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Sample records for redox-active layered metal

  1. Extraction and recovery of mercury and lead from aqueous waste streams using redox-active layered metal chalcogenides. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorhout, P.K.; Strauss, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    'The authors have begun to examine the extraction and recovery of heavy elements from aqueous waste streams using redox-active metal chalcogenides. They have been able to prepare extractants from known chalcogenide starting materials, studied the efficacy of the extractants for selective removal of soft metal ions from aqueous phases, studied the deactivation of extractants and the concomitant recovery of soft metal ions from the extractants, and characterized all of the solids and solutions thus far in the study. The study was proposed as two parallel tasks: Part 1 and Part 2 emphasize the study and development of known metal chalcogenide extractants and the synthesis and development of new metal chalcogenide extractants, respectively. The two tasks were divided into sub-sections that study the extractants and their chemistry as detailed below: Preparation and reactivity of metal chalcogenide host solids Extraction of target waste (guest) ions from simulated waste streams Examination of the guest-host solids recovery of the guest metal and reuse of extractant Each section of the two tasks was divided into focused subsections that detail the specific problems and solutions to those problems that were proposed. The extent to which those tasks have been accomplished and the continued efforts of the team are described in detail below. (b) Progress and Results. The DOE-supported research has proceeded largely as proposed and has been productive in its first 12 months. Two full-paper manuscripts were submitted and are currently under peer review. A third paper is in preparation and will be submitted shortly. In addition, 5 submitted or invited presentations have been made.'

  2. Cupryphans, metal-binding, redox-active, redesigned conopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Marco; Sobolev, Anatoli P; Romeo, Cristina; Schininà, M Eugenia; Pietraforte, Donatella; Mannina, Luisa; Musci, Giovanni; Polticelli, Fabio

    2009-03-01

    Contryphans are bioactive peptides, isolated from the venom of marine snails of the genus Conus, which are characterized by the short length of the polypeptide chain and the high degree of unusual post-translational modifications. The cyclization of the polypeptide chain through a single disulphide bond, the presence of two conserved Pro residues, and the epimerization of a Trp/Leu residue confer to Contryphans a stable and well-defined structure in solution, conserved in all members of the family, and tolerant to multiple substitutions. The potential of Contryphans as scaffolds for the design of redox-active (macro)molecules was tested by engineering a copper-binding site on two different variants of the natural peptide Contryphan-Vn. The binding site was designed by computational modeling, and the redesigned peptides were synthesized and characterized by optical, fluorescence, electron spin resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The novel peptides, named Cupryphan and Arg-Cupryphan, bind Cu(2+) ions with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a K(d) in the 100 nM range. Other divalent metals (e.g., Zn(2+) and Mg(2+)) are bound with much lower affinity. In addition, Cupryphans catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anions with an activity comparable to other nonpeptidic superoxide dismutase mimics. We conclude that the Contryphan motif represents a natural robust scaffold which can be engineered to perform different functions, providing additional means for the design of catalytically active mini metalloproteins.

  3. Electrochemistry and electrochemiluminescence from a redox-active metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Yin, Xue-Bo; He, Xi-Wen; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2015-06-15

    The marriage of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) can combine their merits together. Designing ECL-active MOF with a high electron transfer capacity and high stability is critical for ECL emission. Here we reported the ECL from a redox-active MOF prepared from {Ru[4,4'-(HO2C)2-bpy]2bpy}(2+) and Zn(2+); a property of MOFs has not been reported previously. The MOF structure is independent of its charge and is therefore stable electrochemically. The redox-activity and well-ordered porous structure of the MOF were confirmed by its electrochemical properties and ECL emission. The high ECL emission indicated the ease of electron transfer between the MOF and co-reactants. Furthermore, the MOF exhibited permselectivity, charge selectivity, and catalytic selectivity along with a stable and concentration-dependent ECL emission toward co-reactants. ECL mechanism was proposed based on the results. The detection and recovery of cocaine in the serum sample was used to validate the feasibility of MOF- based ECL system. The information obtained in this study provides a better understanding of the redox properties of MOFs and their potential electrochemical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Redox-Flow Batteries: From Metals to Organic Redox-Active Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsberg, Jan; Hagemann, Tino; Janoschka, Tobias; Hager, Martin D; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2017-01-16

    Research on redox-flow batteries (RFBs) is currently experiencing a significant upturn, stimulated by the growing need to store increasing quantities of sustainably generated electrical energy. RFBs are promising candidates for the creation of smart grids, particularly when combined with photovoltaics and wind farms. To achieve the goal of "green", safe, and cost-efficient energy storage, research has shifted from metal-based materials to organic active materials in recent years. This Review presents an overview of various flow-battery systems. Relevant studies concerning their history are discussed as well as their development over the last few years from the classical inorganic, to organic/inorganic, to RFBs with organic redox-active cathode and anode materials. Available technologies are analyzed in terms of their technical, economic, and environmental aspects; the advantages and limitations of these systems are also discussed. Further technological challenges and prospective research possibilities are highlighted. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy of electrically conductive metal-organic frameworks doped with redox active species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberding, Brian G.; Heilweil, Edwin J.

    2015-09-01

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are three-dimensional coordination polymers that are well known for large pore surface area and their ability to adsorb molecules from both the gaseous and solution phases. In general, MOFs are electrically insulating, but promising opportunities for tuning the electronic structure exist because MOFs possess synthetic versatility; the metal and organic ligand subunits can be exchanged or dopant molecules can be introduced into the pore space. Two such MOFs with demonstrated electrical conductivity are Cu3(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate)2, a.k.a HKUST-1, and Cu[Ni(pyrazine-2,3-dithiolate)2]. Herein, these two MOFs have been infiltrated with the redox active species 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and iodine under solution phase conditions and shown to produce redox products within the MOF pore space. Vibrational bands assignable to TCNQ anion and triiodide anion have been observed in the Mid-IR and Terahertz ranges using FTIR Spectroscopy. The MOF samples have been further investigated by Time-Resolved Terehertz Spectroscopy (TRTS). Using this technique, the charge mobility, separation, and recombination dynamics have been followed on the picosecond time scale following photoexcitation with visible radiation. The preliminary results show that the MOF samples have small inherent photoconductivity with charge separation lifetimes on the order of a few picoseconds. In the case of HKUST-1, the MOF can also be supported by a TiO2 film and initial results show that charge injection into the TiO2 layer occurs with a comparable efficiency to the dye sensitizer N3, [cis-Bis(isothiocyanato)-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato ruthenium(II)], and therefore this MOF has potential as a new light absorbing and charge conducting material in photovoltaic devices.

  6. A Redox-Active Bistable Molecular Switch Mounted inside a Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qishui; Sun, Junling; Li, Peng; Hod, Idan; Moghadam, Peyman Z; Kean, Zachary S; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-11-02

    We describe the incorporation of a bistable mechanically interlocked molecule (MIM) into a robust Zr-based metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, by employing a post-synthetic functionalization protocol. On average, close to two bistable [2]catenanes can be incorporated per repeating unit of the hexagonal channels of NU-1000. The reversible redox-switching of the bistable [2]catenanes is retained inside the MOF, as evidenced by solid-state UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. This research demonstrates that bistable MIMs are capable of exhibiting robust dynamics inside the nanopores of a MOF.

  7. Redox-active on-surface polymerization of single-site divalent cations from pure metals by a ketone-functionalized phenanthroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skomski, Daniel; Tempas, Christopher D.; Bukowski, Gregory S.; Smith, Kevin A.; Tait, Steven L., E-mail: tait@indiana.edu [Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, 800 E. Kirkwood Ave., Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    Metallic iron, chromium, or platinum mixing with a ketone-functionalized phenanthroline ligand on a single crystal gold surface demonstrates redox activity to a well-defined oxidation state and assembly into thermally stable, one dimensional, polymeric chains. The diverging ligand geometry incorporates redox-active sub-units and bi-dentate binding sites. The gold surface provides a stable adsorption environment and directs growth of the polymeric chains, but is inert with regard to the redox chemistry. These systems are characterized by scanning tunnelling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under ultra-high vacuum conditions. The relative propensity of the metals to interact with the ketone group is examined, and it is found that Fe and Cr more readily complex the ligand than Pt. The formation and stabilization of well-defined transition metal single-sites at surfaces may open new routes to achieve higher selectivity in heterogeneous catalysts.

  8. Redox Active Transition Metal ions Make Melanin Susceptible to Chemical Degradation Induced by Organic Peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadlo, Andrzej; Pilat, Anna; Sarna, Michal; Pawlak, Anna; Sarna, Tadeusz

    2017-12-01

    With aging, retinal pigment epithelium melanosomes, by fusion with the age pigment lipofuscin, form complex granules called melanolipofuscin. Lipofuscin granules may contain oxidized proteins and lipid hydroperoxides, which in melanolipofuscin could chemically modify melanin polymer, while transition metal ions present in melanin can accelerate such oxidative modifications. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of selected transition metal ions on melanin susceptibility to chemical modification induced by the water-soluble tert-butyl hydroperoxide used as an oxidizing agent. Synthetic melanin obtained by DOPA autooxidation and melanosomes isolated from bovine retinal pigment epithelium were analyzed. To monitor tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative changes of DMa and BMs, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry were employed. These measurements revealed that both copper and iron ions accelerated chemical degradation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide, while zinc ions had no effect. Strong prooxidant action was detected only in the case of melanosomes and melanin degraded in the presence of iron. It can be postulated that similar chemical processes, if they occur in situ in melanolipofuscin granules of the human retinal pigment epithelium, would modify antioxidant properties of melanin and its reactivity.

  9. A stability comparison of redox-active layers produced by chemical coupling of an osmium redox complex to pre-functionalized gold and carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, Susan; Foster, Kevin; Leech, Donal

    2009-01-01

    The production of stable redox active layers on electrode surfaces is a key factor for the development of practical electronic and electrochemical devices. Here, we report on a comparison of the stability of redox layers formed by covalently coupling an osmium redox complex to pre-functionalized gold and graphite electrode surfaces. Pre-treatment of gold and graphite electrodes to provide surface carboxylic acid groups is achieved via classical thiolate self-assembled monolayer formation on gold surfaces and the electro-reduction of an in situ generated aryldiazonium salt from 4-aminobenzoic acid on gold, glassy carbon and graphite surfaces. These surfaces have been characterized by AFM and electrochemical blocking studies. The surface carboxylate is then used to tether an osmium complex, [Os(2,2'-bipyridyl) 2 (4-aminomethylpyridine)Cl]PF 6 , to provide a covalently bound redox active layer, E 0 '' of 0.29 V (vs. Ag/AgCl in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4), on the pre-treated electrodes. The aryldiazonium salt-treated carbon-based surfaces showed the greatest stability, represented by a decrease of <5% in the peak current for the Os(II/III) redox transition of the immobilized complex over a 3-day period, compared to a decrease of 19% and 14% for the aryldiazonium salt treated and thiolate treated gold surfaces, respectively, over the same period

  10. Monitoring the solid-state electrochemistry of Cu(2,7-AQDC) (AQDC = anthraquinone dicarboxylate) in a lithium battery: coexistence of metal and ligand redox activities in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongyue; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio

    2014-11-19

    By adopting a facile synthetic strategy, we obtained a microporous redox-active metal-organic framework (MOF), namely, Cu(2,7-AQDC) (2,7-H2AQDC = 2,7-anthraquinonedicarboxylic acid) (1), and utilized it as a cathode active material in lithium batteries. With a voltage window of 4.0-1.7 V, both metal clusters and anthraquinone groups in the ligands exhibited reversible redox activity. The valence change of copper cations was clearly evidenced by in situ XANES analysis. By controlling the voltage window of operation, extremely high recyclability of batteries was achieved, suggesting the framework was robust. This MOF is the first example of a porous material showing independent redox activity on both metal cluster nodes and ligand sites.

  11. Diurnal and seasonal trends and source apportionment of redox-active metals in Los Angeles using a novel online metal monitor and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Amirhosein; Sowlat, Mohammad H.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we identified the sources of four redox-active metals, including Iron (Fe), Chromium (Cr), Cupper (Cu), and Manganese (Mn) and quantified the contribution of these sources to PM2.5 concentrations in central Los Angeles, California, by employing time-resolved measurements (i.e., a time resolution of 2 h) with a recently developed online metal monitor and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Size distribution of ambient PM (14 nm-10 μm) was measured using the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Optical Particle Sizer (OPS). Auxiliary variables were also collected, including elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC), gaseous pollutants (NO2 and O3), meteorological parameters (including relative humidity (RH) and temperature), and traffic data (for heavy- (HDVs) and light-duty vehicles (LDVs)). A 4-factor solution was found to be optimum for the chemically-speciated dataset, whereas a 5-factor solution appeared to be most plausible for the size distribution data. The factors included fresh traffic, soil/road dust, urban background aerosol, secondary aerosol, and nucleation (only resolved for the size distribution data). Fresh traffic was the major contributor to Fe and Cu concentrations, whereas Cr was mostly found in the urban background aerosol (reflecting a mixture of small local sources as well as aged traffic emissions), and Mn mostly came from both soil/road dust and was to a lesser degree found in urban background aerosol. Secondary aerosol did not contribute to the concentrations of any of these metals, but was associated with very high loading of OC, as expected. Even though the urban background aerosol and secondary aerosol appeared to be characterized by "aged" particles and have a rather homogeneous spatial distribution, the reactions and processes involved in their formation are entirely different. Our results provide insights into the sources of redox-active metals in central Los Angeles. They also underscore the benefits of

  12. Flexible strategy for immobilizing redox-active compounds using in situ generation of diazonium salts. Investigations of the blocking and catalytic properties of the layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Jean-Marc; Sjöberg, Béatrice; Marsac, Rémi; Zigah, Dodzi; Bergamini, Jean-François; Wang, Aifang; Rigaut, Stéphane; Hapiot, Philippe; Lagrost, Corinne

    2009-11-03

    A versatile two-step method is developed to covalently immobilize redox-active molecules onto carbon surfaces. First, a robust anchoring platform is grafted onto surfaces by electrochemical reduction of aryl diazonium salts in situ generated. Depending on the nature of the layer termini, -COOH or -NH(2), a further chemical coupling involving ferrocenemethylamine or ferrocene carboxylic acid derivatives leads to the covalent binding of ferrocene centers. The chemical strategy using acyl chloride activation is efficient and flexible, since it can be applied either to surface-reactive end groups or to reactive species in solution. Cyclic voltammetry analyses point to the covalent binding of ferrocene units restricted to the upper layers of the underlying aryl films, while AFM measurements show a lost of compactness of the layers after the chemical attachment of ferrocene centers. The preparation conditions of the anchoring layers were found to determine the interfacial properties of the resulted ferrocenyl-modified electrodes. The ferrocene units promoted effective redox mediation providing that the free redox probes are adequately chosen (i.e., vs size/formal potential) and the underlying layers exhibit strong blocking properties. For anchoring films with weaker blocking effect, the coexistence of two distinct phenomena, redox mediation and ET at pinholes could be evidenced.

  13. Redox-active media for permeable reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivavec, T.M.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.; Baghel, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, three classes of redox-active media are described and evaluated in terms of their long-term effectiveness in treating TCE-contaminated groundwater in permeable reactive zones. Zero-valent iron, in the form of recycled cast iron filings, the first class, has received considerable attention as a reactive media and has been used in about a dozen pilot- and full-scale subsurface wall installations. Criteria used in selecting commercial sources of granular iron, will be discussed. Two other classes of redox-active media that have not yet seen wide use in pilot- or full-scale installations will also be described: Fe(II) minerals and bimetallic systems. Fe(II) minerals, including magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), and ferrous sulfide (troilite, FeS), are redox-active and afford TCE reduction rates and product distributions that suggest that they react via a reductive mechanism similar to that which operates in the FeO system. Fe(II) species within the passive oxide layer coating the iron metal may act as electron transfer mediators, with FeO serving as the bulk reductant. Bimetallic systems, the third class of redox-active media, are commonly prepared by plating a second metal onto zero-valent iron (e.g., Ni/Fe and Pd/Fe) and have been shown to accelerate solvent degradation rates relative to untreated iron metal. The long-term effectiveness of this approach, however, has not yet been determined in groundwater treatability tests. The results of a Ni-plated iron column study using site groundwater indicate that a change in reduction mechanism (to catalytic dehydrohalogenation/hydrogenation) accounts for the observed rate enhancement. A significant loss in media reactivity was observed over time, attributable to Ni catalyst deactivation or poisoning. Zero-valent iron systems have not shown similar losses in reactivity in long-term laboratory, pilot or field investigations

  14. Reversible Capture and Release of Cl2 and Br2 with a Redox-Active Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulchinsky, Yuri; Hendon, Christopher H; Lomachenko, Kirill A; Borfecchia, Elisa; Melot, Brent C; Hudson, Matthew R; Tarver, Jacob D; Korzyński, Maciej D; Stubbs, Amanda W; Kagan, Jacob J; Lamberti, Carlo; Brown, Craig M; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-04-26

    Extreme toxicity, corrosiveness, and volatility pose serious challenges for the safe storage and transportation of elemental chlorine and bromine, which play critical roles in the chemical industry. Solid materials capable of forming stable nonvolatile compounds upon reaction with elemental halogens may partially mitigate these challenges by allowing safe halogen release on demand. Here we demonstrate that elemental halogens quantitatively oxidize coordinatively unsaturated Co(II) ions in a robust azolate metal-organic framework (MOF) to produce stable and safe-to-handle Co(III) materials featuring terminal Co(III)-halogen bonds. Thermal treatment of the oxidized MOF causes homolytic cleavage of the Co(III)-halogen bonds, reduction to Co(II), and concomitant release of elemental halogens. The reversible chemical storage and thermal release of elemental halogens occur with no significant losses of structural integrity, as the parent cobaltous MOF retains its crystallinity and porosity even after three oxidation/reduction cycles. These results highlight a material operating via redox mechanism that may find utility in the storage and capture of other noxious and corrosive gases.

  15. New redox-active layer create via epoxy-amine reaction - The base of genosensor for the detection of specific DNA and RNA sequences of avian influenza virus H5N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecka, Kamila; Stachyra, Anna; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka; Zagórski-Ostoja, Włodzimierz; Dehaen, Wim; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2015-03-15

    This paper concerns the development of a redox-active monolayer and its application for the construction of an electrochemical genosensor designed for the detection of specific DNA and RNA oligonucleotide sequences related to the avian influenza virus (AIV) type H5N1. This new redox layer was created on a gold electrode surface step by step. Cyclic Voltammetry, Osteryoung Square-Wave Voltammetry and Differential Pulse Voltammetry were used for its characterization. This new redox-active layer was applied for the construction of the DNA biosensor. The NH2-NC3 probe (20-mer) was covalently attached to the gold electrode surface via a "click" reaction between the amine and an epoxide group. The hybridization process was monitored using the Osteryoung Square-Wave Voltammetry. The 20-mer DNA and ca. 280-mer RNA oligonucleotides were used as the targets. The constructed genosensor was capable to determine complementary oligonucleotide sequences with a detection limit in the pM range. It is able to distinguish the different position of the part RNA complementary to the DNA probe. The genosensor was very selective. The 20-mer DNA as well as the 280-mer RNA oligonucleotides without a complementary sequence generated a weak signal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A p-nitroaniline redox-active solid-state electrolyte for battery-like electrochemical capacitive energy storage combined with an asymmetric supercapacitor based on metal oxide functionalized β-polytype porous silicon carbide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeongjin; Yoo, Jeeyoung; Kim, Jooheon

    2017-05-23

    A unique redox active flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor with ultra-high capacitance and energy density was fabricated using a composite comprising MgCo 2 O 4 nanoneedles and micro and mesoporous silicon carbide flakes (SiCF) (SiCF/MgCo 2 O 4 ) as the positive electrode material. Due to the synergistic effect of the two materials, this hybrid electrode has a high specific capacitance of 516.7 F g -1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s -1 in a 1 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. To obtain a reasonable matching of positive and negative electrode pairs, a composite of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and SiCF (SiCF/Fe 3 O 4 ) was synthesized for use as a negative electrode material, which shows a high capacitance of 423.2 F g -1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s -1 . Therefore, by pairing the SiCF/MgCo 2 O 4 positive electrode and the SiCF/Fe 3 O 4 negative electrode with a redox active quasi-solid-state PVA-KOH-p-nitroaniline (PVA-KOH-PNA) gel electrolyte, a novel solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor device was assembled. Because of the synergistic effect between the highly porous SiCF and the vigorous redox-reaction of metal oxides, the hybrid nanostructure electrodes exhibited outstanding charge storage and transport. In addition, the redox active PVA-KOH-PNA electrolyte adds additional pseudocapacitance, which arises from the nitro-reduction and oxidation and reduction process of the reduction product of p-phenylenediamine, resulting in an enhancement of the capacitance (a specific capacitance of 161.77 F g -1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s -1 ) and energy density (maximum energy density of 72.79 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 727.96 W kg -1 ).

  17. Synthesis of non-toxic As and Cr nanoparticles through redox activity of highly flexible layered coordination polymer of Ni(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rashmi A

    2018-03-09

    A simple method for the sequestration of As(III) and Cr(VI) from water has been demonstrated by utilizing a highly flexible porous coordination polymer (PCP) of Ni(II) in its as synthesized form or without solvent removal. This PCP reduces the high toxicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) ions into non-toxic As(0) and Cr/Cr 2 O 3 /CrO 2 (zero, tri and tetravalent) nanoparticles (NPs) within its pores, and this is characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. The high functionality of this polymer is due to the presence of monodentate carboxylate groups of a benzenetricarboxylate linker, which provide anchoring sites to the metal ions of the metal precursors. Due to the highly oxidising nature of these toxic ions, a redox reaction takes place between the framework metal ions and toxic metal ions, which is explained by an electron paramagnetic resonance study. This is the first report to synthesize non-toxic, as well as useful, NPs of As and Cr from their highly toxic ions within the cavities of a PCP for remediation of the toxic waste stream and contaminated waste water.

  18. Synthesis of non-toxic As and Cr nanoparticles through redox activity of highly flexible layered coordination polymer of Ni(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rashmi A.

    2018-03-01

    A simple method for the sequestration of As(III) and Cr(VI) from water has been demonstrated by utilizing a highly flexible porous coordination polymer (PCP) of Ni(II) in its as synthesized form or without solvent removal. This PCP reduces the high toxicity of As(III) and Cr(VI) ions into non-toxic As(0) and Cr/Cr2O3/CrO2 (zero, tri and tetravalent) nanoparticles (NPs) within its pores, and this is characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis. The high functionality of this polymer is due to the presence of monodentate carboxylate groups of a benzenetricarboxylate linker, which provide anchoring sites to the metal ions of the metal precursors. Due to the highly oxidising nature of these toxic ions, a redox reaction takes place between the framework metal ions and toxic metal ions, which is explained by an electron paramagnetic resonance study. This is the first report to synthesize non-toxic, as well as useful, NPs of As and Cr from their highly toxic ions within the cavities of a PCP for remediation of the toxic waste stream and contaminated waste water.

  19. Hybrid energy storage systems utilizing redox active organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-09-08

    Redox flow batteries (RFB) have attracted considerable interest due to their ability to store large amounts of power and energy. Non-aqueous energy storage systems that utilize at least some aspects of RFB systems are attractive because they can offer an expansion of the operating potential window, which can improve on the system energy and power densities. One example of such systems has a separator separating first and second electrodes. The first electrode includes a first current collector and volume containing a first active material. The second electrode includes a second current collector and volume containing a second active material. During operation, the first source provides a flow of first active material to the first volume. The first active material includes a redox active organic compound dissolved in a non-aqueous, liquid electrolyte and the second active material includes a redox active metal.

  20. Superconductivity in Layered Organic Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Wosnitza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, I will give an overview on the current understanding of the superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic metals. Thereby, I will focus on charge-transfer salts based on bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET for short. In these materials, strong electronic correlations are clearly evident, resulting in unique phase diagrams. The layered crystallographic structure leads to highly anisotropic electronic as well as superconducting properties. The corresponding very high orbital critical field for in-plane magnetic-field alignment allows for the occurrence of the Fulde–Ferrell– Larkin–Ovchinnikov state as evidenced by thermodynamic measurements. The experimental picture on the nature of the superconducting state is still controversial with evidence both for unconventional as well as for BCS-like superconductivity.

  1. Fundamental understanding and practical challenges of anionic redox activity in Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assat, Gaurav; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2018-05-01

    Our increasing dependence on lithium-ion batteries for energy storage calls for continual improvements in the performance of their positive electrodes, which have so far relied solely on cationic redox of transition-metal ions for driving the electrochemical reactions. Great hopes have recently been placed on the emergence of anionic redox—a transformational approach for designing positive electrodes as it leads to a near-doubling of capacity. But questions have been raised about the fundamental origins of anionic redox and whether its full potential can be realized in applications. In this Review, we discuss the underlying science that triggers a reversible and stable anionic redox activity. Furthermore, we highlight its practical limitations and outline possible approaches for improving such materials and designing new ones. We also summarize their chances for market implementation in the face of the competing nickel-based layered cathodes that are prevalent today.

  2. Redox-active Hybrid Materials for Pseudocapacitive Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boota, Muhammad

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials show a great promise for the purpose of manufacturing high performance electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems and beyond. Molecular level combination of two best suited components in a hybrid material leads to new or sometimes exceptional sets of physical, chemical, mechanical and electrochemical properties that makes them attractive for broad ranges of applications. Recently, there has been growing interest in producing redox-active hybrid nanomaterials for energy storage applications where generally the organic component provides high redox capacitance and the inorganic component offers high conductivity and robust support. While organic-inorganic hybrid materials offer tremendous opportunities for electrochemical energy storage applications, the task of matching the right organic material out of hundreds of natural and nearly unlimited synthetic organic molecules to appropriate nanostructured inorganic support hampers their electrochemical energy storage applications. We aim to present the recent development of redox-active hybrid materials for pseudocapacitive energy storage. We will show the impact of combination of suitable organic materials with distinct carbon nanostructures and/or highly conductive metal carbides (MXenes) on conductivity, charge storage performance, and cyclability. Combined experimental and molecular simulation results will be discussed to shed light on the interfacial organic-inorganic interactions, pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanisms, and likely orientations of organic molecules on conductive supports. Later, the concept of all-pseudocapacitive organic-inorganic asymmetric supercapacitors will be highlighted which open up new avenues for developing inexpensive, sustainable, and high energy density aqueous supercapacitors. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities to further tailor the redox-active hybrids will be highlighted.

  3. Redox active polymer devices and methods of using and manufacturing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Bautista-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Friesen, Cody; Switzer, Elise

    2018-06-05

    The disclosed technology relates generally to apparatus comprising conductive polymers and more particularly to tag and tag devices comprising a redox-active polymer film, and method of using and manufacturing the same. In one aspect, an apparatus includes a substrate and a conductive structure formed on the substrate which includes a layer of redox-active polymer film having mobile ions and electrons. The conductive structure further includes a first terminal and a second terminal configured to receive an electrical signal therebetween, where the layer of redox-active polymer is configured to conduct an electrical current generated by the mobile ions and the electrons in response to the electrical signal. The apparatus additionally includes a detection circuit operatively coupled to the conductive structure and configured to detect the electrical current flowing through the conductive structure.

  4. Progress in MOSFET double-layer metalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassaway, J. D.; Trotter, J. D.; Wade, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Report describes one-year research effort in VLSL fabrication. Four activities are described: theoretical study of two-dimensional diffusion in SOS (silicon-on-sapphire); setup of sputtering system, furnaces, and photolithography equipment; experiments on double layer metal; and investigation of two-dimensional modeling of MOSFET's (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors).

  5. Layered Metal Nanoparticle Structures on Electrodes for Sensing, Switchable Controlled Uptake/Release, and Photo-electrochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Vered, Ran; Kahn, Jason S; Willner, Itamar

    2016-01-06

    Layered metal nanoparticle (NP) assemblies provide highly porous and conductive composites of unique electrical and optical (plasmonic) properties. Two methods to construct layered metal NP matrices are described, and these include the layer-by-layer deposition of NPs, or the electropolymerization of monolayer-functionalized NPs, specifically thioaniline-modified metal NPs. The layered NP composites are used as sensing matrices through the use of electrochemistry or surface plasmon resonance (SPR) as transduction signals. The crosslinking of the metal NP composites with molecular receptors, or the imprinting of molecular recognition sites into the electropolymerized NP matrices lead to selective and chiroselective sensing interfaces. Furthermore, the electrosynthesis of redox-active, imprinted, bis-aniline bridged Au NP composites yields electrochemically triggered "sponges" for the switchable uptake and release of electron-acceptor substrates, and results in conductive surfaces of electrochemically controlled wettability. Also, photosensitizer-relay-crosslinked Au NP composites, or electrochemically polymerized layered semiconductor quantum dot/metal NP matrices on electrodes, are demonstrated as functional nanostructures for photoelectrochemical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Nonlinear optical properties of ultrathin metal layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The strip plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. The opt......This thesis presents experimental and theoretical studies of nonlinear propagation of ultrashort long-range surface plasmon polaritons in gold strip waveguides. The strip plasmonic waveguides are fabricated in house, and contain a gold layer, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding......-order nonlinear susceptibility of the plasmonic mode in the gold strip waveguides significantly depends on the metal layer thickness and laser pulse duration. This dependence is explained in detail in terms of the free-electron temporal dynamics in gold. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the gold layer...

  7. Optimization of multi-layered metallic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Dor, G.; Dubinsky, A.; Elperin, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We investigated the problem of optimization of a multi-layered metallic shield. → The maximum ballistic limit velocity is a criterion of optimization. → The sequence of materials and the thicknesses of layers in the shield are varied. → The general problem is reduced to the problem of Geometric Programming. → Analytical solutions are obtained for two- and three-layered shields. - Abstract: We investigate the problem of optimization of multi-layered metallic shield whereby the goal is to determine the sequence of materials and the thicknesses of the layers that provide the maximum ballistic limit velocity of the shield. Optimization is performed under the following constraints: fixed areal density of the shield, the upper bound on the total thickness of the shield and the bounds on the thicknesses of the plates manufactured from every material. The problem is reduced to the problem of Geometric Programming which can be solved numerically using known methods. For the most interesting in practice cases of two-layered and three-layered shields the solution is obtained in the explicit analytical form.

  8. Assembly, Structure, and Functionality of Metal-Organic Networks and Organic Semiconductor Layers at Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempas, Christopher D.

    Self-assembled nanostructures at surfaces show promise for the development of next generation technologies including organic electronic devices and heterogeneous catalysis. In many cases, the functionality of these nanostructures is not well understood. This thesis presents strategies for the structural design of new on-surface metal-organic networks and probes their chemical reactivity. It is shown that creating uniform metal sites greatly increases selectivity when compared to ligand-free metal islands. When O2 reacts with single-site vanadium centers, in redox-active self-assembled coordination networks on the Au(100) surface, it forms one product. When O2 reacts with vanadium metal islands on the same surface, multiple products are formed. Other metal-organic networks described in this thesis include a mixed valence network containing Pt0 and PtII and a network where two Fe centers reside in close proximity. This structure is stable to temperatures >450 °C. These new on-surface assemblies may offer the ability to perform reactions of increasing complexity as future heterogeneous catalysts. The functionalization of organic semiconductor molecules is also shown. When a few molecular layers are grown on the surface, it is seen that the addition of functional groups changes both the film's structure and charge transport properties. This is due to changes in both first layer packing structure and the pi-electron distribution in the functionalized molecules compared to the original molecule. The systems described in this thesis were studied using high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Overall, this work provides strategies for the creation of new, well-defined on-surface nanostructures and adds additional chemical insight into their properties.

  9. ANTIREFLECTION MULTILAYER COATINGS WITH THIN METAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gubanova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of anti-reflective coatings for metal surfaces of Al, Ti, N,i Cr is proposed. The coatings have the form of alternating layers of dielectric/metal/dielectric with the number of cells up to15. The method of calculation of such coatings is proposed. We have calculated the coatings of the type [HfO2/Cr/HfO2]15, [ZrO2/Ti/Al2O3]15, [ZrO2/Cr/ZrO2]15. It is shown that the proposed interference coatings provide reduction of the residual reflectance of the metal several times (from 3.5 to 6.0 in a wide spectral range (300-1000 nm. The proposed coatings can be recommended as anti-reflective coatings for energy saving solar systems and batteries, and photovoltaic cells.

  10. Flowable Conducting Particle Networks in Redox-Active Electrolytes for Grid Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzell, K. B.; Boota, M.; Kumbur, E. C.; Gogotsi, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a new hybrid approach toward achieving high volumetric energy and power densities in an electrochemical flow capacitor for grid energy storage. The electrochemical flow capacitor suffers from high self-discharge and low energy density because charge storage is limited to the available surface area (electric double layer charge storage). Here, we examine two carbon materials as conducting particles in a flow battery electrolyte containing the VO2+/VO2+ redox couple. Highly porous activated carbon spheres (CSs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are investigated as conducting particle networks that facilitate both faradaic and electric double layer charge storage. Charge storage contributions (electric double layer and faradaic) are distinguished for flow-electrodes composed of MWCNTs and activated CSs. A MWCNT flow-electrode based in a redox-active electrolyte containing the VO2+/VO2+ redox couple demonstrates 18% less self-discharge, 10 X more energy density, and 20 X greater power densities (at 20 mV s-1) than one based on a non-redox active electrolyte. Furthermore, a MWCNT redox-active flow electrode demonstrates 80% capacitance retention, and >95% coulombic efficiency over 100 cycles, indicating the feasibility of utilizing conducting networks with redox chemistries for grid energy storage.

  11. Inert Layered Silicate Improves the Electrochemical Responses of a Metal Complex Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Miharu; Momotake, Masako; Inoue, Fumie; Oshima, Takayoshi; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Higuchi, Masayoshi

    2017-10-11

    A chemically inert, insulating layered silicate (saponite; SP) and an iron(II)-based metallo-supramolecular complex polymer (polyFe) were combined via electrostatic attraction to improve the electrochromic properties of polyFe. Structural characterization indicated that polyFe was intercalated into the SP nanosheets. Interestingly, the redox potential of polyFe was lowered by combining it with SP, and the current was measurable despite the insulating nature of SP. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the decrease in the redox potential observed in the SP-polyFe hybrid was caused by the electrostatic neutralization of the Fe cation in polyFe by the negative charge on SP. Electrochemical analyses indicated that electron transfer occurred through electron hopping across the SP-polyFe hybrid. Control experiments using a metal complex composed of Fe and two 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ligands (terpyFe) showed that SP contributes to the effective electron hopping. This modulation of the electrochemical properties by the layered silicates could be applied to other electrochemical systems, including hybrids of the redox-active ionic species and ion-exchangeable adsorbents.

  12. Oriented Immobilization of His-Tagged Protein on a Redox Active Thiol Derivative of DPTA-Cu(II Layer Deposited on a Gold Electrode—The Base of Electrochemical Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Radecka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the development of an electrochemical biosensor for the determination of Aβ16–23' and Aβ1–40 peptides. The His-tagged V and VC1 domains of Receptor for Advanced Glycation end Products (RAGE immobilized on a gold electrode surface were used as analytically active molecules. The immobilization of His6–RAGE domains consists of: (i formation of a mixed layer of N-acetylcysteamine (NAC and the thiol derivative of pentetic acid (DPTA; (ii complexation of Cu(II by DPTA; (iii oriented immobilization of His6–RAGE domains via coordination bonds between Cu(II sites from DPTA–Cu(II complex and imidazole nitrogen atoms of a histidine tag. Each modification step was controlled by cyclic voltammetry (CV, Osteryoung square-wave voltammetry (OSWV, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The applicability of the proposed biosensor was tested in the presence of human plasma, which had no influence on its performance. The detection limits for Aβ1–40 determination were 1.06 nM and 0.80 nM, in the presence of buffer and human plasma, respectively. These values reach the concentration level of Aβ1–40 which is relevant for determination of its soluble form in human plasma, as well as in brain. This indicates the promising future application of biosensor presented for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Catalytic Water Oxidation by a Bio-inspired Nickel Complex with Redox Active Ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Bruner, Charlie O.

    2017-01-01

    The oxidation of water to dioxygen is important in natural photosynthesis. One of nature’s strategies for managing such multi-electron transfer reactions is to employ redox active metal-organic cofactor arrays. One prototype example is the copper-tyrosinate active site found in galactose oxidase. In this work, we have implemented such a strategy to develop a bio-inspired nickel-phenolate complex capable of catalyzing the oxidation of water to O2 electrochemically at neutral pH with a modest overpotential. The employment of the redox-active ligand turned out to be a useful strategy to avoid the formation of high-valent nickel intermediates while a reasonable turnover rate (0.15 s−1) is retained. PMID:29099176

  14. Catalytic Water Oxidation by a Bio-inspired Nickel Complex with a Redox-Active Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Bruner, Charlie O

    2017-11-20

    The oxidation of water (H 2 O) to dioxygen (O 2 ) is important in natural photosynthesis. One of nature's strategies for managing such multi-electron transfer reactions is to employ redox-active metal-organic cofactor arrays. One prototype example is the copper tyrosinate active site found in galactose oxidase. In this work, we have implemented such a strategy to develop a bio-inspired nickel phenolate complex capable of catalyzing the oxidation of H 2 O to O 2 electrochemically at neutral pH with a modest overpotential. Employment of the redox-active ligand turned out to be a useful strategy to avoid the formation of high-valent nickel intermediates while a reasonable turnover rate (0.15 s -1 ) is retained.

  15. Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides for metal capture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Ma, Shulan

    2017-04-04

    Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides and methods for their use in vapor and liquid-phase metal capture applications are provided. The layered double hydroxides comprise a plurality of positively charged host layers of mixed metal hydroxides separated by interlayer spaces. Polysulfide anions are intercalated in the interlayer spaces.

  16. Redox active polymers and colloidal particles for flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavvalapalli, Nagarjuna; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Joaquin; Cheng, Kevin; Shen, Mei; Lichtenstein, Timothy

    2018-05-29

    The invention provides a redox flow battery comprising a microporous or nanoporous size-exclusion membrane, wherein one cell of the battery contains a redox-active polymer dissolved in the non-aqueous solvent or a redox-active colloidal particle dispersed in the non-aqueous solvent. The redox flow battery provides enhanced ionic conductivity across the electrolyte separator and reduced redox-active species crossover, thereby improving the performance and enabling widespread utilization. Redox active poly(vinylbenzyl ethylviologen) (RAPs) and redox active colloidal particles (RACs) were prepared and were found to be highly effective redox species. Controlled potential bulk electrolysis indicates that 94-99% of the nominal charge on different RAPs is accessible and the electrolysis products are stable upon cycling. The high concentration attainable (>2.0 M) for RAPs in common non-aqueous battery solvents, their electrochemical and chemical reversibility, and their hindered transport across porous separators make them attractive materials for non-aqueous redox flow batteries based on size-selectivity.

  17. Silver doped metal layers for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocourek, T; Jelínek, M; Mikšovský, J; Jurek, K; Weiserová, M

    2014-01-01

    Biological, physical and mechanical properties of silver-doped layers of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 316L steel prepared by pulsed laser deposition were studied. Metallic silver-doped coatings could be a new route for antibacterial protection in medicine. Thin films of silver and silver-doped materials were synthesized using KrF excimer laser deposition. The materials were ablated from two targets, which were composed either from titanium alloy with silver segments or from steel with silver segments. The concentration of silver ranged from 1.54 at% to 4.32 at% for steel and from 3.04 at% to 13.05 at% for titanium alloy. The layer properties such as silver content, structure, adhesion, surface wettability, and antibacterial efficacy (evaluated by Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria) were measured. Film adhesion was studied using scratch test. The antibacterial efficacy changed with silver doping up to 99.9 %. Our investigation was focused on minimum Ag concentration needed to reach high antibacterial efficiency, high film adhesion, and hardness.

  18. Alkali metal and alkali metal hydroxide intercalates of the layered transition metal disulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzaki, Y.; Konuma, M.; Matsumoto, O.

    1981-01-01

    The intercalation reaction of some layered transition metal disulfides with alkali metals, alkali metal hydroxides, and tetraalkylammonium hydroxides were investigated. The alkali metal intercalates were prepared in the respective metal-hexamethylphosphoric triamide solutions in vaccuo, and the hydroxide intercalates in aqueous hydroxide solutions. According to the intercalation reaction, the c-lattice parameter was increased, and the increase indicated the expansion of the interlayer distance. In the case of alkali metal intercalates, the expansion of the interlayer distance increased continuously, corresponding to the atomic radius of the alkali metal. On the other hand, the hydroxide intercalates showed discrete expansion corresponding to the effective ionic radius of the intercalated cation. All intercalates of TaS 2 amd NbS 2 were superconductors. The expansion of the interlayer distance tended to increase the superconducting transition temperature in the intercalates of TaS 2 and vice versa in those of NbS 2 . (orig.)

  19. Laser modification of macroscopic properties of metal surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek

    1995-03-01

    Surface laser treatment of metals comprises a number of diversified technological operations out of which the following can be considered the most common: oxidation and rendering surfaces amorphous, surface hardening of steel, modification of selected physical properties of metal surface layers. In the paper basic results of laser treatment of a group of metals used as base materials for electric contacts have been presented. The aim of the study was to test the usability of laser treatment from the viewpoint of requirements imposed on materials for electric contacts. The results presented in the paper refer to two different surface treatment technologies: (1) modification of infusible metal surface layer: tungsten and molybdenum through laser fusing of their surface layer and its crystallization, and (2) modification of surface layer properties of other metals through laser doping of their surface layer with foreign elements. In the paper a number of results of experimental investigations obtained by the team under the author's supervision are presented.

  20. Resin infusion of layered metal/composite hybrid and resulting metal/composite hybrid laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of fabricating a metal/composite hybrid laminate is provided. One or more layered arrangements are stacked on a solid base to form a layered structure. Each layered arrangement is defined by a fibrous material and a perforated metal sheet. A resin in its liquid state is introduced along a portion of the layered structure while a differential pressure is applied across the laminate structure until the resin permeates the fibrous material of each layered arrangement and fills perforations in each perforated metal sheet. The resin is cured thereby yielding a metal/composite hybrid laminate.

  1. Electrochemical Characteristics of Layered Transition Metal Oxide Cathode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries: Surface, Bulk Behavior, and Thermal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chixia; Lin, Feng; Doeff, Marca M

    2018-01-16

    structural and chemical changes affect the charge distribution, the charge compensation mechanisms, and ultimately, the battery performance. Surface reconstruction, cathode/electrolyte interface layer formation, and oxygen loss are intimately related, making it difficult to disentangle the effects of each of these phenomena. They are driven by the different redox activities of Ni and O on the surface and in the bulk; there is a greater tendency for charge compensation to occur on oxygen anions at particle surfaces rather than on Ni, whereas the Ni in the bulk is more redox active than on the surface. Finally, our latest research efforts are directed toward understanding the thermal properties of NMCs, which is highly relevant to their safety in operating cells.

  2. Determination of accurate metal silicide layer thickness by RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, J.F.; Baumann, S.M.; Evans, C.; Ward, I.; Coveney, P.

    1995-01-01

    Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) is a proven useful analytical tool for determining compositional information of a wide variety of materials. One of the most widely utilized applications of RBS is the study of the composition of metal silicides (MSi x ), also referred to as polycides. A key quantity obtained from an analysis of a metal silicide is the ratio of silicon to metal (Si/M). Although compositional information is very reliable in these applications, determination of metal silicide layer thickness by RBS techniques can differ from true layer thicknesses by more than 40%. The cause of these differences lies in how the densities utilized in the RBS analysis are calculated. The standard RBS analysis software packages calculate layer densities by assuming each element's bulk densities weighted by the fractional atomic presence. This calculation causes large thickness discrepancies in metal silicide thicknesses because most films form into crystal structures with distinct densities. Assuming a constant layer density for a full spectrum of Si/M values for metal silicide samples improves layer thickness determination but ignores the underlying physics of the films. We will present results of RBS determination of the thickness various metal silicide films with a range of Si/M values using a physically accurate model for the calculation of layer densities. The thicknesses are compared to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cross-section micrographs. We have also developed supporting software that incorporates these calculations into routine analyses. (orig.)

  3. Non-volatile memory devices with redox-active diruthenium molecular compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pookpanratana, S; Zhu, H; Bittle, E G; Richter, C A; Li, Q; Hacker, C A; Natoli, S N; Ren, T

    2016-01-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) active molecules hold potential for memory devices due to their many unique properties. We report the use of a novel diruthenium-based redox molecule incorporated into a non-volatile Flash-based memory device architecture. The memory capacitor device structure consists of a Pd/Al 2 O 3 /molecule/SiO 2 /Si structure. The bulky ruthenium redox molecule is attached to the surface by using a ‘click’ reaction and the monolayer structure is characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to verify the Ru attachment and molecular density. The ‘click’ reaction is particularly advantageous for memory applications because of (1) ease of chemical design and synthesis, and (2) provides an additional spatial barrier between the oxide/silicon to the diruthenium molecule. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy data identified the energy of the electronic levels of the surface before and after surface modification. The molecular memory devices display an unsaturated charge storage window attributed to the intrinsic properties of the redox-active molecule. Our findings demonstrate the strengths and challenges with integrating molecular layers within solid-state devices, which will influence the future design of molecular memory devices. (paper)

  4. Adsorption behavior of redox-active suppressor additives: Combined electrochemical and STM studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, N.T.M.; Huynh, T.M.T.; Fluegel, A.; Mayer, D.; Broekmann, P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Janus Green B and safranine are prototypical redox-active leveler additives for copper electroplating. → Their redox-transitions lie within the copper potential window. → Reduced additives are identified as active species for the leveling effect. → Electro-reduction affects in particular the central aromatic cores of the additives. - Abstract: The redox chemistry and the related surface phase behavior of Safranine (SAF) and Janus Green B (JGB) have been studied by means of cyclic voltammetry in combination with in situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy using HOPG (Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite) and single crystalline Cu(1 0 0) as model substrates, both revealing different widths of the accessible potential windows. JGB and SAF serve as prototypical heterocyclic suppressor/leveler additives that are used for the metallization of 3D-TSVs (3D Through Silicon Vias) following a classical 'leveling' concept. SAF can be considered as the reductive decomposition product of JGB that is formed at the copper/electrolyte interface upon electroplating. Both additives reveal a pronounced pH-dependent redox-chemistry with redox-transitions lying close to or even beyond the anodic limit of the copper potential window. Affected by these redox-processes are in particular the aromatic cores of those heterocycles that can be (quasi)reversibly reduced by a two electron transfer process within the potential window of copper. Therefore we identify the reduced form of those dyes as the active components for the suppressing/leveling effect in copper plating. STM data clearly shows a dye surface phase behavior that is crucially determined by its potential-dependent redox-chemistry. This will be exemplarily discussed for the SAF dye. On chloride-modified Cu(1 0 0) mono-reduced SAF forms a structurally well-defined monolayer of cationic stacking polymers. However, this coupled anion/cation layer reveals only minor suppressing capabilities with respect to the copper

  5. Improved adhesion of metal oxide layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide layer, which method comprises the steps of: a) mixing zinc acetate and AlOH (OAc)2 in water or methanol and b) filtering out solids; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and AlOH (OAc)2 in aqueous or m...

  6. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0layer can be deposited using sol-gel or metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  7. Fabrication of metal organic framework materials using a layer-by-layer spin coating approach

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Shekhah, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments describe a method of depositing an MOF, including depositing a metal solution onto a substrate, spinning the substrate sufficient to spread the metal solution, depositing an organic ligand solution onto the substrate and spinning the substrate sufficient to spread the organic ligand solution and form a MOF layer.

  8. Fabrication of metal organic framework materials using a layer-by-layer spin coating approach

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-17

    Embodiments describe a method of depositing an MOF, including depositing a metal solution onto a substrate, spinning the substrate sufficient to spread the metal solution, depositing an organic ligand solution onto the substrate and spinning the substrate sufficient to spread the organic ligand solution and form a MOF layer.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of redox-active ferric nontronite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgen, A. G.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Dunphy, D. R.; Artyushkova, K.; Cerrato, J. M.; Kruichak, J. N.; Janish, M. T.; Sun, C. J.; Argo, J. M.; Washington, R. E.

    2017-10-01

    Heterogeneous redox reactions on clay mineral surfaces control mobility and bioavailability of redox-sensitive nutrients and contaminants. Iron (Fe) residing in clay mineral structures can either catalyze or directly participate in redox reactions; however, chemical controls over its reactivity are not fully understood. In our previous work we demonstrated that converting a minor portion of Fe(III) to Fe(II) (partial reduction) in the octahedral sheet of natural Fe-rich clay mineral nontronite (NAu-1) activates its surface, making it redox-active. In this study we produced and characterized synthetic ferric nontronite (SIP), highlighting structural and chemical similarities and differences between this synthetic nontronite and its natural counterpart NAu-1, and probed whether mineral surface is redox-active by reacting it with arsenic As(III) under oxic and anoxic conditions. We demonstrate that synthetic nontronite SIP undergoes the same activation as natural nontronite NAu-1 following the partial reduction treatment. Similar to NAu-1, SIP oxidized As(III) to As(V) under both oxic (catalytic pathway) and anoxic (direct oxidation) conditions. The similar reactivity trends observed for synthetic nontronite and its natural counterpart make SIP an appropriate analog for laboratory studies. The development of chemically pure analogs for ubiquitous soil minerals will allow for systematic research of the fundamental properties of these minerals.

  10. Effect of layered manufacturing techniques, alloy powders, and layer thickness on metal-ceramic bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Orhun; Ozkomur, Ahmet; Ucar, Yurdanur

    2018-03-01

    Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and direct metal laser melting (DMLM) have become popular for fabricating the metal frameworks of metal-ceramic restorations. How the type of layered manufacturing device, layer thickness, and alloy powder may affect the bond strength of ceramic to metal substructure is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of dental porcelain to metal frameworks fabricated using different layered manufacturing techniques (DMLS and DMLM), Co-Cr alloy powders, and layer thicknesses and to evaluate whether a correlation exists between the bond strength and the number of ceramic remnants on the metal surface. A total of 75 bar-shaped metal specimens (n=15) were fabricated using either DMLS or DMLM. The powder alloys used were Keramit NP-S and EOS-Cobalt-Chrome SP-2 with layer thicknesses of 20 μm and 30 μm. After ceramic application, the metal-ceramic bond strength was evaluated with a 3-point-bend test. Three-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey honest significance difference test were used for statistical analysis (α=.05). De-bonding surface microstructure was observed with scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between ceramic remnants on the metal surface and bond strength values. The mean bond strength value of DMLS was significantly higher than that of DMLM. While no statistically significant difference was found between layer thicknesses, alloy powders closely affected bond strength. Statistical comparisons revealed that the highest bond strength could be achieved with DMLS-Cobalt-Chrome SP2-20μm, and the lowest bond strength was observed in DMLS-Keramit NP-S-20μm (P≤.05). No correlation was found between porcelain remnants on the metal surface and bond strength values. The layered manufacturing device and the alloy powders evaluated in the current study closely affected the bond strength of dental porcelain to a metal framework

  11. Electro-kinetic separation of rare earth elements using a redox-active ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Huayi; Cole, Bren E.; Qiao, Yusen; Bogart, Justin A.; Cheisson, Thibault; Manor, Brian C.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Purification of rare earth elements is challenging due to their chemical similarities. All of the deployed separation methods rely on thermodynamic properties, such as distribution equilibria in solvent extraction. Rare-earth-metal separations based on kinetic differences have not been examined. Herein, we demonstrate a new approach for rare-earth-element separations by exploiting differences in the oxidation rates within a series of rare earth compounds containing the redox-active ligand [{2-(tBuN(O))C_6H_4CH_2}{sub 3}N]{sup 3-}. Using this method, a single-step separation factor up to 261 was obtained for the separation of a 50:50 yttrium-lutetium mixture. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rut’kov, E. V.; Lavrovskaya, N. P.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Gall, N. R.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electron transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.

  13. Optical transparency of graphene layers grown on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rut’kov, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Lavrovskaya, N. P. [State University of Aerospace Instrumentation (Russian Federation); Sheshenya, E. S., E-mail: sheshenayket@gmail.ru; Gall, N. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    It is shown that, in contradiction with the fundamental results obtained for free graphene, graphene films grown on the Rh(111) surface to thicknesses from one to ~(12–15) single layers do not absorb visible electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface and influence neither the brightness nor true temperature of the sample. At larger thicknesses, such absorption occurs. This effect is observed for the surfaces of other metals, specifically, Pt(111), Re(1010), and Ni(111) and, thus, can be considered as being universal. It is thought that the effect is due to changes in the electronic properties of thin graphene layers because of electron transfer between graphene and the metal substrate.

  14. Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curved-graphene supercapacitors in a redox-active electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Energy loss from internal reflection off metal layers on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. W.; Bezuidenhout, D. F.; Klee, H. W.; Theron, E.

    1983-12-01

    The reflection characteristics of metal layers are considered for the situation where the electromagnetic radiation is incident from the glass side. Theoretical and measured reflectance values are presented which indicate that for some metals the reflection has a strong dependence on the refractive index of the incident medium. Some examples are given of recent cases where the above results were an important consideration in the choice of the metallic reflecting material. These results indicate that aluminium should not be automatically considered the best choice for the visible region nor gold for the infra-red.

  16. Structural variations in layered alkaline earth metal cyclohexyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    because of the entrance of the guest molecules between the layers, there will be a change in the interlayer distance (Alberti 1978). Although M(IV) organo-phos- phonates are well documented, the chemistry of M(II) organophosphonates especially the alkaline earth metal organophosphonates has been explored marginally ...

  17. Harnessing redox activity for the formation of uranium tris(imido) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nickolas H.; Odoh, Samuel O.; Yao, Yiyi; Williams, Ursula J.; Schaefer, Brian A.; Kiernicki, John J.; Lewis, Andrew J.; Goshert, Mitchell D.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Schelter, Eric J.; Walensky, Justin R.; Gagliardi, Laura; Bart, Suzanne C.

    2014-10-01

    Classically, late transition-metal organometallic compounds promote multielectron processes solely through the change in oxidation state of the metal centre. In contrast, uranium typically undergoes single-electron chemistry. However, using redox-active ligands can engage multielectron reactivity at this metal in analogy to transition metals. Here we show that a redox-flexible pyridine(diimine) ligand can stabilize a series of highly reduced uranium coordination complexes by storing one, two or three electrons in the ligand. These species reduce organoazides easily to form uranium-nitrogen multiple bonds with the release of dinitrogen. The extent of ligand reduction dictates the formation of uranium mono-, bis- and tris(imido) products. Spectroscopic and structural characterization of these compounds supports the idea that electrons are stored in the ligand framework and used in subsequent reactivity. Computational analyses of the uranium imido products probed their molecular and electronic structures, which facilitated a comparison between the bonding in the tris(imido) structure and its tris(oxo) analogue.

  18. Reactive boundary layers in metallic rolling contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, John

    2016-05-01

    more thorough investigation into the effects of residual austenite on the properties of this material. The high-performance alternative steels, 36NiCrMoV1-5-7 (hot working steel) and 45SiCrMo6 (spring steel), were heat treated as recommended by their respective manufacturers, and were not case-hardened. The selection of materials with and materials without case-hardening allows for an investigation into whether or not case-hardening is even necessary to deliver acceptable friction behaviour and wear performance. Elemental analyses were conducted by multiple methods to ensure accurate results. Residual austenite contents of the steels and the depth profiles of residual stresses were determined by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), for 20MnCr5 ranging from approximately 6 - 14 vol.%, and under 2 vol.% for the alternative alloys. Hardness profiles were taken from the testing surfaces into the material core. The carburization of 20MnCr5 led to higher hardness and the greater concentration of carbon in the carburization zone more representative of a hardened SAE E52100, or 100Cr6/102Cr6, than of a non-case-hardened 20MnCr5. Residual stresses from machining and case-hardening were measured directly at the sample surface. The high-performance steels fulfilled manufacturer expectations in terms of elemental content, with hardness values between 50 - 55 HRC and strongly martensitic microstructure character. With characterization of the chosen materials complete, the materials could then be subjected to pre-conditioning. The first pre-conditioning method involved targeted generation of cold work hardening as induced boundary layers to protect the contact zone against wear. Work hardening was identified both by variations in residual stress profiles, i.e. the introduction of beneficial compressive residual stresses, and hardness increases in the contact zone, providing enhanced wear resistance. Parameters for work hardening were further optimized to reduce damage to the surface substrates

  19. Reactive boundary layers in metallic rolling contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, John

    2016-01-01

    thorough investigation into the effects of residual austenite on the properties of this material. The high-performance alternative steels, 36NiCrMoV1-5-7 (hot working steel) and 45SiCrMo6 (spring steel), were heat treated as recommended by their respective manufacturers, and were not case-hardened. The selection of materials with and materials without case-hardening allows for an investigation into whether or not case-hardening is even necessary to deliver acceptable friction behaviour and wear performance. Elemental analyses were conducted by multiple methods to ensure accurate results. Residual austenite contents of the steels and the depth profiles of residual stresses were determined by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), for 20MnCr5 ranging from approximately 6 - 14 vol.%, and under 2 vol.% for the alternative alloys. Hardness profiles were taken from the testing surfaces into the material core. The carburization of 20MnCr5 led to higher hardness and the greater concentration of carbon in the carburization zone more representative of a hardened SAE E52100, or 100Cr6/102Cr6, than of a non-case-hardened 20MnCr5. Residual stresses from machining and case-hardening were measured directly at the sample surface. The high-performance steels fulfilled manufacturer expectations in terms of elemental content, with hardness values between 50 - 55 HRC and strongly martensitic microstructure character. With characterization of the chosen materials complete, the materials could then be subjected to pre-conditioning. The first pre-conditioning method involved targeted generation of cold work hardening as induced boundary layers to protect the contact zone against wear. Work hardening was identified both by variations in residual stress profiles, i.e. the introduction of beneficial compressive residual stresses, and hardness increases in the contact zone, providing enhanced wear resistance. Parameters for work hardening were further optimized to reduce damage to the surface substrates of the

  20. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonta, Lital [San Diego, CA; Schultz, Peter G [La Jolla, CA; Zhang, Zhiwen [San Diego, CA

    2009-02-24

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  1. Site-specific incorporation of redox active amino acids into proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonta, Lital; Schultz, Peter G.; Zhang, Zhiwen

    2017-10-10

    Compositions and methods of producing components of protein biosynthetic machinery that include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases, which incorporate redox active amino acids into proteins are provided. Methods for identifying these orthogonal pairs are also provided along with methods of producing proteins with redox active amino acids using these orthogonal pairs.

  2. Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curved-graphene supercapacitors in a redox-active electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active

  3. Solution processed metal oxide thin film hole transport layers for high performance organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Widjonarko, Nicodemus Edwin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.

    2017-01-10

    A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.

  4. Comparative study of the synthesis of layered transition metal molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, S.; Gomez-Aviles, A.; Gardner, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed metal oxides (MMOs) prepared by the mild thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) differ in their reactivity on exposure to aqueous molybdate containing solutions. In this study, we investigate the reactivity of some T-Al containing MMOs (T=Co, Ni, Cu or Zn) towards the formation of layered transition metal molybdates (LTMs) possessing the general formula AT 2 (OH)(MoO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O, where A=NH 4 + , Na + or K + . The phase selectivity of the reaction was studied with respect to the source of molybdate, the ratio of T to Mo and the reaction pH. LTMs were obtained on reaction of Cu-Al and Zn-Al containing MMOs with aqueous solutions of ammonium heptamolybdate. Rehydration of these oxides in the presence of sodium or potassium molybdate yielded a rehydrated LDH phase as the only crystalline product. The LTM products obtained by the rehydration of MMO precursors were compared with LTMs prepared by direct precipitation from the metal salts in order to study the influence of preparative route on their chemical and physical properties. Differences were noted in the composition, morphology and thermal properties of the resulting products. - Graphical abstract: Mixed metal oxides (MMOs) derived from layered double hydroxide precursors differ in their reactivity on exposure to aqueous molybdate containing solutions. We investigate the influence of the molybdate source, the rehydration pH and the ratio of T/Mo on the reactivity of some T-Al containing MMOs (T=Co, Ni, Cu or Zn) towards the formation of layered transition metal molybdates of general formula AT 2 (OH)(MoO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O (where A + =NH 4 + , K + or Na + ).

  5. Evidence for anionic redox activity in a tridimensional-ordered Li-rich positive electrode β-Li2IrO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Paul E; Perez, Arnaud J; Rousse, Gwenaelle; Saubanère, Mathieu; Batuk, Dmitry; Foix, Dominique; McCalla, Eric; Abakumov, Artem M; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Doublet, Marie-Liesse; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2017-05-01

    Lithium-ion battery cathode materials have relied on cationic redox reactions until the recent discovery of anionic redox activity in Li-rich layered compounds which enables capacities as high as 300 mAh g -1 . In the quest for new high-capacity electrodes with anionic redox, a still unanswered question was remaining regarding the importance of the structural dimensionality. The present manuscript provides an answer. We herein report on a β-Li 2 IrO 3 phase which, in spite of having the Ir arranged in a tridimensional (3D) framework instead of the typical two-dimensional (2D) layers seen in other Li-rich oxides, can reversibly exchange 2.5 e - per Ir, the highest value ever reported for any insertion reaction involving d-metals. We show that such a large activity results from joint reversible cationic (M n+ ) and anionic (O 2 ) n- redox processes, the latter being visualized via complementary transmission electron microscopy and neutron diffraction experiments, and confirmed by density functional theory calculations. Moreover, β-Li 2 IrO 3 presents a good cycling behaviour while showing neither cationic migration nor shearing of atomic layers as seen in 2D-layered Li-rich materials. Remarkably, the anionic redox process occurs jointly with the oxidation of Ir 4+ at potentials as low as 3.4 V versus Li + /Li 0 , as equivalently observed in the layered α-Li 2 IrO 3 polymorph. Theoretical calculations elucidate the electrochemical similarities and differences of the 3D versus 2D polymorphs in terms of structural, electronic and mechanical descriptors. Our findings free the structural dimensionality constraint and broaden the possibilities in designing high-energy-density electrodes for the next generation of Li-ion batteries.

  6. Theoretical bases on thermal stability of layered metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Rusakov, V.S.; Turkebaev, T.Eh.; Zhankadamova, A.M.; Ensebaeva, M.Z.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to implementation of the theoretical bases for layered metallic systems thermal stabilization. The theory is based on the stabilization mechanism expense of the intermediate two-phase field formation. As parameters of calculated model are coefficients of mutual diffusion and inclusions sizes of generated phases in two-phase fields. The stabilization time dependence for beryllium-iron (Be (1.1 μm)-Fe(5.5 μm)) layered system from iron and beryllium diffusion coefficients, and inclusions sizes is shown as an example. Conclusion about possible mechanisms change at transition from microscopic consideration to the nano-crystal physics level is given

  7. Hydrogen permeation resistant layers for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1980-03-01

    Reviewing the literature in the tritium diffusion field one can readily see a wide divergence in results for both the response of permeation rate to pressure, and the effect of oxide layers on total permeation rates. The basic mechanism of protective oxide layers is discussed. Two coatings which are less hydrogen permeable than the best naturally occurring oxide are described. The work described is part of an HEDL-ANL cooperative research program on Tritium Permeation in Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors. This includes permeation work on hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium with the hydrogen-deuterium research leading to the developments presented

  8. Digallane with redox-active diimine ligand: dualism of electron-transfer reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedushkin, Igor L; Skatova, Alexandra A; Dodonov, Vladimir A; Chudakova, Valentina A; Bazyakina, Natalia L; Piskunov, Alexander V; Demeshko, Serhiy V; Fukin, Georgy K

    2014-05-19

    The reactivity of digallane (dpp-Bian)Ga-Ga(dpp-Bian) (1), which consists of redox-active ligand 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene (dpp-Bian), has been studied. The reaction of 1 with I2 proceeds via one-electron oxidation of each of two dpp-Bian ligands to a radical-anionic state and affords complex (dpp-Bian)IGa-GaI(dpp-Bian) (2). Dissolution of complex 2 in pyridine (Py) gives monomeric compound (dpp-Bian)GaI(Py) (3) as a result of a solvent-induced intramolecular electron transfer from the metal-metal bond to the dpp-Bian ligands. Treatment of compound 3 with B(C6F5)3 leads to removal of pyridine and restores compound 2. The reaction of compound 1 with 3,6-di-tert-butyl-ortho-benzoquinone (3,6-Q) proceeds with oxidation of all the redox-active centers in 1 (the Ga-Ga bond and two dpp-Bian dianions) and results in mononuclear catecholate (dpp-Bian)Ga(Cat) (4) (Cat = [3,6-Q](2-)). Treatment of 4 with AgBF4 gives a mixture of [(dpp-Bian)2Ag][BF4] (5) and (dpp-Bian)GaF(Cat) (6), which both consist of neutral dpp-Bian ligands. The reduction of benzylideneacetone (BA) with 1 generates the BA radical-anions, which dimerize, affording (dpp-Bian)Ga-(BA-BA)-Ga(dpp-Bian) (7). In this case the Ga-Ga bond remains unchanged. Within 10 min at 95 °C in solution compound 7 undergoes transformation to paramagnetic complex (dpp-Bian)Ga(BA-BA) (8) and metal-free compound C36H40N2 (9). The latter is a product of intramolecular addition of the C-H bond of one of the iPr groups to the C═N bond in dpp-Bian. Diamagnetic compounds 3, 5, 6, and 9 have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, and paramagnetic complexes 2, 4, 7, and 8 by ESR spectroscopy. Molecular structures of 2-7 and 9 have been established by single-crystal X-ray analysis.

  9. Surface plasmons based terahertz modulator consisting of silicon-air-metal-dielectric-metal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Dongxiao; Qian, Zhenhai

    2018-05-01

    An optically controlled modulator of the terahertz wave, which is composed of a metal-dielectric-metal structure etched with circular loop arrays on both the metal layers and a photoexcited silicon wafer separated by an air layer, is proposed. Simulation results based on experimentally measured complex permittivities predict that modification of complex permittivity of the silicon wafer through excitation laser leads to a significant tuning of transmission characteristics of the modulator, forming the modulation depths of 59.62% and 96.64% based on localized surface plasmon peak and propagating surface plasmon peak, respectively. The influences of the complex permittivity of the silicon wafer and the thicknesses of both the air layer and the silicon wafer are numerically studied for better understanding the modulation mechanism. This study proposes a feasible methodology to design an optically controlled terahertz modulator with large modulation depth, high speed and suitable insertion loss, which is useful for terahertz applications in the future.

  10. Adsorption of metal adatoms on single-layer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, Vadym V; Malyi, Oleksandr I; Persson, Clas; Wu, Ping

    2015-01-14

    Single- or few-layer phosphorene is a novel two-dimensional direct-bandgap nanomaterial. Based on first-principles calculations, we present a systematic study on the binding energy, geometry, magnetic moment and electronic structure of 20 different adatoms adsorbed on phosphorene. The adatoms cover a wide range of valences, including s and p valence metals, 3d transition metals, noble metals, semiconductors, hydrogen and oxygen. We find that adsorbed adatoms produce a rich diversity of structural, electronic and magnetic properties. Our work demonstrates that phosphorene forms strong bonds with all studied adatoms while still preserving its structural integrity. The adsorption energies of adatoms on phosphorene are more than twice higher than on graphene, while the largest distortions of phosphorene are only ∼0.1-0.2 Å. The charge carrier type in phosphorene can be widely tuned by adatom adsorption. The unique combination of high reactivity with good structural stability is very promising for potential applications of phosphorene.

  11. Metal-Insulator-Metal Single Electron Transistors with Tunnel Barriers Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karbasian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Single electron transistors are nanoscale electron devices that require thin, high-quality tunnel barriers to operate and have potential applications in sensing, metrology and beyond-CMOS computing schemes. Given that atomic layer deposition is used to form CMOS gate stacks with low trap densities and excellent thickness control, it is well-suited as a technique to form a variety of tunnel barriers. This work is a review of our recent research on atomic layer deposition and post-fabrication treatments to fabricate metallic single electron transistors with a variety of metals and dielectrics.

  12. Polymer thin film as coating layer to prevent corrosion of metal/metal oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman; Kundu, Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    Thin film of polymer is used as coating layer and the corrosion of metal/metal oxide layer is studied with the variation of the thickness of the coating layer. The thin layer of polystyrene is fabricated using spin coating method on copper oxide (CuO) film which is deposited on glass substrate using DC magnetron sputtering technique. Thickness of the polystyrene and the CuO layers are determined using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) technique. CuO thin films coated with the polystyrene layer are exposed to acetic acid (2.5 v/v% aqueous CH3COOH solution) environments and are subsequently analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface morphology of the film before and after interaction with the acidic environment is determined using AFM. Results obtained from the XRR and UV-Vis spectroscopy confirm that the thin film of polystyrene acts as an anticorrosion coating layer and the strength of the coating depends upon the polymer layer thickness at a constant acid concentration.

  13. Factors Controlling the Redox Activity of Oxygen in Perovskites: From Theory to Application for Catalytic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzhen Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Triggering the redox reaction of oxygens has become essential for the development of (electro catalytic properties of transition metal oxides, especially for perovskite materials that have been envisaged for a variety of applications such as the oxygen evolution or reduction reactions (OER and ORR, respectively, CO or hydrocarbons oxidation, NO reduction and others. While the formation of ligand hole for perovskites is well-known for solid state physicists and/or chemists and has been widely studied for the understanding of important electronic properties such as superconductivity, insulator-metal transitions, magnetoresistance, ferroelectrics, redox properties etc., oxygen electrocatalysis in aqueous media at low temperature barely scratches the surface of the concept of oxygen ions oxidation. In this review, we briefly explain the electronic structure of perovskite materials and go through a few important parameters such as the ionization potential, Madelung potential, and charge transfer energy that govern the oxidation of oxygen ions. We then describe the surface reactivity that can be induced by the redox activity of the oxygen network and the formation of highly reactive surface oxygen species before describing their participation in catalytic reactions and providing mechanistic insights and strategies for designing new (electro catalysts. Finally, we give a brief overview of the different techniques that can be employed to detect the formation of such transient oxygen species.

  14. Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Anions in Water Based on a Redox-Active Monolayer Incorporating an Anion Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Balwinder; Erdmann, Cristiane Andreia; Daniëls, Mathias; Dehaen, Wim; Rafiński, Zbigniew; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2017-12-05

    In the present work, gold electrodes were modified using a redox-active layer based on dipyrromethene complexes with Cu(II) or Co(II) and a dipodal anion receptor functionalized with dipyrromethene. These modified gold electrodes were then applied for the electrochemical detection of anions (Cl - , SO 4 2- , and Br - ) in a highly diluted water solution (in the picomolar range). The results showed that both systems, incorporating Cu(II) as well as Co(II) redox centers, exhibited highest sensitivity toward Cl - . The selectivity sequence found for both systems was Cl - > SO 4 2- > Br - . The high selectivity of Cl - anions can be attributed to the higher binding constant of Cl - with the anion receptor and the stronger electronic effect between the central metal and anion in the complex. The detection limit for the determination of Cl - was found at the 1.0 pM level for both sensing systems. The electrodes based on Co(II) redox centers displayed better selectivity toward Cl - anion detection than those based on Cu(II) centers which can be attributed to the stronger electronic interaction between the receptor-target anion complex and the Co(II)/Co(III) redox centers in comparison to the Cu(II)/Cu(I) system. Applicability of gold electrodes modified with DPM-Co(II)-DPM-AR for the electrochemical determination of Cl - anions was demonstrated using the artificial matrix mimicking human serum.

  15. Comparative study of the synthesis of layered transition metal molybdates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S.; Gómez-Avilés, A.; Gardner, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed metal oxides (MMOs) prepared by the mild thermal decomposition of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) differ in their reactivity on exposure to aqueous molybdate containing solutions. In this study, we investigate the reactivity of some T-Al containing MMOs ( T=Co, Ni, Cu or Zn) towards the formation of layered transition metal molybdates (LTMs) possessing the general formula AT2(OH)(MoO 4) 2·H 2O, where A=NH 4+, Na + or K +. The phase selectivity of the reaction was studied with respect to the source of molybdate, the ratio of T to Mo and the reaction pH. LTMs were obtained on reaction of Cu-Al and Zn-Al containing MMOs with aqueous solutions of ammonium heptamolybdate. Rehydration of these oxides in the presence of sodium or potassium molybdate yielded a rehydrated LDH phase as the only crystalline product. The LTM products obtained by the rehydration of MMO precursors were compared with LTMs prepared by direct precipitation from the metal salts in order to study the influence of preparative route on their chemical and physical properties. Differences were noted in the composition, morphology and thermal properties of the resulting products.

  16. Selective and low temperature transition metal intercalation in layered tellurides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Takeshi; Koshiko, Masaki; Zhang, Yaoqing; Oguchi, Tamio; Yu, Wen; Kato, Daichi; Kobayashi, Yoji; Orikasa, Yuki; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Green, Mark A.; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Layered materials embrace rich intercalation reactions to accommodate high concentrations of foreign species within their structures, and find many applications spanning from energy storage, ion exchange to secondary batteries. Light alkali metals are generally most easily intercalated due to their light mass, high charge/volume ratio and in many cases strong reducing properties. An evolving area of materials chemistry, however, is to capture metals selectively, which is of technological and environmental significance but rather unexplored. Here we show that the layered telluride T2PTe2 (T=Ti, Zr) displays exclusive insertion of transition metals (for example, Cd, Zn) as opposed to alkali cations, with tetrahedral coordination preference to tellurium. Interestingly, the intercalation reactions proceed in solid state and at surprisingly low temperatures (for example, 80 °C for cadmium in Ti2PTe2). The current method of controlling selectivity provides opportunities in the search for new materials for various applications that used to be possible only in a liquid. PMID:27966540

  17. Optical properties of metallic multi-layer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmich, R.

    1991-09-01

    Optical properties of multi-layer films consisting of alternating layers of two different metals are studied on the basis of the Maxwell equations and the Boltzmann transport theory. The influence of free-electron scattering at the film external surface and at the interfaces is taken into account and considered as a function of the electromagnetic field frequency and the structure modulation wavelength. Derived formulas for optical coefficients are valid at low frequencies, where the skin effect is nearly classical, as well as in the near-infrared, visible and ultraviolet spectral ranges, where the skin effect has the anomalous nature. It is shown that the obtained results are apparently dependent on the values of the scattering parameters. What is more, the oscillatory nature of analyzed spectra is observed, where the two oscillation periods may appear on certain conditions. The oscillations result from the electron surface and interface scattering and their amplitudes and periods depend on the boundary conditions for free-electron scattering. Finally, the application of the interference phenomenon in dielectric layers is proposed to obtain the enhancement of the non distinct details which can appear in optical spectra of metallic films. (author). 31 refs, 6 figs

  18. Nucleation and Early Stages of Layer-by-Layer Growth of Metal Organic Frameworks on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to resolve the evolution of crystallites of a metal organic framework (HKUST-1) grown on Au(111) using a liquid-phase layer-by-layer methodology. The nucleation and faceting of individual crystallites is followed by repeatedly imaging the same submicron region after each cycle of growth and we find that the growing surface is terminated by {111} facets leading to the formation of pyramidal nanostructures for [100] oriented crystallites, and triangular [111] islands with typical lateral dimensions of tens of nanometres. AFM images reveal that crystallites can grow by 5–10 layers in each cycle. The growth rate depends on crystallographic orientation and the morphology of the gold substrate, and we demonstrate that under these conditions the growth is nanocrystalline with a morphology determined by the minimum energy surface. PMID:26709359

  19. Multiphase layered oxide growth on pure metals. I. General formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromhold, A.T. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A general formulation for the simultaneous growth of any number of layered planar oxide phases on a pure metal under diffusion-controlled conditions has been developed. Four individual situations have been developed in detail, namely, situations in which the predominant mode of ion transport is by cation interstitials, cation vacancies, anion interstitials, or anion vacancies. The generalized formulation enables the determination of quasi-steady-state growth kinetics following step function changes in the experimental conditions such as ambient oxygen pressure or temperature. Numerical evaluation of the coupled growth equations for the individual phases is required to deduce the general predictions of the theory. In the limit of two-layer growth by cation interstitial diffusion, the present formulation reproduces the earlier results of Fromhold and Sato

  20. Optical Two Dimensional Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of Layered Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.; Shan, J.; Karaiskaj, D.; Z. D. Kovalyuk; Z. R. Kudrynskyi Collaboration; A. H. Romero Collaboration; A. Cantarero Collaboration; D. J. Hilton Collaboration; J. Shan Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) measurements were used to study the mechanism of excitonic dephasing and probe the electronic structure of the excitonic ground state in layered metal dichalcogenides. Temperature-dependent 2DFT measurements were performed to probe exciton-phonon interactions. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal exciton-exciton and exciton-carrier scattering, and the lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of excitons on positively and negatively doped samples. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0012635.

  1. Functionalized Nanostructures: Redox-Active Porphyrin Anchors for Supramolecular DNA Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Börjesson, Karl; Wiberg, Joanna; El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Ljungdahl, Thomas; Må rtensson, Jerker; Brown, Tom; Nordén, Bengt; Albinsson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    , such as orientation, strength, homogeneity, and binding site size, was determined, suggesting that the porphyrin is well suited as a photophysical and redox-active lipid anchor, in comparison to the inert cholesterol anchor commonly used today. Furthermore

  2. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Xia, Chuan; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline

  3. Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curved-graphene supercapacitors in a redox-active electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Rakhi, R. B.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2013-05-01

    We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles).We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, supporting figures including SEM, TEM, XPS, BET, CV and CD curves and a summary table of capacitance. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00773a

  4. Sodium-ion supercapacitors based on nanoporous pyroproteins containing redox-active heteroatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Se Youn; Yoon, Hyeon Ji; Kim, Na Rae; Yun, Young Soo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon

    2016-10-01

    Nanostructured carbon-based materials fabricated via simple methods from renewable bio-resources have great potential in rechargeable energy storage systems. In this study, nanoporous pyroproteins containing a large amount of redox-active heteroatoms (H-NPs) were fabricated from silk fibroin by an in situ carbonization/activation method. The H-NPs have a large surface area of ∼3050 m2 g-1, which is mainly comprised of nanometer-scale pores. Also, these H-NPs have oxygen and nitrogen heteroatoms of 17.4 wt% and 2.9 wt%, respectively. Synergistic sodium ion storage behaviors originate from electrochemical double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, leading to very high electrochemical performances of H-NPs in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolyte systems. Sodium-ion supercapacitors (NISs) based on commercial graphite//H-NPs show a high specific power of ∼1900 W kg-1 at ∼77 Wh kg-1. Also, NISs based on commercial hard carbon//H-NPs exhibit a high specific energy of ∼217 Wh kg-1 at ∼42 W kg-1. In addition, outstanding cycling performances over 30,000 cycles are achieved for symmetric NISs.

  5. Impedance aspect of charge storage at graphite and glassy carbon electrodes in potassium hexacyanoferrate (II redox active electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Magdić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of charge storage mechanisms at unmodified graphite vs. glassy carbon electrodes in acid sulphate supporting solution containing potassium hexacyanoferrate (II redox active electrolyte, have been revealed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and supported by cyclic voltammetry experiments. Reversible charge transfer of Fe(CN63-/4- redox reaction detected by assessment of CVs of glassy carbon electrode, is in impedance spectra indicated by presence of bulk diffusion impedance and constant double-layer/pseudocapacitive electrode impedance compared to that measured in the pure supporting electrolyte. Some surface retention of redox species detected by assessment of CVs of graphite electrode is in impedance spectra indicated by diffusion impedance coupled in this case by diminishing of double-layer/pseudo­capacitive impedance compared to that measured in the pure supporting electrolyte. This phenomenon is ascribed to contribution of additional pseudocapacitive impedance generated by redox reaction of species confined at the electrode surface.

  6. Metal-phthalocyanine ordered layers on Au(110): Metal-dependent adsorption energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimi, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.massimi@uniroma1.it; Angelucci, Marco; Gargiani, Pierluigi; Betti, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La “Sapienza,” 00185 Roma (Italy); Montoro, Silvia [IFIS Litoral, CONICET-UNL, Laboratorio de Fisica de Superficies e Interfaces, Güemes 3450, Santa Fe (Argentina); Mariani, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.mariani@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, CNISM, Università di Roma La “Sapienza,” 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2014-06-28

    Iron-phthalocyanine and cobalt-phthalocyanine chains, assembled along the Au(110)-(1×2) reconstructed channels, present a strong interaction with the Au metallic states, via the central metal ion. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy from the metal-2p core-levels and valence band high-resolution ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy bring to light signatures of the interaction of the metal-phthalocyanine single-layer with gold. The charge transfer from Au to the molecule causes the emerging of a metal-2p core level component at lower binding energy with respect to that measured in the molecular thin films, while the core-levels associated to the organic macrocycle (C and N 1s) are less influenced by the adsorption, and the macrocycles stabilize the interaction, inducing a strong interface dipole. Temperature Programmed Desorption experiments and photoemission as a function of temperature allow to estimate the adsorption energy for the thin-films, mainly due to the molecule-molecule van der Waals interaction, while the FePc and CoPc single-layers remain adsorbed on the Au surface up to at least 820 K.

  7. Issues involved in the atomic layer deposition of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Robert Kimes

    Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to study the nucleation and growth of tungsten on aluminum oxide surfaces. Tungsten metal was deposited using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) techniques. ALD uses sequential surface reactions to deposit material with atomic layer control. W ALD is performed using sequential exposures of WF6 and Si2H6. The step-wise nature of W ALD allows nucleation studies to be performed by analyzing the W surface concentration after each ALD reaction. Nucleation and growth regions can be identified by quantifying the AES signal intensities from both the W surface and the Al2O3 substrate. W nucleation occurred in 3 ALD reaction cycles. The AES results yielded a nucleation rate of 1.0 A/ALD cycle and a growth rate of ≈3 A/ALD cycle. AES studies also explored the nucleation and growth of Al2O3 on W. Al2O3 nucleated in 1 ALD cycle giving a nucleation rate of 3.5 A/ALD cycle and a subsequent growth rate of 1.0 A/ALD cycle. Mass spectrometry was then used to study the ALD reaction chemistry of tungsten deposition. Because of the step-wise nature of the W ALD chemistry, each W ALD reaction could be studied independently. The gaseous mass products were identified from both the WF6 and Si2H6 reactions. H2, HF and SiF4 mass products were observed for the WF6 reaction. The Si2H6 reaction displayed a room temperature reaction and a 200°C reaction. Products from the room temperature Si2H6 reaction were H2 and SiF3H. The reaction at 200°C yielded only H2 as a reaction product. H2 desorption from the surface contributes to the 200°C Si2H6 reaction. AES was used to confirm that the gas phase reaction products are correlated with a change in the surface species. Atomic hydrogen reduction of metal halides and oganometallic compounds provides another method for depositing metals with atomic layer control. The quantity of atomic hydrogen necessary to perform this chemistry is critical to the metal ALD process. A thermocouple probe was constructed to

  8. Layered Metal Hydroxides Containing Calcium and Their Structural Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Heo, Il; Lee, Sung Han; Oh, Jae Min [College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Seung Min [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chung Berm; Choi, Ae Jin [National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science of R and D Eumseong (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Jin Ho [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Layered metal hydroxides (LMHs) containing calcium were synthesized by coprecipitation in solution having two different trivalent metal ions, iron and aluminum. Two mixed metal solutions (Ca{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} and Ca{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} = 2/1) were added to sodium hydroxide solution and the final pH was adjusted to {approx}11.5 and {approx}13 for CaAl-and CaFe-LMHs. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the two LMH samples showed well developed (00l) diffractions indicating 2-dimensional crystal structure of the synthesized LMHs. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction pattern, the local structure analysis through X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and thermal analysis also confirmed that the synthesized precipitates show typical structure of LMHs. The chemical formulae, Ca{sub 2.04}Al{sub 1}(OH){sub 6}(NO{sub 3}){center_dot}5.25H{sub 2}O and Ca{sub 2.01}Fe{sub 1}(OH){sub 6}(NO{sub 3}){center_dot}4.75H{sub 2}O were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Particle morphology and thermal behavior for the synthesized LMHs were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric differential scanning calorimetry

  9. Investigation of multi-state charge-storage properties of redox-active organic molecules in silicon-molecular hybrid devices for DRAM and Flash applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Srivardhan Shivappa

    studied as a function of tunnel oxide thickness, dielectric permittivity and energy barrier, and modified Butler-Volmer expressions were postulated to describe the redox kinetics. The speed vs. retention performance of the devices was improved via asymmetric layered tunnel barriers. The properties of molecules can be tailored by molecular design and synthetic chemistry. In this work, it was demonstrated that an alternate route to tune/enhance the properties of the hybrid device is to engineer the substrate (silicon) component. The molecules were attached to diode surfaces to tune redox voltages and improve charge-retention characteristics. N+ pockets embedded in P-Si well were utilized to obtain multiple states from a two-state molecule. The structure was also employed as a characterization tool in investigating the intrinsic properties of the molecules such as lateral conductivity within the monolayer. Redox molecules were also incorporated on an ultra thin gate-oxide of Si MOSFETs with the intent of studying the interaction of redox states with Si MOSFETs. The discrete molecular states were manifested in the drain current and threshold voltage characteristics of the device. This work demonstrates the multi-state modulation of Si-MOSFETs' drain current via redox-active molecular monolayers. Polymeric films of redox-active molecules were incorporated to improve the charge-density (ON/OFF ratio) and these structures may be employed for multi-state, low-voltage Flash memory applications. The most critical aspect of this research effort is to build a reliable and high density solid state memory technology. To this end, efforts were directed towards replacement of the electrolytic gate, which forms an extremely thin insulating double layer (˜10 nm) at the electrolyte-molecule interface, with a combination of an ultra-thin high-K dielectric layer and a metal gate. Several interesting observations were made in the research approaches towards integration and provided valuable

  10. Silver-doped metal layers for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocourek, T; Jelínek, M; Mikšovský, J; Jurek, K; Weiserová, M

    2014-01-01

    Biological, physical and mechanical properties of silver-doped layers of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and 316 L steel prepared by pulsed laser deposition were studied. Metallic silver-doped coatings could be a new route for antibacterial protection in medicine. Thin films of silver and silver-doped materials were synthesized using KrF excimer laser deposition. The materials were ablated from two targets, which were composed either from titanium alloy with silver segments or from steel with silver segments. The concentration of silver ranged from 1.54 to 4.32 at% for steel and from 3.04 to 13.05 at% for titanium alloy. The layer properties such as silver content, structure, adhesion, surface wettability, and antibacterial efficiency (evaluated by Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis bacteria) were measured. Film adhesion was studied using a scratch test. The antibacterial efficiency changed with silver doping up to 99.9 %. Our investigation was focused on the minimum Ag concentration needed to reach high antibacterial efficiency, high film adhesion, and hardness. (paper)

  11. Amplified and in situ detection of redox-active metabolite using a biobased redox capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Gordonov, Tanya; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2013-02-19

    Redox cycling provides a mechanism to amplify electrochemical signals for analyte detection. Previous studies have shown that diverse mediators/shuttles can engage in redox-cycling reactions with a biobased redox capacitor that is fabricated by grafting redox-active catechols onto a chitosan film. Here, we report that redox cycling with this catechol-chitosan redox capacitor can amplify electrochemical signals for detecting a redox-active bacterial metabolite. Specifically, we studied the redox-active bacterial metabolite pyocyanin that is reported to be a virulence factor and signaling molecule for the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa. We demonstrate that redox cycling can amplify outputs from various electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, and differential pulse voltammetry) and can lower the detection limit of pyocyanin to 50 nM. Further, the compatibility of this biobased redox capacitor allows the in situ monitoring of the production of redox-active metabolites (e.g., pyocyanin) during the course of P. aeruginosa cultivation. We anticipate that the amplified output of redox-active virulence factors should permit an earlier detection of life-threatening infections by the opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa while the "bio-compatibility" of this measurement approach should facilitate in situ study of the spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial redox signaling.

  12. Novel doping alternatives for single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofrio, Nicolas; Guzman, David; Strachan, Alejandro

    2017-11-01

    Successful doping of single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) remains a formidable barrier to their incorporation into a range of technologies. We use density functional theory to study doping of molybdenum and tungsten dichalcogenides with a large fraction of the periodic table. An automated analysis of the energetics, atomic and electronic structure of thousands of calculations results in insightful trends across the periodic table and points out promising dopants to be pursued experimentally. Beyond previously studied cases, our predictions suggest promising substitutional dopants that result in p-type transport and reveal interesting physics behind the substitution of the metal site. Doping with early transition metals (TMs) leads to tensile strain and a significant reduction in the bandgap. The bandgap increases and strain is reduced as the d-states are filled into the mid TMs; these trends reverse as we move into the late TMs. Additionally, the Fermi energy increases monotonously as the d-shell is filled from the early to mid TMs and we observe few to no gap states, indicating the possibility of both p- (early TMs) and n- (mid TMs) type doping. Quite surprisingly, the simulations indicate the possibility of interstitial doping of TMDs; the energetics reveal that a significant number of dopants, increasing in number from molybdenum disulfide to diselenide and to ditelluride, favor the interstitial sites over adsorbed ones. Furthermore, calculations of the activation energy associated with capturing the dopants into the interstitial site indicate that the process is kinetically possible. This suggests that interstitial impurities in TMDs are more common than thought to date and we propose a series of potential interstitial dopants for TMDs relevant for application in nanoelectronics based on a detailed analysis of the predicted electronic structures.

  13. Electronic self-organization in layered transition metal dichalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschel, Tobias

    2015-10-30

    The interplay between different self-organized electronically ordered states and their relation to unconventional electronic properties like superconductivity constitutes one of the most exciting challenges of modern condensed matter physics. In the present thesis this issue is thoroughly investigated for the prototypical layered material 1T-TaS{sub 2} both experimentally and theoretically. At first the static charge density wave order in 1T-TaS{sub 2} is investigated as a function of pressure and temperature by means of X-ray diffraction. These data indeed reveal that the superconductivity in this material coexists with an inhomogeneous charge density wave on a macroscopic scale in real space. This result is fundamentally different from a previously proposed separation of superconducting and insulating regions in real space. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction data uncover the important role of interlayer correlations in 1T-TaS{sub 2}. Based on the detailed insights into the charge density wave structure obtained by the X-ray diffraction experiments, density functional theory models are deduced in order to describe the electronic structure of 1T-TaS{sub 2} in the second part of this thesis. As opposed to most previous studies, these calculations take the three-dimensional character of the charge density wave into account. Indeed the electronic structure calculations uncover complex orbital textures, which are interwoven with the charge density wave order and cause dramatic differences in the electronic structure depending on the alignment of the orbitals between neighboring layers. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that these orbital-mediated effects provide a route to drive semiconductor-to-metal transitions with technologically pertinent gaps and on ultrafast timescales. These results are particularly relevant for the ongoing development of novel, miniaturized and ultrafast devices based on layered transition metal dichalcogenides. The discovery of orbital textures

  14. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline, polypyrrole, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). As compared to conventional electrolytes, the redox-active electrolytes, prepared by simply adding a redox mediator to the conventional electrolyte, can significantly improve the energy storage capacity of pseudocapacitors with different conducting polymers. The results show that the specific capacitance of conducting polymer based pseudocapacitors can be increased by a factor of two by utilization of the redox-active electrolytes. In fact, this approach gives some of the highest reported specific capacitance values for electroactive conducting polymers. Moreover, our findings present a general and effective approach for the enhancement of energy storage performance of pseudocapacitors using a variety of polymeric electrode materials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Redox-active antibiotics control gene expression and community behavior in divergent bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Lars E P; Teal, Tracy K; Price-Whelan, Alexa; Newman, Dianne K

    2008-08-29

    It is thought that bacteria excrete redox-active pigments as antibiotics to inhibit competitors. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the endogenous antibiotic pyocyanin activates SoxR, a transcription factor conserved in Proteo- and Actinobacteria. In Escherichia coli, SoxR regulates the superoxide stress response. Bioinformatic analysis coupled with gene expression studies in P. aeruginosa and Streptomyces coelicolor revealed that the majority of SoxR regulons in bacteria lack the genes required for stress responses, despite the fact that many of these organisms still produce redox-active small molecules, which indicates that redox-active pigments play a role independent of oxidative stress. These compounds had profound effects on the structural organization of colony biofilms in both P. aeruginosa and S. coelicolor, which shows that "secondary metabolites" play important conserved roles in gene expression and development.

  16. Inorganic-Organic Coating via Molecular Layer Deposition Enables Long Life Sodium Metal Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Goncharova, Lyudmila V; Zhang, Qian; Kaghazchi, Payam; Sun, Qian; Lushington, Andrew; Wang, Biqiong; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2017-09-13

    Metallic Na anode is considered as a promising alternative candidate for Na ion batteries (NIBs) and Na metal batteries (NMBs) due to its high specific capacity, and low potential. However, the unstable solid electrolyte interphase layer caused by serious corrosion and reaction in electrolyte will lead to big challenges, including dendrite growth, low Coulombic efficiency and even safety issues. In this paper, we first demonstrate the inorganic-organic coating via advanced molecular layer deposition (alucone) as a protective layer for metallic Na anode. By protecting Na anode with controllable alucone layer, the dendrites and mossy Na formation have been effectively suppressed and the lifetime has been significantly improved. Moreover, the molecular layer deposition alucone coating shows better performances than the atomic layer deposition Al 2 O 3 coating. The novel design of molecular layer deposition protected Na metal anode may bring in new opportunities to the realization of the next-generation high energy-density NIBs and NMBs.

  17. Redox activity of airborne particulate matter at different sites in the Los Angeles Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Arthur K.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Miguel, Antonio H.; Kumagai, Yoshito; Schmitz, Debra A.; Singh, Manisha; Eiguren-Fernandez, Arantza; Froines, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown associations between ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse health outcomes including increased mortality, emergency room visits, and time lost from school and work. The mechanisms of PM-related health effects are still incompletely understood, but a hypothesis under investigation is that many of the adverse health effects may derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. While the adverse effects from PM have historically been associated with the airborne concentration of PM and more recently fine-particle PM, we considered it relevant to develop an assay to quantitatively measure the ability of PM to catalyze ROS generation as the initial step in the induction of oxidative stress. This ability of PM could then be related to different sources, chemical composition, and physical and spatial/temporal characteristics in the ambient environment. The measurement of ROS-forming ability in relation to sources and other factors will have potential relevance to control of redox-active PM. If oxidative stress represents a relevant mechanism of toxicity from PM, the measurement of redox activity represents a first step in the elucidation of the subsequent downstream processes. We have developed an assay for PM redox activity, utilizing the reduction of oxygen by dithiothreitol which serves as an electron source. We have found that PM will catalyze the reduction of oxygen and have examined the distribution and chemical characteristics of the redox activity of PM fractions collected in different sites in the Los Angeles Basin. Samples of concentrated coarse, fine, and ultrafine PM, obtained with aerosol concentrators, were studied with regard to their chemical properties and redox activity. Redox activity was highest in the ultrafine fraction, in agreement with results indicating ultrafines were the most potent toward inducing that heme oxygenase expression and depleting

  18. Methanogens predominate in natural corrosion protective layers on metal sheet piles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, Nardy; Jansen, S.; Leite, M.F.A.; De Hollander, M.; Afanasyev, M.; Kuramae, E.E.; van Veen, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms are able to cause, but also to inhibit or protect against corrosion. Corrosion inhibition by microbial processes may be due to the formation of mineral deposition layers on metal objects. Such deposition layers have been found in archaeological studies on ancient metal objects, buried

  19. Spray coating of self-aligning passivation layer for metal grid lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuorinen, T.; Janka, M.; Rubingh, J.E.J.M.; Tuukkanen, S.; Groen, P.; Lupo, D.

    2014-01-01

    In applications such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) or photovoltaic cells a homogenous voltage distribution in the large anode layer needs to be ensured by including a metal grid with a transparent conductor layer. To ensure sufficient conductivity, relatively thick metal lines are used,

  20. Memory characteristics of an MOS capacitor structure with double-layer semiconductor and metal heterogeneous nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Henan; Wu Liangcai; Song Zhitang; Hui Chun

    2009-01-01

    An MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) capacitor structure with double-layer heterogeneous nanocrystals consisting of semiconductor and metal embedded in a gate oxide for nonvolatile memory applications has been fabricated and characterized. By combining vacuum electron-beam co-evaporated Si nanocrystals and self-assembled Ni nanocrystals in a SiO 2 matrix, an MOS capacitor with double-layer heterogeneous nanocrystals can have larger charge storage capacity and improved retention characteristics compared to one with single-layer nanocrystals. The upper metal nanocrystals as an additional charge trap layer enable the direct tunneling mechanism to enhance the flat voltage shift and prolong the retention time. (semiconductor devices)

  1. Ambipolar field-effect transistors by few-layer InSe with asymmetry contact metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yu Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Group IIIA−VIA layered semiconductors (MX, where M = Ga and In, X = S, Se, and Te have attracted tremendous interest for their anisotropic optical, electronic, and mechanical properties. In this study, we demonstrated that metal and InSe junctions can lead to carrier behaviors in few-layered InSe FETs. These results indicate that the polarity of few-layered InSe FETs can be determined by using metals with different work functions. We adopted FET S/D metal contacts with asymmetric work functions to reduce the Schottky barriers of electrons and holes, and discovered that few-layered InSe FETs with carefully selected metal contacts can achieve ambipolar behaviors. These results indicate that group IIIA−VIA layered semiconductor FETs with asymmetry contact metals have great potential for applications in photovoltaic devices, optical sensors, and CMOS inverter circuits.

  2. Ductility prediction of substrate-supported metal layers based on rate-independent crystal plasticity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpama Holanyo K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, both the bifurcation theory and the initial imperfection approach are used to predict localized necking in substrate-supported metal layers. The self-consistent scale-transition scheme is used to derive the mechanical behavior of a representative volume element of the metal layer from the behavior of its microscopic constituents (the single crystals. The mechanical behavior of the elastomer substrate follows the neo-Hookean hyperelastic model. The adherence between the two layers is assumed to be perfect. Through numerical results, it is shown that the limit strains predicted by the initial imperfection approach tend towards the bifurcation predictions when the size of the geometric imperfection in the metal layer vanishes. Also, it is shown that the addition of an elastomer layer to a metal layer enhances ductility.

  3. Metal droplet erosion and shielding plasma layer under plasma flows typical of transient processes in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynenko, Yu. V., E-mail: Martynenko-YV@nrcki.ru [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    It is shown that the shielding plasma layer and metal droplet erosion in tokamaks are closely interrelated, because shielding plasma forms from the evaporated metal droplets, while droplet erosion is caused by the shielding plasma flow over the melted metal surface. Analysis of experimental data and theoretical models of these processes is presented.

  4. Electron transfer across the polarized interface between water and a hydrophobic redox-active ionic liquid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Trojánek, Antonín; Samec, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2010), s. 1333-1335 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08098; GA ČR GAP206/10/1231 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : redox-active ionic liquid * membrane * cyclic voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.282, year: 2010

  5. Redox-active and Redox-silent Compounds: Synergistic Therapeutics in Cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomasetti, M.; Santarelli, L.; Alleva, R.; Dong, L.F.; Neužil, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 5 (2015), s. 552-568 ISSN 0929-8673 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Apoptosis * autophagy * redox-active agents Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.455, year: 2015

  6. Investigating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Lung Cells Exposed to Redox-Active PM Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) causes cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality through mechanisms that involve oxidative stress. 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) is a ubiquitous component of PM and a potent redox-active electrophile. We previously reported that 1,2-NQ incr...

  7. Asymmetric polymeric membranes containing a metal-rich dense layer with a controlled thickness and method of making same

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Villalobos, Vazquez De La Parra Luis Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A structure, and methods of making the structure are provided in which the structure can include: a membrane having a first layer and a second layer, the first layer comprising polymer chains formed with coordination complexes with metal ions, and the second layer consisting of a porous support layer formed of polymer chains substantially, if not completely, lacking the presence of metal ions. The structure can be an asymmetric polymeric membrane containing a metal-rich layer as the first layer. In various embodiments the first layer can be a metal-rich dense layer. The first layer can include pores. The polymer chains of the first layer can be closely packed. The second layer can include a plurality of macro voids and can have an absence of the metal ions of the first layer.

  8. Asymmetric polymeric membranes containing a metal-rich dense layer with a controlled thickness and method of making same

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2016-01-21

    A structure, and methods of making the structure are provided in which the structure can include: a membrane having a first layer and a second layer, the first layer comprising polymer chains formed with coordination complexes with metal ions, and the second layer consisting of a porous support layer formed of polymer chains substantially, if not completely, lacking the presence of metal ions. The structure can be an asymmetric polymeric membrane containing a metal-rich layer as the first layer. In various embodiments the first layer can be a metal-rich dense layer. The first layer can include pores. The polymer chains of the first layer can be closely packed. The second layer can include a plurality of macro voids and can have an absence of the metal ions of the first layer.

  9. Fabrication of Polymer Solar Cells Using Aqueous Processing for All Layers Including the Metal Back Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar; Helgesen, Martin; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of printing all layers in polymer solar cells from aqueous solution are met by design of inks for the electron-, hole-, active-, and metallic back electrode-layers. The conversion of each layer to an insoluble state after printing enables multilayer formation from the same solvent...

  10. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Considerably improved photovoltaic performance of carbon nanotube-based solar cells using metal oxide layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Hiraoka, Kazushi; Mouri, Shinichiro; Ohno, Yutaka; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-02-18

    Carbon nanotube-based solar cells have been extensively studied from the perspective of potential application. Here we demonstrated a significant improvement of the carbon nanotube solar cells by the use of metal oxide layers for efficient carrier transport. The metal oxides also serve as an antireflection layer and an efficient carrier dopant, leading to a reduction in the loss of the incident solar light and an increase in the photocurrent, respectively. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performance of both p-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/n-Si and n-SWNT/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using MoOx and ZnO layers is improved, resulting in very high photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of 17.0 and 4.0%, respectively. These findings regarding the use of metal oxides as multifunctional layers suggest that metal oxide layers could improve the performance of various electronic devices based on carbon nanotubes.

  12. Considerably improved photovoltaic performance of carbon nanotube-based solar cells using metal oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feijiu; Kozawa, Daichi; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Hiraoka, Kazushi; Mouri, Shinichiro; Ohno, Yutaka; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2015-02-01

    Carbon nanotube-based solar cells have been extensively studied from the perspective of potential application. Here we demonstrated a significant improvement of the carbon nanotube solar cells by the use of metal oxide layers for efficient carrier transport. The metal oxides also serve as an antireflection layer and an efficient carrier dopant, leading to a reduction in the loss of the incident solar light and an increase in the photocurrent, respectively. As a consequence, the photovoltaic performance of both p-single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/n-Si and n-SWNT/p-Si heterojunction solar cells using MoOx and ZnO layers is improved, resulting in very high photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of 17.0 and 4.0%, respectively. These findings regarding the use of metal oxides as multifunctional layers suggest that metal oxide layers could improve the performance of various electronic devices based on carbon nanotubes.

  13. Fabrication of metallic nanomasks by transfer of self-organized nanodot patterns from semiconductor material into thin metallic layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobek, T.; Kurz, H.

    2007-01-01

    The basic understanding of the formation of highly regular nanostructures during ion erosion of amorphous GaSb layers is revised. The essential physical parameters for the formation of the highly regular dot pattern are discussed. Numerical modelling based on the stabilized isotropic Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation is presented and discussed. The experimental part of this contribution presents the successful pattern transfer into metallic buried thin layers as well as into Silicon underlayers. The critical conditions for this transfer technique are discussed. Application potential of using this self-organization scheme for the generation of highly regular patterns in ferromagnetic metal layers as well as in crystalline silicon is estimated

  14. Functionalized carbon nanotube based hybrid electrochemical capacitors using neutral bromide redox-active electrolyte for enhancing energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaohui; Lui, Yu Hui; Chen, Bolin; Hu, Shan

    2017-06-01

    A hybrid electrochemical capacitor (EC) with enhanced energy density is realized by integrating functionalized carbon nanotube (FCNT) electrodes with redox-active electrolyte that has a neutral pH value (1 M Na2SO4 and 0.5 M KBr mixed aqueous solution). The negative electrode shows an electric double layer capacitor-type behavior. On the positive electrode, highly reversible Br-/Br3- redox reactions take place, presenting a battery-type behavior, which contributes to increase the capacitance of the hybrid cell. The voltage window of the whole cell is extended up to 1.5 V because of the high over-potentials of oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions in the neutral electrolyte. Compared with raw CNT, the FCNT has better wettability in the aqueous electrolyte and contributes to increase the electric double layer capacitance of the cell. As a result, the maximum energy density of 28.3 Wh kg-1 is obtained from the hybrid EC at 0.5 A g-1 without sacrificing its power density, which is around 4 times larger than that of the electrical double layer capacitor constructed by FCNT electrodes and 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. Moreover, the discharge capacity retained 86.3% of its initial performance after 10000 cycles of galvanostatic charge and discharge test (10 A/g), suggesting its long life cycle even at high current loading.

  15. Diverse and tunable electronic structures of single-layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides for photocatalytic water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Xi-Bo; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Lau, Woon-Ming; Peng, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The family of bulk metal phosphorus trichalcogenides (APX 3 , A = M II , M 0.5 I M 0.5 III ; X = S, Se; M I , M II , and M III represent Group-I, Group-II, and Group-III metals, respectively) has attracted great attentions because such materials not only own magnetic and ferroelectric properties, but also exhibit excellent properties in hydrogen storage and lithium battery because of the layered structures. Many layered materials have been exfoliated into two-dimensional (2D) materials, and they show distinct electronic properties compared with their bulks. Here we present a systematical study of single-layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides by density functional theory calculations. The results show that the single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides have very low formation energies, which indicates that the exfoliation of single layer APX 3 should not be difficult. The family of single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides exhibits a large range of band gaps from 1.77 to 3.94 eV, and the electronic structures are greatly affected by the metal or the chalcogenide atoms. The calculated band edges of metal phosphorus trichalcogenides further reveal that single-layer ZnPSe 3 , CdPSe 3 , Ag 0.5 Sc 0.5 PSe 3 , and Ag 0.5 In 0.5 PX 3 (X = S and Se) have both suitable band gaps for visible-light driving and sufficient over-potentials for water splitting. More fascinatingly, single-layer Ag 0.5 Sc 0.5 PSe 3 is a direct band gap semiconductor, and the calculated optical absorption further convinces that such materials own outstanding properties for light absorption. Such results demonstrate that the single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides own high stability, versatile electronic properties, and high optical absorption, thus such materials have great chances to be high efficient photocatalysts for water-splitting

  16. Layer-by-layer modification of thin-film metal-semiconductor multilayers with ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romashevskiy, S. A.; Tsygankov, P. A.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Agranat, M. B.

    2018-05-01

    The surface modifications in a multilayer thin-film structure (50-nm alternating layers of Si and Al) induced by a single Gaussian-shaped femtosecond laser pulse (350 fs, 1028 nm) in the air are investigated by means of atomic-force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy (OM). Depending on the laser fluence, various modifications of nanometer-scale metal and semiconductor layers, including localized formation of silicon/aluminum nanofoams and layer-by-layer removal, are found. While the nanofoams with cell sizes in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers are produced only in the two top layers, layer-by-layer removal is observed for the four top layers under single pulse irradiation. The 50-nm films of the multilayer structure are found to be separated at their interfaces, resulting in a selective removal of several top layers (up to 4) in the form of step-like (concentric) craters. The observed phenomenon is associated with a thermo-mechanical ablation mechanism that results in splitting off at film-film interface, where the adhesion force is less than the bulk strength of the used materials, revealing linear dependence of threshold fluences on the film thickness.

  17. A two layer coating system for metallic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plasma deposited cermet coatings are used for protecting components in sodium or helium cooled reactors. An inner layer of cermet made from a powder mixture of chromium carbide and a nickel -20% chromium and an outer layer of chromium carbide is preferred. (UK)

  18. Valley polarization in magnetically doped single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Zhang, Q. Y.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that valley polarization can be induced and controlled in semiconducting single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides by magnetic doping, which is important for spintronics, valleytronics, and photonics devices. As an example, we

  19. ZnO buffer layer for metal films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon

    2014-09-16

    Dramatic improvements in metallization integrity and electroceramic thin film performance can be achieved by the use of the ZnO buffer layer to minimize interfacial energy between metallization and adhesion layers. In particular, the invention provides a substrate metallization method utilizing a ZnO adhesion layer that has a high work of adhesion, which in turn enables processing under thermal budgets typically reserved for more exotic ceramic, single-crystal, or metal foil substrates. Embodiments of the present invention can be used in a broad range of applications beyond ferroelectric capacitors, including microelectromechanical systems, micro-printed heaters and sensors, and electrochemical energy storage, where integrity of metallized silicon to high temperatures is necessary.

  20. Improvement of corrosion resistance of transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver layers and transparent metal oxide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Katsuhiko; Yamazaki, Fumiharu; Okamura, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Shin

    2007-01-01

    An optical filter for plasma display panel (PDP) requires an electromagnetic shield with very high ability. The authors investigated a transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver (Ag) layers and transparent metal oxide layers. The durability of the multilayer sputter coating, including the silver layer, is very sensitive to the surrounding atmosphere. For example, after an exposure test they found discolored points on the multilayer sputter coatings, possibly caused by migration of silver atoms in the silver layers. In their investigation, they modified the top surface of the multilayer sputter coatings with transition metals to improve the corrosion resistance of the multilayer coating. Specifically, they deposited transition metals 0.5-2 nm thick on the top surface of the multilayer coatings by sputtering. They chose indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent metal oxide. They applied the multilayer sputter coatings of seven layers to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film substrate. A cross-sectional structure of the film with the multilayer coatings is PET film/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO. They evaluated the corrosion resistance of the films by a salt-water immersion test. In the test, they immersed the film with multilayer coatings into salt water, and then evaluated the appearance, transmittance, and electrical resistance of the multilayer coatings. They investigated several transition metals as the modifying material, and found that titanium and tantalum drastically improved the resistance of the multilayer coatings to the salt-water exposure without a significant decline in transmittance. They also investigated the relation between elapsed time after deposition of the modifying materials and resistance to the salt water. Furthermore, they investigated the effects of a heat treatment and an oxide plasma treatment on resistance to the salt water

  1. Functionalized Nanostructures: Redox-Active Porphyrin Anchors for Supramolecular DNA Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Börjesson, Karl

    2010-09-28

    We have synthesized and studied a supramolecular system comprising a 39-mer DNA with porphyrin-modified thymidine nucleosides anchored to the surface of large unilamellar vesicles (liposomes). Liposome porphyrin binding characteristics, such as orientation, strength, homogeneity, and binding site size, was determined, suggesting that the porphyrin is well suited as a photophysical and redox-active lipid anchor, in comparison to the inert cholesterol anchor commonly used today. Furthermore, the binding characteristics and hybridization capabilities were studied as a function of anchor size and number of anchoring points, properties that are of importance for our future plans to use the addressability of these redox-active nodes in larger DNA-based nanoconstructs. Electron transfer from photoexcited porphyrin to a lipophilic benzoquinone residing in the lipid membrane was characterized by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and verified by femtosecond transient absorption. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  2. Strain rate effects on localized necking in substrate-supported metal layers

    OpenAIRE

    BEN BETTAIEB, Mohamed; ABED-MERAIM, Farid

    2017-01-01

    Due to their good mechanical and technological performances, thin substrate-supported metal layers are increasingly used as functional components in flexible electronic devices. Consequently, the prediction of necking, and the associated limit strains, for such components is of major academic and industrial importance. The current contribution aims to numerically investigate the respective and combined effects of strain rate sensitivity of the metal layer and the addition of an elastomer l...

  3. Microstructure and chemical analysis of Hf-based high-k dielectric layers in metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangadurai, P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Kaplan, W.D., E-mail: kaplan@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-05-31

    The microstructure and chemistry of the high-k gate dielectric significantly influences the performance of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. In particular, the local structure, chemistry, and inter-layer mixing are important phenomena to be understood. In the present study, high resolution and analytical transmission electron microscopy are combined to study the local structure, morphology, and chemistry in MIM capacitors containing a Hf-based high-k dielectric. The gate dielectric, bottom and gate electrodes were deposited on p-type Si(100) wafers by electron beam evaporation. Four chemically distinguishable sub-layers were identified within the dielectric stack. One is an unintentionally formed 4.0 nm thick interfacial layer of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} at the interface between the Ta electrode and the dielectric. The other three layers are based on HfN{sub x}O{sub y} and HfTiO{sub y}, and intermixing between the nearby sub-layers including deposited SiO{sub 2}. Hf-rich clusters were found in the HfN{sub x}O{sub y} layer adjacent to the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer.

  4. Synthesis and characterisation of iron, cobalt and gallium complexes wit the redox-active amide ligand systems pyridinocarboxiamidobenzene and hydroxy phenyl oxamide; Synthese und Charakterisierung von Eisen-, Cobalt- und Galliumkomplexen mit den redoxaktiven Amidligandsystemen Pyridincarboxamidobenzol und Hydroxyphenyloxamid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, U.

    2001-07-01

    The interactions of the redox-active ligand systems piridinocarboxamidobenzene and hydroxy phenyl oxamide with the metals iron, cobalt and gallium were investigated. It was found that metal complexes with ligands of the pyridinocarboxamidobenzene and hydroxy phenyl oxamide type can be redox-active in the sense of a ligand-centered reaction. This may provide a better understanding of natural catalysis mechanisms and redox processes. [German] In dieser Arbeit wurde die Wechselwirkung der redoxaktiven Ligandsysteme Pyridincarboxamidobenzol und Hydroxyphenyloxamid mit den Metallen Eisen, Cobalt und Gallium untersucht. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass Metallkomplexe mit Liganden vom Typ Pyridincarboxamidobenzol und Hydroxyphenyloxamid auch im Sinne einer ligandzentrierten Reaktion redoxaktiv sein koennen. Dies kann dazu beitragen, Katalysemechanismen und Redoxprozesse in der Natur besser zu verstehen. (orig.)

  5. Content of redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants) in foods consumed in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Bente L; Carlsen, Monica H; Phillips, Katherine M; Bøhn, Siv K; Holte, Kari; Jacobs, David R; Blomhoff, Rune

    2006-07-01

    Supplements containing ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, or beta-carotene do not protect against oxidative stress-related diseases in most randomized intervention trials. We suggest that other redox-active phytochemicals may be more effective and that a combination of different redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants or reductants) may be needed for proper protection against oxidative damage. We aimed to generate a ranked food table with values for total content of redox-active compounds to test this alternative antioxidant hypothesis. An assay that measures the total concentration of redox-active compounds above a certain cutoff reduction potential was used to analyze 1113 food samples obtained from the US Department of Agriculture National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program. Large variations in the content of antioxidants were observed in different foods and food categories. The food groups spices and herbs, nuts and seeds, berries, and fruit and vegetables all contained foods with very high antioxidant contents. Most food categories also contained products almost devoid of antioxidants. Of the 50 food products highest in antioxidant concentrations, 13 were spices, 8 were in the fruit and vegetables category, 5 were berries, 5 were chocolate-based, 5 were breakfast cereals, and 4 were nuts or seeds. On the basis of typical serving sizes, blackberries, walnuts, strawberries, artichokes, cranberries, brewed coffee, raspberries, pecans, blueberries, ground cloves, grape juice, and unsweetened baking chocolate were at the top of the ranked list. This ranked antioxidant food table provides a useful tool for investigations into the possible health benefit of dietary antioxidants.

  6. Redox-Active Antibiotics Control Gene Expression and Community Behavior in Divergent Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Lars E. P.; Teal, Tracy K.; Price-Whelan, Alexa; Newman, Dianne K.

    2008-01-01

    It is thought that bacteria excrete redox-active pigments as antibiotics to inhibit competitors. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the endogenous antibiotic pyocyanin activates SoxR, a transcription factor conserved in Proteo- and Actinobacteria. In Escherichia coli, SoxR regulates the superoxide stress response. Bioinformatic analysis coupled with gene expression studies in P. aeruginosa and Streptomyces coelicolor revealed that the majority of SoxR regulons in bacteria lack the genes required for ...

  7. Passivation of a Metal Contact with a Tunneling Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loozen, X.; Larsen, J.B.; Dross, F.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of contact passivation for increasing cell performance is indicated by several results reported in the literature. However, scant characterization of the tunneling layers used for that purpose has been reported. In this paper, contact passivation is investigated by insertion...... of an ultra-thin AlOx layer between an n-type emitter and a Ti/Pd/Ag contact. By using a 1.5nm thick layer, an increase of the minority carrier lifetime by a factor of 2.7 is achieved. Since current-voltage measurements indicate that an ohmic behavior is conserved for AlOx layers as thick as 1.5nm, a 1.5nm Al...

  8. Dynamic partitioning of nanoparticulate metal species between gel layers and aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, van der P.L.R.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with several aspects of the use of Diffusive Gradient in Thin film (DGT) and Diffusive Equilibriation in Thin film (DET) in dynamic metal speciation analysis. It has a clear focus on the properties of the diffusive gel layer, and their possible impact on metal speciation

  9. Atomic layer deposition to prevent metal transfer from implants: An X-ray fluorescence study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilo, Fabjola [INSTM and Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, via Branze, 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Borgese, Laura, E-mail: laura.borgese@unibs.itl [INSTM and Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, via Branze, 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Prost, Josef; Rauwolf, Mirjam; Turyanskaya, Anna; Wobrauschek, Peter; Kregsamer, Peter; Streli, Christina [Atominstitut, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Pazzaglia, Ugo [Dipartimento Specialità Medico Chirurgiche Sc. Radiol. e Sanità Pubblica, University of Brescia, v.le Europa, 11, 25121 Brescia (Italy); Depero, Laura E. [INSTM and Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, via Branze, 38, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Co and Cr migrate from bare alloy implant to the surrounding tissue showing a cluster distribution. • Co and Cr migrate from the TiO{sub 2} coated implant to the surrounding tissue showing a decreasing gradient distribution from the alloy surface. • TiO{sub 2} coating layers obtained by ALD on Co–Cr alloy show a barrier effect for the migration of metals. • The thicker the TiO{sub 2} layer deposited by ALD, the lower the metal migration. • The migration of metals from bare alloy toward the surrounding tissue increases with time. This effect is not detected in the coated samples. - Abstract: We show that Atomic Layer Deposition is a suitable coating technique to prevent metal diffusion from medical implants. The metal distribution in animal bone tissue with inserted bare and coated Co–Cr alloys was evaluated by means of micro X-ray fluorescence mapping. In the uncoated implant, the migration of Co and Cr particles from the bare alloy in the biological tissues is observed just after one month and the number of particles significantly increases after two months. In contrast, no metal diffusion was detected in the implant coated with TiO{sub 2}. Instead, a gradient distribution of the metals was found, from the alloy surface going into the tissue. No significant change was detected after two months of aging. As expected, the thicker is the TiO{sub 2} layer, the lower is the metal migration.

  10. Sliding wear resistance of metal matrix composite layers prepared by high power laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, Vaclav; Matthews, D; de Hosson, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Two laser surface engineering techniques, Laser Cladding and Laser Melt Injection (LMI), were used to prepare three different metal matrix composite layers with a thickness of about 1 mm and approximately 25-30% volume fraction of ceramic particles. SiC/Al-8Si, WC/Ti-6Al-4V and TiB2/Ti-6Al-4V layers

  11. Using thin metal layers on composite structures for shielding the electromagnetic pulse caused by nearby lightning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, M.A.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Damstra, G.C.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Electronic systems in composite structures could be vulnerable to the (dominant magnetic) field caused by a lightning strike, because only thin layers of metal can be used on composite structures. Thin layers result in a very low shielding effectiveness against magnetic fields. Many experiments

  12. Characterization of Transition Metal Carbide Layers Synthesized by Thermo-reactive Diffusion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Mads Brink; Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2015-01-01

    . In this study halide-activated pack cementation techniques were used on tool steel Vanadis 6 and martensitic stainless steel AISI 420 in order to produce hard layers of titanium carbide (TiC), vanadium carbide (V8C7) and chromium carbides (Cr23C6 and Cr7C3). Surface layers were characterized by scanning......Hard wear resistant surface layers of transition metal carbides can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes where interstitial elements from a steel substrate together with external sources of transition metals (Ti, V, Cr etc.) form hard carbide and/or nitride layers at the steel surface...... electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Vickers hardness testing. The study shows that porosityfree, homogenous and very hard surface layers can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes. The carbon availability of the substrate influences thickness of obtained layers, as Vanadis 6 tool steel...

  13. Behaviour of ceramic and metallic layers in a H2O-H2S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtuna, I.; Mihailescu, M.; Deaconu, M.; Dinu, A.; Cotolan, V; Nedelcu, L.; Titescu, Gh.

    1996-01-01

    In the installations for heavy water production there exist zones where the action of aggressive working conditions combined with a severe variable hydrodynamical regime lead to the destruction of the pyrite protecting layer. An alternating solution for the protection of these zones is to cover them with ceramic or metallic layers. This work presents the results of the preliminary tests on G28-52 steel samples, covered with ceramic and metallic layers, in the working environment (H 2 O-H 2 S) of the heavy water production installations and in severe hydrodynamical conditions. On the basis of the results obtained in the experiments and from the examination of the microstructure of the layers prior and after testing, a phenomenological model was developed to explain the behaviour of the deposed layers. On the basis of this model the conditions that the layers must satisfy have been deduced to improve their behaviour in the working environment

  14. In situ ceramic layer growth on coated fuel particles dispersed in a zirconium metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrani, K. A.; Silva, C. M.; Kiggans, J. O.; Cai, Z.; Shin, D.; Snead, L. L.

    2013-06-01

    The extent and nature of the chemical interaction between the outermost coating layer of coated fuel particles embedded in zirconium metal during fabrication of metal matrix microencapsulated fuels were examined. Various particles with outermost coating layers of pyrocarbon, SiC, and ZrC have been investigated in this study. ZrC-Zr interaction was the least substantial, while the PyC-Zr reaction can be exploited to produce a ZrC layer at the interface in an in situ manner. The thickness of the ZrC layer in the latter case can be controlled by adjusting the time and temperature during processing. The kinetics of ZrC layer growth is significantly faster from what is predicted using literature carbon diffusivity data in ZrC. SiC-Zr interaction is more complex and results in formation of various chemical phases in a layered aggregate morphology at the interface.

  15. Graphene layer encapsulated metal nanoparticles as a new type of non-precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yang; Zhong, Lijie; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2016-01-01

    Cheap and efficient non-precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction have been a focus of research in the field of low-temperature fuel cells. This review is devoted to a brief summary of the recent work on a new type of catalysts, i.e., the graphene layer encapsulated metal nanoparticles....... The discussion is focused on the synthesis, structure, mechanism, performance, and further research....

  16. Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinaje, M [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Vinsard, G [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Dufour, S [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-03-21

    This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions.

  17. Determination of stable shapes of a thin liquid metal layer using a boundary integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinaje, M; Vinsard, G; Dufour, S

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field. Experimentally, we have noticed that even if the system (inductor+liquid metal) is axisymmetric, when an ac magnetic field is applied the symmetry is broken. The observed deformations of the liquid metal are in three dimensions. Therefore, our aim is to investigate this deformation using a numerical method as boundary element method in three dimensions

  18. Computational investigation of the effects of barrier layers on the permeation of hydrogen through metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.G.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a computational investigation of the permeation behavior of oxide-coated metal membranes are presented. A steady-state permeation model was developed which promises to be useful in evaluation of oxide layers on metals as hydrogen permeation barriers. The pressure and thickness dependence of steady state permeation through oxide-coated metal membranes is described using plots of logarithmic functions. (U.S.)

  19. Plated copper front side metallization on printed seed-layers for silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Achim

    2015-01-01

    A novel copper front side metallization architecture for silicon solar cells based on a fine printed silver seed-layer, plated with nickel, copper and silver, is investigated. The work focuses on the printing of fine seed-layers with low silver consumption, the corrosion of the printed seed-layers by the interaction with electrolyte solutions and the encapsulation material on module level and on the long term stability of the cells due to copper migration. The investigation of the correlation...

  20. Electron emission from a double-layer metal under femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuchang; Li, Suyu; Jiang, Yuanfei; Chen, Anmin, E-mail: amchen@jlu.edu.cn; Ding, Dajun; Jin, Mingxing, E-mail: mxjin@jlu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we theoretically investigate electron emission during femtosecond laser ablation of single-layer metal (copper) and double-layer structures. The double-layer structure is composed of a surface layer (copper) and a substrate layer (gold or chromium). The calculated results indicate that the double-layer structure brings a change to the electron emission from the copper surface. Compared with the ablation of a single-layer, a double-layer structure may be helpful to decrease the relaxation time of the electron temperature, and optimize the electron emission by diminishing the tailing phenomenon under the same absorbed laser fluence. With the increase of the absorbed laser fluence, the effect of optimization becomes significant. This study provides a way to optimize the electron emission which can be beneficial to generate laser induced ultrafast electron pulse sources.

  1. Influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layer of uranium metal and its oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Huang Ruiliang

    1996-09-01

    The surface structures of uranium metal and triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ) and the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layers have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After exposure to carbon monoxide, contents of oxygen in the surface oxides of uranium metal and U 3 O 8 are decreased and O/U ratios decrease 7.2%, 8.0% respectively. The investigation indicated the surface layers of uranium metal and its oxides were forbidden to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  2. Wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Arsić; Vukić Lazić; Ruzica R. Nikolic; Milan Mutavdžić; Srbislav Aleksandrović; Milan Djordjević

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal, with or without the austenite inter-layer, on parts that operate at different sliding speeds in conditions without lubrication. The samples were hard faced with the filler metal E 10-UM-60-C with high content of C, Cr and W. Used filler metal belongs into group of alloys aimed for reparatory hard facing of parts damaged by abrasive and erosive wear and it is characterized by ...

  3. Study on the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Duan Rongliang; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Zuo Changming; Zhao Chunpei; Chen Hong

    1997-01-01

    The influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography (GC). Carbon monoxide adsorption on the oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy. The content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased and the atomic ratio (O/U) is decreased by 7.2%. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere after the surface reaction is increased by 11.0%. The investigation indicates that the surface layer can prevent the further oxidation uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  4. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, E. B., E-mail: eugene.chubenko@gmail.com; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P. [Belarusian State University of Information and RadioElectronics (Belarus)

    2016-03-15

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  5. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubenko, E. B.; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  6. Generation Mechanism of Work Hardened Surface Layer in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikiji, Rikio; Kondo, Eiji; Kawagoishi, Norio; Arai, Minoru

    Finish machining used to be carried out in grinding, but it is being replaced by cutting with very small undeformed chip thickness. In ultra precision process, the effects of the cutting conditions and the complicated factors on the machined surface integrity are the serious problems. In this research, work hardened surface layer was dealt with as an evaluation of the machined surface integrity and the effect of the mechanical factors on work hardening was investigated experimentally in orthogonal cutting. As a result, it was found that work hardened surface layer was affected not only by the shear angle varied under the cutting conditions and the thrust force of cutting resistance, but also by the thrust force acting point, the coefficient of the thrust force and the compressive stress equivalent to the bulk hardness. Furthermore, these mechanical factors acting on the depth of the work hardened surface layer were investigated with the calculation model.

  7. Application of the photomodulated reflectance technique to the monitoring of metal layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, Gabor; Lenk, Sandor; Ujhelyi, Ferenc; Szita, Zsofia; Kocsanyi, Laszlo [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki ut 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Somogyi, Andras [Semilab Corporation, Prielle Kornelia ut 2, 1117 Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-09-15

    Photomodulated reflectance (PMR) measurement techniques are currently used for the monitoring of ultra-shallow junctions. This paper discusses the possibility of applying them to the characterisation of metal layers. A finite element method based computer model has been created to study the dependence of the PMR signal on different sample parameters. We present the results of these simulations and show that the method can be used to establish the thickness of a metal layer (if the material is known) and it can also provide information about the metal/semiconductor interface. This information might be used to characterise the barrier seed layer beneath the metal, by a non-contact and non-destructive way. Simulation results are also supported by actual measurements on test samples. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Analytical modelling of a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinaje, M [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Vinsard, G [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Dufour, S [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 2 avenue de la Foret de Haye, 54516 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2006-07-07

    A cylindrical thin liquid metal layer is submitted to a uniform ac magnetic field. When the intensity of the electromagnetic field exceeds a critical value, an opening in the liquid is shaped from outside to inside. At a given intensity of the electromagnetic field, this opening is in a frozen state, that is, the liquid metal layer reaches a new equilibrium shape. In this paper, we show that this equilibrium corresponds to a minimum of the total energy of the system. This total energy is equal to the sum of the magnetic energy and the mechanical energy. The magnetic energy is computed by assuming that the induced eddy current flowing through the liquid metal layer is concentrated in the cross-section S{sub c} equal to the product of the skin depth and the thickness of the layer. This assumption leads us to study an equivalent electrical circuit. The mechanical energy is composed of the potential energy and the surface energy.

  9. Analytical modelling of a thin liquid metal layer submitted to an ac magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinaje, M; Vinsard, G; Dufour, S

    2006-01-01

    A cylindrical thin liquid metal layer is submitted to a uniform ac magnetic field. When the intensity of the electromagnetic field exceeds a critical value, an opening in the liquid is shaped from outside to inside. At a given intensity of the electromagnetic field, this opening is in a frozen state, that is, the liquid metal layer reaches a new equilibrium shape. In this paper, we show that this equilibrium corresponds to a minimum of the total energy of the system. This total energy is equal to the sum of the magnetic energy and the mechanical energy. The magnetic energy is computed by assuming that the induced eddy current flowing through the liquid metal layer is concentrated in the cross-section S c equal to the product of the skin depth and the thickness of the layer. This assumption leads us to study an equivalent electrical circuit. The mechanical energy is composed of the potential energy and the surface energy

  10. Ultra-thin Metal and Dielectric Layers for Nanophotonic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Leandro, Lorenzo; Malureanu, Radu

    2015-01-01

    In our talk we first give an overview of the various thin films used in the field of nanophotonics. Then we describe our own activity in fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin films of high quality. We particularly focus on uniform gold layers having thicknesses down to 6 nm fabricated by......-beam deposition on dielectric substrates and Al-oxides/Ti-oxides multilayers prepared by atomic layer deposition in high aspect ratio trenches. In the latter case we show more than 1:20 aspect ratio structures can be achieved....

  11. Silver-doped metal layers for medical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocourek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Miroslav; Mikšovský, Jan; Jurek, Karel; Weiserová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 8 (2014), s. 1-7, č. článku 085602. ISSN 1054-660X Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : silver -doped * layer * pulsed laser deposition * adhesion * antibacterial efficacy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.032, year: 2014

  12. Double layer effects in the electroreduction of transition metal ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fawcett, W. R.; Hromadová, Magdaléna

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2008), s. 347-351 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400400603; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : sphere electrode reactions * crystal gold electrodes * diffuse double - layer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2008

  13. Metallic layer-by-layer photonic crystals for linearly-polarized thermal emission and thermophotovoltaic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P.

    2016-07-26

    Metallic thermal emitters consisting of two layers of differently structured nickel gratings on a homogeneous nickel layer are fabricated by soft lithography and studied for polarized thermal radiation. A thermal emitter in combination with a sub-wavelength grating shows a high extinction ratio, with a maximum value close to 5, in a wide mid-infrared range from 3.2 to 7.8 .mu.m, as well as high emissivity up to 0.65 at a wavelength of 3.7 .mu.m. All measurements show good agreement with theoretical predictions. Numerical simulations reveal that a high electric field exists within the localized air space surrounded by the gratings and the intensified electric-field is only observed for the polarizations perpendicular to the top sub-wavelength grating. This result suggests how the emissivity of a metal can be selectively enhanced at a certain range of wavelengths for a given polarization.

  14. Copper Benzenetricarboxylate Metal-Organic Framework Nucleation Mechanisms on Metal Oxide Powders and Thin Films formed by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Paul C; Zhao, Junjie; Williams, Philip S; Walls, Howard J; Shepherd, Sarah D; Losego, Mark D; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N

    2016-04-13

    Chemically functional microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals are attractive for filtration and gas storage applications, and recent results show that they can be immobilized on high surface area substrates, such as fiber mats. However, fundamental knowledge is still lacking regarding initial key reaction steps in thin film MOF nucleation and growth. We find that thin inorganic nucleation layers formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) can promote solvothermal growth of copper benzenetricarboxylate MOF (Cu-BTC) on various substrate surfaces. The nature of the ALD material affects the MOF nucleation time, crystal size and morphology, and the resulting MOF surface area per unit mass. To understand MOF nucleation mechanisms, we investigate detailed Cu-BTC MOF nucleation behavior on metal oxide powders and Al2O3, ZnO, and TiO2 layers formed by ALD on polypropylene substrates. Studying both combined and sequential MOF reactant exposure conditions, we find that during solvothermal synthesis ALD metal oxides can react with the MOF metal precursor to form double hydroxy salts that can further convert to Cu-BTC MOF. The acidic organic linker can also etch or react with the surface to form MOF from an oxide metal source, which can also function as a nucleation agent for Cu-BTC in the mixed solvothermal solution. We discuss the implications of these results for better controlled thin film MOF nucleation and growth.

  15. Metal layer mask patterning by force microscopy lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, H.D. Fonseca; Mauricio, M.H.P.; Ponciano, C.R.; Prioli, R.

    2004-01-01

    The nano-lithography of a metallic surface in air by atomic force microscopy while operated in contact mode and equipped with a diamond tip is presented. The aluminum mask was prepared by thermal deposition on arsenic sulfide films. The analysis of the scratches performed by the tip on the metallic mask show that the depth of the lithographed pattern increases with the increase of the applied normal force. The scanning velocity is also shown to influence the AFM patterning process. As the scanning velocity increases, the scratch depth and width decreases. Nano-indentations performed with the diamond tip show that the plastically deformed surface increases with the increase of the duration of the applied force. The use of the nano-lithography method to create nano-structures is discussed

  16. Metallic stereostructured layer: An approach for broadband polarization state manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Xiang; Hu, Yuan-Sheng; Jiang, Shang-Chi; Hu, Yu-Hui; Fan, Ren-Hao; Ma, Guo-Bin; Shu, Da-Jun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu

    2014-01-01

    In this letter, we report a full-metallic broadband wave plate assembled by standing metallic L-shaped stereostructures (LSSs). We show that with an array of LSSs, high polarization conversion ratio is achieved within a broad frequency band. Moreover, by rotating the orientation of the array of LSSs, the electric components of the reflection beam in two orthogonal directions and their phase difference can be independently tuned. In this way, all the polarization states on the Poincaré sphere can be realized. As examples, the functionalities of a quarter wave plate and a half wave plate are experimentally demonstrated with both reflection spectra and focal-plane-array imaging. Our designing provides a unique approach in realizing the broadband wave plate to manipulate the polarization state of light

  17. High dose, heavy ion implantation into metals: the use of sacrificial surface layers to enhance retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapham, L.

    1994-01-01

    While of considerable interest for the production of metallic alloys, high dose, heavy ion implantation is highly problematical, since the process is limited by sputtering effects. Sputtering is less significant, however, for light target materials, such as C and Al. This paper summarizes studies involving the use of light materials (such as C and Al) which act as slowly sputtering ''sacrificial layers'' when deposited on metallic targets prior to heavy ion implantation. The use of C and Al sacrificial coatings has enabled implanted ion retentions of 100% to be obtained in a number of ion-metal target systems, where the retentions in uncoated samples were as low as 20%. Ion implantation invariably leads to mixing at the sacrificial layer-metal target interface. This mixing may be detrimental in certain systems, so it is useful to be able to minimize or remove this mixed region. To achieve this, a number of techniques have been investigated: (1) removal of the mixed region in the latter stages of the implant; (2) using a barrier layer or chemical effects to minimize mixing at the sacrificial layer-metal interface; (3) choosing a sacrificial layer material which forms a mixed region which has desirable properties. The results of these investigations, for a number of different ion-target systems, are outlined in this paper. (orig.)

  18. The enhancement of neutral metal Na layer above thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingkun; Xue, Xianghui; Lu, Gaopeng; Kuo, Chengling; Dou, Xiankang; Gao, Qi; Qie, Xiushu; Wu, Jianfei; Tang, Yihuan

    2017-04-01

    Na (sodium) exists as layers of atoms in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) at altitudes between 80 and 105 km. It has lower ionization potential of 5.139 eV than atmospheric species, such as O2 (12.06 eV). Tropospheric thunderstorms affect the lower ionosphere and the ionospheric sporadic E (Es) at 100 km can also be influenced by lightning. The mechanism is expected to be associated with transient luminous events (TLE) as red sprites and gigantic jets at upper atmosphere. However, measurements of ionospheric electric fields of 20mV·m-1 above thunderstorms are less than estimated value (>48 0mV·m-1) to excite ionization in the lower ionosphere. We found an enhancement of Na layer above thunderstorms. The increase of Na density in the statistical result can be as much as 500 cm-3 and it will have an impact on ionospheric chemistry and modify the conductivity properties of the MLT region. The ionospheric observations made with two digisondes near the Na lidar, the thunderstorm model, ionosphere model, and Na chemistry model are all used to discuss the possible mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of Na layer after thunderstorms.

  19. Layer-by-Layer Motif Architectures: Programmed Electrochemical Syntheses of Multilayer Mesoporous Metallic Films with Uniformly Sized Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Li, Cuiling; Qian, Huayu; Hossain, Md Shahriar A; Malgras, Victor; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-06-26

    Although multilayer films have been extensively reported, most compositions have been limited to non-catalytically active materials (e.g. polymers, proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids). Herein, we report the preparation of binder-free multilayer metallic mesoporous films with sufficient accessibility for high electrocatalytic activity by using a programmed electrochemical strategy. By precisely tuning the deposition potential and duration, multilayer mesoporous architectures consisting of alternating mesoporous Pd layers and mesoporous PdPt layers with controlled layer thicknesses can be synthesized within a single electrolyte, containing polymeric micelles as soft templates. This novel architecture, combining the advantages of bimetallic alloys, multilayer architectures, and mesoporous structures, exhibits high electrocatalytic activity for both the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Self-aligned metallization on organic semiconductor through 3D dual-layer thermal nanoimprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y; Cheng, X

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution patterning of metal structures on organic semiconductors is important to the realization of high-performance organic transistors for organic integrated circuit applications. The traditional shadow mask technique has a limited resolution, precluding sub-micron metal structures on organic semiconductors. Thus organic transistors cannot benefit from scaling into the deep sub-micron region to improve their dc and ac performances. In this work, we report an efficient multiple-level metallization on poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with a deep sub-micron lateral gap. By using a 3D nanoimprint mold in a dual-layer thermal nanoimprint process, we achieved self-aligned two-level metallization on P3HT. The 3D dual-layer thermal nanoimprint enables the first metal patterns to have suspending side-wings that can clearly define a distance from the second metal patterns. Isotropic and anisotropic side-wing structures can be fabricated through two different schemes. The process based on isotropic side-wings achieves a lateral-gap in the order of 100 nm (scheme 1). A gap of 60 nm can be achieved from the process with anisotropic side-wings (scheme 2). Because of the capability of nanoscale metal patterning on organic semiconductors with high overlay accuracy, this self-aligned metallization technique can be utilized to fabricate high-performance organic metal semiconductor field-effect transistor. (paper)

  1. UN{sub 2−x} layer formed on uranium metal by glow plasma nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Zhong [China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-71, Mianyang 621907 (China); Hu, Yin [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China); Chen, Lin [China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-71, Mianyang 621907 (China); Luo, Lizhu [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China); Liu, Kezhao, E-mail: liukz@hotmail.com [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China); Lai, Xinchun, E-mail: lai319@yahoo.com [Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, P.O. Box 718-35, Mianyang 621907 (China)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • We used a very simple method to prepare nitride layer on uranium metal surface. • This modified layer is nitrogen-rich nitride, which should be written as UN{sub 2−x}. • TEM images show the nitride layer is composed of nano-sized grains. • XPS analysis indicates there is uranium with abnormal low valence in the nitride. - Abstract: Glow plasma nitriding is a simple and economical surface treatment method, and this technology was used to prepare nitride layer on the surface of uranium metal with thickness of several microns. The composition and structure of the nitride layer were analyzed by AES and XRD, indicating that this modified layer is nitrogen-rich uranium nitride, which should be written as UN{sub 2−x}. TEM images show the nitride layer is composed of nano-sized grains, with compact structure. And XPS analysis indicates there is uranium with abnormal low valence existing in the nitride. After the treated uranium storage in air for a long time, oxygen just entered the surface several nanometers, showing the nitride layer has excellent oxidation resistance. The mechanism of nitride layer formation and low valence uranium appearance is discussed.

  2. UN2−x layer formed on uranium metal by glow plasma nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Zhong; Hu, Yin; Chen, Lin; Luo, Lizhu; Liu, Kezhao; Lai, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We used a very simple method to prepare nitride layer on uranium metal surface. • This modified layer is nitrogen-rich nitride, which should be written as UN 2−x . • TEM images show the nitride layer is composed of nano-sized grains. • XPS analysis indicates there is uranium with abnormal low valence in the nitride. - Abstract: Glow plasma nitriding is a simple and economical surface treatment method, and this technology was used to prepare nitride layer on the surface of uranium metal with thickness of several microns. The composition and structure of the nitride layer were analyzed by AES and XRD, indicating that this modified layer is nitrogen-rich uranium nitride, which should be written as UN 2−x . TEM images show the nitride layer is composed of nano-sized grains, with compact structure. And XPS analysis indicates there is uranium with abnormal low valence existing in the nitride. After the treated uranium storage in air for a long time, oxygen just entered the surface several nanometers, showing the nitride layer has excellent oxidation resistance. The mechanism of nitride layer formation and low valence uranium appearance is discussed

  3. Lateral transport of solutes in microfluidic channels using electrochemically generated gradients in redox-active surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2011-04-15

    We report principles for a continuous flow process that can separate solutes based on a driving force for selective transport that is generated by a lateral concentration gradient of a redox-active surfactant across a microfluidic channel. Microfluidic channels fabricated with gold electrodes lining each vertical wall were used to electrochemically generate concentration gradients of the redox-active surfactant 11-ferrocenylundecyl-trimethylammonium bromide (FTMA) in a direction perpendicular to the flow. The interactions of three solutes (a hydrophobic dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthylamine (yellow AB), an amphiphilic molecule, 2-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (BODIPY C(5)-HPC), and an organic salt, 1-methylpyridinium-3-sulfonate (MPS)) with the lateral gradients in surfactant/micelle concentration were shown to drive the formation of solute-specific concentration gradients. Two distinct physical mechanisms were identified to lead to the solute concentration gradients: solubilization of solutes by micelles and differential adsorption of the solutes onto the walls of the microchannels in the presence of the surfactant concentration gradient. These two mechanisms were used to demonstrate delipidation of a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC (lipid) and MPS and purification of BODIPY C(5)-HPC from a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC and yellow AB. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that lateral concentration gradients of redox-active surfactants formed within microfluidic channels can be used to transport solutes across the microfluidic channels in a solute-dependent manner. The approach employs electrical potentials (solutions having high ionic strength (>0.1M), and offers the basis of continuous processes for the purification or separation of solutes in microscale systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Novel Metals and Metal Complexes as Platforms for Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Frezza, Michael; Hindo, Sarmad; Chen, Di; Davenport, Andrew; Schmitt, Sara; Tomco, Dajena; Dou, Q. Ping

    2010-01-01

    Metals are essential cellular components selected by nature to function in several indispensable biochemical processes for living organisms. Metals are endowed with unique characteristics that include redox activity, variable coordination modes, and reactivity towards organic substrates. Due to their reactivity, metals are tightly regulated under normal conditions and aberrant metal ion concentrations are associated with various pathological disorders, including cancer. For these reasons, coo...

  5. Surface modification of upconverting nanoparticles by layer-by-layer assembled polyelectrolytes and metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palo, Emilia; Salomäki, Mikko; Lastusaari, Mika

    2017-12-15

    Modificating and protecting the upconversion luminescence nanoparticles is important for their potential in various applications. In this work we demonstrate successful coating of the nanoparticles by a simple layer-by-layer method using negatively charged polyelectrolytes and neodymium ions. The layer fabrication conditions such as number of the bilayers, solution concentrations and selected polyelectrolytes were studied to find the most suitable conditions for the process. The bilayers were characterized and the presence of the desired components was studied and confirmed by various methods. In addition, the upconversion luminescence of the bilayered nanoparticles was studied to see the effect of the surface modification on the overall intensity. It was observed that with selected deposition concentrations the bilayer successfully shielded the particle resulting in stronger upconversion luminescence. The layer-by-layer method offers multiple possibilities to control the bilayer growth even further and thus gives promises that the use of upconverting nanoparticles in applications could become even easier with less modification steps in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ion exchange of alkaline metals on the thin-layer zinc ferrocyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betenekov, N.D.; Buklanov, G.V.; Ipatova, E.G.; Korotkin, Yu.S.

    1991-01-01

    Basic regularities of interphase distribution in the system of thin-layer sorbent on the basis of mixed zinc ferrocyanide (FZ)-alkaline metal solution (Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) in the column chromatography made are studied. It is established that interphase distribution of microgram amounts of alkaline metals in the systems thin-layer FZ-NH 4 NO 3 electrolyte solutions is of ion-exchange character and subjected to of law effective mass. It is shown that FZ thin-layer material is applicable for effective chromatographic separation of alkaline metal trace amounts. An approach to the choice of a conditions of separate elution of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr in the column chromatography mode

  7. Metal clusters on supported argon layers; Metallcluster auf dielektrischen Substraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, Bernhard

    2011-10-21

    The deposition of small sodium clusters on supported Ar(001)-surfaces is simulated. Theoretical description is achieved by a hierarchical model consisting of time-dependent DFT and molecular dynamics. The valence electrons of the sodium atoms are considered by Kohn-Sham-Scheme with self interaction correction. The interaction of argon atoms and sodium ions is described by atom-atom potentials whereas the coupling to the QM electrons is done by local pseudo-potentials. A decisive part of the model is the dynamical polarizability of the rare-gas atoms. The optional metal support is considered by the method of image charges. The influence of the forces caused by image charges and the influence of the number of argon monolayers on structure, optical response and deposition dynamics of Na{sub 6} and Na{sub 8} is investigated. There is very little influence on cluster structure and only a small shift of the cluster perpendicular to the surface. Concerning optical response the position of the Mie plasmon peak stays robust whereas the details of spectral fragmentation react very sensitively to changes. The forces caused by image charges of the metal support play only a little role with the dynamics of deposition while the thickness of the argon surface strongly influences the dissipation. (orig.)

  8. Synthesis of multicomponent metallic layers during impulse plasma deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowakowska-Langier Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed plasma in the impulse plasma deposition (IPD synthesis is generated in a coaxial accelerator by strong periodic electrical pulses, and it is distributed in a form of energetic plasma packets. A nearly complete ionization of gas, in these conditions of plasma generation, favors the nucleation of new phase of ions and synthesis of metastable materials in a form of coatings which are characterized by amorphous and/or nanocrystalline structure. In this work, the Fe–Cu alloy, which is immiscible in the state of equilibrium, was selected as a model system to study the possibility of formation of a non-equilibrium phase during the IPD synthesis. Structural characterization of the layers was done by means of X-ray diffraction and conversion-electron Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was found that supersaturated solid solutions were created as a result of mixing and/or alloying effects between the layer components delivered to the substrate independently and separately in time. Therefore, the solubility in the Fe–Cu system was largely extended in relation to the equilibrium conditions, as described by the equilibrium phase diagram in the solid state.

  9. Nonlocal laser annealing to improve thermal contacts between multi-layer graphene and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, Victor A; Alaferdov, Andrei V; Vaz, Alfredo R; Moshkalev, Stanislav A; Baranov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of thermal conductivity measurements by the micro-Raman technique for suspended multi-layer graphene flakes has been shown to depend critically on the quality of the thermal contacts between the flakes and the metal electrodes used as the heat sink. The quality of the contacts can be improved by nonlocal laser annealing at increased power. The improvement of the thermal contacts to initially rough metal electrodes is attributed to local melting of the metal surface under laser heating, and increased area of real metal–graphene contact. Improvement of the thermal contacts between multi-layer graphene and a silicon oxide surface was also observed, with more efficient heat transfer from graphene as compared with the graphene–metal case. (paper)

  10. Ultrathin, Ultrasmooth Gold Layer on Dielectrics without the Use of Additional Metallic Adhesion Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leandro, Lorenzo; Malureanu, Radu; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2015-01-01

    With advances in the plasmonics and metamaterials research field, it has become more and more important to fabricate thin and smooth Au metal films in a reliable way. Here, by thin films we mean that their average height is below 10 mu and their average roughness is below 5% of the total thicknes...

  11. Changes of electrical conductivity of the metal surface layer by the laser alloying with foreign elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek; Pawlak, Ryszard; Raczynski, Tomasz; Walczak, Maria

    1994-09-01

    Laser treatment of the surface of materials is of major importance for many fields technology. One of the latest and most significant methods of this treatment is laser alloying consisting of introducing foreign atoms into the metal surface layer during the reaction of laser radiation with the surface. This opens up vast possibilities for the modification of properties of such a layer (obtaining layers of increased microhardness, increased resistance to electroerosion in an electric arc, etc.). Conductivity of the material is a very important parameter in case of conductive materials used for electrical contacts. The paper presents the results of studies on change in electrical conductivity of the surface layer of metals alloyed with a laser. A comparative analysis of conductivity of base metal surface layers prior to and following laser treatment has been performed. Depending on the base metal and the alloying element, optical treatment parameters allowing a required change in the surface layer conductivity have been selected. A very important property of the contact material is its resistance to plastic strain. It affects the real value of contact surface coming into contact and, along with the material conductivity, determines contact resistance and the amount of heat generated in place of contact. These quantities are directly related to the initiation and the course of an arc discharge, hence they also affect resistance to electroerosion. The parameter that reflects plastic properties with loads concentrated on a small surface, as is the case with a reciprocal contact force of two real surfaces with their irregularities being in contact, is microhardness. In the paper, the results of investigations into microhardness of modified surface layers compared with base metal microhardness have been presented.

  12. Plasmonically sensitized metal-oxide electron extraction layers for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, S; Becker, T; Zilberberg, K; Behrendt, A; Polywka, A; Heiderhoff, R; Görrn, P; Riedl, T

    2015-01-16

    ZnO and TiOx are commonly used as electron extraction layers (EELs) in organic solar cells (OSCs). A general phenomenon of OSCs incorporating these metal-oxides is the requirement to illuminate the devices with UV light in order to improve device characteristics. This may cause severe problems if UV to VIS down-conversion is applied or if the UV spectral range (λ work, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are used to plasmonically sensitize metal-oxide based EELs in the vicinity (1-20 nm) of the metal-oxide/organic interface. We evidence that plasmonically sensitized metal-oxide layers facilitate electron extraction and afford well-behaved highly efficient OSCs, even without the typical requirement of UV exposure. It is shown that in the plasmonically sensitized metal-oxides the illumination with visible light lowers the WF due to desorption of previously ionosorbed oxygen, in analogy to the process found in neat metal oxides upon UV exposure, only. As underlying mechanism the transfer of hot holes from the metal to the oxide upon illumination with hν < Eg is verified. The general applicability of this concept to most common metal-oxides (e.g. TiOx and ZnO) in combination with different photoactive organic materials is demonstrated.

  13. Melt layer behavior of metal targets irradiatead by powerful plasma streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high-heat loads is studied. Experiments with steel, copper, aluminum and titanium samples were carried out in two plasma accelerator devices with different time durations of the heat load. The surfaces of the resolidified melt layers show a considerable roughness with microcraters and ridge like relief on the surface. For each material the mass loss was determined. Melt layer erosion by melt motion was clearly identified. However it is masked by boiling, bubble expansion and bubble collapse and by formation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The experimental results can be used for validation of numerical codes which model melt layer erosion of metallic armour materials in off-normal events, in tokamaks

  14. Melt layer behavior of metal targets irradiatead by powerful plasma streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Wuerz, H

    2002-12-01

    In this paper melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high-heat loads is studied. Experiments with steel, copper, aluminum and titanium samples were carried out in two plasma accelerator devices with different time durations of the heat load. The surfaces of the resolidified melt layers show a considerable roughness with microcraters and ridge like relief on the surface. For each material the mass loss was determined. Melt layer erosion by melt motion was clearly identified. However it is masked by boiling, bubble expansion and bubble collapse and by formation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The experimental results can be used for validation of numerical codes which model melt layer erosion of metallic armour materials in off-normal events, in tokamaks.

  15. Organic-inorganic perovskites containing trivalent metal halide layers: the templating influence of the organic cation layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D B

    2000-12-25

    Thin sheetlike crystals of the metal-deficient perovskites (H2AEQT)M2/3I4 [M = Bi or Sb; AEQT = 5,5"'-bis-(aminoethyl)-2,2':5',2'':5'',2'''-quaterthiophene] were formed from slowly cooled ethylene glycol/2-butanol solutions containing the bismuth(III) or antimony(III) iodide and AEQT.2HI salts. Each structure was refined in a monoclinic (C2/m) subcell, with the lattice parameters a = 39.712(13) A, b = 5.976(2) A, c = 6.043(2) A, beta = 92.238(5) degrees, and Z = 2 for M = Bi and a = 39.439(7) A, b = 5.952(1) A, c = 6.031(1) A, beta = 92.245(3) degrees, and Z = 2 for M = Sb. The trivalent metal cations locally adopt a distorted octahedral coordination, with M-I bond lengths ranging from 3.046(1) to 3.218(3) A (3.114 A average) for M = Bi and 3.012(1) to 3.153(2) A (3.073 A average) for M = Sb. The new organic-inorganic hybrids are the first members of a metal-deficient perovskite family consisting of (Mn+)2/nV(n-2)/nX4(2-) sheets, where V represents a vacancy (generally left out of the formula) and the metal cation valence, n, is greater than 2. The organic layers in the AEQT-based organic-inorganic hybrids feature edge-to-face aromatic interactions among the rigid, rodlike quaterthiophene moieties, which may help to stabilize the unusual metal-deficient layered structures.

  16. The attenuation of temperature oscillations in passing through liquid metal boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawn, C.J.

    1975-08-01

    One aspect of predicting the endurance of components subject to thermal fatigue in liquid metal cooled reactors is the extent to which oscillations in fluid temperature are transmitted to metal surfaces, such as the above-core structure. The first geometry considered is that of a solid plate in contact with a layer of stagnant fluid, in which temperature oscillations are imposed at a given distance from the plate. Transmission through a laminar boundary layer developing over the plate surface is then considered. An approximate calculation based on the slug-flow analysis of Sucec (1975) is developed. (U.K.)

  17. Hydration forces and liquid-like layer on the ice/metal interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daikhin, Leonid; Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A model to describe the phenomenon of the liquid-like layer is proposed. It is based on the theory of the hydration forces proposed by Gruen and Marcelja (1983 J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 79 225), taking into account the influence of ions on the free energy of water. The model was applied to experimental data obtained with the quartz-crystal microbalance, in a study of the liquid-like layer between metal and frozen aqueous electrolytes and between metal and ice

  18. FTIR spectroscopy structural analysis of the interaction between Lactobacillus kefir S-layers and metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, E.; Mobili, P.; Tymczyszyn, E.; Fausto, R.; Gómez-Zavaglia, A.

    2011-02-01

    FTIR spectroscopy was used to structurally characterize the interaction of S-layer proteins extracted from two strains of Lactobacillus kefir (the aggregating CIDCA 8348 and the non-aggregating JCM 5818) with metal ions (Cd +2, Zn +2, Pb +2 and Ni +2). The infrared spectra indicate that the metal/protein interaction occurs mainly through the carboxylate groups of the side chains of Asp and Glut residues, with some contribution of the NH groups belonging to the peptide backbone. The frequency separation between the νCOO - anti-symmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations in the spectra of the S-layers in presence of the metal ions was found to be ca. 190 cm -1 for S-layer CIDCA 8348 and ca. 170 cm -1 for JCM 5818, denoting an unidentate coordination in both cases. Changes in the secondary structures of the S-layers induced by the interaction with the metal ions were also noticed: a general trend to increase the amount of β-sheet structures and to reduce the amount of α-helices was observed. These changes allow the proteins to adjust their structure to the presence of the metal ions at minimum energy expense, and accordingly, these adjustments were found to be more important for the bigger ions.

  19. Metal Surface Modification for Obtaining Nano- and Sub-Nanostructured Protective Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Ledovskykh, Volodymyr; Vyshnevska, Yuliya; Brazhnyk, Igor; Levchenko, Sergiy

    2017-01-01

    Regularities of the phase protective layer formation in multicomponent systems involving inhibitors with different mechanism of protective action have been investigated. It was shown that optimization of the composition of the inhibition mixture allows to obtain higher protective efficiency owing to improved microstructure of the phase layer. It was found that mechanism of the film formation in the presence of NaNO2-PHMG is due to deposition of slightly soluble PHMG-Fe complexes on the metal ...

  20. Growth of micrometric oxide layers to explore laser decontamination of metallic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Luisa; Pacquentin Wilfried; Tabarant Michel; Maskrot Hicham; Semerok Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in terms of hazard level, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop safe techniques for dismantling and for decontamination, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. In this paper we propose a method for the creation of oxide layers on stai...

  1. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Luisa; Pacquentin Wilfried; Tabarant Michel; Maskrot Hicham; Semerok Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless st...

  2. Removal of contaminated asphalt layers by using heat generating powder metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, A.S.; Karlina, O.K.; Ojovan, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    Heat generating systems on the base of powder metallic fuel were used for the removal of contaminated asphalt layers. Decontamination of spots which had complex geometric form was performed. Asphalt layers with deep contamination were removed essentially all radionuclides being retained in asphalt residue. Only a small part (1 - 2 %) of radionuclides could pass to combustion slag. No radionuclides were detected in aerosol-gas phase during decontamination process

  3. Atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} for integration into three-dimensional metal-insulator-metal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assaud, Loic [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CINAM, Marseille (France); ICMMO-ERIEE, Universite Paris-Sud / Universite Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Orsay (France); Pitzschel, Kristina; Barr, Maissa K.S.; Petit, Matthieu; Hanbuecken, Margrit; Santinacci, Lionel [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CINAM, Marseille (France); Monier, Guillaume [Universite Clermont Auvergne, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS, Institut Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2017-12-15

    HfO{sub 2} nanotubes have been fabricated via a template-assisted deposition process for further use in three-dimensional metal-insulator-metal (MIM) devices. HfO{sub 2} thin layers were grown by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) in anodic alumina membranes (AAM). The ALD was carried out using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and water as Hf and O sources, respectively. Long exposure durations to the precursors have been used to maximize the penetration depth of the HfO{sub 2} layer within the AAM and the effect of the process temperature was investigated. The morphology, the chemical composition, and the crystal structure were studied as a function of the deposition parameters using transmission and scanning electron microscopies, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. As expected, the HfO{sub 2} layers grown at low-temperature (T = 150 C) were amorphous, while for a higher temperature (T = 250 C), polycrystalline films were observed. The electrical characterizations have shown better insulating properties for the layers grown at low temperature. Finally, TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN multilayers were grown in an AAM as proof-of-concept for three-dimensional MIM nanostructures. (orig.)

  4. Surface layers in the 4A group metals with implanted silicon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovneristyj, Yu.K.; Vavilova, V.V.; Krasnopevtsev, V.V.; Galkin, L.N.; Kudyshev, A.N.; Klechkovskaya, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    A study was made on the change of structure and phase composition of fine near the surface layers of 4A group metals (Hf, Zr, Ti) during ion Si implantation and successive thermal annealing at elevated temperatures. Implantation of Si + ions with 30 or 16 keV energy in Ti, Zr and Hf at room temperature results to amorphization of metal surface layer. The surface hafnium and titanium layer with implanted Si atoms due to interaction with residual atmosphere of oxygen turns during annealing at 870 K to amorphous solid solution of HfO 2m or TiO 2 with Si, preventing further metal oxidation; layers of amorphous alloy are characterized by thermal stability up to 1270 K. Oxidation of the surface amorphous layer in residual oxygen atmosphere and its crystallization in ZrO 2 take place in result of Zr annealing with implanted Si ions at temperature not exceeding 870 K. Similar phenomena are observed in the case of hafnium with implanted oxygen ions or small dose of silicon ions. Thermal stability of amorphous layers produced during ion implantation of Si in Ti, Zr and Hf corresponds to scale resistance of monolithic alloys in Ti-Si, Zr-Si and Hf-Si systems

  5. Experimental study of conjugate heat transfer from liquid metal layer cooled by overlying freon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J.S.; Suh, K.Y.; Chung, C.H.; Park, R.J.; Kim, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    Steady-state and transient experiments were performed for the heat transfer from the liquid metal pool with overlying Freon (R113) coolant in the process of boiling. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 Celsius degrees. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and the coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. Tests were conducted under the condition of the bottom surface heating in the test section and the forced convection of the R113 coolant being injected onto the molten metal pool. The bottom heating condition was varied from 8 kW to 14 kW. The temperature distributions of the metal layer and coolant were obtained in the steady-state experiment. The boiling mechanism of the R113 coolant was changed from the nucleate boiling to film boiling in the transient experiment. The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon was observed during the transition from the nucleate boiling to the film boiling. Also, the Nusselt (Nu) number and the Rayleigh (Ra) number in the molten metal pool region were obtained as functions of time. Analysis was done for the relationship between the heat flux and the temperature difference between the metal layer surface and the boiling coolant. In this experiment, the heat transfer is achieved with accompanying solidification in the molten metal pool by the boiling R113 coolant there above. The present test results of the natural convection heat transfer on the molten metal pool are higher than those of the liquid metal natural convection heat transfer without coolant boiling. It can be interpreted that the heat transfer rate is enhanced by the overlying boiling coolant having the high heat removal rate. Analysis of the relationship between the heat flux and the difference between the metal layer surface temperature and the coolant bulk boiling temperature revealed that the CHF occurs when the temperature difference reaches a neighborhood of 50 Celsius degrees. Also, if the temperature

  6. Control of electronic properties of 2D carbides (MXenes) by manipulating their transition metal layers

    KAUST Repository

    Anasori, Babak

    2016-02-24

    In this study, a transition from metallic to semiconducting-like behavior has been demonstrated in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides by replacing titanium with molybdenum in the outer transition metal (M) layers of M3C2 and M4C3 MXenes. The MXene structure consists of n + 1 layers of near-close packed M layers with C or N occupying the octahedral site between them in an [MX]nM arrangement. Recently, two new families of ordered 2D double transition metal carbides MXenes were discovered, M′2M′′C2 and M′2M′′2C3 – where M′ and M′′ are two different early transition metals, such as Mo, Cr, Ta, Nb, V, and Ti. The M′ atoms only occupy the outer layers and the M′′ atoms fill the middle layers. In other words, M′ atomic layers sandwich the middle M′′–C layers. Using X-ray atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis on Mo2TiC2 and Mo2Ti2C3 MXenes, we present the first quantitative analysis of structures of these novel materials and experimentally confirm that Mo atoms are in the outer layers of the [MC]nM structures. The electronic properties of these Mo-containing MXenes are compared with their Ti3C2 counterparts, and are found to be no longer metallic-like conductors; instead the resistance increases mildly with decreasing temperatures. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that OH terminated Mo–Ti MXenes are semiconductors with narrow band gaps. Measurements of the temperature dependencies of conductivities and magnetoresistances have confirmed that Mo2TiC2Tx exhibits semiconductor-like transport behavior, while Ti3C2Tx is a metal. This finding opens new avenues for the control of the electronic and optical applications of MXenes and for exploring new applications, in which semiconducting properties are required.

  7. Metal ion-specific thermal stability of bacterial S-Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobot, Bjoern; Raff, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biogeochemistry; Fahmy, Karim [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biophysics

    2016-07-01

    Many bacteria are covered by a surface layer (S-layer), i.e., a para-crystalline two-dimensional array of proteins which control cell shape, act as molecular sieves and have potential applications as radionuclide-binding material for bioremediation of polluted areas. Knowledge and control of the metal-dependent stability of the purified proteins is required for their technical application. Here, we have explored by differential scanning calorimetry the thermal stability of the S-layer protein slp-B53 from Lysinibacillus sphaericus, a Gram-positive bacterium isolated from a uranium mining waste pile [1].

  8. Single-layer dispersions of transition metal dichalcogenides in the synthesis of intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, Alexander S; Zubavichus, Yan V; Slovokhotov, Yurii L; Novikov, Yurii N

    2003-01-01

    Chemical methods for the exfoliation of transition metal dichalcogenides in a liquid medium to give single-layer dispersions containing quasi-two-dimensional layers of these compounds are surveyed. Data on the structure of dispersions and their use in the synthesis of various types of heterolayered intercalation compounds are discussed and described systematically. Structural features, the electronic structure and the physicochemical properties of the resulting intercalation compounds are considered. The potential of this method of synthesis is compared with that of traditional solid-state methods for the intercalation of layered crystals.

  9. Spectra of magnetoplasma polaritons in a semiconductor layer on a metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beletsekii, N.N.; Gasan, E.A.; Yakovenko, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The dispersion properties of volume and surface magnetoplasma polaritons in a three-layer metal-semiconductor-insulator structure are studied. It is predicted that surface magnetoplasma polaritons propagating on the two boundaries of the semiconductor layer interact resonantly. It is shown that for a certain direction of propagation the dispersion curves of surface and volume magnetoplasma polaritons contain sections with negative dispersion. Nonreciprocal propagation of volume magnetoplasma polaritons has been observed. Losses in the semiconductor layer split the starting spectral lines into dispersion curves of two types, corresponding to forward and backward waves

  10. DNA repair enzyme APE1 from evolutionarily ancient Hydra reveals redox activity exclusively found in mammalian APE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekhale, Komal; Haval, Gauri; Perween, Nusrat; Antoniali, Giulia; Tell, Gianluca; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Ghaskadbi, Saroj

    2017-11-01

    Only mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1) has been reported to possess both DNA repair and redox activities. C terminal of the protein is required for base excision repair, while the redox activity resides in the N terminal due to cysteine residues at specific positions. APE1s from other organisms studied so far lack the redox activity in spite of having the N terminal domain. We find that APE1 from the Cnidarian Hydra exhibits both endonuclease and redox activities similar to mammalian APE1. We further show the presence of the three indispensable cysteines in Hydra APE1 for redox activity by site directed mutagenesis. Importance of redox domain but not the repair domain of APE1 in regeneration has been demonstrated by using domain-specific inhibitors. Our findings clearly demonstrate that the redox function of APE1 evolved very early in metazoan evolution and is not a recent acquisition in mammalian APE1 as believed so far. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alleviation of fermi-level pinning effect at metal/germanium interface by the insertion of graphene layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Seo, Yu-Jin; Oh, Joong Gun; Albert Park, Min Gyu; Bong, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Seong Jun; Lee, Seok-Hee; Seo, Minsu; Park, Seung-young; Park, Byong-Guk

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report the alleviation of the Fermi-level pinning on metal/n-germanium (Ge) contact by the insertion of multiple layers of single-layer graphene (SLG) at the metal/n-Ge interface. A decrease in the Schottky barrier height with an increase in the number of inserted SLG layers was observed, which supports the contention that Fermi-level pinning at metal/n-Ge contact originates from the metal-induced gap states at the metal/n-Ge interface. The modulation of Schottky barrier height by varying the number of inserted SLG layers (m) can bring about the use of Ge as the next-generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor material. Furthermore, the inserted SLG layers can be used as the tunnel barrier for spin injection into Ge substrate for spin-based transistors.

  12. Layer-by-Layer Method for the Synthesis and Growth of Surface Mounted Metal-Organic Frameworks (SURMOFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shekhah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A layer-by-layer method has been developed for the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs and their deposition on functionalized organic surfaces. The approach is based on the sequential immersion of functionalized organic surfaces into solutions of the building blocks of the MOF, i.e., the organic ligand and the inorganic unit. The synthesis and growth of different types of MOFs on substrates with different functionalization, like COOH, OH and pyridine terminated surfaces, were studied and characterized with different surface characterization techniques. A controlled and highly oriented growth of very homogenous films was obtained using this method. The layer-by-layer method offered also the possibility to study the kinetics of film formation in more detail using surface plasmon resonance and quartz crystal microbalance. In addition, this method demonstrates the potential to synthesize new classes of MOFs not accessible by conventional methods. Finally, the controlled growth of MOF thin films is important for many applications like chemical sensors, membranes and related electrodes.

  13. Investigation of Selective Laser Melting Surface Alloyed Aluminium Metal Matrix Dispersive Reinforced Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamburov, V. V.; Dimitrova, R. B.; Kandeva, M. K.; Sofronov, Y. P.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the improvement of mechanical properties and in particular wear resistance of laser surface alloyed dispersive reinforced thin layers produced by selective laser melting (SLM) technology. The wear resistance investigation of aluminium matrix composite layers in the conditions of dry friction surface with abrasive particles and nanoindentation tests were carried out. The process parameters (as scan speed) and their impact on the wear resistant layers have been evaluated. The alloyed layers containing metalized SiC particles were studied by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The obtained experimental results of the laser alloyed thin layers show significant development of their wear resistance and nanohardness due to the incorporated reinforced phase of electroless nickel coated SiC particles.

  14. Scratch test induced shear banding in high power laser remelted metallic glass layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, D. T. A.; Ocelik, V.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.

    Laser remelted surface layers of a Cu-based metallic glass forming alloy have been produced with fully amorphous depths up to 350 mu m for single track widths of around 1.3 mm and have been checked by transmission of synchrotron radiation. They have been subjected to indentation hardness and scratch

  15. Sol-gel deposition of buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, Shara S.; Paranthamam, Mariappan; Beach, David B.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2000-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  16. Heat-resistant organic molecular layer as a joint interface for metal reduction on plastics surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, Jing; Aisawa, Sumio; Hirahara, Hidetoshi; Kudo, Takahiro; Mori, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ adsorption behaviors of TES on PA6 surface were clarified by QCM. • Highest adsorption of TES on PA6 was obtained in pH 3 and 0.1 M solution. • Molecular layers of TES with uniform structures were prepared on PA6 surface. • TES layer improved PA6 local heat resistance from 150 °C to 230 °C. • TES molecular layer successfully reduced Ag ion to Ag"0. - Abstract: Heat-resistant organic molecular layers have been fabricated by triazine-based silane coupling agent for metal reduction on plastic surfaces using adsorption method. These molecular layers were used as an interfacial layer between polyamide (PA6) and metal solution to reduce Ag"+ ion to Ag"0. The interfacial behaviors of triazine molecular layer at the interfaces between PA6 and Ag solution were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The kinetics of molecular adsorption on PA6 was investigated by using triazine-based silane coupling agent solutions at different pH and concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM), and local nano thermal analysis were employed to characterize the surfaces and interfaces. The nano thermal analysis results show that molecular layers of triazine-based silane coupling agent greatly improved heat resistance of PA6 resin from 170 °C up to 230 °C. This research developed an in-depth insight for molecular behaviors of triazine-based silane coupling agent at the PA6 and Ag solution interfaces and should be of significant value for interfacial research between plastics and metal solution in plating industry.

  17. Heat-resistant organic molecular layer as a joint interface for metal reduction on plastics surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Jing [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Aisawa, Sumio, E-mail: aisawa@iwate-u.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Hirahara, Hidetoshi [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Kudo, Takahiro [Sulfur Chemical Institute, 210, Collabo MIU, 4-3-5, Ueda, Morioka 020-0066 (Japan); Mori, Kunio [Department of Frontier Materials and Function Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Sulfur Chemical Institute, 210, Collabo MIU, 4-3-5, Ueda, Morioka 020-0066 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ adsorption behaviors of TES on PA6 surface were clarified by QCM. • Highest adsorption of TES on PA6 was obtained in pH 3 and 0.1 M solution. • Molecular layers of TES with uniform structures were prepared on PA6 surface. • TES layer improved PA6 local heat resistance from 150 °C to 230 °C. • TES molecular layer successfully reduced Ag ion to Ag{sup 0}. - Abstract: Heat-resistant organic molecular layers have been fabricated by triazine-based silane coupling agent for metal reduction on plastic surfaces using adsorption method. These molecular layers were used as an interfacial layer between polyamide (PA6) and metal solution to reduce Ag{sup +} ion to Ag{sup 0}. The interfacial behaviors of triazine molecular layer at the interfaces between PA6 and Ag solution were investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The kinetics of molecular adsorption on PA6 was investigated by using triazine-based silane coupling agent solutions at different pH and concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM), and local nano thermal analysis were employed to characterize the surfaces and interfaces. The nano thermal analysis results show that molecular layers of triazine-based silane coupling agent greatly improved heat resistance of PA6 resin from 170 °C up to 230 °C. This research developed an in-depth insight for molecular behaviors of triazine-based silane coupling agent at the PA6 and Ag solution interfaces and should be of significant value for interfacial research between plastics and metal solution in plating industry.

  18. Thermal Rayleigh-Marangoni convection in a three-layer liquid-metal-battery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Thomas; Boeck, Thomas; Schumacher, Jörg

    2017-05-01

    The combined effects of buoyancy-driven Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RC) and surface tension-driven Marangoni convection (MC) are studied in a triple-layer configuration which serves as a simplified model for a liquid metal battery (LMB). The three-layer model consists of a liquid metal alloy cathode, a molten salt separation layer, and a liquid metal anode at the top. Convection is triggered by the temperature gradient between the hot electrolyte and the colder electrodes, which is a consequence of the release of resistive heat during operation. We present a linear stability analysis of the state of pure thermal conduction in combination with three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear turbulent evolution on the basis of a pseudospectral method. Five different modes of convection are identified in the configuration, which are partly coupled to each other: RC in the upper electrode, RC with internal heating in the molten salt layer, and MC at both interfaces between molten salt and electrode as well as anticonvection in the middle layer and lower electrode. The linear stability analysis confirms that the additional Marangoni effect in the present setup increases the growth rates of the linearly unstable modes, i.e., Marangoni and Rayleigh-Bénard instability act together in the molten salt layer. The critical Grashof and Marangoni numbers decrease with increasing middle layer thickness. The calculated thresholds for the onset of convection are found for realistic current densities of laboratory-sized LMBs. The global turbulent heat transfer follows scaling predictions for internally heated RC. The global turbulent momentum transfer is comparable with turbulent convection in the classical Rayleigh-Bénard case. In summary, our studies show that incorporating Marangoni effects generates smaller flow structures, alters the velocity magnitudes, and enhances the turbulent heat transfer across the triple-layer configuration.

  19. Initial multi-parameter detection of atmospheric metal layers by Beijing Na–K lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Jing; Yang, Guotao; Wang, Jihong; Cheng, Xuewu; Du, Lifang; Wang, Zelong; Gong, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Beijing Na–K lidar has been started running in 2010. This lidar has two laser beams: one dye laser emits a 589-nm laser beam for Na layer detection; the other dye laser emits a 770-nm laser beam for K layer detection. Under similar conditions, the echo signal of K layer is only about 2 orders of magnitude smaller than that of Na layer. This lidar has a sufficient Signal Noise Ratio (SNR). The structure and details of potassium layer can be effectively distinguished from a single original echo. Several examples of co-observation of density of Na and K layer showed some different results with previous studies. This lidar not only can supplement the lack of Na and K layer observation at this latitude region, but also provide evidence for the atmospheric sciences and space environment monitoring. - Highlights: • Full-band dual-beam lidar at 40°N. • Detecting sodium and potassium layer simultaneously. • Providing a supplement to the study of atmospheric metal layers and evidence for atmospheric sciences and space and atmospheric sciences and space environment monitoring.

  20. Production of metal fullerene surface layer from various media in the process of steel carbonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUZEEV Iskander Rustemovich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies devoted to production of metal fullerene layer in steels when introducing carbon from organic and inorganic media were performed. Barium carbonate was used as an inorganic medium and petroleum pitch was used as an organic medium. In order to generate the required amount of fullerenes in the process of steel samples carbonization, optimal temperature mode was found. The higher temperature, absorption and cohesive effects become less important and polymeric carbon structures destruction processes become more important. On the bottom the temperature is limited by petroleum pitch softening temperature and its transition to low-viscous state in order to enhance molecular mobility and improve the possibility of their diffusion to metal surface. Identification of fullerenes in the surface modified layer was carried out following the methods of IR-Fourier spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. It was found out that nanocarbon structures, formed during carbonization in barium carbonate and petroleum pitch mediums, possess different morphology. In the process of metal carbonization from carbonates medium, the main role in fullerenes synthesis is belonged to catalytic effect of surface with generation of endohedral derivatives in the surface layer; but in the process of carbonization from pitch medium fullerenes are formed during crystallization of the latter and crystallization centers are of fullerene type. Based on theoretical data and dataof spectral and chromatographic analysis, optimal conditions of metal fullerene layer formation in barium carbonate and petroleum pitch mediums were determined. Low cohesion of layer, modified in barium carbonate medium, with metal basis was discovered. That was caused by limited carbon diffusion in the volume of α-Fe. According to the detected mechanism of fullerenes formation on steel surface in gaseous medium, fullerenes are formed on catalytic centers – ferrum atoms, forming thin metal

  1. Structure and nano-mechanical characteristics of surface oxide layers on a metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, A; Qin, C L; Gu, L; González, S; Shluger, A; Fecht, H-J; Louzguine-Luzgin, D V; Inoue, A

    2011-03-04

    Owing to their low elastic moduli, high specific strength and excellent processing characteristics in the undercooled liquid state, metallic glasses are promising materials for applications in micromechanical systems. With miniaturization of metallic mechanical components down to the micrometer scale, the importance of a native oxide layer on a glass surface is increasing. In this work we use TEM and XPS to characterize the structure and properties of the native oxide layer grown on Ni(62)Nb(38) metallic glass and their evolution after annealing in air. The thickness of the oxide layer almost doubled after annealing. In both cases the oxide layer is amorphous and consists predominantly of Nb oxide. We investigate the friction behavior at low loads and in ambient conditions (i.e. at T = 295 K and 60% air humidity) of both as-cast and annealed samples by friction force microscopy. After annealing the friction coefficient is found to have significantly increased. We attribute this effect to the increase of the mechanical stability of the oxide layer upon annealing.

  2. Solar Cycle Response and Long-Term Trends in the Mesospheric Metal Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, E. C. M.; Plane, J. M. C.; Chipperfield, M.; Feng, W.; Marsh, D. R.; Hoffner, J.; Janches, D.

    2016-01-01

    The meteoric metal layers (Na, Fe, and K) which form as a result of the ablation of incoming meteors act as unique tracers for chemical and dynamical processes that occur within the upper mesosphere lower thermosphere region. In this work, we examine whether these metal layers are sensitive Fe indicators of decadal long-term changes within the upper atmosphere. Output from a whole-atmosphere climate model is used to assess the response of the Na, K, and Fe layers across a 50 year period (1955-2005). At short timescales, the K layer has previously been shown to exhibit a very different seasonal behavior compared to the other metals. Here we show that this unusual behavior is also exhibited at longer time scales (both the 11 year solar cycle and 50 year periods), where K displays a much more pronounced response to atmospheric temperature changes than either Na or Fe. The contrasting solar cycle behavior of the K and Na layers predicted by the model is confirmed using satellite and lidar observations for the period 2004-2013.

  3. Multi-layer thin-film electrolytes for metal supported solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Markus; Ortner, Kai; Franco, Thomas; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Menzler, Norbert H.; Stöver, Detlev; Bräuer, Günter; Venskutonis, Andreas; Sigl, Lorenz S.; Buchkremer, Hans-Peter; Vaßen, Robert

    2014-06-01

    A key to the development of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (MSCs) is the manufacturing of gas-tight thin-film electrolytes, which separate the cathode from the anode. This paper focuses the electrolyte manufacturing on the basis of 8YSZ (8 mol.-% Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2). The electrolyte layers are applied by a physical vapor deposition (PVD) gas flow sputtering (GFS) process. The gas-tightness of the electrolyte is significantly improved when sequential oxidic and metallic thin-film multi-layers are deposited, which interrupt the columnar grain structure of single-layer electrolytes. Such electrolytes with two or eight oxide/metal layers and a total thickness of about 4 μm obtain leakage rates of less than 3 × 10-4 hPa dm3 s-1 cm-2 (Δp: 100 hPa) at room temperature and therefore fulfill the gas tightness requirements. They are also highly tolerant with respect to surface flaws and particulate impurities which can be present on the graded anode underground. MSC cell tests with double-layer and multilayer electrolytes feature high power densities more than 1.4 W cm-2 at 850 °C and underline the high potential of MSC cells.

  4. Studies of proximity-effect and tunneling in YBCO/metal layered films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, L.H.; Barner, J.B.; Feldmann, W.L.; Farrow, L.A.; Miceli, P.F.; Ramesh, R.; Wilkens, B.J.; Bagley, B.G.; Tarascon, J.M.; Wernick, J.H. (Bellcore, Red Bank, NJ (USA)); Giroud, M. (CRTBT-CNRS, Grenoble (France)); Rowell, J.M. (Conductus, Sunnyvale, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The short coherence length of the high-Tc superconductors, coupled with their tendency to form non-superconducting surface layers, accounts for the difficulty in achieving good tunnel junctions. A proximity layer of a longer coherence length normal metal (N) is expected to ''draw out'' Cooper pairs. Our goal is to fabricate reproducible, planar tunnel junctions of SNIS layered structures for proximity tunneling spectroscopy. Such structures of YBCO/N/I/Pb and SNS structures of YBCO/N/Pb indicate that the normal metal produces a low resistance contact to the YBCO surface with a supercurrent observed in the SNS. The insulating barrier in the SNIS is reproducible, insulating and continuous: A sharp Pb gap and phonons from the counter-electrode are routinely observed. (orig.).

  5. Studies of proximity-effect and tunneling in YBCO/metal layered films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, L.H.; Barner, J.B.; Feldmann, W.L.; Farrow, L.A.; Miceli, P.F.; Ramesh, R.; Wilkens, B.J.; Bagley, B.G.; Tarascon, J.M.; Wernick, J.H.; Giroud, M.; Rowell, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The short coherence length of the high-T c superconductors, coupled with their tendency to form non-superconducting surface layers, accounts for the difficulty in achieving good tunnel junctions. A proximity layer of a longer coherence length normal metal (N) is expected to draw out Cooper pairs. The authors' goal is to fabricate reproducible, planar tunnel junctions of SNIS layered structures for proximity tunneling spectroscopy. They discuss how such structures of YBCO/N/I/Pb and SNS structures of YBCO/N/Pb indicate that the normal metal produces a low resistance contact to the YBCO surface with a supercurrent observed in the SNS. The insulating barrier in the SNIS is reproducible, insulating and continuous: A sharp Pb gap and phonons from the counter-electrode are routinely observed

  6. Surface metal standards produced by ion implantation through a removable layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueler, B.W.; Granger, C.N.; McCaig, L.; McKinley, J.M.; Metz, J.; Mowat, I.; Reich, D.F.; Smith, S.; Stevie, F.A.; Yang, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Surface metal concentration standards were produced by ion implantation and investigated for their suitability to calibrate surface metal measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Single isotope implants were made through a 100 nm oxide layer on silicon. The implant energies were chosen to place the peak of the implanted species at a depth of 100 nm. Subsequent removal of the oxide layer was used to expose the implant peak and to produce controlled surface metal concentrations. Surface metal concentration measurements by time-of-flight SIMS (TOF-SIMS) with an analysis depth of 1 nm agreed with the expected surface concentrations of the implant standards with a relative mean standard deviation of 20%. Since the TOF-SIMS relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) were originally derived from surface metal measurements of surface contaminated silicon wafers, the agreement implies that the implant standards can be used to measure RSF values. The homogeneity of the surface metal concentration was typically <10%. The dopant dose remaining in silicon after oxide removal was measured using the surface-SIMS protocol. The measured implant dose agreed with the expected dose with a mean relative standard deviation of 25%

  7. Redox-Active Carbohydrate-Coated Nanoparticles: Self-Assembly of a Cyclodextrin-Polystyrene Glycopolymer with Tetrazine-Naphthalimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Andrew J; Haddad, Raoudha; Travelet, Christophe; Reynaud, Eric; Audebert, Pierre; Borsali, Redouane; Cosnier, Serge

    2016-11-15

    The controlled self-assembly of precise and well-defined photochemically and electrochemically active carbohydrate-coated nanoparticles offers the exciting prospect of biocompatible catalysts for energy storage/conversion and biolabeling applications. Here an aqueous nanoparticle system has been developed with a versatile outer layer for host-guest molecule encapsulation via β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes. A β-cyclodextrin-modified polystyrene polymer was first obtained by copper nanopowder click chemistry. The glycopolymer enables self-assembly and controlled encapsulation of tetrazine-naphthalimide, as a model redox-active agent, into nanoparticles via nanoprecipitation. Cyclodextrin host-guest interactions permit encapsulation and internanoparticle cross-linking for the formation of fluorescent compound and clustered self-assemblies with chemically reversible electroactivity in aqueous solution. Light scattering experiments revealed stable particles with hydrodynamic diameters of 138 and 654 nm for nanoparticles prepared with tetrazine, of which 95% of the nanoparticles represent the smaller objects by number. Dynamic light scattering revealed differences as a function of preparation method in terms of size, 3-month stability, polydispersity, radius of gyration, and shape factor. Individual self-assemblies were visualized by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy and monitored in real-time by nanoparticle tracking analysis. UV-vis and fluorescence spectra provided insight into the optical properties and critical evidence for host-guest encapsulation as evidenced by solvachromatism and enhanced tetrazine uptake. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical properties and provided further support for encapsulation and an estimate of the tetrazine loading capacity in tandem with light scattering data.

  8. MATERIAL DEPENDENCE OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN MULTI-LAYER MULTI-METAL COOKWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMADREZA SEDIGH

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Laminated structure is becoming more popular in cookware markets; however, there seems to be a lack of enough scientific studies to evaluate its pros and cons, and to show that how it functions. A numerical model using a finite element method with temperature-dependent material properties has been performed to investigate material and layer dependence of temperature distribution in multi-layer multi-metal plate exposed to irregular heating. Behavior of two parameters including mean temperature value and uniformity on the inner surface of plate under variations of thermal properties and geometrical conditions have been studied. The results indicate that conductive metals used as first layer in bi-layer plates have better thermal performance than those used in the second layer. In addition, since cookware manufacturers increasingly prefer to use all-clad aluminium plate, recently, this structure is analysed in the present study as well. The results show all-clad copper and aluminum plate possesses lower temperature gradient compared with single layer aluminum and all-clad aluminum core plates.

  9. Role of nanorods insertion layer in ZnO-based electrochemical metallization memory cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangasa Simanjuntak, Firman; Singh, Pragya; Chandrasekaran, Sridhar; Juanda Lumbantoruan, Franky; Yang, Chih-Chieh; Huang, Chu-Jie; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2017-12-01

    An engineering nanorod array in a ZnO-based electrochemical metallization device for nonvolatile memory applications was investigated. A hydrothermally synthesized nanorod layer was inserted into a Cu/ZnO/ITO device structure. Another device was fabricated without nanorods for comparison, and this device demonstrated a diode-like behavior with no switching behavior at a low current compliance (CC). The switching became clear only when the CC was increased to 75 mA. The insertion of a nanorods layer induced switching characteristics at a low operation current and improve the endurance and retention performances. The morphology of the nanorods may control the switching characteristics. A forming-free electrochemical metallization memory device having long switching cycles (>104 cycles) with a sufficient memory window (103 times) for data storage application, good switching stability and sufficient retention was successfully fabricated by adjusting the morphology and defect concentration of the inserted nanorod layer. The nanorod layer not only contributed to inducing resistive switching characteristics but also acted as both a switching layer and a cation diffusion control layer.

  10. Redox-Active Selenium Compounds—From Toxicity and Cell Death to Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sougat Misra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is generally known as an antioxidant due to its presence in selenoproteins as selenocysteine, but it is also toxic. The toxic effects of selenium are, however, strictly concentration and chemical species dependent. One class of selenium compounds is a potent inhibitor of cell growth with remarkable tumor specificity. These redox active compounds are pro-oxidative and highly cytotoxic to tumor cells and are promising candidates to be used in chemotherapy against cancer. Herein we elaborate upon the major forms of dietary selenium compounds, their metabolic pathways, and their antioxidant and pro-oxidant potentials with emphasis on cytotoxic mechanisms. Relative cytotoxicity of inorganic selenite and organic selenocystine compounds to different cancer cells are presented as evidence to our perspective. Furthermore, new novel classes of selenium compounds specifically designed to target tumor cells are presented and the potential of selenium in modern oncology is extensively discussed.

  11. Redox-active cerium oxide nanoparticles protect human dermal fibroblasts from PQ-induced damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia von Montfort

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been published that cerium (Ce oxide nanoparticles (CNP; nanoceria are able to downregulate tumor invasion in cancer cell lines. Redox-active CNP exhibit both selective pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties, the first being responsible for impairment of tumor growth and invasion. A non-toxic and even protective effect of CNP in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF has already been observed. However, the effect on important parameters such as cell death, proliferation and redox state of the cells needs further clarification. Here, we present that nanoceria prevent HDF from reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced cell death and stimulate proliferation due to the antioxidative property of these particles.

  12. Highly sensitive multi-layer pressure sensor with an active nanostructured layer of an organic molecular metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laukhin, V; Lebedev, V; Laukhina, E; Rovira, C; Veciana, J

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses to the modern technologies that need to be instrumented with lightweight highly sensitive pressure sensors. The paper presents the development of a new plain flexible thin pressure sensor using a nanostructured layer of the highly sensitive organic piezoresistive metal β-(BEDT-TTF) 2 I 3 as an active component; BEDT-TTF=bis (ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene. The original construction approach permits one to operate the developed sensor on the principle of electrical resistance variations when its piezoresistive layer is elongated under a pressure increase. The pressure sensing element and a set of gold electrodes were integrated into one compact multi-layer design. The construction was optimized to enable one generic design for pressure ranges from 1 to 400 bar. The pressure tests showed that the sensor is able to control a small pressure change as a well definite electrical signal. So the developed type of the sensors is very attractive as a new generation of compact, lightweight, low-cost sensors that might monitor pressure with a good level of measurement accuracy. (paper)

  13. Synthesizing new types of ultrathin 2D metal oxide nanosheets via half-successive ion layer adsorption and reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linjie; Li, Yaguang; Xiao, Mu; Wang, Shufang; Fu, Guangsheng; Wang, Lianzhou

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) metal oxide nanosheets have demonstrated their great potential in a broad range of applications. The existing synthesis strategies are mainly preparing 2D nanosheets from layered and specific transition metal oxides. How to prepare the other types of metal oxides as ultrathin 2D nanosheets remains unsolved, especially for metal oxides containing alkali, alkaline earth metal, and multiple metal elements. Herein, we developed a half-successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, which could synthesize those types of metal oxides as ultrathin 2D nanosheets. The synthesized 2D metal oxides nanosheets are within 1 nm level thickness and 500 m2 · g-1 level surface area. This method allows us to develop many new types of ultrathin 2D metal oxides nanosheets that have never been prepared before.

  14. Formation of nanocrystalline surface layers in various metallic materials by near surface severe plastic deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Sato, Nobuhiro Tsuji, Yoritoshi Minamino and Yuichiro Koizumi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface of the various kinds of metallic materials sheets were severely deformed by wire-brushing at ambient temperature to achieve nanocrystalline surface layer. The surface layers of the metallic materials developed by the near surface severe plastic deformation (NS-SPD were characterized by means of TEM. Nearly equiaxed nanocrystals with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 200 nm were observed in the near surface regions of all the severely scratched metallic materials, which are Ti-added ultra-low carbon interstitial free steel, austenitic stainless steel (SUS304, 99.99 wt.%Al, commercial purity aluminum (A1050 and A1100, Al–Mg alloy (A5083, Al-4 wt.%Cu alloy, OFHC-Cu (C1020, Cu–Zn alloy (C2600 and Pb-1.5%Sn alloy. In case of the 1050-H24 aluminum, the depth of the surface nanocrystalline layer was about 15 μm. It was clarified that wire-brushing is an effective way of NS-SPD, and surface nanocrystallization can be easily achieved in most of metallic materials.

  15. Exchange coupling in metallic multilayers with a top FeRh layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S., E-mail: yamada@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kanashima, T.; Hamaya, K., E-mail: hamaya@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-8531 (Japan); Tanikawa, K. [Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Hirayama, J. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-8531 (Japan); Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Taniyama, T. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We study magnetic properties of metallic multilayers with FeRh/ferromagnet interfaces grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Room-temperature coercivity of the ferromagnetic layers is significantly enhanced after the growth of FeRh, proving the existence of the exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic FeRh layer and the ferromagnetic layer. However, exchange bias is not clearly observed probably due to the presence of disordered structures, which result from the lattice strain at the FeRh/ferromagnet interfaces due to the lattice mismatch. We infer that the lattice matched interface between FeRh and ferromagnetic layers is a key parameter for controlling magnetic switching fields in such multilayer systems.

  16. Growth of micrometric oxide layers to explore laser decontamination of metallic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in terms of hazard level, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop safe techniques for dismantling and for decontamination, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. In this paper we propose a method for the creation of oxide layers on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu as contaminant. This technique consists in spraying an Eu-solution on stainless steel samples. The specimens are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser after which the steel samples are placed in a 873 K furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, as well as by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm–4.5 μm depending on the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides had a ‘duplex structure’ with a mean concentration of the order of 6 × 1016 atoms/cm2 (15 μg/cm2 of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevented the oxide growth in the furnace. Nevertheless, the presence of the contamination had no impact on the thickness of the oxide layers obtained by preliminary laser treatment. These oxide layers were used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  17. Micro-layers of polystyrene film preventing metal oxidation: implications in cultural heritage conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambi, Francesca; Carretti, Emiliano; Dei, Luigi; Baglioni, Piero

    2014-12-01

    Protection of surfaces directly exposed to the detrimental action of degradative agents (i.e. oxygen, air pollutants and bacteria) is one of the most important challenges in the field of conservation of works of art. Metallic objects are subjected to specific surface corrosion phenomena that, over the years, make mandatory the research of innovative materials that should avoid the direct contact between the metal surface and the weathering agents. In this paper, the set-up, characterisation and application of a new reversible material for preserving metal artefacts are reported. Micro-layers constituted of low-adhesive polystyrene (PS) films obtained from recycling waste packaging materials made of expanded PS were studied. The morphology and thickness of PS films were characterised by optical, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A further check on thickness was carried out by means of visible spectrophotometry doping the films with a hydrophobic dye. Thermal properties of the PS micro-layers were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry coupled with optical microscopy. Permeability of the PS films to water vapour was also determined. The potential of the low-adhesive PS films, that enabled an easy removal in case of film deterioration, for preventing metal oxidation was investigated on brass specimens by simulating standard artificial corrosion programmes. Morphological and chemical (coupling the energy-dispersive X-rays spectrometry to SEM measurements) analyses carried out on these metal samples showed promising results in terms of surface protection against corrosion.

  18. Post-assembly transformations of porphyrin-containing metal-organic framework (MOF) films fabricated via automated layer-by-layer coordination

    KAUST Repository

    So, Monica; Beyzavi, M. Hassan; Sawhney, Rohan; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Al-Juaid, Salih Salem; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we demonstrate the robustness of layer-by-layer (LbL)-assembled, pillared-paddlewheel-type MOF films toward conversion to new or modified MOFs via solvent-assisted linker exchange (SALE) and post-assembly linker metalation. Further, we show that LbL synthesis can afford MOFs that have proven inaccessible through other de novo strategies.

  19. Magnetic field dependence of the superconducting proximity effect in a two atomic layer thin metallic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caminale, Michael; Leon Vanegas, Augusto A.; Stepniak, Agnieszka; Oka, Hirofumi; Fischer, Jeison A.; Sander, Dirk; Kirschner, Juergen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The intriguing possibility to induce superconductivity in a metal, in direct contact with a superconductor, is under renewed interest for applications and for fundamental aspects. The underlying phenomenon is commonly known as proximity effect. In this work we exploit the high spatial resolution of scanning tunneling spectroscopy at sub-K temperatures and in magnetic fields. We probe the differential conductance along a line from a superconducting 9 ML high Pb nanoisland into the surrounding two layer thin Pb/Ag wetting layer on a Si(111) substrate. A gap in the differential conductance indicates superconductivity of the Pb island. We observe an induced gap in the wetting layer, which decays with increasing distance from the Pb island. This proximity length is 21 nm at 0.38 K and 0 T. We find a non-trivial dependence of the proximity length on magnetic field. Surprisingly, we find that the magnetic field does not affect the induced superconductivity up to 0.3 T. However, larger fields of 0.6 T suppress superconductivity in the wetting layer, where the Pb island still remains superconducting. We discuss the unexpected robustness of induced superconductivity in view of the high electronic diffusivity in the metallic wetting layer.

  20. Microstructures and properties of ceramic particle-reinforced metal matrix composite layers produced by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingmao; He, Jingjiang; Liu, Wenjin; Zhong, Minlin

    2005-01-01

    Different weight ratio of titanium, zirconium, WC and Fe-based alloy powders were mixed, and cladded onto a medium carbon steel substrate using a 3kW continuous wave CO2 laser, aiming at producing Ceramic particles- reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) layers. The microstructures of the layers are typical hypoeutectic, and the major phases are Ni3Si2, TiSi2, Fe3C, FeNi, MC, Fe7Mo3, Fe3B, γ(residual austenite) and M(martensite). The microstructure morphologies of MMCs layers are dendrites/cells. The MC-type reinforcements are in situ synthesis Carbides which main compositions consist of transition elements Zr, Ti, W. The MC-type particles distributed within dendrite and interdendritic regions with different volume fractions for single and overlapping clad layers. The MMCs layers are dense and free of cracks with a good metallurgical bonding between the layer and substrate. The addition ratio of WC in the mixtures has the remarkable effect on the microhardness of clad layers.

  1. Origin of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouzhong; Wang, Mengxing; Yang, Hongxin; Zeng, Lang; Nan, Jiang; Zhou, Jiaqi; Zhang, Youguang; Hallal, Ali; Chshiev, Mairbek; Wang, Kang L; Zhang, Qianfan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2015-12-11

    Spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) attracts extensive attentions due to its non-volatility, high density and low power consumption. The core device in STT-MRAM is CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), which possesses a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio as well as a large value of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). It has been experimentally proven that a capping layer coating on CoFeB layer is essential to obtain a strong PMA. However, the physical mechanism of such effect remains unclear. In this paper, we investigate the origin of the PMA in MgO/CoFe/metallic capping layer structures by using a first-principles computation scheme. The trend of PMA variation with different capping materials agrees well with experimental results. We find that interfacial PMA in the three-layer structures comes from both the MgO/CoFe and CoFe/capping layer interfaces, which can be analyzed separately. Furthermore, the PMAs in the CoFe/capping layer interfaces are analyzed through resolving the magnetic anisotropy energy by layer and orbital. The variation of PMA with different capping materials is attributed to the different hybridizations of both d and p orbitals via spin-orbit coupling. This work can significantly benefit the research and development of nanoscale STT-MRAM.

  2. Metal Surface Modification for Obtaining Nano- and Sub-Nanostructured Protective Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledovskykh, Volodymyr; Vyshnevska, Yuliya; Brazhnyk, Igor; Levchenko, Sergiy

    2017-03-01

    Regularities of the phase protective layer formation in multicomponent systems involving inhibitors with different mechanism of protective action have been investigated. It was shown that optimization of the composition of the inhibition mixture allows to obtain higher protective efficiency owing to improved microstructure of the phase layer. It was found that mechanism of the film formation in the presence of NaNO2-PHMG is due to deposition of slightly soluble PHMG-Fe complexes on the metal surface. On the basis of the proposed mechanism, the advanced surface engineering methods for obtaining nanoscaled and sub-nanostructured functional coatings may be developed.

  3. Multiple layered metallic nanostructures for strong surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Ming; Xie, Ya-Hong; Qiao Kuan; Cheng Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic study on a practical way of patterning metallic nanostructures to achieve high surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) enhancement factors (EFs) and high hot-spot density. By simply superimposing a 1-layer Au nanotriangle array on another to form a multilayer nanotriangle array, the SERS signal can be enhanced by 2 orders of magnitude compared with a 1-layer nanotriangle array. The drastic increases in the SERS EF and the hot spot density of the multilayer Au nanotriangle array are due to the increase in the number of gaps formed between Au nanotriangles and the decrease of the gap width. (author)

  4. Diffusion barrier performance of novel Ti/TaN double layers for Cu metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.M.; He, M.Z.; Xie, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel Ti/TaN double layers offering good stability as a barrier against Cu metallization have been made achievable by annealing in vacuum. • The Ti/TaN double layers improved the adhesion with Cu thin films and showed good diffusion barrier between Cu and SiO 2 /Si up to the annealing condition. • The failure mechanism of Ti/TaN bi-layer is similar with the Cu/TaN/Si metallization system in which Cu atoms diffuse through the grain boundary of barrier and react with silicon to form Cu 3 Si. - Abstract: Novel Ti/TaN double layers offering good stability as a barrier against Cu metallization have been made achievable by annealing in vacuum better than 1 × 10 −3 Pa. Ti/TaN double layers were formed on SiO 2 /Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering and then the properties of Cu/Ti/TaN/SiO 2 /Si film stacks were studied. It was found that the Ti/TaN double layers provide good diffusion barrier between Cu and SiO 2 /Si up to 750 °C for 30 min. The XRD, Auger and EDS results show that the Cu–Si compounds like Cu 3 Si were formed by Cu diffusion through Ti/TaN barrier for the 800 °C annealed samples. It seems that the improved diffusion barrier property of Cu/Ti/TaN/SiO 2 /Si stack is due to the diffusion of nitrogen along the grain boundaries in Ti layer, which would decrease the defects in Ti film and block the diffusion path for Cu diffusion with increasing annealing temperature. The failure mechanism of Ti/TaN bi-layer is similar to the Cu/TaN/Si metallization system in which Cu atoms diffuse through the grain boundary of barrier and react with silicon to form Cu 3 Si

  5. Numerical simulation of a metal corrosion for a point defect for a organic protection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrin-Ul, Ch.; Chausse, A.; Stafiej, J.; Badiali, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The safety of radioactive wastes disposal requires a big knowledge on their aging facing a corrosive environment. The corrosion is a complex phenomenon which implies many processes bound to the physic and the chemistry of the system. This approach proposes, from a little number of simple processes, numerical simulation which will define theses complex phenomenon. The presented model is a 2 dimension model at a mesoscopic scale and based on cellular automates. It allows the simulation of a metal evolution, protected by a polymer layer and in contact at one point with a corrosive media at a defect of the layer. (A.L.B.)

  6. Thermal diffusivity of a metallic thin layer using the time-domain thermo reflectance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, J-L; Kusiak, A; Rossignol, C; Chigarev, N

    2007-01-01

    The time domain thermo reflectance (TDTR) is widely used in the field of acoustic and thermal characterization of thin layers at the nano and micro scale. In this paper, we propose to derive a simple analytical expression of the thermal diffusivity of the layer. This relation is based on the analytical solution of one-dimensional heat transfer in the medium using integral transforms. For metals, the two-temperature model shows that the capacitance effect at the short times is essentially governed by the electronic contribution

  7. Thermodynamic aspects of the electron transfer across the interface between water and a hydrophobic redox-active ionic liquid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Samec, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 58, - (2011), s. 606-613 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/0707; GA ČR GAP206/10/1231 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : redox-active ionic liquid * membrane * cyclic voltammetry Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.832, year: 2011

  8. Synthesis, structural characterisation and bonding in an anionic hexavanadate bearing redox-active ferrocenyl groups at the periphery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schulz, J.; Gyepes, Robert; Císařová, I.; Štěpnička, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 12 (2010), s. 2749-2756 ISSN 1144-0546 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : synthesis * redox-active ferrocenyl groups * ferrocene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.631, year: 2010

  9. Strategies for "wiring" redox-active proteins to electrodes and applications in biosensors, biofuel cells, and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöll, Tanja; Nöll, Gilbert

    2011-07-01

    In this tutorial review the basic approaches to establish electrochemical communication between redox-active proteins and electrodes are elucidated and examples for applications in electrochemical biosensors, biofuel cells and nanotechnology are presented. The early stage of protein electrochemistry is described giving a short overview over electron transfer (ET) between electrodes and proteins, followed by a brief introduction into experimental procedures for studying proteins at electrodes and possible applications arising thereof. The article starts with discussing the electrochemistry of cytochrome c, the first redox-active protein, for which direct reversible ET was obtained, under diffusion controlled conditions and after adsorption to electrodes. Next, examples for the electrochemical study of redox enzymes adsorbed on electrodes and modes of immobilization are discussed. Shortly the experimental approach for investigating redox-active proteins adsorbed on electrodes is outlined. Possible applications of redox enzymes in electrochemical biosensors and biofuel cells working by direct ET (DET) and mediated ET (MET) are presented. Furthermore, the reconstitution of redox active proteins at electrodes using molecular wire-like units in order to "wire" the proteins to the electrode surface and possible applications in nanotechnology are discussed.

  10. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luisa; Pacquentin, Wilfried; Tabarant, Michel; Maskrot, Hicham; Semerok, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu) as contaminant marker. In this method, an Eu-solution is sprayed on the stainless steel samples. The specimen are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser and secondly the steel samples are exposed to a 600°C furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer are analysed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, and by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm to 4.5 μm regarding to the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides have a `duplex structure' with a mean weight percentage of 0.5% of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevents the oxide growth by furnace but has no impact on laser heating. These oxide layers are used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  11. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu as contaminant marker. In this method, an Eu-solution is sprayed on the stainless steel samples. The specimen are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser and secondly the steel samples are exposed to a 600°C furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer are analysed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, and by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm to 4.5 μm regarding to the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides have a ‘duplex structure’ with a mean weight percentage of 0.5% of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevents the oxide growth by furnace but has no impact on laser heating. These oxide layers are used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and application of two-dimensional layered metal hydroxides for environmental remediation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machingauta, Cleopas

    Two-dimensional layered nano composites, which include layered double hydroxides (LDHs), hydroxy double salts (HDSs) and layered hydroxide salts (LHSs) are able to intercalate different molecular species within their gallery space. These materials have a tunable structural composition which has made them applicable as fire retardants, adsorbents, catalysts, catalyst support materials, and ion exchangers. Thermal treatment of these materials results in destruction of the layers and formation of mixed metal oxides (MMOs) and spinels. MMOs have the ability to adsorb anions from solution and may also regenerate layered structures through a phenomenon known as memory effect. Zinc-nickel hydroxy nitrate was used for the uptake of a series of halogenated acetates (HAs). HAs are pollutants introduced into water systems as by-products of water chlorination and pesticide degradation; their sequestration from water is thus crucial. Optimization of layered materials for controlled uptake requires an understanding of their ion-exchange kinetics and thermodynamics. Exchange kinetics of these anions was monitored using ex-situ PXRD, UV-vis, HPLC and FTIR. It was revealed that exchange rates and uptake efficiencies are related to electronic spatial extents and the charge on carboxyl-oxygen atoms. In addition, acetate and nitrate-based HDSs were used to explore how altering the hydroxide layer affects uptake of acetate/nitrate ions. Changing the metal identities affects the interaction of the anions with the layers. From FTIR, we observed that nitrates coordinate in a D3h and Cs/C 2v symmetry; the nitrates in D3h symmetry were easily exchangeable. Interlayer hydrogen bonding was also revealed to be dependent on metal identity. Substituting divalent cations with trivalent cations produces materials with a higher charge density than HDSs and LHSs. A comparison of the uptake efficiency of zinc-aluminum, zinc-gallium and zinc-nickel hydroxy nitrates was performed using trichloroacetic

  13. Photo-modulation of the spin Hall conductivity of mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Parijat; Bellotti, Enrico [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-05-23

    We report on a possible optical tuning of the spin Hall conductivity in mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides. Light beams of frequencies much higher than the energy scale of the system (the off-resonant condition) do not excite electrons but rearrange the band structure. The rearrangement is quantitatively established using the Floquet formalism. For such a system of mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, the spin Hall conductivity (calculated with the Kubo expression in presence of disorder) exhibits a drop at higher frequencies and lower intensities. Finally, we compare the spin Hall conductivity of the higher spin-orbit coupled WSe{sub 2} to MoS{sub 2}; the spin Hall conductivity of WSe{sub 2} was found to be larger.

  14. Melt layer erosion of metallic armour targets during off-normal events in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylev, B.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    Melt layer erosion by melt motion is the dominating erosion mechanism for metallic armours under high heat loads. A 1-D fluid dynamics simulation model for calculation of melt motion was developed and validated against experimental results for tungsten from the e-beam facility JEBIS and beryllium from the e-beam facility JUDITH. The driving force in each case is the gradient of the surface tension. Due to the high velocity which develops in the Be melt considerable droplet splashing occurs

  15. Melt layer erosion of metallic armour targets during off-normal events in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazylev, B.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-12-01

    Melt layer erosion by melt motion is the dominating erosion mechanism for metallic armours under high heat loads. A 1-D fluid dynamics simulation model for calculation of melt motion was developed and validated against experimental results for tungsten from the e-beam facility JEBIS and beryllium from the e-beam facility JUDITH. The driving force in each case is the gradient of the surface tension. Due to the high velocity which develops in the Be melt considerable droplet splashing occurs.

  16. Transient heat transfer phenomena of the liquid metal layer cooled by overlying R113 coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. S.; Seo, K. R.; Jung, C. H.; Park, R. J.; Kim, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    To understand the fundamental relationship of the natural convection heat transfer in the molten metal pool and the boiling mechanism of the overlying coolant, experiments were performed for the transient heat transfer of the liquid metal pool with overlying R113 coolant with boiling. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 deg C. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and the coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. Tests were conducted by changing the bottom surface boundary condition. The bottom heating condition was varied from 8kW to 14kW. As a result the boiling mechanism of the R113 coolant is changed from the nuclear boiling to film boiling. The Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region obtained as functions of time. Analysis was made for the relationship between the heat flux and the temperature difference of the metal layer surface temperature and the boiling coolant bulk temperature

  17. Prediction of transmittance spectra for transparent composite electrodes with ultra-thin metal layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhao; Alford, T. L., E-mail: TA@asu.edu [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Khorasani, Arash Elhami [ON Semiconductor Corp., Phoenix, Arizona 85005 (United States); Theodore, N. D. [CHD-Fab, Freescale Semiconductor Inc., Tempe, Arizona 85224 (United States); Dhar, A. [Intel Corp., 2501 NW 229th Ave, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    Recent interest in indium-free transparent composite-electrodes (TCEs) has motivated theoretical and experimental efforts to better understand and enhance their electrical and optical properties. Various tools have been developed to calculate the optical transmittance of multilayer thin-film structures based on the transfer-matrix method. However, the factors that affect the accuracy of these calculations have not been investigated very much. In this study, two sets of TCEs, TiO{sub 2}/Au/TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/Ag/TiO{sub 2}, were fabricated to study the factors that affect the accuracy of transmittance predictions. We found that the predicted transmittance can deviate significantly from measured transmittance for TCEs that have ultra-thin plasmonic metal layers. The ultrathin metal layer in the TCE is typically discontinuous. When light interacts with the metallic islands in this discontinuous layer, localized surface plasmons are generated. This causes extra light absorption, which then leads to the actual transmittance being lower than the predicted transmittance.

  18. Design technology co-optimization for 14/10nm metal1 double patterning layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yingli; Su, Xiaojing; Chen, Ying; Su, Yajuan; Shao, Feng; Zhang, Recco; Lei, Junjiang; Wei, Yayi

    2016-03-01

    Design and technology co-optimization (DTCO) can satisfy the needs of the design, generate robust design rule, and avoid unfriendly patterns at the early stage of design to ensure a high level of manufacturability of the product by the technical capability of the present process. The DTCO methodology in this paper includes design rule translation, layout analysis, model validation, hotspots classification and design rule optimization mainly. The correlation of the DTCO and double patterning (DPT) can optimize the related design rule and generate friendlier layout which meets the requirement of the 14/10nm technology node. The experiment demonstrates the methodology of DPT-compliant DTCO which is applied to a metal1 layer from the 14/10nm node. The DTCO workflow proposed in our job is an efficient solution for optimizing the design rules for 14/10 nm tech node Metal1 layer. And the paper also discussed and did the verification about how to tune the design rule of the U-shape and L-shape structures in a DPT-aware metal layer.

  19. Single-Layer Limit of Metallic Indium Overlayers on Si(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Whan; Kang, Myung Ho

    2016-09-09

    Density-functional calculations are used to identify one-atom-thick metallic In phases grown on the Si(111) surface, which have long been sought in quest of the ultimate two-dimensional (2D) limit of metallic properties. We predict two metastable single-layer In phases, one sqrt[7]×sqrt[3] phase with a coverage of 1.4 monolayer (ML; here 1 ML refers to one In atom per top Si atom) and the other sqrt[7]×sqrt[7] phase with 1.43 ML, which indeed agree with experimental evidences. Both phases reveal quasi-1D arrangements of protruded In atoms, leading to 2D-metallic but anisotropic band structures and Fermi surfaces. This directional feature contrasts with the free-electron-like In-overlayer properties that are known to persist up to the double-layer thickness, implying that the ultimate 2D limit of In overlayers may have been achieved in previous studies of double-layer In phases.

  20. Synthesis, DNA Cleavage Activity, Cytotoxicity, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition, and Acute Murine Toxicity of Redox-Active Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatrash, Nagham; Narh, Eugenia S; Yadav, Abhishek; Kim, Mahn-Jong; Janaratne, Thamara; Gabriel, James; MacDonnell, Frederick M

    2017-07-06

    Four mononuclear [(L-L) 2 Ru(tatpp)] 2+ and two dinuclear [(L-L) 2 Ru(tatpp)Ru(L-L) 2 ] 4+ ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes (RPCs) containing the 9,11,20,22-tetraazatetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-l:2''',3'''-n]pentacene (tatpp) ligand were synthesized, in which L-L is a chelating diamine ligand such as 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Me 4 phen) or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Ph 2 phen). These Ru-tatpp analogues all undergo reduction reactions with modest reducing agents, such as glutathione (GSH), at pH 7. These, plus several structurally related but non-redox-active RPCs, were screened for DNA cleavage activity, cytotoxicity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, and acute mouse toxicity, and their activities were examined with respect to redox activity and lipophilicity. All of the redox-active RPCs show single-strand DNA cleavage in the presence of GSH, whereas none of the non-redox-active RPCs do. Low-micromolar cytotoxicity (IC 50 ) against malignant H358, CCL228, and MCF7 cultured cell lines was mainly restricted to the redox-active RPCs; however, they were substantially less toxic toward nonmalignant MCF10 cells. The IC 50 values for AChE inhibition in cell-free assays and the acute toxicity of RPCs in mice revealed that whereas most RPCs show potent inhibitory action against AChE (IC 50 values <15 μm), Ru-tatpp complexes as a class are surprisingly well tolerated in animals relative to other RPCs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Thin-film composite materials as a dielectric layer for flexible metal-insulator-metal capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Jitendra N; Meena, Jagan Singh; Wu, Chung-Shu; Tiwari, Rajanish N; Chu, Min-Ching; Chang, Feng-Chih; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2010-09-24

    A new organic-organic nanoscale composite thin-film (NCTF) dielectric has been synthesized by solution deposition of 1-bromoadamantane and triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123, BASF, EO20-PO70-EO20), in which the precursor solution has been achieved with organic additives. We have used a sol-gel process to make a metal-insulator-metal capacitor (MIM) comprising a nanoscale (10 nm-thick) thin-film on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate at room temperature. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope revealed that the deposited NCTFs were crack-free, uniform, highly resistant to moisture absorption, and well adhered on the Au-Cr/PI. The electrical properties of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF were characterized by dielectric constant, capacitance, and leakage current measurements. The 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF on the PI substrate showed a low leakage current density of 5.5 x 10(-11) A cm(-2) and good capacitance of 2.4 fF at 1 MHz. In addition, the calculated dielectric constant of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF was 1.9, making them suitable candidates for use in future flexible electronic devices as a stable intermetal dielectric. The electrical insulating properties of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF have been improved due to the optimized dipole moments of the van der Waals interactions.

  2. Thin layer activation : on-line monitoring of metal loss in process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, L.H.; Wallace, G.

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion and wear of metals is a common cause of failure in some process plant and equipment. Monitoring of these destructive effects has been done for many years to help plant engineers minimise the damage, in order to avoid unexpected failures and unscheduled shutdowns. Traditional methods of monitoring, such as standard NDT techniques, inform the engineer of what has happened, providing data such as culmulative loss of wall thickness. The modern approach to monitoring however, is to employ a technique which gives both current loss rates as well as integrated losses. Thin Layer Activation (TLA) provides on-line monitoring of corrosion, erosion and wear of metals, to a high degree of accuracy. It also gives cumulative information which can be backed up with weight-loss results if required. Thus current rather than historical loss rates are measured before any significant loss of metal has occurred. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  3. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  4. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C.; Feenstra, Randall M.; Shih, Chih Kang

    2015-01-01

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  5. Neutron scattering investigation of layer-bending modes in alkali-metal--graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabel, H.; Kamitakahara, W.A.; Nicklow, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    Phonon dispersion curves for low-frequency transverse modes propagating in the basal plane have been measured in the alkali-metal--graphite intercalation compounds KC 8 , CsC 8 , KC 24 , and RbC 24 by means of neutron spectroscopy. The acoustic branches show an almost quadratic dispersion relation at small q, characteristic of strongly layered materials. The optical branches of stage-1 compounds can be classified as either graphitelike branches showing dispersion, or as almost dispersionless alkali-metal-like modes. Macroscopic shear constants C 44 and layer-bending moduli have been obtained for the intercalation compounds by analyzing the data in terms of a simple semicontinuum model. In stage-2 compounds, a dramatic softening of the shear constant by about a factor of 8 compared with pure graphite has been observed. Low-temperature results on KC 24 indicate the opening of a frequency gap near the alkali-metal Brillouin-zone boundary, possibly due to the formation of the alkali-metal superstructure

  6. Solid-state chelation of metal ions by ethylenediaminetetraacetate intercalated in a layered double hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Konstantin A; O'Hare, Dermot; Isupov, Vitaly P

    2003-03-24

    The solid-state chelation of transition metal ions (Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Cu(2+)) from aqueous solutions into the lithium aluminum layered double hydroxide ([LiAl(2)(OH)(6)]Cl x 0.5H(2)O or LDH) which has been pre-intercalated with EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate) ligand has been investigated. The intercalated metal cations form [M(edta)](2)(-) complexes between the LDH layers as indicated by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and IR and UV-vis spectroscopies. If metal chloride or nitrate salts are used in the reaction with the LDH then co-intercalation of either the Cl(-) or NO(3)(-) anions is observed. In the case of metal acetate salts the cations intercalate without the accompanying anion. This can be explained by the different intercalation selectivity of the anions in relation to the LDH. In the latter case the introduction of the positive charge into LDH structure was compensated for by the release from the solid of the equivalent quantity of lithium and hydrogen cations. Time-resolved in-situ X-ray diffraction measurements have revealed that the chelation/intercalation reactions proceed very quickly. The rate of the reaction found for nickel acetate depends on concentration as approximately k[Ni(Ac)(2)](3).

  7. Metallization of ion beam synthesized Si/3C-SiC/Si layer systems by high-dose implantation of transition metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, J.K.N.; Wenzel, S.; Stritzker, B.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of metal silicide layers contacting an ion beam synthesized buried 3C-SiC layer in silicon by means of high-dose titanium and molybdenum implantations is reported. Two different strategies to form such contact layers are explored. The titanium implantation aims to convert the Si top layer of an epitaxial Si/SiC/Si layer sequence into TiSi 2 , while Mo implantations were performed directly into the SiC layer after selectively etching off all capping layers. Textured and high-temperature stable C54-TiSi 2 layers with small additions of more metal-rich silicides are obtained in the case of the Ti implantations. Mo implantations result in the formation of the high-temperature phase β-MoSi 2 , which also grows textured on the substrate. The formation of cavities in the silicon substrate at the lower SiC/Si interface due to the Si consumption by the growing silicide phase is observed in both cases. It probably constitutes a problem, occurring whenever thin SiC films on silicon have to be contacted by silicide forming metals independent of the deposition technique used. It is shown that this problem can be solved with ion beam synthesized contact layers by proper adjustment of the metal ion dose

  8. Effect of biomolecules adsorption on oxide layers developed on metallic materials used in cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Bautista, Blanca-Estela

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was carried out in the frame of the BIOCOR ITN European project, in collaboration with the industrial partner RSE S.p.A. (Italy). Metallic materials commonly used in cooling systems of power plants may be affected by bio-corrosion induced by biofilm formation. The objective of this work was to study the influence of biomolecules adsorption, which is the initial stage of biofilm formation, on the electrochemical behaviour and the surface chemical composition of three metallic materials (70Cu-30Ni alloy, 304L stainless steel and titanium) in seawater environments. In a first step, the interactions between a model protein, the bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the surface of these materials were investigated. Secondly, tightly bound (TB) and loosely bound (LB) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), that play a fundamental role in the different stages of biofilm formation, maturation and maintenance, were extracted from Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021 marine strain, and their effects on oxide layers were also evaluated. For that purpose, electrochemical measurements (corrosion potential E(corr) vs time, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) performed during the very first steps of oxide layers formation (1 h immersion time) were combined to surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ions mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Compared to 70Cu-30Ni alloy in static artificial seawater (ASW) without biomolecules, for which a thick duplex oxide layer (outer redeposited Cu 2 O layer and inner oxidized nickel layer) is shown, the presence of BSA, TB EPS and LB EPS leads to a mixed oxide layer (oxidized copper and nickel) with a lower thickness. In the biomolecules-containing solutions, this oxide layer is covered by an adsorbed organic layer, mainly composed of proteins. A model is proposed to analyse impedance data obtained at E(corr). The results show a slow-down of the anodic reaction in the presence

  9. Melt layer macroscopic erosion of tungsten and other metals under plasma heat loads simulating ITER off-normal events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garkusha, I.E.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Kulik, N.V.; Landman, I.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is focused on experimental analysis of metal layer erosion and droplet splashing of tungsten and other metals under heat loads typical for ITER FEAT off-normal events,such as disruptions and VDE's. Plasma pressure gradient action on melt layer results in erosion crater formation with mountains of displaced material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten damage. Weight loss measurements of all exposed materials demonstrate inessential contribution of evaporation process to metals erosion

  10. Micro-EDXRF surface analyses of a bronze spear head: Lead content in metal and corrosion layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, E.; Valerio, P.; Araujo, M.F.; Senna-Martinez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    A bronze spear head from Central Portugal dated to Late Bronze Age has been analyzed by non-destructive micro-EDXRF in the metal surface and corrosion layers. The artifact had previously been analyzed using a conventional EDXRF spectrometer having a larger incident beam. The quantification of the micro-EDXRF analyses showed that lead content in corrosion layers can reach values up to four times higher than the content determined in the metal surface. Results obtained with the higher energy incident beam from the EDXRF equipment, although referring mainly to the corrosion layers, seem to suffer some influence from the surface composition of the metallic alloy

  11. Electronic transport and dielectric properties of low-dimensional structures of layered transition metal dichalcogenides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok.1777@yahoo.com; Ahluwalia, P.K., E-mail: pk_ahluwalia7@yahoo.com

    2014-02-25

    Graphical abstract: We present electronic transport and dielectric response of layered transition metal dichalcogenides nanowires and nanoribbons. Illustration 1: Conductance (G) and corresponding local density of states(LDOS) for LTMDs wires at applied bias. I–V characterstics are shown in lowermost panels. Highlights: • The studied configurations show metallic/semiconducting nature. • States around the Fermi energy are mainly contributed by the d orbitals of metal atoms. • The studied configurations show non-linear current–voltage (I–V) characteristics. • Additional plasmonic features at low energy have been observed for both wires and ribbons. • Dielectric functions for both wires and ribbons are anisotropic (isotropic) at low (high) energy range. -- Abstract: We present first principle study of the electronic transport and dielectric properties of nanowires and nanoribbons of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (LTMDs), MX{sub 2} (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te). The studied configuration shows metallic/semiconducting nature and the states around the Fermi energy are mainly contributed by the d orbitals of metal atoms. Zero-bias transmission show 1G{sub 0} conductance for the ribbons of MoS{sub 2} and WS{sub 2}; 2G{sub 0} conductance for MoS{sub 2}, WS{sub 2}, WSe{sub 2} wires, and ribbons of MoTe{sub 2} and WTe{sub 2}; and 3G{sub 0} conductance for WSe{sub 2} ribbon. The studied configurations show non-linear current–voltage (I–V) characteristics. Negative differential conductance (NDC) has also been observed for the nanoribbons of the selenides and tellurides of both Mo and W. Furthermore, additional plasmonic features below 5 eV energy have been observed for both wires and ribbons as compared to the corresponding monolayers, which is found to be red-shifted on going from nanowires to nanoribbons.

  12. Special Issue: Redox Active Natural Products and Their Interaction with Cellular Signalling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, research into natural products has experienced a certain renaissance. The urgent need for more and more effective antibiotics in medicine, the demand for ecologically friendly plant protectants in agriculture, “natural” cosmetics and the issue of a sustainable and healthy nutrition in an ageing society have fuelled research into Nature’s treasure chest of “green gold”. Here, redox active secondary metabolites from plants, fungi, bacteria and other (micro-organisms often have been at the forefront of the most interesting developments. These agents provide powerful means to interfere with many, probably most cellular signaling pathways in humans, animals and lower organisms, and therefore can be used to protect, i.e., in form of antioxidants, and to frighten off or even kill, i.e., in form of repellants, antibiotics, fungicides and selective, often catalytic “sensor/effector” anticancer agents. Interestingly, whilst natural product research dates back many decades, in some cases even centuries, and compounds such as allicin and various flavonoids have been investigated thoroughly in the past, it has only recently become possible to investigate their precise interactions and mode(s of action inside living cells. Here, fluorescent staining and labelling on the one side, and appropriate detection, either qualitatively under the microscope or quantitatively in flow cytometers and plate readers, on the other, enable researchers to obtain the various pieces of information necessary to construct a fairly complete puzzle of how such compounds act and interact in living cells. Complemented by the more traditional activity assays and Western Blots, and increasingly joined by techniques such as proteomics, chemogenetic screening and mRNA profiling, these cell based bioanalytical techniques form a powerful platform for “intracellular diagnostics”. In the case of redox active compounds, especially of Reactive Sulfur

  13. Effective self-purification of polynary metal electroplating wastewaters through formation of layered double hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji Zhi; Wu, Yue Ying; Liu, Chong; Orpe, Ajay; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Zhi Ping; Qian, Guang Ren; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Heavy metal ions (Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(3+)) can be effectively removed from real polynary metal ions-bearing electroplating wastewaters by a carbonation process, with ∼99% of metal ions removed in most cases. The synchronous formation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) precipitates containing these metal ions was responsible for the self-purification of wastewaters. The constituents of formed polynary metals-LDHs mainly depended on the Ni(2+):Zn(2+):Cr(3+) molar ratio in wastewaters. LDH was formed at pH of 6.0-8.0 when the Ni(2+)/Zn(2+) molar ratio ≥ 1 where molar fraction of trivalent metal in the wastewaters was 0.2-0.4, otherwise ZnO, hydrozincite, or amorphous precipitate was observed. In the case of LDH formation, the residual concentration of Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(3+) in the treated wastewaters was very low, about 2-3, ∼2, and ∼1 mg/L, respectively, at 20-80 °C and pH of 6.0-8.0, indicating the effective incorporation of heavy metal ions into the LDH matrix. Furthermore, the obtained LDH materials were used to adsorb azoic dye GR, with the maximum adsorption amount of 129-134 mg/g. We also found that the obtained LDHs catalyzed more than 65% toluene to decompose at 350 °C under ambient pressure. Thus the current research has not only shown effective recovery of heavy metal ions from the electroplating wastewaters in an environmentally friendly process but also demonstrated the potential utilization of recovered materials.

  14. Double layer resist process scheme for metal lift-off with application in inductive heating of microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouattara, Lassana; Knutzen, Michael; Keller, Stephan Urs

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method to define metal electrodes on top of high-aspect-ratio microstructures using standard photolithography equipment and a single chromium mask. A lift-off resist (LOR) layer is implemented in an SU-8 photolithography process to selectively remove metal at the end of the proce......We present a new method to define metal electrodes on top of high-aspect-ratio microstructures using standard photolithography equipment and a single chromium mask. A lift-off resist (LOR) layer is implemented in an SU-8 photolithography process to selectively remove metal at the end...

  15. Redox-active porous coordination polymers prepared by trinuclear heterometallic pivalate linking with the redox-active nickel(II) complex: synthesis, structure, magnetic and redox properties, and electrocatalytic activity in organic compound dehalogenation in heterogeneous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytvynenko, A S; Kolotilov, S V; Kiskin, M A; Cador, O; Golhen, S; Aleksandrov, G G; Mishura, A M; Titov, V E; Ouahab, L; Eremenko, I L; Novotortsev, V M

    2014-05-19

    Linking of the trinuclear pivalate fragment Fe2CoO(Piv)6 by the redox-active bridge Ni(L)2 (compound 1; LH is Schiff base from hydrazide of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid and 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde, Piv(-) = pivalate) led to formation of a new porous coordination polymer (PCP) {Fe2CoO(Piv)6}{Ni(L)2}1.5 (2). X-ray structures of 1 and 2 were determined. A crystal lattice of compound 2 is built from stacked 2D layers; the Ni(L)2 units can be considered as bridges, which bind two Fe2CoO(Piv)6 units. In desolvated form, 2 possesses a porous crystal lattice (SBET = 50 m(2) g(-1), VDR = 0.017 cm(3) g(-1) estimated from N2 sorption at 78 K). At 298 K, 2 absorbed a significant quantity of methanol (up to 0.3 cm(3) g(-1)) and chloroform. Temperature dependence of molar magnetic susceptibility of 2 could be fitted as superposition of χMT of Fe2CoO(Piv)6 and Ni(L)2 units, possible interactions between them were taken into account using molecular field model. In turn, magnetic properties of the Fe2CoO(Piv)6 unit were fitted using two models, one of which directly took into account a spin-orbit coupling of Co(II), and in the second model the spin-orbit coupling of Co(II) was approximated as zero-field splitting. Electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of 2 were studied by cyclic voltammetry in suspension and compared with electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of a soluble analogue 1. A catalytic effect was determined by analysis of the catalytic current dependency on concentrations of the substrate. Compound 1 possessed electrocatalytic activity in organic halide dehalogenation, and such activity was preserved for the Ni(L)2 units, incorporated into the framework of 2. In addition, a new property occurred in the case of 2: the catalytic activity of PCP depended on its sorption capacity with respect to the substrate. In contrast to homogeneous catalysts, usage of solid PCPs may allow selectivity due to porous structure and simplify separation of product.

  16. Characterization of mammalian selenoprotein o: a redox-active mitochondrial protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seong-Jeong; Lee, Byung Cheon; Yim, Sun Hee; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Lee, Seung-Rock

    2014-01-01

    Selenoproteins exhibit diverse biological functions, most of which are associated with redox control. However, the functions of approximately half of mammalian selenoproteins are not known. One such protein is Selenoprotein O (SelO), the largest mammalian selenoprotein with orthologs found in a wide range of organisms, including bacteria and yeast. Here, we report characterization of mammalian SelO. Expression of this protein could be verified in HEK 293T cells by metabolic labeling of cells with 75Se, and it was abolished when selenocysteine was replaced with serine. A CxxU motif was identified in the C-terminal region of SelO. This protein was reversibly oxidized in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in HEK 293T cells when cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide. This treatment led to the formation of a transient 88 kDa SelO-containing complex. The formation of this complex was enhanced by replacing the CxxU motif with SxxC, but abolished when it was replaced with SxxS, suggesting a redox interaction of SelO with another protein through its Sec residue. SelO was localized to mitochondria and expressed across mouse tissues. Its expression was little affected by selenium deficiency, suggesting it has a high priority for selenium supply. Taken together, these results show that SelO is a redox-active mitochondrial selenoprotein.

  17. Characterization of mammalian selenoprotein o: a redox-active mitochondrial protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jeong Han

    Full Text Available Selenoproteins exhibit diverse biological functions, most of which are associated with redox control. However, the functions of approximately half of mammalian selenoproteins are not known. One such protein is Selenoprotein O (SelO, the largest mammalian selenoprotein with orthologs found in a wide range of organisms, including bacteria and yeast. Here, we report characterization of mammalian SelO. Expression of this protein could be verified in HEK 293T cells by metabolic labeling of cells with 75Se, and it was abolished when selenocysteine was replaced with serine. A CxxU motif was identified in the C-terminal region of SelO. This protein was reversibly oxidized in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in HEK 293T cells when cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide. This treatment led to the formation of a transient 88 kDa SelO-containing complex. The formation of this complex was enhanced by replacing the CxxU motif with SxxC, but abolished when it was replaced with SxxS, suggesting a redox interaction of SelO with another protein through its Sec residue. SelO was localized to mitochondria and expressed across mouse tissues. Its expression was little affected by selenium deficiency, suggesting it has a high priority for selenium supply. Taken together, these results show that SelO is a redox-active mitochondrial selenoprotein.

  18. Electrochemical properties and diffusion of a redox active surfactant incorporated in bicontinuous cubic and lamellar phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostela, J.; Elmgren, M.; Almgren, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of the divalent redox active surfactant, N-cetyl-N'-methylviologen (CMV), in bicontinuous cubic and lamellar phases. The liquid crystalline phases were prepared from the system glycerolmonooleate (GMO)-water (and brine)-cationic surfactant. A comparison of the phase behaviour of GMO with the monovalent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the divalent CMV surfactant showed that the surfactants gave about the same effect at the same surface charge density. The electrochemical measurements were made with a mixture of CTAB and CMV as the surfactant. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemistry of CMV incorporated in the cubic and lamellar phases that were spread on a gold electrode. The E 0 -values in the cubic samples were more negative (-0.55 V versus SCE) than in the lamellar samples (-0.53 V versus SCE). This can be explained by the higher charge density in the lamellar phase. The diffusion coefficients were also measured in the cubic phase. The mass transport is slowed down about fifty times in the cubic phase compared to in the pure electrolyte. The concentration dependence on the diffusion coefficient was also investigated. No electron hopping could be observed, which suggest that diffusional movement of the redox probe is the main source of charge transport. By placing the samples on a conducting glass slide, spectroelectrochemical investigations were performed. In the lamellar phase strong dimerization was detected at high concentration of viologen, but much less in the cubic phase

  19. The self-assembly of redox active peptides: Synthesis and electrochemical capacitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Julia P; Santos, Adriano; Santos-Filho, Norival A; Lorenzón, Esteban N; Cilli, Eduardo M; Bueno, Paulo R

    2016-05-01

    The present work reports on the synthesis of a redox-tagged peptide with self-assembling capability aiming applications in electrochemically active capacitive surfaces (associated with the presence of the redox centers) generally useful in electroanalytical applications. Peptide containing ferrocene (fc) molecular (redox) group (Ac-Cys-Ile-Ile-Lys(fc)-Ile-Ile-COOH) was thus synthesized by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). To obtain the electrochemically active capacitive interface, the side chain of the cysteine was covalently bound to the gold electrode (sulfur group) and the side chain of Lys was used to attach the ferrocene in the peptide chain. After obtaining the purified redox-tagged peptide, the self-assembly and redox capability was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance-based capacitance spectroscopy techniques. The obtained results confirmed that the redox-tagged peptide was successfully attached by forming an electroactive self-assembled monolayer onto gold electrode. The design of redox active self-assembly ferrocene-tagged peptide is predictably useful in the development of biosensor devices precisely to detect, in a label-free platform, those biomarkers of clinical relevance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 357-367, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4 nanowires with a high conductance for flexible solid state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Sufyan; Dai, Shuge; Wang, Mingjun; Xi, Yi; Lang, Qiang; Guo, Donglin; Hu, Chenguo

    2015-08-01

    The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in a high pseudocapacitive performance with a relatively high specific energy and specific power. Such a new type of pseudocapacitive material of Cu7S4-NWs with its low cost is very promising for actual application in supercapacitors.The exploration of high Faradic redox active materials with the advantages of low cost and low toxicity has been attracting great attention for producing high energy storage supercapacitors. Here, the high Faradic redox active material of Cu7S4-NWs coated on a carbon fiber fabric (CFF) is directly used as a binder-free electrode for a high performance flexible solid state supercapacitor. The Cu7S4-NW-CFF supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance such as a high specific capacitance of 400 F g-1 at the scan rate of 10 mV s-1 and a high energy density of 35 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 200 W kg-1, with the advantages of a light weight, high flexibility and long term cycling stability by retaining 95% after 5000 charge-discharge cycles at a constant current of 10 mA. The high Faradic redox activity and high conductance behavior of the Cu7S4-NWs result in

  1. Unravelling ``off-target'' effects of redox-active polymers and polymer multilayered capsules in prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giovanni L.; Folini, Marco; Cavalieri, Francesca; Yan, Yan; Fresch, Enrico; Kaliappan, Subramanian; Hasenöhrl, Christoph; Richardson, Joseph J.; Tinelli, Stella; Fery, Andreas; Caruso, Frank; Zaffaroni, Nadia

    2015-03-01

    Redox-active polymers and carriers are oxidizing nanoagents that can potentially trigger intracellular off-target effects. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of off-target effects in prostate cancer cells following exposure to redox-active polymer and thin multilayer capsules with different chemical properties. We show that, depending on the intracellular antioxidant capacity, thiol-functionalized poly(methacrylic acid), PMASH triggers cell defense responses/perturbations that result in off-target effects (i.e., induction of autophagy and down-regulation of survivin). Importantly, the conversion of the carboxyl groups of PMASH into the neutral amides of poly(hydroxypropylmetacrylamide) (pHPMASH) nullified the off-target effects and cytotoxicity in tested cell lines. This suggests that the simultaneous action of carboxyl and disulfide groups in PMASH polymer or capsules may play a role in mediating the intracellular off-target effects. Our work provides evidence that the rational design of redox-active carriers for therapeutic-related application should be guided by a careful investigation on potential disturbance of the cellular machineries related to the carrier association.Redox-active polymers and carriers are oxidizing nanoagents that can potentially trigger intracellular off-target effects. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of off-target effects in prostate cancer cells following exposure to redox-active polymer and thin multilayer capsules with different chemical properties. We show that, depending on the intracellular antioxidant capacity, thiol-functionalized poly(methacrylic acid), PMASH triggers cell defense responses/perturbations that result in off-target effects (i.e., induction of autophagy and down-regulation of survivin). Importantly, the conversion of the carboxyl groups of PMASH into the neutral amides of poly(hydroxypropylmetacrylamide) (pHPMASH) nullified the off-target effects and cytotoxicity in tested cell

  2. Coloration of metallic and/or ceramic surfaces obtained by atomic layer deposited nano-coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, L.; Vettoruzzo, F.; Laidani, N.

    2016-01-01

    ultrathin TiN (20 nm) top layer is able to confer intense blue color to metals.

  3. Heavy Metals Technogenic Pollution of Plough Lands Arable Layer in the Chelyabinsk Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantorova, G. F.

    2017-11-01

    Environmental protection and rational use of natural resources in agriculture are the main directions of this scientific research. Contamination is caused by the substances of chemical, radiation and biological origin above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC). The main source of soil contamination in the arable land, hayfields and pastures is the waste of livestock complexes, agricultural chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides), motor vehicle exhausts, industrial emissions, sewage from settlements, etc. The ecological state of the soil and vegetation cover is largely determined by agricultural activities. The agricultural production technology complicating is accompanied by increase in the degree of environmental risk, especially in the chemicalization of agriculture. Pollution also enters the soil with atmospheric precipitation, surface waste. They are also introduced into the soil layer by soil and groundwater. The most dangerous for human health is considered to be contamination with heavy metals (HM)-lead, mercury and cadmium. However, the concentration of the rest elements is no less harmful. The paradox of heavy metals is that in certain quantities they are necessary to ensure the normal life of plants and organisms but their excess can lead to serious diseases and even death. A nutritional cycle causes harmful compounds to enter the human body and often cause great harm to health. The present work reveals the results of the research of a long-term experience on accumulation and distribution of heavy metals on the arable layer profile depending on the concentration in humus soil and the system of ground processing.

  4. Wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Arsić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the wear resistance of layers hard faced by the high-alloyed filler metal, with or without the austenite inter-layer, on parts that operate at different sliding speeds in conditions without lubrication. The samples were hard faced with the filler metal E 10-UM-60-C with high content of C, Cr and W. Used filler metal belongs into group of alloys aimed for reparatory hard facing of parts damaged by abrasive and erosive wear and it is characterized by high hardness and wear resistance. In experiments, the sliding speed and the normal loading were varied and the wear scar was monitored, based on which the volume of the worn material was calculated analytically. The contact duration time was monitored over the sliding path of 300 mm. The most intensive wear was established for the loading force of 100 N and the sliding speed of 1 m.s-1, though the significant wear was also noticed in conditions of the small loading and speed of 0.25 m.s-1, which was even greater that at larger speeds.

  5. Metal-organophosphine and metal-organophosphonium frameworks with layered honeycomb-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Simon M; Allan, Phoebe K; Oungoulian, Shaunt E; Ironside, Matthew S; Wise, Erica R

    2009-04-07

    Phosphanotriylbenzenecarboxylic acid (ptbcH(3); P(C(6)H(4)-p-CO(2)H)(3)) and its methyl phosphonium iodide derivative (mptbcH(3)I; {H(3)CP(C(6)H(4)-p-CO(2)H)(3)}I) have been used as organic building blocks in reaction with Zn(ii) salts to obtain a series of related two-dimensional coordination polymers with honeycomb-like networks. The variable coordination number and oxidation states available to phosphorus have been exploited to produce a family of related phosphine coordination materials (PCMs) using a single ligand precursor. The phosphine carboxylate trianion, ptbc(3-), reacted with Zn(ii) to form 3,3-connected undulating hexagonal sheets based on tetrahedral P and Zn nodes, where Zn-ptbc = 1 : 1. When hydroxide was used as an additional framework ligand, Zn(4)(OH)(2) clusters were obtained. The clusters support 6,3-connected bilayers that consist of pairs of fused hexagonal sheets (Zn-ptbc = 2 : 1) with intra-layer pore spaces. The Zn(4)(OH)(2) clusters are also coordinated by solvent, which was preferentially displaced when the bilayer material was synthesized in the presence of ethylene diamine. Treatment of ptbc(3-) with MeI resulted in methylation of the phosphine to give the P(v) phosphonium iodide salt derivative. The formally dianionic methylphosphonium tricarboxylate building block, mptbc(2-), has the same trigonal-pyramidal bridging geometry as the parent phosphine. However, mptbc(2-) reacted with Zn(ii) on a 1 : 1 stoichiometric ratio to give an unusual trilayer sheet polymer that is based exclusively on 3-connected nodes. Solid-state (31)P NMR studies confirmed that the phosphine ligands were resistant to oxidation upon solvothermal reaction under aerobic conditions.

  6. Investigation of porosity and fractal properties of the sintered metal and semiconductor layers in the MDS capacitor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skatkov Leonid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MDS capacitor (metal - dielectric - semiconductor is a structure in which metal plate is represented by compact bulk-porous pellets of niobium sintered powder, and semiconductor plate - by pyrolytic layer of MnO2. In the present paper we report the results of investigation of microporosity of sintered Nb and pyrolytic MnO2 and also the fractal properties of semiconductor layer.

  7. Metallization of a Rashba wire by a superconducting layer in the strong-proximity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Christopher; Loss, Daniel; Klinovaja, Jelena

    2018-04-01

    Semiconducting quantum wires defined within two-dimensional electron gases and strongly coupled to thin superconducting layers have been extensively explored in recent experiments as promising platforms to host Majorana bound states. We study numerically such a geometry, consisting of a quasi-one-dimensional wire coupled to a disordered three-dimensional superconducting layer. We find that, in the strong-coupling limit of a sizable proximity-induced superconducting gap, all transverse subbands of the wire are significantly shifted in energy relative to the chemical potential of the wire. For the lowest subband, this band shift is comparable in magnitude to the spacing between quantized levels that arises due to the finite thickness of the superconductor (which typically is ˜500 meV for a 10-nm-thick layer of aluminum); in higher subbands, the band shift is much larger. Additionally, we show that the width of the system, which is usually much larger than the thickness, and moderate disorder within the superconductor have almost no impact on the induced gap or band shift. We provide a detailed discussion of the ramifications of our results, arguing that a huge band shift and significant renormalization of semiconducting material parameters in the strong-coupling limit make it challenging to realize a topological phase in such a setup, as the strong coupling to the superconductor essentially metallizes the semiconductor. This metallization of the semiconductor can be tested experimentally through the measurement of the band shift.

  8. Characteristics of laser ultrasound interaction with multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive interface by numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kuanshuang, E-mail: zkuanshuang@buaa.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua; Sun, Guangkai [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Aero-Engine, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • We investigate laser generated ultrasound in multi-layered adhesive structure. • We find the difference of waveforms with different probe points. • Probe points and frequency range influence characterization of the damage interface. • Reflection coefficients of longitudinal waves can quantify the void defect. - Abstract: The characteristics of laser-generated ultrasonic wave interaction with multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive interface are investigated by finite element method (FEM). The physical model of laser-generated ultrasonic wave in the multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive structure is built. The surface temperature evolution with different laser power densities is analyzed to obtain the parameters of pulsed laser with thermoelastic regime. The differences of laser ultrasonic waves with different center frequencies measured at the center of laser irradiation would verify the interfacial features of adhesive structures. The optimum frequency range and probe point would be beneficial for the detection of the small void defect. The numerical results indicate that the different frequency range and probe points would evidently influence the identification and quantitative characterization of the small void defect. The research findings would lay a foundation for testing interfacial integrity.

  9. A flexible ligand-based wavy layered metal-organic framework for lithium-ion storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Tiance; Wang, Yuhang; Tang, Jing; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2015-05-01

    A substantial challenge for direct utilization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as lithium-ion battery anodes is to maintain the rigid MOF structure during lithiation/delithiation cycles. In this work, we developed a flexible, wavy layered nickel-based MOF (C20H24Cl2N8Ni, designated as Ni-Me4bpz) by a solvothermal approach of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole (H2Me4bpz) with nickel(II) chloride hexahydrate. The obtained MOF materials (Ni-Me4bpz) with metal azolate coordination mode provide 2-dimensional layered structure for Li(+) intercalation/extraction, and the H2Me4bpz ligands allow for flexible rotation feature and structural stability. Lithium-ion battery anodes made of the Ni-Me4bpz material demonstrate excellent specific capacity and cycling performance, and the crystal structure is well preserved after the electrochemical tests, suggesting the potential of developing flexible layered MOFs for efficient and stable electrochemical storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On the possibility of superluminal energy propagation in a hyperbolic metamaterial of metal-dielectric layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Gang Luan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy propagation of electromagnetic fields in the effective medium of a one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of dielectric and metallic layers is investigated. We show that the medium behaves like Drude and Lorentz medium, respectively, when the electric field is parallel and perpendicular to the layers. For arbitrary time-varying electromagnetic fields in this medium, the energy density formula is derived. We prove rigorously that the group velocity of any propagating mode obeying the hyperbolic dispersion must be slower than the speed of light in vacuum, taking into account the frequency dependence of the permittivity tensor. That is, it is not possible to have superluminal propagation in this dispersive hyperbolic medium consisting of real dielectric and metallic material layers. The propagation velocity of a wave packet is also studied numerically. This packet velocity is very close to the velocity of the propagating mode having the central frequency and central wave vector of the wave packet. When the frequency spread of the wave packet is not narrow enough, small discrepancy between these two velocities manifests, which is caused by the non-penetration effect of the evanescent modes. This work reveals that no superluminal phenomenon can happen in a dispersive anisotropic metamaterial medium made of real materials.

  11. Characteristics of laser ultrasound interaction with multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive interface by numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kuanshuang; Zhou, Zhenggan; Zhou, Jianghua; Sun, Guangkai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate laser generated ultrasound in multi-layered adhesive structure. • We find the difference of waveforms with different probe points. • Probe points and frequency range influence characterization of the damage interface. • Reflection coefficients of longitudinal waves can quantify the void defect. - Abstract: The characteristics of laser-generated ultrasonic wave interaction with multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive interface are investigated by finite element method (FEM). The physical model of laser-generated ultrasonic wave in the multi-layered dissimilar metals adhesive structure is built. The surface temperature evolution with different laser power densities is analyzed to obtain the parameters of pulsed laser with thermoelastic regime. The differences of laser ultrasonic waves with different center frequencies measured at the center of laser irradiation would verify the interfacial features of adhesive structures. The optimum frequency range and probe point would be beneficial for the detection of the small void defect. The numerical results indicate that the different frequency range and probe points would evidently influence the identification and quantitative characterization of the small void defect. The research findings would lay a foundation for testing interfacial integrity.

  12. A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer protected lithium metal anode for long-cycle lithium-oxygen batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Tao; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2017-10-01

    A stable organic-inorganic hybrid layer (OIHL) is direct fabricated on lithium metal surface by the interfacial reaction of lithium metal foil with 1-chlorodecane and oxygen/carbon dioxide mixed gas. This favorable OIHL is approximately 30 μm thick and consists of lithium alkyl carbonate and lithium chloride. The lithium-oxygen batteries with OIHL protected lithium metal anode exhibit longer cycle life (340 cycles) than those with bare lithium metal anode (50 cycles). This desirable performance can be ascribed to the robust OIHL which prevents the growth of lithium dendrites and the corrosion of lithium metal.

  13. Applicability of the Reaction Layer Principle to Nanoparticulate Metal Complexes at a Macroscopic Reactive (Bio)Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, Jérôme F.L.; Town, Raewyn M.; Leeuwen, Van Herman P.

    2017-01-01

    The reaction layer concept is commonly adopted to estimate the contribution of metal complexes to the flux of free metal ions (M) toward a macroscopic M-accumulating (bio)interface, e.g., a biosurface (microorganism) or a sensor (electrode). This concept is well-established for molecular ligands

  14. Global transport and localized layering of metallic ions in the upper atmospherer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Carter

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model has been developed which is capable of simulating all phases of the life cycle of metallic ions, and results are described and interpreted herein for the typical case of Fe+ ions. This cycle begins with the initial deposition of metallics through meteor ablation and sputtering, followed by conversion of neutral Fe atoms to ions through photoionization and charge exchange with ambient ions. Global transport arising from daytime electric fields and poleward/ downward di.usion along geomagnetic field lines, localized transport and layer formation through de- scending convergent nulls in the thermospheric wind field, and finally annihilation by chemical neutralization and compound formation are treated. The model thus sheds new light on the interdependencies of the physical and chemical processes a.ecting atmospheric metallics. Model output analysis confirms the dominant role of both global and local transport to the ion's life cycle, showing that upward forcing from the equatorial electric field is critical to global movement, and that diurnal and semidiurnal tidal winds are responsible for the forma- tion of dense ion layers in the 90±250 km height region. It is demonstrated that the assumed combination of sources, chemical sinks, and transport mechanisms actually produces F-region densities and E-region layer densities similar to those observed. The model also shows that zonal and meridional winds and electric fields each play distinct roles in local transport, whereas the ion distribution is relatively insensitive to reasonable variations in meteoric deposition and chemical reaction rates.Key words. Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  15. Global transport and localized layering of metallic ions in the upper atmospherer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Carter

    Full Text Available A numerical model has been developed which is capable of simulating all phases of the life cycle of metallic ions, and results are described and interpreted herein for the typical case of Fe+ ions. This cycle begins with the initial deposition of metallics through meteor ablation and sputtering, followed by conversion of neutral Fe atoms to ions through photoionization and charge exchange with ambient ions. Global transport arising from daytime electric fields and poleward/ downward di.usion along geomagnetic field lines, localized transport and layer formation through de- scending convergent nulls in the thermospheric wind field, and finally annihilation by chemical neutralization and compound formation are treated. The model thus sheds new light on the interdependencies of the physical and chemical processes a.ecting atmospheric metallics. Model output analysis confirms the dominant role of both global and local transport to the ion's life cycle, showing that upward forcing from the equatorial electric field is critical to global movement, and that diurnal and semidiurnal tidal winds are responsible for the forma- tion of dense ion layers in the 90±250 km height region. It is demonstrated that the assumed combination of sources, chemical sinks, and transport mechanisms actually produces F-region densities and E-region layer densities similar to those observed. The model also shows that zonal and meridional winds and electric fields each play distinct roles in local transport, whereas the ion distribution is relatively insensitive to reasonable variations in meteoric deposition and chemical reaction rates.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions.

  16. Growth and electronic structure of single-layered transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dendzik, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    only a weak interaction between SL MoS2 and graphene, which leads to a quasi-freestanding band structure, but also to the coexistence of multiple rotational domains. Measurements of SL WS2 on Ag(111), on the other hand, reveals formation of interesting in-gap states which make WS2 metallic. Low...... different from graphene’s. For example, semiconducting TMDCs undergo an indirectdirect band gap transition when thinned to a single layer (SL); this results in greatly enhanced photoluminescence, making those materials attractive for applications in optoelectronics. Furthermore, metallic TMDCs can host......-quality SL TMDCs. We demonstrate the synthesis of SL MoS2, WS2 and TaS2 on Au(111), Ag(111) and graphene on SiC. The morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized materials is characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The electronic structure of SL...

  17. Irradiation of layered metallic dichalcogenides: disorder in the charge density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutka, Hannu.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis is an experimental study on electron-irradiated metallic layer compounds (VSe 2 , NbSe 2 , TaS 2 , TaSe 2 ). The metal atoms displaced by irradiation remain in the form of stable defects up to 300 K; their concentration (10 - 5 ... 10 - 2 )is known from measurements of displacement threshold energy and magnetic susceptibility. The effect of these defects on the charge densite wave (CDW) phases and on the electronic and superconducting properties forms the major part of this study. In 1T-TaS 2 , a microstructure of CDW domains pinned to defects is observed by electron microscopy. The effects of this kind of disorder are also manifest in the thermodynamic properties of the CDW and in the electronic transport, as well as in the superconducting properties [fr

  18. Initial stresses in two-layer metal domes due to imperfections of their production and assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebed Evgeniy Vasil’evich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of construction of two-layer metal domes is analyzed to illustrate the causes of initial stresses in the bars of their frames. It has been noticed that it is impossible to build such structures with ideal geometric parameters because of imperfections caused by objective reasons. These imperfections cause difficulties in the process of connection of the elements in the joints. The paper demonstrates the necessity of fitting operations during assemblage that involve force fitting and yield initial stresses due to imperfections. The authors propose a special method of computer modeling of enforced elimination of possible imperfections caused by assemblage process and further confirm the method by an analysis of a concrete metal dome.

  19. Double-layered metal grating for high-performance refractive index sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guozhen; Shen, Yang; Xiao, Guohui; Jin, Chongjun

    2015-04-06

    The detection of minuscule changes in the local refractive index by localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs), carried by metal nanostructures, has been used successfully in applications such as real-time and label-free detection of molecular binding events. However, localized plasmons demonstrate 1-2 orders of magnitude lower figure of merit (FOM) compared with their propagating counterparts. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a high-performance refractive index sensor based on a structure of double-layered metal grating (DMG) with an FOM and FOM* reaching 38 and 40 respectively under normal incidence. Such a high FOM and FOM* arise from a result of a sharp fano resonance, which is caused by the coherent interference between the LSPR from the individual top gold stripes and Wood's anomaly (WA). Moreover, a small conformal decay length of ~68 nm is determined in DMG, indicating that the DMG is a promising candidate for label-free biomedical sensing.

  20. Wear resistance of WCp/Duplex Stainless Steel metal matrix composite layers prepared by laser melt injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do Nascimento, A. M.; Ocelik, V.; Ierardi, M. C. F.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2008-01-01

    Laser Melt Injection (LMI) was used to prepare metal matrix composite layers with a thickness of about 0.7 mm and approximately 10% volume fraction of WC particles in three kinds of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels (CDSSs). WC particles were injected into the molten surface layer using Nd:YAG high power

  1. Tunneling measurements in amorphous layers of superconducting transition metals: molybdenum, vanadium, and niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roll, U.

    1981-01-01

    Tunneling experiments with amorphous Molybdenum and Vanadium layers are presented, showing no significant increase of the reduced energy gap 2δ(O)/kTsub(c)(δ) compared with the BCS-value, in contrast to all previous measurement on amorphous superconducting materials of simple s-p-metals, showing on enhanced electron-phonon-interaction. This fact may lead to the conclusion that the strong electron-phonon coupling is caused by the amorphous structure of the superconductor. The present results, however, indicate that the strong electron-phonon interaction cannot be explained only ba the amorphous structure of the superconductor. In the measurements of the second derivative d 2 U/dI 2 no phonon-induced structures have been observed for amorphous molybdenum, vanadium and niobium films. Apparently the phonon density of states F(#betta#) of amorphous transition metals has no structure, thus the longitudinal and transverse phonons cannot be identified in the measured (d 2 U/dI 2 )-curves. This particular behaviour of the amorphous transition metals in contrast to the simple s-p-metals may be interpreted by the strongly localized d-electrons. (orig./GG) [de

  2. Emerging Energy Applications of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan

    2015-10-31

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted significant attention for their great potential in nano energy. TMDC layered materials represent a diverse and largely untapped source of 2D systems. High-quality TMDC layers with an appropriate size, variable thickness, superior electronic and optical properties can be produced by the exfoliation or vapour phase deposition method. Semiconducting TMDC monolayers have been demonstrated feasible for various energy related applications, where their electronic properties and uniquely high surface areas offer opportunities for various applications such as nano generators, green electronics, electrocatalytic hydrogen generation and energy storage. In this review, we start from the structure, properties and preparation, followed by detailed discussions on the development of TMDC-based nano energy applications. Graphical abstract The structure characterizations and preparative methods of 2D TMDCs have obtained significant progresses. Their recent advances for nano energy generation, solar harvesting, conversion and storage, and green electronics are reviewed.

  3. A Metal Bump Bonding Method Using Ag Nanoparticles as Intermediate Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Weixin; Nimura, Masatsugu; Kasahara, Takashi; Mimatsu, Hayata; Okada, Akiko; Shoji, Shuichi; Ishizuka, Shugo; Mizuno, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The future development of low-temperature and low-pressure bonding technology is necessary for fine-pitch bump application. We propose a bump structure using Ag nanoparticles as an intermediate layer coated on a fine-pitch Cu pillar bump. The intermediate layer is prepared using an efficient and cost-saving squeegee-coating method followed by a 100°C baking process. This bump structure can be easily flattened before the bonding process, and the low-temperature sinterability of the nanoparticles is retained. The bonding experiment was successfully performed at 250°C and 39.8 MPa and the bonding strength was comparable to that achieved via other bonding technology utilizing metal particles or porous material as bump materials.

  4. Valley polarization in magnetically doped single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2014-04-28

    We demonstrate that valley polarization can be induced and controlled in semiconducting single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides by magnetic doping, which is important for spintronics, valleytronics, and photonics devices. As an example, we investigate Mn-doped MoS2 by first-principles calculations. We study how the valley polarization depends on the strength of the spin orbit coupling and the exchange interaction and discuss how it can be controlled by magnetic doping. Valley polarization by magnetic doping is also expected for other honeycomb materials with strong spin orbit coupling and the absence of inversion symmetry.

  5. Specific features of laser selective sintering of loose powder layers of metal-polymer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolochko, N.K.; Sobolenko, N.V.; Mozzharov, S.E.; Yadrojtsev, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental study was carried out into laser sintering of metal and polymer powder mixtures containing 75 vol.% of nickel base alloy (spherical particles 60-70 μm in diameter) and 25 vol.% of PEP-219 polymer (angular isometric particles 50-100 μm in size). The powder mixture was deposited on a stainless steel substrate and heated by continuous laser beam directed normally to powder layer. Geometrical and structural parameters of single and multilayer sintered products are shown to depend on both laser processing conditions and heat transfer. Some recommendations are given aimed at manufacturing articles of required shape, surface properties and material strength. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  6. Mutagenesis of the redox-active disulfide in mercuric ion reductase: Catalysis by mutant enzymes restricted to flavin redox chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distefano, M.D.; Au, K.G.; Walsh, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Mercuric reductase, a flavoenzyme that possesses a redox-active cystine, Cys 135 Cys 140 , catalyzes the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) by NADPH. As a probe of mechanism, the authors have constructed mutants lacking a redox-active disulfide by eliminating Cys 135 (Ala 135 Cys 140 ), Cys 14 (Cys 135 Ala 140 ), or both (Ala 135 Ala 140 ). Additionally, they have made double mutants that lack Cys 135 (Ala 135 Cys 139 Cys 140 ) or Cys 140 (Cys 135 Cys 139 Ala 140 ) but introduce a new Cys in place of Gly 139 with the aim of constructing dithiol pairs in the active site that do not form a redox-active disulfide. The resulting mutant enzymes all lack redox-active disulfides and are hence restricted to FAD/FADH 2 redox chemistry. Each mutant enzyme possesses unique physical and spectroscopic properties that reflect subtle differences in the FAD microenvironment. Preliminary evidence for the Ala 135 Cys 139 Cys 14 mutant enzyme suggests that this protein forms a disulfide between the two adjacent Cys residues. Hg(II) titration experiments that correlate the extent of charge-transfer quenching with Hg(II) binding indicate that the Ala 135 Cys 140 protein binds Hg(II) with substantially less avidity than does the wild-type enzyme. All mutant mercuric reductases catalyze transhydrogenation and oxygen reduction reactions through obligatory reduced flavin intermediates at rates comparable to or greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. In multiple-turnover assays which monitored the production of Hg(0), two of the mutant enzymes were observed to proceed through at least 30 turnovers at rates ca. 1000-fold slower than that of wild-type mercuric reductase. They conclude that the Cys 135 and Cys 140 thiols serve as Hg(II) ligands that orient the Hg(II) for subsequent reduction by a reduced flavin intermediate

  7. Influence of plasma pressure gradient on melt layer macroscopic erosion of metal targets in disruption simulation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Garkusha, I.E. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Wuerz, H

    2003-03-01

    Melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high heat loads is discussed. Tungsten, copper, aluminum, and titanium targets were exposed to perpendicular and inclined plasma impact in the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. Melt layer motion results in erosion crater formation with rather large mountains of the resolidified material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of the melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten erosion.

  8. Influence of plasma pressure gradient on melt layer macroscopic erosion of metal targets in disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Garkusha, I.E.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Wuerz, H.

    2003-01-01

    Melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high heat loads is discussed. Tungsten, copper, aluminum, and titanium targets were exposed to perpendicular and inclined plasma impact in the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. Melt layer motion results in erosion crater formation with rather large mountains of the resolidified material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of the melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten erosion

  9. Tissue redox activity as a hallmark of carcinogenesis: from early to terminal stages of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Aoki, Ichio; Saga, Tsuneo

    2013-05-01

    The study aimed to clarify the dynamics of tissue redox activity (TRA) in cancer progression and assess the importance of this parameter for therapeutic strategies. The experiments were carried out on brain tissues of neuroblastoma-bearing, glioma-bearing, and healthy mice. TRA was visualized in vivo by nitroxide-enhanced MRI on anesthetized animals or in vitro by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy on isolated tissue specimens. Two biochemical parameters were analyzed in parallel: tissue total antioxidant capacity (TTAC) and plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). In the early stage of cancer, the brain tissues were characterized by a shorter-lived MRI signal than that from healthy brains (indicating a higher reducing activity for the nitroxide radical), which was accompanied by an enhancement of TTAC and MMP9 plasma levels. In the terminal stage of cancer, tissues in both hemispheres were characterized by a longer-lived MRI signal than in healthy brains (indicating a high-oxidative activity) that was accompanied by a decrease in TTAC and an increase in the MMP2/MMP9 plasma levels. Cancer progression also affected the redox potential of tissues distant from the primary tumor locus (liver and lung). Their oxidative status increased in both stages of cancer. The study shows that tissue redox balance is very sensitive to the progression of cancer and can be used as a diagnostic marker of carcinogenesis. The study also suggests that the noncancerous tissues of a cancer-bearing organism are susceptible to oxidative damage and should be considered a therapeutic target. ©2013 AACR.

  10. Electrochemical properties and diffusion of a redox active surfactant incorporated in bicontinuous cubic and lamellar phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostela, J. [Uppsala University, Department of Physical Chemistry, Box 579, S-75123 Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: johan.kostela@fki.uu.se; Elmgren, M. [Uppsala University, Department of Physical Chemistry, Box 579, S-75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Almgren, M. [Uppsala University, Department of Physical Chemistry, Box 579, S-75123 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-05-30

    The objective of this study was to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of the divalent redox active surfactant, N-cetyl-N'-methylviologen (CMV), in bicontinuous cubic and lamellar phases. The liquid crystalline phases were prepared from the system glycerolmonooleate (GMO)-water (and brine)-cationic surfactant. A comparison of the phase behaviour of GMO with the monovalent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the divalent CMV surfactant showed that the surfactants gave about the same effect at the same surface charge density. The electrochemical measurements were made with a mixture of CTAB and CMV as the surfactant. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemistry of CMV incorporated in the cubic and lamellar phases that were spread on a gold electrode. The E {sup 0}-values in the cubic samples were more negative (-0.55 V versus SCE) than in the lamellar samples (-0.53 V versus SCE). This can be explained by the higher charge density in the lamellar phase. The diffusion coefficients were also measured in the cubic phase. The mass transport is slowed down about fifty times in the cubic phase compared to in the pure electrolyte. The concentration dependence on the diffusion coefficient was also investigated. No electron hopping could be observed, which suggest that diffusional movement of the redox probe is the main source of charge transport. By placing the samples on a conducting glass slide, spectroelectrochemical investigations were performed. In the lamellar phase strong dimerization was detected at high concentration of viologen, but much less in the cubic phase.

  11. Location of the redox-active thiols of ribonucleotide reductase: sequences similarity between the Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus leichmannii enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.N.I.; Ashley, G.W.; Stubbe, J.

    1987-01-01

    The redox-active thiols of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase have been located by a procedure involving (1) prereduction of enzyme with dithiothreitol, (2) specific oxidation of the redox-active thiols by treatment with substrate in the absence of exogenous reductant, (3) alkylation of other thiols with iodoacetamide, and (4) reduction of the disulfides with dithiothreitol and alkylation with [1- 14 C]iodoacetamide. The dithiothreitol-reduce E. coli B1 subunit is able to convert 3 equiv of CDP to dCDP and is labeled with 5.4 equiv of 14 C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 2.8 equiv of 14 C is on cysteines-752 and -757 at the C-terminus of B1, while 1.0-1.5 equiv of 14 C is on cysteines-222 and -227. It thus appears that two sets of redox-active dithiols are involved in substrate reduction. The L. leichmannii reductase is able to convert 1.1 equiv of CTP to dCTP and is labeled with 2.1 equiv of 14 C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 1.4 equiv of 14 C is located on the two cysteines of C-E-G-G-A-C-P-I-K. This peptide shows remarkable and unexpected similarity to the thiol-containing region of the C-terminal peptide of E. coli B1, C-E-S-G-A-C-K-I

  12. Development of membrane filters with nanostructured porous layer by coating of metal nanoparticles sintered onto a micro-filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seok Joo; Park, Young Ok; Lee, Dong Geun; Ryu, Jeong In

    2008-01-01

    The membrane filter adhered with nanostructured porous layer was made by heat treatment after deposition of nanoparticle-agglomerates sintered in aerosol phase onto a conventional micron-fibrous metal filter as a substrate filter. The Sintered-Nanoparticle-Agglomerates-coated NanoStructured porous layer Membrane Filter (SNA-NSMF), whose the filtration performance was improved compared with the conventional metal membrane filters, was developed by adhesion of nanoparticle-agglomerates of dendrite structure sintered onto the micron-fibrous metal filter. The size of nanoparticle-agglomerates of dendrite structure decreased with increasing the sintering temperature because nanoparticle-agglomerates shrank. When shrinking nanoparticle-agglomerates were deposited and treated with heat onto the conventional micron-fibrous metal filter, pore size of nanostructured porous layer decreased. Therefore, pressure drops of SNA-NSMFs increased from 0.3 to 0.516 KPa and filtration efficiencies remarkably increased from 95.612 to 99.9993%

  13. Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-08

    Lithium (Li) metal has been extensively investigated as an anode for rechargeable battery applications due to its ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, significant challenges including dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency are still hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we demonstrate that long-term cycling of Li metal batteries can be realized by the formation of a transient high concentration electrolyte layer near the surface of Li metal anode during high rate discharge process. The highly concentrated Li+ ions in this transient layer will immediately solvate with the available solvent molecules and facilitate the formation of a stable and flexible SEI layer composed of a poly(ethylene carbonate) framework integrated with other organic/inorganic lithium salts. This SEI layer largely suppresses the corrosion of Li metal anode by free organic solvents and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. The fundamental findings in this work provide a new direction for the development and operation of Li metal batteries that could be operated at high current densities for a wide range of applications.

  14. Optimization of Phase Change Memory with Thin Metal Inserted Layer on Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnsoongnoen, Sanchai; Sa-Ngiamsak, Chiranut; Siritaratiwat, Apirat

    This works reports, for the first time, the thorough study and optimisation of Phase Change Memory (PCM) structure with thin metal inserted chalcogenide via electrical resistivity (ρ) using finite element modeling. PCM is one of the best candidates for next generation non-volatile memory. It has received much attention recently due to its fast write speed, non-destructive readout, superb scalability, and great compatibility with current silicon-based mass fabrication. The setback of PCM is a high reset current typically higher than 1mA based on 180nm lithography. To reduce the reset current and to solve the over-programming failure, PCM with thin metal inserted chalcogenide (bottom chalcogenide/metal inserted/top chalcogenide) structure has been proposed. Nevertheless, reports on optimisation of the electrical resistivity using the finite element method for this new PCM structure have never been published. This work aims to minimize the reset current of this PCM structure by optimizing the level of the electrical resistivity of the PCM profile using the finite element approach. This work clearly shows that PCM characteristics are strongly affected by the electrical resistivity. The 2-D simulation results reveal clearly that the best thermal transfer of and self-joule-heating at the bottom chalcogenide layer can be achieved under conditions; ρ_bottom chalcogenide > ρ_metal inserted > ρ_top chalcogenide More specifically, the optimized electrical resistivity of PCMTMI is attained with ρ_top chalcogenide: ρ_metal inserted: ρ_bottom chalcogenide ratio of 1:6:16 when ρ_top chalcogenide is 10-3 Ωm. In conclusion, high energy efficiency can be obtained with the reset current as low as 0.3mA and with high speed operation of less than 30ns.

  15. Metallization and biopatterning on ultra-flexible substrates via dextran sacrificial layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tseng

    Full Text Available Micro-patterning tools adopted from the semiconductor industry have mostly been optimized to pattern features onto rigid silicon and glass substrates, however, recently the need to pattern on soft substrates has been identified in simulating cellular environments or developing flexible biosensors. We present a simple method of introducing a variety of patterned materials and structures into ultra-flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS layers (elastic moduli down to 3 kPa utilizing water-soluble dextran sacrificial thin films. Dextran films provided a stable template for photolithography, metal deposition, particle adsorption, and protein stamping. These materials and structures (including dextran itself were then readily transferrable to an elastomer surface following PDMS (10 to 70∶1 base to crosslinker ratios curing over the patterned dextran layer and after sacrificial etch of the dextran in water. We demonstrate that this simple and straightforward approach can controllably manipulate surface wetting and protein adsorption characteristics of PDMS, covalently link protein patterns for stable cell patterning, generate composite structures of epoxy or particles for study of cell mechanical response, and stably integrate certain metals with use of vinyl molecular adhesives. This method is compatible over the complete moduli range of PDMS, and potentially generalizable over a host of additional micro- and nano-structures and materials.

  16. Polycrystalline GaN layer recrystallization by metal-induced method during the baking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagoda, A.; Stanczyk, B.; Dobrzanski, L.; Diduszko, R. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw 118 (Poland)

    2007-04-15

    Radio frequency reactive sputtering was used to produce gallium nitride films on thermally oxidized silicon substrates at room temperature. Metallic Ga (purity 6N) was used as the target, N{sub 2} and Ar were utilized as sputtering gases. Amorphous GaN was obtained by metal-induced crystallization with a Ni assistance. The nickel particles were scattered onto the surface by rf sputtering and their density was 2 x 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2} or 4 x 10{sup 14} atoms/cm{sup 2}, which corresponds to 0.02 nm and 0.04 nm thick layer. These values are less than a monolayer thickness, so they are not continuous. Samples were annealed at 700 C for 3 h and at 900 C for 5 min in a RTP furnace. The 2.5 {mu}m GaN layers grown on the Ni-coated SiO{sub 2} surface recrystallized during annealing forming crystals of (002) orientation. The catalytic regrowth mechanism of GaN is discussed on the basis of experimental results. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Metallization and Biopatterning on Ultra-Flexible Substrates via Dextran Sacrificial Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Peter; Pushkarsky, Ivan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Micro-patterning tools adopted from the semiconductor industry have mostly been optimized to pattern features onto rigid silicon and glass substrates, however, recently the need to pattern on soft substrates has been identified in simulating cellular environments or developing flexible biosensors. We present a simple method of introducing a variety of patterned materials and structures into ultra-flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers (elastic moduli down to 3 kPa) utilizing water-soluble dextran sacrificial thin films. Dextran films provided a stable template for photolithography, metal deposition, particle adsorption, and protein stamping. These materials and structures (including dextran itself) were then readily transferrable to an elastomer surface following PDMS (10 to 70∶1 base to crosslinker ratios) curing over the patterned dextran layer and after sacrificial etch of the dextran in water. We demonstrate that this simple and straightforward approach can controllably manipulate surface wetting and protein adsorption characteristics of PDMS, covalently link protein patterns for stable cell patterning, generate composite structures of epoxy or particles for study of cell mechanical response, and stably integrate certain metals with use of vinyl molecular adhesives. This method is compatible over the complete moduli range of PDMS, and potentially generalizable over a host of additional micro- and nano-structures and materials. PMID:25153326

  18. Chemical resistance of thin film materials based on metal oxides grown by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammelselg, Väino; Netšipailo, Ivan; Aidla, Aleks; Tarre, Aivar; Aarik, Lauri; Asari, Jelena; Ritslaid, Peeter; Aarik, Jaan

    2013-01-01

    Etching rate of technologically important metal oxide thin films in hot sulphuric acid was investigated. The films of Al-, Ti-, Cr-, and Ta-oxides studied were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method on silicon substrates from different precursors in large ranges of growth temperatures (80–900 °C) in order to reveal process parameters that allow deposition of coatings with higher chemical resistance. The results obtained demonstrate that application of processes that yield films with lower concentration of residual impurities as well as crystallization of films in thermal ALD processes leads to significant decrease of etching rate. Crystalline films of materials studied showed etching rates down to values of < 5 pm/s. - Highlights: • Etching of atomic layer deposited thin metal oxide films in hot H 2 SO 4 was studied. • Smallest etching rates of < 5 pm/s for TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and Cr 2 O 3 were reached. • Highest etching rate of 2.8 nm/s for Al 2 O 3 was occurred. • Remarkable differences in etching of non- and crystalline films were observed

  19. Epitaxially influenced boundary layer model for size effect in thin metallic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, Zdenek P.; Guo Zaoyang; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Zhu Yong; Peng Bei

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the size effect recently observed by Espinosa et al., [J. Mech. Phys. Solids51, 47 (2003)] in pure tension tests on free thin metallic films can be explained by the existence of a boundary layer of fixed thickness, located at the surface of the film that was attached onto the substrate during deposition. The boundary layer is influenced by the epitaxial effects of crystal growth on the dislocation density and texture (manifested by prevalent crystal plane orientations). This influence is assumed to cause significantly elevated yield strength. Furthermore, the observed gradual postpeak softening, along with its size independence, which is observed in short film strips subjected to pure tension, is explained by slip localization, originating at notch-like defects, and by damage, which can propagate in a stable manner when the film strip under pure tension is sufficiently thin and short. For general applications, the present epitaxially influenced boundary layer model may be combined with the classical strain-gradient plasticity proposed by Gao et al., [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47, 1239 (1999)], and it is shown that this combination is necessary to fit the test data on both pure tension and bending of thin films by one and the same theory. To deal with films having different crystal grain sizes, the Hall-Petch relation for the yield strength dependence on the grain size needs to be incorporated into the combined theory. For very thin films, in which a flattened grain fills the whole film thickness, the Hall-Petch relation needs a cutoff, and the asymptotic increase of yield strength with diminishing film thickness is then described by the extension of Nix's model of misfit dislocations by Zhang and Zhou [J. Adv. Mater. 38, 51 (2002)]. The final result is a proposal of a general theory for strength, size effect, hardening, and softening of thin metallic films

  20. Epitaxially influenced boundary layer model for size effect in thin metallic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bažant, Zdeněk P.; Guo, Zaoyang; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Zhu, Yong; Peng, Bei

    2005-04-01

    It is shown that the size effect recently observed by Espinosa et al., [J. Mech. Phys. Solids51, 47 (2003)] in pure tension tests on free thin metallic films can be explained by the existence of a boundary layer of fixed thickness, located at the surface of the film that was attached onto the substrate during deposition. The boundary layer is influenced by the epitaxial effects of crystal growth on the dislocation density and texture (manifested by prevalent crystal plane orientations). This influence is assumed to cause significantly elevated yield strength. Furthermore, the observed gradual postpeak softening, along with its size independence, which is observed in short film strips subjected to pure tension, is explained by slip localization, originating at notch-like defects, and by damage, which can propagate in a stable manner when the film strip under pure tension is sufficiently thin and short. For general applications, the present epitaxially influenced boundary layer model may be combined with the classical strain-gradient plasticity proposed by Gao et al., [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47, 1239 (1999)], and it is shown that this combination is necessary to fit the test data on both pure tension and bending of thin films by one and the same theory. To deal with films having different crystal grain sizes, the Hall-Petch relation for the yield strength dependence on the grain size needs to be incorporated into the combined theory. For very thin films, in which a flattened grain fills the whole film thickness, the Hall-Petch relation needs a cutoff, and the asymptotic increase of yield strength with diminishing film thickness is then described by the extension of Nix's model of misfit dislocations by Zhang and Zhou [J. Adv. Mater. 38, 51 (2002)]. The final result is a proposal of a general theory for strength, size effect, hardening, and softening of thin metallic films.

  1. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) application in metal barrier layer integrity for porous low- k materials

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Lin; Gidley, D W; Wetzel, J T; Monnig, K A; Ryan, E T; Simon, Jang; Douglas, Yu; Liang, M S; En, W G; Jones, E C; Sturm, J C; Chan, M J; Tiwari, S C; Hirose, M

    2002-01-01

    Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) is a useful tool to pre-screen metal barrier integrity for Si-based porous low-k dielectrics. Pore size of low-k, thickness of metal barrier Ta, positronium (Ps) leakage from PALS, trench sidewall morphology, electrical test from one level metal (1LM) pattern wafer and Cu diffusion analysis were all correlated. Macro-porous low-k (pore size >=200 AA) and large scale meso-porous low-k (>50~200 AA) encounter both Ps leakage and Cu diffusion into low-k dielectric in the 0.25 mu mL/0.3 mu mS structures when using SEMATECH in-house PVD Ta 250 AA as barrier layer. For small scale meso-porous (>20~50 AA) and micro- porous (<=20 AA) low-k, no Ps leakage and no Cu diffusion into low-k were observed even with PVD Ta 50 AA, which is proved also owing to sidewall densification to seal all sidewall pores due to plasma etch and ash. For future technology, smaller pore size of porous Si-based low-k (=<50 AA) will be preferential for dense low-k like trench sidewall to...

  2. Effect of process parameters on hardness, temperature profile and solidification of different layers processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Sazzad Hossain; Mian, Ahsan; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    In DMLS process objects are fabricated layer by layer from powdered material by melting induced by a controlled laser beam. Metallic powder melts and solidifies to form a single layer. Solidification map during layer formation is an important route to characterize micro-structure and grain morphology of sintered layer. Generally, solidification leads to columnar, equiaxed or mixture of these two types grain morphology depending on solidification rate and thermal gradient. Eutectic or dendritic structure can be formed in fully equiaxed zone. This dendritic growth has a large effect on material properties. Smaller dendrites generally increase ductility of the layer. Thus, materials can be designed by creating desired grain morphology in certain regions using DMLS process. To accomplish this, hardness, temperature distribution, thermal gradient and solidification cooling rate in processed layers will be studied under change of process variables by using finite element analysis, with specific application to Ti-6Al-4V.

  3. Effect of process parameters on hardness, temperature profile and solidification of different layers processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sazzad Hossain; Mian, Ahsan; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2016-07-01

    In DMLS process objects are fabricated layer by layer from powdered material by melting induced by a controlled laser beam. Metallic powder melts and solidifies to form a single layer. Solidification map during layer formation is an important route to characterize micro-structure and grain morphology of sintered layer. Generally, solidification leads to columnar, equiaxed or mixture of these two types grain morphology depending on solidification rate and thermal gradient. Eutectic or dendritic structure can be formed in fully equiaxed zone. This dendritic growth has a large effect on material properties. Smaller dendrites generally increase ductility of the layer. Thus, materials can be designed by creating desired grain morphology in certain regions using DMLS process. To accomplish this, hardness, temperature distribution, thermal gradient and solidification cooling rate in processed layers will be studied under change of process variables by using finite element analysis, with specific application to Ti-6Al-4V.

  4. Effect of process parameters on hardness, temperature profile and solidification of different layers processed by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Sazzad Hossain; Mian, Ahsan, E-mail: ahsan.mian@wright.edu; Srinivasan, Raghavan [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States)

    2016-07-12

    In DMLS process objects are fabricated layer by layer from powdered material by melting induced by a controlled laser beam. Metallic powder melts and solidifies to form a single layer. Solidification map during layer formation is an important route to characterize micro-structure and grain morphology of sintered layer. Generally, solidification leads to columnar, equiaxed or mixture of these two types grain morphology depending on solidification rate and thermal gradient. Eutectic or dendritic structure can be formed in fully equiaxed zone. This dendritic growth has a large effect on material properties. Smaller dendrites generally increase ductility of the layer. Thus, materials can be designed by creating desired grain morphology in certain regions using DMLS process. To accomplish this, hardness, temperature distribution, thermal gradient and solidification cooling rate in processed layers will be studied under change of process variables by using finite element analysis, with specific application to Ti-6Al-4V.

  5. MBE growth of Topological Isolators based on strained semi-metallic HgCdTe layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grendysa, J.; Tomaka, G.; Sliz, P.; Becker, C. R.; Trzyna, M.; Wojnarowska-Nowak, R.; Bobko, E.; Sheregii, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Particularities of Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) technology for the growth of Topological Insulators (TI) based on the semi-metal Hg1-xCdx Te are presented. A series of strained layers grown on GaAs substrates with a composition close to the 3D Dirac point were studied. The composition of the layers was verified by means of the position of the E1 maximum in optical reflectivity in the visible region. The surface morphology was determined via atomic force and electron microscopy. Magneto-transport measurements show quantized Hall resistance curves and Shubnikov de Hass oscillations (up to 50 K). It has been demonstrated that a well-developed MBE technology enables one to grow strained Hg1-xCdx Te layers on GaAs/CdTe substrates with a well-defined composition near the 3D Dirac point and consequently allows one to produce a 3D topological Dirac semimetal - 3D analogy of graphene - for future applications.

  6. Coloration of metallic and/or ceramic surfaces obtained by atomic layer deposited nano-coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, L., E-mail: luisg47@gmail.com [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Centro Materiali e Microsistemi, Functional Materials & Photonic Structures Unit, via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy); Vettoruzzo, F. [Ronda High Tech, via Vegri 83, 36010 Zane’, Vicenza (Italy); Laidani, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Centro Materiali e Microsistemi, Functional Materials & Photonic Structures Unit, via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2016-02-29

    optically tested. • An ultrathin TiN (20 nm) top layer is able to confer intense blue color to metals.

  7. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Noreen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic compounds can serve as potent redox cyclers that inhibit microbial growth through destabilization of cellular redox homeostasis and/or antioxidation systems. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that disrupt the fungal antioxidation system. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in concert with conventional drugs or fungicides to improve antifungal efficacy. Methods Benzaldehydes were tested as natural antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and Penicillium expansum, fungi that are causative agents of human invasive aspergillosis and/or are mycotoxigenic. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a model system for identifying gene targets of benzaldehydes. The efficacy of screened compounds as effective chemosensitizers or as antifungal agents in formulations was tested with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. Results Several benzaldehydes are identified having potent antifungal activity. Structure-activity analysis reveals that antifungal activity increases by the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group in the aromatic ring. Use of deletion mutants in the oxidative stress-response pathway of S. cerevisiae (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, glr1Δ and two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK mutants of A. fumigatus (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ, indicates antifungal activity of the benzaldehydes is through disruption of cellular antioxidation. Certain benzaldehydes, in combination with phenylpyrroles, overcome tolerance of A. fumigatus MAPK mutants to this agent and/or increase sensitivity of fungal pathogens to mitochondrial respiration inhibitory agents. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC or fungicidal (MFC

  8. Ground-state kinetics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Li, Hao; Trabolsi, Ali; Coskun, Ali; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2014-02-18

    The ability to design and confer control over the kinetics of theprocesses involved in the mechanisms of artificial molecular machines is at the heart of the challenge to create ones that can carry out useful work on their environment, just as Nature is wont to do. As one of the more promising forerunners of prototypical artificial molecular machines, chemists have developed bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) over the past couple of decades. These bistable MIMs generally come in the form of [2]rotaxanes, molecular compounds that constitute a ring mechanically interlocked around a dumbbell-shaped component, or [2]catenanes, which are composed of two mechanically interlocked rings. As a result of their interlocked nature, bistable MIMs possess the inherent propensity to express controllable intramolecular, large-amplitude, and reversible motions in response to redox stimuli. In this Account, we rationalize the kinetic behavior in the ground state for a large assortment of these types of bistable MIMs, including both rotaxanes and catenanes. These structures have proven useful in a variety of applications ranging from drug delivery to molecular electronic devices. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs can switch between two different isomeric states. The favored isomer, known as the ground-state co-conformation (GSCC) is in equilibrium with the less favored metastable state co-conformation (MSCC). The forward (kf) and backward (kb) rate constants associated with this ground-state equilibrium are intimately connected to each other through the ground-state distribution constant, KGS. Knowing the rate constants that govern the kinetics and bring about the equilibration between the MSCC and GSCC, allows researchers to understand the operation of these bistable MIMs in a device setting and apply them toward the construction of artificial molecular machines. The three biggest influences on the ground-state rate constants arise from

  9. Ground-state thermodynamics of bistable redox-active donor-acceptor mechanically interlocked molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenbach, Albert C; Bruns, Carson J; Cao, Dennis; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2012-09-18

    Fashioned through billions of years of evolution, biological molecular machines, such as ATP synthase, myosin, and kinesin, use the intricate relative motions of their components to drive some of life's most essential processes. Having control over the motions in molecules is imperative for life to function, and many chemists have designed, synthesized, and investigated artificial molecular systems that also express controllable motions within molecules. Using bistable mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs), based on donor-acceptor recognition motifs, we have sought to imitate the sophisticated nanoscale machines present in living systems. In this Account, we analyze the thermodynamic characteristics of a series of redox-switchable [2]rotaxanes and [2]catenanes. Control and understanding of the relative intramolecular movements of components in MIMs have been vital in the development of a variety of applications of these compounds ranging from molecular electronic devices to drug delivery systems. These bistable donor-acceptor MIMs undergo redox-activated switching between two isomeric states. Under ambient conditions, the dominant translational isomer, the ground-state coconformation (GSCC), is in equilibrium with the less favored translational isomer, the metastable-state coconformation (MSCC). By manipulating the redox state of the recognition site associated with the GSCC, we can stimulate the relative movements of the components in these bistable MIMs. The thermodynamic parameters of model host-guest complexes provide a good starting point to rationalize the ratio of GSCC to MSCC at equilibrium. The bistable [2]rotaxanes show a strong correlation between the relative free energies of model complexes and the ground-state distribution constants (K(GS)). This relationship does not always hold for bistable [2]catenanes, most likely because of the additional steric and electronic constraints present when the two rings are mechanically interlocked with each other

  10. Coordination polymers of Fe(iii) and Al(iii) ions with TCA ligand: distinctive fluorescence, CO2 uptake, redox-activity and oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Barun; Sappati, Subrahmanyam; Singh, Santosh K; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2016-04-28

    Fe and Al belong to different groups in the periodic table, one from the p-block and the other from the d-block. In spite of their different groups, they have the similarity of exhibiting a stable 3+ oxidation state. Here we have prepared Fe(iii) and Al(iii) based coordination polymers in the form of metal-organic gels with the 4,4',4''-tricarboxyltriphenylamine (TCA) ligand, namely Fe-TCA and Al-TCA, and evaluated some important physicochemical properties. Specifically, the electrical conductivity, redox-activity, porosity, and electrocatalytic activity (oxygen evolution reaction) of the Fe-TCA system were noted to be remarkably higher than those of the Al-TCA system. As for the photophysical properties, almost complete quenching of the fluorescence originating from TCA was observed in case of the Fe-TCA system, whereas for the Al-TCA system a significant retention of fluorescence with red-shifted emission was observed. Quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were performed to unravel the origin of such discriminative behaviour of these coordination polymer systems.

  11. GeO{sub x} interfacial layer scavenging remotely induced by metal electrode in metal/HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}/Ge capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taehoon; Jung, Yong Chan; Seong, Sejong; Ahn, Jinho, E-mail: jhahn@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Bo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Research Institute of Advanced Materials (RIAM), Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Sung, E-mail: parkis77@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-11

    The metal gate electrodes of Ni, W, and Pt have been investigated for their scavenging effect: a reduction of the GeO{sub x} interfacial layer (IL) between HfO{sub 2} dielectric and Ge substrate in metal/HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}/Ge capacitors. All the capacitors were fabricated using the same process except for the material used in the metal electrodes. Capacitance-voltage measurements, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy were conducted to confirm the scavenging of GeO{sub x} IL. Interestingly, these metals are observed to remotely scavenge the interfacial layer, reducing its thickness in the order of Ni, W, and then Pt. The capacitance equivalent thickness of these capacitors with Ni, W, and Pt electrodes are evaluated to be 2.7 nm, 3.0 nm, and 3.5 nm, and each final remnant physical thickness of GeO{sub x} IL layer is 1.1 nm 1.4 nm, and 1.9 nm, respectively. It is suggested that the scavenging effect induced by the metal electrodes is related to the concentration of oxygen vacancies generated by oxidation reaction at the metal/HfO{sub 2} interface.

  12. Resistivity scaling due to electron surface scattering in thin metal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianji; Gall, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The effect of electron surface scattering on the thickness-dependent electrical resistivity ρ of thin metal layers is investigated using nonequilibrium Green's function density functional transport simulations. Cu(001) thin films with thickness d =1 -2 nm are used as a model system, employing a random one-monolayer-high surface roughness and frozen phonons to cause surface and bulk scattering, respectively. The zero-temperature resistivity increases from 9.7 ±1.0 μ Ω cm at d =1.99 nm to 18.7 ±2.6 μ Ω cm at d =0.9 0 nm, contradicting the asymptotic T =0 prediction from the classical Fuchs-Sondheimer model. At T =9 00 K, ρ =5.8 ±0.1 μ Ω cm for bulk Cu and ρ =13.4 ±1.1 and 22.5 ±2.4 μ Ω cm for layers with d =1.99 and 0.90 nm, respectively, indicating an approximately additive phonon contribution which, however, is smaller than for bulk Cu or atomically smooth layers. The overall data indicate that the resistivity contribution from surface scattering is temperature-independent and proportional to 1 /d , suggesting that it can be described using a surface-scattering mean-free path λs for 2D transport which is channel-independent and proportional to d . Data fitting indicates λs=4 ×d for the particular simulated Cu(001) surfaces with a one-monolayer-high surface roughness. The 1 /d dependence deviates considerably from previous 1 /d2 predictions from quantum models, indicating that the small-roughness approximation in these models is not applicable to very thin (<2 nm) layers, where the surface roughness is a considerable fraction of d .

  13. Gold nanoparticle plasmon resonance in near-field coupled Au NPs layer/Al film nanostructure: Dependence on metal film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A.; Kozachenko, Viktor V.; Naumenko, Antonina P.; Berezovska, Nataliya I.; Kutsevol, Nataliya V.; Chumachenko, Vasyl A.; Haftel, Michael; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.

    2018-05-01

    We study the effects of coupling between plasmonic metal nanoparticles and a thin metal film by using light extinction spectroscopy. A planar monolayer of gold nanoparticles located near an aluminum thin film (thicknesses within the range of 0-62 nm) was used to analyze the coupling between the monolayer and the thin metal film. SPR peak area increase for polymer coated Au NPs, non-monotonical behavior of the peak area for bare Au NPs, as well as red shift and broadening of SPR at the increase of the Al film thickness have been observed. These effects are rationalized as a result of coupling of the layer of Au NPs with Al film through the field of localized surface plasmons in Au NPs that causes the excitation of collective plasmonic gap mode in the nanostructure. An additional mechanism for bare Au NPs is the non-radiative damping of SPR that is caused by the electrical contact between metal NPs and film.

  14. Atomic-layer-deposited WNxCy thin films as diffusion barrier for copper metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Oh, Su Suk; Kim, Ki-Bum; Kang, Dae-Hwan; Li, Wei-Min; Haukka, Suvi; Tuominen, Marko

    2003-06-01

    The properties of WNxCy films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using WF6, NH3, and triethyl boron as source gases were characterized as a diffusion barrier for copper metallization. It is noted that the as-deposited film shows an extremely low resistivity of about 350 μΩ cm with a film density of 15.37 g/cm3. The film composition measured from Rutherford backscattering spectrometry shows W, C, and N of ˜48, 32, and 20 at. %, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analyses show that the as-deposited film is composed of face-centered-cubic phase with a lattice parameter similar to both β-WC1-x and β-W2N with an equiaxed microstructure. The barrier property of this ALD-WNxCy film at a nominal thickness of 12 nm deposited between Cu and Si fails only after annealing at 700 °C for 30 min.

  15. General access to metal oxide (Metal = Mn, Co, Ni) double-layer nanospheres for application in lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yuan; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Beibei; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A series of metal oxide double layer nanospheres were prepared. • The obtained materials show excellent performances in lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors. • The unique structure of double layers is beneficial for superior electrochemical performances. - Abstract: In this work, a series of metal oxide double-layer nanospheres (DLNs), such as Mn 2 O 3 , Co 3 O 4 , NiO, NiCo 2 O 4 , and MnCo 2 O 4 have been successfully synthesized through a general template method. The layers of nanospheres were assembled by different nanostructure units and the removing of the SiO 2 template formed a void of several ten nanometers between the double layers, resulting large specific surface areas for them. The energy storage performances of the as-prepared double-layer nanospheres were further investigated in lithium ion battery and supercapacitor systems. Based on their unique nanostructures, the double-layer nanospheres exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with long cycle stability and high specific capacities or capacitances. The best of these, DLNs-NiCo 2 O 4 can deliver a reversible capacity of 1107 mAh g −1 at 0.25C after 200 cycles in lithium ion battery system, and shows a capacitance of 1088 F g −1 with capacitance loss of less than 3% at 5 A g −1 after 5000 cycles in supercapacitors.

  16. Photoluminescence emission from Alq3 organic layer in metal–Alq3–metal plasmonic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bohr-Ran; Liao, Chung-Chi [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Fan, Wan-Ting [Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Wu, Jin-Han; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Yi-Ping; Li, Jung-Yu; Chen, Shih-Pu [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), 195, Sec. 4, Chung-Hsin Road, Chutung 310, Taiwan (China); Ke, Wen-Cheng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Tao-Yuan 320, Taiwan (China); Chen, Nai-Chuan, E-mail: ncchen001@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-01

    The emission properties of an organic layer embedded in a metal–organic–metal (MOM) structure were investigated. A partially radiative odd-SPW as well as a non-radiative even-SPW modes are supported by hybridization of the SPW modes on the opposite organic/metal interface in the structure. Because of the competition by this radiative SPW, the population of excitons that recombine to form non-radiative SPW should be reduced. This may account for why the photoluminescence intensity of the MOM sample is higher than that of an organic–metal sample even though the MOM sample has an additional metal layer that should intuitively act as a filter.

  17. Characterization of metal-supported axial injection plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells with aqueous suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbillig, D.; Kesler, O.

    A method for manufacturing metal-supported SOFCs with atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is presented, making use of aqueous suspension feedstock for the electrolyte layer and dry powder feedstock for the anode and cathode layers. The cathode layer was deposited first directly onto a metal support, in order to minimize contact resistance, and to allow the introduction of added porosity. The electrolyte layers produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) were characterized in terms of thickness, permeability, and microstructure, and the impact of substrate morphology on electrolyte properties was investigated. Fuel cells produced by APS were electrochemically tested at temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 °C. The substrate morphology had little effect on open circuit voltage, but substrates with finer porosity resulted in lower kinetic losses in the fuel cell polarization.

  18. Characterization of metal-supported axial injection plasma sprayed solid oxide fuel cells with aqueous suspension plasma sprayed electrolyte layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldbillig, D. [University of British Columbia, Department of Materials Engineering, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kesler, O. [University of Toronto, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    A method for manufacturing metal-supported SOFCs with atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) is presented, making use of aqueous suspension feedstock for the electrolyte layer and dry powder feedstock for the anode and cathode layers. The cathode layer was deposited first directly onto a metal support, in order to minimize contact resistance, and to allow the introduction of added porosity. The electrolyte layers produced by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) were characterized in terms of thickness, permeability, and microstructure, and the impact of substrate morphology on electrolyte properties was investigated. Fuel cells produced by APS were electrochemically tested at temperatures ranging from 650 to 750 C. The substrate morphology had little effect on open circuit voltage, but substrates with finer porosity resulted in lower kinetic losses in the fuel cell polarization. (author)

  19. Chemically-modified graphene sheets as an active layer for eco-friendly metal electroplating on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Joon-Suk; Hwang, Taeseon; Nam, Gi-Yong; Hong, Jung-Pyo; Bae, Ah-Hyun; Son, Sang-Ik; Lee, Geun-Ho; Sung, Hak kyung; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Nam, Jae-Do

    2012-01-01

    Eco-friendly nickel (Ni) electroplating was carried out on a plastic substrate using chemically modified graphene sheets as an active and conductive layer to initiate electroplating without using conventional pre-treatment or electroless metal-seeding processes. A graphene oxide (GO) solution was self-assembled on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film followed by evaporation to give GO layers (thickness around 6.5 μm) on PET (GO/PET) film. Then, the GO/PET film was chemically and thermally reduced to convert the GO layers to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) layers on the PET substrate. The RGO-coated PET (RGO/PET) film showed the sheet resistance of 100 Ω per square. On RGO/PET film, Ni electroplating was conducted under the constant-current condition and the entire surface of the PET film was completely metalized with Ni without any voids.

  20. Influence of polycrystalline silicon layer on flow through «metal — p-Si» contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyntyna V. A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of investigations of charge transport in the "metal — p-Si" contacts with different thickness of polycrystalline p-Si layer the mechanisms of charge transport through such structures are shown. It is established that with increasing thickness of the layer of polycrystalline p-Si current transport mechanism changes from a double injection into the drift-diffusion. This change is due to an increase in the drift current component in the space charge zone of "metal — p-Si" contact, which arises as a result of increased surface density of scattering barriers, which are localized at the boundaries of neighboring silicon polycrystals.

  1. Computer-aided study of key factors determining high mechanical properties of nanostructured surface layers in metal-ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, Igor S.; Shilko, Evgeny V.; Ovcharenko, Vladimir E.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the movable cellular automaton method. It is based on numerical models of surface layers of the metal-ceramic composite NiCr-TiC modified under electron beam irradiation in inert gas plasmas. The models take into account different geometric, concentration and mechanical parameters of ceramic and metallic components. The authors study the contributions of key structural factors in mechanical properties of surface layers and determine the ranges of their variations by providing the optimum balance of strength, strain hardening and fracture toughness.

  2. Defect physics vis-à-vis electrochemical performance in layered mixed-metal oxide cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Khang; Johannes, Michelle

    Layered mixed-metal oxides with different compositions of (Ni,Co,Mn) [NCM] or (Ni,Co,Al) [NCA] have been used in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Yet their defect physics and chemistry is still not well understood, despite having important implications for the electrochemical performance. In this presentation, we report a hybrid density functional study of intrinsic point defects in the compositions LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM1/3) and LiNi1/3Co1/3Al1/3O2 (NCA1/3) which can also be regarded as model compounds for NCM and NCA. We will discuss defect landscapes in NCM1/3 and NCA1/3 under relevant synthesis conditions with a focus on the formation of metal antisite defects and its implications on the electrochemical properties and ultimately the design of NCM and NCA cathode materials.

  3. A Flexible Solid Electrolyte Interphase Layer for Long-Life Lithium Metal Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nian-Wu; Shi, Yang; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zeng, Xian-Xiang; Li, Jin-Yi; Li, Cong-Ju; Wan, Li-Jun; Wen, Rui; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2018-02-05

    Lithium (Li) metal is a promising anode material for high-energy density batteries. However, the unstable and static solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) can be destroyed by the dynamic Li plating/stripping behavior on the Li anode surface, leading to side reactions and Li dendrites growth. Herein, we design a smart Li polyacrylic acid (LiPAA) SEI layer high elasticity to address the dynamic Li plating/stripping processes by self-adapting interface regulation, which is demonstrated by in situ AFM. With the high binding ability and excellent stability of the LiPAA polymer, the smart SEI can significantly reduce the side reactions and improve battery safety markedly. Stable cycling of 700 h is achieved in the LiPAA-Li/LiPAA-Li symmetrical cell. The innovative strategy of self-adapting SEI design is broadly applicable, providing opportunities for use in Li metal anodes. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Metallic behavior and enhanced adsorption energy of graphene on BN layer induced by Cu(111) substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption properties and the electronic structure of graphene/BN and graphene/BN/Cu(111) systems by using van der Waals density functional theory. The ground-state adsorption site of graphene on BN/Cu(111) is found to be the same as that of graphene/BN. The Cu(111) substrate did not induce a significant change in the geometrical feature of graphene/BN. However, the adsorption energy of graphene on BN/Cu(111) is observed to be enhanced due to the Cu(111) substrate. In addition, we have found that the graphene layer displays a weak metallic character in graphene/BN/Cu(111) whereas an energy band gap is observed in the graphene in the graphene/BN bilayer system. Therefore, we have found that the metallic Cu(111) substrate affects the electronic structure and adsorption properties of graphene on BN/Cu(111), although it has no significant effect on the geometrical features.

  5. Thermal stability of atomic layer deposited WCxNy electrodes for metal oxide semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonensain, Oren; Fadida, Sivan; Fisher, Ilanit; Gao, Juwen; Danek, Michal; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2018-01-01

    This study is a thorough investigation of the chemical, structural, and electrical stability of W based organo-metallic films, grown by atomic layer deposition, for future use as gate electrodes in advanced metal oxide semiconductor structures. In an earlier work, we have shown that high effective work-function (4.7 eV) was produced by nitrogen enriched films (WCxNy) dominated by W-N chemical bonding, and low effective work-function (4.2 eV) was produced by hydrogen plasma resulting in WCx films dominated by W-C chemical bonding. In the current work, we observe, using x-ray diffraction analysis, phase transformation of the tungsten carbide and tungsten nitride phases after 900 °C annealing to the cubic tungsten phase. Nitrogen diffusion is also observed and is analyzed with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. After this 900 °C anneal, WCxNy effective work function tunability is lost and effective work-function values of 4.7-4.8 eV are measured, similar to stable effective work function values measured for PVD TiN up to 900 °C anneal. All the observed changes after annealing are discussed and correlated to the observed change in the effective work function.

  6. Sputter fabricated Nb-oxide-Nb josephson junctions incorporating post-oxidation noble metal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.J.P.; Donaldson, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    We present an extension, involving other metals, of the work of Hawkins and Clarke, who found that a thin layer of copper prevented the formation of the superconductive shorts which are an inevitable consequence of sputtering niobium counter-electrodes directly on top of niobium oxide. We find gold to be the most satisfactory, and that 0.3 nm is sufficient to guarantee short-free junctions of excellent electrical and mechanical stability, though high excess conductance means they are best suited to shunted-junction applications, as in SQUIDs. We present results for critical current dependence on oxide thickness and on gold thickness. Our data shows that thermal oxide growth is described by the Cabrera-Mott mechanism. We show that the protective effect of the gold layer can be understood in terms of the electro-chemistry of the Nb-oxide-Au structure, and that the reduced quasi-particle resistance of the junctions relative to goldfree junctions with evaporated counterelectrodes can be explained in terms of barrier shape modification, and not by proximity effect mechanisms. The performance of a DC SQUID based on these junctions is described

  7. Flexible FETs using ultrathin Si microwires embedded in solution processed dielectric and metal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S.; Yogeswaran, N.; Taube, W.; Lorenzelli, L.; Dahiya, R.

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a novel manufacturing route for obtaining high performance bendable field effect transistors (FET) by embedding silicon (Si) microwires (2.5 μm thick) in layers of solution-processed dielectric and metallic layers. The objective of this study is to explore heterogeneous integration of Si with polymers and to exploit the benefits of both microelectronics and printing technologies. Arrays of Si microwires are developed on silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers and transfer printed to polyimide (PI) substrate through a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) carrier stamp. Following the transfer printing of Si microwires, two different processing steps were developed to obtain top gate top contact and back gate top contact FETs. Electrical characterizations indicate devices having mobility as high as 117.5 cm2 V-1 s-1. The fabricated devices were also modeled using SILVACO Atlas. Simulation results show a trend in the electrical response similar to that of experimental results. In addition, a cyclic test was performed to demonstrate the reliability and mechanical robustness of the Si μ-wires on flexible substrates.

  8. Flexible FETs using ultrathin Si microwires embedded in solution processed dielectric and metal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S; Yogeswaran, N; Lorenzelli, L; Taube, W; Dahiya, R

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel manufacturing route for obtaining high performance bendable field effect transistors (FET) by embedding silicon (Si) microwires (2.5 μm thick) in layers of solution-processed dielectric and metallic layers. The objective of this study is to explore heterogeneous integration of Si with polymers and to exploit the benefits of both microelectronics and printing technologies. Arrays of Si microwires are developed on silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers and transfer printed to polyimide (PI) substrate through a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) carrier stamp. Following the transfer printing of Si microwires, two different processing steps were developed to obtain top gate top contact and back gate top contact FETs. Electrical characterizations indicate devices having mobility as high as 117.5 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . The fabricated devices were also modeled using SILVACO Atlas. Simulation results show a trend in the electrical response similar to that of experimental results. In addition, a cyclic test was performed to demonstrate the reliability and mechanical robustness of the Si μ-wires on flexible substrates. (paper)

  9. Effect of surfactant on electrodeposited Ni-P layer as an under bump metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yung-Chi; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2007-01-01

    In the microelectronic industry, the nickel plating has been used as the under bump metallization (UBM). The electroplated process was demonstrated to be a favorable alternative approach to produce the Ni-P layer as UBM. In this study, the role of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) addition in electrodeposition was investigated. The variations on surface morphology and surface roughness in the SDS-added process of electroplated Ni-P were revealed with both field emission scanning electronic microscope and atomic force microscope. The influence of SDS addition process in wettability of several commercial solder pastes, including Sn-37Pb, Sn-3.5Ag, and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, on electroplated Ni-P with various phosphorous contents was evaluated. The surface morphology and the surface roughness of Ni-P layer were affected by SDS addition. It was demonstrated that modified surface morphology and surface roughness acted to enhance the wettability of electroplated Ni-P. In addition, the interfacial reactions between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu and electroplated Ni-P UBM with SDS addition during deposition was also probed and discussed

  10. Electronic and optical properties of vacancy defects in single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. A.; Erementchouk, Mikhail; Hendrickson, Joshua; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2017-06-01

    A detailed first-principles study has been performed to evaluate the electronic and optical properties of single-layer (SL) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) (M X 2 ; M = transition metal such as Mo, W, and X = S, Se, Te), in the presence of vacancy defects (VDs). Defects usually play an important role in tailoring electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of semiconductors. We consider three types of VDs in SL TMDCs: (i) X vacancy, (ii) X2 vacancy, and (iii) M vacancy. We show that VDs lead to localized defect states (LDS) in the band structure, which in turn gives rise to sharp transitions in in-plane and out-of-plane optical susceptibilities, χ∥ and χ⊥. The effects of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) are also considered. We find that SOC splitting in LDS is directly related to the atomic number of the transition metal atoms. Apart from electronic and optical properties we also find magnetic signatures (local magnetic moment of ˜μB ) in MoSe2 in the presence of the Mo vacancy, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry and therefore lifts the Kramers degeneracy. We show that a simple qualitative tight-binding model (TBM), involving only the hopping between atoms surrounding the vacancy with an on-site SOC term, is sufficient to capture the essential features of LDS. In addition, the existence of the LDS can be understood from the solution of the two-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian by employing infinite mass boundary conditions. In order to provide a clear description of the optical absorption spectra, we use group theory to derive the optical selection rules between LDS for both χ∥ and χ⊥.

  11. Thin-layer chromatography of ternary complexes of group-IIIA metals with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone and 2,2'-bipyridyl on cellulose layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, H E; Saitoh, K; Suzuki, N [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1980-11-11

    Normal phase thin-layer chromatographic behaviour of several ternary complexes of group-IIIA metals with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) and 2,2'bipyridyl (bpy) has been investigated on cellulose layer. The ternary complexes of lanthanide metals show higher mutual separability than the complexes with TTA alone. Mutual separation of TTA complexes with La(III), Ce(III), Eu(III) or Y(III), Sc(III), Th(IV), and U(VI) has been successfully achieved by two-dimensional TLC, primarily with carbon tetrachloride-benzene (75:25) containing 0.02M TTA, and secondary with carbon tetrachloride-hexane (35:65) containing both 0.02M TTA and 0.02M bpy.

  12. Thorium and uranium redox-active ligand complexes; reversible intramolecular electron transfer in U(dpp-BIAN)2/ U(dpp-BIAN)2(THE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelter, Eric John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Ruilian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Joe D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Actinide complexes of the redox-active ligand dpp-BIAN{sup 2-} (dpp-BIAN = bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)acenaphthylene), An(dpp-BIAN){sub 2}(THF){sub n} (An = Th, n = 1; An = U, n = 0, 1) have been prepared. Solid-state magnetic and single-crystal X-ray data for U(dpp-BIAN){sub 2}(THF){sub n} show when n = 0, the complex exists in an f{sup 2}-{pi}*{sup 4} configuration; whereas an intramolecular electron transfer occurs for n = 1, resulting in an f{sup 3}-{pi}*{sup 3} ground configuration. The magnetic data also indicate that interconversion between the two forms of the complex is possible, limited only by the ability of THF vapor to penetrate the solid on cooling of the sample. Spectroscopic data indicate the complex exists solely in the f{sup 2}-{pi}*{sup 4} form in solution, evidenced by the appearance of only small changes in the electronic absorption spectra of the U(dpp-BIAN){sub 2} complex on titration with THF and by measurement of the solution magnetic moment m d{sub 8}-tetrahydrofuran using Evans method. Electrochemistry of the complexes is reported, with small differences observed in wave potentials between metals and in the presence of THF. These data represent the first example of a well-defined, reversible intramolecular electron transfer in an f-element complex and the second example of oxidation state change through dative interaction with a metal ion.

  13. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in surface layers of Roztocze National Park forest soils (SE Poland) by indices of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Ryszard; Kowalska, Joanna; Gąsiorek, Michał; Zadrożny, Paweł; Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Kępka, Wojciech; Tymczuk, Maryla; Orłowska, Kalina

    2017-02-01

    In most cases, in soils exposed to heavy metals accumulation, the highest content of heavy metals was noted in the surface layers of the soil profile. Accumulation of heavy metals may occur both as a result of natural processes as well as anthropogenic activities. The quality of the soil exposed to heavy metal contamination can be evaluated by indices of pollution. On the basis of determined heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Cr) in the soils of Roztocze National Park the following indices of pollution were calculated: Enrichment Factor (EF), Geoaccumulation Index (I geo ), Nemerow Pollution Index (PI Nemerow ) and Potential Ecological Risk (RI). Additionally, we introduced and calculated the Biogeochemical Index (BGI), which supports determination of the ability of the organic horizon to accumulate heavy metals. A tens of times higher content of Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn was found in the surface layers compared to their content in the parent material. This distribution of heavy metals in the studied soils was related to the influence of anthropogenic pollution (both local and distant sources of emission), as well as soil properties such as pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of the civil construction debris layer in heavy metals removal of the leachate submitted to recirculation in landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Rossmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the ability of stabilized organic matter (old MSW and construction waste (RCC to retain heavy metals from leachate generated in landfills. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of MSW to remove old heavy metals in MSW leachate produced by freshly collected, and the effect of RCC in the concentration of heavy metals in effluents from MSW old. In three columns (CR, put a layer of RCC and then MSW old and, on the other three (SR, only MSW old. Analyzed in the leachate and effluent pH, EC, BOD and metals Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb. There were similar and efficient removal of BOD and heavy metals in both treatments. The presence of the layer of RCC was considered important to the overall improvement in effluent quality, but did not influence the concentration of metals in the effluent. The order of retention of metals in the columns was: Cu ~ Pb> Cd> Zn. With the exception of Cd and Zn, all other variables assessed in the effluent were below the maximum standards set in DN 01.08 COPAM / CERH for release effluent into water bodies.

  15. A Study on Organic-Metal Halide Perovskite Film Morphology, Interfacial Layers, Tandem Applications, and Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dallas A.

    Organic-metal halide perovskites have brought about a new wave of research in the photovoltaic community due to their ideally suited optical and electronic parameters. In less than a decade, perovskite solar cell performance has skyrocketed to unprecedented efficiencies with numerous reported methodologies. Perovskites face many challenges with high-quality film morphology, interfacial layers, and long-term stability. In this work, these active areas are explored through a combination of studies. First, the importance of perovskite film precursor ratios is explored with an in-depth study of carrier lifetime and solvent-grain effects. It was found that excess lead iodide precursor greatly improves the film morphology by reducing pinholes in the solar absorber. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent was found to mend grains, as well as improve carrier lifetime and device performance, possibly by passivation of grain boundary traps. Second, applications of perovskite with tandem cells is investigated, with an emphasis for silicon devices. Perovskites can easily be integrated with silicon, which already has strong market presence. Additionally, both materials' bandgaps are ideally suited for maximum tandem efficiency. The silicon/perovskite tandem device structure necessitated the optimization of inverted (p-i-n) structure devices. PEDOT:PSS, copper oxide, and nickel oxide p-type layers were explored through a combination of photoluminescent, chemical reactivity, and solar simulation results. Results were hindered due to resistive ITO and rough silicon substrates, but tandem devices displayed Voc indicative of proper monolithic performance. Third, replacement of titanium dioxide n-type layer with iron oxide (Fe 2O3, common rust) was studied. Iron oxide experiences less ultraviolet instability than that of titanium dioxide under solar illumination. It was found that current density slightly decreased due to parasitic absorption from the rust, but that open circuit voltage

  16. Highly sensitive electrochemical immunoassay for human IgG using double-encoded magnetic redox-active nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, D.; Tang, J.; Su, B.; Chen, H.; Chen, G.; Huang, J.

    2010-01-01

    A new sandwich-type electrochemical immunoassay was developed for the detection of human IgG using doubly-encoded and magnetic redox-active nanoparticles as recognition elements on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode modified with anti-IgG on nanogold particles. The recognition elements were synthesized by coating magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with Prussian blue nanoparticles and then covered with peroxidase-labeled anti-IgG antibodies (POx-anti-IgG) on Prussian blue nanoparticles. The immunoelectrode displays very good electrochemical properties towards detection of IgG via using double-encoded magnetic redox-active nanoparticles as trace and hydrogen peroxide as enzyme substrate. Its limit of detection (10 pmol.L -1 ) is 10-fold better than that of using plain POx-anti-IgG secondary antibodies. The method was applied to the detection of IgG in serum samples, and an excellent correspondence with the reference values was found. (author)

  17. One-step synthesis of redox-active polymer/AU nanocomposites for electrochemical immunoassay of multiplexed tumor markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhimin; Rong, Qinfeng; Ma, Zhanfang; Han, Hongliang

    2015-03-15

    In this work, a simple and sensitive multiplexed immunoassay protocol for simultaneous electrochemical determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was designed using redox-active nanocomposites. As the redox-active species, the poly(o-phenylenediamine) (POPD)/Au nanocomposite and poly(vinyl ferrocene-2-aminothiophenol) (poly(VFc-ATP))/Au nanocomposite were obtained by one-step method which HAuCl4 was used as the oxidant. With Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), the nanocomposites were successful to immobilize labeled anti-CEA and anti-AFP as the immunosensing probes. The proposed electrochemical immunoassay enabled the simultaneous monitoring of AFP and CEA in a wide range of 0.01-100ngmL(-1). The detection limits was 0.006ngmL(-1) for CEA and 0.003ngmL(-1) for AFP (S/N=3). The assay results of serum samples with the proposed method were well consistent with the reference values from standard ELISA method. And the negligible cross-reactivity between the two analytes makes it possesses potential promise in clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The different behaviors of three oxidative mediators in probing the redox activities of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinsheng; Wang Min; Yang Zhenyu; Wang Zhong; Wang Huaisheng; Yang Zhengyu

    2007-01-01

    The different behaviors of three lipophilic mediators including 2-methyl-1,4-naphthalenedione(menadione), 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) in probing the redox activity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied by several comparative factor-influencing experiments. Hydrophilic ferricyanide was employed as an extracellular electron acceptor, and constituted dual mediator system with each of three lipophilic mediators. Limiting-current microelectrode voltammetry was used to measure the quantity of ferrocyanide accumulations, giving a direct measure of the redox activity. It was found that under anaerobic condition, menadione interacts with anaerobic respiration pathway, whereas DCPIP and TMPD interact with fermentation pathway in the yeast. Based on the understanding of the interaction between the yeast and each of three mediators, three mediators were respectively employed in evaluating the toxicity of acetic acid on S. cerevisiae and, the results for the first showed that the mediators are complementary to each other when used as electron carriers in biotoxicity assay

  19. The different behaviors of three oxidative mediators in probing the redox activities of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jinsheng [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Wang Min [School of Medicine, Ehime University, Toon 791-0295 (Japan); Yang Zhenyu [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Jiangxi 330047 (China); Wang Zhong [School of Medicine, Ehime University, Toon 791-0295 (Japan); Wang Huaisheng [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059 (China); Yang Zhengyu [Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2007-07-30

    The different behaviors of three lipophilic mediators including 2-methyl-1,4-naphthalenedione(menadione), 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) in probing the redox activity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied by several comparative factor-influencing experiments. Hydrophilic ferricyanide was employed as an extracellular electron acceptor, and constituted dual mediator system with each of three lipophilic mediators. Limiting-current microelectrode voltammetry was used to measure the quantity of ferrocyanide accumulations, giving a direct measure of the redox activity. It was found that under anaerobic condition, menadione interacts with anaerobic respiration pathway, whereas DCPIP and TMPD interact with fermentation pathway in the yeast. Based on the understanding of the interaction between the yeast and each of three mediators, three mediators were respectively employed in evaluating the toxicity of acetic acid on S. cerevisiae and, the results for the first showed that the mediators are complementary to each other when used as electron carriers in biotoxicity assay.

  20. Integrated circuit-based electrochemical sensor for spatially resolved detection of redox-active metabolites in biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, Daniel L; Sakhtah, Hassan; Rosenstein, Jacob K; Levine, Peter M; Thimot, Jordan; Emmett, Kevin; Dietrich, Lars E P; Shepard, Kenneth L

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in monitoring spatiotemporal expression patterns of genes and proteins with fluorescent probes, direct detection of metabolites and small molecules remains challenging. A technique for spatially resolved detection of small molecules would benefit the study of redox-active metabolites that are produced by microbial biofilms and can affect their development. Here we present an integrated circuit-based electrochemical sensing platform featuring an array of working electrodes and parallel potentiostat channels. 'Images' over a 3.25 × 0.9 mm(2) area can be captured with a diffusion-limited spatial resolution of 750 μm. We demonstrate that square wave voltammetry can be used to detect, identify and quantify (for concentrations as low as 2.6 μM) four distinct redox-active metabolites called phenazines. We characterize phenazine production in both wild-type and mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 colony biofilms, and find correlations with fluorescent reporter imaging of phenazine biosynthetic gene expression.

  1. 2-periodic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as supermolecular building layers (SBLs) for making targeted 3-periodic MOFs

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Eubank, Jarrod F.

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for chemical assemblies, multidimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), supermolecular building layers (SBLs), inorganic molecular building blocks (MBBs), organic MBBs (designed ligands), methods of making each, and methods of using each, and the like. In an embodiment, the composition can be used in catalysis, separations, gas storage, and drug delivery.

  2. Feasibility study of using thin aluminum nitride film as a buffer layer for dual metal gate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Seo; Cho, Byung Jin; Balasubramanian, N.; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of using an ultra thin aluminum nitride (AlN) buffer layer for dual metal gates CMOS process. Since the buffer layer should not affect the thickness of gate dielectric, it should be removed or consumed during subsequent process. In this work, it was shown that a thin AlN dielectric layer would be reacted with initial gate metals and would be consumed during subsequent annealing, resulting in no increase of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT). The reaction of AlN layer with tantalum (Ta) and hafnium (Hf) during subsequent annealing, which was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, shifted the flat-band voltage of AlN buffered MOS capacitors. No contribution to equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) was also an indication showing the full consumption of AIN, which was confirmed with TEM analysis. The work functions of gate metals were modulated through the reaction, suggesting that the consumption of AlN resulted in new thin metal alloys. Finally, it was found that the barrier heights of the new alloys were consistent with their work functions

  3. 2-periodic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as supermolecular building layers (SBLs) for making targeted 3-periodic MOFs

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-09-22

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for chemical assemblies, multidimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), supermolecular building layers (SBLs), inorganic molecular building blocks (MBBs), organic MBBs (designed ligands), methods of making each, and methods of using each, and the like. In an embodiment, the composition can be used in catalysis, separations, gas storage, and drug delivery.

  4. Study of the mechanical properties of single- layer and multi-layer metallic coatings with protective-decorative applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherneva Sabina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Single thin coating of matt nickel (Nimat, a mirror bright copper (Cubright, a mirror bright nickel (Nibright and their combinations were electrochemically deposited on brass substrate with thickness 500 μm. The basic aim was electrodeposition of two-layer Cubright/Nimat and Nibright/Cubright systems, and three-layer Nibright Cubrigh/Nimat system, which are among the most widely applied protective and decorative systems in light and medium operating conditions of corrosion. The thicknesses of the obtained films varied from 1 μm to 3.25 μm. They were investigated via nanoindentation experiments, in order to characterize their basic physical and mechanical characteristics, related with their good adhesion and corrosion protective ability, as well as ensuring the integrity of the system “protective coating/substrate” to possible mechanical, dynamic and/or thermal stresses. As a result, load-displacement curves were obtained and indentation hardness and indentation modulus were calculated using the Oliver & Pharr approximation method. The dependence of the indentation modulus and the indentation hardness on the depth of the indentation, surface morphology and structure of the obtained coatings, their texture and surface roughness were investigated too. The obtained results showed that the three-layer Nibright/Cubright /Niimat/CuZn37 system has highest indentation modulus and indentation hardness, following by two-layer Nibright/Cubright system and single layer coatings.

  5. Fabrication of nano-sized metal patterns on flexible polyethylene-terephthalate substrate using bi-layer nanoimprint lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seon Yong; Jung, Ho Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jun-Ho [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research Center, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Yuseong-gu Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heon, E-mail: heonlee@korea.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    Polymer films are widely used as a substrate for displays and for solar cells since they are cheap, transparent and flexible, and their material properties are easy to design. Polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) is especially useful for various applications requiring transparency, flexibility and good thermal and chemical resistance. In this study, nano-sized metal patterns were fabricated on flexible PET film by using nanoimprint lithography (NIL). Water-soluble poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) resin was used as a planarization and sacrificial layer for the lift-off process, as it does not damage the PET films and can easily be etched off by using oxygen plasma. NIL was used to fabricate the nano-sized patterns on the non-planar or flexible substrate. Finally, a nano-sized metal pattern was successfully formed by depositing the metal layer over the imprinted resist patterns and applying the lift-off process, which is economic and environmentally friendly, to the PET films.

  6. Performance of Zr as FCCI barrier layer for metallic fuel of fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaity, Santu; Bhagat, R.K.; Kutty, T.R.G.; Kumar, Arun; Laik, A.; Kamath, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) and uranium-plutonium-zirconium (U-Pu-Zr) alloys have been considered as promising advanced fuels for fast reactor in India because of its high breeding potential, high thermal conductivity, high fissile and fertile atom densities, low doubling time and ease of fabrication compared to other ceramic fuels. The chemical compatibility between the fuel and clad material also known as fuel-clad chemical interaction (FCCI) has been recognized as one of the major concerns about the performance of the metallic fuel. Primarily, two design concepts have been proposed for the metallic fuel development programme for FBRs. One of them is based on sodium bonded ternary U-Pu-Zr alloy with T91 grade steel clad, and the other consists of binary U-Pu alloy mechanically bonded to T91 clad with a Zr liner between the fuel and clad. U will be the axial blanket material for U-Pu binary fuel. In the present investigation, the performance of Zr as FCCI barrier layer was studied through diffusion couple experiments of U/Zr/T91. A thin Zr foil (thickness ∼ 200 μm) sandwiched between U and T91 discs was kept inside a fixture made of Inconel 600 alloy. The fixture was encapsulated in quartz tube under Helium atmosphere and then heated at 650, 700 and 750 deg C for upto 1500 h. The extent of reaction and composition of phases formed were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA) equipped with wavelength dispersive spectrometer (WDS)

  7. Rigorous assessment of patterning solution of metal layer in 7 nm technology node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weimin; Ciofi, Ivan; Saad, Yves; Matagne, Philippe; Bachmann, Michael; Gillijns, Werner; Lucas, Kevin; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Schmoeller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In a 7 nm node (N7), the logic design requires a critical poly pitch of 42 to 45 nm and a metal 1 (M1) pitch of 28 to 32 nm. Such high-pattern density pushes the 193 immersion lithography solution toward its limit and also brings extremely complex patterning scenarios. The N7 M1 layer may require a self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) with a triple litho-etch (LE3) block process. Therefore, the whole patterning process flow requires multiple exposure+etch+deposition processes and each step introduces a particular impact on the pattern profiles and the topography. In this study, we have successfully integrated a simulation tool that enables emulation of the whole patterning flow with realistic process-dependent three-dimensional (3-D) profile and topology. We use this tool to study the patterning process variations of the N7 M1 layer including the overlay control, the critical dimension uniformity budget, and the lithographic process window (PW). The resulting 3-D pattern structure can be used to optimize the process flow, verify design rules, extract parasitics, and most importantly, simulate the electric field, and identify hot spots for dielectric reliability. As an example application, the maximum electric field at M1 tip-to-tip, which is one of the most critical patterning locations, has been simulated and extracted. The approach helps to investigate the impact of process variations on dielectric reliability. We have also assessed the alternative M1 patterning flow with a single exposure block using extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) and analyzed its advantages compared to the LE3 block approach.

  8. Polydopamine as an intermediate layer for silver and hydroxyapatite immobilisation on metallic biomaterials surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidin, Syafiqah, E-mail: syafiqahsaidin@gmail.com [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Chevallier, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.chevallier@crsfa.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering and University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq, E-mail: rafiq@biomedical.utm.my [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Hermawan, Hendra, E-mail: hendra.hermawan@biomedical.utm.my [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Mantovani, Diego, E-mail: Diego.Mantovani@gmn.ulaval.ca [Laboratory for Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering and University Hospital Research Center, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implant is more susceptible to bacterial infection as the micro-structure surface which is beneficial for osseointegration, could also become a reservoir for bacterial colonisation. The aim of this study was to introduce the antibacterial effect of silver (Ag) to the biomineralised HA by utilising a polydopamine film as an intermediate layer for Ag and HA immobilisation. Sufficient catechol groups in polydopamine were required to bind chemically stainless steel 316 L, Ag and HA elements. Different amounts of Ag nanoparticles were metallised on the polydopamine grafted stainless steel by varying the immersion time in silver nitrate solution from 12 to 24 h. Another polydopamine layer was then formed on the metallised film, followed by surface biomineralisation in 1.5 Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) solution for 3 days. Several characterisation techniques including X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Contact Angle showed that Ag nanoparticles and HA agglomerations were successfully immobilised on the polydopamine film through an element reduction process. The Ag metallisation at 24 h has killed the viable bacteria with 97.88% of bactericidal ratio. The Ag was ionised up to 7 days which is crucial to prevent bacterial infection during the first stage of implant restoration. The aged functionalised films were considered stable due to less alteration of its chemical composition, surface roughness and wettability properties. The ability of the functionalised film to coat complex and micro scale metal make it suitable for dental and orthopaedic implants application. - Highlights: • Successful immobilisation of Ag and HA on SS316L functionalised with polydopamine • Development of antibacterial film at 97.88% bactericidal ratio • The functionalised films were stable under ageing test at 7 days.

  9. Theoretical study of thin metallic deposit layers: from electronic structure to kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senhaji, Abdelali

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the relation between the equilibrium surface segregation in an alloy A c B 1-c and the kinetics of dissolution of a few metallic layers of A (or B) deposited on a B (or A) substrate. We used an energetic model derived from the electronic structure (T.B.I.M.) allowing us to study the surface segregation both in disordered and in ordered alloys. Moreover we have developed a kinetic model (K.T.B.I.M.) consistent with the TBIM energetic model to study the kinetics both of segregation and dissolution. This process has been applied to the Cu-Pt system for which Auger, LEED and photoemission experiments are in progress at L.U.R.E. Concerning the equilibrium surface segregation in the ordered state we have studied all the possible terminations for the (111) and (100) faces in the various ordered structures occurring on the F.C.C. lattice (L1 0 , L1 1 - L1 2 and L'). In particular we have determined the domain of (meta)stability of each termination, which is very useful to understand the competition between single and double steps in ordered alloys. Studying the kinetics of dissolution of a few layers of Cu (or Pt) deposited on the (111) or (100) face of a Pt (or Cu) substrate, we have shown the formation of surface compounds with a great variety of behaviours depending on the face or on the temperature. All these behaviours can be rationalized with the local equilibrium concept, which we have defined accurately within our model and which allows to connect the dissolution mode with the equilibrium segregation. (author) [fr

  10. Polarization-selective infrared bandpass filter based on a two-layer subwavelength metallic grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohne, Andrew J.; Moon, Benjamin; Baumbauer, Carol L.; Gray, Tristan; Dilts, James; Shaw, Joseph A.; Dickensheets, David L.; Nakagawa, Wataru

    2017-08-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a polarization-selective infrared bandpass filter based on a two-layer subwavelength metallic grating for use in polarimetric imaging. Gold nanowires were deposited via physical vapor deposition (PVD) onto a silicon surface relief grating that was patterned using electron beam lithography (EBL) and fabricated using standard silicon processing techniques. Optical characterization with a broad-spectrum tungsten halogen light source and a grating spectrometer showed normalized peak TM transmission of 53% with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 122 nm, which was consistent with rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) simulations. Simulation results suggested that device operation relied on suppression of the TM transmission caused by surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation at the gold-silicon interface and an increase in TM transmission caused by a Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance in the cavity between the gratings. TE rejection occurred at the initial air/gold interface. We also present simulation results of an improved design based on a two-dielectric grating where two different SPP resonances allowed us to improve the shape of the passband by suppressing the side lobes. This newer design resulted in improved side-band performance and increased peak TM transmission.

  11. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Growth Mechanism, Controllability, and Scalability

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan

    2017-07-06

    Recently there have been many research breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene, boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphors (BPs), and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties in 2D materials are associated with their strictly defined low dimensionalities. These materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks for next-generation electronics. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMDC layers with scalable size, controllable thickness, and excellent electronic properties suitable for both technological applications and fundamental sciences. The capability to precisely engineer 2D materials by chemical approaches has also given rise to fascinating new physics, which could lead to exciting new applications. In this Review, we introduce the latest development of TMDC synthesis by CVD approaches and provide further insight for the controllable and reliable synthesis of atomically thin TMDCs. Understanding of the vapor-phase growth mechanism of 2D TMDCs could benefit the formation of complicated heterostructures and novel artificial 2D lattices.

  12. Atomic-layer-deposited WNxCy thin films as diffusion barrier for copper metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Oh, Su Suk; Kim, Ki-Bum; Kang, Dae-Hwan; Li, Wei-Min; Haukka, Suvi; Tuominen, Marko

    2003-01-01

    The properties of WN x C y films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using WF 6 , NH 3 , and triethyl boron as source gases were characterized as a diffusion barrier for copper metallization. It is noted that the as-deposited film shows an extremely low resistivity of about 350 μΩ cm with a film density of 15.37 g/cm 3 . The film composition measured from Rutherford backscattering spectrometry shows W, C, and N of ∼48, 32, and 20 at. %, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analyses show that the as-deposited film is composed of face-centered-cubic phase with a lattice parameter similar to both β-WC 1-x and β-W 2 N with an equiaxed microstructure. The barrier property of this ALD-WN x C y film at a nominal thickness of 12 nm deposited between Cu and Si fails only after annealing at 700 deg. C for 30 min

  13. Heterogeneous photocatalysis with transition metal modified layered titanates for solar hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilarski, Martin

    2016-09-05

    The objective of this work was the validation of Cu as a low priced co-catalyst material in comparison to the frequently used noble metal co-catalysts Rh, Au and Pt, as well as the evaluation of alternative sacrificial agents for photocatalytic H2 production. An effective conversion of glycerol was a primary aim of this work, due to its abundance as a coproduct of the bio fuel production. Furthermore, photocatalysts were prepared, which are capable to absorb light from the visible range of the light spectrum. The required band gap reduction was realized by cation doping. In the course of the cation doping process Cu{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 3+} cations were incorporated by a sol-gel synthesis route into the crystal lattice of the layered Cs{sub 0.68}Ti{sub 1.83}O{sub 4}, which was used as a photocatalyst material. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared photocatalysts was investigated in a self constructed test setup under the irradiation of a xenon arc lamp.

  14. Mesoporous mixed metal oxides derived from P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Zhou Jideng; Li Zhanshuang; He Yang; Lin Shuangshuang; Liu Qi; Zhang Milin; Jiang Zhaohua

    2010-01-01

    We report the preparation of mesoporous mixed metal oxides (MMOs) through a soft template method. Different amounts of P123 were used as structure directing agent to synthesize P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). After calcination of as-synthesized LDHs at 500 o C, the ordered mesopores were obtained by removal of P123. The mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs fabricated by using 2 wt% P123 exhibited a high specific surface area of 108.1 m 2 /g, and wide distribution of pore size (2-18 nm). An investigation of the 'memory effect' of the mesoporous MMOs revealed that they were successfully reconstructed to ibuprofen intercalated LDHs having different gallery heights, which indicated different intercalation capacities. Due to their mesoporosity these unique MMOs have particular potential as drug or catalyst carriers. - Graphical abstract: Ordered mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs can be obtained through the calcination of P123-templated Mg-Al-CO 3 LDHs. The pore diameter is 2.2 nm. At the presence of ibuprofen, the Mg-Al MMOs can recover to Mg-Al-IBU LDHs, based on its 'remember effect'. Display Omitted

  15. Redox-active porous coordination polymer based on trinuclear pivalate: Temperature-dependent crystal rearrangement and redox-behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytvynenko, Anton S. [L.V. Pisarzhevskii Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Prospekt Nauki 31, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Kiskin, Mikhail A., E-mail: mkiskin@igic.ras.ru [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 31, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dorofeeva, Victoria N.; Mishura, Andrey M.; Titov, Vladimir E.; Kolotilov, Sergey V. [L.V. Pisarzhevskii Institute of Physical Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Prospekt Nauki 31, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Eremenko, Igor L.; Novotortsev, Vladimir M. [N.S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 31, GSP-1, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Linking of trinuclear pivalate Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6} (Piv=O{sub 2}CC(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) by 2,6-bis(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-naphthyl)pyridine (L) resulted in formation of 1D-porous coordination polymer Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L)·Solv, which was characterized in two forms: DMSO solvate Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L)(DMSO)·2.5DMSO (1) or water solvate Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L)(H{sub 2}O) (2). X-ray structure of 1 was determined. Crystal lattice of 1 at 160 K contained open channels, filled by captured solvent, while temperature growth to 296 K led to the crystal lattice rearrangement and formation of closed voids. Redox-behavior of 2 was studied by cyclic voltammetry for a solid compound, deposited on glassy-carbon electrode. Redox-activity of L preserved upon incorporation in the coordination polymer. The presence of pores in desolvated sample Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L) was confirmed by the measurements of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K. Potential barriers of the different molecules diffusion through pores were estimated by the means of molecular mechanics. - Graphical abstract: Redox-behavior of 1D-porous coordination polymer Fe{sub 2}NiO(Piv){sub 6}(L)(H{sub 2}O) was studied by cyclic voltammetry in thin film, deposited on glassy-carbon electrode. Redox-activity of L preserved upon incorporation in the coordination polymer. Potential barriers of different molecules diffusion through pores were estimated by the means of molecular mechanics. - Highlights: • Porous 1D coordination polymer was synthesized. • Temperature growth led to pores closing due to crystal lattice rearrangement. • Redox-activity of ligand preserved upon incorporation into coordination polymer. • Redox-properties of solid coordination polymer were studied in thin film. • Diffusion barriers were evaluated by molecular mechanics.

  16. Electrical double layer structure at the gallium metals in a methanol solution of a surface-inactive electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emets, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of double electric layer on Ga-, In-Ga- and Tl-Ga-electrodes in methanol solutions of surface-inactive electrolyte has been studied. It is shown that in the absence of chemisorption interaction between metal and solvent, the distance of the nearest approach of methanol dipoles to the surface of Ga-, In-Ga- and Tl-Ga-electrodes is practically the same. Accordingly, the specificity of the metals contact with solvent is reduced solely to their chemisorption interaction. In the zero charge area and for negative charges the chemisorption interaction with methanol molecules increases in the sequence Tl-Ga< In-Ga< Ga. The growth correlates both with the metals acceptor ability towards electron, which is characterized by the work of metal electron escape to vacuum, and donor ability of the solvent characterized by its donor number

  17. Microtransfer printing of metal ink patterns onto plastic substrates utilizing an adhesion-controlled polymeric donor layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji-Sub; Choi, Jun-Chan; Park, Min-Kyu; Bae, Jeong Min; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kim, Hak-Rin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for transfer-printed electrode patterns onto flexible/plastic substrates, specifically intended for metal ink that requires a high sintering temperature. Typically, metal-ink-based electrodes cannot be picked up for microtransfer printing because the adhesion between the electrodes and the donor substrate greatly increases after the sintering process due to the binding materials. We introduced a polymeric donor layer between the printed electrodes and the donor substrate and effectively reduced the adhesion between the Ag pattern and the polymeric donor layer by controlling the interfacial contact area. After completing a wet-etching process for the polymeric donor layer, we obtained Ag patterns supported on the fine polymeric anchor structures; the Ag patterns could be picked up onto the stamp surface even after the sintering process by utilizing the viscoelastic properties of the elastomeric stamp with a pick-up velocity control. The proposed method enables highly conductive metal-ink-based electrode patterns to be applied on thermally weak plastic substrates via an all-solution process. Metal electrodes transferred onto a film showed superior electrical and mechanical stability under the bending stress test required for use in printed flexible electronics. (paper)

  18. A review of the electrodeposition of metal matrix composite coatings by inclusion of particles in a metal layer: an established and diversifying technology

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, F.C.; Ponce de Leon, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Following a brief overview of their history, which dates back to the 1920s with marked developments during the 1960s and 1970s, the principles of composite coatings, achieved by including particles dispersed in a bath into a growing electrodeposited metal layer, are considered. The principles and role of electroplating compared to other techniques for realising such coatings, are considered. A good quality particle dispersion (often aided by a suitable type and concentration of surfactants) a...

  19. Mechanistic studies of cancer cell mitochondria- and NQO1-mediated redox activation of beta-lapachone, a potentially novel anticancer agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jason Z.; Ke, Yuebin; Misra, Hara P.; Trush, Michael A.; Li, Y. Robert; Zhu, Hong; Jia, Zhenquan

    2014-01-01

    Beta-lapachone (beta-Lp) derived from the Lapacho tree is a potentially novel anticancer agent currently under clinical trials. Previous studies suggested that redox activation of beta-Lp catalyzed by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) accounted for its killing of cancer cells. However, the exact mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. Using chemiluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping techniques, this study for the first time demonstrated the real-time formation of ROS in the redox activation of beta-lapachone from cancer cells mediated by mitochondria and NQO1 in melanoma B16–F10 and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cancer cells. ES936, a highly selective NQO1 inhibitor, and rotenone, a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC) complex I were found to significantly block beta-Lp meditated redox activation in B16–F10 cells. In HepG2 cells ES936 inhibited beta-Lp-mediated oxygen radical formation by ∼ 80% while rotenone exerted no significant effect. These results revealed the differential contribution of METC and NQO1 to beta-lapachone-induced ROS formation and cancer cell killing. In melanoma B16–F10 cells that do not express high NQO1 activity, both NOQ1 and METC play a critical role in beta-Lp redox activation. In contrast, in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells expressing extremely high NQO1 activity, redox activation of beta-Lp is primarily mediated by NQO1 (METC plays a minor role). These findings will contribute to our understanding of how cancer cells are selectively killed by beta-lapachone and increase our ability to devise strategies to enhance the anticancer efficacy of this potentially novel drug while minimizing its possible adverse effects on normal cells. - Highlights: • Both isolated mitochondria and purified NQO1 are able to generate ROS by beta-Lp. • The differential roles of mitochondria and NQO1 in mediating redox activation of beta-Lp • In cancer cells with

  20. Mechanistic studies of cancer cell mitochondria- and NQO1-mediated redox activation of beta-lapachone, a potentially novel anticancer agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jason Z. [Virginia Tech CRC, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ke, Yuebin [Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Misra, Hara P. [Virginia Tech CRC, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Trush, Michael A. [Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, Y. Robert [Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Buies Creek, NC (United States); Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University SBES, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, NC (United States); Zhu, Hong, E-mail: zhu@campbell.edu [Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Buies Creek, NC (United States); Jia, Zhenquan, E-mail: z_jia@uncg.edu [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Beta-lapachone (beta-Lp) derived from the Lapacho tree is a potentially novel anticancer agent currently under clinical trials. Previous studies suggested that redox activation of beta-Lp catalyzed by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) accounted for its killing of cancer cells. However, the exact mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. Using chemiluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping techniques, this study for the first time demonstrated the real-time formation of ROS in the redox activation of beta-lapachone from cancer cells mediated by mitochondria and NQO1 in melanoma B16–F10 and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cancer cells. ES936, a highly selective NQO1 inhibitor, and rotenone, a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC) complex I were found to significantly block beta-Lp meditated redox activation in B16–F10 cells. In HepG2 cells ES936 inhibited beta-Lp-mediated oxygen radical formation by ∼ 80% while rotenone exerted no significant effect. These results revealed the differential contribution of METC and NQO1 to beta-lapachone-induced ROS formation and cancer cell killing. In melanoma B16–F10 cells that do not express high NQO1 activity, both NOQ1 and METC play a critical role in beta-Lp redox activation. In contrast, in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells expressing extremely high NQO1 activity, redox activation of beta-Lp is primarily mediated by NQO1 (METC plays a minor role). These findings will contribute to our understanding of how cancer cells are selectively killed by beta-lapachone and increase our ability to devise strategies to enhance the anticancer efficacy of this potentially novel drug while minimizing its possible adverse effects on normal cells. - Highlights: • Both isolated mitochondria and purified NQO1 are able to generate ROS by beta-Lp. • The differential roles of mitochondria and NQO1 in mediating redox activation of beta-Lp • In cancer cells with

  1. Zn and Fe complexes containing a redox active macrocyclic biquinazoline ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyabrata; Company, Anna; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Bill, Eckhard; Hess, Corinna R

    2009-04-06

    A series of iron and zinc complexes has been synthesized, coordinated by the macrocyclic biquinazoline ligand, 2-4:6-8-bis(3,3,4,4-tetramethyldihydropyrrolo)-10-15-(2,2'-biquinazolino)-[15]-1,3,5,8,10,14-hexaene-1,3,7,9,11,14-N(6) (Mabiq). The Mabiq ligand consists of a bipyrimidine moiety and two dihydropyrrole units. The electronic structures of the metal-Mabiq complexes have been characterized using spectroscopic and density-functional theory (DFT) computational methods. The parent zinc complex exhibits a ligand-centered reduction to generate the metal-coordinated Mabiq radical dianion, establishing the redox non-innocence of this ligand. Iron-Mabiq complexes have been isolated in three oxidation states. This redox series includes low-spin ferric and low-spin ferrous species, as well as an intermediate-spin Fe(II) compound. In the latter complex, the iron ion is antiferromagnetically coupled to a Mabiq-centered pi-radical. The results demonstrate the rich redox chemistry and electronic properties of metal complexes coordinated by the Mabiq ligand.

  2. Maleimide-activated aryl diazonium salts for electrode surface functionalization with biological and redox-active molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jason C; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R; Brozik, Susan M

    2008-03-04

    A versatile and simple method is introduced for formation of maleimide-functionalized surfaces using maleimide-activated aryl diazonium salts. We show for the first time electrodeposition of N-(4-diazophenyl)maleimide tetrafluoroborate on gold and carbon electrodes which was characterized via voltammetry, grazing angle FTIR, and ellipsometry. Electrodeposition conditions were used to control film thickness and yielded submonolayer-to-multilayer grafting. The resulting phenylmaleimide surfaces served as effective coupling agents for electrode functionalization with ferrocene and the redox-active protein cytochrome c. The utility of phenylmaleimide diazonium toward formation of a diazonium-activated conjugate, followed by direct electrodeposition of the diazonium-modified DNA onto the electrode surface, was also demonstrated. Effective electron transfer was obtained between immobilized molecules and the electrodes. This novel application of N-phenylmaleimide diazonium may facilitate the development of bioelectronic devices including biofuel cells, biosensors, and DNA and protein microarrays.

  3. Deposition of very thin uniform indium sulfide layers over metallic nano-rods by the Spray-Ion Layer Gas Reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genduso, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica, Meccanica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90100 Palermo (Italy); Institut for Heterogeneous Material Systems, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Inguanta, R.; Sunseri, C.; Piazza, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica, Meccanica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90100 Palermo (Italy); Kelch, C.; Sáez-Araoz, R. [Institut for Heterogeneous Material Systems, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Zykov, A. [Institut for Heterogeneous Material Systems, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); present address: Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15,12489 Berlin (Germany); Fischer, Ch.-H., E-mail: fischer@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institut for Heterogeneous Material Systems, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); second affiliation: Free University Berlin, Chemistry Institute, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-02

    Very thin and uniform layers of indium sulfide were deposited on nickel nano-rods using the sequential and cyclical Spray-ILGAR® (Ion Layer Gas Reaction) technique. Substrates were fabricated by electrodeposition of Ni within the pores of polycarbonate membranes and subsequent chemical dissolution of the template. With respect to the depositions on flat substrates, experimental conditions were modified and optimized for the present geometry. Our results show that nano-rods up to a length of 10 μm were covered uniformly along their full length and with an almost constant film growth rate, thus allowing a good control of the coating thickness; the effect of the deposition temperature was also investigated. However, for high numbers of process steps, i.e. thickness, the films became uneven and crusty, especially at higher temperature, mainly owing to the simultaneous side reaction of the metallic Ni forming nickel sulfide at the surface of the rods. However, such a problem occurs only in the case of reactive nano-rod materials, such as less noble metals. It could be strongly reduced by doubling the spray step duration and thereby sealing the metallic surface before the process step of the sulfurization. Thus, quite smooth, about 100 nm thick coatings could be obtained. - Highlights: • Ni nano-rod substrates were grown within polycarbonate membranes. • We can coat nano-rods uniformly by the Ion Layer Gas Reaction method. • As a model we deposited up to about 100 nm In{sub 2}S{sub 3} on Ni nanorods (250 nm × 10 μm). • Element mapping at insulated rods showed homogenous coating over the full length. • Parameter optimization reduced effectively the Ni sulfide formation.

  4. Simulations of thermal Rayleigh-Marangoni convection in a three-layer liquid-metal-battery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Thomas; Boeck, Thomas; Schumacher, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Operating a liquid-metal battery produces Ohmic losses in the electrolyte layer that separates both metal electrodes. As a consequence, temperature gradients establish which potentially cause thermal convection since density and interfacial tension depend on the local temperature. In our numerical investigations, we considered three plane, immiscible layers governed by the Navier-Stokes-Boussinesq equations held at a constant temperature of 500°C at the bottom and top. A homogeneous current is applied that leads to a preferential heating of the mid electrolyte layer. We chose a typical material combination of Li separated by LiCl-KCl (a molten salt) from Pb-Bi for which we analyzed the linear stability of pure thermal conduction and performed three-dimensional direct-numerical simulations by a pseudospectral method probing different: electrolyte layer heights, overall heights, and current densities. Four instability mechanisms are identified, which are partly coupled to each other: buoyant convection in the upper electrode, buoyant convection in the molten salt layer, and Marangoni convection at both interfaces between molten salt and electrode. The global turbulent heat transfer follows scaling predictions for internally heated buoyant convection. Financial support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under Grant No. KO 5515/1-1 is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Some regularities of structure and surface layer properties changing of metal materials after electro-erosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvostyntsev, K.I.; Kuz'mina, T.S.; Kruglov, V.V.; Lukovkin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of electoerosion machining on the surface state of pearlitic class steel of the 12KhN4MFA type, bronzes BrAMts 9-2 and BrAZhNMts 9-4-4-1, of the alloy PT-3V has been studied. As a result of electroerosion machining (EEM) a transformed layer, presenting overheated and partially melted metal, the structure and hardness of which depend on chemical composition of the materials treated, their tendency to phase transformatins and saturation with introduction elements, is formed on the surface of metal materials

  6. Some regularities of structure and surface layer properties changing of metal materials after electro-erosion machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvostyntsev, K.I.; Kuz' mina, T.S.; Kruglov, V.V.; Lukovkin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Effect of electoerosion machining on the surface state of pearlitic class steel of the 12KhN4MFA type, bronzes BrAMts 9-2 and BrAZhNMts 9-4-4-1, of the alloy PT-3V has been studied. As a result of electroerosion machining (EEM) a transformed layer, presenting overheated and partially melted metal, the structure and hardness of which depend on chemical composition of the materials treated, their tendency to phase transformatins and saturation with introduction elements, is formed on the surface of metal materials.

  7. Metal-etching-free direct delamination and transfer of single-layer graphene with a high degree of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sang Yoon; Oh, Joong Gun; Jung, Dae Yool; Choi, HongKyw; Yu, Chan Hak; Shin, Jongwoo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Cho, Byung Jin; Choi, Sung-Yool

    2015-01-14

    A method of graphene transfer without metal etching is developed to minimize the contamination of graphene in the transfer process and to endow the transfer process with a greater degree of freedom. The method involves direct delamination of single-layer graphene from a growth substrate, resulting in transferred graphene with nearly zero Dirac voltage due to the absence of residues that would originate from metal etching. Several demonstrations are also presented to show the high degree of freedom and the resulting versatility of this transfer method. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Memory Effect of Metal-Oxide-Silicon Capacitors with Self-Assembly Double-Layer Au Nanocrystals Embedded in Atomic-Layer-Deposited HfO2 Dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Huang; Hong-Yan, Gou; Qing-Qing, Sun; Shi-Jin, Ding; Wei, Zhang; Shi-Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We report the chemical self-assembly growth of Au nanocrystals on atomic-layer-deposited HfO 2 films aminosilanized by (3-Aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane aforehand for memory applications. The resulting Au nanocrystals show a density of about 4 × 10 11 cm −2 and a diameter range of 5–8nm. The metal-oxide-silicon capacitor with double-layer Au nanocrystals embedded in HfO 2 dielectric exhibits a large C – V hysteresis window of 11.9V for ±11 V gate voltage sweeps at 1 MHz, a flat-band voltage shift of 1.5 V after the electrical stress under 7 V for 1 ms, a leakage current density of 2.9 × 10 −8 A/cm −2 at 9 V and room temperature. Compared to single-layer Au nanocrystals, the double-layer Au nanocrystals increase the hysteresis window significantly, and the underlying mechanism is thus discussed

  9. Signatures of Quantized Energy States in Solution-Processed Ultrathin Layers of Metal-Oxide Semiconductors and Their Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Labram, John G.

    2015-02-13

    Physical phenomena such as energy quantization have to-date been overlooked in solution-processed inorganic semiconducting layers, owing to heterogeneity in layer thickness uniformity unlike some of their vacuum-deposited counterparts. Recent reports of the growth of uniform, ultrathin (<5 nm) metal-oxide semiconductors from solution, however, have potentially opened the door to such phenomena manifesting themselves. Here, a theoretical framework is developed for energy quantization in inorganic semiconductor layers with appreciable surface roughness, as compared to the mean layer thickness, and present experimental evidence of the existence of quantized energy states in spin-cast layers of zinc oxide (ZnO). As-grown ZnO layers are found to be remarkably continuous and uniform with controllable thicknesses in the range 2-24 nm and exhibit a characteristic widening of the energy bandgap with reducing thickness in agreement with theoretical predictions. Using sequentially spin-cast layers of ZnO as the bulk semiconductor and quantum well materials, and gallium oxide or organic self-assembled monolayers as the barrier materials, two terminal electronic devices are demonstrated, the current-voltage characteristics of which resemble closely those of double-barrier resonant-tunneling diodes. As-fabricated all-oxide/hybrid devices exhibit a characteristic negative-differential conductance region with peak-to-valley ratios in the range 2-7.

  10. An Experimental Study on the Heat Focusing of the Metallic layer in a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Je-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    By flooding the reactor cavity that surrounds the vessel, significant energy can be removed from relocated corium materials through the vessel wall. The aim of this study is to investigate the heat focusing depending on the aspect ratios and heat transfer characteristic of upper boundary for applications related to severe accident phenomena. Experiments were carried out for Rayleigh numbers and aspect ratio in the range of 8.49x10{sup 7}-5.49x10{sup 9}, 0.128-0.512 respectively. Also, the conditions of the top wall and the side wall are considered: (a) top plate cooling, side wall adiabatic, (b) top plate adiabatic, side wall cooling, (c) both walls cooling. In order to achieve high Rayleigh numbers, the heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments based on heat and mass transfer analogy concept. A sulfuric acid-copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-CuSO{sub 4}) electroplating system was adopted as the mass transfer system.An experimental study was performed to investigate the focusing effect appeared in the metallic layer in a severe accident condition. Mass transfer experiments, based on the analogy concept, carried out in order to achieve high Rayleigh number. The height of the side wall was varied for three different cooling conditions: top only, side only, and both top and side. The experimental results agreed well with the Rayleigh-Benard convection correlations of Dropkin and Somerscales and Globe and Dropkin. The test results for the three configurations (only top cooling, only side wall cooling and both walls cooling) presented that the heat transfer on side wall cooling condition without top cooling is biggest. Also, the heat transfer was enhanced by decreasing the aspect ratio (H/R)

  11. STUDY ON MOISTURE-CUR ED POLYURETHANE AS UNDERCOATING LAYER FOR METALLIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Mohamad Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work a technique of metallizing substrate via electroless plating using moisture-cured polyurethane (MCPU system as the undercoat is presented. MCPU prepolymer was prepared by mixing polyethylene glycol divinyl ether and diphenylmethane-4, 4’-diisocyanate in 1:1 ratio. The effects of etching time as well as curing period on the surface characteristic of MCPU undercoating were investigated. Contact angle measurements, FTIR and SEM were employed to study the changes on the surface of the treated MCPU undercoatsprior to electroless nickel plating. Electroless plating was performed using nickel bath and visual inspection was performed after completing the electroless plating cycles. Relative increase in wettability of the treated MCPU was observed. The surface became hydrophilic after subjecting to mild etching for 1 minute. SEM analysis revealed different pitted structures on the treated MCPU that were cured at different periods. FTIR analysis of the treated MCPU showed some chemical changes marked by the presence of free hydroxyl group and decrease of CH (methylene, urethane C=O, urethane amide and ether peaks. FTIR also showed the sign of further NCO reaction, which indicates by the decrease of NCO peak and increase of NH and urea C=O peaks. The standard pull-off testing method (ASTM D 4541 was employed to evaluate the adhesion strength of nickel deposits coated on MCPU undercoating layer.The test results revealed that curing period and etching time influence the adhesion performance.The results also show that at a selected curing period, prolong etching time will decrease the adhesion strength. Meanwhile prolong curing period will improve the adhesion strength.

  12. A Difference in Using Atomic Layer Deposition or Physical Vapour Deposition TiN as Electrode Material in Metal-Insulator-Metal and Metal-Insulator-Silicon Capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    In this work, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) capacitors are studied using titanium nitride (TiN) as the electrode material. The effect of structural defects on the electrical properties on MIS and MIM capacitors is studied for various electrode configurations. In the

  13. Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Natural Convection Heat Transfer in an Internally-Heated Melt Pool and Metallic Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourgaliev, R.R.; Dinh, A.T.; Dinh, T.N.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents results of numerical investigation of turbulent natural convection in an internally-heated oxidic pool, and in a metallic layer heated from below and cooled from top and sidewalls. Emphasis is placed upon applicability of the existing heat transfer correlations (obtained from simulant-material experiments) in assessments of a prototypic severe reactor accident. The objectives of this study are (i) to improve the current understanding of the physics of unstably stratified flows, and (ii) to reduce uncertainties associated with modeling and assessment of natural convection heat transfer in the above configuration. Prediction capabilities of different turbulence modeling approaches are first examined and discussed, based on extensive results of numerical investigations performed by present authors. Findings from numerical modeling of turbulent natural convection flow and heat transfer in melt pools and metallic layers are then described. (authors)

  14. Meristem Plant Cells as a Sustainable Source of Redox Actives for Skin Rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkina, Liudmila G.; Mayer, Wolfgang; de Luca, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Recently, aggressive advertisement claimed a “magic role” for plant stem cells in human skin rejuvenation. This review aims to shed light on the scientific background suggesting feasibility of using plant cells as a basis of anti-age cosmetics. When meristem cell cultures obtained from medicinal plants are exposed to appropriate elicitors/stressors (ultraviolet, ultrasound ultraviolet (UV), ultrasonic waves, microbial/insect metabolites, heavy metals, organic toxins, nutrient deprivation, etc.), a protective/adaptive response initiates the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Highly bioavailable and biocompatible to human cells, low-molecular weight plant secondary metabolites share structural/functional similarities with human non-protein regulatory hormones, neurotransmitters, pigments, polyamines, amino-/fatty acids. Their redox-regulated biosynthesis triggers in turn plant cell antioxidant and detoxification molecular mechanisms resembling human cell pathways. Easily isolated in relatively large quantities from contaminant-free cell cultures, plant metabolites target skin ageing mechanisms, above all redox imbalance. Perfect modulators of cutaneous oxidative state via direct/indirect antioxidant action, free radical scavenging, UV protection, and transition-metal chelation, they are ideal candidates to restore photochemical/redox/immune/metabolic barriers, gradually deteriorating in the ageing skin. The industrial production of plant meristem cell metabolites is toxicologically and ecologically sustainable for fully “biological” anti-age cosmetics. PMID:28498360

  15. Comparison of the stress distribution in the metallic layers of flexible pipes using two alternative Bflex formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yunzhu

    2014-01-01

    Axisymmetric load is the most common load acting on flexible pipe. Modelling axisymmetric load correctly is very important to estimate the strength of a flexible pipe. The purpose of the thesis is to compare the stress distribution in metallic layers under three load case, i.e. tension, internal pressure and external pressure. Literature study and discussion to mechanical properties of flexible pipe and finite element modelling method are included in the thesis. The modelling program is BFLEX...

  16. Structure and Distribution of Components in the Working Layer Upon Reconditioning of Parts by Electric-Arc Metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoblo, T. S.; Vlasovets, V. M.; Moroz, V. V.

    2001-11-01

    Reliable data on the structure of the deposited layer are very important due to the considerable instability of the process of deposition of coatings by the method of electric-arc metallization and the strict requirements for reconditioned crankshafts. The present paper is devoted to the structure of coatings obtained from powder wire based on ferrochrome-aluminum with additional alloying elements introduced into the charge.

  17. Direct voltammetric determination of redox-active iron in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Pumera, Martin

    2014-12-01

    With the advances in nanotechnology over the past decade, consumer products are increasingly being incorporated with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). As the harmful effects of CNTs are suggested to be primarily due to the bioavailable amounts of metallic impurities, it is vital to detect and quantify these species using sensitive and facile methods. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the possibility of quantifying the amount of redox-available iron-containing impurities in CNTs with voltammetric techniques such as cyclic voltammetry. We examined the electrochemistry of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles in phosphate buffer solution and discovered that its electrochemical behavior could be affected by pH of the electrolyte. By utilizing the unique redox reaction between the iron and phosphate species, the redox available iron content in CNTs was determined successfully using voltammetry. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Redox-active quinones induces genome-wide DNA methylation changes by an iron-mediated and Tet-dependent mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Bailin; Yang, Ying; Wang, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation has been proven to be a critical epigenetic mark important for various cellular processes. Here, we report that redox-active quinones, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in natural products, cancer therapeutics and environment, stimulate the conversion of 5 mC to 5 hmC in vivo,...

  19. Advanced metal lift-off process using electron-beam flood exposure of single-layer photoresist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Jason P.; Ross, Matthew F.; Livesay, William R.; Wong, Selmer S.; Narcy, Mark E.; Marlowe, Trey

    1999-06-01

    In the manufacture of many types of integrated circuit and thin film devices, it is desirable to use a lift-of process for the metallization step to avoid manufacturing problems encountered when creating metal interconnect structures using plasma etch. These problems include both metal adhesion and plasma etch difficulties. Key to the success of the lift-off process is the creation of a retrograde or undercut profile in the photoresists before the metal deposition step. Until now, lift-off processing has relied on costly multi-layer photoresists schemes, image reversal, and non-repeatable photoresist processes to obtain the desired lift-off profiles in patterned photoresist. This paper present a simple, repeatable process for creating robust, user-defined lift-off profiles in single layer photoresist using a non-thermal electron beam flood exposure. For this investigation, lift-off profiles created using electron beam flood exposure of many popular photoresists were evaluated. Results of lift-off profiles created in positive tone AZ7209 and ip3250 are presented here.

  20. Density Functional Theory Calculations Revealing Metal-like Band Structures for Ultrathin Ge {111} and {211} Surface Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chih-Shan; Huang, Michael Hsuan-Yi

    2018-05-21

    To find out if germanium should also possess facet-dependent electrical conductivity properties, surface state density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed on 1-6 layers of Ge (100), (110), (111), and (211) planes. Tunable Ge (100) and (110) planes always present the same semiconducting band structure with a band gap of 0.67 eV expected of bulk germanium. In contrast, 1, 2, 4, and 5 layers of Ge (111) and (211) plane models show metal-like band structures with continuous density of states (DOS) throughout the entire band. For 3 and 6 layers of Ge (111) and (211) plane models, the normal semiconducting band structure was obtained. The plane layers with metal-like band structures also show Ge-Ge bond length deviations and bond distortions, as well as significantly different 4s and 4p frontier orbital electron count and their relative percentages integrated over the valence and conduction bands from those of the semiconducting state. These differences should contribute to strikingly dissimilar band structures. The calculation results suggest observation of facet-dependent electrical conductivity properties of germanium materials, and transistors made of germanium may also need to consider the facet effects with shrinking dimensions approaching 3 nm. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Role of intermediate metallic sub-layers in improving the efficiency of kesterite solar cells: concept and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferhati, H.; Djeffal, F.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, versatile CdS/Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) solar cell designs based on intermediate metallic sub-layers (Au, Ti, and Ag) engineering are proposed for enhancing light-scattering behavior and reducing recombination losses. The idea behind this work is to generate optical confinement regions in the CZTS absorber layer to achieve an improved absorption and appropriate antireflection effects. Moreover, the ultra-thin metal at the CZTS/Mo interface can be helpful for reducing the series resistance, where it behaves like a blocking layer for the Sulfur diffusion. We further combine the proposed designs with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based approach to achieve broadband absorption and boost the conversion efficiency. It is found that the optimized design with Ti sub-layer improves the CZTS solar cell properties, where it yields 31% improvement in short-circuit current and 60% in the power efficiency over the conventional one. Therefore, the optimized designs provide the opportunity for bridging the gap between improving the optical behavior and reducing the recombination losses.

  2. Multi-layered metal nanocrystals in a sol-gel spin-on-glass matrix for flash memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Meiyu Stella [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E5, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117576 (Singapore); Globalfoundries Singapore Pte Ltd, 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D, 738406 (Singapore); Suresh, Vignesh [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E5, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117576 (Singapore); Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*Star, Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), #08-03, 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, 138634 (Singapore); Chan, Mei Yin [School of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Ma, Yu Wei [Globalfoundries Singapore Pte Ltd, 60 Woodlands Industrial Park D, 738406 (Singapore); Lee, Pooi See [School of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), Nanyang Technological University (NTU), 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Krishnamoorthy, Sivashankar [Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*Star, Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), #08-03, 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, 138634 (Singapore); Science et Analyse des Materiaux Unit (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public-Gabriel Lippmann, 41, rue du Brill, Belvaux, 4422 (Luxembourg); Srinivasan, M.P., E-mail: srinivasan.madapusi@rmit.edu.au [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block E5, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117576 (Singapore); School of Engineering, RMIT University, Building 10, Level 11, Room 14, 376-392 Swanston Street, Melbourne, Victoria, 3001 (Australia)

    2017-01-15

    A simple and low-cost process of embedding metal nanocrystals as charge storage centers within a dielectric is demonstrated to address leakage issues associated with the scaling of the tunnelling oxide in flash memories. Metal nanocrystals with high work functions (nickel, platinum and palladium) were prepared as embedded species in methyl siloxane spin-on-glass (SOG) films on silicon substrates. Sub-10 nm-sized, well-isolated, uniformly distributed, multi-layered nanocrystals with high particle densities (10{sup 11}–10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}) were formed in the films by thermal curing of the spin-coated SOG films containing the metal precursors. Capacitance-Voltage measurements performed on metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors with the SOG films show that the presence of metal nanocrystals enhanced the memory window of the films to 2.32 V at low operating voltages of ±5 V. These SOG films demonstrated the ability to store both holes and electrons. Capacitance-time measurements show good charge retention of more than 75% after 10{sup 4} s of discharging. This work demonstrates the applicability of the low-cost in-situ sol-gel preparation in contrast to conventional methods that involve multiple and expensive processing steps. - Highlights: • Sub-10 nm sized, well-isolated, uniformly distributed nanoparticle based charge trap memories. • Preparation of multi-layer high work function metal nanocrystals at low cost. • Large memory window of 2.32 V at low operating voltages of ±5 V. • Good charge retention of more than 90% and 75% after 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4} s of discharging respectively. • Use of a 3 nm thick tunnelling oxide in compliance with ITRS specifications.

  3. Multi-layered metal nanocrystals in a sol-gel spin-on-glass matrix for flash memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Meiyu Stella; Suresh, Vignesh; Chan, Mei Yin; Ma, Yu Wei; Lee, Pooi See; Krishnamoorthy, Sivashankar; Srinivasan, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    A simple and low-cost process of embedding metal nanocrystals as charge storage centers within a dielectric is demonstrated to address leakage issues associated with the scaling of the tunnelling oxide in flash memories. Metal nanocrystals with high work functions (nickel, platinum and palladium) were prepared as embedded species in methyl siloxane spin-on-glass (SOG) films on silicon substrates. Sub-10 nm-sized, well-isolated, uniformly distributed, multi-layered nanocrystals with high particle densities (10"1"1–10"1"2 cm"−"2) were formed in the films by thermal curing of the spin-coated SOG films containing the metal precursors. Capacitance-Voltage measurements performed on metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors with the SOG films show that the presence of metal nanocrystals enhanced the memory window of the films to 2.32 V at low operating voltages of ±5 V. These SOG films demonstrated the ability to store both holes and electrons. Capacitance-time measurements show good charge retention of more than 75% after 10"4 s of discharging. This work demonstrates the applicability of the low-cost in-situ sol-gel preparation in contrast to conventional methods that involve multiple and expensive processing steps. - Highlights: • Sub-10 nm sized, well-isolated, uniformly distributed nanoparticle based charge trap memories. • Preparation of multi-layer high work function metal nanocrystals at low cost. • Large memory window of 2.32 V at low operating voltages of ±5 V. • Good charge retention of more than 90% and 75% after 10"3 and 10"4 s of discharging respectively. • Use of a 3 nm thick tunnelling oxide in compliance with ITRS specifications.

  4. Organic layers at metal/electrolyte interfaces: molecular structure and reactivity of viologen monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, Stephan; Pham, Duc T; Huemann, Sascha; Gentz, Knud; Zoerlein, Caroline; Wandelt, Klaus; Broekmann, Peter; Hunger, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of viologens (1,1'-disubstituted-4,4'-bipyridinium molecules) on a chloride-modified copper electrode has been studied using a combination of cyclic voltammetry (CV), in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and ex-situ photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Two prototypes of viologens could be identified with respect to their redox behavior upon adsorption, namely those which retain (non-reactive adsorption) and those which change their redox state (reactive adsorption) upon interaction with the chloride-modified copper surface at given potential. The first class of viologens represented by 1,1'-dibenzyl-4,4'-bipyridinium molecules (dibenzyl-viologens, abbreviated as DBV) can be adsorbed and stabilized on this electrode surface in their di-cationic state at potentials more positive than the reduction potential of the solution species. XPS N1s core level shifts verify that the adsorbed DBV molecules on the electrode are in their oxidized di-cationic state. Electrostatic attraction between the partially solvated viologen di-cations and the anionic chloride layer is discussed as the main driving force for the DBV stabilization on the electrode surface. Analysis of the N1s and O1s core level shifts points to a non-reactive DBV adsorption leaving the DBV ads 2+ solvation shell partly intact. The laterally ordered DBV ads 2+ monolayer turns out to be hydrophilic with at least four water molecules per viologen present within this cationic organic film. The analysis of the Cl2p core level reveals that no further chloride species are present at the surface besides those which are specifically adsorbed, i.e. which are in direct contact with the metallic copper surface underneath the organic layer. The reduction of these adsorbed DBV ads 2+ surface species takes place only in the same potential regime where the solvated DBV aq 2+ bulk solution species react and is accompanied by a pronounced structural change from the di-cationic 'cavitand'-structure to a

  5. Study of structure and surface morphology of two-layer contact Ti/Al metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill D. Vanyukhin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization widely used in the technology of GaN base devices have a very important imperfection i.e. rough surface. There are different opinions about the causes of this imperfection: balling-up of molten aluminum or the appearance of intermetallic melt phases in the Au–Al system. To check the effect of the former cause, we have studied the formation of rough surface after annealing of Ti/Al metallization which is used as a basis of many metallization systems for GaN. The substrates were made from silicon wafers covered with Si3N4 films (0.15 μm. On these substrates we deposited the Ti(12 nm/Al(135 nm metallization system. After the deposition the substrates were annealed in nitrogen for 30 s at 850 °С. The as-annealed specimens were tested for metallization sheet resistivity, appearance and surface morphology. We have shown that during annealing of the Ti/Al metallization system, mutual diffusion of the metals and their active interaction with the formation of intermetallic phases occur. This makes the metallization system more resistant to subsequent annealing, oxidation and chemical etching. After annealing the surface of the Ti/Al metallization system becomes gently matted. However, large hemispherical convex areas (as in the Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization system do not form. Thus, the hypothesis on the balling-up of molten aluminum on the surface of the Ti/Al metallization system has not been confirmed.

  6. Enhancement of seeding for electroless Cu plating of metallic barrier layers by using alkyl self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sung-Te [Department of Electronic Engineering, Hsiuping University of Science and Technology, Dali 412, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chung, Yu-Cheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Fang, Jau-Shiung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 632, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Lung [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi-Nan University, Puli, Nantou 545, Taiwan (China); Chen, Giin-Shan, E-mail: gschen@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Ta barrier layers are used as model substrates for seeding of electroless plating. • Ta layers seeded with Ta-OH yield seeds with limited density and large size (>10 nm). • Substantial improvement of seeding is obtained with functionalized SAMs. • The mechanism of seeding improvement by functionalized SAMs is clearly clarified. - Abstract: Tethering a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on ultralow-k (porous) dielectric materials as a seed-trapping layer for electroless Cu plating has been extensively studied. By contrast, literature on direct electroless Cu plating of metallic barrier layers assisted by SAMs is scarce. Therefore, Ta, a crucial component of barrier materials for Cu interconnect metallization, was investigated as a model substrate for a new seeding (Ni catalyst formation) process of electroless Cu plating. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies indicated that catalytic particles formed on Ta films through Ta−OH groups tend to become aggregates with an average size of 14 nm and density of 2 × 10{sup 15} m{sup −2}. By contrast, Ta films with a plasma-functionalized SAM tightly bound catalytic particles without agglomeration, thus yielding a markedly smaller size (3 nm) and higher density (3 × 10{sup 16} m{sup −2}; one order greater than those formed by other novel methods). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy clearly identified the types of material species and functional groups induced at each step of the seeding process. Moreover, the phase of the catalytic particles, either nickel alkoxide, Ni(OH){sub 2}, or metallic Ni, along with the seed-bonding mechanism, was also unambiguously distinguished. The enhancement of film-formation quality of Cu by the new seeding process was thus demonstrated.

  7. Heavy metals fluxes and speciation in the surface layer of urban soils in the province of Brescia (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peli, Marco; Raffelli, Giulia; Barontini, Stefano; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Donna, Filippo; Lucchini, Roberto G.; Ranzi, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    the considered soil profiles. The XRF metal total content profiles show an accumulation of metals in the subsurface soil layers, around 5 cm under the soil surface (this feature is highlighted in the normalized profiles). They also give evidence of the plant activity consequences, with the closest downwind site showing values which are for all metals at least one order of magnitude -two for Mn- higher than the ones in the test site. The speciation profiles, besides describing loosely the same pattern, show how the amorphous oxides species is always prevalent for Mn and Pb along the whole profile, while for As the species associated with crystalline oxides is always the prevalent one.

  8. Impacts of zinc layer and pouring method on interface performance for Al-22Si/ZL104 bi-metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-feng Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bi-metal material consisting of spray-formed Al-22Si and ZL104 is a suitable candidate for applications in internal combustion engines. This research investigated the effects of surface treatment and appropriate gating system on the microstructures and mechanical properties in evaluating the optimal strategy for producing high quality bi-metal materials. The bi-metal materials were prepared using ZL104 gravity casting by different pouring types around the spray-formed Al-22Si with varied surface treatments. The wettability between Al-22Si and ZL104 was significantly improved when Zn coating was used to remove the natural oxide layer. This research also obtained the improved interfacial microstructures and interfacial bonding strength for materials when applying the appropriate pouring method. The hardness profiles of Al-22Si/ZL104 bi-metal were consistent with the observed microstructures. The average tensile strength of the bi-metal material with zinc coating is ~42.3 MPa, which is much higher than that with oxide film at ~10 MPa. The process presented is a promising and effective approach for developing materials in the automotive industry.

  9. Structural Differentiation between Layered Single (Ni) and Double Metal Hydroxides (Ni–Al LDHs) Using Wavelet Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebecker, Matthew G. [University of Delaware, Delaware Environmental Institute; Sparks, Donald L. [University of Delaware, Delaware Environmental Institute

    2017-09-07

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are anionic clays important in disciplines such as environmental chemistry, geochemistry, and materials science. Developments in signal processing of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data, such as wavelet transformation (WT), have been used to identify transition metals and Al present in the hydroxide sheets of LDHs. The WT plots of LDHs should be distinct from those of isostructural single metal hydroxides. However, no direct comparison of these minerals appears in the literature using WT. This work systematically analyzes a suite of Ni-rich mineral standards, including Ni–Al LDHs, single metal Ni hydroxides, and Ni-rich silicates using WT. The results illustrate that the WT plots for α-Ni(OH)2 and Ni–Al LDHs are often indistinguishable from each other, with similar two-component plots for the different mineral types. This demonstrates that the WT of the first metal shell often cannot be used to differentiate an LDH from a single metal hydroxide. Interlayer anions adsorbed to the hydroxide sheet of α-Ni(OH)2 affect the EXAFS spectra and are not visible in the FT but are clearly resolved and discrete in the WT.

  10. Effects of antimony on redox activities and antioxidant defence systems in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Ortega

    Full Text Available The alterations induced by the toxicity of antimony (Sb in the roots and leaves of sunflower plants were determined. The plants were grown hydroponically with different concentrations of Sb, a heavy metal which reduces biomass production and growth. There was preferential accumulation of Sb in the tissues of the roots, with the concentrations in the leaves being much lower. The accumulation of other mineral elements was also altered, especially that of Fe and Zn. Chlorophyll content declined, as also did the photosynthetic efficiency, but the carotenoid content remained unaltered. The total content of phenolics, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides rose, evidence of their participation in the defence response. Increases were observed in the amount of superoxide anion in both roots and leaves, and in lipid peroxidation levels, especially with the highest Sb concentration of 1.0 mM. The induced oxidative stress leads to a strong increase in the SOD, POX and APX antioxidant activities, while the GR activity was only increased in the leaves and at the 1.0 mM Sb concentration. In contrast, the DHAR activity increased considerably in both organs. The GSNOR activity increased only in roots, and the total RSNOs increased. The total amount of AsA + DHA increased in roots and remained unaltered in leaves, whereas that of GSH + GSSG decreased considerably in all cases. As a whole, these results are evidence for the development of a strong oxidative stress induced by Sb, with there being a clear imbalance in the content of the compounds that constitute the AsA/GSH cycle. 0.5 mM Sb enhances GST expression, especially in leaves. This, together with the increase that was observed in the amount of GSH, may play an important part in detoxification. This oxidative stress affects both the phenolic and the ROS/RNS metabolic processes, which seems to implicate their involvement in the plant's defence and response to the stress.

  11. Metal droplet holdup in the thick slag layer subjected to bottom gas injection; Gas sokofuki wo tomonau atsui slag sonai ni okeru metal teki no holdup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, S; Iguchi, M [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Model experiments were carried out to investigate the bubble and liquid flow characteristics in a bottom blowing bath covered with a thick slag layer typical of in-bath smelting reduction processes. An aqueous ZnCl{sub 2} solution and silicone oil were used as the models for molten metal and molten slag, respectively. The density ratio of the solution to the silicone oil was 1.7, being close to a steel/slag density ratio of 2.0 to 2.2 in practice. The diameter of a vessel containing the two liquids was changed over a wide range. The holdup of the solution carried up by bubbles into the upper silicone oil layer was measured with a suction tube. The volume of the solution, V{sub m}, was dependent mainly on the density difference. Empirical correlations of V{sub m} and the penetration height of the solution were derived. (author)

  12. UV light induced insulator-metal transition in ultra-thin ZnO/TiO{sub x} stacked layer grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, D., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Misra, P., E-mail: sahaphys@gmail.com, E-mail: pmisra@rrcat.gov.in; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2016-08-28

    In the present study, atomic layer deposition has been used to grow a series of Ti incorporated ZnO thin films by vertically stacking different numbers (n = 1–7) of ZnO/TiO{sub x} layers on (0001) sapphire substrates. The effects of defect states mediated chemisorption of O{sub 2} and/OH groups on the electrical properties of these films have been investigated by illuminating the samples under UV light inside a high vacuum optical cryostat. The ultra-thin film having one stacked layer (n = 1) did not show any change in its electrical resistance upon UV light exposure. On the contrary, marginal drop in the electrical resistivity was measured for the samples with n ≥ 3. Most surprisingly, the sample with n = 2 (thickness ∼ 12 nm) showed an insulator to metal transition upon UV light exposure. The temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurement on the as grown film (n = 2) showed insulating behaviour, i.e., diverging resistivity on extrapolation to T→ 0 K. However, upon UV light exposure, it transformed to a metallic state, i.e., finite resistivity at T → 0 K. Such an insulator-metal transition plausibly arises due to the de-trapping of conduction electrons from the surface defect sites which resulted in an upward shift of the Fermi level above the mobility edge. The low-temperature electron transport properties on the insulating film (n = 2) were investigated by a combined study of zero field electrical resistivity ρ(T) and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. The observed negative MR was found to be in good agreement with the magnetic field induced suppression of quantum interference between forward-going paths of tunnelling electrons. Both ρ(T) and MR measurements provided strong evidence for the Efros-Shklovskii type variable range hopping conduction in the low-temperature (≤40 K) regime. Such studies on electron transport in ultra-thin n-type doped ZnO films are crucial to achieve optimum functionality

  13. Controlling the interface charge density in GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures by plasma oxidation of metal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Herwig; Kalisch, Holger; Vescan, Andrei; Pécz, Béla; Kovács, András; Heuken, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, investigating and engineering the oxide-semiconductor interface in GaN-based devices has come into focus. This has been driven by a large effort to increase the gate robustness and to obtain enhancement mode transistors. Since it has been shown that deep interface states act as fixed interface charge in the typical transistor operating regime, it appears desirable to intentionally incorporate negative interface charge, and thus, to allow for a positive shift in threshold voltage of transistors to realise enhancement mode behaviour. A rather new approach to obtain such negative charge is the plasma-oxidation of thin metal layers. In this study, we present transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis as well as electrical data for Al-, Ti-, and Zr-based thin oxide films on a GaN-based heterostructure. It is shown that the plasma-oxidised layers have a polycrystalline morphology. An interfacial amorphous oxide layer is only detectable in the case of Zr. In addition, all films exhibit net negative charge with varying densities. The Zr layer is providing a negative interface charge density of more than 1 × 10 13  cm –2 allowing to considerably shift the threshold voltage to more positive values

  14. Stability Criteria of Fullerene-like Nanoparticles: Comparing V2O5 to Layered Metal Dichalcogenides and Dihalides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehiam Prior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous examples of closed-cage nanostructures, such as nested fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes, formed by the folding of materials with layered structure are known. These compounds include WS2, NiCl2, CdCl2, Cs2O, and recently V2O5. Layered materials, whose chemical bonds are highly ionic in character, possess relatively stiff layers, which cannot be evenly folded. Thus, stress-relief generally results in faceted nanostructures seamed by edge-defects. V2O5, is a metal oxide compound with a layered structure. The study of the seams in nearly perfect inorganic "fullerene-like" hollow V2O5 nanoparticles (NIF-V2O5 synthesized by pulsed laser ablation (PLA, is discussed in the present work. The relation between the formation mechanism and the seams between facets is examined. The formation mechanism of the NIF-V2O5 is discussed in comparison to fullerene-like structures of other layered materials, like IF structures of MoS2, CdCl2, and Cs2O. The criteria for the perfect seaming of such hollow closed structures are highlighted.

  15. Localized removal of layers of metal, polymer, or biomaterial by ultrasound cavitation bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, David Fernandez; Verhaagen, Bram; Seddon, James R. T.; Zijlstra, Aaldert G.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; van der Sluis, Luc W. M.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef; Gardeniers, Han J. G. E.

    We present an ultrasonic device with the ability to locally remove deposited layers from a glass slide in a controlled and rapid manner. The cleaning takes place as the result of cavitating bubbles near the deposited layers and not due to acoustic streaming. The bubbles are ejected from air-filled

  16. Localized removal of layers of metal, polymer, or biomaterial by ultrasound cavitation bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Rivas, David; Verhaagen, B.; Seddon, James Richard Thorley; Zijlstra, A.G.; Jiang, L.M.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Versluis, Michel; Lohse, Detlef; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an ultrasonic device with the ability to locally remove deposited layers from a glass slide in a controlled and rapid manner. The cleaning takes place as the result of cavitating bubbles near the deposited layers and not due to acoustic streaming. The bubbles are ejected from air-filled

  17. Stable MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors Using TiO2 Interfacial Layer at Metal/MoS2 Contact

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Woojin; Min, Jung-Wook; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    dioxide (TiO2) interfacial layer between contact metal and MoS2 channel is suggested to achieve more stable performances. The reduced threshold voltage (VTH) shift and reduced series resistance (RSD) were simultaneously achieved.

  18. Role of ultrathin metal fluoride layer in organic photovoltaic cells: mechanism of efficiency and lifetime enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyung-Geun; Choi, Mi-Ri; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Dong Hun; Jung, Gwan Ho; Park, Yongsup; Lee, Jong-Lam; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2014-04-01

    Although rapid progress has been made recently in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, systematic studies on an ultrathin interfacial layer at the electron extraction contact have not been conducted in detail, which is important to improve both the device efficiency and the lifetime. We find that an ultrathin BaF2 layer at the electron extraction contact strongly influences the open-circuit voltage (Voc ) as the nanomorphology evolves with increasing BaF2 thickness. A vacuum-deposited ultrathin BaF2 layer grows by island growth, so BaF2 layers with a nominal thickness less than that of single-coverage layer (≈3 nm) partially cover the polymeric photoactive layer. As the nominal thickness of the BaF2 layer increased to that of a single-coverage layer, the Voc and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) increased but the short-circuit current remained almost constant. The fill factor and the PCE decreased abruptly as the thickness of the BaF2 layer exceeded that of a single-coverage layer, which was ascribed to the insulating nature of BaF2 . We find the major cause of the increased Voc observed in these devices is the lowered work function of the cathode caused by the reaction and release of Ba from thin BaF2 films upon deposition of Al. The OPV device with the BaF2 layer showed a slightly improved maximum PCE (4.0 %) and a greatly (approximately nine times) increased device half-life under continuous simulated solar irradiation at 100 mW cm(-2) as compared with the OPV without an interfacial layer (PCE=2.1 %). We found that the photodegradation of the photoactive layer was not a major cause of the OPV degradation. The hugely improved lifetime with cathode interface modification suggests a significant role of the cathode interfacial layer that can help to prolong device lifetimes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Fabrication and Evaluation of One-Axis Oriented Lead Zirconate Titanate Films Using Metal-Oxide Nanosheet Interface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemura, Yoshiki; Nagasaka, Kohei; Kiguchi, Takanori; Konno, Toyohiko J.; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Nanosheet Ca2Nb3O20 (ns-CN) layers with pseudo-perovskite-type crystal configuration were applied on the surface of polycrystalline metal substrates to achieve preferential crystal orientation of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) films for the purpose of enhanced ferroelectricity comparable to that of epitaxial thin films. PZT films with tetragonal symmetry (Zr/Ti=0.40:0.60) were fabricated by chemical solution deposition (CSD) on ns-CN-buffered Inconel 625 and SUS 316L substrates, while ns-CN was applied on the the substrates by dip-coating. The preferential crystal growth on the ns-CN layer can be achieved by favorable lattice matching between (001)/(100)PZT and (001)ns-CN planes. The degree of (001) orientation was increased for PZT films on ns-CN/Inconel 625 and ns-CN/SUS 316L substrates, whereas randomly-oriented PZT films with a lower degree of (001) orientation were grown on bare and Inconel 625 films. Enhanced remanent polarization of 60 µC/cm2 was confirmed for the PZT films on ns-CN/metal substrates, ascribed to the preferential alignment of the polar [001] axis normal to the substrate surface, although it also suffered from higher coercive field above 500 kV/cm caused by PZT/metal interfacial reaction.

  20. Metal-doped graphene layers composed with boron nitride-graphene as an insulator: a nano-capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajjemi, Majid

    2014-11-01

    A model of a nanoscale dielectric capacitor composed of a few dopants has been investigated in this study. This capacitor includes metallic graphene layers which are separated by an insulating medium containing a few h-BN layers. It has been observed that the elements from group IIIA of the periodic table are more suitable as dopants for hetero-structures of the {metallic graphene/hBN/metallic graphene} capacitors compared to those from groups IA or IIA. In this study, we have specifically focused on the dielectric properties of different graphene/h-BN/graphene including their hetero-structure counterparts, i.e., Boron-graphene/h-BN/Boron-graphene, Al-graphene/h-BN/Al-graphene, Mg-graphene/h-BN/Mg-graphene, and Be-graphene/h-BN/Be-graphene stacks for monolayer form of dielectrics. Moreover, we studied the multi dielectric properties of different (h-BN)n/graphene hetero-structures of Boron-graphene/(h-BN)n/Boron-graphene.

  1. Metal-like Band Structures of Ultrathin Si {111} and {112} Surface Layers Revealed through Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chih-Shan; Huang, Michael H

    2017-09-04

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed on Si (100), (110), (111), and (112) planes with tunable number of planes for evaluation of their band structures and density of states profiles. The purpose is to see whether silicon can exhibit facet-dependent properties derived from the presence of a thin surface layer having different band structures. No changes have been observed for single to multiple layers of Si (100) and (110) planes with a consistent band gap between the valence band and the conduction band. However, for 1, 2, 4, and 5 Si (111) and (112) planes, metal-like band structures were obtained with continuous density of states going from the valence band to the conduction band. For 3, 6, and more Si (111) planes, as well as 3 and 6 Si (112) planes, the same band structure as that seen for Si (100) and (110) planes has been obtained. Thus, beyond a layer thickness of five Si (111) planes at ≈1.6 nm, normal semiconductor behavior can be expected. The emergence of metal-like band structures for the Si (111) and (112) planes are related to variation in Si-Si bond length and bond distortion plus 3s and 3p orbital electron contributions in the band structure. This work predicts possession of facet-dependent electrical properties of silicon with consequences in FinFET transistor design. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Manipulating the dipole layer of polar organic molecules on metal surfaces via different charge-transfer channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Kai; Nakayama, Yasuo; Zhuang, Ying-Jie; Wang, Chin-Yung; Pi, Tun-Wen; Ishii, Hisao; Tang, S.-J.

    The key properties of organic films such as energy level alignment (ELA), work functions, and injection barriers are closely linked to this dipole layer. Using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we systemically investigate the coverage-dependent work functions and spectra line shapes of occupied molecular orbital states of a polar molecule, chloroaluminium phthalocyanine (ClAlPc), grown on Ag(111) to show that the orientations of the first ClAlPc layer can be manipulated via the molecule deposition rate and post annealing, causing ELA at organic-metal interface to differ for about 0.3 eV between Cl-up and Cl-down configuration. Moreover, by comparing the experimental results with the calculations based on both gas-phase model and realistic model of ClAlPc on Ag(111) , we evidence that the different orientations of ClAlPc dipole layers lead to different charge-transfer channels between ClAlPc and Ag, a key factor that controls the ELA at organic-metal interface.

  3. Color-tunable mixed photoluminescence emission from Alq3 organic layer in metal-Alq3-metal surface plasmon structure

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Nai-Chuan; Liao, Chung-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Fan, Wan-Ting; Wu, Jin-Han; Li, Jung-Yu; Chen, Shih-Pu; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Lee, Li-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the color-tunable mixed photoluminescence (PL) emission from an Alq3 organic layer in an Au-Alq3-Au plasmonic structure through the combination of organic fluorescence emission and another form of emission that is enabled by the surface plasmons in the plasmonic structure. The emission wavelength of the latter depends on the Alq3 thickness and can be tuned within the Alq3 fluorescent spectra. Therefore, a two-color broadband, color-tunable mixed PL structure was obtained. Ob...

  4. Inhibitors of nuclease and redox activity of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laev, Sergey S; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F; Lavrik, Olga I

    2017-05-01

    Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor 1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein which is essential in the base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions caused by oxidation and alkylation. This protein hydrolyzes DNA adjacent to the 5'-end of an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site to produce a nick with a 3'-hydroxyl group and a 5'-deoxyribose phosphate moiety or activates the DNA-binding activity of certain transcription factors through its redox function. Studies have indicated a role for APE1/Ref-1 in the pathogenesis of cancer and in resistance to DNA-interactive drugs. Thus, this protein has potential as a target in cancer treatment. As a result, major efforts have been directed to identify small molecule inhibitors against APE1/Ref-1 activities. These agents have the potential to become anticancer drugs. The aim of this review is to present recent progress in studies of all published small molecule APE1/Ref-1 inhibitors. The structures and activities of APE1/Ref-1 inhibitors, that target both DNA repair and redox activities, are presented and discussed. To date, there is an urgent need for further development of the design and synthesis of APE1/Ref-1 inhibitors due to high importance of this protein target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On the Redox Activity of Urban Aerosol Particles: Implications for Size Distribution and Relationships with Organic Aerosol Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantini Samara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the distribution of the dithiothreitol-based (DTT redox activity of water-soluble airborne particulate matter (PM from two urban sites in the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece in four size ranges (<0.49, 0.49–0.97, 0.97–3.0 and >3 μm. Seasonal and spatial variations are examined. The correlations of the mass-normalized DTT activity with the content of PM in water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC and non-water-soluble carbonaceous species, such as organic and elemental carbon, as well as with solvent-extractable trace organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-derivatives, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorines, polybrominated biphenyl ethers and polar organic markers (dicarboxylic acids and levoglucosan, are investigated. Our study provides new and additional insights into the ambient size distribution of the DTT activity of the water-soluble fraction of airborne PM at urban sites and its associations with organic PM components.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of a uranium(III) complex containing a redox-active 2,2'-bipyridine ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Steven J; Fanwick, Phillip E; Bart, Suzanne C

    2010-02-01

    Hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate uranium(III) diiodide derivatives have been prepared as an entry into low-valent uranium chemistry with these ligands. The bis(tetrahydrofuran) adduct, Tp*UI(2)(THF)(2) (1) (Tp* = hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate), was synthesized by addition of sodium hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate (NaTp*) to an equivalent of UI(3)(THF)(4). Addition of 2,2'-bipyridine (2,2'-bpy) to 1 displaced the THF molecules producing Tp*UI(2)(2,2'-bpy) (2). Both derivatives were characterized by (1)H NMR and IR spectroscopies, magnetic measurements, and X-ray crystallography. Reduction of both species was attempted with two equivalents of potassium graphite. The reduction of 1 did not result in a clean product, but rather decomposition and ligand redistribution. However, compound 2 was reduced to form Tp*(2)U(2,2'-bpy), 3, which is composed of a uranium(III) ion with a radical monoanionic bipyridine ligand. This was confirmed by X-ray crystallography, which revealed distortions in the bond lengths of the bipyridine consistent with reduction. Further support was obtained by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, which showed resonances shifted far upfield, consistent with radical character on the 2,2'-bipyridine ligand. Future studies will explore the reactivity of this compound as well as the consequences for redox-activity in the bipyridine ligand.

  7. The N-terminal domain of human DNA helicase Rtel1 contains a redox active iron-sulfur cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Aaron P; Ding, Huangen

    2014-01-01

    Human telomere length regulator Rtel1 is a superfamily II DNA helicase and is essential for maintaining proper length of telomeres in chromosomes. Here we report that the N-terminal domain of human Rtel1 (RtelN) expressed in Escherichia coli cells produces a protein that contains a redox active iron-sulfur cluster with the redox midpoint potential of -248 ± 10 mV (pH 8.0). The iron-sulfur cluster in RtelN is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, indicating that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species may modulate the DNA helicase activity of Rtel1 via modification of its iron-sulfur cluster. Purified RtelN retains a weak binding affinity for the single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) DNA in vitro. However, modification of the iron-sulfur cluster by hydrogen peroxide or nitric oxide does not significantly affect the DNA binding activity of RtelN, suggesting that the iron-sulfur cluster is not directly involved in the DNA interaction in the N-terminal domain of Rtel1.

  8. The N-Terminal Domain of Human DNA Helicase Rtel1 Contains a Redox Active Iron-Sulfur Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron P. Landry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human telomere length regulator Rtel1 is a superfamily II DNA helicase and is essential for maintaining proper length of telomeres in chromosomes. Here we report that the N-terminal domain of human Rtel1 (RtelN expressed in Escherichia coli cells produces a protein that contains a redox active iron-sulfur cluster with the redox midpoint potential of −248 ± 10 mV (pH 8.0. The iron-sulfur cluster in RtelN is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, indicating that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species may modulate the DNA helicase activity of Rtel1 via modification of its iron-sulfur cluster. Purified RtelN retains a weak binding affinity for the single-stranded (ss and double-stranded (ds DNA in vitro. However, modification of the iron-sulfur cluster by hydrogen peroxide or nitric oxide does not significantly affect the DNA binding activity of RtelN, suggesting that the iron-sulfur cluster is not directly involved in the DNA interaction in the N-terminal domain of Rtel1.

  9. 4-Amino-1,2,4-triazole: Playing a key role in the chemical deposition of Cu-In-Ga metal layers for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.berner@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Sector Research and Advance Engineering, Applied Research Chemistry (CR/ARC), Robert Bosch Platz 1, 70839 Gerlingen-Schillerhöhe (Germany); Physics and Materials Science Research Unit, Université du Luxembourg, 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Widenmeyer, Markus; Engler, Patrick [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Sector Research and Advance Engineering, Applied Research Chemistry (CR/ARC), Robert Bosch Platz 1, 70839 Gerlingen-Schillerhöhe (Germany); Dale, Phillip J. [Physics and Materials Science Research Unit, Université du Luxembourg, 41, rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-05-01

    Liquid film processing of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber layers has the potential to lower the cell production costs significantly namely because of the absence of vacuum steps and high material utilization. In this work an ink system based on metal carboxylates in a mixture of a nitrogen-containing base and an alcohol is investigated. After the coating step on a suitable substrate followed by the drying of the alcohol, the metal ions are reduced to the respective metals with a simple heat treatment. However, depending on the conditions, the resulting metal layers are either highly porous or dewetting above 160 °C due to the high surface tension of the intermediate liquid indium. Adding 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole to the ink leads to a homogeneous metal layer, which is crucial for the formation of dense chalcopyrite layers. We propose a stabilization mechanism based on a temporary polymeric complex of Cu{sup 2+} and the additive 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole which is decomposing completely at selenization conditions. - Highlights: • Influence of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole on the film formation has been investigated. • Two polymers identified forming an organic matrix during the layer processing • This matrix allows processing of dense and crack free metallic layers. • The polymers decompose completely under selenization conditions.

  10. Wetting layer and void fraction nonuniformity in a liquid-metal MHD generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branover, H.; Yakhot, A.

    1981-01-01

    The quetion of the effect of a liquid layer on the walls of an MHD channel in the case of uniform void fraction distribution in the flow core was first considered several years ago. More recently an analytic solution for high Hartmann numbers was obtained, which led to the conclusion that this layer does not have a significant effect on the efficiency of large generators. This paper postulates an analytic model which makes it possible to estimate the effect of a void fraction nonuniformity, in the presence of the wetting layer on the walls, on the generator performance. 3 refs

  11. High-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with nitrogen as nucleation layer carrier gas grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, high-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with sheet resistivity greater than 106 Ω/□ have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD. We have observed that the growth of GaN nucleation layers (NLs under N2 ambient leads to a large full width at half maximum (FWHM of (102 X-ray diffraction (XRD line in the rocking curve about 1576 arc sec. Unintentional carbon incorporation can be observed in the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS measurements. The results demonstrate the self-compensation mechanism is attributed to the increased density of edge-type threading dislocations and carbon impurities. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on the high-resistivity GaN template has also been fabricated, exhibiting a maximum drain current of 478 mA/mm, a peak transconductance of 60.0 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 0.96×108 and a breakdown voltage of 621 V.

  12. High-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with nitrogen as nucleation layer carrier gas grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Sun, Shichuang; Deng, Xuguang; Fu, Kai; Yu, Guohao; Song, Liang; Hao, Ronghui; Fan, Yaming; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Baoshun

    2017-12-01

    In this letter, high-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with sheet resistivity greater than 106 Ω/□ have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have observed that the growth of GaN nucleation layers (NLs) under N2 ambient leads to a large full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (102) X-ray diffraction (XRD) line in the rocking curve about 1576 arc sec. Unintentional carbon incorporation can be observed in the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements. The results demonstrate the self-compensation mechanism is attributed to the increased density of edge-type threading dislocations and carbon impurities. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on the high-resistivity GaN template has also been fabricated, exhibiting a maximum drain current of 478 mA/mm, a peak transconductance of 60.0 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 0.96×108 and a breakdown voltage of 621 V.

  13. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Growth Mechanism, Controllability, and Scalability

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan; Li, Ying; Aljarb, Areej; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    to generate high-quality TMDC layers with scalable size, controllable thickness, and excellent electronic properties suitable for both technological applications and fundamental sciences. The capability to precisely engineer 2D materials by chemical approaches

  14. Laser sintering of metal powders on top of sintered layers under multiple-line laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Bin; Zhang Yuwen

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model for multiple-line sintering of loose powders on top of multiple sintered layers under the irradiation of a moving Gaussian laser beam is carried out. The overlaps between vertically deposited layers and adjacent lines which strengthen bonding are taken into account. The energy equation is formulated using the temperature transforming model and solved by the finite volume method. The effects of the number of the existing sintered layers, porosity and initial temperature coupled with the optimal combination laser intensity and scanning velocity are presented. The results show that the liquid pool moves slightly towards the negative scanning direction and the shape of the liquid pool becomes shallower with higher scanning velocity. A higher laser intensity is needed to achieve the required overlaps when the number of the existing sintered layers increases. Increasing porosity or initial temperature enhances the sintering process and thus less intensity is needed for the overlap requirement

  15. Investigation of Focusing Effect according to the Cooling Condition and Height of the Metallic layer in a Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Je-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident has led to renewed research interests in severe accidents of nuclear power plants. In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of core melt is one of key severe accident management strategies adopted in nuclear power plant design. The metallic layer is heated from below by the radioactive decay heat generated at the oxide pool, and is cooled from above and side walls. During the IVR process, reactor vessel may be cooled externally (ERVC) and the heat fluxes to the side wall increase with larger temperature difference than above. This {sup F}ocusing effect{sup i}s varied by cooling condition of upper boundary and height of the metallic layer. A sulfuric acid–copper sulfate (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - CuSO{sub 4}) electroplating system was adopted as the mass transfer system. Numerical analysis using the commercial CFD program FLUENT 6.3 were carried out with the same material properties and cooling conditions to examine the variation of the cell. The experimental and numerical studies were performed to investigate the focusing effect according to cooling condition of upper boundary and the height in metallic layer. The height of the side wall was varied for three different cooling conditions: top only, side only, and both top and side. Mass transfer experiments, based on the analogy concept, were carried out in order to achieve high Rayleigh number. The experimental results agreed well with the Rayleigh-Benard convection correlations of Dropkin and Somerscales and Globe and Dropkin. The heat transfer on side wall cooling condition without top cooling is highest and was enhanced by decreasing the aspect ratio. The numerical results agreed well with the experimental results. Each cell pattern (cell size, cell direction, central location of cell) differed in the cooling condition. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the internal flow due to complexity of cell formation behavior.

  16. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-08-22

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  17. Quantifying metal artefact reduction using virtual monochromatic dual-layer detector spectral CT imaging in unilateral and bilateral total hip prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, R. H. H.; Boomsma, M. F.; van Osch, J. A. C.; Vlassenbroek, A.; Milles, J.; Edens, M. A.; Streekstra, G. J.; Slump, C. H.; Maas, M.

    2017-01-01

    To quantify the impact of prosthesis material and design on the reduction of metal artefacts in total hip arthroplasties using virtual monochromatic dual-layer detector Spectral CT imaging. The water-filled total hip arthroplasty phantom was scanned on a novel 128-slice Philips IQon dual-layer

  18. Layered Double Hydroxides as Effective Adsorbents for U(VI and Toxic Heavy Metals Removal from Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Pshinko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacities of different synthesized Zn,Al-hydrotalcite-like adsorbents, including the initial carbonate [Zn4Al2(OH12]·CO3·8H2O and its forms intercalated with chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, and hexamethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (HMDTA and heat-treated form Zn4Al2O7, to adsorb uranium(VI and ions of toxic heavy metals have been compared. Metal sorption capacities of hydrotalcite-like adsorbents have been shown to correlate with the stability of their complexes with the mentioned chelating agents in a solution. The synthesized layered double hydroxides (LDHs containing chelating agents in the interlayer space are rather efficient for sorption purification of aqueous media free from U(VI irrespective of its forms of natural abundance (including water-soluble bi- and tricarbonate forms and from heavy metal ions. [Zn4Al2(OH12]·EDTA·nH2O is recommended for practical application as one of the most efficient and inexpensive synthetic adsorbents designed for recovery of both cationic and particularly important anionic forms of U(VI and other heavy metals from aqueous media. Carbonate forms of LDHs turned out to be most efficient for recovery of Cu(II from aqueous media with pH0≥7 owing to precipitation of Cu(II basic carbonates and Cu(II hydroxides. Chromate ions are efficiently adsorbed from water only by calcinated forms of LDHs.

  19. Comparative Study of MIL-96(Al) as Continuous Metal-Organic Frameworks Layer and Mixed-Matrix Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, Alexander; Friebe, Sebastian; Bigall, Nadja Carola; Benzaqui, Marvin; Serre, Christian; Caro, Jürgen

    2016-03-23

    MIL-96(Al) layers were prepared as supported metal-organic frameworks membrane via reactive seeding using the α-alumina support as the Al source for the formation of the MIL-96(Al) seeds. Depending on the solvent mixture employed during seed formation, two different crystal morphologies, with different orientation of the transport-active channels, have been formed. This crystal orientation and habit is predefined by the seed crystals and is kept in the subsequent growth of the seeds to continuous layers. In the gas separation of an equimolar H2/CO2 mixture, the hydrogen permeability of the two supported MIL-96(Al) layers was found to be highly dependent on the crystal morphology and the accompanied channel orientation in the layer. In addition to the neat supported MIL-96(Al) membrane layers, mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs, 10 wt % filler loading) as a composite of MIL-96(Al) particles as filler in a continuous Matrimid polymer phase have been prepared. Five particle sizes of MIL-96(Al) between 3.2 μm and 55 nm were synthesized. In the preparation of the MIL-96(Al)/Matrimid MMM (10 wt % filler loading), the following preparation problems have been identified: The bigger micrometer-sized MIL-96(Al) crystals show a trend toward sedimentation during casting of the MMM, whereas for nanoparticles aggregation and recrystallization to micrometer-sized MIL-96(Al) crystals has been observed. Because of these preparation problems for MMM, the neat supported MIL-96(Al) layers show a relatively high H2/CO2 selectivity (≈9) and a hydrogen permeance approximately 2 magnitudes higher than that of the best MMM.

  20. Color-tunable mixed photoluminescence emission from Alq3 organic layer in metal-Alq3-metal surface plasmon structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nai-Chuan; Liao, Chung-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Fan, Wan-Ting; Wu, Jin-Han; Li, Jung-Yu; Chen, Shih-Pu; Huang, Bohr-Ran; Lee, Li-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the color-tunable mixed photoluminescence (PL) emission from an Alq3 organic layer in an Au-Alq3-Au plasmonic structure through the combination of organic fluorescence emission and another form of emission that is enabled by the surface plasmons in the plasmonic structure. The emission wavelength of the latter depends on the Alq3 thickness and can be tuned within the Alq3 fluorescent spectra. Therefore, a two-color broadband, color-tunable mixed PL structure was obtained. Obvious changes in the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates and the corresponding emission colors of Au-Alq3-Au samples clearly varied with the Alq3 thickness (90, 130, and 156 nm).

  1. Electrical and structural properties of a stacked metal layer contact to n-InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wen-Chang; Horng, Chia-Tsung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we found that the double metal contact structure in Pt/Al/n-InP diodes provides better rectification characteristics than conventional single-metal/n-InP Schottky diodes. The effective barrier height was measured to be 0.67 eV for a 400 deg. C-annealed Pt/Al/n-InP diode sample. The increase in the barrier height is attributed to the formation of Al 2 O 3 at the metal/n-InP contact interface during thermal annealing. The formation of the phase Al 2 O 3 phase was monitored by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The corresponding element profiles of Al and O were also confirmed at the metal/n-InP contact interface using secondary ion mass spectrum (SIMS) analysis. The lowering of the Schottky barrier height due to the inhomogeneity at the metal/n-InP junction is also discussed on the basis of the TE theory. The distribution of local effective Schottky barrier heights was explained by a model incorporating the existence of double Gaussian barrier heights, which represent the high barrier and low barrier of the full distribution in the temperature ranges of 83-198 and 198-300 K.

  2. Experimental analysis of two-layered dissimilar metals by roll bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanghui; Li, Yugui; Li, Juan; Huang, Qingxue; Ma, Lifeng

    2018-02-01

    Rolling reduction and base layers thickness have important implications for rolling compounding. A two-layered 304 stainless steel/Q345R low alloyed steel was roll bonded. The roll bonding was performed at the three thickness reductions of 25%, 40% and 55% with base layers of various thicknesses (Q345R). The microstructures of the composite were investigated by the ultra-deep microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM). Simultaneously, the mechanical properties of the composite were experimentally measured and the tensile fracture surfaces were observed by SEM. The interfaces were successfully bonded without any cracking or voids, which indicated a good fabrication of the 304/Q345R composite. The rolling reduction rate and thinning increase of the substrate contributed to the bonding effects appearance of the roll bonded sheet. The Cr and Ni enriched diffusion layer was formed by the interface elements diffusion. The Cr and Ni diffusion led to the formation of ˜10 μm wide Cr and Ni layers on the carbon steel side.

  3. Friction Modifier Using Adherent Metallic Multilayered or Mixed Element Layer Conversion Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Francis G. (Inventor); Starks, Lloyd L., Sr. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process for creating conversion coatings and spin, drawing, and extrusion finishes for surfaces, wherein the conversion coatings and spin, drawing, and extrusion finishes contain potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, and one or more non-alkaline metals and/or one or more metalloids. The process comprises forming an aqueous solution of water, phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide, an alkali metal hydroxide, and one or more non-alkaline metals and/or one or more metalloids. The aqueous solution forms an anti-friction multilayer conversion and/or mixed element coating or a spin, drawing, and extrusion finish on a surface when applied to the surface, either directly without the use of applied external electromotive force, or as an additive in lubricating fluids.

  4. Novel Bioactive Titanate Layers Formed on Ti Metal and Its Alloys by Chemical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Kokubo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium titanate formed on Ti metal by NaOH and heat treatments induces apatite formation on its surface in a body environment and bonds to living bone. These treatments have been applied to porous Ti metal in artificial hip joints, and have been used clinically in Japan since 2007. Calcium titanate formed on Ti-15Zr-4Nb-4Ta alloy by NaOH, CaCl2, heat, and water treatments induces apatite formation on its surface in a body environment. Titanium oxide formed on porous Ti metal by NaOH, HCl, and heat treatments exhibits osteoinductivity as well as osteoconductivity. This is now under clinical tests for application to a spinal fusion device.

  5. First-Principles Investigations of the Working Mechanism of 2D h-BN as an Interfacial Layer for the Anode of Lithium Metal Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Le; Xu, Ao; Zhao, Tianshou

    2017-01-18

    An issue with the use of metallic lithium as an anode material for lithium-based batteries is dendrite growth, causing a periodic breaking and repair of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Adding 2D atomic crystals, such as h-BN, as an interfacial layer between the lithium metal anode and liquid electrolyte has been demonstrated to be effective to mitigate dendrite growth, thereby enhancing the Columbic efficiency of lithium metal batteries. But the underlying mechanism leading to the reduced dendrite growth remains unknown. In this work, with the aid of first-principle calculations, we find that the interaction between the h-BN and lithium metal layers is a weak van der Waals force, and two atomic layers of h-BN are thick enough to block the electron tunneling from lithium metal to electrolyte, thus prohibiting the decomposition of electrolyte. The interlayer spacing between the h-BN and lithium metal layers can provide larger adsorption energies toward lithium atoms than that provided by bare lithium or h-BN, making lithium atoms prefer to intercalate under the cover of h-BN during the plating process. The combined high stiffness of h-BN and the low diffusion energy barriers of lithium at the Li/h-BN interfaces induce a uniform distribution of lithium under h-BN, therefore effectively suppressing dendrite growth.

  6. Atomic-Resolution Visualization of Distinctive Chemical Mixing Behavior of Ni, Co and Mn with Li in Layered Lithium Transition-Metal Oxide Cathode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Lv, Dongping; Wei, Yi; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Zhiguo; Kuppan, Saravanan; Yu, Jianguo; Luo, Langli; Edwards, Danny J.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie; Pan, Feng; Chen, Guoying; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-07-06

    Capacity and voltage fading of layer structured cathode based on lithium transition metal oxide is closely related to the lattice position and migration behavior of the transition metal ions. However, it is scarcely clear about the behavior of each of these transition metal ions. We report direct atomic resolution visualization of interatomic layer mixing of transition metal (Ni, Co, Mn) and lithium ions in layer structured oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries. Using chemical imaging with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and DFT calculations, we discovered that in the layered cathodes, Mn and Co tend to reside almost exclusively at the lattice site of transition metal (TM) layer in the structure or little interlayer mixing with Li. In contrast, Ni shows high degree of interlayer mixing with Li. The fraction of Ni ions reside in the Li layer followed a near linear dependence on total Ni concentration before reaching saturation. The observed distinctively different behavior of Ni with respect to Co and Mn provides new insights on both capacity and voltage fade in this class of cathode materials based on lithium and TM oxides, therefore providing scientific basis for selective tailoring of oxide cathode materials for enhanced performance.

  7. Electrochemistry of metal complexes applications from electroplating to oxide layer formation

    CERN Document Server

    Survila, Arvydas

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to sequentially cover all the major stages of electrochemical processes (mass transport, adsorption, charge transfer), with a special emphasis on their deep interrelation. Starting with general considerations on equilibria in solutions and at interfaces as well as on mass transport, the text acquaints readers with the theory and common experimental practice for studying electrochemical reactions of metals complexes. The core part of the book deals with all important aspects of electroplating, including a systematic discussion of co-deposition of metals and formation of alloys.

  8. Studies of plasmonic hot-spot translation by a metal-dielectric layered superlens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoreson, Mark D.; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; West, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    at a wavelength of about 680 nm. Specifically, we discuss our recent experimental and simulation results on the translation of hot spots using a silver-silica layered superlens design. We compare the experimental results with our numerical simulations and discuss the perspectives and limitations of our approach....... optical nanoantennas as sources, we investigated the translation of these sources to the far side of a layered silver-silica superlens operating in the canalization regime. Using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), we have observed evidence of superlens-enabled enhanced-field translation...

  9. Improved conductivity of infinite-layer LaNiO2 thin films by metal organic decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Ai; Manabe, Takaaki; Naito, Michio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •LaNiO 2 films were synthesized by metal organic decomposition and topotactic reduction. •Room-temperature resistivity as low as 0.6 mΩ cm was achieved for infinite-layer LaNiO 2 . •Lattice matched substrates are important in obtaining high conductivity. -- Abstract: Infinite-layer LaNiO 2 thin films were synthesized by metal organic decomposition and subsequent topotactic reduction in hydrogen, and their transport properties were investigated. LaNiO 2 is isostructural to SrCuO 2 , the parent compound of high-T c Sr 0.9 La 0.1 CuO 2 with T c = 44 K, and has 3d 9 configuration, which is very rare in oxides but common to high-T c copper oxides. The bulk synthesis of LaNiO 2 is not easy, but we demonstrate in this article that the thin-film synthesis of LaNiO 2 is rather easy, thanks to a large-surface-to-volume ratio, which makes oxygen diffusion prompt. Our refined synthesis conditions produced highly conducting films of LaNiO 2 . The resistivity of the best film is as low as 640 μΩ cm at 295 K and decreases with temperature down to 230 K but it shows a gradual upturn at lower temperatures

  10. Novel electrochemical redox-active species: one-step synthesis of polyaniline derivative-Au/Pd and its application for multiplexed immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyuan; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2015-11-01

    Electrochemical redox-active species play crucial role in electrochemically multiplexed immunoassays. A one-pot method for synthesizing four kinds of new electrochemical redox-active species was reported using HAuCl4 and Na2PdCl4 as dual oxidating agents and aniline derivatives as monomers. The synthesized polyaniline derivative-Au/Pd composites, namely poly(N-methyl-o-benzenediamine)-Au/Pd, poly(N-phenyl-o-phenylenediamine)-Au/Pd, poly(N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine)-Au/Pd and poly(3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine)-Au/Pd, exhibited electrochemical redox activity at -0.65 V, -0.3 V, 0.12 V, and 0.5 V, respectively. Meanwhile, these composites showed high H2O2 electrocatalytic activity because of the presence of Au/Pd. The as-prepared composites were used as electrochemical immunoprobes in simultaneous detection of four tumor biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA199), carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA724), and alpha fetoprotein (AFP)). This immunoassay shed light on potential applications in simultaneous gastric cancer (related biomarkers: CEA, CA199, CA724) and liver cancer diagnosis (related biomarkers: CEA, CA199, AFP). The present strategy to the synthesize redox species could be easily extended to other polymers such as polypyrrole derivatives and polythiophene derivatives. This would be of great significance in the electrochemical detection of more analytes.

  11. The production of a homogeneous and well-attached layer of carbon nanofibers on metal foils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco Benito, Sergio; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were deposited on metal foils including nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), stainless steel (Fe:Ni; 70:11 wt.%) and mumetal (Ni:Fe; 77:14 wt.%) by the decomposition of C2H4 at 600 °C. The effect of pretreatment and the addition of H2 on the rate of carbon formation, as well

  12. Enhanced Natural Convection in a Metal Layer Cooled by Boiling Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae-Seon; Suh, Kune Y.; Chung, Chang-Hyun; Park, Rae-Joon; Kim, Sang-Baik

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the natural convection heat transfer characteristics and the solidification of the molten metal pool concurrently with forced convective boiling of the overlying coolant to simulate a severe accident in a nuclear power plant. The relationship between the Nusselt number (Nu) and the Rayleigh number (Ra) in the molten metal pool region is determined and compared with the correlations in the literature and experimental data with subcooled water. Given the same Ra condition, the present experimental results for Nu of the liquid metal pool with coolant boiling are found to be higher than those predicted by the existing correlations or measured from the experiment with subcooled boiling. To quantify the observed effect of the external cooling on the natural convection heat transfer rate from the molten pool, it is proposed to include an additional dimensionless group characterizing the temperature gradients in the molten pool and in the external coolant region. Starting from the Globe and Dropkin correlation, engineering correlations are developed for the enhancement of heat transfer in the molten metal pool when cooled by an overlying coolant. The new correlations for predicting natural convection heat transfer are applicable to low-Prandtl-number (Pr) materials that are heated from below and solidified by the external coolant above. Results from this study may be used to modify the current model in severe accident analysis codes

  13. Superconducting and structural properties of plasma sprayed YBaCuO layers deposited on metallic substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, Herman K.; Jäger, D; Smithers, M.A.; Smithers, M.; van der Veer, J.; van der Veer, J.M.; Stover, D.; Rogalla, Horst

    1993-01-01

    The properties of plasma sprayed Y-Ba-Cu-O coatings deposited on metallic substrates are studied. Stainless steel, nickel steels and pure nickel are used as substrate. Y-Ba-Cu-O deposited on stainless steel and nickel steel reacts with the substrate. This interaction can be suppressed by using an

  14. Study of toughening mechanisms through the observations of crack propagation in nanostructured and layered metallic sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A.Y.; Li, D.F.; Zhang, J.B.; Liu, F.; Liu, X.R.; Lu, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A nanostructured and layered steel exhibits high strength and large ductility. → The excellent combination originates from a multiple interlaminar cracking. → The initiation and propagation of cracks are controlled by three aspects. → The cracks are deflected by interface and arrested by compressive residual stress. → Finally, the cracks are blunted by the graded grain size distribution. - Abstract: A layered and nanostructured (LN) 304 SS sheet was produced by combination of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) with warm co-rolling. The microstructure of LN sheet is characterized by a periodic distribution of nanocrystalline layers and micron-grained layers with a graded transition of grain size. Tensile test results show that exceptional properties of high yield strength and large elongation to fracture are achieved. A multiple interlaminar cracking was observed by scanning electron microscopy, which is induced by repeated crack initiation and propagation. The toughening mechanisms of the LN sheet are proposed to be controlling the crack propagation path by several strategies. The main cracks initiating at interface defects are arrested by large compressive residual stress, deflected by weak interface bonding and blunted by the graded grain size distribution.

  15. Polymer−metal organic framework composite films as affinity layer for capacitive sensor devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachdeva, S.; Gravesteijn, Dirk J; Soccol, D.; Kapteijn, F.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Gascon, J.; Smet, de L.C.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple method for sensor development using polymer-MOF composite films. Nanoparticles of NH2-MIL-53(Al) dispersed in a Matrimid polyimide were applied as a thin film on top of capacitive sensor devices with planar electrodes. These drop-cast films act as an affinity layer. Sensing

  16. Polymer-metal organic framework composite films as affinity layer for capacitive sensor devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachdeva, Sumit; Soccol, Dimitri; Gravesteijn, Dirk J.; Kapteijn, Freek; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Gascon, Jorge; Smet, de L.C.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    We report a simple method for sensor development using polymer-
    MOF composite films. Nanoparticles of NH2-MIL-53(Al) dispersed in a Matrimid
    polyimide were applied as a thin film on top of capacitive sensor devices with planar electrodes. These drop-cast films act as an affinity layer.

  17. Control of electronic properties of 2D carbides (MXenes) by manipulating their transition metal layers

    KAUST Repository

    Anasori, Babak; Shi, Chenyang; Moon, Eun Ju; Xie, Yu; Voigt, Cooper A.; Kent, Paul R. C.; May, Steven J.; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Barsoum, Michel W.; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-01-01

    M′′–C layers. Using X-ray atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis on Mo2TiC2 and Mo2Ti2C3 MXenes, we present the first quantitative analysis of structures of these novel materials and experimentally confirm that Mo atoms are in the outer

  18. Formation of Layered Double Hydroxides on Alumina Surface in Aqueous Solutions Containing Divalent Metal Cations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Mašátová, P.; Novotná, P.; Jirátová, Květa

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2009), s. 425-432 ISSN 0009-8604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1400 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : deposition * layered double hydroxides * supported mixed oxides Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.431, year: 2009

  19. Lanthanide-Porphyrin Hybrids: from Layered Structures to Metal-Organic Frameworks with Photophysical Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demel, Jan; Kubát, Pavel; Millange, F.; Marrot, J.; Císařová, I.; Lang, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2013), s. 2779-2786 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/10/1447 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered hydroxide * TPPS * MOF Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 4.794, year: 2013

  20. In situ generation of highly dispersed metal nanoparticles on two-dimensional layered SiO2 by topotactic structure conversion and their superior catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Jia, Da-Shuang; Zhou, Yue; Hao, Jiang; Liang, Yu; Cui, Zhi-Min; Song, Wei-Guo

    2018-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles such as Ag, Cu and Fe are effective catalysts for many reactions, whereas a facile method to prepare metal nanoparticles with high uniformed dispersion is still desirable. Herein, the topotactic structure conversion of layered silicate, RUB-15, was utilized to support metal nanoparticles. Through simple ion-exchange and following calcination step, metal nanoparticles were generated in situ inside the interlayer space of layered silica, and the topotactic structure conversion process assured nano-sized and highly uniformed dispersion of metal nanoparticles. The obtained Ag/SiO2 composite showed superior catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and methylene blue (MB), with a rate constant as high as 0.0607 s-1 and 0.0778 s-1. The simple and universal synthesis method as well as high activity of the product composite endow the strategy good application prospect.

  1. Temperature-Dependent Physical and Memory Characteristics of Atomic-Layer-Deposited RuOx Metal Nanocrystal Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maikap

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and memory characteristics of the atomic-layer-deposited RuOx metal nanocrystal capacitors in an n-Si/SiO2/HfO2/RuOx/Al2O3/Pt structure with different postdeposition annealing temperatures from 850–1000°C have been investigated. The RuOx metal nanocrystals with an average diameter of 7 nm and a highdensity of 0.7 × 1012/cm2 are observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy after a postdeposition annealing temperature at 1000°C. The density of RuOx nanocrystal is decreased (slightly by increasing the annealing temperatures, due to agglomeration of multiple nanocrystals. The RuO3 nanocrystals and Hf-silicate layer at the SiO2/HfO2 interface are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For post-deposition annealing temperature of 1000°C, the memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of ~9 nm possess a large hysteresis memory window of >5 V at a small sweeping gate voltage of ±5 V. A promising memory window under a small sweeping gate voltage of ~3 V is also observed due to charge trapping in the RuOx metal nanocrystals. The program/erase mechanism is modified Fowler-Nordheim (F-N tunneling of the electrons and holes from Si substrate. The electrons and holes are trapped in the RuOx nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of 106 cycles and a large memory window of 4.3 V with a small charge loss of ~23% at 85°C are observed after 10 years of data retention time, due to the deep-level traps in the RuOx nanocrystals. The memory structure is very promising for future nanoscale nonvolatile memory applications.

  2. Atomic layer deposited nanocrystalline tungsten carbides thin films as a metal gate and diffusion barrier for Cu metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Beom; Kim, Soo-Hyun, E-mail: soohyun@ynu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-si 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Won Seok [UP Chemical 576, Chilgoedong, Pyeongtaek-si, Gyeonggi-do 459-050 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Do-Joong [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Tungsten carbides (WC{sub x}) thin films were deposited on thermally grown SiO{sub 2} substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using a fluorine- and nitrogen-free W metallorganic precursor, tungsten tris(3-hexyne) carbonyl [W(CO)(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}C ≡ CCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}], and N{sub 2} + H{sub 2} plasma as the reactant at deposition temperatures between 150 and 350 °C. The present ALD-WC{sub x} system showed an ALD temperature window between 200 and 250 °C, where the growth rate was independent of the deposition temperature. Typical ALD characteristics, such as self-limited film growth and a linear dependency of the film grown on the number of ALD cycles, were observed, with a growth rate of 0.052 nm/cycle at a deposition temperature of 250 °C. The ALD-WC{sub x} films formed a nanocrystalline structure with grains, ∼2 nm in size, which consisted of hexagonal W{sub 2}C, WC, and nonstoichiometric cubic β-WC{sub 1−x} phase. Under typical deposition conditions at 250 °C, an ALD-WC{sub x} film with a resistivity of ∼510 μΩ cm was deposited and the resistivity of the ALD-WC{sub x} film could be reduced even further to ∼285 μΩ cm by further optimizing the reactant pulsing conditions, such as the plasma power. The step coverage of ALD-WC{sub x} film was ∼80% on very small sized and dual trenched structures (bottom width of 15 nm and aspect ratio of ∼6.3). From ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, the work function of the ALD-WC{sub x} film was determined to be 4.63 eV. Finally, the ultrathin (∼5 nm) ALD-WC{sub x} film blocked the diffusion of Cu, even up to 600 °C, which makes it a promising a diffusion barrier material for Cu interconnects.

  3. Design and development of a layer-based additive manufacturing process for the realization of metal parts of designed mesostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher Bryant

    Low-density cellular materials, metallic bodies with gaseous voids, are a unique class of materials that are characterized by their high strength, low mass, good energy absorption characteristics, and good thermal and acoustic insulation properties. In an effort to take advantage of this entire suite of positive mechanical traits, designers are tailoring the cellular mesostructure for multiple design objectives. Unfortunately, existing cellular material manufacturing technologies limit the design space as they are limited to certain part mesostructure, material type, and macrostructure. The opportunity that exists to improve the design of existing products, and the ability to reap the benefits of cellular materials in new applications is the driving force behind this research. As such, the primary research goal of this work is to design, embody, and analyze a manufacturing process that provides a designer the ability to specify the material type, material composition, void morphology, and mesostructure topology for any conceivable part geometry. The accomplishment of this goal is achieved in three phases of research: (1) Design---Following a systematic design process and a rigorous selection exercise, a layer-based additive manufacturing process is designed that is capable of meeting the unique requirements of fabricating cellular material geometry. Specifically, metal parts of designed mesostructure are fabricated via three-dimensional printing of metal oxide ceramic powder followed by post-processing in a reducing atmosphere. (2) Embodiment ---The primary research hypothesis is verified through the use of the designed manufacturing process chain to successfully realize metal parts of designed mesostructure. (3) Modeling & Evaluation ---The designed manufacturing process is modeled in this final research phase so as to increase understanding of experimental results and to establish a foundation for future analytical modeling research. In addition to an analysis of

  4. Epitaxial growth of matched metallic ErP0.6As0.4 layers on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guivarc'h, A.; Le Corre, A.; Gaulet, J.; Guenais, B.; Minier, M.; Ropars, G.; Badoz, P.A.; Duboz, J.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Successful growth of (001)ErP 0.6 As 0.4 single crystal film on (001) GaAs has been demonstrated. The epitaxial metallic layers reproducibly showed lattice mismatch below 5 10 -4 . This is, to the authors' knowledge, the first report of a stable, epitaxial and lattice-matched metal/compound semiconductor heterostructure. The ErP 0.6 As 0.4 /n-GaAs diodes yielded excellent I-V characteristics with an ideality factor of 1.1 and barrier height of 0.88 eV. For a 240 Angstrom- thick film, metallic behavior was observed with resistivities of 25 and 86 μΩcm at 1.5 K and room temperature, respectively. As the other Er compounds ErP, ErAs, ErSb and ErSi 2 , ErP 0.6 As 0.4 presents an abrupt drop in resistivity in the vicinity of the liquid helium temperature, due to a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase transition

  5. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich single-walled carbon nanotubes from perpendicular layered double hydroxide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2012-04-07

    Direct bulk growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with required properties, such as diameter, length, and chirality, is the first step to realize their advanced applications in electrical and optical devices, transparent conductive films, and high-performance field-effect transistors. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich SWCNTs is a great challenge to the carbon nanotube community. We report the bulk preferential growth of short aligned SWCNTs from perpendicular Mo-containing FeMgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) film by a facile thermal chemical vapor deposition with CH(4) as carbon source. The growth of the short aligned SWCNTs showed a decreased growth velocity with an initial value of 1.9 nm s(-1). Such a low growth velocity made it possible to get aligned SWCNTs shorter than 1 μm with a growth duration less than 15 min. Raman spectra with different excitation wavelengths indicated that the as-grown short aligned SWCNTs showed high selectivity of metallic SWCNTs. Various kinds of materials, such as mica, quartz, Cu foil, and carbon fiber, can serve as the substrates for the growth of perpendicular FeMoMgAl LDH films and also the growth of the short aligned SWCNTs subsequently. These findings highlight the easy route for bulk preferential growth of aligned metallic-rich SWCNTs with well defined length for further bulk characterization and applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  6. Thin-layer chromatography of 49 metal ions on stannic antimonate in aqueous and mixed solvent systems containing dimethylsulfoxide: quantitative separation of uranium from numerous metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.; Varshney, K.G.; Rajput, R.P.S.

    1976-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography of 40 metal ions in 31 aqueous and mixed solvent systems has been performed on stannic antimonate ion-exchange material. Dimethylsulfoxide has been utilized to resolve such binary mixtures as La 3+ and Ce 3+ from Pr 3+ , Nd 3+ , and Sm 3+ ; VO 2+ from Ti 4+ , Nb 5+ , and Ta 5+ ; Ga 3+ from In 3+ , Tl + , and Y 3+ ; Fe 3+ from VO 2+ ; and Mg 2+ from Al 3+ . Quantitative separation of 200 to 800 μg U from its binary mixtures and from the synthetic mixtures containing Mg 2+ , Bi 3+ , Fe 3+ , Th 4+ , Ce 4+ , Cr 3+ , Zr 4+ , Hf 4+ , Ti 4+ Mn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ce 3+ , In 3+ , Y 3+ , Ca 2+ , Co 2+ , Tl + , Nb 5+ , and Ag + has been obtained

  7. Solution processed transition metal oxide anode buffer layers for efficiency and stability enhancement of polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, M. Yoosuf; Shamjid, P.; Abhijith, T.; Reddy, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer solar cells were fabricated with solution-processed transition metal oxides, MoO3 and V2O5 as anode buffer layers (ABLs). The optimized device with V2O5 ABL exhibited considerably higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to the devices based on MoO3 and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) ABLs. The space charge limited current measurements and impedance spectroscopy results of hole-only devices revealed that V2O5 provided a very low charge transfer resistance and high hole mobility, facilitating efficient hole transfer from the active layer to the ITO anode. More importantly, incorporation of V2O5 as ABL resulted in substantial improvement in device stability compared to MoO3 and PEDOT:PSS based devices. Unencapsulated PEDOT:PSS-based devices stored at a relative humidity of 45% have shown complete failure within 96 h. Whereas, MoO3 and V2O5 based devices stored in similar conditions retained 22% and 80% of their initial PCEs after 96 h. Significantly higher stability of the V2O5-based device is ascribed to the reduction in degradation of the anode/active layer interface, as evident from the electrical measurements.

  8. Improved Performance of Pentacene Organic Field-Effect Transistors by Inserting a V2O5 Metal Oxide Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Geng; Cheng Xiao-Man; Du Bo-Qun; Tian Hai-Jun; Liang Xiao-Yu

    2011-01-01

    We fabricate pentacene-based organic field effect transistors (OFETs), inserting a transition metal oxide (V 2 O 5 ) layer between the pentacene and Al source-drain (S/D) electrodes. The performance of the devices with V 2 O 5 /Al S/D electrodes is considerably improved compared to the pentacene-based OFET with only Al S/D electrodes. After the 10-nm V 2 O 5 layer modification, the effective field-effect mobility of the devices increases from 2.7 × 10 −3 cm 2 /V·s to 8.93× 10 −1 cm 2 /V·s. Owing to the change of the injection property, the effective threshold voltage (V th ) is changed from −7.5 V to −5 V and the on/off ratio shifts from 10 2 to 10 4 . Moreover, the dispersion of sub-threshold current in the devices disappears. These performance improvements are ascribed to the low carrier injection barrier and the reduction of contact resistance. It is indicated that V 2 O 5 layer modification is an effective approach to improve pentacene-based OFET performance. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Electroless deposition of NiCrB diffusion barrier layer film for ULSI-Cu metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuechun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming (China); Chen, Xiuhua, E-mail: chenxh@ynu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming (China); Ma, Wenhui [National Engineering Laboratory of Vacuum Metallurgy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Shang, Yudong; Lei, Zhengtao; Xiang, Fuwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • In this paper, the electroless deposited NiCrB thin film was mainly in the form of NiB, CrB{sub 2} compounds and elementary Ni. • The sheet resistance of NiCrB thin film was 3.043 Ω/□, it is smaller than that of the widely used Ta, TaN and TiN diffusion barrier layers. • Annealing experiments showed that the failure temperature of NiCrB thin film regarding Cu diffusion was 900 °C. • NiCrB barrier layer crystallized after 900 °C annealing, Cu grains arrived at Si-substrate through grain boundaries, resulting in the formation of Cu{sub 3}Si. • Eelectroless deposited NiCrB film also had good oxidation resistance, it is expected to become an anti-oxidant layer of copper interconnection. - Abstract: NiCrB films were deposited on Si substrates using electroless deposition as a diffusion barrier layer for Cu interconnections. Samples of the prepared NiCrB/SiO{sub 2}/Si and NiCrB/Cu/NiCrB/SiO{sub 2}/Si were annealed at temperatures ranging from 500 °C to 900 °C. The reaction mechanism of the electroless deposition of the NiCrB film, the failure temperature and the failure mechanism of the NiCrB diffusion barrier layer were investigated. The prepared samples were subjected to XRD, XPS, FPP and AFM to determine the phases, composition, sheet resistance and surface morphology of samples before and after annealing. The results of these analyses indicated that the failure temperature of the NiCrB barrier film was 900 °C and the failure mechanism led to crystallization and grain growth of the NiCrB barrier layer after high temperature annealing. It was found that this process caused Cu grains to reach Si substrate through the grain boundaries, and then the reaction between Cu and Si resulted in the formation of highly resistive Cu{sub 3}Si.

  10. Anomalous positive flatband voltage shifts in metal gate stacks containing rare-earth oxide capping layers

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.

    2012-03-09

    It is shown that the well-known negative flatband voltage (VFB) shift, induced by rare-earth oxide capping in metal gate stacks, can be completely reversed in the absence of the silicon overlayer. Using TaN metal gates and Gd2O3-doped dielectric, we measure a ∼350 mV negative shift with the Si overlayer present and a ∼110 mV positive shift with the Si overlayer removed. This effect is correlated to a positive change in the average electrostatic potential at the TaN/dielectric interface which originates from an interfacial dipole. The dipole is created by the replacement of interfacial oxygen atoms in the HfO2 lattice with nitrogen atoms from TaN.

  11. Anomalous Insulator-Metal Transition in Boron Nitride-Graphene Hybrid Atomic Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    Juan de la Cierva” pro- gram (JCI-2010-08156), Spanish MICINN (FIS2010-21282- C02-01 and PIB2010US-00652), ACI-Promociona (ACI2009- 1036), “ Grupos ...percolation through metallic graphene networks and hopping conduction between edge states on randomly distributed insulating h-BN domains. REPORT...Tallahassee, Florida 32310, USA 3Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group and ETSF Scientific Development Centre, Departamento de Fı́sica de Materiales, Centro de Fı́sica

  12. Low Temperature Processed Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Device by Oxidation Effect from Capping Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhenwei

    2015-04-20

    In this report, both p- and n-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) were simultaneously achieved using single-step deposition of the tin oxide channel layer. The tuning of charge carrier polarity in the tin oxide channel is achieved by selectively depositing a copper oxide capping layer on top of tin oxide, which serves as an oxygen source, providing additional oxygen to form an n-type tin dioxide phase. The oxidation process can be realized by annealing at temperature as low as 190°C in air, which is significantly lower than the temperature generally required to form tin dioxide. Based on this approach, CMOS inverters based entirely on tin oxide TFTs were fabricated. Our method provides a solution to lower the process temperature for tin dioxide phase, which facilitates the application of this transparent oxide semiconductor in emerging electronic devices field.

  13. Sensitivity of imaging properties of metal-dielectric layered flat lens to fabrication inaccuracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotynski, R.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Stefaniuk, T.

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the sensitivity of imaging properties of a layered silver-TiO2 flat lens to fabrication inaccuracies. The lens is designed for approximately diffraction-free imaging with subwavelength resolution at distances in the order of a wavelength. Its operation may be attributed to self......-collimation with a secondary role of Fabry-Perot resonant transmission, even though the first order effective medium description of the structure is inaccurate. Super-resolution is maintained for a broad range of overall thicknesses and the total thickness of the multilayer is limited by absorption. The tolerance analysis...... indicates that the resolution and transmission efficiency are highly sensitive to small changes of layer thicknesses....

  14. Enhanced brightness of organic light-emitting diodes based on Mg:Ag cathode using alkali metal chlorides as an electron injection layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Ye; Deng Zhenbo; Xu Denghui; Lü Zhaoyue; Yin Yuehong; Du Hailiang; Chen Zheng; Wang Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Different thicknesses of cesium chloride (CsCl) and various alkali metal chlorides were inserted into organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as electron injection layers (EILs). The basic structure of OLED is indium tin oxide (ITO)/N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(1-napthyl-phenyl)-1.1′-biphenyl-4.4′-diamine (NPB)/tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq 3 )/Mg:Ag/Ag. The electroluminescent (EL) performance curves show that both the brightness and efficiency of the OLEDs can be obviously enhanced by using a thin alkali metal chloride layer as an EIL. The electron injection barrier height between the Alq 3 layer and Mg:Ag cathode is reduced by inserting a thin alkali metal chloride as an EIL, which results in enhanced electron injection and electron current. Therefore, a better balance of hole and electron currents at the emissive interface is achieved and consequently the brightness and efficiency of OLEDs are improved. - Highlights: ► Alkaline metal chlorides were used as electron injection layers in organic light-emitting diodes based on Mg:Ag cathode. ► Brightness and efficiency of OLEDs with alkaline metal chlorides as electron injection layers were all greatly enhanced. ► The Improved OLED performance was attributed to the possible interfacial chemical reaction. ► Electron-only devices are fabricated to demonstrate the electron injection enhancement.

  15. Preparation of silica stabilized biological templates for the production of metal and layered nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, James N; Royston, Elizabeth; Brown, Adam; Harris, Michael

    2013-02-26

    The present invention relates to a system and method providing for increased silica growth on a bio-template, wherein the bio-template is pretreated with aniline to produce a uniform silica attractive surface and yielding a significant silica layers of at least 10 nm, and more preferably at least 20 nm in thickness, thereby providing for a high degree of stability to the bio-template.

  16. Layered-metal-hydroxide nanosheet arrays with controlled nanostructures to assist direct electronic communication at biointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Lu, Shan; Zhao, Liwei; He, Jing

    2011-10-18

    In this work, ordered vertical arrays of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets have been developed to achieve electron transfer (eT) at biointerfaces in electrochemical devices. It is found that tailoring the gap size of LDH nanosheet arrays could significantly promote the eT rate. This research has successfully extended nanomaterials for efficient modifications of electrode surfaces from nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes to nanosheets. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. The electric double layer at a metal electrode in pure water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüesch, Peter; Christen, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    Pure water is a weak electrolyte that dissociates into hydronium ions and hydroxide ions. In contact with a charged electrode a double layer forms for which neither experimental nor theoretical studies exist, in contrast to electrolytes containing extrinsic ions like acids, bases, and solute salts. Starting from a self-consistent solution of the one-dimensional modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation, which takes into account activity coefficients of point-like ions, we explore the properties of the electric double layer by successive incorporation of various correction terms like finite ion size, polarization, image charge, and field dissociation. We also discuss the effect of the usual approximation of an average potential as required for the one-dimensional Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and conclude that the one-dimensional approximation underestimates the ion density. We calculate the electric potential, the ion distributions, the pH-values, the ion-size corrected activity coefficients, and the dissociation constants close to the electric double layer and compare the results for the various model corrections.

  18. Redox-active labile iron in fortified flours from the Brazilian market Ferro lábil redox-ativo em farinhas fortificadas do mercado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Pannia Espósito

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the fraction of redox-active labile iron in iron-fortified flours acquired on the Brazilian market. METHODS: Samples of wheat flour, maize flour and breadcrumbs were extracted with buffers that mimic gastric juice, saliva and intestinal juice. Redox-active labile iron levels were assessed through the reaction of autoxidation of ascorbic acid catalyzed by iron in the presence of a fluorescence probe. RESULTS: Redox-active labile iron represents 1% to 9% of the total iron in the flour and breadcrumb samples, with the lowest values found under gastric juice conditions and the highest in the more alkaline media. Redox-active labile iron possibly arises from the decomposition of an iron-phytic acid complex. A positive correlation between redox-active labile iron and total iron was found in saline biomimetic fluids. CONCLUSION: Redox-active labile iron may be a risk factor for people with impaired antioxidant defenses, such as those who are atransferrinemic or iron overloaded (e.g. thalassemic. Total iron can be used to predict redox-active labile iron absorption at each stage of the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion of iron-fortified flours.OBJETIVO: Quantificar a porcentagem de ferro lábil redox ativo em farinhas fortificadas adquiridas no comércio popular. MÉTODOS: Amostras de farinha de trigo, fubá e rosca foram extraídas com tampões miméticos de suco gástrico, saliva e suco intestinal. Os níveis de ferro lábil redox ativo foram determinados por meio da reação de auto-oxidação do ácido ascórbico catalisada pelo ferro, em presença de uma sonda fluorimétrica. RESULTADOS: A fração de ferro lábil redox ativo representa entre 1% e 9% do ferro total nas farinhas estudadas, sendo os menores valores encontrados em condições miméticas do suco gástrico e os maiores nos meios mais alcalinos. Há indícios de que o ferro lábil redox ativo origina-se da decomposição de um complexo entre ferro e ácido f

  19. A pillar-layered metal-organic framework as luminescent sensor for selective and reversible response of chloroform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kun; Li, Shuni; Jiang, Yucheng; Hu, Mancheng; Zhai, Quan-Guo, E-mail: zhaiqg@snnu.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    A new 3D metal-organic framework, namely, (Zn{sub 4}(H{sub 2}BPTC){sub 2}(HCOO){sub 4}){sub n} (SNNU-1, H{sub 4}BPTC=biphenyl-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid, SNNU=Shaanxi Normal University) has been solvothermal synthesized. Four independent tetrahedral Zn atoms are connected by organic ligands to form a 2D Zn-H{sub 2}BPTC layer, which is further bridged by in-situ generated HCOO{sup -} to give the 3D pillar-layered framework of SNNU-1. Unique Zn and H{sub 2}BPTC all act as 4-connected nodes leading to a new 4,4,4-connected topological net with point symbol of (4·5·6{sup 2}·8{sup 2})(4·5{sup 2}·6{sup 2}·8)(5{sup 2}·6{sup 3}·7). Notably, intense blue emission band is observed for SNNU-1, which exhibits solvent-dependent effect. Compared to other common organic solvents, chloroform can specially improve the photoluminescent intensity of SNNU-1. Further repeated response and release experiments clearly showed that SNNU-1 can act as luminescent sensor for selective and reversible detection of chloroform. - Graphical abstract: Zn{sup 2+} ions are bridged by aromatic tetracarboxylate ligands and inorganic formate anions to give a microporous pillar layered open-framework, which exhibits not only strong photoluminescence but also selective and reversible luminescent sensing for chloroform. - Highlights: • Novel Zn-tetracarboxylate-formate microporous pillar layered open-framework. • New 4,4,4-connected topology and rod-packing net. • Solvent-dependent photoluminescent intensity. • Selective and reversible response for chloroform.

  20. SU-8 Based MEMS Process with Two Metal Layers using α-Si as a Sacrificial Material

    KAUST Repository

    Ramadan, Khaled S.

    2012-04-01

    Polymer based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micromachining is finding more interest in research and applications. This is due to its low cost and less time processing compared with silicon MEMS. SU-8 is a photo-patternable polymer that is used as a structural layer for MEMS and microfluidic devices. In addition to being processed with low cost, it is a biocompatible material with good mechanical properties. Also, amorphous silicon (α-Si) has found use as a sacrificial layer in silicon MEMS applications. α-Si can be deposited at large thicknesses for MEMS applications and also can be released in a dry method using XeF2 which can solve stiction problems related to MEMS applications. In this thesis, an SU-8 MEMS process is developed using amorphous silicon (α-Si) as a sacrificial layer. Electrostatic actuation and sensing is used in many MEMS applications. SU-8 is a dielectric material which limits its direct use in electrostatic actuation. This thesis provides a MEMS process with two conductive metal electrodes that can be used for out-of-plane electrostatic applications like MEMS switches and variable capacitors. The process provides the fabrication of dimples that can be conductive or non-conductive to facilitate more flexibility for MEMS designers. This SU-8 process can fabricate SU-8 MEMS structures of a single layer of two different thicknesses. Process parameters were tuned for two sets of thicknesses which are thin (5-10μm) and thick (130μm). Chevron bent-beam structures and different suspended beams (cantilevers and bridges) were fabricated to characterize the SU-8 process through extracting the density, Young’s Modulus and the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) of SU-8. Also, the process was tested and used as an educational tool through which different MEMS structures were fabricated including MEMS switches, variable capacitors and thermal actuators.

  1. Evaluation of oil-leakage of multi-layered resin-hose clamped with metal nipple and sleeve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Kenta; Okubo, Kazuya; Fujii, Toru; Nakamura, Chihiro; Fujishita, Yushi; Kusu, Fuko; Matsushita, Masato; Yoshihara, Ryota

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the path of occurred oil-leakage of multi-layered resin-hose as one of multifunctional materials around the caulked joint with a metal nipple and sleeve when excessive cyclic internal pressure was applied onto the hose. Equivalent cyclic axial tensile force was substitutively applied to the hose, where same degree of normal stress was produced in longitudinal direction. Excessive 3 and 5 times of the standard load was applied to the hose. Cyclic loading was paused at every 1000 and 10000 cycles and then designed internal pressure was applied to the hose by a hand-operated pump with water in order to check whether the leakage was occurred around the joint and surface of the hose for safety evaluation. Cyclic fatigue life was defined as the number of loading cycles in which the leakage and the initial damage which was the passage of the ultrasonic wave was observed on the cyclic test. Test results showed the fatigue life at which leakage of water was observed was increased 20 times in case of K=3 compared to that in case of K=5. The cycles of initial damage detected by the ultrasonic wave were passed was increased 3.3 times in case of K=3 compared to that in case of K=5. The fluorescent agent penetrated from the core layer of resin hose to the reinforcement layer in which a half cross section along longitudinal direction in failed specimens was observed after the leak test. The original specimens had the gap between the resin-hose and the nipple and then the gap extended and connected during fatigue cyclic. In this study, it was observed that oil was leaked through narrow gap between the nipple and core layer of resin hose.

  2. A functionalized phosphonate-rich organosilica layered hybrid material (PSLM) fabricated through a mild process for heavy metal uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daikopoulos, Chris [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Bourlinos, Athanasios B. [Institute of Materials Science, NCSR “Demokritos”, Ag. Paraskevi Attikis, Athens 15310 (Greece); Georgiou, Yiannis [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, Seferi 2, Agrinio 30100 (Greece); Deligiannakis, Yiannis, E-mail: ideligia@cc.uoi.gr [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Patras, Seferi 2, Agrinio 30100 (Greece); Zboril, Radek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, Palacky University, Olomouc 77146 (Czech Republic); Karakassides, Michael A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Novel phosphonate-rich organosilica layered hybrid material (PSLM) fabricated through a mild xerogel process. • Surface Complexation Modeling reveals that PSLM bears 2 types of functional groups able to bind heavy metal. • Maximum metal uptake capacities were found 2.72 mmol g{sup −1} for Cu{sup 2+}, 1.67 mmol g{sup −1} for Pb{sup 2+} and 1.00 mmol g{sup −1} for Cd{sup 2+} at pH 7. • EPR spectroscopy reveals local coordination environment for Cu{sup 2+} ions. - Abstract: A phosphonate-rich organosilica layered hybrid material (PSLM) made of 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methylphosphonate, monosodium salt, as the single silica source, has been obtained from its aqueous solution through a xerogel process and mild thermal aging. The method is simple, affording bulk quantities of powdered PSLM in a single-step. The hybrid is stable in water and possesses a high content of phosphonate groups fixed on the solid matrix. In addition, PSLM shows good thermal stability, which exceeds 300 °C in air. The material was characterized using SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR and TGA techniques. Potentiometric titrations show that PSLM bears high-surface density of phosphonate groups (3 mmol g{sup −1}). As a result, the material displays high metal uptake capacity for heavy metal ions such as Cu{sup 2+} (2.72 mmol g{sup −1}), Pb{sup 2+} (1.67 mmol g{sup −1}) and Cd{sup 2+} (1.00 mmol g{sup −1}) at neutral pH values e.g. the pH of natural waters. Detailed theoretical modeling using a Surface Complexation Model combined with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy shows that the surface distribution of surface bound Cu{sup 2+} ions is rather homogeneous e.g. copper-binding phosphonate sites are arranged in average distances 5–8 Å.

  3. Positional isomerism-driven two 3D pillar-layered metal-organic frameworks: Syntheses, topological structures and photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yayong; Zhao, Siwei; Ma, Haoran; Han, Yi; Liu, Kang; Wang, Lei, E-mail: inorchemwl@126.com

    2016-06-15

    Two novel three-dimensional (3D) pillar-layered metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely [Zn{sub 2}(μ{sub 2}-OH)(boaba)(1,4-bmimb)]{sub n} (1) and {[Zn_5K_2(μ_2-H_2O)_2(boaba)_4(1,2-bmimb)_2(H_2O)_2]·H_2O}{sub n} (2), were prepared by hydrothermal reactions (H{sub 3}boaba=3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid; 1,4-bmimb=1,4-bis((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene; 1,2-bmimb =1,2-bis((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene). Notably, 1 exhibits a (3,5)-connected binodal (6{sup 3})(6{sup 9}·8)-gra net with binuclear [Zn{sub 2}(μ{sub 2}-OH)(COO)]{sup 2+} clusters, while 2 shows a novel (4,4,5,9)-connected 4-nodal net constructed from the unique Zn(II)-K(I) heterometal rod-like substructures. The results indicate that the disposition of the 2-methylimidazolyl groups of bis(imidazole) ligands have a significant effect on structural diversity. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties of 1 and 2 have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Two novel 3D pillar-layered metal-organic coordination networks with aromatic multicarboxylate anion and bis(imidazole) ligands have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • It is rarely reported that metal-organic frameworks prepared with 3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid. • Two metal-organic frameworks based on positional isomeric ligands were synthesized and structurally characterized. • Compond 1 displays unique (3,5)-connected binodal gra topology. • Compound 2 exhibits (4,4,5,9)-connected 4-nodal topology based on the Zn(II)-K(I) heterometal rod-like substructures. • The photoluminescence properties of compound 1 and 2 have been investigated.

  4. Simultaneous Activation of Iron- and Thiol-Based Sensor-Regulator Systems by Redox-Active Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Lok; Yoo, Ji-Sun; Oh, Gyeong-Seok; Singh, Atul K; Roe, Jung-Hye

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria in natural habitats are exposed to myriad redox-active compounds (RACs), which include producers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive electrophile species (RES) that alkylate or oxidize thiols. RACs can induce oxidative stress in cells and activate response pathways by modulating the activity of sensitive regulators. However, the effect of a certain compound on the cell has been investigated primarily with respect to a specific regulatory pathway. Since a single compound can exert multiple chemical effects in the cell, its effect can be better understood by time-course monitoring of multiple sensitive regulatory pathways that the compound induces. We investigated the effect of representative RACs by monitoring the activity of three sensor-regulators in the model actinobacterium Streptomyces coelicolor ; SoxR that senses reactive compounds directly through oxidation of its [2Fe-2S] cluster, CatR/PerR that senses peroxides through bound iron, and an anti-sigma factor RsrA that senses RES via disulfide formation. The time course and magnitude of induction of their target transcripts were monitored to predict the chemical activities of each compound in S. coelicolor . Phenazine methosulfate (PMS) was found to be an effective RAC that directly activated SoxR and an effective ROS-producer that induced CatR/PerR with little thiol-perturbing activity. p -Benzoquinone was an effective RAC that directly activated SoxR, with slower ROS-producing activity, and an effective RES that induced the RsrA-SigR system. Plumbagin was an effective RAC that activated SoxR, an effective ROS-producer, and a less agile but effective RES. Diamide was an RES that effectively formed disulfides and a weak RAC that activated SoxR. Monobromobimane was a moderately effective RES and a slow producer of ROS. Interestingly, benzoquinone induced the SigR system by forming adducts on cysteine thiols in RsrA, revealing a new pathway to modulate RsrA activity. Overall, this study showed

  5. Development of a local anesthetic lidocaine-loaded redox-active injectable gel for postoperative pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Yukio; Mizukoshi, Yutaro; Gao, Zhenyu; Feliciano, Chitho P; Chang, Kyungho; Sekiyama, Hiroshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-15

    Although local anesthesia is commonly applied for pain relief, there are several issues such as its short duration of action and low effectiveness at the areas of inflammation due to the acidic pH. The presence of excessive amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to induce inflammation and aggravate pain. To resolve these issues, we developed a redox-active injectable gel (RIG) with ROS-scavenging activity. RIG was prepared by mixing polyamine-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polyamine with nitroxide radical moieties as side chains on the polyamine segments (PMNT-b-PEG-b-PMNT) with a polyanion, which formed a flower-type micelle via electrostatic complexation. Lidocaine could be stably incorporated in its core. When the temperature of the solution was increased to 37°C, the PIC-type flower micelle transformed to gel. The continuous release of lidocaine from the gel was observed for more than three days, without remarkable initial burst, which is probably owing to the stable entrapment of lidocaine in the PIC core of the gel. We evaluated the analgesic effect of RIG in carrageenan-induced arthritis mouse model. Results showed that lidocaine-loaded RIG has stronger and longer analgesic effect when administered in inflamed areas. In contrast, while the use of non-complexed lidocaine did not show analgesic effect one day after its administration. Note that no effect was observed when PIC-type flower micelle without ROS-scavenging ability was used. These findings suggest that local anesthetic-loaded RIG can effectively reduce the number of injection times and limit the side effects associated with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs for postoperative pain management. 1. We have been working on nanomaterials, which effectively eliminate ROS, avoiding dysfunction of mitochondria in healthy cells. 2. We designed redox injectable gel using polyion complexed flower type micelle, which can eliminates ROS locally. 3. We could prepare local anesthesia-loaded redox injectable

  6. Electric Double Layer at Metal Oxide Surfaces: Static Properties of the Cassiterite-Water Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Lukáš; Zhang, Z.; Machesky, M.L.; Fenter, P.; Rosenqvist, J.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Předota, Milan; Cummings, P.T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2007), s. 4925-4937 ISSN 0743-7463 Grant - others:OBES(US) DE-AC05-00OR22727; OBES(US) DE-AC02-05CH11231; OBES(US) DE-AC02-06CH11357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje Keywords : electric double layer * cassiterite * water Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.009, year: 2007

  7. Metallic nanoparticle-based strain sensors elaborated by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyoo, E.; Malhaire, C.; Thomas, D.; Rafaël, R.; R'Mili, M.; Malchère, A.; Roiban, L.; Koneti, S.; Bugnet, M.; Sabac, A.; Le Berre, M.

    2017-03-01

    Platinum nanoparticle-based strain gauges are elaborated by means of atomic layer deposition on flexible polyimide substrates. Their electro-mechanical response is tested under mechanical bending in both buckling and conformational contact configurations. A maximum gauge factor of 70 is reached at a strain level of 0.5%. Although the exponential dependence of the gauge resistance on strain is attributed to the tunneling effect, it is shown that the majority of the junctions between adjacent Pt nanoparticles are in a short circuit state. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of an all-plastic pressure sensor integrating Pt nanoparticle-based strain gauges in a Wheatstone bridge configuration.

  8. Formation of titanium nitride layers on titanium metal: Results of XPS and AES investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moers, H.; Pfennig, G.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Sirch, M.; Willin, E.

    1988-09-01

    The reaction of titanium metal with gaseous nitrogen and ammonia at temperatures of 890 0 C leads to the formation of nitridic overlayers on the metallic substrate. The thicknesses of the overlayers increase with increasing reaction time. Under comparable conditions ammonia reacts much slower than nitrogen. XPS and AES depth profile analyses show continuous changes of the in-depth compositions of the overlayers. This can be interpreted in terms of a very irregular thickness of the overlayers, an assumption which is substantiated by local AES analyses and by the observation of a pronounced crystalline structure of the substrate after annealing pretreatment, which can give rise to locally different reaction rates. The depth profile is also influenced by the broad ranges of stability of the titanium nitride phases formed during the reaction. The quantitative analysis of the titanium/nitrogen overlayers by AES is difficult because of the overlap of titanium and nitrogen Auger peaks. In quantitative XPS analysis problems arise due to difficulties in defining Ti 2p peak areas. This work presents practical procedures for the quantitative evaluation by XPS and AES of nitridic overlayers with sufficient accuracy. (orig.) [de

  9. Proximity-effect and tunneling in YBa2Cu3O7/metal layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, L.H.; Feldmann, W.L.; Barner, J.B.; Farrow, L.A.; Miceli, P.F.; Ramesh, R.; Wilkens, B.J.; Bagley, B.G.; Giroud, M.; Rowell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Superconducting thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 are prepared in-situ by on-axis sputter deposition from a single, composite target. The planar magnetron target composition of YBa:Cu = 1.08:1.76:4.5 sputtered onto MgO at T ∼ 750 degrees C in a 600 mTorr Ar-O 2 atmosphere yields reproducible superconducting films having T c (R = 0) > 80 K and stoichiometry 1:2:3, that are shiny and of near epitaxial crystalline quality. In order to ensure clean interfaces, YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 /normal metal bilayers (to form SNS' Josephson junctions) and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 /normal metal/insulating barrier trilayers (to form SNIS' proximity tunnel junctions) are grown completely in-situ. (The S' = Pb counter electrode is evaporated ex-situ.) A supercurrent and Shapiro steps are observed in microwave irradiated SNS' (N = Ag) small area (5 x 10 -5 cm 2 junctions. In SNIS' tunnel junctions, high-quality Pb tunnelling is observed

  10. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  11. An investigation of the reflection of low energy electrons from the surfaces of layered transition metal dichalcogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.E.; Mohamed, M.H.; Wohlenberg, T.; Johnson, E.; Chadderton, L.T.; Moeller, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental measurements, using the total current spectroscopy (TCS) technique, on the energy dependence of the reflection of low energy electrons from clean surfaces of layered transition metal dichalcogenides are reported for the molybdenum semiconductor compounds 2H-MoS 2 and 2H-MoSe 2 . A simple model calculation involving both elastic and inelastic scattering is presented and correspondence established with the experimental spectra. In this picture information on the electronic band structure of the materials can then be extracted from the single particle component of the inelastic scattering. The model is extended to show that a feature in the 2H-MoS 2 experimental spectrum may be attributed to the excitation of an intermediate plasmon. (Auth.)

  12. Separation of metals in the form of ion associates by the method of thin-layer chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalova, E.N.; Timerbaev, A.R.; Bol'shova, T.A.; Mel'nik, S.V.; Kordejro, E.

    1990-01-01

    Behaviour of pyridylazo resorcinates of certain metals (Ga, In, Fe, Co) in the form of ionic pairs with tri-n-octylamine (TOA) under conditions of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) has been studied. For all eluents investigated Ga and In complexes possess the highest mobility. Selectivity of ionic associate separation decreases with an increase in mobile phase polarity. Mixtures with 10-15 % content of isopropanol in eluating solution are the optimal ones. Separation of Ga and In from Fe 3+ and Co takes place with separation criterion 3.1 and 4.1 respectively. An attempt to separate ionic associates of In and Ga failed owing to similar stability of their pyridylazoresorcinates. Solution of the problem of In and Ga determination in the presence of iron can contribute to concrete application of the method

  13. Improved conductivity of infinite-layer LaNiO{sub 2} thin films by metal organic decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Ai [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Naka-cho 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan); Manabe, Takaaki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Naito, Michio, E-mail: minaito@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Naka-cho 2-24-16, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •LaNiO{sub 2} films were synthesized by metal organic decomposition and topotactic reduction. •Room-temperature resistivity as low as 0.6 mΩ cm was achieved for infinite-layer LaNiO{sub 2}. •Lattice matched substrates are important in obtaining high conductivity. -- Abstract: Infinite-layer LaNiO{sub 2} thin films were synthesized by metal organic decomposition and subsequent topotactic reduction in hydrogen, and their transport properties were investigated. LaNiO{sub 2} is isostructural to SrCuO{sub 2}, the parent compound of high-T{sub c} Sr{sub 0.9}La{sub 0.1}CuO{sub 2} with T{sub c} = 44 K, and has 3d{sup 9} configuration, which is very rare in oxides but common to high-T{sub c} copper oxides. The bulk synthesis of LaNiO{sub 2} is not easy, but we demonstrate in this article that the thin-film synthesis of LaNiO{sub 2} is rather easy, thanks to a large-surface-to-volume ratio, which makes oxygen diffusion prompt. Our refined synthesis conditions produced highly conducting films of LaNiO{sub 2}. The resistivity of the best film is as low as 640 μΩ cm at 295 K and decreases with temperature down to 230 K but it shows a gradual upturn at lower temperatures.

  14. Metallic few-layered VS2 ultrathin nanosheets: high two-dimensional conductivity for in-plane supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Sun, Xu; Wu, Changzheng; Peng, Lele; Lin, Chenwen; Hu, Shuanglin; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2011-11-09

    With the rapid development of portable electronics, such as e-paper and other flexible devices, practical power sources with ultrathin geometries become an important prerequisite, in which supercapacitors with in-plane configurations are recently emerging as a favorable and competitive candidate. As is known, electrode materials with two-dimensional (2D) permeable channels, high-conductivity structural scaffolds, and high specific surface areas are the indispensible requirements for the development of in-plane supercapacitors with superior performance, while it is difficult for the presently available inorganic materials to make the best in all aspects. In this sense, vanadium disulfide (VS(2)) presents an ideal material platform due to its synergic properties of metallic nature and exfoliative characteristic brought by the conducting S-V-S layers stacked up by weak van der Waals interlayer interactions, offering great potential as high-performance in-plane supercapacitor electrodes. Herein, we developed a unique ammonia-assisted strategy to exfoliate bulk VS(2) flakes into ultrathin VS(2) nanosheets stacked with less than five S-V-S single layers, representing a brand new two-dimensional material having metallic behavior aside from graphene. Moreover, highly conductive VS(2) thin films were successfully assembled for constructing the electrodes of in-plane supercapacitors. As is expected, a specific capacitance of 4760 μF/cm(2) was realized here in a 150 nm in-plane configuration, of which no obvious degradation was observed even after 1000 charge/discharge cycles, offering as a new in-plane supercapacitor with high performance based on quasi-two-dimensional materials.

  15. Electrochemical Modeling and Performance of a Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Layered Transition-Metal Oxide Positive Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Dennis W.; Abraham, Daniel P; Lu, Wenquan; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Bettge, Martin; Jansen, Andrew N

    2015-01-21

    The impedance of a lithium- and manganese-rich layered transition-metal oxide (MR-NMC) positive electrode, specifically Li1.2Ni0.15Mn0.55Co0.1O2, is compared to two other transition-metal layered oxide materials, specifically LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and Li1.05(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)0.95O2 (NMC). A more detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study is conducted on the LMR-NMC electrode, which includes a range of states-of-charge (SOCs) for both current directions (i.e. charge and discharge) and two relaxation times (i.e. hours and one hundred hours) before the EIS sweep. The LMR-NMC electrode EIS studies are supported by half-cell constant current and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) studies. Two types of electrochemical models are utilized to examine the results. The first type is a lithium ion cell electrochemical model for intercalation active material electrodes that includes a complex active material/electrolyte interfacial structure. In conclusion, the other is a lithium ion half-cell electrochemical model that focuses on the unique composite structure of the bulk LMR-NMC materials.

  16. Introduction of Nickel Coated Silicon Carbide Particles in Aluminum Metal Matrix Hardfaced by MIG/TIG Processes on Precoated Flux Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kamburov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate an aluminium metal matrix surface layer hardfaced by shielded gas metal arc welding processes applying either metal inert gas (MIG or tungsten inert gas (TIG, with standard wire filler onto the precoated flux layer - a baked resistant film containing electroless nickel coated micro/nano SiC particles. During baking, the components of the flux (MgCl2, NaCl, KCl and Na3AlF6 form a low melting eutectic, which: protects the hardfaced surface from oxidation, provides electrical conductance and keeps the particles on the surface during welding, as well as facilitates particles wettability and their interfacial bonding with the molten metal into the weld puddle.

  17. Conformal bi-layered perovskite/spinel coating on a metallic wire network for solid oxide fuel cells via an electrodeposition-based route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Beom-Kyeong; Song, Rak-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Bok; Lim, Tak-Hyoung; Park, Seok-Joo; Jung, WooChul; Lee, Jong-Won

    2017-04-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) require low-cost metallic components for current collection from electrodes as well as electrical connection between unit cells; however, the degradation of their electrical properties and surface stability associated with high-temperature oxidation is of great concern. It is thus important to develop protective conducting oxide coatings capable of mitigating the degradation of metallic components under SOFC operating conditions. Here, we report a conformal bi-layered coating composed of perovskite and spinel oxides on a metallic wire network fabricated by a facile electrodeposition-based route. A highly dense, crack-free, and adhesive bi-layered LaMnO3/Co3O4 coating of ∼1.2 μm thickness is conformally formed on the surfaces of wires with ∼100 μm diameter. We demonstrate that the bi-layered LaMnO3/Co3O4 coating plays a key role in improving the power density and durability of a tubular SOFC by stabilizing the surface of the metallic wire network used as a cathode current collector. The electrodeposition-based technique presented in this study offers a low-cost and scalable process to fabricate conformal multi-layered coatings on various metallic structures.

  18. Atomic layer deposition of metal oxide by non-aqueous sol-gel chemistry =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marichy, Catherine

    O trabalho apresentado neste manuscrito foi desenvolvido no ambito do programa doutoral intitulado “Deposicao de Camadas Atomicas (ALD) de oxido de metais por sol-gel nao-aquoso”. O objectivo deste trabalho foi a preparacao de hetero-estruturas funcionais por ALD e a sua caracterizacao. Foi desenvolvido um novo processo de deposicao de oxido de estanho a temperatura baixa-moderada, utilizando um metodo ALD nao-aquoso, o qual foi aplicado com sucesso ao revestimento controlado das paredes internas e externas de nanotubos de carbono. Uma vez que a preparacao de nanomateriais funcionais requer uma elevada exatidao do processo de deposicao, foi demonstrada a deposicao precisa de filmes que se adaptem a forma do substrato ou de filmes nano-estruturados constituidos por particulas em varios substratos. Alem disso, foram depositados com grande exatidao varios oxidos de metal em nanotubos de carbono e demonstrou-se a possibilidade de ajustar o revestimento feito por ALD atraves do controlo da funcionalizacao da superficie do substrato nano-estruturado de carbono. As hetero-estruturas obtidas foram posteriormente aplicadas como sensores de gases. O melhoramento verificado na sensibilidade foi atribuido a formacao de heterojuncoes p-n entre o filme de oxido de metais e o suporte. O trabalho desenvolvido tendo como objetivo o controlo do revestimento por ALD atraves da funcionalizacao da superficie do suporte e certamente de interesse para o design de hetero-estruturas funcionais baseadas em substratos de carbono. De facto, durante o ultimo periodo do programa de doutoramento, este conceito foi alargado a funcionalizacao e revestimento com oxidos de metal de fibras de carbono preparadas por “electrospinning”, de forma a melhorar a estabilidade e a atividade eletrocatalitica de catalisadores a base de Pt. Este trabalho foi realizado maioritariamente na Universidade de Aveiro mas tambem na Universidade Nacional de Seul e beneficiou de varias colaboracoes internacionais

  19. Modell experiments to determine the effect of inhibitive oxide layers on metals against hydrogen permeation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, U.

    1983-11-01

    The coupling of H 2 -permeation and corrosion has been examined with the high-temperature alloys Incoloy 800 and Incoloy 802. Permeationsrates as well as corrosionsrates have been measured simultanously under H 2 O-H 2 atmospheres in the test-facility HD-PERM. Test parameters have been temperature and oxidationpotential. Parabolic laws for the growth of the oxide scales have been identified and are considered to be highly important for the efficiency of a permeation barrier. A comparison between the temperature dependencies of corrosionsrates and H 2 -permeationsrates has revealed that permeation and corrosion are coupled only in so far that the permeation barrier is formed by the corrosion reaction. The corrosion data (parabolic rate constant, activation energy) of the oxide scales have given clear indications for the existence of a Cr 2 O 3 -layer, which is considered to be responsible for efficient oxide permeation barriers. (orig.) [de

  20. Thermal stability of Dion-Jacobson mixed-metal-niobate double-layered perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Andrew T.; Wiley, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal stability and decomposition pathways of six Dion-Jacobson-related double-layered perovskites, ALaNb 2 O 7 (A = H, Li, Na, Ag) and (ACl)LaNb 2 O 7 (A = Fe, Cu), are investigated. These compounds are made by low temperature ( 2 O 7 . All the compounds are low temperature phases with some of them exhibiting decomposition exotherms consistent with metastability. Decomposition temperatures and reactions pathways vary with the identity of A with most decompositions resulting in the formation of a niobate (containing A) and LaNbO 4 . Results from differential scanning calorimetry and high temperature X-ray powder diffraction studies are presented and structural parameters pertinent to compound stability discussed

  1. Moisture barrier properties of single-layer graphene deposited on Cu films for Cu metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomasang, Ploybussara; Abe, Takumi; Kawahara, Kenji; Wasai, Yoko; Nabatova-Gabain, Nataliya; Thanh Cuong, Nguyen; Ago, Hiroki; Okada, Susumu; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2018-04-01

    The moisture barrier properties of large-grain single-layer graphene (SLG) deposited on a Cu(111)/sapphire substrate are demonstrated by comparing with the bare Cu(111) surface under an accelerated degradation test (ADT) at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity (RH) for various durations. The change in surface color and the formation of Cu oxide are investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. First-principle simulation is performed to understand the mechanisms underlying the barrier properties of SLG against O diffusion. The correlation between Cu oxide thickness and SLG quality are also analyzed by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measured on a non-uniform SLG film. SLG with large grains shows high performance in preventing the Cu oxidation due to moisture during ADT.

  2. Inductive crystal field control in layered metal oxides with correlated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, P. V.; Cammarata, A.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the NiO 6 crystal field energies can be tailored indirectly via heterovalent A cation ordering in layered (La,A)NiO 4 Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) oxides, where A = Sr, Ca, or Ba, using density functional calculations. We leverage as a driving force the electrostatic interactions between charged [LaO] 1+ and neutral [AO] 0 planes to inductively tune the Ni–O bond distortions, without intentional doping or epitaxial strain, altering the correlated d-orbital energies. We use this strategy to design cation ordered LaCaNiO 4 and LaBaNiO 4 with distortions favoring enhanced Ni e g orbital polarization, and find local electronic structure signatures analogous to those in RP La-cuprates, i.e., parent phases of the high-temperature superconducting oxides

  3. Inductive crystal field control in layered metal oxides with correlated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, P. V.; Cammarata, A.; Rondinelli, J. M., E-mail: jrondinelli@nortwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B. [School of Engineering, University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota 55105 (United States); Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bhattacharya, A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We show that the NiO{sub 6} crystal field energies can be tailored indirectly via heterovalent A cation ordering in layered (La,A)NiO{sub 4} Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) oxides, where A = Sr, Ca, or Ba, using density functional calculations. We leverage as a driving force the electrostatic interactions between charged [LaO]{sup 1+} and neutral [AO]{sup 0} planes to inductively tune the Ni–O bond distortions, without intentional doping or epitaxial strain, altering the correlated d-orbital energies. We use this strategy to design cation ordered LaCaNiO{sub 4} and LaBaNiO{sub 4} with distortions favoring enhanced Ni e{sub g} orbital polarization, and find local electronic structure signatures analogous to those in RP La-cuprates, i.e., parent phases of the high-temperature superconducting oxides.

  4. Condition Assessment of Metal Oxide Surge Arrester Based on Multi-Layer SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khodsuz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the indicators for surge arrester condition assessment based on the leakage current analysis. Maximum amplitude of fundamental harmonic of the resistive leakage current, maximum amplitude of third harmonic of the resistive leakage current and maximum amplitude of fundamental harmonic of the capacitive leakage current were used as indicators for surge arrester condition monitoring. Also, the effects of operating voltage fluctuation, third harmonic of voltage, overvoltage and surge arrester aging on these indicators were studied. Then, obtained data are applied to the multi-layer support vector machine for recognizing of surge arrester conditions. Obtained results show that introduced indicators have the high ability for evaluation of surge arrester conditions.

  5. Stable MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors Using TiO2 Interfacial Layer at Metal/MoS2 Contact

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Woojin

    2017-09-07

    Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) is an emerging 2-dimensional (2D) semiconductor for electronic devices. However, unstable and low performance of MoS2 FETs is an important concern. In this study, inserting an atomic layer deposition (ALD) titanium dioxide (TiO2) interfacial layer between contact metal and MoS2 channel is suggested to achieve more stable performances. The reduced threshold voltage (VTH) shift and reduced series resistance (RSD) were simultaneously achieved.

  6. Metal insulator semiconductor solar cell devices based on a Cu2O substrate utilizing h-BN as an insulating and passivating layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergen, Onur; Gibb, Ashley; Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Zettl, Alex; Regan, William Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) based metal insulator semiconductor Schottky (MIS-Schottky) solar cells with efficiency exceeding 3%. A unique direct growth technique is employed in the fabrication, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) serves simultaneously as a passivation and insulation layer on the active Cu 2 O layer. The devices are the most efficient of any Cu 2 O based MIS-Schottky solar cells reported to date

  7. Metal insulator semiconductor solar cell devices based on a Cu{sub 2}O substrate utilizing h-BN as an insulating and passivating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergen, Onur; Gibb, Ashley; Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Zettl, Alex, E-mail: azettl@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kavli Energy Nanosciences Institute at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Regan, William Raymond [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-03-09

    We demonstrate cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) based metal insulator semiconductor Schottky (MIS-Schottky) solar cells with efficiency exceeding 3%. A unique direct growth technique is employed in the fabrication, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) serves simultaneously as a passivation and insulation layer on the active Cu{sub 2}O layer. The devices are the most efficient of any Cu{sub 2}O based MIS-Schottky solar cells reported to date.

  8. Highly selective and efficient removal of fluoride from ground water by layered Al-Zr-La Tri-metal hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Zhu, Wenkun; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Hongping; Zhang, Yongde; Lin, Xiaoyan; Luo, Xuegang

    2018-03-01

    A novel layered Zr-Al-La tri-metal composite (AZL) was fabricated via co-precipitation method for fluoride removal. The as-prepared adsorbent was characterized by various technologies, and its adsorption behaviors to fluoride were thoroughly carried out to investigate the fluoride removal performance. The results showed that the layered structure existed and the AZL exhibited the maximum adsorption capacity of 90.48 mg g-1 at 308 K and pH 3.0 from the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics was well fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation, and the adsorption isotherms were well described by the Langmuir equation. Adsorption thermodynamics result was indicative of endothermic reaction in the process of adsorption of AZL to fluoride. The as-prepared AZL composite has excellent fluoride removal performance for the practical ground water and satisfies the permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water recommended by Chinese Standard. In addition, based on the characterization, the adsorption mechanism of fluoride on AZL was proposed, including electrostatic interaction between the protonated surface of AZL and fluoride, as well as ion-exchange by hydroxyl group and fluoride.

  9. Modeling back-relaxation in ionic polymer metal composites: The role of steric effects and composite layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfiri, Maurizio; Sharghi, Hesam; Zhang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a new class of active materials that are gaining traction as soft actuators in medical and industrial applications. IPMCs can undergo large deformations under modest voltage inputs, in dry and wet environments. Past studies have demonstrated that physical and geometric properties of all the IPMC constituents (ionomer, electrodes, and counterions) may all influence the time scales of the transient response and severity of the back-relaxation. In this study, we present a detailed mathematical model to investigate how the finite size of the counterions and the presence of metal particles in the vicinity of the electrodes modulate IPMC actuation. We build on previous work by our group on thermodynamically consistent modeling of IPMC mechanics and electrochemistry, which attributes IPMC actuation to the interplay between Maxwell stress and osmotic forces. To gain insight into the role of physical and geometric parameters, the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations are solved semianalytically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions, for the initial transient and the steady-state. A numerical solution in COMSOL Multiphysics® is developed to verify semianalytical findings and further explore IPMC actuation. Our model can successfully predict the entire response of IPMCs, from the initial bending toward the anode to the steady-state toward the cathode. We find that the steric effect can abolish the back-relaxation of IPMCs by restraining the counterions' concentration near the electrodes. We also find that increasing the thickness of the ionomer-metal composite layers may enhance IPMC actuation through increased osmotic forces and Maxwell stress.

  10. Large scale simulations of the mechanical properties of layered transition metal ternary compounds for fossil energy power system applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Wai-Yim [Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Advanced materials with applications in extreme conditions such as high temperature, high pressure, and corrosive environments play a critical role in the development of new technologies to significantly improve the performance of different types of power plants. Materials that are currently employed in fossil energy conversion systems are typically the Ni-based alloys and stainless steels that have already reached their ultimate performance limits. Incremental improvements are unlikely to meet the more stringent requirements aimed at increased efficiency and reduce risks while addressing environmental concerns and keeping costs low. Computational studies can lead the way in the search for novel materials or for significant improvements in existing materials that can meet such requirements. Detailed computational studies with sufficient predictive power can provide an atomistic level understanding of the key characteristics that lead to desirable properties. This project focuses on the comprehensive study of a new class of materials called MAX phases, or Mn+1AXn (M = a transition metal, A = Al or other group III, IV, and V elements, X = C or N). The MAX phases are layered transition metal carbides or nitrides with a rare combination of metallic and ceramic properties. Due to their unique structural arrangements and special types of bonding, these thermodynamically stable alloys possess some of the most outstanding properties. We used a genomic approach in screening a large number of potential MAX phases and established a database for 665 viable MAX compounds on the structure, mechanical and electronic properties and investigated the correlations between them. This database if then used as a tool for materials informatics for further exploration of this class of intermetallic compounds.

  11. Influence of surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxide on ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei

    2016-04-01

    In this work, ceramic ultrafiltration membranes deposited with different metal oxides (i.e., TiO2, Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, and CeO2) of around 10 nm in thickness and similar roughness were tested for O/W emulsion treatment. Distinct membrane fouling tendency was observed, which closely correlated to the properties of the filtration-layer metal oxides (i.e. surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity, surface charge, and adhesion energy for oil droplets). In consistent with the distinct bond strength of the surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity of these common metal oxides are quite different. The differences in hydrophilicity consequently lead to different adhesion of these metal oxides towards oil droplets which consists very well with irreversible membrane fouling tendency. In addition, the surface charge of the metal oxide opposite to that of emulsion can help to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling in ultrafiltration. Highly hydrophilic Fe2O3 with lowest fouling tendency could be a potential filtration-layer material for the fabrication/modification of ceramic membranes for O/W emulsion treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study clearly showing the correlations between surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxides and ceramic membrane fouling tendency by O/W emulsion.

  12. Influence of Surface Properties of Filtration-Layer Metal Oxide on Ceramic Membrane Fouling during Ultrafiltration of Oil/Water Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dongwei; Zhang, Tao; Gutierrez, Leo; Ma, Jun; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-03

    In this work, ceramic ultrafiltration membranes deposited with different metal oxides (i.e., TiO2, Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, and CeO2) of around 10 nm in thickness and similar roughness were tested for O/W emulsion treatment. A distinct membrane fouling tendency was observed, which closely correlated to the properties of the filtration-layer metal oxides (i.e., surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity, surface charge, and adhesion energy for oil droplets). Consistent with the distinct bond strength of the surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity of these common metal oxides is quite different. The differences in hydrophilicity consequently lead to different adhesion of these metal oxides toward oil droplets, consistent with the irreversible membrane fouling tendency. In addition, the surface charge of the metal oxide opposite to that of emulsion can help to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling in ultrafiltration. Highly hydrophilic Fe2O3 with the lowest fouling tendency could be a potential filtration-layer material for the fabrication/modification of ceramic membranes for O/W emulsion treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study clearly showing the correlations between surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxides and ceramic membrane fouling tendency by O/W emulsion.

  13. Influence of surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxide on ceramic membrane fouling during ultrafiltration of oil/water emulsion

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Dongwei; Zhang, Tao; Gutierrez, Leo; Ma, Jun; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In this work, ceramic ultrafiltration membranes deposited with different metal oxides (i.e., TiO2, Fe2O3, MnO2, CuO, and CeO2) of around 10 nm in thickness and similar roughness were tested for O/W emulsion treatment. Distinct membrane fouling tendency was observed, which closely correlated to the properties of the filtration-layer metal oxides (i.e. surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity, surface charge, and adhesion energy for oil droplets). In consistent with the distinct bond strength of the surface hydroxyl groups, hydrophilicity of these common metal oxides are quite different. The differences in hydrophilicity consequently lead to different adhesion of these metal oxides towards oil droplets which consists very well with irreversible membrane fouling tendency. In addition, the surface charge of the metal oxide opposite to that of emulsion can help to alleviate irreversible membrane fouling in ultrafiltration. Highly hydrophilic Fe2O3 with lowest fouling tendency could be a potential filtration-layer material for the fabrication/modification of ceramic membranes for O/W emulsion treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study clearly showing the correlations between surface properties of filtration-layer metal oxides and ceramic membrane fouling tendency by O/W emulsion.

  14. Development of Plasma-Sprayed Molybdenum Carbide-Based Anode Layers with Various Metal Oxides for SOFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, N. H.; Ahmed, R.; Katikaneni, S. P.; Souentie, S.; Goosen, M. F. A.

    2015-12-01

    Air plasma-sprayed (APS) coatings provide an ability to deposit a range of novel fuel cell materials at competitive costs. This work develops three separate types of composite anodes (Mo-Mo2C/Al2O3, Mo-Mo2C/ZrO2, Mo-Mo2C/TiO2) using a combination of APS process parameters on Hastelloy®X for application in intermediate temperature proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells. Commercially available carbide of molybdenum powder catalyst (Mo-Mo2C) and three metal oxides (Al2O3, ZrO2, TiO2) was used to prepare three separate composite feedstock powders to fabricate three different anodes. Each of the modified composition anode feedstock powders included a stoichiometric weight ratio of 0.8:0.2. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, nanoindentation, and conductivity. We report herein that three optimized anode layers of thicknesses between 200 and 300 µm and porosity as high as 20% for Mo-Mo2C/Al2O3 (250-µm thick) and Mo-Mo2C/TiO2 (300 µm thick) and 17% for Mo-Mo2C/ZrO2 (220-µm thick), controllable by a selection of the APS process parameters with no addition of sacrificial pore-forming material. The nanohardness results indicate the upper layers of the coatings have higher values than the subsurface layers in coatings with some effect of the deposition on the substrate. Mo-Mo2C/ZrO2 shows high electrical conductivity.

  15. Thin films of copper oxide and copper grown by atomic layer deposition for applications in metallization systems of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waechtler, Thomas

    2010-05-25

    Copper-based multi-level metallization systems in today's ultralarge-scale integrated electronic circuits require the fabrication of diffusion barriers and conductive seed layers for the electrochemical metal deposition. Such films of only several nanometers in thickness have to be deposited void-free and conformal in patterned dielectrics. The envisaged further reduction of the geometric dimensions of the interconnect system calls for coating techniques that circumvent the drawbacks of the well-established physical vapor deposition. The atomic layer deposition method (ALD) allows depositing films on the nanometer scale conformally both on three-dimensional objects as well as on large-area substrates. The present work therefore is concerned with the development of an ALD process to grow copper oxide films based on the metal-organic precursor bis(trin- butylphosphane)copper(I)acetylacetonate [({sup n}Bu{sub 3}P){sub 2}Cu(acac)]. This liquid, non-fluorinated {beta}-diketonate is brought to react with a mixture of water vapor and oxygen at temperatures from 100 to 160 C. Typical ALD-like growth behavior arises between 100 and 130 C, depending on the respective substrate used. On tantalum nitride and silicon dioxide substrates, smooth films and selfsaturating film growth, typical for ALD, are obtained. On ruthenium substrates, positive deposition results are obtained as well. However, a considerable intermixing of the ALD copper oxide with the underlying films takes place. Tantalum substrates lead to a fast self-decomposition of the copper precursor. As a consequence, isolated nuclei or larger particles are always obtained together with continuous films. The copper oxide films grown by ALD can be reduced to copper by vapor-phase processes. If formic acid is used as the reducing agent, these processes can already be carried out at similar temperatures as the ALD, so that agglomeration of the films is largely avoided. Also for an integration with subsequent

  16. Thin films of copper oxide and copper grown by atomic layer deposition for applications in metallization systems of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waechtler, Thomas

    2010-05-25

    Copper-based multi-level metallization systems in today's ultralarge-scale integrated electronic circuits require the fabrication of diffusion barriers and conductive seed layers for the electrochemical metal deposition. Such films of only several nanometers in thickness have to be deposited void-free and conformal in patterned dielectrics. The envisaged further reduction of the geometric dimensions of the interconnect system calls for coating techniques that circumvent the drawbacks of the well-established physical vapor deposition. The atomic layer deposition method (ALD) allows depositing films on the nanometer scale conformally both on three-dimensional objects as well as on large-area substrates. The present work therefore is concerned with the development of an ALD process to grow copper oxide films based on the metal-organic precursor bis(trin- butylphosphane)copper(I)acetylacetonate [({sup n}Bu{sub 3}P){sub 2}Cu(acac)]. This liquid, non-fluorinated {beta}-diketonate is brought to react with a mixture of water vapor and oxygen at temperatures from 100 to 160 C. Typical ALD-like growth behavior arises between 100 and 130 C, depending on the respective substrate used. On tantalum nitride and silicon dioxide substrates, smooth films and selfsaturating film growth, typical for ALD, are obtained. On ruthenium substrates, positive deposition results are obtained as well. However, a considerable intermixing of the ALD copper oxide with the underlying films takes place. Tantalum substrates lead to a fast self-decomposition of the copper precursor. As a consequence, isolated nuclei or larger particles are always obtained together with continuous films. The copper oxide films grown by ALD can be reduced to copper by vapor-phase processes. If formic acid is used as the reducing agent, these processes can already be carried out at similar temperatures as the ALD, so that agglomeration of the films is largely avoided. Also for an integration with subsequent

  17. Impact of metal nano layer thickness on tunneling oxide and memory performance of core-shell iridium-oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, W.; Maikap, S. [Thin Film Nano Tech. Lab., Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 333, Taiwan (China); Tien, T.-C. [Material Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan 310, Taiwan (China); Li, W.-C.; Yang, J.-R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-01

    The impact of iridium-oxide (IrO{sub x}) nano layer thickness on the tunneling oxide and memory performance of IrO{sub x} metal nanocrystals in an n-Si/SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x} structure has been investigated. A thinner (1.5 nm) IrO{sub x} nano layer has shown better memory performance than that of a thicker one (2.5 nm). Core-shell IrO{sub x} nanocrystals with a small average diameter of 2.4 nm and a high density of {approx}2 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} have been observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The IrO{sub x} nanocrystals are confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A large memory window of 3.0 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-}5 V and 7.2 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-} 8 V has been observed for the 1.5 nm-thick IrO{sub x} nano layer memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of 8 nm. The electrons and holes are trapped in the core and annular regions of the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals, respectively, which is explained by Gibbs free energy. High electron and hole-trapping densities are found to be 1.5 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2} and 2 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}, respectively, due to the small size and high-density of IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of >10{sup 6} cycles and good retention of 10{sup 4} s with a good memory window of >1.2 V under a small operation voltage of {+-} 5 V are obtained. A large memory size of >10 Tbit/sq. in. can be designed by using the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. This study is not only important for the IrO{sub x} nanocrystal charge-trapping memory investigation but it will also help to design future metal nanocrystal flash memory.

  18. Integrating chemical imaging of cationic trace metal solutes and pH into a single hydrogel layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefer, Christoph; Santner, Jakob; Borisov, Sergey M.; Wenzel, Walter W.; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Gel-based, two-dimensional (2D) chemical imaging techniques are versatile methods for investigating biogeochemically active environments at high spatial resolution (sub-mm). State-of-the-art solute imaging techniques, such as diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and planar optodes (PO), employ passive solute sampling or sensing. Combining these methods will provide powerful tools for studying the biogeochemistry of biological niches in soils and sediments. In this study we aimed at developing a combined single-layer gel for direct pH imaging using PO and sampling of anionic and cationic solutes by DGT, with subsequent analysis of the bound solutes by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). We tested three ultra-thin (<100 μm) polyurethane-based gels, incorporating anion and cation binding materials and the fluorescent pH indicator DCIFODA (2′,7′-dichloro-5(6)-N-octadecyl-carboxamidofluorescein). Results showed that PO-based pH sensing using DCIFODA was impossible in the presence of the anion binding materials due to interferences with DCIFODA protonation. One gel, containing only a cation binding material and DCIFODA, was fully characterized and showed similar performance characteristics as comparable DGT-only gels (applicable pH range: pH 5–8, applicable ionic strength range: 1–20 mmol L"-"1, cation binding capacity ∼24 μg cm"−"2). The dynamic range for PO-based pH mapping was between pH 5.5 and 7.5 with t_9_0 response time of ∼60 min. In a case study we demonstrated the gel's suitability for multi-analyte solute imaging and mapped pH gradients and concurrent metal solubility patterns in the rhizosphere of Salix smithiana. pH decreases in the rooted soil were co-localized with elevated solute fluxes of Al"3"+, Co"2"+, Cu"2"+, Fe, Mn"2"+, Ni"2"+ and Pb"2"+, indicating pH-induced metal solubilisation. - Highlights: • Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and planar optode (PO) imaging is combined. • A

  19. Impact of metal nano layer thickness on tunneling oxide and memory performance of core-shell iridium-oxide nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, W.; Maikap, S.; Tien, T.-C.; Li, W.-C.; Yang, J.-R.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of iridium-oxide (IrO x ) nano layer thickness on the tunneling oxide and memory performance of IrO x metal nanocrystals in an n-Si/SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 /IrO x /Al 2 O 3 /IrO x structure has been investigated. A thinner (1.5 nm) IrO x nano layer has shown better memory performance than that of a thicker one (2.5 nm). Core-shell IrO x nanocrystals with a small average diameter of 2.4 nm and a high density of ∼2 x 10 12 /cm 2 have been observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The IrO x nanocrystals are confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A large memory window of 3.0 V at a sweeping gate voltage of ±5 V and 7.2 V at a sweeping gate voltage of ± 8 V has been observed for the 1.5 nm-thick IrO x nano layer memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of 8 nm. The electrons and holes are trapped in the core and annular regions of the IrO x nanocrystals, respectively, which is explained by Gibbs free energy. High electron and hole-trapping densities are found to be 1.5 x 10 13 /cm 2 and 2 x 10 13 /cm 2 , respectively, due to the small size and high-density of IrO x nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of >10 6 cycles and good retention of 10 4 s with a good memory window of >1.2 V under a small operation voltage of ± 5 V are obtained. A large memory size of >10 Tbit/sq. in. can be designed by using the IrO x nanocrystals. This study is not only important for the IrO x nanocrystal charge-trapping memory investigation but it will also help to design future metal nanocrystal flash memory.

  20. Integrating chemical imaging of cationic trace metal solutes and pH into a single hydrogel layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, Christoph [Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, A-3430 Tulln (Austria); Santner, Jakob, E-mail: jakob.santner@boku.ac.at [Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, A-3430 Tulln (Austria); Department of Crop Sciences, Division of Agronomy, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Borisov, Sergey M. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 9, A-8010, Graz (Austria); Wenzel, Walter W.; Puschenreiter, Markus [Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Soil Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, A-3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2017-01-15

    Gel-based, two-dimensional (2D) chemical imaging techniques are versatile methods for investigating biogeochemically active environments at high spatial resolution (sub-mm). State-of-the-art solute imaging techniques, such as diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and planar optodes (PO), employ passive solute sampling or sensing. Combining these methods will provide powerful tools for studying the biogeochemistry of biological niches in soils and sediments. In this study we aimed at developing a combined single-layer gel for direct pH imaging using PO and sampling of anionic and cationic solutes by DGT, with subsequent analysis of the bound solutes by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). We tested three ultra-thin (<100 μm) polyurethane-based gels, incorporating anion and cation binding materials and the fluorescent pH indicator DCIFODA (2′,7′-dichloro-5(6)-N-octadecyl-carboxamidofluorescein). Results showed that PO-based pH sensing using DCIFODA was impossible in the presence of the anion binding materials due to interferences with DCIFODA protonation. One gel, containing only a cation binding material and DCIFODA, was fully characterized and showed similar performance characteristics as comparable DGT-only gels (applicable pH range: pH 5–8, applicable ionic strength range: 1–20 mmol L{sup -1}, cation binding capacity ∼24 μg cm{sup −2}). The dynamic range for PO-based pH mapping was between pH 5.5 and 7.5 with t{sub 90} response time of ∼60 min. In a case study we demonstrated the gel's suitability for multi-analyte solute imaging and mapped pH gradients and concurrent metal solubility patterns in the rhizosphere of Salix smithiana. pH decreases in the rooted soil were co-localized with elevated solute fluxes of Al{sup 3+}, Co{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Fe, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, indicating pH-induced metal solubilisation. - Highlights: • Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and planar