gravitational variability of the internal jugular vein and common femoral vein: Ultrasound assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddy, P. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)]. E-mail: pbeddy@eircom.net; Geoghegan, T. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Ramesh, N. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Buckley, O. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); O' Brien, J. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Colville, J. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: Central venous cannulation via the common femoral vein is an important starting point for many interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for cannulation of the femoral vein and to compare these with the relative changes in the internal jugular vein. Methods: High-resolution 2D ultrasound was utilised to determine variability of the calibre of the femoral and internal jugular veins in 10 healthy subjects. Venous diameter was assessed during the Valsalva manoeuvre and in different degrees of the Trendelenburg position. Results: The Valsalva manoeuvre significantly increased the size of the femoral and internal jugular veins. There was a relatively greater increase in femoral vein diameter when compared with the internal jugular vein of 40 and 29%, respectively. Changes in body inclination (Trendelenburg position) did not significantly alter the luminal diameter of the femoral vein. However, it significantly increased internal jugular vein diameter. Conclusions: Femoral vein cannulation is augmented by the Valsalva manoeuvre but not significantly altered by the gravitational position of the subject.

  8. Hand vein recognition based on orientation of LBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Gao, Enying

    2012-06-01

    Vein recognition is becoming an effective method for personal recognition. Vein patterns lie under the skin surface of human body, and hence provide higher reliability than other biometric traits and hard to be damaged or faked. This paper proposes a novel vein feature representation method call orientation of local binary pattern (OLBP) which is an extension of local binary pattern (LBP). OLBP can represent the orientation information of the vein pixel which is an important characteristic of vein patterns. Moreover, the OLBP can also indicate on which side of the vein centerline the pixel locates. The OLBP feature maps are encoded by 4-bit binary values and an orientation distance is developed for efficient feature matching. Based on OLBP feature representation, we construct a hand vein recognition system employing multiple hand vein patterns include palm vein, dorsal vein, and three finger veins (index, middle, and ring finger). The experimental results on a large database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Ventriculoatrial shunting via the azygos vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, C; DuBois, J J; Laurent, J P; Pokorny, W J; Harberg, F J; Cheek, W R

    1990-06-01

    The treatment of hydrocephalus has evolved through many stages but the "cure" is still elusive. It is not unusual for the neurosurgeon to find that the commonly used routes for catheter placement or sites for drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cannot be employed. The azygos vein was used to gain access to the right atrium when the CSF could not be drained into the peritoneal cavity, nor could the neck veins be used to place the catheter into the right atrium. The azygos vein is a convenient and safe route to reach the right atrium in selected patients.

  10. Portal Decompression Using the Inferior Mesenteric Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gorini

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We report five patients with variceal hemorrhage, in three cases secondary to diffuse thrombosis of the portal, superior mesenteric and splenic veins. Mesenteric angiography demonstrated patency of the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV in each, and successful portal decompression by anastomosis of the IMV to the left renal vein (n=4 or the inferior vena cava (n=1 was accomplished. Bleeding was permanently controlled: four patients have survived from one to eight years post-operatively. Because shunt procedures utilizing the IMV are technically straightforward, subtotally decompress the portal system and avoid the right upper quadrant, they may be advantageous in certain clinical settings.

  11. [FEATURES LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN PORTAL VEIN THROMBOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasov, P A

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 - 2013 years in 265 patients for liver transplantation was performed, including in 224 (84.5%)--from a living donor, in 41 (15.5%)--from the dead body. Using a Foley catheter to stop bleeding, and the imposition of vascular sutures during endovenectomy in portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and its possible damage under all conditions. In particular, PVT IV degree (Grade IV) in order to restore blood flow in the graft using the left gastric and renal vein is an alternative, if they are cryopreserved vein may be suitably used.

  12. Varicose veins--Who should be referred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onida, Sarah; Davies, Alun H; Franklin, Ian

    2015-11-01

    Varicose veins are a common, progressive condition in the UK, with significant negative effects on patients' quality of life. Despite their prevalence, access to secondary care for the assessment and treatment of varicose veins can be variable throughout the country.The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guidelines developed in 2013 provide evidence-based guidance on the referral, assessment, and management of the patient with venous disease.In this article, we review the development of the guidelines for the management of varicose veins over the last 15 years, highlighting the latest changes in referral criteria.

  13. Endovascular treatment of sphenoid wing dural arteriovenous fistula with pure cortical venous drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Miyake, Kosuke; Kunieda, Takenobu; Murao, Kenichi

    2014-07-01

    Curative endovascular treatment of sphenoid wing dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) with pure cortical venous drainage is challenging because of its rarity, lack of accessible dural sinus for transvenous embolization (TVE), and proximity of skull base vital regions. Direct surgery to disconnect venous reflux has been favored. We report the curative endovascular treatment of two sphenoid wing dAVFs with pure cortical venous drainage. One patient revealed complete obliteration of dAVF by a single session of transarterial embolization (TAE). As part of strategic TAE for this complex dAVF, we used a novel approach to create a complete flow-arrest condition in which coils and an occlusion balloon were combined. A liquid agent was then injected across the pathological fistula and into the parent venous apparatus, thereby occluding the lesion. The other patient was treated with percutaneous TVE after TAE was unsuccessful. With a specific strategy and appropriate devices, the microcatheter was successfully introduced through sigmoid sinus, transverse sinus, superior sagittal sinus, and refluxing cortical vein by puncture of the jugular vein. Coils were deployed at the venous side of the fistula, resulting in successful obliteration of the dAVF. Sphenoid wing dAVF with pure cortical venous drainage could be curable by endovascular treatment with proper strategy and instruments when anatomical condition permits.

  14. A Finger Vein Recognition Method Using Improved Oriented Filter and Elastic Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hui

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the influence of relative position deviation and angle deviation between minutia point sets caused by external factors when finger vein images are obtained, a finger vein recognition method using elastic registration is presented. The proposed algorithm is based on an improved neighborhood direction template and oriented filter template which facilitates the enhancement of the finger vein image while taking full account of image orientation. Elastic registration is then applied to matching of feature points within the predefined angle and radius. Applying the idea of elastic registration to existing finger vein recognition method removes the need for perfect matching between corresponding feature points and has shown to be an effective method for dealing with the problem of nonlinear distortion of images. Experimental results show that this algorithm not only overcomes the limitations of traditional point matching method, but also effectively improves the recognition performance of the system.

  15. Histomorphometric Assessment of Cancellous and Cortical Bone Material Distribution in the Proximal Humerus of Normal and Osteoporotic Individuals: Significantly Reduced Bone Stock in the Metaphyseal and Subcapital Regions of Osteoporotic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Christoph M; Schmidutz, Florian; Helfen, Tobias; Richards, R Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Milz, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder predominantly affecting postmenopausal women but also men at an advanced age. Both genders may suffer from low-energy fractures of, for example, the proximal humerus when reduction of the bone stock or/and quality has occurred.The aim of the current study was to compare the amount of bone in typical fracture zones of the proximal humerus in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic individuals.The amount of bone in the proximal humerus was determined histomorphometrically in frontal plane sections. The donor bones were allocated to normal and osteoporotic groups using the T-score from distal radius DXA measurements of the same extremities. The T-score evaluation was done according to WHO criteria. Regional thickness of the subchondral plate and the metaphyseal cortical bone were measured using interactive image analysis.At all measured locations the amount of cancellous bone was significantly lower in individuals from the osteoporotic group compared to the non-osteoporotic one. The osteoporotic group showed more significant differences between regions of the same bone than the non-osteoporotic group. In both groups the subchondral cancellous bone and the subchondral plate were least affected by bone loss. In contrast, the medial metaphyseal region in the osteoporotic group exhibited higher bone loss in comparison to the lateral side.This observation may explain prevailing fracture patterns, which frequently involve compression fractures and certainly has an influence on the stability of implants placed in this medial region. It should be considered when planning the anchoring of osteosynthesis materials in osteoporotic patients with fractures of the proximal humerus.

  16. The role of prourokinase gene in protecting vein grafts from intimal hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志雄; 郭加强; 胡盛寿

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the duration of prourokinase gene expression in vein grafts and the role of the prourokinase gene in protecting vein grafts from neointimal hyperplasia.Methods Fifty-four Wistar rats were used in this study. In each rat, the jugular vein was excised and distended for 30 minutes using a solution containing either Adv5-CMV (control group) or Adv5-CMV/Pro-UK (treatment group). Next, the jugular vein was reversed and interposed into the divided carotid artery of the same rat. On the 14th day after transfection, vein grafts of the control group were collected in order to perform a fibrinolysis test for prourokinase (Pro-UK) activity. On the 2nd, 7th, 14th, 28th, and 60th day, the vein grafts of the treatment group were likewise collected in order to detect prourokinase activity. On the 28th day, the vein grafts of both groups were explanted to evaluate the 3H-TDR incorporation so that pathologic analysis could be performed.Results Pro-UK activity could not be detected in the control group, while in the treatment group, the Pro-UK activity could be detected from the 2nd day onwards, peaking on the 7th day and declining from the 14th day, but yet persisting at a low level for a further month. The amount of 3H-TDR incorporated in the control group was higher than that in the treatment group. Pathologic analysis demonstrated that vein grafts of both groups exhibited wall thickening, but that the degree of graft neointimal hyperplasia and reduction of the graft lumen was greater in the control group than that in the treatment group. The occlusion rate of grafts in the control group was 20%. All grafts in the treatment group were patent.Conclusions Pro-UK gene transfer before vein grafting in vitro results in a high level of gene expression in the vein graft from the 7th day to 14th day. And its gene expression in the vein graft could reduce neointimal hyperlasia in the vein graft.

  17. VeinPLUS: A Transillumination and Reflection-based Hand Vein Database

    OpenAIRE

    Gruschina, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives a short summary of work related to the creation of a department-hosted hand vein database. After the introducing section, special properties of the hand vein acquisition are explained, followed by a comparison table, which shows key differences to existing well-known hand vein databases. At the end, the ROI extraction process is described and sample images and ROIs are presented.

  18. [Retinal vein occlusion in a young patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Mihail; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Sarbu, Laura; Avram, Corina; Camburu, Raluca; Stamate, Alina

    2013-01-01

    We present a case report of a 27 years old pacient with central retinal vein occlussion and macular edema. The pacient has a significant reduction of the macular aedema with complete recovery of vision after the treatment.

  19. Vein of Galen Malformation: Outcome after Embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurodevelopmental outcome after endovascular treatment of vein of Galen malformation (VOGM in 27 patients seen between 1983 and 2002 was assessed by chart review and parental questionnaires at the University of California, San Francisco.

  20. Focal cortical dysplasia – review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Joanna; Król, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Summary Focal cortical dysplasia is a malformation of cortical development, which is the most common cause of medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population and the second/third most common etiology of medically intractable seizures in adults. Both genetic and acquired factors are involved in the pathogenesis of cortical dysplasia. Numerous classifications of the complex structural abnormalities of focal cortical dysplasia have been proposed – from Taylor et al. in 1971 to the last modification of Palmini classification made by Blumcke in 2011. In general, three types of cortical dysplasia are recognized. Type I focal cortical dysplasia with mild symptomatic expression and late onset, is more often seen in adults, with changes present in the temporal lobe. Clinical symptoms are more severe in type II of cortical dysplasia usually seen in children. In this type, more extensive changes occur outside the temporal lobe with predilection for the frontal lobes. New type III is one of the above dysplasias with associated another principal lesion as hippocampal sclerosis, tumor, vascular malformation or acquired pathology during early life. Brain MRI imaging shows abnormalities in the majority of type II dysplasias and in only some of type I cortical dysplasias. The most common findings on MRI imaging include: focal cortical thickening or thinning, areas of focal brain atrophy, blurring of the gray-white junction, increased signal on T2- and FLAIR-weighted images in the gray and subcortical white matter often tapering toward the ventricle. On the basis of the MRI findings, it is possible to differentiate between type I and type II cortical dysplasia. A complete resection of the epileptogenic zone is required for seizure-free life. MRI imaging is very helpful to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from surgical treatment in a group of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, in type I cortical dysplasia, MR imaging is often normal, and also

  1. Motor cortical function and the precision grip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geevasinga, Nimeshan; Menon, Parvathi; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve

    2014-12-01

    While task-dependent changes in motor cortical outputs have been previously reported, the issue of whether such changes are specific for complex hand tasks remains unresolved. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cortical inhibitory tone and cortical output were greater during precision grip and power grip. Motor cortex excitability was undertaken by using the transcranial magnetic stimulation threshold tracking technique in 15 healthy subjects. The motor-evoked potential (MEP) responses were recorded over the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), with the hand in the following positions: (1) rest, (2) precision grip and (3) power grip. The MEP amplitude (MEP amplitude REST 23.6 ± 3.3%; MEP amplitude PRECISION GRIP 35.2 ± 5.6%; MEP amplitude POWER GRIP 19.6 ± 3.4%, F = 2.4, P < 0.001) and stimulus-response gradient (SLOPEREST 0.06 ± 0.01; SLOPEPRCISION GRIP 0.15 ± 0.04; SLOPE POWER GRIP 0.07 ± 0.01, P < 0.05) were significantly increased during precision grip. Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was significantly reduced during the precision grip (SICI REST 15.0 ± 2.3%; SICI PRECISION GRIP 9.7 ± 1.5%, SICI POWER GRIP 15.9 ± 2.7%, F = 2.6, P < 0.05). The present study suggests that changes in motor cortex excitability are specific for precision grip, with functional coupling of descending corticospinal pathways controlling thumb and finger movements potentially forming the basis of these cortical changes.

  2. Analysis of Cortical Flow Models In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benink, Hélène A.; Mandato, Craig A.; Bement, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Cortical flow, the directed movement of cortical F-actin and cortical organelles, is a basic cellular motility process. Microtubules are thought to somehow direct cortical flow, but whether they do so by stimulating or inhibiting contraction of the cortical actin cytoskeleton is the subject of debate. Treatment of Xenopus oocytes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) triggers cortical flow toward the animal pole of the oocyte; this flow is suppressed by microtubules. To determine how this suppression occurs and whether it can control the direction of cortical flow, oocytes were subjected to localized manipulation of either the contractile stimulus (PMA) or microtubules. Localized PMA application resulted in redirection of cortical flow toward the site of application, as judged by movement of cortical pigment granules, cortical F-actin, and cortical myosin-2A. Such redirected flow was accelerated by microtubule depolymerization, showing that the suppression of cortical flow by microtubules is independent of the direction of flow. Direct observation of cortical F-actin by time-lapse confocal analysis in combination with photobleaching showed that cortical flow is driven by contraction of the cortical F-actin network and that microtubules suppress this contraction. The oocyte germinal vesicle serves as a microtubule organizing center in Xenopus oocytes; experimental displacement of the germinal vesicle toward the animal pole resulted in localized flow away from the animal pole. The results show that 1) cortical flow is directed toward areas of localized contraction of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton; 2) microtubules suppress cortical flow by inhibiting contraction of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton; and 3) localized, microtubule-dependent suppression of actomyosin-based contraction can control the direction of cortical flow. We discuss these findings in light of current models of cortical flow. PMID:10930453

  3. Efficacy of varicose vein surgery with preservation of the great safenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Cunha Senra Barros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of varicose veins with preservation of the great saphenous vein. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 15 female patients between 25 and 55 years of age with clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic (CEAP classification 2, 3 and 4. The patients underwent surgical treatment of primary varicose veins with great saphenous vein (GSV preservation. Doppler ultrasonography exams were carried out in the first and third months postoperatively. The form of clinical severity of venous disease, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS was completed before and after surgery. We excluded patients with history of deep vein thrombosis, smoking or postoperatively use of elastic stockings or phlebotonics. RESULTS: All patients had improved VCSS (p <0.001 and reduction in the diameter of the great saphenous vein (p <0.001. There was a relationship between VCSS and the GSV caliber, as well as with preoperative CEAP. There was improvement in CEAP class in nine patients when compared with the preoperative period (p <0.001. CONCLUSION: The varicose vein surgery with preservation of the great saphenous vein had beneficial effects to the GSV itself, with decreasing caliber, and to the symptoms when the vein had maximum caliber of 7.5 mm, correlating directly with the CEAP. The decrease in GSV caliber, even without complete abolition of reflux, leads to clinical improvement by decreasing the reflux volume.

  4. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Raghavendra Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric - inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up.

  5. CT in thrombosed dilated posterior epidural vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammatter, S.; Schnyder, P.; Preux, J. de

    1987-05-01

    The authors report a case of thrombosis of the distal end of an enlarged right posterior epidural vein. The patient had a markedly narrow lumbar canal due to L5 spondylolisthesis. The dilated vein and the thrombosis were displayed by computed tomography but remained unrecognized until surgery. Pathogenesis of this condition is discussed. A review of the English, French and German literature revealed no prior radiological reports of a similar condition.

  6. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread.

  7. The umbilical and paraumbilical veins of man.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, B F; Tudor, R G

    1980-01-01

    During its transit through the umbilicus structural changes occur in the thick wall of the extra-abdominal segment of the umbilical vein whereby the components of the intra-abdominal segment acquire an essentially longitudinal direction and become arranged in fibro-elastic and fibro-muscular zones. The vein lumen becomes largely obliterated by asymmetrical proliferation of loose subendothelial conective tissue. The latter forms a new inner zone within which a small segment of the lumen persis...

  8. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Its Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desmond; Archer

    1992-01-01

    The natural course of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion is determined by the site and completeness of the occlusion, the integrity of arterial perfusion to the affected sector and the efficiency of the developing collateral circulation. Most patients with tributary vein occlusion have some capillary fall out and microvascular incompetence in the distribution of the affected retina and vision is significantly compromised in over 50% of patients who have either chronic macular oedema or ischemia involving the...

  9. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PATTERN ERG IN CENTRAL VEIN OCCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Novak

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pattern electroretinogram (PERG findings were analysed in 30 patients with central retinal vein occlusion. Latency and amplitude values of PERG waves were compared with the results obtained in 30 healthy individuals after sample randomisation. In 15 cases with „hemorrhagic type” occlusion of the central retinal vein significantly reduced N1-P1 wave amplitude was noted (0,369 mV, related to „exudative“ disease type (0,557 mV, as well as to the control group of examines (0,782 mV. PERG was described as the sensitive method and important indicator in damage assessment, ie. ischemia in the ganglional cell layer in central retinal vein occlusion. Ischemia increases anoxia, which influences not only the axons but also the enzymatic and transport processes within the cell bodies, dendrites, axons and axonal terminals. Slowing down of the fast phase of axoplasmatic transport in the axons in ischemic damage blocked transmission impulses which could be evident through different degrees of PERG wave amplitude reduction. With this method the patients can be selected in whom due to severe retinal ischemia there is the risk of neovascular glaucomma and maculopathy, which is the absolute indication for panlaser-photocoagulation.

  10. PORTAL VEIN EMBOLIZATION USING AN ADAPTED HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY CATHETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    STEINBRÜCK, Klaus; ALVES, Jefferson; FERNANDES, Reinaldo; ENNE, Marcelo; PACHECO-MOREIRA, Lúcio Filgueiras

    2014-01-01

    Background Portal vein embolization is an accepted procedure that provides hypertrophy of the future remnant liver in order to reduce post-hepatectomy complications. Aim To present a series submitted to portal vein embolization using an adapted hysterosalpingography catheter via transileocolic route. Methods Were performed right portal branch embolization in 19 patients using hysterosalpingography catheter. For embolizing the vessel, was used Gelfoam® powder with absolute alcohol solution. Indications for hepatectomy were colorectal liver metastases in all cases. Results An adequate growth of the future remnant liver was achieved in 15 patients (78.9%) and second time hepatectomy could be done in 14 (73.7%). In one patient (5.2%), tumor progression prevented surgery. One patient presented acute renal failure after portal embolization. Conclusions The hysterosalpingography catheter is easy to handle and can be introduced into the portal vein with a wire guide. There were no major post-embolization complication. Its use is safe, cheap and effective. PMID:25184773

  11. Treatment of macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channa R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Roomasa Channa, Michael Smith, Peter A CampochiaroDepartments of Ophthalmology and Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a prevalent retinal vascular disease, second only to diabetic retinopathy. Previously there was no treatment for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO and patients were simply observed for the development of severe complications, generally resulting in poor visual outcomes. The only treatment for branch vein occlusion (BRVO was grid laser photocoagulation, which reduces edema very slowly and provides benefit in some, but not all patients. Within the past year, clinical trials have demonstrated the effects of three new pharmacologic treatments, ranibizumab, triamcinolone acetonide, and dexamethasone implants. The benefit/risk ratio is best for intraocular injections of ranibizumab, making this first-line therapy for most patients with CRVO or BRVO, while intraocular steroids are likely to play adjunctive roles. Standard care for patients with RVO has changed and will continue to evolve as results with other new agents are revealed.Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor, triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethosone implant, sustained release, vascular leakage, ischemia

  12. Endovascular treatment of iliac vein compression syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-you; LI Xiao-qiang; QIAN Ai-min; SANG Hong-fei; RONG Jian-jie; ZHU Li-wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS),the symptomatic compression of the left common iliac vein between the right common iliac artery and the vertebrae,is not an uncommon condition.The aim of this research was to retrospectively evaluate long-term outcome and the significance of endovascular treatment in patients with left IVCS.Methods Between January 1997 and September 2008,296 patients received interventional therapy in the left common iliac vein.In the second stage,170 cases underwent saphenous vein high ligation and stripping.Two hundred and thirty-one cases were followed up over a period of 6 to 120 months (average 46 months) and evaluated for symptom improvement with color ultrasound and ascending venography.Results The stenotic or occlusive segments of the left iliac vein were successfully dilated in 285 cases,of whom 272 received stent implantation therapy.Most of the patients achieved satisfactory results on discharge.During the follow-up period,varicose veins were alleviated in 98.7% of the patients,and leg swelling disappeared or was obviously relieved in 84% of cases.About 85% of leg ulcers completely healed.The total patency rate was 91.7% as evaluated with color ultrasound and 91.5% with ascending venography.Conclusions Endovascular treatment of IVCS provides effective symptomatic improvement and good long-term patency in most patients.

  13. Evaluation of leg varicose veins by MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Yoshifumi; Shiraishi, Tomokuni; Taira, Mitsuru [Kansai Medical Univ., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kohri Hospital; Imamura, Atsushi; Yamada, Hitoshi; Okuno, Masafumi; Kamiyama, Yasuo

    1998-11-01

    Preoperative evaluation was conducted on 30 patients with leg varicose veins by MR venography (MRV), and compared with conventional venography, MR images were performed by the 3D-SMASH Method. Compared with venography, MRV could more clearly demonstrate leg varicose veins with perforating veins than venography. It could detected fine varicose veins more than 2 mm in diameter, and deep veins. Furthermore, 3D observation enables accurate detection of the location of perforating vein. In conclusion, MRV is useful for the diagnosis of leg varicose vein. (author)

  14. Assessing cortical network properties using TMS-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogasch, Nigel C; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2013-07-01

    The past decade has seen significant developments in the concurrent use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to directly assess cortical network properties such as excitability and connectivity in humans. New hardware solutions, improved EEG amplifier technology, and advanced data processing techniques have allowed substantial reduction of the TMS-induced artifact, which had previously rendered concurrent TMS-EEG impossible. Various physiological artifacts resulting from TMS have also been identified, and methods are being developed to either minimize or remove these sources of artifact. With these developments, TMS-EEG has unlocked regions of the cortex to researchers that were previously inaccessible to TMS. By recording the TMS-evoked response directly from the cortex, TMS-EEG provides information on the excitability, effective connectivity, and oscillatory tuning of a given cortical area, removing the need to infer such measurements from indirect measures. In the following review, we investigate the different online and offline methods for reducing artifacts in TMS-EEG recordings and the physiological information contained within the TMS-evoked cortical response. We then address the use of TMS-EEG to assess different cortical mechanisms such as cortical inhibition and neural plasticity, before briefly reviewing studies that have utilized TMS-EEG to explore cortical network properties at rest and during different functional brain states.

  15. Hiperostosis cortical infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Javier Santos Medina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Caffey, o hiperostosis cortical infantil, es una rara enfermedad ósea autolimitada, que aparece de preferencia en lactantes con signos inespecíficos sistémicos; el más relevante es la reacción subperióstica e hiperostosis en varios huesos del cuerpo, con predilección en el 75-80 % de los casos por la mandíbula. Su pronóstico es bueno, la mayoría no deja secuelas. El propósito del presente trabajo es describir las características clínicas, presentes en un lactante de cinco meses de edad, atendido en el Hospital Pediátrico Provincial “Mártires de Las Tunas” con este diagnóstico, quien ingresó en el servicio de miscelánea B por una celulitis facial. Presentaba aumento de volumen en la región geniana izquierda, febrícola e inapetencia. Se impuso tratamiento con cefazolina y se egresó a los siete días. Acudió nuevamente con tumefacción blanda y difusa de ambas hemicaras, irritabilidad y fiebre. Se interconsultó con cirugía maxilofacial, se indicaron estudios sanguíneos y radiológicos. Se diagnosticó como enfermedad de Caffey, basado en la edad del niño, tumefacción facial sin signos inflamatorios agudos e hiperostosis en ambas corticales mandibulares a la radiografía AP mandíbula; unido a anemia ligera, leucocitosis y eritrosedimentación acelerada. El paciente se trató sintomáticamente y con antinflamatorios no esteroideos. Esta rara entidad se debe tener presente en casos de niños y lactantes con irritabilidad y fiebre inespecífica

  16. Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy.

  17. Intraoperative Indocyanine Green-Based Cortical Perfusion Assessment in Patients Suffering from Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Marcel A; Sarikaya-Seiwert, Sevgi; Petridis, Athanasios K; Beez, Thomas; Cornelius, Jan Frederick; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Turowski, Bernd; Slotty, Philipp J

    2017-05-01

    The pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) largely involves the brains vascular structural integrity. We analyzed the value of an intraoperative cortical indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in patients with severe TBI and acute subdural hematoma who underwent decompressive craniectomy. ICG-derived fluorescence curves of cortex and cerebral vessels were recorded by the use of software integrated into a surgical microscope in 10 patients. The maximum intensity, rise time (RT), time to peak, and residual fluorescence intensity (FI) were estimated from cortical arteries, the parenchyma, and veins. ICG-derived fluorescence parameters were correlated with the short-term outcome 3 months after discharge. Five patients had a favorable and 5 an unfavorable outcome. Patients with a favorable outcome showed a significant longer RT in the arteries and a trend towards a significant longer RT in the veins. Overall mean residual FI was 47.5 ± 6.8% for the arteries, 45.0 ± 7% for the parenchyma and 57.6 ± 6% for the veins. The residual FI of the parenchyma and the veins was significantly greater in patients with an unfavorable clinical outcome. Patients with an unfavorable clinical outcome showed an altered shape of the ICG-derived fluorescence curve, a shorter increase of the ICG-derived fluorescence intensity in the cortical arteries, and significantly greater residual fluorescence intensity. These observations are likely a correlate of an increased intracranial pressure, a capillary leak, and venous congestion. Intraoperative quantification of the ICG-derived fluorescence might help to appreciate the clinical outcome in patients with severe TBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Scattering Removal for Finger-Vein Image Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfeng Yang; Ben Zhang; Yihua Shi

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of f...

  19. An effective preprocessing method for finger vein recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, JiaLiang; Li, Qiong; Wang, Ning; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Niu, Xiamu

    2013-07-01

    The image preprocessing plays an important role in finger vein recognition system. However, previous preprocessing schemes remind weakness to be resolved for the high finger vein recongtion performance. In this paper, we propose a new finger vein preprocessing that includes finger region localization, alignment, finger vein ROI segmentation and enhancement. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is capable of enhancing the quality of finger vein image effectively and reliably.

  20. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haghighatkhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC

  1. Leaf vein segmentation using Odd Gabor filters and morphological operations

    OpenAIRE

    Katyal, Vini; Aviral

    2012-01-01

    Leaf vein forms the basis of leaf characterization and classification. Different species have different leaf vein patterns. It is seen that leaf vein segmentation will help in maintaining a record of all the leaves according to their specific pattern of veins thus provide an effective way to retrieve and store information regarding various plant species in database as well as provide an effective means to characterize plants on the basis of leaf vein structure which is unique for every specie...

  2. Nutcracker Syndrome Complicated by Left Renal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Mallat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated renal vein thrombosis is a rare entity. We present a patient whose complaint of flank pain led to the diagnosis of a renal vein thrombosis. In this case, abdominal computed tomography angiography was helpful in diagnosing the nutcracker syndrome complicated by the renal vein thrombosis. Anticoagulation was started and three weeks later, CTA showed complete disappearance of the renal vein thrombosis. To treat the Nutcracker syndrome, we proposed left renal vein transposition that the patient consented to.

  3. Nutcracker syndrome complicated by left renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallat, Faouzi; Hmida, Wissem; Jaidane, Mehdi; Mama, Nadia; Mosbah, Faouzi

    2013-01-01

    Isolated renal vein thrombosis is a rare entity. We present a patient whose complaint of flank pain led to the diagnosis of a renal vein thrombosis. In this case, abdominal computed tomography angiography was helpful in diagnosing the nutcracker syndrome complicated by the renal vein thrombosis. Anticoagulation was started and three weeks later, CTA showed complete disappearance of the renal vein thrombosis. To treat the Nutcracker syndrome, we proposed left renal vein transposition that the patient consented to.

  4. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Morteza Sanei

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC.

  5. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ceschin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4 and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4. Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS and voxel-based morphometry (VBM demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1 reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2 reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract

  6. Effect of K201, a novel antiarrhythmic drug on calcium handling and arrhythmogenic activity of pulmonary vein cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-J; Chen, Y-C; Wongcharoen, W; Lin, C-I; Chen, S-A

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Pulmonary veins are the most important focus for the generation of atrial fibrillation. Abnormal calcium homeostasis with ryanodine receptor dysfunction may underlie the arrhythmogenic activity in pulmonary veins. The preferential ryanodine receptor stabilizer (K201) possesses antiarrhythmic effects through calcium regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of K201 on the arrhythmogenic activity and calcium regulation of pulmonary vein cardiomyocytes. Experimental approach: The ionic currents and intracellular calcium were studied in isolated single cardiomyocytes from rabbit pulmonary vein before and after the administration of K201, by the whole-cell patch clamp and indo-1 fluorimetric ratio techniques. Key results: K201 (0.1, 0.3, 1 μM) reduced the firing rates in pulmonary vein cardiomyocytes, decreased the amplitudes of the delayed afterdepolarizations and prolonged the action potential duration. K201 decreased the L-type calcium currents, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger currents, transient inward currents and calcium transients. K201 (1 μM, but not 0.1 μM or 0.3 μM) also reduced the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content. Moreover, both the pretreatment and administration of K201 (0.3 μM) decreased the isoprenaline (10 nM)-induced arrhythmogenesis in pulmonary veins. Conclusions and implications: K201 reduced the arrhythmogenic activity of pulmonary vein cardiomyocytes and attenuated the arrhythmogenicity induced by isoprenaline. These findings may reveal the anti-arrhythmic potential of K201. PMID:17994112

  7. [Parasitism of the vena cava and adrenal veins in chronic chagasic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, V de P; Almeida, H de O; dos Reis, M A; Silveira, S A; Araujo, M B

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of nest of trypanosoma cruzi in the smooth muscle cells of the central veins of the adrenal glands and the inferior vena cava was studied in 21 chronic Chagas' patients, by serial sections. Nine patients presented parasites in the adrenal veins, with a total of 24 nests, and only one nest was found in the inferior vena cava. The area of muscular tissue examined was of 2944.3 mm2 for the adrenal veins and of 47808.6 mm2 for the vena cava, giving a relation of 0.815 nests/100 mm2 for the adrenal vein and of 0.002 for the vena cava. Thus the smooth muscle of the adrenal vein was 407 times more parasited than the muscular wall of the inferior vena cava. This higher parasitism of the adrenal vein by trypanosoma cruzi in chronic Chagas' disease may be determined by its greater corticosteroid concentration, which can reduce the anti-trypanosomal defenses.

  8. Use of Brilliant Blue FCF during vein graft preparation inhibits intimal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, Michael J; Sexton, Kevin; Voskresensky, Igor; Hocking, Kyle; Song, Jun; Komalavilas, Padmini; Brophy, Colleen; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce

    2016-08-01

    Intimal hyperplasia remains the primary cause of vein graft failure for the 1 million yearly bypass procedures performed using human saphenous vein (HSV) grafts. This response to injury is caused in part by the harvest and preparation of the conduit. The use of Brilliant Blue FCF (FCF) restores injury-induced loss of function in vascular tissues possibly via inhibition of purinergic receptor signaling. This study investigated whether pretreatment of the vein graft with FCF prevents intimal hyperplasia. Cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) were used to determine the effect of FCF on platelet-derived growth factor-mediated migration and proliferation, cellular processes that contribute to intimal hyperplasia. The effectiveness of FCF treatment during the time of explantation on preventing intimal hyperplasia was evaluated in a rabbit jugular-carotid interposition model and in an organ culture model using HSV. FCF inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-induced migration and proliferation of A7r5 cells. Treatment with FCF at the time of vein graft explantation inhibited the subsequent development of intimal thickening in the rabbit model. Pretreatment with FCF also prevented intimal thickening of HSV in organ culture. Incorporation of FCF as a component of vein graft preparation at the time of explantation represents a potential therapeutic approach to mitigate intimal hyperplasia, reduce vein graft failure, and improve outcome of the autologous transplantation of HSV. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Transfected Early Growth Response Gene-1 DNA Enzyme Prevents Stenosis and Occlusion of Autogenous Vein Graft In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the inhibitory action of the early growth response gene-1 DNA enzyme (EDRz as a carrying agent by liposomes on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia. An autogenous vein graft model was established. EDRz was transfected to the graft vein. The vein graft samples were obtained on each time point after surgery. The expression of the EDRz transfected in the vein graft was detected using a fluorescent microscope. Early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1 mRNA was measured using reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization. And the protein expression of Egr-1 was detected by using western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. EDRz was located at the media of the vein graft from 2 to 24 h, 7 h after grafting. The Egr-1 protein was mainly located in the medial VSMCs, monocytes, and endothelium cells during the early phase of the vein graft. The degree of VSMC proliferation and thickness of intima were obviously relieved compared with the no-gene therapy group. EDRz can reduce Egr-1 expression in autogenous vein grafts, effectively restrain VSMC proliferation and intimal hyperplasia, and prevent vascular stenosis and occlusion after vein graft.

  10. Using tunneled femoral vein catheters for "urgent start" dialysis patients: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingwala, Jay; Bhola, Cynthia; Lok, Charmaine E

    2014-01-01

    Multiple benefits of arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) and arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) exist over catheters. As part of a strategy to preserve thoracic venous sites and reduce internal jugular (IJ) vein catheter use, we inserted tunneled femoral vein catheters in incident "urgent start" dialysis patients while facilitating a more appropriate definitive dialysis access. "Urgent start" dialysis patients between January 15, 2013 and January 15, 2014 who required chronic dialysis, and did not have prior modality and vascular access plans, had tunneled femoral vein catheters inserted. We determined the femoral vein catheter associated infections rates, thrombosis, and subsequent dialysis access. Eligible patients were surveyed on their femoral vein catheter experience. Twenty-two femoral vein catheters were inserted without complications. Subsequently, one catheter required intraluminal thrombolytic locking, while all other catheters maintained blood flow greater than 300 ml/min. There were no catheter-related infections (exit site infection or bacteremia). Six patients continued to use their tunneled catheter at report end, one transitioned to peritoneal dialysis, thirteen to an arteriovenous graft, and two to a fistula. One patient received a tunneled IJ vein catheter. Of the patients who completed the vascular access survey, all indicated satisfaction with their access and that they had minimal complaints of bruising, bleeding, or swelling at their access sites. Pain/discomfort at the exit site was the primary complaint, but they did not find it interfered with activities of daily living. Femoral vein tunneled catheters appear to be a safe, well tolerated, and effective temporary access in urgent start dialysis patients while they await more appropriate long-term access.

  11. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uršič, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins.

  12. Cholinergic systems are essential for late-stage maturation and refinement of motor cortical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S; Conner, James M; Anilkumar, Arjun A; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies reported that early postnatal cholinergic lesions severely perturb early cortical development, impairing neuronal cortical migration and the formation of cortical dendrites and synapses. These severe effects of early postnatal cholinergic lesions preclude our ability to understand the contribution of cholinergic systems to the later-stage maturation of topographic cortical representations. To study cholinergic mechanisms contributing to the later maturation of motor cortical circuits, we first characterized the temporal course of cortical motor map development and maturation in rats. In this study, we focused our attention on the maturation of cortical motor representations after postnatal day 25 (PND 25), a time after neuronal migration has been accomplished and cortical volume has reached adult size. We found significant maturation of cortical motor representations after this time, including both an expansion of forelimb representations in motor cortex and a shift from proximal to distal forelimb representations to an extent unexplainable by simple volume enlargement of the neocortex. Specific cholinergic lesions placed at PND 24 impaired enlargement of distal forelimb representations in particular and markedly reduced the ability to learn skilled motor tasks as adults. These results identify a novel and essential role for cholinergic systems in the late refinement and maturation of cortical circuits. Dysfunctions in this system may constitute a mechanism of late-onset neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome and schizophrenia.

  13. The Clots in Legs Or sTockings after Stroke (CLOTS) 3 trial: a randomised controlled trial to determine whether or not intermittent pneumatic compression reduces the risk of post-stroke deep vein thrombosis and to estimate its cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Martin; Sandercock, Peter; Graham, Catriona; Forbes, John; Smith, J

    2015-09-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common cause of death and morbidity in stroke patients. There are few data concerning the effectiveness of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) in treating patients with stroke. To establish whether or not the application of IPC to the legs of immobile stroke patients reduced their risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Clots in Legs Or sTockings after Stroke (CLOTS) 3 was a multicentre, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial which allocated patients via a central randomisation system to IPC or no IPC. A technician blinded to treatment allocation performed compression duplex ultrasound (CDU) of both legs at 7-10 days and 25-30 days after enrolment. We followed up patients for 6 months to determine survival and later symptomatic VTE. Patients were analysed according to their treatment allocation. We enrolled 2876 patients in 94 UK hospitals between 8 December 2008 and 6 September 2012. patients admitted to hospital within 3 days of acute stroke and who were immobile on the day of admission (day 0) to day 3. age cost of preventing a DVT was £1282 per event (95% CI £785 to £3077). IPC is an effective and inexpensive method of reducing the risk of DVT and improving survival in immobile stroke patients. Further research should test whether or not IPC improves survival in other groups of high-risk hospitalised medical patients. In addition, research into methods to improve adherence to IPC might increase the benefits of IPC in stroke patients. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN93529999. The start-up phase of the trial (December 2008-March 2010) was funded by the Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Government (reference number CZH/4/417). The main phase of the trial was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme (reference number 08/14/03). Covidien Ltd (Mansfield, MA, USA) lent its Kendall SCD™ Express sequential compression system controllers to the 105 centres involved in the

  14. Macrostructural brain changes in patients with longstanding type 1 diabetes mellitus - a cortical thickness analysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, J B; Brock, C; Søfteland, E

    2013-01-01

    with longstanding (average 24.6 years) type 1 DM and 20 healthy controls were studied in a 3T magnetic resonance scanner. Using an automated surface based cortical segmentation method, cortical thickness was assessed in anatomical regions including total and lobe-wise grey and white matter volumes. Also.......03) and superior parietal gyrus (P=0.008) in patients. The cortical thickness of these regions was not associated with diabetes duration, age at diabetes onset or to HbA1c (all P>0.08). Patients with peripheral neuropathy showed reduced right postcentral gyrus cortical thickness compared to patients without...

  15. [Calcified deep vein thrombosis in a patient with recurrent deep vein thrombosis and sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmek, Dubravka Zupanić; Brajković, Ivana; Bekić, Dinko; Krnić, Antun; Jurković, Petar; Pavlović, Tomislav

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we present a rare case of calcified deep vein thrombosis in a 42-year-old female patient with frequent relapses of pulmonary sarcoidosis since 1995, for which she was on maintenance therapy with corticosteroids and with consequential secondary diabetes. Recent femoral vein thrombosis was diagnosed with color Doppler in 2012. At the same time, calcified occlusive thrombus in vena cava inferior from the level of renal vein to the confluence of hepatic veins was diagnosed on abdominal multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT). Digital subtraction venography (DSV) revealed a well-developed collateral circulation through the paravertebral veins, azygos and hemiazygos vein. There were no risk factors for thrombosis other than sarcoidosis and diabetes. Deep vein thrombosis is rarely described with sarcoidosis, but according to literature reports, it usually appears as a recurrence and simultaneously at multiple locations. According to the current knowledge, we cannot say for sure whether it is a disease with an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis or there is a combination of multiple risk factors present simultaneously.

  16. Cortical blindness as a rare presentation of cerebral venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bonnie; Moon, Seong-Jin; Olivero, William C; Wang, Huan

    2013-05-09

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Manifesting in a remarkably wide spectrum of symptoms and signs, CVT often presents in a misleading fashion-if unrecognized or misdiagnosed, it carries potentially fatal consequences. Visual loss is quite rare as the initial presentation of CVT and is typically a finding more frequent in chronic cases with associated papilledema on funduscopy Ferro, Lopes, Rosas and Fontes (Delay in Hospital Admission of Patients with Cerebral Vein and Dural Sinus Thrombosis. Cerebrovasc Dis 2005;19: :152-6). We report a rare case of acute cortical blindness as the initial presentation of CVT in an 18-year-old female patient and review the current literature.

  17. Cortical excitability differences between flexor pollicis longus and APB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jong Seok; Menon, Parvathi; Mioshi, Eneida; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve

    2013-04-29

    Although abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) share a common peripheral nerve supply, these muscles subserve different functions and may be differently affected in neurodegenerative disease such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As a consequence, differences in cortical excitability may potentially develop in relation to these functional differences. Cortical excitability was assessed using the threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technique in 15 healthy controls with motor responses recorded over the APB and FPL using surface electrode recordings. Short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was significantly reduced from the FPL compared to APB (SICIFPL 6.9±1.8%; SICIAPB 10.7±1.4%, P<0.01). In addition, the FPL motor evoked potential amplitude (MEPFPL 14.7±2.3%; MEPAPB 21.7±3.9%; P<0.01) and cortical silent period duration (CSPFPL 174.7±6.7ms; CSPAPB 205.4±3.9ms, P<0.01) were significantly smaller. The findings in the present study indicate that cortical inhibition and corticomotoneuronal output is reduced when recording over the FPL. The differences in cortical excitability may develop as a consequence of varied function and could potentially explain the dissociated muscle atrophy evident in ALS.

  18. Cortical Correlates of Fitts’ Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eIfft

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fitts' law describes the fundamental trade-off between movement accuracy and speed: It states that the duration of reaching movements is a function of target size and distance. While Fitts' law has been extensively studied in ergonomics and has guided the design of human-computer interfaces, there have been few studies on its neuronal correlates. To elucidate sensorimotor cortical activity underlying Fitts’ law, we implanted two monkeys with multielectrode arrays in the primary motor (M1 and primary somatosensory (S1 cortices. The monkeys performed reaches with a joystick-controlled cursor towards targets of different size. The reaction time, movement time and movement velocity changed with target size, and M1 and S1 activity reflected these changes. Moreover, modifications of cortical activity could not be explained by changes of movement parameters alone, but required target size as an additional parameter. Neuronal representation of target size was especially prominent during the early reaction time period where it influenced the slope of the firing rate rise preceding movement initiation. During the movement period, cortical activity was mostly correlated with movement velocity. Neural decoders were applied to simultaneously decode target size and motor parameters from cortical modulations. We suggest using such classifiers to improve neuroprosthetic control.

  19. Cortical morphometry and IQ in VLBW children without cerebral palsy born in 2003–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Elisabeth Sølsnes

    2015-01-01

    We conclude that cortical deviations are evident in childhood even in VLBW children born in 2003–2007 who have received state of the art medical treatment in the perinatal period and who did not present with focal brain injuries on neonatal ultrasonography. The cortical deviations were associated with reduced cognitive functioning.

  20. A new approach for sclera vein recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N. L.; Du, Yingzi; Zhou, Zhi

    2010-04-01

    The vein structure in the sclera is stable over time, unique to each person, and well suited for human identification. A few researchers have performed sclera vein pattern recognition and reported promising initial results. Sclera recognition poses several challenges: the vein structure moves and deforms with the movement of the eye; images of sclera patterns are often defocused and/or saturated; and, most importantly, the vein structure in the sclera is multi-layered and has complex non-linear deformation. In this paper, we proposed a new method for sclera recognition: First, we developed a color-based sclera region estimation scheme for sclera segmentation. Second, we designed a Gabor wavelet-based sclera pattern enhancement method, and an adaptive thresholding method to emphasize and binarize the sclera vein patterns. Third, we proposed a line descriptor-based feature extraction, registration, and matching method that is illumination-, scale-, orientation-, and deformation-invariant, and can mitigate the multi-layered deformation effects exhibited in the sclera and tolerate segmentation error. It is empirically verified using the UBIRIS database that the proposed method can perform accurate sclera recognition.

  1. Optimization of subcutaneous vein contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2000-05-01

    A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This techniques uses a near IR light source and one or more IR sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using a n LCD video projector. The use of an IR transmitting filter in front of the video cameras prevents any positive feedback from the visible light from the video projector from causing instabilities in the projected image. The demonstration contrast enhancing illuminator has been tested on adults and children, both Caucasian and African-American, and it enhances veins quite well in all cases. The most difficult cases are those where significant deposits of subcutaneous fat are present which make the veins invisible under normal room illumination. Recent attempts to see through fat using different IR wavelength bands and both linearly and circularly polarized light were unsuccessful. The key to seeing through fat turns out to be a very diffuse source of RI light. Results on adult and pediatric subjects are shown with this new IR light source.

  2. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianlin; Abbas, Jihad; Hoetzl, Katherine; Allison, David; Osman, Mahamed; Williams, Mallory; Zelenock, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    62 year old Caucasian female with pancreatic head mass abutting the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) presented with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. CT scan showed near complete obstruction of portal vein and large SMV collateral development. After 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy, her portal vein flow improved significantly, SMV collateral circulation was diminished. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and superior mesenteric portal vein (SMPV) confluence resection were performed; A saphenous vein interposition graft thrombosed immediately. The splenic vein remnant was distended and adjacent to the stump of the portal vein. Harvesting an internal jugular vein graft required extra time and using a synthetic graft posed a risk of graft thrombosis or infection. As a result, we chose to perform a direct anastomosis of the portal and splenic vein in a desperate situation. The anastomosis decompressed the mesenteric venous system, so we then ligated the SMV. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, except transient ascites. She redeveloped ascites more than one year later. At that time a PET scan showed bilateral lung and right femur metastatic disease. She expired 15 months after PD. Conclusion The lessons we learned are (1) Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2) Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3) Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4) It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival. PMID:25568802

  3. Deep Vein Thrombosis in A Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patient: Successful Conservative Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, S H; Miraj, A K; Hossain, M A; Aftabuddin, M

    2017-07-01

    Deep vein thrombosis is an alarming medical emergency. Deep vein thrombosis or deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within a deep vein predominantly in the legs. Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting deep vein thrombosis is a very rare medical condition relatively in Asian. Approximately 80% of deep vein thrombosis (DVTs) is clinically asymptomatic, 20% of those that actually demonstrate signs and symptoms can be easily confused with symptoms of other commonly presenting musculoskeletal disorders. Proper medical management can reduce patient's morbidity and further burden. A 50 years old diabetic Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting gentleman had been suffering for left leg swelling, high grade fever and calf muscle pain for 5 days. He had absent Arteria Dorsalis Paedis pulse on left foot, Positive Homan sign and Wells score is 7. His left leg was hugely swelled. He had normal leg hair distribution. Duplex study of Left Leg-Deep Vein Thrombosis in left lower limb (Popliteal segment) with sign of recanalization. He is also a patient of anemia of chronic disease due to hemorrhoid. Several investigations have done to find the cause of his chronic anemia. His treatment was meticulous with complete bed rest, elevation of left lower limb, heparinization, oralrivaroxaban. He had rapid recovery following treatment. Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting patient should be given post-operative enoxaparin (Low molecular weight Heparin) or Heparin for 3-5 days. Early diagnosis of the disease condition reduces morbidity. Combined treatment with Rivaroxaban and Heparin is of great clinical value and outcome in a case of Post-Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Deep Vein Thrombosis patient.

  4. Cortical myoclonus in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P D; Bhatia, K P; Brown, P; Davis, M B; Pires, M; Quinn, N P; Luthert, P; Honovar, M; O'Brien, M D; Marsden, C D

    1994-11-01

    We describe three patients with Huntington's disease, from two families, in whom myoclonus was the predominant clinical feature. The diagnosis was confirmed at autopsy in two cases and by DNA analysis in all three. These patients all presented before the age of 30 years and were the offspring of affected fathers. Neurophysiological studies documented generalised and multifocal action myoclonus of cortical origin that was strikingly stimulus sensitive, without enlargement of the cortical somatosensory evoked potential. The myoclonus improved with piracetam therapy in one patient and a combination of sodium valproate and clonazepam in the other two. Cortical reflex myoclonus is a rare but disabling component of the complex movement disorder of Huntington's disease, which may lead to substantial diagnostic difficulties.

  5. Latin American Consensus on Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of anti-VEGF agents has allowed unprecedented progress in the management and treatment of ophthalmologic conditions characterized by an increased vascular permeability and intraocular neovascularization. One of these conditions is retinal vein occlusion (RVO.  RVO is one of the most common causes of reduced vision due to retinal vascular disease. Without timely treatment, macular edema, macular ischemia, neovascularization and other potential sequelae of RVO can lead to photoreceptor cell death and consequently to irreversible vision loss.   Treatments for this indication that have been recently approved by several regulatory agencies throughout the world include: the VEGF inhibitor ranibizumab (Lucentis, Genentech, the VEGF and placental growth factor inhibitor aflibercept (Eylea, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Bayer HealthCare, and a slow release intravitreal implant of dexamethasone (Ozurdex, Allergan. In addition bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech has been used extensively in an off-label manner.   These new treatments allow us to preserve vision for many RVO patients who could not have expected such favorable results just 5 or 6 years ago. However, not every treatment is effective for every patient, and whether one option is superior to another or a combination of options is superior to monotherapy, have yet to be definitively determined.   A growing body of literature with strong evidence supports the use of these new treatments. However, in several instances the literature is not conclusive to support unified management of RVO. This document is a summary analysis on RVO assembled by a group of specialists summoned by the Pan-American Vitreo-Retinal Society (SPRV to participate in this Latin American consensus.

  6. Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits cortical spreading depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Pin; Ay, Ilknur; de Morais, Andreia Lopes; Qin, Tao; Zheng, Yi; Sadeghian, Homa; Oka, Fumiaki; Simon, Bruce; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Ayata, Cenk

    2016-04-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation has recently been reported to improve symptoms of migraine. Cortical spreading depression is the electrophysiological event underlying migraine aura and is a trigger for headache. We tested whether vagus nerve stimulation inhibits cortical spreading depression to explain its antimigraine effect. Unilateral vagus nerve stimulation was delivered either noninvasively through the skin or directly by electrodes placed around the nerve. Systemic physiology was monitored throughout the study. Both noninvasive transcutaneous and invasive direct vagus nerve stimulations significantly suppressed spreading depression susceptibility in the occipital cortex in rats. The electrical stimulation threshold to evoke a spreading depression was elevated by more than 2-fold, the frequency of spreading depressions during continuous topical 1 M KCl was reduced by ∼40%, and propagation speed of spreading depression was reduced by ∼15%. This effect developed within 30 minutes after vagus nerve stimulation and persisted for more than 3 hours. Noninvasive transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation was as efficacious as direct invasive vagus nerve stimulation, and the efficacy did not differ between the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. Our findings provide a potential mechanism by which vagus nerve stimulation may be efficacious in migraine and suggest that susceptibility to spreading depression is a suitable platform to optimize its efficacy.

  7. Grid cells and cortical representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Edvard I; Roudi, Yasser; Witter, Menno P; Kentros, Clifford; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Moser, May-Britt

    2014-07-01

    One of the grand challenges in neuroscience is to comprehend neural computation in the association cortices, the parts of the cortex that have shown the largest expansion and differentiation during mammalian evolution and that are thought to contribute profoundly to the emergence of advanced cognition in humans. In this Review, we use grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex as a gateway to understand network computation at a stage of cortical processing in which firing patterns are shaped not primarily by incoming sensory signals but to a large extent by the intrinsic properties of the local circuit.

  8. MRI manifestations of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Rui-li; MA Xiao-ye; CAI Ji-ping; ZHU Huang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To assess MRI in the evaluation of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). Methods: MRI manifestations and etiology of forty-six patients with enlarged SOV were analyzed. Results: SOV enlargement was noted to occur in carotid-cavernous fistula, ophthalmic Graves'disease, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, inflammation at the apex of the orbit, orbital pseudotumor and thrombosis of cavernous sinus. The dilated vein appeared as signal void tubular shadows on both T1 and T2 weighted images. The diameter of the enlarged vein was 3.5-6.0 mm. Extraocular muscle enlargement, orbital pathologies, enlarged carotid cavernous sinus etc were also revealed by MRI. Conclusion: The dilated SOV may be well demonstrated by MRI. The etiological diagnosis of enlarged SOV can be made in combination with the associated findings.

  9. Pathogenesis of varicose veins - lessons from biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Larissa; König, Gerd; Hecker, Markus; Korff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The development of varicose veins or chronic venous insufficiency is preceded by and associated with the pathophysiological remodelling of the venous wall. Recent work suggests that an increase in venous filling pressure is sufficient to promote varicose remodelling of veins by augmenting wall stress and activating venous endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In line with this, known risk factors such as prolonged standing or an obesity-induced increase in venous filling pressure may contribute to varicosis. This review focuses on biomechanically mediated mechanisms such as an increase in wall stress caused by venous hypertension or alterations in blood flow, which may be involved in the onset of varicose vein development. Finally, possible therapeutic options to counteract or delay the progress of this venous disease are discussed.

  10. Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia : Cortical or non-cortical origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, Teun W.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Hilgevoord, Anthony A. J.; Linssen, Wim H. J. P.; Groffen, Alexander J. A.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is characterized by involuntary dystonia and/or chorea triggered by a sudden movement. Cases are usually familial with an autosomal dominant inheritance. Hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of PKD focus on the controversy whether PKD has a cortical or non-co

  11. Vein versus tragal perichondrium in stapedotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerber, Sébastien; Cuisnier, Olivier; Charachon, Robert; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre

    2004-09-01

    To assess, in otosclerosis surgery, whether the vein or the tragal perichondrium in stapedotomy with interposition yields the better long-term hearing outcome. A retrospective chart review of prospectively collected audiometric data of 452 ears. Academic tertiary otology-neurotology referral center. Four hundred fifty-two stapedotomies with interposition were performed in 412 patients (bilateral in 40 patients) by the senior author (R.C.) between 1987 and 1998. A tragal perichondrium graft was used in 314 cases and a vein graft was used in 138 cases as sealing material of the oval window. Audiometric data were recorded at 4 months, at 1 year, and at 3 years after surgery after American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery guidelines, except for thresholds at 3 kHz, which were not available and which were replaced with those at 4 kHz. There were no significant intergroup differences in initial or late postoperative hearing outcome with regard to change in the pure-tone average bone conduction and air-bone gaps, or sensorineural hearing loss. Ears treated with a vein graft showed statistically better postoperative 2-kHz air-bone gap closure (p =0.0157), but the pure-tone average air-bone gap difference was not significant. Postoperative air-bone gap closure to within 10 dB was achieved in 91% of cases in the vein group and in 76% of cases in the perichondrium group. Specific study of the bone conduction level at 4 kHz showed a sensorineural hearing loss greater than 10 dB in 8% of cases in the vein group and in 11% of cases in the perichondrium group. One case of complete sensorineural hearing loss was observed with a tragal perichondrium graft (0.22%). These results suggest that the vein should be preferred to the tragal perichondrium in stapedotomy with interposition.

  12. Duplicated Ižnternal Juguler Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kirbas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available    Duplicated internal juguler vein (DIJV is a rare anomaly and reported incidence is 0.4 % in the literature. A 45-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital because of non pulsatile neck swelling. The magnetic resonance image (MRI showed left IJVs divided at the angles of the mandible running anterior to the common carotid artery until anterior mediastinal level. Clinicians should be aware of the rare possibility of duplicated IJVs in patients presenting with neck swelling. The development of imaging technics have revealed more cases of duplicated internal juguler vein.

  13. Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesieme EB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emeka Kesieme1, Chinenye Kesieme2, Nze Jebbin3, Eshiobo Irekpita1, Andrew Dongo11Department of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 2Department of Paediatrics, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 3Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is the formation of blood clots (thrombi in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femoral vein, or popliteal vein or the deep veins of the pelvis. It is a potentially dangerous condition that can lead to preventable morbidity and mortality.Aim: To present an update on the causes and management of DVT.Methods: A review of publications obtained from Medline search, medical libraries, and Google.Results: DVT affects 0.1% of persons per year. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly and has a slight male preponderance. The approach to making a diagnosis currently involves an algorithm combining pretest probability, D-dimer testing, and compression ultrasonography. This will guide further investigations if necessary. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological. The goals of treatment are to prevent extension of thrombi, pulmonary embolism, recurrence of thrombi, and the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome.Conclusion: DVT is a potentially dangerous condition with a myriad of risk factors. Prophylaxis is very important and can be mechanical and pharmacological. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulant therapy. Low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and vitamin K antagonists have been the treatment of choice. Currently anticoagulants specifically targeting components of the common pathway have been recommended for prophylaxis. These include fondaparinux, a selective indirect factor Xa inhibitor and the new oral selective direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran and selective

  14. Renal actinomycosis with concomitant renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Suk; Jang, Won Ik; Jung, Ji Yoon; Chung, Sarah; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki-Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Yong-Tai

    2012-02-01

    Renal actinomycosis is a rare infection caused by fungi of the genus Actinomyces. A 74-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of gross hematuria with urinary symptoms and intermittent chills. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed thrombosis in the left renal vein and diffuse, heterogeneous enlargement of the left kidney. After nephrectomy, sulfur granules with chronic suppurative inflammation were seen microscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was renal actinomycosis. Our case is the first report of renal actinomycosis with renal vein thrombosis.

  15. Portal vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Köckritz, Leona; De Gottardi, Andrea; Trebicka, Jonel

    2017-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is frequent in patients with liver cirrhosis and possible severe complications such as mesenteric ischemia are rare, but can be life-threatening. However, different aspects of clinical relevance, diagnosis and management of PVT are still areas of uncertainty and inves......Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is frequent in patients with liver cirrhosis and possible severe complications such as mesenteric ischemia are rare, but can be life-threatening. However, different aspects of clinical relevance, diagnosis and management of PVT are still areas of uncertainty...

  16. Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombophlebitis with Staphylococcal Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parino, Eduardo; Mulinaris, Eric; Saccomano, Edgardo; Gallo, Juan Cruz; Kohan, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient presented with fever and right flank pain ten days after uncomplicated vaginal delivery. CT examination revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from blood cultures. No other source of bacteremia was found. Antibiotic therapy and anticoagulation with enoxaparin were instituted. Fourteen days after admission, she was discharged in good condition. Although a very uncommon complication after spontaneous vaginal delivery, septic ovarian vein thrombophlebitis should be suspected in cases of persistent puerperal fever when other diagnostic possibilities have been excluded. PMID:26221549

  17. [Ultrasonic guided cannulation of the axillary vein in intensive care patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schregel, W; Höer, H; Radtke, J; Cunitz, G

    1994-10-01

    attempted CV catheters, 43 were placed successfully. In 2 cases the axillary vein could not be encountered by the puncture needle. Guide-wire placement did not succeed in 4 patients. One catheter was malpositioned in the ipsilateral internal jugular vein. Four inadvertent punctures of the axillary artery remained without sequelae after compression. No further puncture-related complications were observed. With high US intensity score the number of puncture attempts necessary for successful vein cannulation was lower. On the other hand, complications and puncture failure seemed to be more frequent in patients with lower US intensity scores. DISCUSSION. CV access via the axillary vein had a satisfying success rate (43/50) and proved to be a safe procedure in our ICU patients despite higher risk factors compared to a healthy population. Although ethical reasons did not allow a randomised comparison with the standard technique, location of the axillary vein by Doppler US is likely to improve cannulation results and reduce complications induced by "blind" needle probing. With a low US intensity score, the rate of successful punctures is lower and complication rates increase. In some patients, e.g., those with extended tumour operations involving the head and neck, CV access via the axillary vein may be of high clinical value.

  18. Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rebecca M D; Aflaifel, Nasreen; Bamigboye, Anthony A

    2015-10-19

    minutes. Women standing in water were allowed to stand or walk in place. One trial compared 20 minutes of daily foot massage for five consecutive days and usual prenatal care versus usual prenatal care. The final trial compared three treatment groups for treating leg oedema in pregnancy. The first group was assigned to lateral supine bed rest at room temperature, women in the second group were asked to sit in a bathtub of waist-deep water at 32 ± 0.5 C with their legs horizontal and the third group included the women who were randomised to sitting immersed in shoulder-deep water at 32 ± 0.5 C with legs extended downward. We did not include this study in the analysis as outcomes reported in the paper were not pre-specified outcomes of this review.We planned to use GRADE methods to assess outcomes for two different comparisons and assign a quality rating. However, only two out of three outcomes for one comparison were reported and could be assessed. Evidence from one trial (rutoside versus placebo) for the outcomes of reduction in symptoms and incidence of complications associated with varicose veins and oedema was assessed as of moderate quality. Rutoside versus placeboOne trial involving 69 women, reported that rutoside significantly reduced the symptoms associated with varicose veins (risk ratio (RR) 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 to 3.22; moderate quality evidence). The incidence of complications (deep vein thrombosis) did not differ significantly between the two groups (risk ratio (RR) 0.17, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.49; moderate quality evidence). There were no significant differences in side-effects (RR 1.30, 95% CI 0.23 to 7.28). Women's perception of pain was not reported in this trial. External pneumatic intermittent compression versus restOne trial, involving 35 women, reported no significant difference in lower leg volume when compression stockings were compared against rest (mean difference (MD) -258.80, 95% CI -566.91 to 49.31). Reflexology versus resting

  19. Rapamycin-loaded nanoparticles for inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia in experimental vein grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoparticles possess several advantages as a carrier system for intracellular delivery of therapeutic agents. Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive agent which also exhibits marked antiproliferative properties. We investigated whether rapamycin-loaded nanoparticles(NPs can reduce neointima formation in a rat model of vein graft disease. Methods Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA NPs containing rapamycin was prepared using an oil/water solvent evaporation technique. Nanoparticle size and morphology were determined by dynamic light scattering methodology and electron microscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of blank, rapamycin-loaded PLGA (RPLGA NPs was studied using MTT Assay. Excised rat jugular vein was treated ex vivo with blank-NPs, or rapamycin-loaded NPs, then interposed back into the carotid artery position using a cuff technique. Grafts were harvested at 21 days and underwent morphometric analysis as well as immunohistochemical analysis. Results Rapamycin was efficiently loaded in PLGA nanoparticles with an encapsulation efficiency was 87.6%. The average diameter of NPs was 180.3 nm. The NPs-containing rapamycin at 1 ng/ml significantly inhibited vascular smooth muscular cells proliferation. Measurement of rapamycin levels in vein grafts shown that the concentration of rapamycin in vein grafts at 3 weeks after grafting were 0.9 ± 0.1 μg/g. In grafted veins without treatment intima-media thickness was 300.4 ±181.5 μm after grafting 21 days. Whereas, Veins treated with rapamycin-loaded NPs showed a reduction of intimal-media thickness of 150.2 ± 62.5 μm (p = 0.001. CD-31 staining was used to measure luminal endothelial coverage in grafts and indicated a high level of endothelialization in 21 days vein grafts with no significant effect of blank or rapamycin-loaded NPs group. Conclusions We conclude that sustained-release rapamycin from rapymycin loaded NPs inhibits vein graft thickening without affecting the

  20. The Use Of The VEINES-QOL/Sym Questionnaire In Patients Operated For Varicose Veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migdalski Łukasz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Venous insufficiency is a common, chronic disease that affects nearly half of the population in highly developed countries. The vast majority of affected patients suffer from varicose veins (VV. Recently, the priority in medicine has been patient satisfaction with treatment and high quality of life. Therefore, disease-specific questionnaires that measure quality of life have been developed. One of these is VEINES-QOL/Sym with two subscales that assess quality of life and disease symptoms. To date, it has been used to examine patients with venous ulcers and thrombosis. No data are available concerning the use of VEINES to assess patients after VV surgery.

  1. An unusual case: right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein and distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Serin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 32-years old woman presented to the emergency room of Bozok University Research Hospital with right renal colic. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT showed compression of the proximal ureter by the right ovarian vein and compression of the right distal ureter by the right external iliac vein. To the best of our knowledge, right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein together with distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein have not been reported in the literature. Ovarian vein and external iliac vein compression should be considered in patients presenting to the emergency room with renal colic or low back pain and a dilated collecting system.

  2. Face activated neurodynamic cortical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susac, Ana; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Ranken, Doug; Supek, Selma

    2011-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that complex visual stimuli, such as faces, activate multiple brain regions, yet little is known on the dynamics and complexity of the activated cortical networks during the entire measurable evoked response. In this study, we used simulated and face-evoked empirical MEG data from an oddball study to investigate the feasibility of accurate, efficient, and reliable spatio-temporal tracking of cortical pathways over prolonged time intervals. We applied a data-driven, semiautomated approach to spatio-temporal source localization with no prior assumptions on active cortical regions to explore non-invasively face-processing dynamics and their modulation by task. Simulations demonstrated that the use of multi-start downhill simplex and data-driven selections of time intervals submitted to the Calibrated Start Spatio-Temporal (CSST) algorithm resulted in improved accuracy of the source localization and the estimation of the onset of their activity. Locations and dynamics of the identified sources indicated a distributed cortical network involved in face processing whose complexity was task dependent. This MEG study provided the first non-invasive demonstration, agreeing with intracranial recordings, of an early onset of the activity in the fusiform face gyrus (FFG), and that frontal activation preceded parietal for responses elicited by target faces.

  3. Retinoic acid from the meninges regulates cortical neuron generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Julie A; Ashique, Amir M; Zarbalis, Konstantinos; Patterson, Katelin P; Hecht, Jonathan H; Kane, Maureen A; Folias, Alexandra E; Choe, Youngshik; May, Scott R; Kume, Tsutomu; Napoli, Joseph L; Peterson, Andrew S; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2009-10-30

    Extrinsic signals controlling generation of neocortical neurons during embryonic life have been difficult to identify. In this study we demonstrate that the dorsal forebrain meninges communicate with the adjacent radial glial endfeet and influence cortical development. We took advantage of Foxc1 mutant mice with defects in forebrain meningeal formation. Foxc1 dosage and loss of meninges correlated with a dramatic reduction in both neuron and intermediate progenitor production and elongation of the neuroepithelium. Several types of experiments demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) is the key component of this secreted activity. In addition, Rdh10- and Raldh2-expressing cells in the dorsal meninges were either reduced or absent in the Foxc1 mutants, and Rdh10 mutants had a cortical phenotype similar to the Foxc1 null mutants. Lastly, in utero RA treatment rescued the cortical phenotype in Foxc1 mutants. These results establish RA as a potent, meningeal-derived cue required for successful corticogenesis.

  4. Stroke rehabilitation using noninvasive cortical stimulation: hemispatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, Veit; Ayache, Samar S; Zouari, Hela G; Aoun-Sebaïti, Mehdi; Farhat, Wassim H; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2012-08-01

    The rehabilitation of neuropsychological sequels of cerebral stroke such as hemispatial neglect by noninvasive cortical stimulation (NICS) attracts increasing attention from the scientific community. The NICS techniques include primarily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). They are based on the concept of either reactivating a hypoactive cortical region affected by the stroke (the right hemisphere in case of neglect) or reducing cortical hyperactivity of the corresponding cortical region in the contralateral hemisphere (the left hemisphere). In the studies published to date on the topic of neglect rehabilitation, rTMS was used to inhibit the left parietal cortex and tDCS to either activate the right or inhibit the left parietal cortex. Sham-controlled NICS studies assessed short-term effects, whereas long-term effects were only assessed in noncontrolled rTMS studies. Further controlled studies of large series of patients are necessary to determine the best parameters of stimulation (including the optimal cortical target location) according to each subtype of neglect presentation and to the time course of stroke recovery. To date, even if there are serious therapeutic perspectives based on imaging data and experimental studies, the evidence is not compelling enough to recommend any particular NICS protocol to treat this disabling condition in clinical practice.

  5. Cortical plasticity as a new endpoint measurement for chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models of chronic pain are widely used to investigate basic mechanisms of chronic pain and to evaluate potential novel drugs for treating chronic pain. Among the different criteria used to measure chronic pain, behavioral responses are commonly used as the end point measurements. However, not all chronic pain conditions can be easily measured by behavioral responses such as the headache, phantom pain and pain related to spinal cord injury. Here I propose that cortical indexes, that indicate neuronal plastic changes in pain-related cortical areas, can be used as endpoint measurements for chronic pain. Such cortical indexes are not only useful for those chronic pain conditions where a suitable animal model is lacking, but also serve as additional screening methods for potential drugs to treat chronic pain in humans. These cortical indexes are activity-dependent immediate early genes, electrophysiological identified plastic changes and biochemical assays of signaling proteins. It can be used to evaluate novel analgesic compounds that may act at peripheral or spinal sites. I hope that these new cortical endpoint measurements will facilitate our search for new, and more effective, pain medicines, and help to reduce false lead drug targets.

  6. Homeostatic responses by surviving cortical pyramidal cells in neurodegenerative tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimins, Johanna L; Rocher, Anne B; Peters, Alan; Shultz, Penny; Lewis, Jada; Luebke, Jennifer I

    2011-11-01

    Cortical neuron death is prevalent by 9 months in rTg(tau(P301L))4510 tau mutant mice (TG) and surviving pyramidal cells exhibit dendritic regression and spine loss. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings to investigate the impact of these marked structural changes on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) of layer 3 pyramidal cells in frontal cortical slices from behaviorally characterized TG and non-transgenic (NT) mice at this age. Frontal lobe function of TG mice was intact following a short delay interval but impaired following a long delay interval in an object recognition test, and cortical atrophy and cell loss were pronounced. Surviving TG cells had significantly reduced dendritic diameters, total spine density, and mushroom spines, yet sEPSCs were increased and sIPSCs were unchanged in frequency. Thus, despite significant regressive structural changes, synaptic responses were not reduced in TG cells, indicating that homeostatic compensatory mechanisms occur during progressive tauopathy. Consistent with this idea, surviving TG cells were more intrinsically excitable than NT cells, and exhibited sprouting of filopodia and axonal boutons. Moreover, the neuropil in TG mice showed an increased density of asymmetric synapses, although their mean size was reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that during progressive tauopathy, cortical pyramidal cells compensate for loss of afferent input by increased excitability and establishment of new synapses. These compensatory homeostatic mechanisms may play an important role in slowing the progression of neuronal network dysfunction during neurodegenerative tauopathies.

  7. Varicose Veins: Role of Mechanotransduction of Venous Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Hussein M.

    2012-01-01

    Varicose veins affect approximately one-third of the adult population and result in significant psychological, physical, and financial burden. Nevertheless, the molecular pathogenesis of varicose vein formation remains unidentified. Venous hypertension exerted on veins of the lower extremity is considered the principal factor in varicose vein formation. The role of mechanotransduction of the high venous pressure in the pathogenesis of varicose vein formation has not been adequately investigated despite a good progress in understanding the mechanomolecular mechanisms involved in transduction of high blood pressure in the arterial wall. Understanding the nature of the mechanical forces, the mechanosensors and mechanotransducers in the vein wall, and the downstream signaling pathways will provide new molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of varicose veins. This paper summarized the current understanding of mechano-molecular pathways involved in transduction of hemodynamic forces induced by blood pressure and tries to relate this information to setting of venous hypertension in varicose veins. PMID:22489273

  8. Varicose Veins: Role of Mechanotransduction of Venous Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M. Atta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicose veins affect approximately one-third of the adult population and result in significant psychological, physical, and financial burden. Nevertheless, the molecular pathogenesis of varicose vein formation remains unidentified. Venous hypertension exerted on veins of the lower extremity is considered the principal factor in varicose vein formation. The role of mechanotransduction of the high venous pressure in the pathogenesis of varicose vein formation has not been adequately investigated despite a good progress in understanding the mechanomolecular mechanisms involved in transduction of high blood pressure in the arterial wall. Understanding the nature of the mechanical forces, the mechanosensors and mechanotransducers in the vein wall, and the downstream signaling pathways will provide new molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of varicose veins. This paper summarized the current understanding of mechano-molecular pathways involved in transduction of hemodynamic forces induced by blood pressure and tries to relate this information to setting of venous hypertension in varicose veins.

  9. Brain vein disorders in newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raets, Marlou; Dudink, Jeroen; Raybaud, Charles; Ramenghi, Luca; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The brain veins of infants are in a complex phase of remodelling in the perinatal period. Magnetic resonance venography and susceptibility-weighted imaging, together with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound, have provided new tools to aid study of venous developmental anatomy and disease. This review

  10. Endovascular vein harvest: systemic carbon dioxide absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew M; Schwartz, Carl S; Bert, Arthur; Hurlburt, Peter; Gough, Jeffrey; Stearns, Gary; Singh, Arun K

    2006-06-01

    Endovascular vein harvest (EDVH) requires CO(2) insufflation to expand the subcutaneous space, allowing visualization and dissection of the saphenous vein. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of CO(2) absorption during EDVH. Prospective observational study. Single tertiary care hospital. Sixty patients (30 EDVH and 30 open-vein harvest) undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Hemodynamic, procedural, and laboratory data were collected prior to (baseline), during, and at it the conclusion (final) of vein harvesting. Data were also collected during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Data were compared by using t tests, analysis of variance, and correlation statistics when needed. There were significant increases in arterial CO(2) (PaCO(2), 35%) and decreases in pH (1.35%) during EDVH. These were associated with increases in heart rate, mean blood pressure, and cardiac output. Within the EDVH group, greater elevations (>10 mmHg) in PaCO2 were more likely during difficult harvest procedures, and these patients exhibited greater increase in heart rate. Elevated CO(2) persisted during CPB, requiring higher systemic gas flows and greater use of phenylephrine to maintain desired hemodynamics. EDVH was associated with systemic absorption of CO(2). Greater absorption was more likely in difficult procedures and was associated with greater hemodynamic changes requiring medical therapy.

  11. A RARE VARIATION OF GREAT SAPHENOUS VEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhate Manisha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The venous system is more complex and variable than arterial system due to its frequent anatomical variations. This paper discusses the anatomy of the great saphenous vein and its variation observed in a male cadaver of around 60 years old.

  12. RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSIONS - A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadevi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion is the most common retinal occlusive disorder encountered by opthalmologists and is usually associated with a variable amount of visual loss.The study was conducted over a period of 22 months, we performed a combined analysis of risk factors, clinical presentation, management and complication of these 51 patients

  13. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Durra; Ashok Chacko; Biju George; Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph; Sukesh Chandran Nair; Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied.The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins) based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS,and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28%) had hereditary and 10 patients (28%) acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS:45% vs 7%,x2=5.7,P=0.02) while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25%vs 36%, x2=0.46,P=0.7). Multiple risk factors were present in one (7%) patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15%) with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  14. Gene Variants Associated With Deep Vein Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Irene D.; Bare, Lance A.; Doggen, Carine J.M.; Arellano, Andre R.; Tong, Carmen; Rowland, Charles M.; Catanese, Joseph; Young, Bradford A.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Devlin, James J.; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2008-01-01

    Context The genetic causes of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are not fully understood. Objective To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with DVT. Design, Setting, and Patients We used 3 case-control studies of first DVT. A total of 19 682 gene-centric SNPs were genotyped in 44

  15. Small saphenous vein: where does reflux go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gustavo Rossi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anatomy of small saphenous vein (SSV is very variable because of its complex embryological origin. SSV incompetence often causes reflux that goes to the perforating veins, sometimes not respecting the anatomical course. OBJECTIVE: To analyze differences in reflux direction and reentry in the SSV. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, 60 lower limbs with SSV incompetence of 43 patients were assessed using a color Doppler ultrasound protocol. RESULTS: Reentry variations were grouped into four types and subtypes. Percentage results were: Type A, perforating veins on the medial side = 25/60 cases (41.66%; subtypes: Cockett, Sherman, paratibial and vertex; Type B, lateral malleolus and perforating veins on the lateral side (fibular 17-26 cm = 15/60 cases (25%; subtypes: fibular and malleolus; Type C, two branches = 19/60 cases (31.66%; subtypes: gastrocnemius and Cockett, gastrocnemius and malleolus, and/or fibular, Cockett and malleolus, Cockett-vertex and fibular; Type D, reflux in the superficial system = 1/60 cases (1.66%. CONCLUSION: On most of the lower limbs assessed, reflux did not follow the classical anatomic course. Our findings demonstrated a high degree of variation in reflux/reentry, but no SSV anatomical variations. Reflux seems to, either look for the most accessible anatomical connection for reentry or be originated in the distal area and then reach the SSV.

  16. STUDY ON COMPARISON BETWEEN LANDMARK GUIDED (BRINKMAN'S TECHNIQUE ) AND ULTRASOUND GUIDED INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN CANNULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod; Sashi Walling

    2015-01-01

    Technique of cannulating the central veins , until recently has been based on landmark guided technique . Recently ultrasound machines with high frequency probes are being used to increase success rate and reducing complications. OBJECTIVE: In our study we compare landmark guided technique ( Brinkman's technique ) ( 1 ) with ultrasound guided technique. STUDY DESIGN: outcome was evaluated in terms of 1 ) Number of attempts 2 ) ...

  17. [Tactics of the patients management in continuing acute thrombosis of deep veins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasol, V A; Mishenina, E V; Okley, D V

    2015-03-01

    Experience of active tactics of treatment application in 18 patients, suffering an acute thrombosis in system of lower vena cava, is presented. Possibilities were estimated and efficacy of active surgical tactics proved in continuing deep vein thrombosis on early stage were estimated. Active tactics, using catheter--governed thrombolysis, permits to escape pulmonary thromboembolism and to reduce a severity of further chronic venous insufficiency.

  18. Radiofrequency Ablation Mapping with Circumferential Catheter for Paroxys-mal Atrial Fibrillation Originating From the Pulmonary Veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震; 吴书林; 杨平珍; 方咸宏; 李海杰; 陈泗林; 詹贤章; 薛玉梅

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To assessed thefeasibility and effectiveness of electrophysiologicalmapping of pulmonary veins with a circumferential 10-electrode catheter and radiofrequency catheter abla-tion therapy for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibril-lation. Background Standard mapping and ablationof focal sources of atrial fibrillation are associated withvery long procedure times and low efficacy. Mappingand ablation pulmonary veins guide with a circularcatheter could overcome these limitations. Methods16 patients [male 11, female 5, mean age (51 +14.5) years] with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation refrac-tory to antiarrhythmic drugs were included in thisgroup. A circumferential 10-electrode catheter wasused to pulmonary vein mapping during sinus rhythm orCSd pacing to determine the origin of atrial prematurecontractions. When the ablative target pulmonary veinwas found, the pulmonary vein potentials' distributionand activation were assessment pulmonary veins' ostialablation was performed at the segments showing earliestactivation of pulnonary vein potentials. The end pointwas designed: 1 ) elimination of pulmonary vein po-tential; 2) pulmonary vein potential dissociation fromatrial waves; 3) atrial ectopic beats disappear. ResultsA total of 36 pulmonary veins were ablated, in-cluding 16 left superior, 12 right superior, 7 left in-ferior and 1 right inferior. 1 pulmonary vein in 2 pa-tients was ablated, 2 pulmonary veins in 8 patientswere ablated, 3 pulmonary veins were ablated in 5patients and 4 pulmonary veins were ablated in 1 pa-tient. Procedure duration and fluoroscopy time respec-tively were 186.7 _+ 63.8 min and 51.5 + 15.0 min.During the follow-up 1- 12 months, 11 patients(68.7 % ) were free of AF without any antiarrhythmicdrugs, 2 of them were reablation, effective in 3/16(18.7%) and unsuccessful in 2/16 (12.6%) . 2cases recurred with atrial premature, 1 was treated withamiodarone and the other was repeat electrophysiologi-cal mapping and ablation, 5 cases with

  19. Evaluation of left renal vein entrapment using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyraz, Ahmet K.; Onur, Mehmet R. [Dept. of Radiology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey)], e-mail: akursadpoyraz@yahoo.com.tr; Firdolas, Fatih [Dept. of Urology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Kocakoc, Ercan [Dept. of Radiology, Bezmialem Vakif Univ., School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    Background: Nutcracker syndrome, also called left renal vein entrapment syndrome, is a cause of non-glomerular hematuria with difficulties in diagnosis. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a powerful tool to prevent unnecessary diagnostic procedures. Purpose: To retrospectively determine the prevalence of nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome seen in MDCT in consecutive patients. Material and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were reviewed from 1000 consecutive patients. MDCT scan assessment included renal vein diameter measurements and evaluation for the presence of anterior or posterior left renal vein entrapment. Electronic medical records and urine analysis reports of patients with left renal vein entrapment were reviewed. Student's t test was used to assess differences in renal vein diameter in patients with left renal vein entrapment. Results: Left renal vein entrapment was observed in 10.9% (109), retroaortic left renal vein in 6.5% (65), entrapment of left renal vein between superior mesenteric artery and aorta in 4.1% (41), and circumaortic left renal vein in 0.3% (3) of patients. Mean diameters of right (8.8 {+-} 1.9 mm) and unentrapped left (8.9 {+-} 1.8 mm) renal veins were not significantly different (P = 0.1). The mean diameter of anterior entrapped left renal veins (10.3 {+-} 2 mm) was significantly greater (P = 0.04) than contralateral renal veins (8.6 {+-} 2.1 mm) in their widest portion. In 8.8% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment, urine analysis showed isomorphic hematuria or proteinuria with no other known cause. Varicocele and pelvic congestion were seen in 5.5% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment. Conclusion: Left renal vein entrapment is not a rare entity and renal nutcracker phenomenon might be underdiagnosed.

  20. Sumatriptan does not affect arteriovenous oxygen differences in jugular and cubital veins in normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, T.; Hansen, J.M.; Petersen, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) may open up during migraine attacks. In studies with anaesthetized and bilaterally vagosympatectomized pigs, triptans reduce AVA blood flow and increase the arteriovenous O-2 difference (AVDO(2)). To investigate whether subcutaneous sumatriptan 6 mg could induce...... changes in the AVDO(2), we measured the AVDO(2) in the external jugular vein in healthy subjects. We also measured the AVDO(2) in the internal jugular and cubital veins. There were no changes in AVDO(2) after subcutaneous sumatriptan, probably because AVA blood flow is limited in humans with an intact...

  1. Regional Cortical Grey Matter Loss in Parkinson's Disease Without Dementia is Independent from Visual Hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, Anne Marthe; de Jong, Bauke M.; Teune, Laura K.; van Laar, Teus

    2011-01-01

    In our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study, Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with visual hallucinations (VH) showed reduced activations in ventral/ lateral visual association cortices preceding image recognition, compared with both PD patients without VH and healthy controls. The p

  2. Zic deficiency in the cortical marginal zone and meninges results in cortical lamination defects resembling those in type II lissencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi; Ogawa, Masaharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Aruga, Jun

    2008-04-30

    The formation of the highly organized cortical structure depends on the production and correct placement of the appropriate number and types of neurons. The Zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors plays essential roles in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitors in the medial forebrain and the cerebellum. Examination of the expression of Zic genes demonstrated that Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 were expressed by the progenitor cells in the septum and cortical hem, the sites of generation of the Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed that Zic proteins were abundantly expressed in the meningeal cells and that the majority of the CR cells distributed in the medial and dorsal cortex also expressed Zic proteins in the mid-late embryonic and postnatal cortical marginal zones. During embryonic cortical development, Zic1/Zic3 double-mutant and hypomorphic Zic2 mutant mice showed a reduction in the number of CR cells in the rostral cortex, whereas the cell number remained unaffected in the caudal cortex. These mutants also showed mislocalization of the CR cells and cortical lamination defects, resembling the changes noted in type II (cobblestone) lissencephaly, throughout the brain. In the Zic1/3 mutant, reduced proliferation of the meningeal cells was observed before the thinner and disrupted organization of the pial basement membrane (BM) with reduced expression of the BM components and the meningeal cell-derived secretory factor. These defects correlated with the changes in the end feet morphology of the radial glial cells. These findings indicate that the Zic genes play critical roles in cortical development through regulating the proliferation of meningeal cells and the pial BM assembly.

  3. Image Quality Enhancement Using the Direction and Thickness of Vein Lines for Finger-Vein Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Young Ho Park; Kang Ryoung Park

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the increased emphasis placed on the protection of privacy, biometric recognition systems using physical or behavioural characteristics such as fingerprints, facial characteristics, iris and finger‐vein patterns or the voice have been introduced in applications including door access control, personal certification, Internet banking and ATM machines. Among these, finger‐vein recognition is advantageous in that it involves the use of inexpensive and small devices that are diffic...

  4. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Kyun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review.

  5. Diffusive loss of argon in response to melt vein formation in polygenetic impact melt breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Cameron M.; Hodges, Kip V.

    2017-08-01

    Many planetary surfaces in the solar system have experienced prolonged bombardment. With each impact, new rocks can be assembled that incorporate freshly generated impact melts with fragments of older rocks. Some breccias can become polygenetic, containing multiple generations of impact melt products, and can potentially provide important insights into the extensive bombardment history of a region. However, the amount of chronological information that can be extracted from such samples depends on how well the mineral isotopic systems of geochronometers can preserve the ages of individual melt generations without being disturbed by younger events. We model the thermal evolution of impact melt veins and the resulting loss of Ar from K-bearing phases common in impact melt breccias to assess the potential for preserving the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual melt generations. Our model results demonstrate that millimeter-scale, clast-free melt veins cause significant heating of adjacent host rock minerals and can cause detectable Ar loss in contact zones that are generally thinner than, and at most about the same thickness as, the vein width. The incorporation of cold clasts in melt veins reduces the magnitudes of heating and Ar loss in the host rocks, and Ar loss can be virtually undetectable for sufficiently clast-rich veins. Quantitative evidence of the timing of impacts, as measured with the 40Ar/39Ar method, can be preserved in polygenetic impact melt breccias, particularly for those containing millimeter-scale bodies of clast-bearing melt products.

  6. Successful correction of unroofed coronary sinus with pulmonary vein stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; An, Qi; Zhang, Eryong

    2012-07-01

    We present a case of an infant with an unroofed coronary sinus associated with a persistent left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium, right superior pulmonary vein stenosis, an atretic left superior pulmonary vein and a double-outlet right ventricle. For pulmonary vein stenosis and atresia, we used a sutureless technique with an autologous pericardial patch to create a neoatrium.

  7. Motor cortical thresholds and cortical silent periods in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataroglu, Cengiz; Ozkiziltan, Safa; Baklan, Baris

    2004-10-01

    We studied motor cortical thresholds (TIs) and cortical silent periods (SPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 110 epileptic patients. Sixty-two had primary generalised, 48 had partial type seizures. Fifteen out 110 patients were analysed both before and after anticonvulsant medication. Our aims were to evaluate the TI levels and the duration of SPs in patients with epilepsy and to determine the reliability of TMS in patients with epilepsy. There was no negative effect of TMS on the clinical status and EEG findings in patients with epilepsy. TIs obtained from patients with partial epilepsy were higher than those obtained from both controls and primary epileptics. The duration of SP in patients with primary epileptics was more prolonged than those obtained from controls. There was no correlation between EEG lateralisation and both SP duration and TI values. In de novo patient group, SP duration was significantly prolonged after anticonvulsant medication. We concluded that TMS is a reliable electrophysiological investigation in patients with epilepsy. The analysis of SP duration may be an appropriate investigation in monitoring the effect of anticonvulsant medication on the cortical inhibitory activity.

  8. Velocity time integral for right upper pulmonary vein in VLBW infants with patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Gianluca; Bianchi, Silvia; Mannarino, Savina; Schena, Federico; Castoldi, Francesca; Stronati, Mauro; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    Early diagnosis of significant patent ductus arteriosus reduces the risk of clinical worsening in very low birth weight infants. Echocardiographic patent ductus arteriosus shunt flow pattern can be used to predict significant patent ductus arteriosus. Pulmonary venous flow, expressed as vein velocity time integral, is correlated to ductus arteriosus closure. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between significant reductions in vein velocity time integral and non-significant patent ductus arteriosus in the first week of life. A multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted to evaluate very low birth weight infants (patent ductus compared to those with closed patent ductus arteriosus and the difference was significant. A significant reduction in vein velocity time integral in the first days of life is associated with ductus closure. This parameter correlates well with other echocardiographic parameters and may aid in the diagnosis and management of patent ductus arteriosus.

  9. Primary varicose veins: Frequency, clinical significance and surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Dragan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION According to the definition of the World Health Organization, varicose veins represent abnormally enlarged superficial veins having baggy or cylindrical shape. The most frequent cause of primary varicose veins is the insufficiency of long saphenous vein (LSV, but especially the basin of its connection with femoral vein and perforating veins. OBJECTIVE The objectives of these investigations were: the determination of insufficiency incidence of SSV in cases of LSV insufficiency; the establishment of association of insufficiency of perforating veins of the basin of LSV and SSV; the study of the results of surgical treatment of insufficiency and varicosity of both short and long saphenous veins. METHODS In this study, 100 patients (66 women and 34 men, average age 52.1 years, with clinical symptoms showing the insufficiency and varicosity of long saphenous vein with no change of deep vein system were examined. Ultrasonographic examinations were made using Color Doppler probes - 7.5 and 3.75 MHz (Toshiba Corevison SSA 350 A; the development of incompetence of long saphenous vein (LSV and short saphenous vein (SSV at the level of the junction as well as other incompetent valves were examined. The reflux was defined as a retrograde flow of the duration longer than 0.5 seconds. RESULTS The insufficiency of short saphenous vein was determined by ultrasonographic examination in 34%, while the insufficiency of perforating veins in 80% of patients. 40% of patients were operated (33.3% of females, and 52.9% of males. The most frequent indications for surgical treatment of superficial veins insufficiency were: strong varicosities, clear symptoms and signs, superficial thrombophlebitis and conditions after superficial thrombophlebitis. Surgical treatment was applied in 16% of patients due to recurrence in the basin of long saphenous vein, and in 6% of cases because of the recurrence in the basin of short saphenous vein. Data analysis failed to

  10. [Pelvic vein thrombosis with elevated D-dimer level and normal ultrasound scan of the femoral vein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Morten Roos; Tveskov, Claus

    2014-01-13

    A 17-year-old female presented with an isolated pelvic vein thrombosis (PVT) which was not visualised at the first compression ultrasound scan of the femoral vein. Isolated PVT should be suspected when the patient demonstrates the possible symptoms of a deep vein thrombosis with unilateral leg swelling extending to the groin and a negative compression ultrasound scan of the femoral vein. Supplemental ultrasound scan with Doppler flow, computed tomography or magnetic resonance venography are alternative diagnostic modalities if PVT is suspected.

  11. The effects of vasoactive agents on flow through saphenous vein grafts during lower-extremity peripheral vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew D; Bert, Arthur; Slaiby, Jeffrey; Carney, William; Marcaccio, Edward

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of hemodynamic alterations on vein graft flow during peripheral vascular surgery. It was hypothesized that vasopressors can be administered without compromising flow through the vein grafts. Tertiary care center, university medical center. Randomized placebo-controlled double-blinded study. The effects of phenylephrine, epinephrine, milrinone, intravenous fluid, and placebo on newly constructed peripheral vein grafts were assessed in 60 patients (12 patients in each of 5 groups). Systemic and central hemodynamics were measured by using intra-arterial and pulmonary artery catheters. Vein graft flow was measured by using a transultrasonic flow probe (Transultrasonic Inc, Ithaca, NY). Phenylephrine increased systemic mean blood pressure (mBP) (68.2-94.0 mmHg, p < 0.01), systemic vascular resistance (SVR) (1,091-1,696 dynes x sec x cm(-5), p < 0.001), and vein graft flow (39.5-58.9 mL/min, p < 0.01), whereas cardiac output remained unchanged. Epinephrine resulted in increased cardiac output (4.4-6.9 L/min, p < 0.01) and mBP (72.7-89.1 mmHg, p < 0.01), whereas vein graft flow was reduced in 6 of 12 patients. Intravenous fluid administration resulted in a relatively smaller increase in graft flow (37.6-46.0 mL/min, p < 0.05), an increase in cardiac output, and an insignificant decrease in SVR. Other treatments had either little or no effect on vein graft flow. The study hypothesis was partly supported. Although both phenylephrine and epinephrine increased blood pressure, only the former increased vein graft flow in all patients. In conjunction with increases in graft flow after fluid administration, these data suggest that factors affecting vein graft flow are not just simply related to systemic hemodynamics.

  12. Alteration and vein mineralization, Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.

    1983-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit, in the Front Range west of Denver, Colorado, is the largest vein-type uranium deposit in the United States. The deposit is situated in a steeply dipping fault system that cuts Proterozoic metamorphic rocks. The host rocks represent a submarine volcanic system with associated chert and iron- and sulfide-rich pelitic rocks. Where faulted, the more competent garnetiferous and quartzitic units behaved brittlely and created a deep, narrow conduit. The ores formed 70-72 m.y. ago beneath 3 km of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. Mineralization included two episodes of alteration and three stages of vein-mineralization. Early carbonate-sericite alteration pseudomorphically replaced mafic minerals, whereas the ensuing hematite-adularia episode replaced only the earlier alteration assemblage. Early vein mineralization produced a minor sulfide-adularia-carbonate assemblage. Later vein mineralization generated the uranium ores in two successive stages. Carbonates, sulfides, and adularia filled the remaining voids. Clastic dikes composed of fault gouge and, locally, ore were injected into new and existing fractures. Geologic and chemical evidence suggest that virtually all components of the deposit were derived from major hornblende gneiss units and related rocks. The initial fluids were evolved connate/metamorphic water that infiltrated and resided along the extensive fault zones. Complex fault movements in the frontal zone of the eastern Front Range caused the fluids to migrate to the most permeable segments of the fault zones. Heat was supplied by increased crustal heat flow related to igneous activity in the nearby Colorado mineral belt. Temperatures decreased from 225?C to 125?C during later mineralization, and the pressure episodically dropped from 1000 bars. The CO2 fugacity was initially near 100 bars, and uranium was carried as a dicarbonate complex. Sudden decreases in confining pressure during fault movement caused evolution of CO2

  13. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Treatment of recurrent varicose veins of the great saphenous vein by conventional surgery and endovenous laser ablation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendael, L. van; Vliet, J.A. van der; Flinkenflogel, L.; Roovers, E.A.; Sterkenburg, S.M. van; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Varicose vein recurrence of the great saphenous vein (GSV) is a common, costly, and complex problem. The aim of the study was to assess feasibility of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in recurrent varicose veins of the GSV and to compare this technique with conventional surgical reinterve

  15. Cortical sensorimotor integration: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batuev, A S

    1989-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed that neocortex is constructed from structural neuronal modules (columns and rings). Each module is considered as unit for cortical sensorimotor integration. Complex functional relationships between modules can be arranged by intracortical inhibition participation. High pronounced neocortical plasticity ensures the process of continuous formation of various dominating operative constellations comprising stable neuronal modules whose component structure and distributive characteristic are determined by the dominant motivation and the central motor program.

  16. Efficacy of adjunctive measures used to assist pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish M; Raut, Roshan; Bami, Karan; Nery, Pablo B; Redpath, Calum J; Sadek, Mouhannad M; Green, Martin S; Birnie, David H

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary vein reconnection leading to recurrence of atrial arrhythmias after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation remains a significant challenge. A number of adjunctive measures during PVI have been used to attempt to reduce pulmonary vein reconnection and recurrence of atrial arrhythmias. We performed a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the efficacy of adjunctive measures used during PVI in reducing recurrent atrial arrhythmias. Our literature search found four interventions that met the prespecified definition of adjunctive measure: adenosine testing post-PVI, contact force-guided PVI, pacing inexcitability of the ablation line during PVI and additional ablation based on the computed tomography thickness of the pulmonary vein-left atrial appendage ridge. Sixteen studies enrolling 3507 patients met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. PVI performed with adjunctive measures was shown to reduce the 1-year recurrence rate of atrial arrhythmias. The point estimate for the combined relative risk of atrial arrhythmia recurrence was 0.56 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-0.73; P value PVI with adjunctive measures group. PVI for atrial fibrillation assisted by adjunctive measures results in clinically significant reduction of recurrent atrial arrhythmias. Additional research is required to assess the relative efficacy of individual or combined adjunctive strategies used during PVI for atrial fibrillation.

  17. [Parietal Cortices and Body Information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Amemiya, Kaoru; Morita, Tomoyo

    2016-11-01

    Proprioceptive signals originating from skeletal muscles and joints contribute to the formation of both the human body schema and the body image. In this chapter, we introduce various types of bodily illusions that are elicited by proprioceptive inputs, and we discuss distinct functions implemented by different parietal cortices. First, we illustrate the primary importance of the motor network in the processing of proprioceptive (kinesthetic) signals originating from muscle spindles. Next, we argue that the right inferior parietal cortex, in concert with the inferior frontal cortex (both regions connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus-SLF III), may be involved in the conscious experience of body image. Further, we hypothesize other functions of distinct parietal regions: the association between internal hand motor representation with external object representation in the left inferior parietal cortex, visuo-kinesthetic processing in the bilateral posterior parietal cortices, and the integration of somatic signals from different body parts in the higher-order somatosensory parietal cortices. Our results indicate that a distinct parietal region, in concert with its anatomically and functionally connected frontal regions, probably plays specialized roles in the processing of body-related information.

  18. Dorsal hand vein recognition based on Gabor multi-orientation fusion and multi-scale HOG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tuo; Wang, Zhiyong; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-10-01

    Kinds of factors such as illumination and hand gestures would reduce the accuracy of dorsal hand vein recognition. Aiming at single hand vein image with low contrast and simple structure, an algorithm combining Gabor multi-orientation features fusion with Multi-scale Histogram of Oriented Gradient (MS-HOG) is proposed in this paper. With this method, more features will be extracted to improve the recognition accuracy. Firstly, diagrams of multi-scale and multi-orientation are acquired using Gabor transformation, then the Gabor features of the same scale and multi-orientation will be fused, and the features of the correspondent fusion diagrams will be extracted with a HOG operator of a certain scale. Finally the multi-scale cascaded histograms will be obtained for hand vein recognition. The experimental results show that our method not only improve the recognition accuracy but has good robustness in dorsal hand vein recognition.

  19. Primary leiomyosarcoma of saphenous vein presenting as deep venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremed, Daniel I; Faries, Peter L; Schanzer, Harry R; Marin, Michael L; Ting, Windsor

    2014-12-01

    Only a small number of venous leiomyosarcomas have been previously reported. Of these tumors, those of saphenous origin comprise a minority of cases. A 59-year-old man presented with symptoms of deep vein thrombosis and was eventually diagnosed with primary leiomyosarcoma of great saphenous vein origin. The tumor was treated with primary resection and femoral vein reconstruction with autologous patch. Although extremely rare, saphenous leiomyosarcoma can present as deep vein thrombosis. Vascular tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of atypical extremity swelling refractory to conventional deep vein thrombosis management.

  20. [Surgical treatment of acute deep leg and pelvic vein trombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, F; Husfeldt, K J

    1977-08-25

    In the last 3 years 93 cases of iliofermoral trombosis were treated by surgery. We prefer the method used by Brunner, but under general anaesthesia and using a Bentley-Autotransfusion-System (ATS). The average age of our patients was 55 years (age ranged between 17 and 87 years). No lethal pulmonary embolism was observed. 2, 1 percent of the patients died following apoplex or acute heart failure. Of 67 patients who were operated on 6 months ago or more 70 percent have no further complaints, 28 percent still have some residual edema and only 2 patients have a severe postthrombotic syndrome. 50 percent of 40 control-phlebograms demonstrated patency of all veins. 20 percent had short segmentary occlusions with definite signs of recanalisation, while in 27 percent of the cases occlusions of the lower leg and thigh were found, the iliac veins being free. Only 2 postoperative phlebograms showed a complete iliofemoral venous occlusion. Our results prove, that the operative thrombectomy is a successful method, with which the main complications of the iliofemoral thrombosis-pulmonary embolisation and postthrombotic syndrome-can difinitely be reduced. Also because of better long term results, the operative therapy of acute ilofemoral thrombosis should be generally prefered instead of conservative treatment.

  1. Safety and efficacy of cryopreserved homologous veins for venous reconstruction in pancreatoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Sumihito; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2017-02-01

    There are several techniques for reconstructing the portal vein-superior mesenteric vein during pancreatoduodenectomy. The aim of the present study was to present our results with portal vein-superior mesenteric vein reconstruction using cryopreserved homologous veins during pancreatoduodenectomy for patients with pancreatic head cancer. Patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreatic head cancer were reviewed retrospectively. In patients with portal vein-superior mesenteric vein resection, the detailed method of reconstruction and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Clinical characteristics, patient survival, and portal vein-superior mesenteric vein patency were compared between those with and without homologous vein grafts. Factors affecting the patency of reconstructed veins were assessed by univariate analysis. Among 144 patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy, portal vein-superior mesenteric vein resection was performed in 36 patients (25%); 18 (50%) underwent reconstruction with homologous veins, and the other 18 (50%) underwent reconstruction without homologous veins. The extent of portal vein-superior mesenteric vein involvement, operative time, duration of clamping of portal vein-superior mesenteric vein, intraoperative blood loss, and length of the venous resection were greater (P ≤ .013 each) in those with homologous vein grafts. There was no significant difference in postoperative morbidity/mortality, patient survival, or portal vein-superior mesenteric vein patency. The 1- and 2-year overall patency of portal vein-superior mesenteric vein was 76% and 71%, respectively, while the 2-year patencies were 67% and 67% in those with homologous veins and 87% and 73% in those without homologous veins without difference between the groups. Circumferential resection and pathologic portal vein-superior mesenteric vein involvement were associated with the patency of the reconstructed vein (P = .002 and P = .028, resp). Use of homologous venous

  2. Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru

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    Chauvet, Alain; Bailly, Laurent; André, Anne-Sylvie; Monié, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Tajada, Fernando Llosa; Vargas, Juan Rosas; Tuduri, Johann

    2006-07-01

    The epithermal Shila-Paula Au-Ag district is characterized by numerous veins hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E-W vein with secondary N55-60°W veins—two directions that are also reflected by the orientation of fluid-inclusion planes in quartz crystals of the host rock. In areas where this pattern is not recognized, such as the Apacheta sector, vein emplacement seems to have been guided by regional N40°E and N40°W fractures. Two main vein-filling stages are identified. stage 1 is a quartz-adularia-pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-electrum-Mn silicate-carbonate assemblage that fills the main E-W veins. stage 2, which contains most of the precious-metal mineralization, is divided into pre-bonanza and bonanza substages. The pre-bonanza substage consists of a quartz-adularia-carbonate assemblage that is observed within the secondary N45-60°W veins, in veinlets that cut the stage 1 assemblage, and in final open-space fillings. The two latter structures are finally filled by the bonanza substage characterized by a Fe-poor sphalerite-chalcopyrite-pyrite-galena-tennantite-tetrahedrite-polybasite-pearceite-electrum assemblage. The ore in the main veins is systematically brecciated, whereas the ore in the secondary veins and geodes is characteristic of open-space crystallization. Microthermometric measurements on sphalerite from both stages and on quartz and calcite from stage 2 indicate a salinity range of 0 to 15.5 wt% NaCl equivalent and homogenization temperatures bracketed between 200 and 330°C. Secondary CO2-, N2- and H2S-bearing fluid inclusions are also identified. The age of vein emplacement, based on 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained on adularia of different veins, is estimated at around 11 Ma, with some overlap between adularia of stage 1 (11.4±0.4 Ma) and of stage 2 (10.8±0.3 Ma). A three-phase tectonic model has been constructed to explain the

  3. Influence of bromazepam on cortical interhemispheric coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Isabel; Puga, Fernanda; Veiga, Heloisa; Cagy, Maurício; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2007-03-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most commonly prescribed medications due to their therapeutic efficacy in reducing anxiety and inducing sleep. Consequently, they have been widely employed in the pharmacological treatment of several disorders. Nevertheless, few studies have analyzed the effects of bromazepam in electroencephalographic activity (EEG). The present study aimed at investigating the modulatory effects of this drug on brain dynamics. Specifically, the effects of bromazepam (3mg) on EEG coherence were tested in a double-blind experiment. The sample, consisting of 10 healthy subjects (5 male and 5 female), was submitted to ten minutes of EEG recording. The electrophysiological measure (coherence) was analyzed across three experimental conditions: bromazepam, placebo 1, and placebo 2. Results indicate that bromazepam significantly increases cortical interhemispheric coherence.

  4. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

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    Jianlin Tang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The lessons we learned are (1 Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2 Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3 Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4 It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival.

  5. Clinical Features of Primary Vein Grafts in Free Tissue Transfers

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    Mitsuru Nemoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes of free tissue transfers combined with vein grafts have been inconsistent, and discussions continue regarding their appropriate use. Of the 142 free tissue transfers that we performed from January 2004 to December 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 15 consecutive patients who underwent free tissue transfers in combination with vein grafts. Etiologies included trauma (8 patients, infection (4, and tumor (3. Types of free tissue transfers were fibula (4, anterolateral thigh (3, groin (3, jejunum (3, latissimus dorsi (1, and dorsal pedis (1. Vein grafts were used for the artery (6, vein (2, or both (7. The donor veins were the saphenous vein (12 and the external jugular vein (3. The mean length of the grafted veins was 10.8 cm (range: 4–18 cm. Even though complications of congestion occurred in 2 patients, these flaps survived by reexploration. The flap success rate was 15 of 15 (100% of vein grafted free flaps versus 124 of 127 (97.6% of free flaps not requiring vein grafts. To improve the success rate of free tissue transfers combined with vein grafts, securing healthy recipient vessels, meticulous surgical handling, a reliable vascular anastomosis technique, and strict postoperative monitoring are crucial.

  6. A pilot/introducer needle for central vein cannulation.

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    Suzuki, T; Kanazawa, M; Kinefuchi, Y; Fukuyama, H; Takiguchi, M; Yamamoto, M; Abe, K; Okuda, Y

    1995-12-01

    A kit for safe and easy insertion of a central vein cannula was devised. A small gauge (22 gauge) metal pilot needle was equipped with a Y-shaped hub which had a side-port to accept a small gauge (0.46 mm) Seldinger guide wire. Once the needle reached the vein, guidewire was threaded in through the side-port. There was no need to remove the pilot needle and no need to repeat vein puncture with a larger-bore needle. Three puncture methods were used with the kit: (1) the central approach via the internal jugular vein, (2) the supraclavicular approach via the junction of the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein, and (3) the infraclavicular approach via the subclavian vein. Each method was used on 20 patients, for total of 60 patients, with a high success rate. Less than 3 minutes were required from puncture to catheter insertion. No serious complications were encountered.

  7. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    no postnatal complications. All children were found to have healthy hearts at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In all cases, the findings proved to be a benign condition with no clinical manifestations or complications. Although isolated absent right superior caval vein does not seem to affect the outcome, associated......Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...

  8. [Treatment of renal vein thrombosis associated with nephrotic syndrome].

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    Funami, M; Takaba, T; Tanaka, H; Murakami, A; Kadokura, M; Hori, G; Ishii, J

    1988-06-01

    Renal vein thrombosis is a rare entity in which true incidence is unknown. The disease occurs most frequently in patients with nephrotic syndrome, but it also can occur in the presence of other hypercoagulable state. Two cases of renal vein thrombosis with nephrotic syndrome which were treated by thrombectomy are reported here. One patient was successfully treated by renal vein and inferior vena cava thrombectomy before developing severe pulmonary embolism. The other was treated by renal vein thrombectomy by which fatal shock was able to be prevented. In those cases, immediate operation was indicated, primarily to prevent additional, possibly fatal, pulmonary embolism and also to improve perfusion of the kidney. In the hope of salvaging the kidney, thrombectomy may be the treatment of choice for acute renal vein thrombosis, complication of pulmonary embolism and inferior vena cava thrombosis, right renal vein thrombosis without collateral flow and acute renal vein thrombosis with shock.

  9. The great brain versus vein debate.

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    Menon, Ravi S

    2012-08-15

    From the earliest fMRI experiments, it was quickly appreciated by those working with BOLD at high field that the signal change originated from visible veins whose spatial localization was relatively coarse ("the macrovasculature"), and smaller vessels ("the microvasculature") that were not individually visible in BOLD images. It was expected that a functional brain imaging technique that was predominantly sensitive to the macrovasculature would not have the same effective resolution as one sensitive to the microvasculature. Elimination of the venous signal and enhancement of the microvascular one offered the tantalizing ability to image columnar and lamellar structures in the brain and distinguished fMRI from its predecessor techniques. This article reviews a brief history of how these signal sources were first identified and separated and some of the controversy associated with the "brain versus vein" debate.

  10. Ovarian vein thrombosis in a polytrauma patient.

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    Toman, Emma; Beaven, Alastair; Balogun, Moji; Porter, Keith

    2015-12-18

    A young mother presented to a major trauma centre following a road traffic collision. Her admission CT traumagram demonstrated liver and renal lacerations, spinal and pelvic fractures with no abnormalities of the ovarian veins. Her inpatient course was uncomplicated other than a sustained, isolated raised C reactive protein. CT of the abdomen 1 week after injury demonstrated stable solid organ injuries and the additional, unexpected finding of a right ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT). A pragmatic approach was taken towards the management of the OVT given the haemorrhagic risk from her traumatic injuries. A multidisciplinary, consultant-led plan was made to slowly increase enoxaparin to a therapeutic dose under close surveillance and to then switch to warfarin following an outpatient consultation with a consultant haematologist. A MR venogram was performed after 3 months of anticoagulation, and this demonstrated complete resolution of the OVT and normal appearances of the ovary.

  11. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pablo Pazos-López; Cristina García-Rodríguez; Alba Guitián-González; Emilio Paredes-Galán; María ángel; De La Guarda álvarez-Moure; Marta Rodríguez-álvarez; José Antonio Baz-Alonso; Elvis Teijeira-Fernández; Francisco Eugenio Calvo-Iglesias; Andrés í?iguez-Romo

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis(PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques(transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS.

  12. Doppler spectral characteristics of infrainguinal vein bypasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; von Jessen, F; Sillesen, H

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of assessing the velocity profile of femoropopliteal and femorocrural vein bypasses, 128 patients undergoing infrainguinal vein bypass surgery entered a postoperative Duplex surveillance protocol, which included clinical assessment and Duplex scanning, using Doppler spectral analysis...... of arteriovenous fistulas the initially antegrade diastolic velocity was replaced by a retrograde flow within 3 months, whereas a forward flow in diastole was sustained in grafts with patent fistulas. Abnormal Duplex findings in 31 patients led to angiography and revision in 13 cases. Four revised grafts failed......, while nine remained patent at follow-up 1-12 months later. Ten (56%) of 18 non-revised bypasses with abnormal Duplex findings failed within 9 months compared to 1 (1%) of 76 bypasses with a normal velocity profile (p analysis provides...

  13. Massive hydrothorax following subclavian vein catheterization

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Hesham R.; fathy, Ahmad; Elghonemy, Mohamed; Rashad, Rania; Helal, Engy; Mangar, Devanand; Camporesi, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of central venous catheterization for monitoring of the venous pressure, fluid infusion and hyperalimentation, the literature has been full of serious life-threatening complications. Of these complications is the false positioning of the central venous catheter and subsequent development of pleural effusion. In this report we are describing a case of iatrogenic massive pleural effusion following subclavian vein catheterization necessitating intercostal tube drainage and...

  14. Central Vein Preservation in Critical Venous Access.

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    Davidson, J; Paul, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The lack of suitable veins in children with critical central venous access requirements is a major obstacle to optimal care and is potentially life-threatening. We present outcomes following the use of vein-preserving (VP) surgical techniques, notably the sheath exchange for tunneled lines (SETL). Materials and Methods A retrospective, single observer analysis of a prospectively maintained departmental logbook as well as the medical records of patients. Two broad groups of central line replacements were identified; those inserted following removal of a previous line and a traditional "plastic-free" (PF) period and those exchanged without such an interval. Results Overall, 19 lines were directly exchanged during the study period and compared with 34 inserted after a PF period. Similar catheter life spans and infection rates were demonstrated in each group; 125 (range, 78-173) days in VP exchanges versus 122 (range, 70-175) days in PF replacements (p = 0.41). Line Sepsis resulting in removal or change of line occurred at 103 (range, 60-147) days in VP group versus 104 (range, 45-164) days in PF (p = 0.73). Conclusion For children with critical venous access requirements, direct line exchange procedures are a robust and reproducible means of vein preservation. The outcomes compare favorably with those following the more traditional removal, a PF period and reinsertion.

  15. Portal vein thrombosis related to Cassia angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyuncu, Secgin; Cete, Yildiray; Nokay, Ali E

    2008-09-01

    Cassia angustifolia (Senna), used as a laxative, is a plant from the Fabaceae family. It includes hydroxyanthracene glycosides, also known as Senna Sennoside. These glycosides stimulate the peristalsis of the colon and alter colonic absorption and secretion resulting in fluid accumulation and expulsion. In the literature, there are reports illustrating the hepatotoxic effects of Cassia angustifolia but there is no report of portal vein thrombosis caused by Cassia Angustifolia. A 42-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with a five-day history of worsening epigastric pain, anorexia, episodic vomiting, and intermittent fever. She reported that she had boiled dried senna leaves she had bought from herbalists and drank approximately 200 mL daily for two years. Color Doppler screening found an echogen thrombus obliterating portal vein bifurcation and the right branch. The lumen was obstructed at this level and there was no blood flow through it. Treatment with thrombolytics was unsuccessful. Severe hepatotoxicity senna use is unusual. The cause of senna-related hepatotoxicity is unclear but could be explained by the exposure of the liver to unusual amounts of toxic metabolites of anthraquinone glycosides. Chronic use of Cassia angustifolia may rarely be associated with portal vein thrombosis.

  16. Laser photocoagulation for retinal vein occlusion

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    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is one of the leading causes of permanent vision loss. In adults, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO occurs in 1.8% while branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO occurs in 0.2%. Treatment strategy and disease prognosis are determined by RVO type (ischemic/non-ischemic. Despite numerous studies and many current CRVO and BRVO treatment approaches, the management of these patients is still being debated. Intravitreal injections of steroids (triamcinolone acetate, dexamethasone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitors (bevacizumab, ranibizumab were shown to be fairly effective. However, it is unclear whether anti-VEGF agents are reasonable in ischemic RVOs. Laser photocoagulation remains the only effective treatment of optic nerve head and/or retinal neovascularization. Laser photocoagulation is also indicated for the treatment of macular edema. Both threshold and sub-threshold photocoagulation may be performed. Photocoagulation performed with argon (514 nm, krypton (647 nm, or diode (810 nm laser for macular edema provides similar results (no significant differences. The treatment may be complex and include medication therapy and/or surgery. Medication therapy includes anti-aggregant agents and antioxidants, i.e., emoxypine which may be used in acute RVO as well as in post-thrombotic retinopathy. 

  17. Budd-Chiari and inferior caval vein syndromes due to membranous obstruction of the liver veins. Successful treatment with angioplasty and transcaval TIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    -up the stents remain open and the patient is symptom free. This successful combination of stent placement and TIPS has not been described before. The case report is followed by a review of the literature on the use of angioplasty in short hepatic vein stenosis and TIPS in Budd-Chiari syndrome. It is concluded...... that angioplasty and TIPS are safe and efficient procedures to reduce liver engorgement and complications of portal hypertension in selected patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome....

  18. Comparison between mechanical properties of human saphenous vein and umbilical vein

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    Hamedani Borhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a main cause of mortality in developed countries, Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is known as silent killer with a considerable cost to be dedicated for its treatment. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG is a common remedy for CAD for which different blood vessels are used as a detour. There is a lack of knowledge about mechanical properties of human blood vessels used for CABG, and while these properties have a great impact on long-term patency of a CABG. Thus, studying these properties, especially those of human umbilical veins which have not been considered yet, looks utterly necessary. Methods Umbilical vein, as well as human Saphenous vein, are respectively obtained after cesarean and CABG. First, histological tests were performed to investigate different fiber contents of the samples. Having prepared samples carefully, force-displacement results of samples were rendered to real stress–strain measurements and then a fourth-order polynomial was used to prove the non-linear behavior of these two vessels. Results Results were analyzed in two directions, i.e. circumferentially and longitudinally, which then were compared with each other. The comparison between stiffness and elasticity of these veins showed that Saphenous vein’s stiffness is much higher than that of umbilical vein and also, it is less stretchable. Furthermore, for both vessels, longitudinal stiffness was higher than that of circumferential and in stark contrast, stretch ratio in circumferential direction came much higher than longitudinal orientation. Conclusion Blood pressure is very high in the region of aorta, so there should be a stiff blood vessel in this area and previous investigations showed that stiffer vessels would have a better influence on the flow of bypass. To this end, the current study has made an attempt to compare these two blood vessels’ stiffness, finding that Saphenous vein is stiffer than umbilical vein which is somehow as stiff as

  19. Non-cuffed dual lumen catheters in the external jugular veins versus other central veins for hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Majid; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Kenari, Mohammad Mahmoodzadeh; Mahmoodi, Hamid Reza

    2009-01-01

    To compare prospective between insertion of non-cuffed dual lumen catheter in the external jugular vein and other central veins for hemodialysis (HD), we studied 68 chronic dialysis patients randomly allocated into two groups: one with external jugular vein catheterization as access for HD and another with other central venous catheterization, internal jugular or subclavian vein. Our results showed there were no significant differences regarding successful cannulation, com-plications, total numbers of dialysis, development of pain and infection at the site of cannulation, patency rate of the catheters, and efficacy of hemodialysis between both groups. In addition, the patency of the catheter in the external jugular vein was not affected by previous cannulation of other central veins. In contrast, there was a significant correlation between numbers of attempts for cannulation in both groups and development of hematoma and infection, (pvein may be an alternative for other central veins for insertion of temporary non-cuffed hemodialysis catheter.

  20. Endocannabinoid modulation of cortical up-states and NREM sleep.

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    Matthew J Pava

    Full Text Available Up-/down-state transitions are a form of network activity observed when sensory input into the cortex is diminished such as during non-REM sleep. Up-states emerge from coordinated signaling between glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses and are modulated by systems that affect the balance between inhibition and excitation. We hypothesized that the endocannabinoid (EC system, a neuromodulatory system intrinsic to the cortical microcircuitry, is an important regulator of up-states and sleep. To test this hypothesis, up-states were recorded from layer V/VI pyramidal neurons in organotypic cultures of wild-type or CB1R knockout (KO mouse prefrontal cortex. Activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1 with exogenous agonists or by blocking metabolism of endocannabinoids, anandamide or 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, increased up-state amplitude and facilitated action potential discharge during up-states. The CB1 agonist also produced a layer II/III-selective reduction in synaptic GABAergic signaling that may underlie its effects on up-state amplitude and spiking. Application of CB1 antagonists revealed that an endogenous EC tone regulates up-state duration. Paradoxically, the duration of up-states in CB1 KO cultures was increased suggesting that chronic absence of EC signaling alters cortical activity. Consistent with increased cortical excitability, CB1 KO mice exhibited increased wakefulness as a result of reduced NREM sleep and NREM bout duration. Under baseline conditions, NREM delta (0.5-4 Hz power was not different in CB1 KO mice, but during recovery from forced sleep deprivation, KO mice had reduced NREM delta power and increased sleep fragmentation. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the EC system actively regulates cortical up-states and important features of NREM sleep such as its duration and low frequency cortical oscillations.

  1. Cortical hypermetabolism in MCI subjects: a compensatory mechanism?

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    Ashraf, A.; Fan, Z.; Brooks, D.J.; Edison, P. [Imperial College London, Neurology Imaging Unit, Division of Brain Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-30

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with amyloid accumulation that takes place decades before symptoms appear. Cognitive impairment in AD is associated with reduced glucose metabolism. However, neuronal plasticity/compensatory mechanisms might come into play before the onset of dementia. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of cortical hypermetabolism as a compensatory mechanism before amyloid deposition takes place in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Nine AD subjects and ten aMCI subjects had both [{sup 11}C]PIB and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET scans with arterial input in order to quantify the amyloid deposition and glucose metabolism in vivo in comparison with healthy control subjects who underwent either [{sup 11}C]PIB or [{sup 18}F]FDG PET scans. The [{sup 11}C]PIB PET scans were quantified using [{sup 11}C]PIB target region to cerebellum uptake ratio images created by integrating the activity collected from 60 to 90 min, and regional cerebral glucose metabolism was quantified using spectral analysis. In MCI subjects, cortical hypermetabolism was observed in four amyloid-negative subjects and one amyloid-positive subject, while hypometabolism was seen in five other MCI subjects with high amyloid load. Subjects with hypermetabolism and low amyloid did not convert to AD during clinical follow-up for 18 months in contrast to four amyloid-positive hypometabolic subjects who did convert to AD. This preliminary study suggests that compensatory hypermetabolism can occur in aMCI subjects, particularly in those who are amyloid-negative. The increase in metabolic rate in different cortical regions with predominance in the occipital cortex may be a compensatory response to the neuronal damage occurring early in the disease process. It may also reflect recruitment of relatively minimally affected cortical regions to compensate for reduced function in the temporoparietal cortical association areas. (orig.)

  2. Improved technique of heterotopic auxiliary rat liver transplantation with portal vein arterialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleimer, Karina; Stippel, Dirk L; Tawadros, Samir; Hölzen, J; Hölscher, A H; Beckurts, K Tobias E

    2006-04-01

    In acute, potentially reversible hepatic failure, auxiliary liver transplantation is a promising alternative approach. Using the auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) method--the orthotopic implantation of auxiliary segments--most of the technical problems (lack of space for the additional liver mass, the portal vein reconstruction, and the venous outflow) are avoided, but extensive resections of the native liver and the graft are necessary. Erhard described the heterotopic auxiliary liver transplantation (HALT) with portal vein arterialization (PVA). Initial clinical results demonstrated that an adequate liver function can be achieved using this technique. We developed and improved a technique of HALT with flow-regulated PVA in the rat to perform further investigations. The aim of this paper is to explain in detail this improved experimental surgical technique. Liver transplantations were performed in 122 male Lewis rats: After a right nephrectomy, the liver graft, which was reduced to about 30% of the original size, was implanted into the right upper quadrant of the recipient's abdomen. The infrahepatic caval vein was anastomosed end-to-side. The donor's portal vein was completely arterialized to the recipient's right renal artery in stent technique. Using a stent with an internal diameter of 0.3 mm, the flow in the arterialized portal vein was regulated to achieve physiologic parameters. The celiac trunk of the graft was anastomosed to the recipient's aorta, end-to-side. The bile duct was implanted into the duodenum. After improvements of the surgical technique, we achieved a perioperative survival of 90% and a 6-week survival of 80% in the last 112 transplantations. We developed a standardized and improved technique, which can be used for experiments of regeneration and inter-liver competition in auxiliary liver transplantation. Furthermore, this technique is suitable for the investigation of the influence of portal vein arterialization and

  3. Automated integer programming based separation of arteries and veins from thoracic CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Christian; Pienn, Michael; Bálint, Zoltán; Shekhovtsov, Alexander; Talakic, Emina; Nagy, Eszter; Olschewski, Andrea; Olschewski, Horst; Urschler, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Automated computer-aided analysis of lung vessels has shown to yield promising results for non-invasive diagnosis of lung diseases. To detect vascular changes which affect pulmonary arteries and veins differently, both compartments need to be identified. We present a novel, fully automatic method that separates arteries and veins in thoracic computed tomography images, by combining local as well as global properties of pulmonary vessels. We split the problem into two parts: the extraction of multiple distinct vessel subtrees, and their subsequent labeling into arteries and veins. Subtree extraction is performed with an integer program (IP), based on local vessel geometry. As naively solving this IP is time-consuming, we show how to drastically reduce computational effort by reformulating it as a Markov Random Field. Afterwards, each subtree is labeled as either arterial or venous by a second IP, using two anatomical properties of pulmonary vessels: the uniform distribution of arteries and veins, and the parallel configuration and close proximity of arteries and bronchi. We evaluate algorithm performance by comparing the results with 25 voxel-based manual reference segmentations. On this dataset, we show good performance of the subtree extraction, consisting of very few non-vascular structures (median value: 0.9%) and merged subtrees (median value: 0.6%). The resulting separation of arteries and veins achieves a median voxel-based overlap of 96.3% with the manual reference segmentations, outperforming a state-of-the-art interactive method. In conclusion, our novel approach provides an opportunity to become an integral part of computer aided pulmonary diagnosis, where artery/vein separation is important.

  4. Effects of pulmonary veins ligation style for the patients' stress and cardiac on lung cancer

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    Yang SHENTU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It is needed to explore the effects of operation on stress statue, myocardial damage and arrhythmia to lung cancer. This study would compare the effects of two ligation styles of pulmonary vein on lung cancer patients' stress and cardiac postoperative. Methods 54 cases were divided into two groups randomly:the pulmonary vein trunk-ligation group (trunk group, 27 cases and the pulmonary vein branch-ligation group (branch group, 27 cases. The blood concentrations of hydrocortisone (HC, blood glucose (BG and cardial troponin-I (cTnI were determined at different time point. The surgical data, the quantum of pain and ECG also recorded. Results ① There were no significance difference of the operation time, blood loss during operation and drainage volume in first day after operation between two groups. ② There're no differences of the quantum of pain between two groups. ③ The HC of the two groups' ascend obviously on the end of operation and descend during postoperative. ④ The BG of the two groups' rise on the 1st day obviously, maintain high level on the 2nd day, descend on the 3rd day but still higher than that of preoperation.⑤ The BG and HC show a direct positive correlation postoperative. ⑥ The cTnIs of the trunk group ascend immediatelyafter operation, but there's no statistically significance between two groups. ⑦ The arrhythmia incidence is higher in the trunk group, but the arrhythmia incidences classified by the date after operation of the two groups' show no distinction. Conclusion ① The effects of two pulmonary vein ligation styles on postoperative stress show no significance differences.② The style of pulmonary vein trunk-ligation has a more obvious tendency to do harm to heart than that of branch-ligation. ③ The style of pulmonary vein branch-ligation may reduce the arrhythmia incidence after operation.

  5. Numerical simulation of endovenous laser treatment of the incompetent great saphenous vein with external air cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqa, Mohamad Feras; Mordon, Serge; Hernández-Osma, Esteban; Trelles, Mario; Betrouni, Nacim

    2013-05-01

    Endovenous laser treatment (ELT) has been proposed as an alternative in the treatment of reflux of the great saphenous vein. Before the procedure, peri-saphenous subcutaneous tumescent saline solution infiltration is usually performed. However, diffusion of this tumescent fluid is rapidly observed and can potentially reduce the efficacy as a heat sink. External skin cooling with cold air was proposed as an alternative solution. The objective of this study is to compare endovenous laser treatment without and with air cooling by realistic numerical simulations. An optical-thermal damage model was formulated and implemented using finite element modeling. The general model simulated light distribution using the diffusion approximation of the transport theory, temperature rise using the bioheat equation, and laser-induced injury using the Arrhenius damage model. Parameters, used in clinical procedures, were considered: power, 15 W; pulse duration, 1 s; fiber pull back, 3-mm increments every second; cold air applied in continuous mode during ELT; and no tumescent anesthesia. Simulations were performed for vein locations at 5, 10, and 15 mm in depth, with and without air cooling. For a vein located at 15 mm in depth, no significant difference was observed with and without cooling. For a vein located at 10 mm in depth, surface temperature increase up to 45 °C is observed without cooling. For a vein located at 5 mm, without cooling, temperature increase leads to irreversible damage of dermis and epidermis. Conversely, with air cooling, surface temperature reaches a maximum of 38 °C in accordance with recordings performed on patients. ELT of the incompetent great saphenous vein with external air cooling system is a promising therapy technique. Use of cold air on the skin continuously flowing in the area of laser shot decreased significantly the heat extent and the thermal damage in the perivenous tissues and the skin.

  6. Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton on cortical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y; Thompson, P M; Dinov, I; Toga, A W

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method to construct graphical representations of cortical folding patterns by computing skeletons on triangulated cortical surfaces. In our approach, a cortical surface is first partitioned into sulcal and gyral regions via the solution of a variational problem using graph cuts, which can guarantee global optimality. After that, we extend the method of Hamilton-Jacobi skeleton [1] to subsets of triangulated surfaces, together with a geometrically intuitive pruning process that can trade off between skeleton complexity and the completeness of representing folding patterns. Compared with previous work that uses skeletons of 3-D volumes to represent sulcal patterns, the skeletons on cortical surfaces can be easily decomposed into branches and provide a simpler way to construct graphical representations of cortical morphometry. In our experiments, we demonstrate our method on two different cortical surface models, its ability of capturing major sulcal patterns and its application to compute skeletons of gyral regions.

  7. Disorders of cortical formation: MR imaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razek, A A K; Kandell, A Y; Elsorogy, L G; Elmongy, A; Basett, A A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the embryologic stages of the cerebral cortex, illustrate the classification of disorders of cortical formation, and finally describe the main MR imaging features of these disorders. Disorders of cortical formation are classified according to the embryologic stage of the cerebral cortex at which the abnormality occurred. MR imaging shows diminished cortical thickness and sulcation in microcephaly, enlarged dysplastic cortex in hemimegalencephaly, and ipsilateral focal cortical thickening with radial hyperintense bands in focal cortical dysplasia. MR imaging detects smooth brain in classic lissencephaly, the nodular cortex with cobblestone cortex with congenital muscular dystrophy, and the ectopic position of the gray matter with heterotopias. MR imaging can detect polymicrogyria and related syndromes as well as the types of schizencephaly. We concluded that MR imaging is essential to demonstrate the morphology, distribution, and extent of different disorders of cortical formation as well as the associated anomalies and related syndromes.

  8. The cortical hem regulates the size and patterning of neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronia-Brown, Giuliana; Yoshida, Michio; Gulden, Forrest; Assimacopoulos, Stavroula; Grove, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    The cortical hem, a source of Wingless-related (WNT) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the dorsomedial telencephalon, is the embryonic organizer for the hippocampus. Whether the hem is a major regulator of cortical patterning outside the hippocampus has not been investigated. We examined regional organization across the entire cerebral cortex in mice genetically engineered to lack the hem. Indicating that the hem regulates dorsoventral patterning in the cortical hemisphere, the neocortex, particularly dorsomedial neocortex, was reduced in size in late-stage hem-ablated embryos, whereas cortex ventrolateral to the neocortex expanded dorsally. Unexpectedly, hem ablation also perturbed regional patterning along the rostrocaudal axis of neocortex. Rostral neocortical domains identified by characteristic gene expression were expanded, and caudal domains diminished. A similar shift occurs when fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 8 is increased at the rostral telencephalic organizer, yet the FGF8 source was unchanged in hem-ablated brains. Rather we found that hem WNT or BMP signals, or both, have opposite effects to those of FGF8 in regulating transcription factors that control the size and position of neocortical areas. When the hem is ablated a necessary balance is perturbed, and cerebral cortex is rostralized. Our findings reveal a much broader role for the hem in cortical development than previously recognized, and emphasize that two major signaling centers interact antagonistically to pattern cerebral cortex.

  9. PSD-95 uncoupling from NMDA receptors by Tat-N-dimer ameliorates neuronal depolarisation in cortical spreading depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharz, Krzysztof; Søndergaard Rasmussen, Ida; Bach, Anders;

    2017-01-01

    of the negative shift in direct current potential by 33% (4.1 mV). Furthermore, the compound diminished the average depression of spontaneous electrocorticographic activity by 11% during first 40 min of post-cortical spreading depression recovery, but did not mitigate the suppressing effect of cortical spreading...... during the first hour after i.v. injection. The Tat-N-dimer suppressed stimulation-evoked synaptic activity by 2-20%, while cortical blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolic (CMRO2) responses were preserved. During cortical spreading depression, the Tat-N-dimer reduced the average amplitude...

  10. Quantification of deep medullary veins at 7 T brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Viergever, Max A.; Vincken, Koen L. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Bouvy, Willem H.; Razoux Schultz, Tom B.; Biessels, Geert Jan [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    Deep medullary veins support the venous drainage of the brain and may display abnormalities in the context of different cerebrovascular diseases. We present and evaluate a method to automatically detect and quantify deep medullary veins at 7 T. Five participants were scanned twice, to assess the robustness and reproducibility of manual and automated vein detection. Additionally, the method was evaluated on 24 participants to demonstrate its application. Deep medullary veins were assessed within an automatically created region-of-interest around the lateral ventricles, defined such that all veins must intersect it. A combination of vesselness, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding located individual veins, which were quantified by counting and computing (3-D) density maps. Visual assessment was time-consuming (2 h/scan), with an intra-/inter-observer agreement on absolute vein count of ICC = 0.76 and 0.60, respectively. The automated vein detection showed excellent inter-scan reproducibility before (ICC = 0.79) and after (ICC = 0.88) visually censoring false positives. It had a positive predictive value of 71.6 %. Imaging at 7 T allows visualization and quantification of deep medullary veins. The presented method offers fast and reliable automated assessment of deep medullary veins. (orig.)

  11. Abdominal thromboses of splanchnic, renal and ovarian veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Valerio; Martinelli, Ida

    2012-09-01

    Thromboses of abdominal veins outside the iliac-caval axis are rare but clinically relevant. Early deaths after splanchnic vein thrombosis occur in 5-30% of cases. Sequelae can be liver failure or bowel infarction after splanchnic vein thrombosis, renal insufficiency after renal vein thrombosis, ovarian infarction after ovarian vein thrombosis. Local cancer or infections are rare in Budd-Chiari syndrome, and common for other sites. Inherited thrombophilia is detected in 30-50% of patients. Myeloproliferative neoplasms are the main cause of splanchnic vein thrombosis: 20-50% of patients have an overt myeloproliferative neoplasm and/or carry the molecular marker JAK2 V617F. Renal vein thrombosis is closely related to nephrotic syndrome; finally, ovarian vein thrombosis can complicate puerperium. Heparin is used for acute treatment, sometimes in conjunction with systemic or local thrombolysis. Vitamin K-antagonists are recommended for 3-6 months, and long-term in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome, unprovoked splanchnic vein thrombosis, or renal vein thrombosis with a permanent prothrombotic state such as nephrotic syndrome.

  12. Automated detection of periventricular veins on 7 T brain MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Bouvy, Willem H.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Biessels, Geert Jan; Vincken, Koen L.

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease is common in elderly persons and a leading cause of cognitive decline, dementia, and acute stroke. With the introduction of ultra-high field strength 7.0T MRI, it is possible to visualize small vessels in the brain. In this work, a proof-of-principle study is conducted to assess the feasibility of automatically detecting periventricular veins. Periventricular veins are organized in a fan-pattern and drain venous blood from the brain towards the caudate vein of Schlesinger, which is situated along the lateral ventricles. Just outside this vein, a region-of- interest (ROI) through which all periventricular veins must cross is defined. Within this ROI, a combination of the vesselness filter, tubular tracking, and hysteresis thresholding is applied to locate periventricular veins. All detected locations were evaluated by an expert human observer. The results showed a positive predictive value of 88% and a sensitivity of 95% for detecting periventricular veins. The proposed method shows good results in detecting periventricular veins in the brain on 7.0T MR images. Compared to previous works, that only use a 1D or 2D ROI and limited image processing, our work presents a more comprehensive definition of the ROI, advanced image processing techniques to detect periventricular veins, and a quantitative analysis of the performance. The results of this proof-of-principle study are promising and will be used to assess periventricular veins on 7.0T brain MRI.

  13. Development of HIFU Therapy System for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Ryuhei; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2009-04-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment utilizing microbubbles was investigated in the present study. It is known that microbubbles have the potential to enhance the heating effects of an ultrasound field. In this study, the heat accompanying microbubble oscillation was used to occlude varicose veins. Alteration of veins was observed after ultrasound irradiation. Veins were resected by stripping. In this study, two vein conditions were adopted during HIFU irradiation; non-compressed and compressed. Compressing the vein was expected to improve occlusion by rubbing the altered intima under compressed conditions. The frequency of the ultrasound was 1.7 MHz, the intensity at the focus was 2800 W/cm2, and the irradiation time was 20 s. In this study, the contrast agent Levovist® was chosen as a microbubble source, and the void fraction (ratio of total gas volume to liquid) in the vein was fixed at 10-5. Under non-compressed conditions, changes were observed only at the adventitia of the vein anterior wall. In contrast, under compressed conditions, changes were observed from the intima to the adventitia of both the anterior and posterior walls, and they were partly stuck together. In addition, more experiments with hematoxylin-eosin staining suggested that the changes in the vein were more substantial under the latter conditions. From these results, it was confirmed that the vein was occluded more easily with vein compression.

  14. Computed tomographic evaluation of the portal vein in the hepatomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Hyung; Lee, Seung Chul; Bae, Man Gil; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk; Park, Kyung Nam [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    Computed tomography and pornographic findings of 63 patients with hepatoma, undergone hepatic angiography and superior mesenteric pornography for evaluation of tumor and thrombosis of portal vein and determination of indication of transcatheter arterial embolization for palliative treatment of hepatoma from April, 85 to June, 86 in Hanyang university hospital, were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. In 36 cases, portal vein thrombosis was detected during photography. Nineteen of 37 cases which revealed localized hepatoma in the right lobe of the liver showed portal vein thrombosis; 9 of 11 cases of the left lobe; 8 of 14 cases which were involved in entire liver revealed thrombosis. One case localized in the caudate lobe showed no evidence of invasion to portal vein. 2. Twenty-four of 34 cases with diffuse infiltrative hepatoma revealed portal vein thrombosis and the incidence of portal vein thrombosis in this type were higher than in the cases of the nodular type. 3. The portal vein thrombosis appeared as filling defects of low density in the lumen of the portal veins in CT and they did not reveal contrast enhancement. 4. CT revealed well the evidence of obstructions in the cases of portal vein thrombosis and the findings were well-corresponded to the findings of the superior mesenteric photography. 5. Five of the cases of the portal vein thrombosis were missed in the CT and the causes were considered as due to partial volume effect of enhanced portal vein with partial occlusion or arterioportal shunts. 6. Six of 13 cases with occlusion of main portal vein showed cavernous transformation and they were noted as multiple small enhanced vascularities around the porta hepatis in the CT. According to the results, we conclude that CT is a useful modality to detect the changes of the portal veins in the patients of the hepatoma.

  15. A Rare Hydrocephalus Complication: Cortical Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Emre; Göçmen, Rahşan; Işıkay, Ayşe İlksen; Tekşam, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Cortical blindness related to bilateral occipital lobe infarction is an extremely rare complication of hydrocephalus. Compression of the posterior cerebral artery, secondary to tentorial herniation, is the cause of occipital infarction. Particularly in children and mentally ill patients, cortical blindness may be missed. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus is important. We present herein a child of ventricular shunt malfunction complicated by cortical blindness.

  16. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  17. Decreased cortical inhibition and yet cerebellar pathology in 'familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Bour, Lo J.; Edwards, Mark J.; Brown, Peter; Aronica, Eleonora; Rozemuller-Kwakkel, Johanna M.; Koehler, Peter J.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Rothwell, John C.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Cortical hyperexcitability is a feature of "familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy" (FCMTE). However, neuropathological investigations in a single FCMTE patient showed isolated cerebellar pathology. Pathological investigations in a second FCMTE patient, reported here, confirmed cerebellar

  18. Portal vein and mesenteric vein gas: CT features; Aeroportie ety aeromesenterie: donnees TDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, G.; Fournier, L.; Le Pennec, V.; Provost, N.; Hue, S.; Phi, I.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 14 - Caen (France)

    2001-04-01

    Portal vein and mesenteric vein gas are unusual conditions with a complex and nuclear pathogenesis. Mesenteric ischemia frequently causes such pathological conditions but a variety of other causes are known: inflammatory bowel disease, bowel distension, traumatic and iatrogenic injury, intra-abdominal sepsis, and idiopathic conditions. This pathologic entity is favored by intestinal wall alterations, bowel distension and sepsis. The prognosis is frequently fatal, especially when associated with extended bowel necrosis although in the majority of the cases, outcome is favorable without surgery. (author)

  19. Negative Correlations in Visual Cortical Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chelaru, Mircea I; Dragoi, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    .... Whereas positive noise correlations have been extensively studied using experimental and theoretical tools, the functional role of negative correlations in cortical circuits has remained elusive...

  20. Reproducibility of dorsal hand vein responses to phenylephrine and prostaglandin F2 alpha using the dorsal hand vein compliance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, C; Grossmann, M; Dobrev, D; Francke, K; Ravens, U; Kirch, W

    2003-03-01

    Assessment of drug-induced venodilation by the dorsal hand vein compliance method requires stable constriction of the vein. This study was designed to investigate intra- and intersubject reproducibility of the venous preconstriction technique in response to phenylephrine and prostaglandin F2 alpha and to determine the influence of basal vein size. Twelve healthy male nonsmokers participated in a prospective cross-over study. Inter- and intrasubject variability was tested in response to phenylephrine and PGF2 alpha on different study days in the same hand vein. The dose of the respective constrictor causing approximately 80% constriction of the vein (ED80) was determined and infused for another 100 minutes. Actual vein size was measured every 5 minutes. Coefficient of variation and regression analyses were performed to analyze influence of vessel size on ED80 of the respective constrictor. Adjusted constriction levels were stable and well reproducible in all subjects. The intersubject coefficient of variation of ED80 ranged from 0.9% to 6.7% for phenylephrine and from 0.9% to 6.9% for PGF2 alpha. Whereas responses to phenylephrine were independent of basal vein diameter, there was a positive correlation between ED80 of PGF2 alpha and basal vein size. Thus, the hand vein compliance method is a suitable method to study dilatory responses in phenylephrine- or PGF2 alpha-constricted veins with considerable interindividual but small intraindividual variability. However, in such studies, phenylephrine appears to be a more reliable tool than PGF2 alpha.

  1. Gyrification from constrained cortical expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Tallinen, Tuomas; Biggins, John S; Mahadevan, L

    2015-01-01

    The exterior of the mammalian brain - the cerebral cortex - has a conserved layered structure whose thickness varies little across species. However, selection pressures over evolutionary time scales have led to cortices that have a large surface area to volume ratio in some organisms, with the result that the brain is strongly convoluted into sulci and gyri. Here we show that the gyrification can arise as a nonlinear consequence of a simple mechanical instability driven by tangential expansion of the gray matter constrained by the white matter. A physical mimic of the process using a layered swelling gel captures the essence of the mechanism, and numerical simulations of the brain treated as a soft solid lead to the formation of cusped sulci and smooth gyri similar to those in the brain. The resulting gyrification patterns are a function of relative cortical expansion and relative thickness (compared with brain size), and are consistent with observations of a wide range of brains, ranging from smooth to highl...

  2. Cortical control of facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müri, René M

    2016-06-01

    The present Review deals with the motor control of facial expressions in humans. Facial expressions are a central part of human communication. Emotional face expressions have a crucial role in human nonverbal behavior, allowing a rapid transfer of information between individuals. Facial expressions can be either voluntarily or emotionally controlled. Recent studies in nonhuman primates and humans have revealed that the motor control of facial expressions has a distributed neural representation. At least five cortical regions on the medial and lateral aspects of each hemisphere are involved: the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area on the medial wall, and the rostral and caudal cingulate cortex. The results of studies in humans and nonhuman primates suggest that the innervation of the face is bilaterally controlled for the upper part and mainly contralaterally controlled for the lower part. Furthermore, the primary motor cortex, the ventral lateral premotor cortex, and the supplementary motor area are essential for the voluntary control of facial expressions. In contrast, the cingulate cortical areas are important for emotional expression, because they receive input from different structures of the limbic system.

  3. CO2 outburst events in relation to seismicity: Constraints from microscale geochronology, geochemistry of late Quaternary vein carbonates, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Işık, Veysel; Shulmeister, James; İmer, Ali; Feng, Yue-Xing

    2016-08-01

    Vein and breccia carbonates precipitated in a highly fractured/faulted carbonate bedrock in SW Turkey were investigated through high-resolution U-series geochronology, microstructural and geochemical studies including C-O-Sr isotope and rare-earth element and yttrium (REY) analyses. Petrographical observations and geochronological data are interpreted as evidence that the calcite veins formed through a crack-seal mechanism, mostly accompanied/initiated by intensive hydraulic fracturing of the host limestone in response to high-pressure fluids, which is manifested by multi-stage breccia deposits. Microscale U-series dates (272.6-20.5 kyr) and geochemical compositions of the vein/breccia samples provide information on the timing and mechanism of the vein formation and identify the source of CO2-bearing fluids responsible for the carbonate precipitation. δ18OVPDB and δ13CVPDB values of the calcite veins range between -5.9 and -1.7‰, and -10.6 and -4.6‰, respectively. The isotopic compositions of the veins show highly fluctuating values as calcite grew successively perpendicular to vein walls, which, in combination with microstructural and geochronological constraints, are interpreted to reflect episodic CO2 degassing events associated with seismic and aseismic deformation. Oxygen and Sr isotope compositions (δ18OVPDB: -5.9 to -1.7‰; 87Sr/86Sr: 0.7082 to 0.7085) together with REY concentrations indicate deep infiltration of meteoric waters with various degrees of interactions mostly with the host limestone and siliciclastic parts of the basement rocks. Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions suggest CO2 degassing through intensive limestone dissolution. While majority of the veins display similar Post-Archaean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalised REY variations, some of the veins show positive EuPAAS anomalies, which could be indicative of contributions from a deeply derived, heated, and reduced fluid component, giving rise to multiple fluid sources for the

  4. Internal Jugular Vein Entrapment in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Simka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multiple sclerosis patient presenting with compression of the internal jugular vein caused by aberrant omohyoid muscle. Previously this patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the same internal jugular vein. Ten months after this endovascular procedure, Doppler sonography revealed totally collapsed middle part of the treated vein with no outflow detected. Still, the vein widened and the flow was restored when the patient’s mouth opened. Thus, the abnormality was likely to be caused by muscular compression. Surgical exploration confirmed that an atypical omohyoid muscle was squeezing the vein. Consequently, pathological muscle was transected. Sonographic control three weeks after surgical procedure revealed a decompressed vein with fully restored venous outflow. Although such a muscular compression can be successfully managed surgically, future research has to establish its clinical relevance.

  5. Splenic vein leiomyosarcoma: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, Damiano; Molinaro, Luca; Mazza, Elena; Romagnoli, Renato; Salizzoni, Mauro

    2014-09-28

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare disease, most commonly affecting the retroperitoneal veins and in particular the inferior vena cava. Five-year survival rate ranges between 33% and 68%. Complete surgical resection represents the only potentially curative treatment, occasionally achieving long-term survival. LMS of the splenic vein is extremely rare, with only three cases reported in the literature. We report a case of primary venous LMS arising from the splenic vein and we briefly review the relevant literature.

  6. Early detection of AD using cortical thickness measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjuth, M.; Gravesen, F.; Eskildsen, S. F.; Østergaard, L. R.

    2007-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes cortical atrophy and impaired cognitive functions. The diagnosis is difficult to make and is often made over a longer period of time using a combination of neuropsychological tests, and structural and functional imaging. Due to the impact of early intervention the challenge of distinguishing early AD from normal ageing has received increasing attention. This study uses cortical thickness measurements to characterize the atrophy in nine mild AD patients (mean MMSE-score 23.3 (std: 2.6)) compared to five healthy middle-aged subjects. A fully automated method based on deformable models is used for delineation of the inner and outer boundaries of the cerebral cortex from Magnetic Resonance Images. This allows observer independent high-resolution quantification of the cortical thickness. The cortex analysis facilitates detection of alterations throughout the entire cortical mantle. To perform inter-subject thickness comparison in which the spatial information is retained, a feature-based registration algorithm is developed which uses local cortical curvature, normal vector, and a distance measure. A comparison of the two study groups reveals that the lateral side of the hemispheres shows diffuse thinner areas in the mild AD group but especially the medial side shows a pronounced thinner area which can be explained by early limbic changes in AD. For classification principal component analysis is applied to reduce the high number of thickness measurements (>200,000) into fewer features. All mild AD and healthy middle-aged subjects are classified correctly (sensitivity and specificity 100%).

  7. Magnetic Resonance Perfusion Imaging in Malformations of Cortical Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widjaja, ED.; Wilkinson, I.D.; Griffiths, P.D. [Academic Section of Radiolog y, Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Background: Malformations of cortical development vary in neuronal maturity and level of functioning. Purpose: To characterize regional relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and difference in first moment transit time (TTfm) in polymicrogyria and cortical tubers using magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging. Material and Methods: MR imaging and dynamic T2*-weighted MR perfusion imaging were performed in 13 patients with tuberous sclerosis complex, 10 with polymicrogyria, and 18 controls with developmental delay but no macroscopic brain abnormality. Regions of interest were placed in cortical tubers or polymicrogyric cortex and in the contralateral normal-appearing side in patients with malformations. In 'control' subjects, regions of interest were placed in the frontal and parietal lobes in both hemispheres. The rCBV and TTfm of the tuber/contralateral side (rCBVRTSC and TTFMTSC) as well as those of the polymicrogyria/contralateral side (rCBVRPMG and TTFMPMG) were assessed. The right-to-left asymmetry of rCBV and TTfm in the control group was also assessed (rCBVRControls and TTFMControls). Results: There was no significant asymmetry between right and left rCBV or TTfm (P>0.05) in controls. There was significant reduction in rCBVRTSC compared to rCBVRControls (P<0.05), but no significant difference in TTFMTSC compared to TTFMControls (P>0.05). There were no significant differences between rCBVRPMG and rCBVRControls (P>0.05) or TTFMPMG and TTFMControls (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings imply that cerebral blood volume of polymicrogyria is similar to normal cortex, but there is reduced cerebral blood volume in cortical tubers. The lower rCBV ratio of cortical tubers may be related to known differences in pathogenetic timing of the underlying abnormalities during brain development or the presence of gliosis.

  8. Pediatric aneurysms and vein of Galen malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V. R. K.; Mathuriya, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric aneurysms are different from adult aneurysms – they are more rare, are giant and in the posterior circulation more frequently than in adults and may be associated with congenital disorders. Infectious and traumatic aneursyms are also seen more frequently. Vein of Galen malformations are even rarer entities. They may be of choroidal or mural type. Based on the degree of AV shunting they may present with failure to thrive, with hydrocephalus or in severe cases with heart failure. The only possible treatment is by endovascular techniques – both transarterial and transvenous routes are employed. Rarely transtorcular approach is needed. These cases should be managed by an experienced neurointerventionist. PMID:22069420

  9. Electro-oculogram of Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Twenty five cases, including 26 eyes with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) were examined by means of the electro-oculogram. The results showed that 23 of the 26 eyes suffering from RVO exhibited abnormalities of the electro-oculogram (EOG). The potential difference and Arden ratio in the RVO eyes were lower than those in the normal eyes (P<0.01). The more the visual acuity of ill eyes was decreased, the higher the abnormal rate of EOG in ill eyes was. 14 eyes had the visual acuity less than 0.1, whose EOGs ...

  10. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Revealing Coelic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana ZOUBEIDI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thrombosis has been widely reported in coeliac disease (CD but central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is rarely described. Case presentation: A 27-year-old woman presented with acute visual loss and was diagnosed with CRVO. Her protein S and protein C levels were low and CD was diagnosed on the basis of endoscopic, immunological and histological results. A gluten-free diet resulted in favourable evolution. Conclusion: CD should be considered in young patients with thrombosis, especially if in an unusual location. Treatment is based on a gluten-free diet.

  11. Image Quality Enhancement Using the Direction and Thickness of Vein Lines for Finger-Vein Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ho Park

    2012-10-01

    Experimental results from application of our proposed image enhancement method show that the equal error rate (EER of finger‐vein recognition decreases to approximately 0.4% in the case of a local binary pattern‐ based recognition and to approximately 0.3% in the case of a wavelet transform‐based recognition.

  12. An anomaly in persistent right umbilical vein of portal vein diagnosed by ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigeo Nakanishi; Katsuya Shiraki; Kouji Yamamoto; Mutsumi Koyama; Takeshi Nakano

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To detect the anomaly in the persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) of portal vein (PV) with deviation of the ligamentum tere and left-sided gallbladder.METHODS: A total of 5783 candidates for routine analysis were evaluated for hepatic vascular abnormalities by ultrasonography.RESULTS: Ten candidates (0.17%) had a portal vein anomaly with a rightward-deviated ligamentum tere.The blood-flow velocity in the PRUV of the portal vein (17.7±3.0 cm/s) of the 10 cases was similar to that of the right anterior portal trunk (17.6±4.1 cm/s). However,the vessel diameter of the PRUV (ψ12.4±4.4 mm) was larger than the right anterior portal trunk (ψ6.1±0.9 mm).Therefore, flow volume in the anomalous portion (0.97±0.30 L/min) was more than that in the right anterior portal trunk (0.18±0.05 L/min).CONCLUSION: The anomaly plays an important role in intra-hepatic PV flow.

  13. Evaluation of different systems for clinical quantification of varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu-Thénard, A; De Vincenzi, I; Maraval, M

    1991-04-01

    One hundred twenty-five lower limbs with varicose veins were studied clinically, essentially by palpation. Two specialists in venous pathology scored the severity of the varicose veins from 0 to 20. Comparison between the different clinical parameters and the scores of the specialists showed that two systems of clinical quantification gave good results and were easy to use. One system is the maximum diameter of the largest varicose vein; the other system is the sum of maximum diameters over 7 sections (3 for thigh, 3 for leg, 1 for foot). This latter system gives a more precise evaluation of the clinical severity of the varicose veins.

  14. Advantages of using volar vein repair in finger replantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersa, Berkan; Kabakas, Fatih; Pürisa, Hüsrev; Özçelik, Ismail Bülent; Yeşiloğlu, Nebil; Sezer, Ilker; Tunçer, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    Providing adequate venous outflow is essential in finger replantation surgeries. For a successful result, the quality and quantity of venous repairs should be adequate to drain arterial inflow. The digital dorsal venous plexus is a reliable source of material for venous repairs. Classically, volar digital veins have been used only when no other alternative was available. However, repairing volar veins to augment venous outflow has a number of technical advantages and gives a greater chance of survival. Increasing the repaired vein:artery ratio also increases the success of replantation. The volar skin, covering the volar vein, is less likely to be avulsed during injury and is also less likely to turn necrotic, than dorsal skin, after the replantation surgery. Primary repair of dorsal veins can be difficult due to tightness ensuing from arthrodesis of the underlying joint in flexion. In multiple finger replantations, repairing the volar veins after arterial repair and continuing to do so for each finger in the same way without changing the position of the hand and surgeon save time. In amputations with tissue loss, the size discrepancy is less for volar veins than for dorsal veins. We present the results of 366 finger replantations after volar vein repairs.

  15. [Portal perfusion with right gastroepiploic vein flow in liver transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Federico; Javier-Haro, Francisco; Mendoza-Medina, Diego Federico; González-Ojeda, Alejandro; Cortés-Lares, José Antonio; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde

    Liver transplantation in patients with liver cirrhosis, portal vein thrombosis, and cavernous transformation of the portal vein, is a complex procedure with high possibility of liver graft dysfunction. It is performed in 2-19% of all liver transplants, and has a significantly high mortality rate in the post-operative period. Other procedures to maintain portal perfusion have been described, however there are no reports of liver graft perfusion using right gastroepiploic vein. A 20 year-old female diagnosed with cryptogenic cirrhosis, with a Child-Pugh score of 7 points (class "B"), and MELD score of 14 points, with thrombosis and cavernous transformation of the portal vein, severe portal hypertension, splenomegaly, a history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to oesophageal varices, and left renal agenesis. The preoperative evaluation for liver transplantation was completed, and the right gastroepiploic vein of 1-cm diameter was observed draining to the infrahepatic inferior vena cava and right suprarenal vein. An orthotopic liver transplantation was performed from a non-living donor (deceased on January 30, 2005) using the Piggy-Back technique. Portal vein perfusion was maintained using the right gastroepiploic vein, and the outcome was satisfactory. The patient was discharged 13 days after surgery. Liver transplantation was performed satisfactorily, obtaining an acceptable outcome. In this case, the portal perfusion had adequate blood flow through the right gastroepiploic vein. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation Retinopathy Associated with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Liu; FengWen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of radiation retinopathy associated with central retinal vein occlusion.Methods: The clinical features and fundus fluorescein angiography of this case were analyzed.Results: The patient had been treated with radiotherapy for her nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and presented with sudden visual loss in the left eye. The funduscopic examination and fluorescein angiography showed the features of radiation retinopathy in both eyes, and central retinal vein occlusion in the left eye.Conclusions: Radiation retinopathy can be associated with central retinal vein occlusion in the same eye, and it seems that the endothelial cell loss caused by radiation retinopathy may lead to retinal vein occlusion.

  17. Unilateral Left-Hand Contractions Produce Widespread Depression of Cortical Activity after Their Execution.

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    Fernando Cross-Villasana

    Full Text Available The execution of unilateral hand contractions before performance has been reported to produce behavioral aftereffects in various tasks. These effects have been regularly attributed to an induced shift in activation asymmetry to the contralateral hemisphere produced by the contractions. An alternative explanation proposes a generalized state of reduced bilateral cortical activity following unilateral hand contractions. The current experiment contrasted the above explanation models and tested the state of cortical activity after the termination of unilateral hand contractions. Twenty right-handed participants performed hand contractions in two blocks, one for each hand. Using electroencephalogram (EEG, the broad alpha band and its asymmetry between hemispheres before, during, and after hand contractions were analyzed. During contractions, significant bilateral decrease in alpha amplitudes (indicating cortical activation emerged for both hands around sensory-motor regions. After contractions, alpha amplitudes increased significantly over the whole scalp when compared to baseline, but only for the left hand. No modulation of hemispheric asymmetry was observed at any phase. The results suggest that unilateral hand contractions produce a state of reduced cortical activity after their termination, which is more pronounced if the left hand was used. Consequently, we propose that the reduced cortical activity (and not the persistent activation asymmetry may facilitate engagement in subsequent behavior, probably due to preventing interference from other, nonessential cortical regions.

  18. Unilateral Left-Hand Contractions Produce Widespread Depression of Cortical Activity after Their Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-Villasana, Fernando; Gröpel, Peter; Doppelmayr, Michael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The execution of unilateral hand contractions before performance has been reported to produce behavioral aftereffects in various tasks. These effects have been regularly attributed to an induced shift in activation asymmetry to the contralateral hemisphere produced by the contractions. An alternative explanation proposes a generalized state of reduced bilateral cortical activity following unilateral hand contractions. The current experiment contrasted the above explanation models and tested the state of cortical activity after the termination of unilateral hand contractions. Twenty right-handed participants performed hand contractions in two blocks, one for each hand. Using electroencephalogram (EEG), the broad alpha band and its asymmetry between hemispheres before, during, and after hand contractions were analyzed. During contractions, significant bilateral decrease in alpha amplitudes (indicating cortical activation) emerged for both hands around sensory-motor regions. After contractions, alpha amplitudes increased significantly over the whole scalp when compared to baseline, but only for the left hand. No modulation of hemispheric asymmetry was observed at any phase. The results suggest that unilateral hand contractions produce a state of reduced cortical activity after their termination, which is more pronounced if the left hand was used. Consequently, we propose that the reduced cortical activity (and not the persistent activation asymmetry) may facilitate engagement in subsequent behavior, probably due to preventing interference from other, nonessential cortical regions.

  19. [Experimental study of partial arterialization of the portal vein on the dearterialized liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K

    1991-06-01

    The influence of hepatic arterial obstruction on the hepatic circulation and tissue metabolism was studied between animals with and without partial arterialization of the portal vein. Mongrel dogs were divided into these groups: a group in which the collaterals to the liver were obstructed and the hepatic artery was dissected (hepatic artery ligated group); two groups in which an extracorporeal femoral artery-portal vein shunt was produced, and blood was sent by a Biopump at a rate of 100 or 200 ml/min (100 ml/min and 200 ml/min portal arterialized groups). The hepatic artery ligated group showed CO2 accumulation and acidosis in hepatic venous blood, reduction of oxygen supply, increase of oxygen consumption and marked increase of GOT and GPT. In the portal arterialized groups, sufficient oxygenation of portal blood was noted, and the oxygen demand and supply and tissue metabolism were kept approximately normal. The optimum flow rate for partial arterialization of the portal vein seemed to be 100 ml/min. At the flow rate of 200 ml/min, the original portal blood was reduced, leading to portal hypertension and increase of GOT and GPT. These results indicate that partial arterialization of the portal vein effectively preserves the liver function during the operation and in the early period after dissection of the hepatic artery.

  20. Fusion of hand vein, iris and fingerprint for person identity verification based on Bayesian theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Tiegen; Deng, Shichao; Wang, Yunxin

    2009-11-01

    Biometric identification is an important guarantee for social security. In recent years, as the development of social and economic, the more accuracy and safety of identification are required. The person identity verification systems that use a single biometric appear inherent limitations in accuracy, user acceptance, universality. Limitations of unimodal biometric systems can be overcome by using multimodal biometric systems, which combines the conclusions made by a number of unrelated biometrics indicators. Aiming at the limitations of unimodal biometric identification, a recognition algorithm for multimodal biometric fusion based on hand vein, iris and fingerprint was proposed. To verify person identity, the hand vein images, iris images and fingerprint images were preprocessed firstly. The region of interest (ROI) of hand vein image was obtained and filtered to reduce image noises. The multiresolution analysis theory was utilized to extract the texture information of hand vein. The iris image was preprocessed through iris localization, eyelid detection, image normalization and image enhancement, and then the feature code of iris was extracted from the detail images obtained using wavelet transform. The texture feature information represented fingerprint pattern was extracted after filtering and image enhancement. The Bayesian theorem was employed to realize the fusion at the matching score level and the fusion recognition result was finally obtained. The experimental results were presented, which showed that the recognition performance of the proposed fusion method was obviously higher than that of single biometric recognition algorithm. It had verified the efficiency of the proposed method for biometrics.

  1. Above-knee vein harvest for coronary revascularization increases ASEPSIS score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akowuah, Enoch; Shrivastava, Vivek; Ponniah, Alan; Jamnadas, Binal; Chilton, Gary; Cooper, Graham

    2006-02-01

    The long saphenous vein may be harvested from the thigh or the lower leg, depending on the operating surgeon's preference. This prospective study compared the incidence of altered wound healing between these two sites in 175 patients undergoing routine coronary artery bypass grafting over a 3-month period. The patients were divided into 3 groups. In group A, the vein harvest site was restricted to above the upper border of the patella. Group B included harvest sites that started at the ankle but extended above the level of the upper border of the patella. In group C, the vein harvest site was restricted to below the upper border of the patella. The wounds were assessed daily using the ASEPSIS scoring system. In group A, significantly more patients (24%) had an ASEPSIS score > 10, compared to group B (3%) and group C (2%). The mean ASEPSIS score was significantly lower in group C than groups A or B, 1.5 +/- 2.4 vs. 6.5 +/- 3.2 or 3.7 +/- 1.7, respectively. The ASEPSIS score is reduced when vein harvest is restricted to below the level of the knee.

  2. In Vitro Vasoactive Effects of Levobupivacaine and Ropivacaine on the Isolated Human Umbilical Artery and Vein

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    Alper Kılıçaslan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this in vitro study, we investigated the vasoactive effects of levobupivacaine and ropivacaine on vascular smooth muscle derived from human umbilical arteries and veins.Material and Methods: The strips were mounted in tissue baths at 37°C continuously gassed with 5% CO2 in oxygen for isometric recording of contractile activity on a polygraph. The endothelium of some tissues was mechanically removed to assess the influence of the endothelium on contractility. The strips were precontracted with serotonin (10-6 M 5-HT; n=7. After obtaining the maximal contraction, responses obtained by adding levobupivacaine and ropivacaine (10-9-10-4 M; n=7 cumulatively were recorded. Contractions were expressed as the (% of 5HT maximal response percentage of 5 HT’s maximal response.Results: Both levobupivacaine and ropivacaine induce a concentration-dependent contraction in the smooth muscle cells of umbilical arteries and veins. Maximum contractile response (Emax of levobupivacaine (79.2±2.5, 71.1±2.6 was higher than ropivacaine (68.4±2, 36.2±2.8 on both umbilical arteries and veins. There were no statistically significant differences between contraction responses of endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded tissues. Conclusion: The results suggest that, in high concentrations, levobupivacaine and ropivacaine may affect umbilical blood flow by contracting the umbilical artery and vein, thus reducing fetal blood flow.

  3. Visualization of the renal vein during pyelography after nephrostomy: a case report

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    El-Imad Badiaa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of pyelovenous backflow after nephrostomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of renal vein visualization after a nephrostomic placement. Case presentation A 55-year-old Caucasian man presented with symptoms of pyelonephritis with an obstructing ureteral stone. A nephrostomy was performed. During an injection of contrast agent in his left caliceal system, his left renal vein was visualized. A repeat pyelography with an injection contrast material at low pressure failed to show the same finding. This radiological finding is due to the occurrence of "pyelovenous backflow". Conclusion This phenomenon is usually described in the setting of renal vein thrombosis, renal vein hypertension due to the "nutcracker phenomenon", or a reduced renal blood flow. Examination by microscopy shows the presence of tears in the fornix of the pelvic cavity that extend into the kidney parenchyma. Five types of renal backflow are described in the literature: pyelovenous, pyelolymphatic, pyelotubular, pyelointerstitia and pyelosinus. Injection of contrast material at high pressure may cause a fornix to flow into the tubules, or cause its rupture and flow into the venous system.

  4. Surveillance, anticoagulation, or filter in calf vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Dustin Y; Riaz, Ahsun; Teter, Katherine; Vavra, Ashley K; Kibbe, Melina R; Pearce, William H; Eskandari, Mark K; Lewandowski, Robert; Rodriguez, Heron E

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy and complication rates of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters for calf vein thrombosis (CVT) vs conservative treatment with or without anticoagulation. Vascular laboratory studies of patients who had an isolated CVT (anterior and posterior tibialis, peroneal, soleal, and gastrocnemius veins) from April 2009 to January 2014 were retrospectively analyzed from a single institution. Of 647 patients with isolated CVT, 285 (44%) received an IVC filter, and 362 (56%) received medical treatment alone (38.9% surveillance, 11.6% prophylactic anticoagulation, and 49.4% therapeutic anticoagulation). Univariate, multivariate, propensity matching, and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed on abstracted data, which included, but was not limited to, risk factors, treatment modalities, venous thromboembolism (VTE) complications (defined as propagation of deep vein thrombosis [DVT] or pulmonary embolism [PE]), bleeding complications, and IVC filter-related complications (ie, filter tilting >15°, perforation >3 mm, fracture, migration >10 mm). The overall incidence of PE in was 2.5% in the IVC filter group and 3.3% in the medical group (P = .27). The overall incidence of VTE complications (propagation of DVT, PE) was 35% for the surveillance group without anticoagulation, 30% in patients treated with prophylactic anticoagulation, and 10% in patients treated with therapeutic anticoagulation (P = .0003). Only a minority of patients underwent duplex ultrasound imaging after filter insertion. In the IVC filter group, the most common reasons that contraindicated anticoagulation were bleeding (35%) or recent surgery (27%). The number of IVC filter-related complications in the IVC filter group was 29 (10%). Because the IVC filter group was older (mean age, 65 vs 61 years, P = .004) and more likely to have a history of thromboembolic events (56% vs 16%, P filters in this study was associated with a 10% complication rate and did not significantly reduce the

  5. Neonatal vitelline vein aneurysm with thrombosis: prompt treatment should be needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hong; Yu, Hyeong Won; Jo, Heui Seung

    2015-01-01

    Vitelline veins are a pair of embryonic structures. The veins develop the portal vein system. Serious problems occur if the vitelline vein does not regress and becomes an aneurysm. Thrombus formation in the vitelline vein aneurysm could lead to portal vein thrombosis and portal hypertension unless promptly and correctly treated. Though vitelline vein aneurysm is an extremely rare anomaly, it rapidly progresses to portal vein thrombosis that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. We reported a case of neonatal vitelline vein aneurysm and thrombosis that was cured by prompt operation. PMID:26665130

  6. Multiple abdominal veins thrombosis secondary to protein s deficiency - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Venkata Umakant; Borra, Seshulakshmi; Mandarapu, Surendra Babu; Sanda, Mallikarjuna Rao; Bolla, Srinivasa Rao

    2014-06-01

    Abdominal venous thrombosis may present either as Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) caused by hepatic vein or proximal inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction or as an extra hepatic portal obstruction (EHPVO) caused by Portal vein thrombosis or mesenteric vein thrombosis, but a mixed involvement is uncommon. Multiple abdominal venous obstructions presenting with thrombosis of hepatic vein, IVC, portal vein and renal vein are very rarely seen . We are reporting a rare case with thrombosis of IVC, hepatic vein, portal vein and renal vein, with protein S and protein C deficiencies, which was managed by giving anticoagulant therapy.

  7. Can deep vein thrombosis be predicted after varicose vein operation in women in rural areas?

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    Marcin Warot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Chronic venous disease is a group of symptoms caused by functional and structural defects of the venous vessels. One of the most common aspects of this disease is the occurrence of varicose veins. There are many ways of prevention and treatment of varicose veins, but in Poland the leading one is still surgery. As in every medical procedure there is the possibility of some complications. One of them is deep vein thrombosis (DVT. The diagnosis of DVT can be difficult, especially when access to a specialist is limited, such as in case of rural patients. [b]The aim of the study.[/b] The aim of the study was estimation of the influence of LMWH primary prophylaxis on the formation of postoperative DVT, as well as sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination and D-dimer value in diagnosis of postoperative DVT in women. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. The study was conducted in a group of 93 women operated on in the Department of General, Vascular Surgery and Angiology at the Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The patients had undergone a varicose vein operation and were randomly divided into two groups: A – 48 women receiving LMWH during two days of the perioperative period, B – 45 women receiving LMWH during seven days of the perioperative period. [b]Results[/b]. There was no significant difference in the postoperative DVT complications in both groups. The value of D-dimer > 0.987 mcg/ml and swelling > 1.5 cm of shin (in comparison to the preoperative period plays a significant role in diagnosis of DVT. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The extended primary prophylaxis with LMWH does not affect the amount or quality of thrombotic complications after varicose vein operation. If the DVT occurs, the evaluation of the D – dimer and careful clinical examination can be a useful method for its diagnosis.

  8. Stromal derived factor-1 exerts differential regulation on distinct cortical cell populations in vitro

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    Zeef Leo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal derived factor (SDF-1, an alpha chemokine, is a widely known chemoattractant in the immune system. A growing body of evidence now suggests multiple regulatory roles for SDF-1 in the developing nervous system. Results To investigate the role of SDF-1 signaling in the growth and differentiation of cortical cells, we performed numerous in vitro experiments, including gene chip and quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Using SDF-1 medium and AMD3100, a receptor antagonist, we demonstrate that the chemokine signaling regulates key events during early cortical development. First, SDF-1 signaling maintains cortical progenitors in proliferation, possibly through a mechanism involving connexin 43 mediated intercellular coupling. Second, SDF-1 signaling upregulates the differentiation of cortical GABAergic neurons, independent of sonic signaling pathway. Third, SDF-1 enables the elongation and branching of axons of cortical glutamatergic neurons. Finally, cortical cultures derived from CXCR4-/- mutants show a close parallel to AMD3100 treatment with reduced cell proliferation and differentiation of GABAergic neurons. Conclusion Results from this study show that SDF-1 regulates distinct cortical cell populations in vitro.

  9. Effects of Parecoxib and Fentanyl on nociception-induced cortical activity

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    Wang Ying-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analgesics, including opioids and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs reduce postoperative pain. However, little is known about the quantitative effects of these drugs on cortical activity induced by nociceptive stimulation. The aim of the present study was to determine the neural activity in response to a nociceptive stimulus and to investigate the effects of fentanyl (an opioid agonist and parecoxib (a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on this nociception-induced cortical activity evoked by tail pinch. Extracellular recordings (electroencephalogram and multi-unit signals were performed in the area of the anterior cingulate cortex while intracellular recordings were made in the primary somatosensory cortex. The effects of parecoxib and fentanyl on induced cortical activity were compared. Results Peripheral nociceptive stimulation in anesthetized rats produced an immediate electroencephalogram (EEG desynchronization resembling the cortical arousal (low-amplitude, fast-wave activity, while the membrane potential switched into a persistent depolarization state. The induced cortical activity was abolished by fentanyl, and the fentanyl's effect was reversed by the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Parecoxib, on the other hand, did not significantly affect the neural activity. Conclusion Cortical activity was modulated by nociceptive stimulation in anesthetized rats. Fentanyl showed a strong inhibitory effect on the nociceptive-stimulus induced cortical activity while parecoxib had no significant effect.

  10. The Relation of Focal Lesions to Cortical Thickness in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Zielinski, Brandon A; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi; Black, Garrett M; Huff, B S Trevor; Christiansen, Zachary; Wood, Dawn-Marie; Abildskov, Tracy J; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-10-01

    In a sample of children with traumatic brain injury, this magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based investigation examined whether presence of a focal lesion uniquely influenced cortical thickness in any brain region. Specifically, the study explored the relation of cortical thickness to injury severity as measured by Glasgow Coma Scale score and length of stay, along with presence of encephalomalacia, focal white matter lesions or presence of hemosiderin deposition as a marker of shear injury. For comparison, a group of children without head injury but with orthopedic injury of similar age and sex were also examined. Both traumatic brain injury and orthopedic injury children had normally reduced cortical thickness with age, assumed to reflect neuronal pruning. However, the reductions observed within the traumatic brain injury sample were similar to those in the orthopedic injury group, suggesting that in this sample traumatic brain injury, per se, did not uniquely alter cortical thickness in any brain region at the group level. Injury severity in terms of Glasgow Coma Scale or longer length of stay was associated with greater reductions in frontal and occipitoparietal cortical thickness. However, presence of focal lesions were not related to unique changes in cortical thickness despite having a prominent distribution of lesions within frontotemporal regions among children with traumatic brain injury. Because focal lesions were highly heterogeneous, their association with cortical thickness and development appeared to be idiosyncratic, and not associated with group level effects.

  11. Arterialization and anomalous vein wall remodeling in varicose veins is associated with upregulated FoxC2-Dll4 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Sumi; S Ramegowda, Kalpana; Suresh, Aarcha; Binil Raj, S S; Lakkappa, Ravi Kumar B; Kamalapurkar, Giridhar; Radhakrishnan, N; C Kartha, Chandrasekharan

    2016-04-01

    Varicose veins of lower extremities are a heritable common disorder. Mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still vague. Structural failures such as valve weakness and wall dilatation in saphenous vein result in venous retrograde flow in lower extremities of body. Reflux of blood leads to distal high venous pressure resulting in distended veins. In an earlier study, we observed a positive association between c.-512C>T FoxC2 gene polymorphism and upregulated FoxC2 expression in varicose vein specimens. FoxC2 overexpression in vitro in venous endothelial cells resulted in the elevated mRNA expression of arterial endothelial markers such as Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) and Hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif protein 2 (Hey2). We hypothesized that an altered FoxC2-Dll4 signaling underlies saphenous vein wall remodeling in patients with varicose veins. Saphenous veins specimens were collected from 22 patients with varicose veins and 20 control subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Tissues were processed for paraffin embedding and sections were immunostained for Dll4, Hey2, EphrinB2, α-SMA, Vimentin, and CD31 antigens and examined under microscope. These observations were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis. An examination of varicose vein tissue specimens by immunohistochemistry indicated an elevated expression of Notch pathway components, such as Dll4, Hey2, and EphrinB2, and smooth muscle markers, which was further confirmed by gene and protein expression analyses. We conclude that the molecular alterations in Dll4-Hey2 signaling are associated with smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in varicose veins. Our observations substantiate a significant role for altered FoxC2-Dll4 signaling in structural alterations of saphenous veins in patients with varicose veins.

  12. Biomolecular mechanisms in varicose veins development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segiet, Oliwia Anna; Brzozowa-Zasada, Marlena; Piecuch, Adam; Dudek, Damian; Reichman-Warmusz, Edyta; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2015-02-01

    Varicose veins (VVs) can be described as tortuous and dilated palpable veins, which are more than 3 mm in diameter. They are one of the clinical presentations of chronic venous disorders, which are a significant cause of morbidity. The prevalence of VVs has been estimated at 25-33% in women and 10-20% in men and is still increasing at an alarming rate. Family history, older age, female, pregnancy, obesity, standing occupations, and a history of deep venous thrombosis are the predominant risk factors. A great amount of factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of VVs, including changes in hydrostatic pressure, valvular incompetence, deep venous obstruction, ineffective function of calf muscle pump, biochemical and structural alterations of the vessel wall, extracellular matrix abnormalities, impaired balance between growth factors or cytokines, genetic alterations, and several other mechanisms. Nevertheless, the issue of pathogenesis in VVs is still not completely known, even if a great progress has been made in understanding their molecular basis. This kind of studies appears promising and should be encouraged, and perhaps the new insight in this matter may result in targeted therapy or possibly prevention.

  13. Cortical control of whisker movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carl C H

    2014-01-01

    Facial muscles drive whisker movements, which are important for active tactile sensory perception in mice and rats. These whisker muscles are innervated by cholinergic motor neurons located in the lateral facial nucleus. The whisker motor neurons receive synaptic inputs from premotor neurons, which are located within the brain stem, the midbrain, and the neocortex. Complex, distributed neural circuits therefore regulate whisker movement during behavior. This review focuses specifically on cortical whisker motor control. The whisker primary motor cortex (M1) strongly innervates brain stem reticular nuclei containing whisker premotor neurons, which might form a central pattern generator for rhythmic whisker protraction. In a parallel analogous pathway, the whisker primary somatosensory cortex (S1) strongly projects to the brain stem spinal trigeminal interpolaris nucleus, which contains whisker premotor neurons innervating muscles for whisker retraction. These anatomical pathways may play important functional roles, since stimulation of M1 drives exploratory rhythmic whisking, whereas stimulation of S1 drives whisker retraction.

  14. The origin of cortical neurons

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    J.G. Parnavelas

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex comprise two broad classes: pyramidal neurons, which project to distant targets, and the inhibitory nonpyramidal cells, the cortical interneurons. Pyramidal neurons are generated in the germinal ventricular zone, which lines the lateral ventricles, and migrate along the processes of radial glial cells to their positions in the developing cortex in an `inside-out' sequence. The GABA-containing nonpyramidal cells originate for the most part in the ganglionic eminence, the primordium of the basal ganglia in the ventral telencephalon. These cells follow tangential migratory routes to enter the cortex and are in close association with the corticofugal axonal system. Once they enter the cortex, they move towards the ventricular zone, possibly to obtain positional information, before they migrate radially in the direction of the pial surface to take up their positions in the developing cortex. The mechanisms that guide interneurons throughout these long and complex migratory routes are currently under investigation.

  15. Cortical cartography and Caret software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, David C

    2012-08-15

    Caret software is widely used for analyzing and visualizing many types of fMRI data, often in conjunction with experimental data from other modalities. This article places Caret's development in a historical context that spans three decades of brain mapping--from the early days of manually generated flat maps to the nascent field of human connectomics. It also highlights some of Caret's distinctive capabilities. This includes the ease of visualizing data on surfaces and/or volumes and on atlases as well as individual subjects. Caret can display many types of experimental data using various combinations of overlays (e.g., fMRI activation maps, cortical parcellations, areal boundaries), and it has other features that facilitate the analysis and visualization of complex neuroimaging datasets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endoscopic Vein Harvesting for Coronary Bypass Grafting: A Blessing or a Trojan Horse?

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    Ryan Accord

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional open harvest of the great saphenous vein (GSV during CABG results in approximately 7% donor-site complications. Using endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH the full GSV length can be harvested through a 3 cm incision. This nonsystematic review discusses several key issues concerning EVH, based on an extensive Pubmed search. Found studies show that EVH results in reduced number of wound complications, less postoperative pain, earlier postoperative mobilisation, reduced length of hospital stay, and is more cost-effective. Initial studies did not find significant differences in graft histology, patency, or clinical outcome. However, in 2009 convincing evidence of inferior histological graft properties became available. Furthermore, an observational study showed that EVH resulted in significantly more graft stenosis, was associated with higher mortality, more myocard infarction, and more reinterventions. Most recent publications could not confirm these findings, however larger randomised controlled trials focusing on graft quality are being awaited.

  17. Unsupervised fetal cortical surface parcellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    At the core of many neuro-imaging studies, atlas-based brain parcellations are used for example to study normal brain evolution across the lifespan. These atlases rely on the assumption that the same anatomical features are present on all subjects to be studied and that these features are stable enough to allow meaningful comparisons between different brain surfaces and structures These methods, however, often fail when applied to fetal MRI data, due to the lack of consistent anatomical features present across gestation. This paper presents a novel surface-based fetal cortical parcellation framework which attempts to circumvent the lack of consistent anatomical features by proposing a brain parcellation scheme that is based solely on learned geometrical features. A mesh signature incorporating both extrinsic and intrinsic geometrical features is proposed and used in a clustering scheme to define a parcellation of the fetal brain. This parcellation is then learned using a Random Forest (RF) based learning approach and then further refined in an alpha-expansion graph-cut scheme. Based on the votes obtained by the RF inference procedure, a probability map is computed and used as a data term in the graph-cut procedure. The smoothness term is defined by learning a transition matrix based on the dihedral angles of the faces. Qualitative and quantitative results on a cohort of both healthy and high-risk fetuses are presented. Both visual and quantitative assessments show good results demonstrating a reliable method for fetal brain data and the possibility of obtaining a parcellation of the fetal cortical surfaces using only geometrical features.

  18. Towards a 'canonical' agranular cortical microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. Beul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on regularities in the intrinsic microcircuitry of cortical areas, variants of a 'canonical' cortical microcircuit have been proposed and widely adopted, particularly in computational neuroscience and neuroinformatics. However, this circuit is founded on striate cortex, which manifests perhaps the most extreme instance of cortical organization, in terms of a very high density of cells in highly differentiated cortical layers. Most other cortical regions have a less well differentiated architecture, stretching in gradients from the very dense eulaminate primary cortical areas to the other extreme of dysgranular and agranular areas of low density and poor laminar differentiation. It is unlikely for the patterns of inter- and intra-laminar connections to be uniform in spite of strong variations of their structural substrate. This assumption is corroborated by reports of divergence in intrinsic circuitry across the cortex. Consequently, it remains an important goal to define local microcircuits for a variety of cortical types, in particular, agranular cortical regions. As a counterpoint to the striate microcircuit, which may be anchored in an exceptional cytoarchitecture, we here outline a tentative microcircuit for agranular cortex. The circuit is based on a synthesis of the available literature on the local microcircuitry in agranular cortical areas of the rodent brain, investigated by anatomical and electrophysiological approaches. A central observation of these investigations is a weakening of interlaminar inhibition as cortical cytoarchitecture becomes less distinctive. Thus, our study of agranular microcircuitry revealed deviations from the well-known 'canonical' microcircuit established for striate cortex, suggesting variations in the intrinsic circuitry across the cortex that may be functionally relevant.

  19. The Effects of Obesity on Murine Cortical Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sophi

    This dissertation details the effects of obesity on the mechanical properties and structure of cortical bone. Obesity is associated with greater bone mineral content that might be expected to protect against fracture, which has been observed in adults. Paradoxically however, the incidence of bone fractures has been found to increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Femora from adolescent and adult mice fed a high-fat diet are investigated for changes in shape, tissue structure, as well as tissue-level and whole-bone mechanical properties. Results indicate increased bone size, reduced size-independent mechanical properties, but maintained size-dependent mechanical properties. Other changes in cortical bone response to obesity are observed with advancing age. This study indicates that bone quantity and bone quality play important compensatory roles in determining fracture risk, and that fracture risk may not be lessened for adults as previously thought.

  20. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Claes; Engdahl, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Andersson, Annica; Windahl, Sara H; Farman, Helen H; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Islander, Ulrika; Sjögren, Klara

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota (GM) modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx) results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L) strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para) or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix) given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh) treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  1. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota (GM modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  2. Vein wall remodeling after deep vein thrombosis: differential effects of low molecular weight heparin and doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Vikram; Luke, Cathy; Miller, Erin; Mitsuya, Mayo; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Wakefield, Thomas W; Myers, Dan D; Henke, Peter K

    2010-02-01

    Venous thrombus resolution sets up an early intense inflammatory reaction, from which vein wall damage results. Tissue response to injury includes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and extracellular matrix protein turnover. This study sought to determine the effect of exogenous MMP inhibition and its potential attenuation of early vein wall injury. Rats received treatment beginning 24 hr after a stasis venous thrombosis by near occlusive ligation and until harvest at day 7. Three groups were evaluated: (1) vehicle saline controls (NaCl), (2) low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; Lovenox, 3 mg/kg daily SQ), and (3) doxycycline (DOXY, 30 mg/kg daily PO). Thrombus size (mg/mm), levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and D-dimer by colorimetric assay, and monocytes counts by immunohistochemistry were assessed. Vein wall assessment included stiffness by tensiometry, interleukin 1beta (IL-1 beta protein levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, MMP2 and -9 by zymography, and histological analysis of intimal thickness (IT). Comparisons were by t-test to control. p DOXY-treated groups (NaCl = 1.0 +/- 0.8, LWMH = 9 +/- 3, DOXY = 27 +/- 5 pg/mg protein, n = 6-8, p DOXY group (NaCl = 3.0 +/- 2.5, DOXY = 23 +/- 4.2 pg/mg protein, n = 5, p DOXY, compared to controls (NaCl = 0.33 +/- 0.05, LMWH = 0.17 +/- 0.03, DOXY = 0.43 +/- 0.09 N/mm, n = 5-7, p DOXY group at 7 days (NaCl = 26 +/- 3, LMWH = 38 +/- 17, DOXY = 6 +/- 3 pg/mg protein, n = 4-6, p DOXY = 0.8 +/- 0.20, n = 4-6, p DOXY groups (NaCl = 85 +/- 24, LMWH = 23 +/- 7( *), DOXY = 13 +/- 5 U/mg protein, n = 6-8, p DOXY did not alter the size of deep vein thrombosis, mildly altered thrombus composition, and differentially affected vein wall injury, despite similar reductions in early MMP9 activity. Whether exogenous MMP inhibition affects long-term vein wall fibrosis will require further study. Copyright 2010 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Portal vein thrombosis in children and adolescents: 20 years experience of a pediatric hepatology reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Menezes Ferri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Portal vein thrombosis refers to a total or partial obstruction of the blood flow in this vein due to a thrombus formation. It is an important cause of portal hypertension in the pediatric age group with high morbidity rates due to its main complication - the upper gastrointestinal bleeding. OBJECTIVE: To describe a group of patients with portal vein thrombosis without associated hepatic disease of the Pediatric Hepatology Clinic of the Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil with emphasis on diagnosis, presentation form and clinical complications, and the treatment of portal hypertension. METHODS: This is a descriptive study of a series of children and adolescents cases assisted from January 1990 to December 2010. The portal vein thrombosis diagnosis was established by ultrasound. RESULTS: Of the 55 studied patients, 30 (54.5% were male. In 29 patients (52.7%, none of the risk factors for portal vein thrombosis was observed. The predominant form of presentation was the upper gastrointestinal bleeding (52.7%. In 20 patients (36.4%, the initial manifestation was splenomegaly. During the whole following period of the study, 39 patients (70.9% showed at least one episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The mean age of patients in the first episode was 4.6 ± 3.4 years old. The endoscopic procedure carried out in the urgency or electively for search of esophageal varices showed its presence in 84.9% of the evaluated patients. The prophylactic endoscopic treatment was performed with endoscopic band ligation of varices in 31.3% of patients. Only one died due to refractory bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The portal vein thrombosis is one of the most important causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children. In all non febrile children with splenomegaly and/or hematemesis and without hepatomegaly and with normal hepatic function tests, it should be suspect of portal vein thrombosis. Thus, an

  4. Protective effects of berberine against amyloid beta-induced toxicity in cultured rat cortical neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Yanjun Zhang; Shuai Du; Mixia Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Berberine, a major constituent of Coptidis rhizoma, exhibits neural protective effects. The present study analyzed the potential protective effect of berberine against amyloid G-induced cytotoxicity in rat cerebral cortical neurons. Alzheimer's disease cell models were treated with 0.5 and 2 μmol/Lberberine for 36 hours to inhibit amyloid G-induced toxicity. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling staining results showed that berberine significantly increased cell viability and reduced cell apoptosis in primary cultured rat cortical neurons. In addition, western blot analysis revealed a protective effect of berberine against amyloid β-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neurons, which coincided with significantly decreased abnormal up-regulation of activated caspase-3. These results showed that berberine exhibited a protective effect against amyloid 13-induced cytotoxicity in cultured rat cortical neurons.

  5. Oxytocin mediates early experience-dependent cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing-Jing; Li, Shu-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Di; Miao, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Dinghong; Yao, Haishan; Yu, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Sensory experience is critical to development and plasticity of neural circuits. Here we report a new form of plasticity in neonatal mice, where early sensory experience cross-modally regulates development of all sensory cortices via oxytocin signaling. Unimodal sensory deprivation from birth through whisker deprivation or dark rearing reduced excitatory synaptic transmission in the correspondent sensory cortex and cross-modally in other sensory cortices. Sensory experience regulated synthesis and secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as its level in the cortex. Both in vivo oxytocin injection and increased sensory experience elevated excitatory synaptic transmission in multiple sensory cortices and significantly rescued the effects of sensory deprivation. Together, these results identify a new function for oxytocin in promoting cross-modal, experience-dependent cortical development. This link between sensory experience and oxytocin is particularly relevant to autism, where hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity to sensory inputs is prevalent and oxytocin is a hotly debated potential therapy.

  6. A study of images of Projective Angles of pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jue [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China); Zhaoqi, Zhang [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)], E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com; Yu Wei; Miao Cuilian; Yan Zixu; Zhao Yike [Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Aims: In images of magnetic resonance and computed tomography (CT) there are visible angles between pulmonary veins and the coronary, transversal or sagittal section of body. In this study these angles are measured and defined as Projective Angles of pulmonary veins. Several possible influential factors and characters of distribution are studied and analyzed for a better understanding of this imaging anatomic character of pulmonary veins. And it could be the anatomic base of adjusting correctly the angle of the central X-ray of the angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Method: Images of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) and contrast enhanced computer tomography (CECT) of the left atrium and pulmonary veins of 137 health objects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are processed with the technique of post-processing, and Projective Angles to the coronary and transversal sections are measured and analyzed statistically. Result: Project Angles of pulmonary veins are one of real and steady imaging anatomic characteristics of pulmonary veins. The statistical distribution of variables is relatively concentrated, with a fairly good representation of average value. It is possible to improve the angle of the central X-ray according to the average value in the selective angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing the catheter ablation of AF.

  7. AUTOLOGOUS VEIN SUPPORTED WITH A BIODEGRADABLE PROSTHESIS FOR ARTERIAL GRAFTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWEEP, HP; SATOH, S; VANDERLEI, B; HINRICHS, WLJ; DIJK, F; FEIJEN, J; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of a supporting, compliant, biodegradable prosthesis to function as a temporary protective scaffold for autologous vein grafts in the arterial circulation, we implanted vein grafts into the carotid arteries of rabbits, either with (composite grafts) or without (control graf

  8. Quantification of deep medullary veins at 7 T brain MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Bouvy, Willem H.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Schultz, Tom B Razoux; Viergever, Max A.; Vincken, Koen L.; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Deep medullary veins support the venous drainage of the brain and may display abnormalities in the context of different cerebrovascular diseases. We present and evaluate a method to automatically detect and quantify deep medullary veins at 7 T. Methods: Five participants were scanned

  9. Quantification of deep medullary veins at 7 T brain MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijf, Hugo J.; Bouvy, Willem H.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Schultz, Tom B Razoux; Viergever, Max A.; Vincken, Koen L.; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Deep medullary veins support the venous drainage of the brain and may display abnormalities in the context of different cerebrovascular diseases. We present and evaluate a method to automatically detect and quantify deep medullary veins at 7 T. Methods: Five participants were scanned twi

  10. Finger-vein image separation algorithms and realization with MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyan; Ma, Junshan; Wu, Jiajie

    2010-10-01

    According to the characteristics of the finger-vein image, we adopted a series of methods to enhance the contrast of the image in order to separate the finger-vein areas from the background areas, and made prepare for the subsequent research such as feature extraction and recognition processing . The method consists of three steps: denoising, contrast enhancement and image binarization. In denoising, considering the relationship between gray levels in the adjacent areas of the finger-vein image, we adopted the Gradient Inverse Weighted Smoothing method. In contrast enhancement, we improved the conventional High Frequency Stress Filtering method and adopted a method which combined the traditional High Frequency Stress Filtering algorithm together with the Histogram Equalization. With this method, the contrast of the finger-vein area and the background area has been enhanced significantly. During the binarization process, after taking the differences of the gray levels between the different areas of the finger-vein image into consideration, we proposed a method which combined the binarization by dividing the image into several segments and the Morphological Image Processing means. Our experiment results show that after a series of processing mentioned above by using MATLAB, the finger-vein areas can be separated from the background areas obviously. We can get a vivid figure of the finger-vein which provided some references for the following research such as finger-vein image feature extraction, matching and identification.

  11. A Tight Spot After Pulmonary Vein Catheter Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, Rabia; Yeh, Lu; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Saraf, Rabya; Matyal, Robina; Mahmood, Feroze

    2016-01-01

    A 52-YEAR-OLD woman with a history of embolic stroke due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was referred to the authors’ institution for epicardial surgical pulmonary vein isolation with left atrial appendage resection. The patient had 2 previous failed pulmonary vein catheter ablations. Dense

  12. Pressure-diameter relationship in the human greater saphenous vein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stooker, W; Gok, M; Sipkema, P; Niessen, HWM; Baidoshvili, A; Westerhof, N; Jansen, EK; Wildevuur, CRH; Eijsman, L

    2003-01-01

    Background. Compliance of artificial and autologous vascular grafts is related to future patency. We investigated whether differences in compliance exist between saphenous vein grafts derived from the upper or lower leg, which might indicate upper or lower leg saphenous vein preference in coronary a

  13. A Tight Spot After Pulmonary Vein Catheter Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, Rabia; Yeh, Lu; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Saraf, Rabya; Matyal, Robina; Mahmood, Feroze

    2016-01-01

    A 52-YEAR-OLD woman with a history of embolic stroke due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was referred to the authors’ institution for epicardial surgical pulmonary vein isolation with left atrial appendage resection. The patient had 2 previous failed pulmonary vein catheter ablations. Dense fibrou

  14. [Treatment of pulmonary vein stenosis secondary to radiofrequency ablation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero Guadagnoli, Adolfo; Contreras, Alejandro E; Leonardi, Carlos R; Ballarino, Miguel A; Atea, Leonardo; Peirone, Alejandro R

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of the pulmonary veins by applying radiofrequency is an effective treatment for atrial fibrillation. One of the potential complications with higher clinical compromise utilizing this invasive technique is the occurrence of stenosis of one or more pulmonary veins. This complication can be treated by angioplasty with or without stent implantation, with an adequate clinical improvement, but with a high rate of restenosis.

  15. Dorzolamide increases retinal oxygen tension after branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Michael Hove; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Scherfig, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  16. Endovascular exclusion of a large external iliac vein aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Mina; Hernandez, Diego

    2013-07-01

    Iliac vein aneurysms are uncommon, and there is no consensus on optimal treatment. We present a case of venous exclusion using an endovascular approach. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a large external iliac vein aneurysm treated endovascularly. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach with satisfactory 1-year follow-up.

  17. The anatomy of the iliolumbar vein. A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasani, Vinay; Jaffray, David

    2002-09-01

    We carried out a cadaver study of 16 iliolumbar veins in order to define the surgical anatomy. Two variants were found; a single vein at a mean distance of 3.74 cm from the inferior vena cava (11 of 16) and two separate draining veins at a mean distance from the vena cava of 2.98 cm for the proximal and 6.24 cm for the distal stem (5 of 16). Consistently, the proximal vein tore on attempted medial retraction of the great vessels. The mean length of the vein was 1.6 cm and its mean width 1.07 cm. Three stems were shorter than 0.5 cm. Two or more tributaries usually drained the iliacus and psoas muscles, and the fifth lumbar vertebral body. The obturator nerve crossed all veins superficially at a mean of 2.76 cm lateral to the mouth. In four of these, this distance was less than 1.5 cm. Usually, the lumbosacral trunk crossed deep, at a mean distance of 2.5 cm lateral to the mouth, but in three veins, this distance was 1 cm or less. Our findings emphasise the need for proper dissection of the iliolumbar vein before ligature during exposure of the anterior lumbar spine.

  18. Portal vein embolization induces compensatory hypertrophy of remnant liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yao Huang; Wei-Zhu Yang; Jian-Jun Li; Na Jiang; Qu-Bin Zheng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different portal vein branch embolization agents in inducing compensatory hypertrophy of the remnant liver and to offer a theoretic basis for clinical portal vein branch embolization.METHODS: Forty-one adult dogs were included in the experiment and divided into four groups. Five dogs served as a control group, 12 as a gelfoam group, 12as a coil-gelfoam group and 12 as an absolute ethanol group. Left portal vein embolization was performed in each group. The results from the embolization in each group using different embolic agents were compared.The safety of portal vein embolization (PVE) was evaluated by liver function test, computed tomography (CT) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of liver and portal veins. Statistical test of variance was performed to analyze the results.RESULTS: Gelfoam used for PVE was inefficient in recanalization of portal vein branch 4 wk after the procedure. The liver volume in groups of coil-gelfoam and absolute ethanol increased 25.1% and 33.18%,respectively. There was no evidence of recanalization of embolized portal vein, hepatic dysfunction, and portal hypertension in coil-gelfoam group and absolute ethanol group.CONCOUSION: Portal vein branch embolization using absolute ethanol and coil-gelfoam could induce atrophy of the embolized lobes and compensatory hypertrophy of the remnant liver. Gelfoam is an inefficient agent.

  19. Endovascular management for significant iatrogenic portal vein bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Park, Jonathan K; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite conservative treatment, hemorrhage from an intrahepatic branch of the portal vein can cause hemodynamic instability requiring urgent intervention. Purpose To retrospectively report the outcomes of hemodynamically significant portal vein bleeding after endovascular management. Material and Methods During a period of 15 years, four patients (2 men, 2 women; median age, 70.5 years) underwent angiography and embolization for iatrogenic portal vein bleeding. Causes of hemorrhage, angiographic findings, endovascular treatment, and complications were reported. Results Portal vein bleeding occurred after percutaneous liver biopsy (n = 2), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (n = 1), and percutaneous cholecystostomy (n = 1). The median time interval between angiography and percutaneous procedure was 5 h (range, 4-240 h). Common hepatic angiograms including indirect mesenteric portograms showed active portal vein bleeding into the peritoneal cavity with (n = 1) or without (n = 2) an arterioportal (AP) fistula, and portal vein pseudoaneurysm alone with an AP fistula (n = 1). Successful transcatheter arterial embolization (n = 2) or percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization (n = 2) was performed. Embolic materials were n-butyl cyanoacrylate alone (n = 2) or in combination with gelatin sponge particles and coils (n = 2). There were no major treatment-related complications or patient mortality within 30 days. Conclusion Patients with symptomatic or life-threatening portal vein bleeding following liver-penetrating procedures can successfully be managed with embolization.

  20. Looking after your health. 3. Avoiding varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Sara

    2015-02-01

    This article is to summarise key concepts for the health of the midwife with particular focus on standing for prolonged periods. One of the resultant factors relating to standing postures is the slow but avoidable progression of varicose veins. There is a strong genetic bias to these veins, which can be distressing, but here we will highlight awareness and current research.

  1. Retino-choroidal ischemia in central retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Nazimul; Hussain, Anjli

    2014-01-01

    A 41-year-old gentleman with insulin dependent diabetes had decreased vision in the right eye due to non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion with macular edema. One month following intravitreal ranibizumab, he developed retino-choroidal ischemia with further loss of vision. Authors show the fluorescein angiographic transition from non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion to retino-choroidal ischemia.

  2. Optimized Axillary Vein Technique versus Subclavian Vein Technique in Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Implantation: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Liu; Yi-Feng Zhou; Peng Yang; Yan-Sha Gao; Gui-Ru Zhao; Shi-Yan Ren; Xian-Lun Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:The conventional venous access for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) is the subclavian vein,which is often accompanied by high complication rate.The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of optimized axillary vein technique.Methods:A total of 247 patients undergoing CIED implantation were included and assigned to the axillary vein group or the subclavian vein group randomly.Success rate of puncture and complications in the perioperative period and follow-ups were recorded.Results:The overall success rate (95.7% vs.96.0%) and one-time success rate (68.4% vs.66.1%) of punctures were similar between the two groups.In the subclavian vein group,pneumothorax occurred in three patients.The subclavian gaps of three patients were too tight to allow operation of the electrode lead.In contrast,there were no puncture-associated complications in the axillary vein group.In the patient follow-ups,two patients in the subclavian vein group had subclavian crush syndrome and both of them received lead replacement.The incidence of complications during the perioperative period and follow-ups of the axillary vein group and the subclavian vein group was 1.6% (2/125) and 8.2% (10/122),respectively (x2=5.813,P =0.016).Conclusion:Optimized axillary vein technique may be superior to the conventional subclavian vein technique for CIED lead placement.

  3. Organisation of Xenopus oocyte and egg cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P; Pérez-Mongiovi, D; Houliston, E

    1999-03-15

    The division of the Xenopus oocyte cortex into structurally and functionally distinct "animal" and "vegetal" regions during oogenesis provides the basis of the organisation of the early embryo. The vegetal region of the cortex accumulates specific maternal mRNAs that specify the development of the endoderm and mesoderm, as well as functionally-defined "determinants" of dorso-anterior development, and recognisable "germ plasm" determinants that segregate into primary germ cells. These localised elements on the vegetal cortex underlie both the primary animal-vegetal polarity of the egg and the organisation of the developing embryo. The animal cortex meanwhile becomes specialised for the events associated with fertilisation: sperm entry, calcium release into the cytoplasm, cortical granule exocytosis, and polarised cortical contraction. Cortical and subcortical reorganisations associated with meiotic maturation, fertilisation, cortical rotation, and the first mitotic cleavage divisions redistribute the vegetal cortical determinants, contributing to the specification of dorso-anterior axis and segregation of the germ line. In this article we consider what is known about the changing organisation of the oocyte and egg cortex in relation to the mechanisms of determinant localisation, anchorage, and redistribution, and show novel ultrastructural views of cortices isolated at different stages and processed by the rapid-freeze deep-etch method. Cortical organisation involves interactions between the different cytoskeletal filament systems and internal membranes. Associated proteins and cytoplasmic signals probably modulate these interactions in stage-specific ways, leaving much to be understood.

  4. Brain volumetrics, regional cortical thickness and radiographic findings in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsiagy A. Salama, M.D.

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Children with CCHD show MRI evidence of micro- and macro vascular injury, reduced brain volume and cortical thickness. Brain volume loss correlated with hsCRP, oxygen saturation and packed cell volume.

  5. Finger vein image quality evaluation using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2013-02-01

    In an automatic finger-vein recognition system, finger-vein image quality is significant for segmentation, enhancement, and matching processes. In this paper, we propose a finger-vein image quality evaluation method using support vector machines (SVMs). We extract three features including the gradient, image contrast, and information capacity from the input image. An SVM model is built on the training images with annotated quality labels (i.e., high/low) and then applied to unseen images for quality evaluation. To resolve the class-imbalance problem in the training data, we perform oversampling for the minority class with random-synthetic minority oversampling technique. Cross-validation is also employed to verify the reliability and stability of the learned model. Our experimental results show the effectiveness of our method in evaluating the quality of finger-vein images, and by discarding low-quality images detected by our method, the overall finger-vein recognition performance is considerably improved.

  6. Multiple vascular anomalies involving testicular, suprarenal arteries and lumbar veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Jyothsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular arteries arise from the abdominal aorta and the inferior suprarenal artery from the renal artery. There are reports about variant origin and course of these arteries. Accessory testicular artery is also a common finding but its providing origin to inferior suprarenal artery is an important observation. During a routine dissection of abdomen of approximately 55-year-old male cadaver, unique vascular abnormality was observed. On the left side, a common arterial trunk originating from abdominal aorta immediately branched to give rise to superior testicular and inferior suprarenal arteries, the former after a short course hooked by the left suprarenal vein. In addition, the left suprarenal vein, second left lumbar vein, and left testicular vein joined to form a common trunk which drained into the left renal vein. A sound knowledge of vascular variations in relation to the kidney and suprarenal gland is important to surgeons dissecting the abdominal cavity.

  7. Design of a clinical vein contrast enhancing projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal

    2001-06-01

    A clinical study has been initiated to compare an experimental IR device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE), with standard techniques for finding veins for venipuncture. The aims of this proposal are (1) to evaluate the performance of the VCE in a clinical setting, specifically by comparing its sensitivity of detection with existing vein-finding techniques used by experienced nurses or phlebotomists, (2) to study its usefulness in subjects who are obese, who have difficult venous access or thrombosed veins, or whose veins are not visible or difficult to palpate, and (3) to show that it performs as well on subjects with darkly pigmented skin as on subjects with lightly pigmented skin. The VCE will first be studied in adult subjects, and then in pediatric subjects.

  8. Jugular-axillary vein bypass for salvage of arteriovenous access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, K D; Hyde, G L

    1989-01-01

    Stenosis or occlusion of the subclavian vein can cause incapacitating upper extremity swelling and venous hypertension in the patient with an arteriovenous (AV) access. A case of subclavian vein occlusion is reported that was treated with internal jugular-axillary vein bypass. This procedure resulted in salvage of the access and rapid resolution of the associated upper extremity swelling. It was concluded that jugular-axillary vein bypass should be considered in patients who have massive upper extremity edema resulting from a functioning AV access and ipsilateral subclavian vein occlusion. Patients undergoing creation of an AV access who have had previous temporary subclavian catheters or previous early failure of an AV access should have phlebography before surgery.

  9. Connexin43 Inhibition Prevents Human Vein Grafts Intimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longchamp, Alban; Allagnat, Florent; Alonso, Florian; Kuppler, Christopher; Dubuis, Céline; Ozaki, Charles-Keith; Mitchell, James R.; Berceli, Scott; Corpataux, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Venous bypass grafts often fail following arterial implantation due to excessive smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and consequent intimal hyperplasia (IH). Intercellular communication mediated by Connexins (Cx) regulates differentiation, growth and proliferation in various cell types. Microarray analysis of vein grafts in a model of bilateral rabbit jugular vein graft revealed Cx43 as an early upregulated gene. Additional experiments conducted using an ex-vivo human saphenous veins perfusion system (EVPS) confirmed that Cx43 was rapidly increased in human veins subjected ex-vivo to arterial hemodynamics. Cx43 knock-down by RNA interference, or adenoviral-mediated overexpression, respectively inhibited or stimulated the proliferation of primary human VSMC in vitro. Furthermore, Cx blockade with carbenoxolone or the specific Cx43 inhibitory peptide 43gap26 prevented the burst in myointimal proliferation and IH formation in human saphenous veins. Our data demonstrated that Cx43 controls proliferation and the formation of IH after arterial engraftment. PMID:26398895

  10. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGY OF CEREBRAL BRIDGING VEIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the morphological properties of pig cerebral bridging vein. Methods. The morphology and fibre arrangement of 15 cerebral bridging veins obtained from 7 Danish Yorkshire landrace pigs were observed. Results. There was a narrow region at the junction of the cerebral bridging veins and superior sagittal sinus termed “ outflow cuff segment". The diameter and length of outflow cuff segment were much smaller and the thickness was higher than those of the cerebral bridging veins (P0.05). Conclusions. There were differences in fibre arrangement and morphological properties between the outflow cuff segment and the cerebral bridging vein, just like a resistance valve, the outflow cuff segment may play an important role in stabilizing cerebral venous outflow and regulating intracranial pressure.

  11. Endovascular cannulation with a microneedle for central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Yamane, Shin; Arakawa, Akira; Inoue, Maiko; Yamakawa, Tadashi; Uchio, Eiichi; Yanagi, Yasuo; Amano, Shiro

    2013-06-01

    We developed a new surgical treatment in which a microneedle is used for retinal endovascular cannulation to treat eyes with central retinal vein occlusion by flushing thrombus out of the central retinal vein as it passes through the lamina cribrosa. The eyes of 12 consecutive patients (12 eyes) with central retinal vein occlusion were successfully treated using this novel treatment. At 24 weeks after surgery, 9 of 12 eyes had gained more than 15 letters in best-corrected visual acuity, and the mean decrease in central foveal thickness was 271.1 μm. Few complications were observed. The microneedle is stiff and sharp enough to facilitate retinal endovascular cannulation in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion. This new technique is a promising treatment of macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion.

  12. [Intermittent compression of the subclavian vein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraval, M

    1980-01-01

    The pathology of the cervico-thoracic channel is now well understood. Intermittent venous compression in the costo-clavicular space by the subclavian muscle can lead to acute occlusion of the venous trunk. It is important to make an early diagnosis of such compression before the stage of occlusive phlebitis. Clinical examination and dynamic phlebography allow the diagnosis to be made. Resection of the first rib is the ideal treatment. The mode of approach to the first rib is debatable since it seems that when venous symptomatology is dominant, the axillary method of Roos is not the best approach. A combined sub- and supra-clavicular approach permits a wide decompression of the vein and a more complete excision of the rib.

  13. Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis following Oropharyngeal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Bostanci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT is a rare condition which may lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Prolonged central venous catheterization, intravenous (IV drug use, trauma, and radiotherapy are the most frequent causes of the IJVT. IJVT that develops after the oropharyngeal infection is a quite rare situation today. In this paper, a 37-year-old woman was presented; swelling occurred on her neck after acute tonsillitis and she was diagnosed with IJVT through Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging and managed without complications. Early diagnosis and conservative treatment with broad-spectrum IV antibiotics and anticoagulant agents have a critical importance for the prevention of fatal complications.

  14. Portal vein embolization before major hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Liu; Yong Fu

    2005-01-01

    To discuss the rationale, techniques and the unsolved issues regarding preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) before major hepatectomy. After a systematic search of Pubmed, we reviewed and retrieved literature related to PVE. Preoperative PVE is an approach that is gaining increasing acceptance in the preoperative treatment of selected patients prior to major hepatic resection. Induction of selective hypertrophy of the nondiseased portion of the liver with PVE in patients with either primary or secondary hepatobiliary, malignancy with small estimated future liver remnants (FLR) may result in fewer complications and shorter hospital stays following resection. Additionally, PVE performed in patients initially considered unsuitable for resection due to lack of sufficient remaining normal parenchyma may add to the pool of candidates for surgical treatment. The results suggest that PVE is recomm-endable in treating the cirrhotic patients before major liver resection.

  15. Contrast-induced transient cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parth R; Yohendran, Jayshan; Parker, Geoffrey D; McCluskey, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    We present a case of transient cortical blindness secondary to contrast medium toxicity. A 58-year-old man had successful endovascular coiling of a right posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm but became confused and unable to see after the procedure. His visual acuity was no light perception bilaterally. Clinically, there was no new intra-ocular pathology. An urgent non-contrast computed tomography scan of the brain showed cortical hyperdensity in both parieto-occipital cortices, consistent with contrast medium leakage through the blood-brain barrier from the coiling procedure. The man remained completely blind for 72 hours, after which his visual acuity improved gradually back to his baseline level.

  16. Reversible cortical blindness: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Das, Somnath; Gupta, Anindya; Biswas, Jaya; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Biswas, Gautam

    2010-11-01

    Cortical blindness is defined as visual failure with preserved pupillary reflexes in structurally intact eyes due to bilateral lesions affecting occipital cortex. Bilateral oedema and infarction of the posterior and middle cerebral arterial territory, trauma, glioma and meningioma of the occipital cortex are the main causes of cortical blindness. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to the reversible subtype of cortical blindness and is usually associated with hypertension, diabetes, immunosuppression, puerperium with or without eclampsia. Here, 3 cases of PRES with complete or partial visual recovery following treatment in 6-month follow-up are reported.

  17. Tibial cortical lesions: A multimodality pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, P.A., E-mail: philippa.tyler@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Mohaghegh, P., E-mail: pegah1000@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Foley, J., E-mail: jfoley1@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 16 Alexandra Parade, Glasgow G31 2ES (United Kingdom); Isaac, A., E-mail: amandaisaac@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Zavareh, A., E-mail: ali.zavareh@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom); Thorning, C., E-mail: cthorning@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, East Surrey Hospital, Canada Avenue, Redhill, Surrey RH1 5RH (United Kingdom); Kirwadi, A., E-mail: anandkirwadi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Pressney, I., E-mail: ipressney@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Amary, F., E-mail: fernanda.amary@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Rajeswaran, G., E-mail: grajeswaran@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Multimodality imaging plays an important role in the investigation and diagnosis of shin pain. • We review the multimodality imaging findings of common cortically based tibial lesions. • We also describe the rarer pathologies of tibial cortical lesions. - Abstract: Shin pain is a common complaint, particularly in young and active patients, with a wide range of potential diagnoses and resulting implications. We review the natural history and multimodality imaging findings of the more common causes of cortically-based tibial lesions, as well as the rarer pathologies less frequently encountered in a general radiology department.

  18. Autogenous Sapheonus Vein Graft Interposition in Arteriovenous Fistula Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Uzun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Other techniques are required due to the negative influence of poor superficial venous system calibration (<1.5-2 mm to the long term patency of the arteriovenous fistula which is documented via preoperative Doppler ultrasound examination. The postoperative outcome of 32 patients were compared prospectively whom autologous saphenous vein bridge graft was interposed between brachial artery/high brachial vein and radial artery/basilic vein. Material and Method: Patients were divided into two groups; patients whom radial artery/basilic vein autologous saphenous vein graft interposition was performed were labelled as Group 1 (17 patients while patients whom brachial artery/high brachial vein autologous saphenous vein graft was interpositioned were labelled as Group 2 (15 patients. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Graft related complications were recorded. Primary and secondary patency rate were calculated. Results: Graft infection, edema or ischemia of the hand or arm, congestive heart failure and mortality was not observed. There was not a significant difference in puncture site complications between two groups. Primary patency rate was 76.5% (13 of 17 in Group 1 while it was 93.3% (14 of 15 for Group 2 (p=0,185. Secondary patency rate was 82.4% (14 of 17 in Group1 and 100% (15 of 15 for Group 2 (p=0.093. Primary and secondary patency rate were similar between two groups. Discussion: We sought to compare the complication and patency rate of the proximal (brachial artery/high brachial vein and distal (radial artery/basilic vein located bridge graft interpositions and could not found statistical difference between two groups. It is reasonable to keep proximal regions for further interventions, so radial artery/basilic vein bridge graft interposition can be recommended as the initial option according to our findings.

  19. Development of HIFU Treatment for Lower Extremity Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Naohiko; Ushijima, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Jun; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Deguchi, Juno; Takagi, Shu; Miyata, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2011-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has recently been developed as a noninvasive therapeutic method. In our study, a novel noninvasive therapy with HIFU was proposed for occlusion of lower extremity varicose veins. The temperature increase caused by HIFU is used to occlude varicose veins. Occluded veins became fibrotic, resulting in complete recovery. Our final goal is the medical application of HIFU treatment for varicose veins. In this study, we attempted to occlude the veins of rabbits. Prior to venous occlusion experiments, the area heated by HIFU was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) gel, which denatures at >70 °C. The results indicate that the size of the heated area mainly depends on intensity at the focal point and the exposure time. A tendency was also seen for the heated area to extend toward the transducer with increasing exposure time. In animal experiments, skin burns during HIFU exposure represented a critical problem. We therefore examined the safe range of HIFU intensities in abdominal exposure experiments before conducting venous occlusion experiments. The ultrasound frequency was 1.7 MHz. Intensity at the focal point was 900 W/cm2, and the exposure time was 20 s. Rabbits underwent chemical depilation and echo gel was applied to the exposed skin to fill the boundary gap. Target veins were compressed during HIFU exposure to avoid thermal dissipation, and hyaluronan water solution was injected between the veins and skin to maintain the distance between the skin and veins at ≥5 mm. Veins were then exposed to HIFU and occluded. The capability of HIFU treatment to occlude lower extremity varicose veins was verified by the present study.

  20. Mineral vein dynamics modelling (FRACS II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urai, J.; Virgo, S.; Arndt, M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); and others

    2016-08-15

    The Mineral Vein Dynamics Modeling group ''FRACS'' started out as a team of 7 research groups in its first phase and continued with a team of 5 research groups at the Universities of Aachen, Tuebingen, Karlsruhe, Mainz and Glasgow during its second phase ''FRACS 11''. The aim of the group was to develop an advanced understanding of the interplay between fracturing, fluid flow and fracture healing with a special emphasis on the comparison of field data and numerical models. Field areas comprised the Oman mountains in Oman (which where already studied in detail in the first phase), a siliciclastic sequence in the Internal Ligurian Units in Italy (closed to Sestri Levante) and cores of Zechstein carbonates from a Lean Gas reservoir in Northern Germany. Numerical models of fracturing, sealing and interaction with fluid that were developed in phase I where expanded in phase 11. They were used to model small scale fracture healing by crystal growth and the resulting influence on flow, medium scale fracture healing and its influence on successive fracturing and healing, as well as large scale dynamic fluid flow through opening and closing fractures and channels as a function of fluid overpressure. The numerical models were compared with structures in the field and we were able to identify first proxies for mechanical vein-hostrock properties and fluid overpressures versus tectonic stresses. Finally we propose a new classification of stylolites based on numerical models and observations in the Zechstein cores and continued to develop a new stress inversion tool to use stylolites to estimate depth of their formation.

  1. Influence of wiring cost on the large-scale architecture of human cortical connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samu, David; Seth, Anil K; Nowotny, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    In the past two decades some fundamental properties of cortical connectivity have been discovered: small-world structure, pronounced hierarchical and modular organisation, and strong core and rich-club structures. A common assumption when interpreting results of this kind is that the observed structural properties are present to enable the brain's function. However, the brain is also embedded into the limited space of the skull and its wiring has associated developmental and metabolic costs. These basic physical and economic aspects place separate, often conflicting, constraints on the brain's connectivity, which must be characterized in order to understand the true relationship between brain structure and function. To address this challenge, here we ask which, and to what extent, aspects of the structural organisation of the brain are conserved if we preserve specific spatial and topological properties of the brain but otherwise randomise its connectivity. We perform a comparative analysis of a connectivity map of the cortical connectome both on high- and low-resolutions utilising three different types of surrogate networks: spatially unconstrained ('random'), connection length preserving ('spatial'), and connection length optimised ('reduced') surrogates. We find that unconstrained randomisation markedly diminishes all investigated architectural properties of cortical connectivity. By contrast, spatial and reduced surrogates largely preserve most properties and, interestingly, often more so in the reduced surrogates. Specifically, our results suggest that the cortical network is less tightly integrated than its spatial constraints would allow, but more strongly segregated than its spatial constraints would necessitate. We additionally find that hierarchical organisation and rich-club structure of the cortical connectivity are largely preserved in spatial and reduced surrogates and hence may be partially attributable to cortical wiring constraints. In contrast

  2. Influence of wiring cost on the large-scale architecture of human cortical connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Samu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades some fundamental properties of cortical connectivity have been discovered: small-world structure, pronounced hierarchical and modular organisation, and strong core and rich-club structures. A common assumption when interpreting results of this kind is that the observed structural properties are present to enable the brain's function. However, the brain is also embedded into the limited space of the skull and its wiring has associated developmental and metabolic costs. These basic physical and economic aspects place separate, often conflicting, constraints on the brain's connectivity, which must be characterized in order to understand the true relationship between brain structure and function. To address this challenge, here we ask which, and to what extent, aspects of the structural organisation of the brain are conserved if we preserve specific spatial and topological properties of the brain but otherwise randomise its connectivity. We perform a comparative analysis of a connectivity map of the cortical connectome both on high- and low-resolutions utilising three different types of surrogate networks: spatially unconstrained ('random', connection length preserving ('spatial', and connection length optimised ('reduced' surrogates. We find that unconstrained randomisation markedly diminishes all investigated architectural properties of cortical connectivity. By contrast, spatial and reduced surrogates largely preserve most properties and, interestingly, often more so in the reduced surrogates. Specifically, our results suggest that the cortical network is less tightly integrated than its spatial constraints would allow, but more strongly segregated than its spatial constraints would necessitate. We additionally find that hierarchical organisation and rich-club structure of the cortical connectivity are largely preserved in spatial and reduced surrogates and hence may be partially attributable to cortical wiring constraints

  3. Canonical Coordinates for Retino-Cortical Magnification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Florack

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A geometric model for a biologically-inspired visual front-end is proposed, based on an isotropic, scale-invariant two-form field. The model incorporates a foveal property typical of biological visual systems, with an approximately linear decrease of resolution as a function of eccentricity, and by a physical size constant that measures the radius of the geometric foveola, the central region characterized by maximal resolving power. It admits a description in singularity-free canonical coordinates generalizing the familiar log-polar coordinates and reducing to these in the asymptotic case of negligibly-sized geometric foveola or, equivalently, at peripheral locations in the visual field. It has predictive power to the extent that quantitative geometric relationships pertaining to retino-cortical magnification along the primary visual pathway, such as receptive field size distribution and spatial arrangement in retina and striate cortex, can be deduced in a principled manner. The biological plausibility of the model is demonstrated by comparison with known facts of human vision.

  4. A Case of Persistent Sciatic Artery Aneurysm Accompanied by a Persistent Sciatic Vein

    OpenAIRE

    Tadakoshi, Masao; Ohta, Takashi; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Ikuo; Iwata, Hirohide; Yamada, Tetsuya; Hida, Noriyuki; Orimoto, Yuki

    2010-01-01

    A persistent sciatic artery is a rare anomaly. On the other hand, a persistent sciatic vein is frequently associated with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. In a 71-year-old female with a complete-type persistent sciatic artery aneurysm, we performed aneurysmectomy and right femoropopliteal bypass surgery. The right popliteal vein drained into the femoral vein via a lower-type persistent sciatic vein and the deep femoral vein. The superficial femoral artery and vein were hypoplastic. Since only 4 ca...

  5. 手背静脉图像增强和分割方法%Novel Algorithm For Hand Vein Image Enhancement and Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡学友

    2014-01-01

    近红外摄像机采集到的手背静脉图像对比度较低且静脉结构简单,为了有效提取手背静脉结构特征,首先分割出包含主要静脉结构信息的区域,并进行灰度归一化;然后利用动态全局阈值法对静脉结构进行粗分割;最后根据静脉的几何结构特征,去除虚假静脉,获得真实的手背静脉图像;实验结果证明了算法的有效性。%The hand vein structure is simple and the contrast is low for the hand vein image captured by the near infrared camera. In order to effectively extract the hand vein structure feature, firstly, the AOI is segmented to reduce the influence of background and edge, and the gray values normalization is done ; secondly, dynamic global threshold method is used to roughly segment the vein structure; Finally, according to the structure characteristics of hand vein, the false vein is removed and get the read vein image;The experimental results show the efficiency for the algorithm proposed in this paper.

  6. Total anomalous connection of pulmonary veins to the portal vein. Value of multislice angiotomography. Report on three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alejandra Solórzano-Morales

    2014-07-01

    15 and 26% if all its varieties. Multislice angiotomography allows us to view the blood vessels and adjacent organs under consideration and obtain high-definition anatomic information. In the patients in this study, total anomalous connection of pulmonary veins to the portal vein was viewed with three-dimensional volumetric tomographic reconstructions and their correlation with ultrasonography studies.

  7. Artery and vein diameter ratio measurement based on improvement of arteries and veins segmentation on retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yuji; Tachiki, Hirokazu; Ogohara, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Okumura, Susumu; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Retinal arteriolar narrowing is decided based on the artery and vein diameter ratio (AVR). Previous methods segmented blood vessels and classified arteries and veins by color pixels in the centerlines of blood vessels. AVR was definitively determined through measurement of artery and vein diameters. However, this approach was not sufficient for cases with close contact between the artery of interest and an imposing vein. Here, an algorithm for AVR measurement via new classification of arteries and veins is proposed. In this algorithm, additional steps for an accurate segmentation of arteries and veins, which were not identified using the previous method, have been added to better identify major veins in the red channel of a color image. To identify major arteries, a decision tree with three features was used. As a result, all major veins and 90.9% of major arteries were correctly identified, and the absolute mean error in AVRs was 0.12. The proposed method will require further testing with a greater number of images of arteriolar narrowing before clinical application.

  8. Endovenous mechanochemical ablation of great saphenous vein incompetence using the ClariVein device: a safety study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, R. van; Boersma, D.; Elias, S.; Holewijn, S.; Werson, D.A.; Vries, J.P. de; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of endovenous mechanochemical ablation (MOCA) for the treatment of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence. METHODS: The newly developed ClariVein device uses a technique that combines mechanical endothelial damage using a rotating wire with the infusi

  9. Endovenous mechanochemical ablation of great saphenous vein incompetence using the ClariVein device: a safety study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, R. van; Boersma, D.; Elias, S.; Holewijn, S.; Werson, D.A.; Vries, J.P. de; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of endovenous mechanochemical ablation (MOCA) for the treatment of great saphenous vein (GSV) incompetence. METHODS: The newly developed ClariVein device uses a technique that combines mechanical endothelial damage using a rotating wire with the

  10. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bongers, Franca J; Sack, Lawren

    2015-12-01

    Leaf venation is diverse across plant species and has practical applications from paleobotany to modern agriculture. However, the impact of vein traits on plant performance has not yet been tested in a model system such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies analysed cotyledons of A. thaliana vein mutants and identified visible differences in their vein systems from the wild type (WT). We measured leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), vein traits, and xylem and mesophyll anatomy for A. thaliana WT (Col-0) and four vein mutants (dot3-111 and dot3-134, and cvp1-3 and cvp2-1). Mutant true leaves did not possess the qualitative venation anomalies previously shown in the cotyledons, but varied quantitatively in vein traits and leaf anatomy across genotypes. The WT had significantly higher mean Kleaf . Across all genotypes, there was a strong correlation of Kleaf with traits related to hydraulic conductance across the bundle sheath, as influenced by the number and radial diameter of bundle sheath cells and vein length per area. These findings support the hypothesis that vein traits influence Kleaf , indicating the usefulness of this mutant system for testing theory that was primarily established comparatively across species, and supports a strong role for the bundle sheath in influencing Kleaf .

  11. Non-cuffed dual lumen catheters in the external jugular veins versus other central veins for hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moini Majid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare prospective between insertion of non-cuffed dual lumen catheter in the external jugular vein and other central veins for hemodialysis (HD, we studied 68 chronic dialysis patients randomly allocated into two groups: one with external jugular vein catheterization as access for HD and another with other central venous catheterization, internal jugular or subclavian vein. Our results showed there were no significant differences regarding successful cannulation, com-plications, total numbers of dialysis, development of pain and infection at the site of cannulation, patency rate of the catheters, and efficacy of hemodialysis between both groups. In addition, the patency of the catheter in the external jugular vein was not affected by previous cannulation of other central veins. In contrast, there was a significant correlation between numbers of attempts for cannulation in both groups and development of hematoma and infection, (p< 0.05. In conclusion, our results showed that the external jugular vein may be an alternative for other central veins for insertion of temporary non-cuffed hemodialysis catheter.

  12. Factors Associated with Recurrence of Varicose Veins after Thermal Ablation: Results of The Recurrent Veins after Thermal Ablation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Bush

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this retrospective cohort study (REVATA was to determine the site, source, and contributory factors of varicose vein recurrence after radiofrequency (RF and laser ablation. Methods. Seven centers enrolled patients into the study over a 1-year period. All patients underwent previous thermal ablation of the great saphenous vein (GSV, small saphenous vein (SSV, or anterior accessory great saphenous vein (AAGSV. From a specific designed study tool, the etiology of recurrence was identified. Results. 2,380 patients were evaluated during this time frame. A total of 164 patients had varicose vein recurrence at a median of 3 years. GSV ablation was the initial treatment in 159 patients (RF: 33, laser: 126, 52 of these patients had either SSV or AAGSV ablation concurrently. Total or partial GSV recanalization occurred in 47 patients. New AAGSV reflux occurred in 40 patients, and new SSV reflux occurred in 24 patients. Perforator pathology was present in 64% of patients. Conclusion. Recurrence of varicose veins occurred at a median of 3 years after procedure. The four most important factors associated with recurrent veins included perforating veins, recanalized GSV, new AAGSV reflux, and new SSV reflux in decreasing frequency. Patients who underwent RF treatment had a statistically higher rate of recanalization than those treated with laser.

  13. Associations between flow in paratibial perforating veins and great saphenous vein patterns of reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Engelhorn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Perforating veins contribute to chronic venous valvular insufficiency (CVVI, subset of CVI of lower extremities (LE. We investigated the role of medial, proximal calf paratibial perforating veins (PTPV. Women with PTPV reflux, diameter ≥3 mm, or tortuosity were selected among 2199 LE mappings. Duplex ultrasonography (US was performed standing. Reflux >0.5 s was abnormal. PTPV conditions were related to great saphenous vein (GSV patterns of reflux. US of 442 LE of 379 women were analyzed, all being Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP classification C1, C2, and/or having intermittent, conditional swelling. Etiology was primary. Pathophysiology was reflux, not thrombosis or obstruction. Most PTPV drained (n=281, 64% of 442 or 13% of 2199, or were source (n=73, 17%/442, 3%/2199 of GSV reflux; 49 (11%/442, 2%/2199 had reflux not associated with GSV; 39 (9%/442, 2%/2199 did not have reflux. PTPV, when significative for CVVI, primarily drained-GSV reflux. PTPV was linked to reflux in 1 of 5 and was a major source of reflux in 1 of 20 legs. Detailed US of PTPV insured over 80% accuracy in CVVI mapping.

  14. Topography of the perforating veins on the medial side of the leg (Cockett's veins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubesand, J; Hackländer, A

    1995-01-01

    A macroscopic anatomical investigation was carried out on 67 embalmed dissecting-room legs in order to determine the position, course, and origin of so-called Cockett's perforating veins. This information was considered to be of particular importance because of the frequency with which varicoses in this region are treated with sclerosing agents and the serious adverse effects that can follow a misplaced injection. In view of the almost universal credence given to the accuracy of Cockett's original description (Cockett FP, 1955, Br. J. Surg. 43:260-278), and the general acceptance of the constancy of "Cockett's veins," it was felt to be of importance to see to what extent we could confirm this description. It was found that the origins of these vessels and the places at which they penetrate the deep fascia are not constant, and that--in our series--only 7.3% of the veins belonging to these groups occupy the positions that are repeatedly cited in the literature as the most common. The clinical importance of any discrepancy between expectation and reality can hardly be exaggerated.

  15. Visual disturbance following sclerotherapy for varicose veins, reticular veins and telangiectasias: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, T; Smith, P C; Shepherd, A; Davies, A H

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to review the literature reporting visual disturbance (VD)following sclerotherapy for varicose veins. Underlying mechanisms will be discussed. A literature search of the databases Medline and Google Scholar was performed. Original articles including randomized trials, case series and case reports reporting VD in humans following sclerotherapy for varicose veins were included. Additional references were also obtained if they had been referenced in related publications. The search yielded 4948 results of which 25 reports were found to meet the inclusion criteria. In larger series with at least 500 included patients the prevalence of VD following sclerotherapy ranges from 0.09% to 2%. In most reports foam sclerotherapy was associated with VD (19); exclusive use of liquid sclerosant was reported in two cases, some reports included foam and liquid sclerosant (4). There were no persistent visual disorders reported. VD occurred with polidocanol and sodium tetradecyl sulphate in different concentrations (0.25–3%). Various forms of foam preparation including various ways of foam production and the liquid –air ratio (1 or 2 parts of liquid mixed with 3, 4 or 5 parts of air) were reported in association with the occurrence of VD. VDs following sclerotherapy for varicose veins are rare and all reported events were transient. Bubble embolism or any kind of embolism seems unlikely to be the only underlying mechanism. A systemic inflammatory response following sclerotherapy has been suggested. Further research to clarify the mechanism of action of sclerosants is required.

  16. [Use of C-arm CT for improving the hit rate for selective blood sampling from adrenal veins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, C; Kharlip, J; Valdeig, S; Wacker, F K; Hong, K

    2009-09-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is the most common curable cause of hypertension with a prevalence of up to 12% among patients with hypertension. Selective blood sampling from adrenal veins is considered the diagnostic gold standard. However, it is underutilized due to the high technical failure rate. The use of C-arm CT during the sampling procedure can reduce or even eliminate this failure rate. If adrenal vein sampling is augmented by native C-arm CT to check for the correct catheter position, the technical success rate increases substantially. General use of this technique will result in correct diagnosis and treatment for patients with primary hyperaldosteronism.

  17. Portal Vein Inflow From Enlarged Coronary Vein in Liver Transplantation: Surgical Approach and Technical Tips: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwan, M; Nagai, S; Abouljoud, M S

    2016-11-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is common in patients with end-stage liver disease, with an incidence as high as 26% in liver transplant candidates. It is known to be associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality posttransplantation, and its management can be challenging. The management options range from a simple thrombendvenectomy to multivisceral transplantation in cases with diffuse portomesenteric thrombosis. We report a case of liver transplantation in which we performed a rare reconstruction of the portal vein. Briefly, the patient had diffuse portomesenteric thrombosis, calcified aneurysmosis, and a large collateral coronary vein, to which we directly anastomosed the donor portal vein in an end-to-side fashion. This report describes a unique surgical approach for similar cases of severe portal vein thrombosis in liver transplant candidates.

  18. Aneurysmal dilatation of persistent vitelline vein with thrombus in a neonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kun Woo; Sung, Deuk Jae; Park, Beom Jin; Kim, Min Ju; Cho, Sung Bum [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    The paired vitelline veins selectively involute and form a part of the portal vein during embryonic development. The presence of a persistent vitelline vein segment after birth is very rare and can be confused with anomalies of the portal and umbilical veins. We present sonographic, CT and MRI findings of aneurysmal dilatation of a persistent vitelline vein with thrombus in a neonate; this case was first misdiagnosed as an umbilical vein varix by prenatal US. MRI was used to identify the persistent vitelline vein segment and the remnant umbilical vein segment. (orig.)

  19. Structural bionic design for high——speed machine tool working table based on distribution rules of leaf veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING DengHai; CHEN WuYi; ZHAO Ling; MA JianFeng

    2012-01-01

    High-speed machine tool working table restrains the machining accuracy and machining efficiency,so lightweight design of the table is an important issue.In nature,leaf has developed a plate structure that maximizes the surface-to-volume ratio.It can be seen as a plate structure stiffened by veins.Compared with a high-speed machine tool working table,leaf veins play a role of supporting part which is similar to that of stiffening ribs,and they can provide some new design ideas for lightweight design of the table.In this paper,distribution rules of leaf veins were investigated,and a structural bionic design for the table was achieved based on regulation of leaf veins.First,statistical analysis on geometric structure of leaf veins was carried out,and four distribution rules were obtained.Then,relevant mechanical models were developed and analyzed in finite element soft-ware.Based on the results from mechanical analysis on those relevant models,the four distribution rules were translated into the design rules and a structural bionic design for the working table was achieved.Both simulation and experimental verifications were carried out,and results showed that the average displacement of the working table was reduced by about 33.9%.

  20. Increased expression of the sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor with co-localization in varicocele veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Ho; Yang, Wen-Kai; Lee, Jane-Dar

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Varicocele is characterized by dilatation and tortuosity of the internal spermatic vein. Sonic hedgehog plays an important role in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling under hypoxic stress. We studied the relationship and distribution of SHH and vascular endothelial growth factor in internal spermatic vein in patients diagnosed with varicocele. Methods Specimens of 1 cm were taken from the internal spermatic vein during left varicocele repair (N = 20). The control samples of ISV were obtained from eight male patients who underwent left inguinal herniorrhaphy. We analyzed the sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor expression and distribution by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescent staining, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The data were analyzed using the Student's t test. Results Immunoblotting showed higher expression of sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor proteins in varicocele veins than in the control group ( P sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor with co-localization in varicocele veins which imply that the reducing hypoxia or using sonic hedgehog antagonists may be helpful for this vascular disease.

  1. Treatment of surgical brain injury by immune tolerance induced by intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of brain antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijian; Liu, Yong; Liu, Baolong; Tan, Huajun; Lu, Hao; Wang, Hong; Yan, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Surgical brain injury (SBI) defines complications induced by intracranial surgery, such as cerebral edema and other secondary injuries. In our study, intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of allogeneic myelin basic protein (MBP) or autogeneic brain cell suspensions were administered to a standard SBI model. Serum pro-inflammatory IL-2, anti-inflammatory IL-4 concentrations and the CD4+T/CD8+T ratio were measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after surgery to verify the establishment of immune tolerance. Furthermore, we confirmed neuroprotective effects by evaluating neurological scores at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after SBI. Anti-Fas ligand (FasL) immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays of brain sections were tested at 21 d after surgery. Intrathymic injections of MBP or autogeneic brain cell suspensions functioned by both suppressing secondary inflammatory reactions and improving prognoses, whereas hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions exerted a better effect than MBP. Intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injections of MBP had equal effects on reducing secondary inflammation and improving prognoses. Otherwise, hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions had better outcomes than intrathymic injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions. Moreover, the benefit of injecting antigens into the thymus was outweighed by hepatic portal vein injections. PMID:27554621

  2. Broadband cortical desynchronization underlies the human psychedelic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Moran, Rosalyn J; Brookes, Matthew J; Williams, Tim M; Errtizoe, David; Sessa, Ben; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Bolstridge, Mark; Singh, Krish D; Feilding, Amanda; Friston, Karl J; Nutt, David J

    2013-09-18

    Psychedelic drugs produce profound changes in consciousness, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms for this remain unclear. Spontaneous and induced oscillatory activity was recorded in healthy human participants with magnetoencephalography after intravenous infusion of psilocybin--prodrug of the nonselective serotonin 2A receptor agonist and classic psychedelic psilocin. Psilocybin reduced spontaneous cortical oscillatory power from 1 to 50 Hz in posterior association cortices, and from 8 to 100 Hz in frontal association cortices. Large decreases in oscillatory power were seen in areas of the default-mode network. Independent component analysis was used to identify a number of resting-state networks, and activity in these was similarly decreased after psilocybin. Psilocybin had no effect on low-level visually induced and motor-induced gamma-band oscillations, suggesting that some basic elements of oscillatory brain activity are relatively preserved during the psychedelic experience. Dynamic causal modeling revealed that posterior cingulate cortex desynchronization can be explained by increased excitability of deep-layer pyramidal neurons, which are known to be rich in 5-HT2A receptors. These findings suggest that the subjective effects of psychedelics result from a desynchronization of ongoing oscillatory rhythms in the cortex, likely triggered by 5-HT2A receptor-mediated excitation of deep pyramidal cells.

  3. Superresolution improves MRI cortical segmentation with FACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Manjón, José V.; Coupé, Pierrick

    Brain cortical surface extraction from MRI has applications for measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy, functional mapping, source localization and preoperative neurosurgical planning. Accurate cortex segmentation requires high resolution morphological images and several methods for extracting...

  4. Perceptual incongruence influences bistability and cortical activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, G.J.; Tong, F.; Hagoort, P.; van Ee, R.

    2009-01-01

    We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability

  5. Transient cortical blindness after coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, B N; Bozbuğa, N; Tuncer, M A; Yakut, C

    2009-01-01

    Transient cortical blindness is rarely encountered after angiography of native coronary arteries or bypass grafts. This paper reports a case of transient cortical blindness that occurred 72 h after coronary angiography in a 56-year old patient. This was the patient's fourth exposure to contrast medium. Neurological examination demonstrated cortical blindness and the absence of any focal neurological deficit. A non-contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan of the brain revealed bilateral contrast enhancement in the occipital lobes and no evidence of cerebral haemorrhage, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed no pathology. Sight returned spontaneously within 4 days and his vision gradually improved. A search of the current literature for reported cases of transient cortical blindness suggested that this is a rarely encountered complication of coronary angiography.

  6. Reversible cortical blindness after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knower, Mark T; Pethke, Scott D; Valentine, Vincent G

    2003-06-01

    Cyclosporine (CYA) is a calcineurin inhibitor widely used in immunosuppressive regimens after organ transplantation. Several neurologic side effects are frequently associated with CYA use; however, reversible cortical blindness is a rare manifestation of CYA toxicity traditionally seen after liver and bone marrow transplantation. This report presents a case of reversible cortical blindness after lung transplantation, then details the risk factors and clinical course of 28 previously well-documented cases of CYA-induced cortical blindness after transplantation. Identification of known risk factors, clinical clues, and typical radiographic findings may aid in the diagnosis of CYA-induced cortical blindness, since reduction in CYA dose or cessation of CYA therapy usually permits resolution of the neurologic effects.

  7. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F

    2008-01-15

    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  8. The Diversity of Cortical Inhibitory Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKubota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The most typical and well known inhibitory action in the cortical microcircuit is a strong inhibition on the target neuron by axo-somatic synapses. However, it has become clear that synaptic inhibition in the cortex is much more diverse and complicated. Firstly, at least ten or more inhibitory non-pyramidal cell subtypes engage in diverse inhibitory functions to produce the elaborate activity characteristic of the different cortical states. Each distinct non-pyramidal cell subtype has its own independent inhibitory function. Secondly, the inhibitory synapses innervate different neuronal domains, such as axons, spines, dendrites and soma, and their IPSP size is not uniform. Thus cortical inhibition is highly complex, with a wide variety of anatomical and physiological modes. Moreover, the functional significance of the various inhibitory synapse innervation styles and their unique structural dynamic behaviors differ from those of excitatory synapses. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the inhibitory mechanisms of the cortical microcircuit.

  9. Academic stress disrupts cortical plasticity in graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerto, Carmen; Patel, Dhaval; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Chusid, Eileen; Muscatello, Maria R; Bruno, Antonio; Zoccali, Rocco; Aguglia, Eugenio; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2017-03-01

    Medical education is a time of high stress and anxiety for many graduate students in medical professions. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of academic stress on cortical excitability and plasticity by using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We tested two groups (n = 13 each) of healthy graduate medical students (mean age 33.7 ± 3.8 SE). One group was tested during a final exam week (High-stress group) while the other group was tested after a break, during a week without exams (Low-stress group). Students were required to fill the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS) questionnaire. We investigated resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and cortical silent period (CSP). The paired-pulse stimulation paradigm was used to assess short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity was evaluated with paired associative stimulation (PAS-25). There was no between-group difference in cortical excitability. On the contrary, during examination period, levels of perceived stress were significantly higher (p= .036) and the amount of cortical plasticity (60 min after PAS) was significantly lower (p = .029). LTP-like plasticity (60 min after PAS) was inversely correlated with perceived stress in the High-stress group. The present study showed LTP-like plasticity was reduced by examining stress in graduate students. Our results provide a new opportunity to objectively quantify the negative effect of academic and examination stress on brain plasticity.

  10. Disuse exaggerates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferan, Theresa E.; Kennedy, Angela M.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis. However, comorbidity factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related bone fractures. Suboptimal mechanical loading of the skeleton, an established risk factor for bone loss, may occur in some alcohol abusers due to reduced physical activity, muscle atrophy, or both. The effect of alcohol consumption and reduced physical activity on bone metabolism has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical disuse alters bone metabolism in a rat model for chronic alcohol abuse. METHODS: Alcohol was administered in the diet (35% caloric intake) of 6-month-old male rats for 4 weeks. Rats were hindlimb-unloaded the final 2 weeks of the experiment to prevent dynamic weight bearing. Afterward, cortical bone histomorphometry was evaluated at the tibia-fibula synostosis. RESULTS: At the periosteal surface of the tibial diaphysis, alcohol and hindlimb unloading independently decreased the mineralizing perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. In addition, alcohol, but not hindlimb unloading, increased endocortical bone resorption. The respective detrimental effects of alcohol and hindlimb unloading to inhibit bone formation were additive; there was no interaction between the two variables. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced weight bearing accentuates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone in adult male rats by further inhibiting bone formation. This finding suggests that reduced physical activity may be a comorbidity factor for osteoporosis in alcohol abusers.

  11. Cortical Source Localization of Infant Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, GD; Richards, JE

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission topography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been utilized with older children and adults to identify cortical sources of perceptual and cognitive processes. However, due to practical and ethical concerns, these techniques cannot be routinely applied to infant participants. An alternative to such neuroimaging techniques appropriate for use with infant participants is high-density EEG recording and cortical source loca...

  12. CLADA: cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kunio; Fox, Robert; Fisher, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of changes in brain cortical thickness is useful for the assessment of regional gray matter atrophy in neurodegenerative conditions. A new longitudinal method, called CLADA (cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm), has been developed for the measurement of changes in cortical thickness in magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired over time. CLADA creates a subject-specific cortical model which is longitudinally deformed to match images from individual time points. The algorithm was designed to work reliably for lower resolution images, such as the MRIs with 1×1×5 mm(3) voxels previously acquired for many clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). CLADA was evaluated to determine reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity. Scan-rescan variability was 0.45% for images with 1mm(3) isotropic voxels and 0.77% for images with 1×1×5 mm(3) voxels. The mean absolute accuracy error was 0.43 mm, as determined by comparison of CLADA measurements to cortical thickness measured directly in post-mortem tissue. CLADA's sensitivity for correctly detecting at least 0.1mm change was 86% in a simulation study. A comparison to FreeSurfer showed good agreement (Pearson correlation=0.73 for global mean thickness). CLADA was also applied to MRIs acquired over 18 months in secondary progressive MS patients who were imaged at two different resolutions. Cortical thinning was detected in this group in both the lower and higher resolution images. CLADA detected a higher rate of cortical thinning in MS patients compared to healthy controls over 2 years. These results show that CLADA can be used for reliable measurement of cortical atrophy in longitudinal studies, even in lower resolution images.

  13. Cortical Neural Computation by Discrete Results Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejon, Carlos; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear. It is still unknown how spatially distributed neuronal activity can be temporally integrated to contribute to cortical computations. A theoretical explanation integrating spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing is still lacking. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we propose a new functional theoretical framework to explain the computational roles of these ensembles in cortical processing. We suggest that complex neural computations underlying cortical processing could be temporally discrete and that sensory information would need to be quantized to be computed by the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we propose that cortical processing is produced by the computation of discrete spatio-temporal functional units that we have called “Discrete Results” (Discrete Results Hypothesis). This hypothesis represents a novel functional mechanism by which information processing is computed in the cortex. Furthermore, we propose that precise dynamic sequences of “Discrete Results” is the mechanism used by the cortex to extract, code, memorize and transmit neural information. The novel “Discrete Results” concept has the ability to match the spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of these functional computational units and describe the empirical evidence supporting our hypothesis. We propose that fast

  14. Mean field methods for cortical network dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, J.; Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    We review the use of mean field theory for describing the dynamics of dense, randomly connected cortical circuits. For a simple network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate- and-fire neurons, we can show how the firing irregularity, as measured by the Fano factor, increases with the stren...... cortex. Finally, an extension of the model to describe an orientation hypercolumn provides understanding of how cortical interactions sharpen orientation tuning, in a way that is consistent with observed firing statistics...

  15. Cortical depth dependence of the diffusion anisotropy in the human cortical gray matter in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Kha Truong

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is typically used to study white matter fiber pathways, but may also be valuable to assess the microstructure of cortical gray matter. Although cortical diffusion anisotropy has previously been observed in vivo, its cortical depth dependence has mostly been examined in high-resolution ex vivo studies. This study thus aims to investigate the cortical depth dependence of the diffusion anisotropy in the human cortex in vivo on a clinical 3 T scanner. Specifically, a novel multishot constant-density spiral DTI technique with inherent correction of motion-induced phase errors was used to achieve a high spatial resolution (0.625 × 0.625 × 3 mm and high spatial fidelity with no scan time penalty. The results show: (i a diffusion anisotropy in the cortical gray matter, with a primarily radial diffusion orientation, as observed in previous ex vivo and in vivo studies, and (ii a cortical depth dependence of the fractional anisotropy, with consistently higher values in the middle cortical lamina than in the deep and superficial cortical laminae, as observed in previous ex vivo studies. These results, which are consistent across subjects, demonstrate the feasibility of this technique for investigating the cortical depth dependence of the diffusion anisotropy in the human cortex in vivo.

  16. Cortical depth dependence of the diffusion anisotropy in the human cortical gray matter in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Guidon, Arnaud; Song, Allen W

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is typically used to study white matter fiber pathways, but may also be valuable to assess the microstructure of cortical gray matter. Although cortical diffusion anisotropy has previously been observed in vivo, its cortical depth dependence has mostly been examined in high-resolution ex vivo studies. This study thus aims to investigate the cortical depth dependence of the diffusion anisotropy in the human cortex in vivo on a clinical 3 T scanner. Specifically, a novel multishot constant-density spiral DTI technique with inherent correction of motion-induced phase errors was used to achieve a high spatial resolution (0.625 × 0.625 × 3 mm) and high spatial fidelity with no scan time penalty. The results show: (i) a diffusion anisotropy in the cortical gray matter, with a primarily radial diffusion orientation, as observed in previous ex vivo and in vivo studies, and (ii) a cortical depth dependence of the fractional anisotropy, with consistently higher values in the middle cortical lamina than in the deep and superficial cortical laminae, as observed in previous ex vivo studies. These results, which are consistent across subjects, demonstrate the feasibility of this technique for investigating the cortical depth dependence of the diffusion anisotropy in the human cortex in vivo.

  17. The cortical and sub-cortical network of sensory evoked response in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, M; Hellriegel, H; Groppa, S; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence in healthy subjects during electrical stimulation of right median nerve at wrist. The multitaper method was used to estimate the power and coherence spectrum followed by the source analysis method dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) to find the highest coherent source for the basic frequency 3 Hz and the complete cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence in healthy subjects. The highest coherent source for the basic frequency was in the posterior parietal cortex for all the subjects. The cortical and sub-cortical network comprised of the primary sensory motor cortex (SI), secondary sensory motor cortex (SII), frontal cortex and medial pulvinar nucleus in the thalamus. The cortical and sub-cortical network responsible for the sensory evoked coherence was found successfully with a 64-channel EEG system. The sensory evoked coherence is involved with a thalamo-cortical network in healthy subjects.

  18. The place of subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS) in advanced chronic venous insufficiency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesta, Wiesław; Kurpiewski, Waldemar; Kowalczyk, Marek; Szynkarczuk, Rafał; Luba, Magdalena; Zurada, Anna; Grabysa, Radosław

    2011-12-01

    In spite of medical science development and initiation of new technologies in minimally invasive surgery, treatment of advanced chronic venous insufficiency at the 5(th) and 6(th) degree of CEAP classification is still a great clinical challenge. In case of no satisfactory results of non-surgical treatment of recurrent venous ulcers, scientists search for alternative therapeutic methods which could be more effective and lasting. Subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS) as a method of reducing venous pressure in the superficial venous system could provide healing of the recurrent venous ulcer. In this study we present a review of contemporary opinions about the place and significance of subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery as a treatment of advanced chronic venous insufficiency.

  19. The effect of a gap-junction blocker, carbenoxolone, on ischemic brain injury and cortical spreading depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, K; Alessandri, B; Heimann, A; Kempski, O

    2011-10-27

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been shown to cause secondary cell loss in experimental models of brain injury and in patients, and blocking of CSD is a potential neuroprotective strategy. Here we tested the hypothesis that gap junctions affect CSD under physiological conditions as well as infarct development in a rat two-vein occlusion model suited to study pathophysiology of the penumbra (n = 71). We applied the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone (CBX) or saline intra-ventricularly. Interestingly, CBX temporarily increased systemic blood pressure and cortical blood flow (41% and 53%, 15 min after 250 μg CBX). We induced CSD with cortical microinjection of potassium chloride (KCl), counted how many spontaneous CSDs after CSD induction were elicited and measured the propagation velocity. After 250 μg CBX administration, significant 37.5 ± 6.5 additional CSDs were seen. CSD velocity increased significantly after 50 μg and 250 μg CBX. Occlusion of two adjacent cortical veins using Rose Bengal dye and fiberoptic illumination followed by 250 μg CBX or saline showed a significant more than doubling of infarct volumes 7 days after CBX. The current experiments provide evidence that CBX can accelerate the initiation and propagation of CSD suggesting opening of gap junctions is not required for CSD propagation. Blocking gap junctions worsens outcome from focal cerebral ischemia. Hence, measures intended to improve spatial buffering via astroglial gap junctions could have therapeutic potential in disease processes involving CSD. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Finger vein verification system based on sparse representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yang; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Haixia; Zhang, Hong

    2012-09-01

    Finger vein verification is a promising biometric pattern for personal identification in terms of security and convenience. The recognition performance of this technology heavily relies on the quality of finger vein images and on the recognition algorithm. To achieve efficient recognition performance, a special finger vein imaging device is developed, and a finger vein recognition method based on sparse representation is proposed. The motivation for the proposed method is that finger vein images exhibit a sparse property. In the proposed system, the regions of interest (ROIs) in the finger vein images are segmented and enhanced. Sparse representation and sparsity preserving projection on ROIs are performed to obtain the features. Finally, the features are measured for recognition. An equal error rate of 0.017% was achieved based on the finger vein image database, which contains images that were captured by using the near-IR imaging device that was developed in this study. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is faster and more robust than previous methods.