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Sample records for recruitment increases research

  1. Increasing recruitment rates in an inpatient clinical research study using quality improvement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauers, Hadley S; Beck, Andrew F; Kahn, Robert S; Simmons, Jeffrey M

    2014-11-01

    One important benefit of successful patient recruitment is increased generalizability of findings. We sought to optimize enrollment of children admitted with asthma as part of a population-based, prospective, observational cohort study with the goal of enrolling at least 60% of all eligible and staffed patients. Quality improvement methods were used to improve cohort recruitment. Weekly meetings with study staff and study leadership were held to plan and discuss how to maximize recruitment rates. Significant initial variability in recruitment success prompted the team to use small-scale tests of change to increase recruitment numbers. A number of tests were trialed, focusing primarily on reducing patient refusals and improving recruitment process efficiency. Recruitment rates were calculated by dividing eligible by enrolled patients and displayed using annotated Shewhart control charts. Control charts were used to illustrate week-to-week variability while also enabling differentiation of common-cause and special-cause variation. The study enrolled 774 patients, representing 54% of all eligible and 59% of those eligible for whom staff were available to enroll. Our mean weekly recruitment rate increased from 55% during the first 3 months of the study to a statistically significant sustained rate of 61%. This was sustained given numerous obstacles, such as departing and hiring of staff and adding a second recruitment location. Implementing quality improvement methods within a larger research study led to an increase in the rate of recruitment as well as the stability in recruitment rates from week-to-week. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. The Development of a Communication Tool to Facilitate the Cancer Trial Recruitment Process and Increase Research Literacy among Underrepresented Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Samantha; de la Riva, Erika E; Tom, Laura S; Clayman, Marla L; Taylor, Chirisse; Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa A

    2015-12-01

    Despite increasing need to boost the recruitment of underrepresented populations into cancer trials and biobanking research, few tools exist for facilitating dialogue between researchers and potential research participants during the recruitment process. In this paper, we describe the initial processes of a user-centered design cycle to develop a standardized research communication tool prototype for enhancing research literacy among individuals from underrepresented populations considering enrollment in cancer research and biobanking studies. We present qualitative feedback and recommendations on the prototype's design and content from potential end users: five clinical trial recruiters and ten potential research participants recruited from an academic medical center. Participants were given the prototype (a set of laminated cards) and were asked to provide feedback about the tool's content, design elements, and word choices during semi-structured, in-person interviews. Results suggest that the prototype was well received by recruiters and patients alike. They favored the simplicity, lay language, and layout of the cards. They also noted areas for improvement, leading to card refinements that included the following: addressing additional topic areas, clarifying research processes, increasing the number of diverse images, and using alternative word choices. Our process for refining user interfaces and iterating content in early phases of design may inform future efforts to develop tools for use in clinical research or biobanking studies to increase research literacy.

  3. Researchers' perspectives on pediatric obesity research participant recruitment.

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    Parikh, Yasha; Mason, Maryann; Williams, Karen

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity prevalence has tripled over the last three decades. Pediatric obesity has important implications for both adult health as well as the United States economy. In order to combat pediatric obesity, exploratory studies are necessary to create effective interventions. Recruitment is an essential part of any study, and it has been challenging for all studies, especially pediatric obesity studies. The objective of this study was to understand barriers to pediatric obesity study recruitment and review facilitators to overcome recruitment difficulties. Twenty four childhood obesity researchers were contacted. Complete data for 11 researchers were obtained. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Grounded Theory methodological approach was used, as this was an exploratory study. Investigators YP and MM coded the interviews using 28 codes. Barriers to recruitment included: family and study logistics, family economics, lack of provider interest, invasive protocols, stigma, time restraints of clinicians, lack of patient motivation/interest, groupthink of students in a classroom, and participants who do not accept his or her own weight status. Facilitators to enhance recruitment practices included accommodating participants outside of regular clinic hours, incentivizing participants, cultivating relationships with communities, schools and clinics prior to study recruitment, emphasizing benefits of a study for the patient, and shifting language to focus on health rather than obesity. Pediatric obesity researchers face many standard and some unique challenges to recruitment, reflecting challenges common to clinical research as well as some specific to pediatrics and some specific to obesity research. Both pediatric studies as well as obesity studies are an added challenge to the already-difficult task of general study recruitment. Our findings can be used to make researchers more aware of potential difficulties, approaches and on

  4. Overcoming barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities to mental health research: a typology of recruitment strategies.

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    Waheed, Waquas; Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Woodham, Adrine; Allen, Gill; Bower, Peter

    2015-05-02

    The ethnic minority population in developed countries is increasing over time. These groups are at higher risk of mental illness and demonstrate lower participation in research. Published evidence suggests that multiple factors like stigma, lack of trust, differences in explanatory models, logistical issues and lack of culturally aware researchers act as barriers to ethnic minority recruitment into mental health research. To reduce inequalities in participation, there is a need to devise innovative and culturally sensitive recruitment strategies. It is important that researchers share their experience of employing these strategies so that ethnic minority participation can be facilitated. We previously published a systematic review of barriers to recruiting ethnic minority participants into mental health research. The nine papers included in our prior review formed the basis for developing a typology of barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities into mental health research. This typology identified 33 barriers, described under five themes. We further extracted data on the strategies used to overcome these recruitment barriers, as described in the included studies. The strategies employed by the authors could be matched to all but two barriers (psychopathology/substance misuse and limited resource availability). There was evidence that multiple strategies were employed, and that these depended upon the population, clinical set-up and resources available. This typology of strategies to overcome barriers to recruiting ethnic minorities provides guidance on achieving higher rates of recruitment. It is important that researchers plan to deploy these strategies well in advance of initiating recruitment. Whilst adopting these strategies, the authors have not been able to quantify the positive impact of these strategies on recruitment. The typology should encourage researchers to employ these strategies in future research, refine them further and quantitatively evaluate their

  5. Reflecting on e-Recruiting Research Using Grounded Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, Joost; Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic review of the e-Recruiting literature through a grounded theory lens. The large number of publications and the increasing diversity of publications on e-Recruiting research, as the most studied area within e-HRM (Electronic Human Resource Management), calls for a

  6. Recruiting for addiction research via Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Louise K; Harris, Keith; Baker, Amanda L; Johnson, Martin; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the feasibility of recruiting participants to addiction research via Facebook. Participants were recruited via an advertisement on Facebook, a local research register and university psychology courses. Participants completed a self-report survey regarding substance use, history of mental health issues and current psychological distress. The 524 participants recruited via Facebook cost $1.86 per participant; and 418 participants were recruited via more traditional methods. There were significantly fewer women in the Facebook sample compared with the non-Facebook sample (χ(2)  = 196.61, P Facebook participants reported current use of tobacco (women: Facebook = 57%, non-Facebook = 21%, χ(2)  = 39.71, P Facebook = 62%, non-Facebook = 21%, χ(2)  = 32.429, P Facebook = 26%, non-Facebook = 7%, χ(2)  = 14.364, P Facebook = 46%, non-Facebook = 24%, χ(2)  = 6.765, P Facebook sample contained a higher percentage of high-severity cannabis users (women: Facebook = 24%, non-Facebook = 4%, χ(2)  = 18.12, P Facebook = 43%, non-Facebook = 16%, χ(2)  = 10.00, P Facebook, we were able to capture a greater proportion of people with high-severity substance use and mental health issues and were able to capture a greater and more severe range of substance use behaviours. This suggests social networking sites are efficient, cost-effective ways to recruit large numbers of participants, with relevant behaviours and conditions, to addiction research. [Thornton LK, Harris K, Baker AL, Johnson M, Kay-Lambkin FJ. Recruiting for addiction research via Facebook. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:494-502]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Recruiting from within: Action-Oriented Research Solutions to Internal Student Recruitment in Collegiate Aviation Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent; Carstenson, Larry; Hansen, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    Discusses student recruitment in aviation education and establishes that internal recruitment methods are the most productive and cost effective. Provides examples of recruitment strategies based on a model of action research. (JOW)

  8. Effective recruitment strategies in primary care research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngune, Irene; Jiwa, Moyez; Dadich, Ann; Lotriet, Jaco; Sriram, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Patient recruitment in primary care research is often a protracted and frustrating process, affecting project timeframes, budget and the dissemination of research findings. Yet, clear guidance on patient recruitment strategies in primary care research is limited. This paper addresses this issue through a systematic review. Articles were sourced from five academic databases - AustHealth, CINAHL, the Cochrane Methodology Group, EMBASE and PubMed/Medline; grey literature was also sourced from an academic library and the Primary Healthcare Research & Information Service (PHCRIS) website. Two reviewers independently screened the articles using the following criteria: (1) published in English, (2) reported empirical research, (3) focused on interventions designed to increase patient recruitment in primary care settings, and (4) reported patient recruitment in primary care settings. Sixty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 23 specifically focused on recruitment strategies and included randomised trials (n = 7), systematic reviews (n = 8) and qualitative studies (n = 8). Of the remaining articles, 30 evaluated recruitment strategies, while 13 addressed the value of recruitment strategies using descriptive statistics and/or qualitative data. Among the 66 articles, primary care chiefly included general practice (n = 30); nursing and allied health services, multiple settings, as well as other community settings (n = 30); and pharmacy (n = 6). Effective recruitment strategies included the involvement of a discipline champion, simple patient eligibility criteria, patient incentives and organisational strategies that reduce practitioner workload. The most effective recruitment in primary care research requires practitioner involvement. The active participation of primary care practitioners in both the design and conduct of research helps to identify strategies that are congruent with the context in which patient care is delivered. This is reported to be the

  9. Social networking and online recruiting for HIV research: ethical challenges.

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    Curtis, Brenda L

    2014-02-01

    Social networking sites and online advertising organizations provide HIV/AIDS researchers access to target populations, often reaching difficult-to-reach populations. However, this benefit to researchers raises many issues for the protections of prospective research participants. Traditional recruitment procedures have involved straightforward transactions between the researchers and prospective participants; online recruitment is a more complex and indirect form of communication involving many parties engaged in the collecting, aggregating, and storing of research participant data. Thus, increased access to online data has challenged the adequacy of current and established procedures for participants' protections, such as informed consent and privacy/confidentiality. Internet-based HIV/AIDS research recruitment and its ethical challenges are described, and research participant safeguards and best practices are outlined.

  10. Social Networking and Online Recruiting for HIV Research: Ethical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites and online advertising organizations provide HIV/AIDS researchers access to target populations, often reaching difficult-to-reach populations. However, this benefit to researchers raises many issues for the protections of prospective research participants. Traditional recruitment procedures have involved straightforward transactions between the researchers and prospective participants; online recruitment is a more complex and indirect form of communication involving many parties engaged in the collecting, aggregating, and storing of research participant data. Thus, increased access to online data has challenged the adequacy of current and established procedures for participants’ protections, such as informed consent and privacy/confidentiality. Internet-based HIV/AIDS research recruitment and its ethical challenges are described, and research participant safeguards and best practices are outlined. PMID:24572084

  11. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  12. A novice researcher's reflection on recruiting participants for qualitative research.

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    Marks, Anne; Wilkes, Lesley; Blythe, Stacy; Griffiths, Rhonda

    2017-09-19

    This paper is a reflection by a PhD candidate on her qualitative study involving parents, diabetes educators and school teachers who were caring for a child with type 1 diabetes using intensive insulin therapy in primary school. To reflect on a novice researcher's experience of recruiting research participants from community, health and education settings in Australia. Participants were successfully recruited for the study using internet communication tools: Facebook support groups; the Australian Diabetes Educators Association (ADEA) e-newsletter; and emails sent to school principals. These methods were successful as Facebook and online support groups are popular, the study topic was of interest, the ADEA has many members, and numerous emails were sent to schools. Potential barriers to recruitment were a lack of access to those who did not use Facebook or the internet, gatekeepers, the high workloads of diabetes educators and teachers, and the time needed to obtain ethics approval and send a large number of emails to schools. Internet communication tools were successful in recruiting participants from community, health and education settings. However, different approaches were required for each type of participant. Lessons learned from this experience were: the importance of taking time to plan recruitment, including an in-depth understanding of potential participants and recruitment tools, the benefit of being an insider, and the need to work closely with gatekeepers. An understanding of recruitment is essential for ensuring access to appropriate participants and timely collection of data. The experience of the novice researcher may provide insight to others planning to use internet communication tools for recruitment. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  13. Overcoming the Gap between Diversity Recruitment Research and Practice

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    Bocanegra, Joel O.

    2012-01-01

    The profession of school psychology has repeatedly advocated for increasing the diversity of its membership. However, the production of diversity recruitment research has not coalesced with the urgency espoused by organizations governing school psychology. This gap between official organizational position and production of literature has…

  14. Recruitment to Intellectual Disability Research: A Qualitative Study

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    Nicholson, L.; Colyer, M.; Cooper, S. -A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Difficulties in the recruitment of adults with intellectual disability (ID) to research studies are well described but little studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the difficulties in recruiting to a specific research project, in order to inform future recruitment to ID research. Methods: Individual semi-structured…

  15. Recruiting and engaging African-American men in health research.

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    Randolph, Schenita; Coakley, Tanya; Shears, Jeffrey

    2018-06-07

    Improving the health of black and minority ethnic (BME) men in the US continues to be a public health priority. Compared with men of other races and ethnicities, African-American men have higher rates of mortality and morbidity from chronic illness and diseases including cancer, heart disease, prostate cancer, diabetes and HIV/AIDS. One way to address these disparities is to include African-American men in health research, to elicit their perspectives on health risks and protective factors. These can then inform interventions aimed at reducing health disparities. However, challenges remain in recruiting and engaging African-American men in health research. To provide strategies for recruiting African-American men in health research, using as an exemplar a qualitative study of fathers' perspectives of sexual health promotion with young African-American males. Efforts are needed to increase the representation of African-American men in health research. Ensuring that researchers are aware of the cultural, social and environmental factors related to decisions to participate in research can lead to effective methods to recruit and engage them. There are several essential strategies for increasing African-American men's participation in health research: ensuring the research team is culturally and gender-sensitive; recruiting in trusted environments; using respected gatekeepers; developing trust with participants; and being transparent. Implementing strategies to include African-American men in health research has the potential to improve health disparities in the US. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  16. Recruiting Vulnerable Populations into Research: A Systematic Review of Recruitment Interventions

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    UyBico, Stacy J.; Pavel, Shani

    2007-01-01

    Background Members of vulnerable populations are underrepresented in research studies. Objective To evaluate and synthesize the evidence regarding interventions to enhance enrollment of vulnerable populations into health research studies. Data sources Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, the Web of Science database, personal sources, hand searching of related journals, and article references. Studies that contained data on recruitment interventions for vulnerable populations (minority, underserved, poor, rural, urban, or inner city) and for which the parent study (study for which recruitment was taking place) was an intervention study were included. A total of 2,648 study titles were screened and 48 articles met inclusion criteria, representing 56 parent studies. Two investigators extracted data from each study. Results African Americans were the most frequently targeted population (82% of the studies), while 46% targeted Hispanics/Latinos. Many studies assessed 2 or more interventions, including social marketing (82% of studies), community outreach (80%), health system recruitment (52%), and referrals (28%). The methodologic rigor varied substantially. Only 40 studies (71%) incorporated a control group and 21% used statistical analysis to compare interventions. Social marketing, health system, and referral recruitment were each found to be the most successful intervention about 35–45% of the studies in which they were attempted, while community outreach was the most successful intervention in only 2 of 16 studies (13%) in which it was employed. People contacted as a result of social marketing were no less likely to enroll than people contacted through other mechanisms. Conclusions Further work with greater methodologic rigor is needed to identify evidence-based strategies for increasing minority enrollment in research studies; community outreach, as an isolated strategy, may be less successful than other strategies. PMID:17375358

  17. Recruiting vulnerable populations into research: a systematic review of recruitment interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    UyBico, Stacy J; Pavel, Shani; Gross, Cary P

    2007-06-01

    Members of vulnerable populations are underrepresented in research studies. To evaluate and synthesize the evidence regarding interventions to enhance enrollment of vulnerable populations into health research studies. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, the Web of Science database, personal sources, hand searching of related journals, and article references. Studies that contained data on recruitment interventions for vulnerable populations (minority, underserved, poor, rural, urban, or inner city) and for which the parent study (study for which recruitment was taking place) was an intervention study were included. A total of 2,648 study titles were screened and 48 articles met inclusion criteria, representing 56 parent studies. Two investigators extracted data from each study. African Americans were the most frequently targeted population (82% of the studies), while 46% targeted Hispanics/Latinos. Many studies assessed 2 or more interventions, including social marketing (82% of studies), community outreach (80%), health system recruitment (52%), and referrals (28%). The methodologic rigor varied substantially. Only 40 studies (71%) incorporated a control group and 21% used statistical analysis to compare interventions. Social marketing, health system, and referral recruitment were each found to be the most successful intervention about 35-45% of the studies in which they were attempted, while community outreach was the most successful intervention in only 2 of 16 studies (13%) in which it was employed. People contacted as a result of social marketing were no less likely to enroll than people contacted through other mechanisms. Further work with greater methodologic rigor is needed to identify evidence-based strategies for increasing minority enrollment in research studies; community outreach, as an isolated strategy, may be less successful than other strategies.

  18. Nurses as participants in research: an evaluation of recruitment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Lauretta; Chok, Harrison Ng; Wilkes, Lesley

    2017-09-19

    Recruitment and retention of participants, as well as response rates, can be challenging in nursing research. This can be because of the questions asked; the choice of methodology; the methods used to collect data; the characteristics of potential participants; the sample size required; and the duration of the study. Additionally, conducting research with nurses as participants presents several issues for them, including the time needed to participate in the research, the competing commitments for clinical practice, the political and environmental climate, and recruitment itself. To report on research studies conducted by the authors at a tertiary teaching hospital, to show the lessons learned when recruiting nurses to participate in nursing research. The authors discuss factors that supported recruitment of nurses in these studies, including the use of the personal touch and multiple recruitment strategies in a single study. Videos and photography facilitate interdisciplinary research and can be a valuable means of non-verbal data collection, especially with participants affected by disabilities, and can support research methods, such as the use of questionnaires. Recruiting nurses for research can be challenging. We suggest that researchers consider using more than one recruitment strategy when recruiting nurse participants. Recruitment is more successful if researchers align the aim(s) of the research with nurse's concerns and contexts. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  19. Climate warming could increase recruitment success in glacier foreland plants.

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    Mondoni, Andrea; Pedrini, Simone; Bernareggi, Giulietta; Rossi, Graziano; Abeli, Thomas; Probert, Robin J; Ghitti, Michele; Bonomi, Costantino; Orsenigo, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Glacier foreland plants are highly threatened by global warming. Regeneration from seeds on deglaciated terrain will be crucial for successful migration and survival of these species, and hence a better understanding of the impacts of climate change on seedling recruitment is urgently needed to predict future plant persistence in these environments. This study presents the first field evidence of the impact of climate change on recruitment success of glacier foreland plants. Seeds of eight foreland species were sown on a foreland site at 2500 m a.s.l., and at a site 400 m lower in altitude to simulate a 2·7 °C increase in mean annual temperature. Soil from the site of origin was used to reproduce the natural germination substrate. Recruitment success, temperature and water potential were monitored for 2 years. The response of seed germination to warming was further investigated in the laboratory. At the glacier foreland site, seedling emergence was low (0 to approx. 40 %) and occurred in summer in all species after seeds had experienced autumn and winter seasons. However, at the warmer site there was a shift from summer to autumn emergence in two species and a significant increase of summer emergence (13-35 % higher) in all species except two. Survival and establishment was possible for 60-75 % of autumn-emerged seedlings and was generally greater under warmer conditions. Early snowmelt in spring caused the main ecological factors enhancing the recruitment success. The results suggest that warming will influence the recruitment of glacier foreland species primarily via the extension of the snow-free period in spring, which increases seedling establishment and results in a greater resistance to summer drought and winter extremes. The changes in recruitment success observed here imply that range shifts or changes in abundance are possible in a future warmer climate, but overall success may be dependent on interactions with shifts in other components of the

  20. 2010 Recruiting Benchmarks Survey. Research Brief

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    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of Colleges and Employers conducted its annual survey of employer members from June 15, 2010 to August 15, 2010, to benchmark data relevant to college recruiting. From a base of 861 employers holding organizational membership, there were 268 responses for a response rate of 31 percent. Following are some of the major…

  1. Recruiting Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Behavioral Research

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    Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2012-01-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  2. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.

  3. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.

  4. Engaging workplace representatives in research: what recruitment strategies work best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coole, C; Nouri, F; Narayanasamy, M; Baker, P; Khan, S; Drummond, A

    2018-05-23

    Workplaces are key stakeholders in work and health but little is known about the methods used to recruit workplace representatives (WRs), including managers, occupational health advisers and colleagues, to externally funded healthcare research studies. To detail the strategies used in recruiting WRs from three areas of the UK to a qualitative study concerning their experience of employees undergoing hip or knee replacement, to compare the strategies and inform recruitment methods for future studies. Six strategies were used to recruit WRs from organizations of different sizes and sectors. Data on numbers approached and responses received were analysed descriptively. Twenty-five WRs were recruited. Recruitment had to be extended outside the main three study areas, and took several months. It proved more difficult to recruit from non-service sectors and small- and medium-sized enterprises. The most successful strategies were approaching organizations that had participated in previous research studies, or known professionally or personally to team members. Recruiting a diverse sample of WRs to healthcare research requires considerable resources and persistence, and a range of strategies. Recruitment is easier where local relationships already exist; the importance of building and maintaining these relationships cannot be underestimated. However, the potential risks of bias and participant fatigue need to be acknowledged and managed. Further studies are needed to explore how WRs can be recruited to health research, and to identify the researcher effort and costs involved in achieving unbiased and representative samples.

  5. The Use of Social Media in Recruitment for Medical Research Studies: A Scoping Review

    OpenAIRE

    Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Natarajan, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting an adequate number of participants into medical research studies is challenging for many researchers. Over the past 10 years, the use of social media websites has increased in the general population. Consequently, social media websites are a new, powerful method for recruiting participants into such studies. Objective The objective was to answer the following questions: (1) Is the use of social media more effective at research participant recruitment than traditional met...

  6. Recruiting Transcultural Qualitative Research Participants: A Conceptual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Eide

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Working with diverse populations poses many challenges to the qualitative researcher who is a member of the dominant culture. Traditional methods of recruitment and selection (such as flyers and advertisements are often unproductive, leading to missed contributions from potential participants who were not recruited and researcher frustration. In this article, the authors explore recruitment issues related to the concept of personal knowing based on experiences with Aboriginal Hawai'ian and Micronesian populations, wherein knowing and being known are crucial to successful recruitment of participants. They present a conceptual model that incorporates key concepts of knowing the other, cultural context, and trust to guide other qualitative transcultural researchers. They also describe challenges, implications, and concrete suggestions for recruitment of participants.

  7. Facebook targeted advertisement for research recruitment: A primer for nurse researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa

    2016-11-01

    Recruiting participants for research studies can be challenging and costly. Innovative recruitment methods are needed. Facebook targeted advertisement offers a low-cost alternative to traditional methods that has been successfully used in research study recruitment. This primer offers nurse researchers a method utilizing social media as a recruitment tool and details Facebook targeted advertisement for research recruitment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recruiting patients as partners in health research: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vat, Lidewij Eva; Ryan, Devonne; Etchegary, Holly

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, funders and researchers want to partner with patients in health research, but it can be challenging for researchers to find patient partners. More than taking part in research as participants, patient partners help design, carry out and manage research projects. The goal of this study was to describe ways that patient partners have been recruited by researchers and patient engagement leads (individuals within organizations responsible for promoting and supporting patients as research partners). We talked with researchers and patient engagement leads in Canada and the United Kingdom, as well as a patient representative. We found three ways that could help researchers and patients find each other. One way is a case-by-case basis, where patients are often sought with experience of a health condition that is the focus of the research. The other ways involved directories where projects were posted and could be found by patients and researchers, or a third party matched patients with research projects. We found four recruitment strategies:Social marketingCommunity outreachHealth systemPartnering with other organizations (e.g., advocacy groups) There are many influences on finding, selecting and retaining patient partners: patient characteristics, the local setting, the opportunity, work climate, education and support. We hope study results will provide a useful starting point for research teams in recruiting their patient partners. Background Patient engagement in clinical trials and other health research continues to gain momentum. While the benefits of patient engagement in research are emerging, relatively little is known about recruiting patients as research partners. The purpose of this study was to describe recruitment strategies and models of recruiting patients as partners in health research. Methods Qualitative descriptive study. Thirteen patient engagement leads and health researchers from Canada and the United Kingdom, as well as one patient

  9. Recruitment of ethnic minorities for public health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Smith Jervelund, Signe; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted

    2017-01-01

    Aims: This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational...... study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. Conclusions:The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite...... settings as sites for recruitment. Methods: Inspired by interpretive reviewing, data on recruitment methods from the different studies were synthesized with a focus on the various levels of recruitment success achieved. This involved an iterative process of comparison, analysis and discussion...

  10. Guide to enable health charities to increase recruitment to clinical trials on dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Larry W; Harris, Megan; Lusk, Elizabeth; Benczkowski, Debbie

    2017-11-01

    The Alzheimer Society embarked on a project to improve ways that the 60 provincial and local Societies in Canada can work with local researchers to support recruitment of volunteers to clinical trials and studies. A Guide to assist these offices was produced to design ethical recruitment of research volunteers within their client populations. Consultations with individuals from provincial and local Societies, as well as researchers and leaders from health-related organizations, were conducted to identify in what ways these organizations are involved in study volunteer recruitment, what is and is not working, and what would be helpful to support future efforts. The Guide prototype used scenarios to illustrate study volunteer recruitment practices as they have been or could be applied in Societies. An implementable version of the Guide was produced with input from multiple internal and external reviewers including subject-matter experts and target users from Societies. Society staff reported that benefits of using the Guide were that it served as a catalyst for conversation and reflection and identified the need for a policy. Also, it enabled Society readiness to respond to requests by persons with dementia and their caregivers wishing to participate in research. A majority (94%) of participating Society staff across Canada agreed that they would increase their capacity to support research recruitment. Charitable organizations that raise funds for research have a role in promoting the recruitment of persons with dementia and their caregivers into clinical trials and studies. The Guide was produced to facilitate organizational change to both create a positive culture regarding research as well as practical solutions that can help organizations achieve this goal.

  11. Beyond traditional advertisements: leveraging Facebook's social structures for research recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa S; Guterbock, Thomas M; Thompson, Morgan J; Reilly, Jeremiah D; Menefee, Hannah K; Bennici, Maria S; Williams, Ishan C; Rexrode, Deborah L

    2014-10-27

    Obtaining access to a demographically and geographically diverse sample for health-related research can be costly and time consuming. Previous studies have reported mixed results regarding the potential of using social media-based advertisements to overcome these challenges. Our aim was to develop and assess the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of recruiting for research studies related to consumer health information technology (IT) by leveraging the social structures embedded in the social networking platform, Facebook. Two recruitment strategies that involved direct communication with existing Facebook groups and pages were developed and implemented in two distinct populations. The first recruitment strategy involved posting a survey link directly to consenting groups and pages and was used to recruit Filipino-Americans to a study assessing the perceptions, use of, and preferences for consumer health IT. This study took place between August and December 2013. The second recruitment strategy targeted individuals with type 2 diabetes and involved creating a study-related Facebook group and asking administrators of other groups and pages to publicize our group to their members. Group members were then directly invited to participate in an online pre-study survey. This portion of a larger study to understand existing health management practices as a foundation for consumer health IT design took place between May and June 2014. In executing both recruitment strategies, efforts were made to establish trust and transparency. Recruitment rate, cost, content of interaction, and characteristics of the sample obtained were used to assess the recruitment methods. The two recruitment methods yielded 87 and 79 complete responses, respectively. The first recruitment method yielded a rate of study completion proportionate to that of the rate of posts made, whereas recruitment successes of the second recruitment method seemed to follow directly from the actions of a subset

  12. An experimental investigation of recruitment bias in eating pathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Erin L; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2006-04-01

    Previous, uncontrolled research has suggested a bias may exist in recruiting participants for eating disorder research. Recruitment biases may affect sample representativeness and generalizability of findings. This experiment investigated whether revealing that a study's topic was related to eating disorders created a self-selection bias. Young women at a university responded to advertisements containing contrasting information about the nature of a single study. We recruited one group by advertising the study under the title "Disordered Eating in Young Women" (n = 251) and another group using the title "Consumer Preferences" (n = 259). Results indicated similar levels of eating pathology in both groups, so the different recruitment techniques did not engender self-selection. However, the consumer preferences group scored higher in self-reported social desirability. The level of information conveyed in study advertising does not impact reporting of eating disturbances among nonclinical samples, although there is evidence social desirability might. 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O’Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171

  14. Recruiting US Chinese Elders Into Clinical Research for Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Clara; Neugroschl, Judith; Umpierre, Mari; Martin, Jane; Huang, QiYing; Zeng, Xiaoyi; Cai, Dongming; Sano, Mary

    2016-01-01

    This study described and evaluated the rapid recruitment of elderly Chinese into clinical research at the Mount Sinai Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (MSADRC). Methods of publicizing the study included lectures to local senior centers/churches and publications in local Chinese newspapers. The amount of time and success of these methods were evaluated. A "go to them" model of evaluation was used to enable participants to complete the study visit at locations where they were comfortable. From January to December 2015, we recruited 98 participants aged 65 years or older who primarily speak Mandarin/Cantonese and reside in New York. The mean age and years of education was 73.93±6.34 and 12.79±4.58, respectively. The majority of participants were female (65.3%) and primarily Mandarin speaking (53.1%). Of all enrollees, 54.1% were recruited from community lectures, 29.6% through newspapers, 10.2% through word of mouth, and 6.1% from our clinical services. About 40.8% of participants underwent evaluations at the MSADRC, 44.9% at local senior centers/churches, and 14.3% at home. Given that the majority of our participants had low English proficiency, the use of bilingual recruiters probably allowed us to overcome the language barrier, facilitating recruitment. Our "go to them" model of evaluation is another important factor contributing to our successful recruitment.

  15. Researchers? perspectives on pediatric obesity research participant recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh, Yasha; Mason, Maryann; Williams, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity prevalence has tripled over the last three decades. Pediatric obesity has important implications for both adult health as well as the United States economy. In order to combat pediatric obesity, exploratory studies are necessary to create effective interventions. Recruitment is an essential part of any study, and it has been challenging for all studies, especially pediatric obesity studies. The objective of this study was to understand barriers to pediatric obesit...

  16. Overcoming recruitment challenges in construction safety intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Pamela; Parshall, Mark; Wojcik, Susan; Struttmann, Tim

    2004-03-01

    Recruiting workers in small construction companies and securing their participation in voluntary safety programs or safety research poses unique challenges. Worker turnover and worksite changes contribute to difficulties in locating and enrolling participants. Economic pressures and time demands potentially threaten ongoing participation. Six simulation exercises designed to reduce back and fall injuries in small construction companies were developed based on data from focus groups of workers and company owners. Working with a workers' compensation insurer, we had access to owner-operators of general, heavy, and special trade construction companies reporting less than $10,000 in payroll expenses. Recruitment methods included a participation incentive, mailed invitations followed by phone contacts, and follow-up reminders. Despite using recruitment methods recommended in the literature, participation rates were low over a 2-year intervention period. Because of these difficulties, factors affecting participation or nonparticipation became an additional research focus. Owners' perceptions of already having a good safety record and of the time demands of participation were the most commonly cited reasons for not participating. Literature on recruitment emphasizes processes and procedures under investigator control rather than understanding potential participants' judgments about the adequacy of their existing practices and the potential benefits of intervention participation relative to potential time and productivity trade-offs. Greater attention to such judgments may enhance recruitment and participation in under-studied and difficult to access populations. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. A digitally facilitated citizen-science driven approach accelerates participant recruitment and increases study population diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Milo A; Steinemann, Nina; Kamm, Christian P; Müller, Stephanie; Kuhle, Jens; Kurmann, Roland; Calabrese, Pasquale; Kesselring, Jürg; von Wyl, Viktor; Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry Smsr

    2018-05-16

    Our aim was to assess whether a novel approach of digitally facilitated, citizen-science research, as followed by the Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Registry (Swiss MS Registry), leads to accelerated participant recruitment and more diverse study populations compared with traditional research studies where participants are mostly recruited in study centres without the use of digital technology. The Swiss MS Registry is a prospective, longitudinal, observational study covering all Switzerland. Participants actively contribute to the Swiss MS Registry, from defining research questions to providing data (online or on a paper form) and co-authoring papers. We compared the recruitment dynamics over the first 18 months with the a priori defined recruitment goals and assessed whether a priori defined groups were enrolled who are likely to be missed by traditional research studies. The goal to recruit 400 participants in the first year was reached after only 20 days, and by the end of 18 months 1700 participants had enrolled in the Swiss MS Registry, vastly exceeding expectations. Of the a priori defined groups with potential underrepresentation in other studies, 645 participants (46.5%) received care at a private neurology practice, 167 participants (12%) did not report any use of healthcare services in the past 12 months, 32 (2.3%) participants lived in rural mountainous areas, and 20 (2.0% of the 1041 for whom this information was available) lived in a long-term care facility. Having both online and paper options increased diversity of the study population in terms of geographic origin and type and severity of disease, as well as use of health care services. In particular, paper enrolees tended to be older, more frequently affected by progressive MS types and more likely to have accessed healthcare services in the past 12 months. Academic and industry-driven medical research faces substantial challenges in terms of patient involvement, recruitment, relevance and

  18. The Use of Social Media in Recruitment for Medical Research Studies: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Natarajan, Karthik

    2016-11-07

    Recruiting an adequate number of participants into medical research studies is challenging for many researchers. Over the past 10 years, the use of social media websites has increased in the general population. Consequently, social media websites are a new, powerful method for recruiting participants into such studies. The objective was to answer the following questions: (1) Is the use of social media more effective at research participant recruitment than traditional methods? (2) Does social media recruit a sample of research participants comparable to that recruited via other methods? (3) Is social media more cost-effective at research participant recruitment than traditional methods? Using the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases, all medical research studies that used social media and at least one other method for recruitment were identified. These studies were then categorized as either interventional studies or observational studies. For each study, the effectiveness of recruitment, demographic characteristics of the participants, and cost-effectiveness of recruitment using social media were evaluated and compared with that of the other methods used. The social media sites used in recruitment were identified, and if a study stated that the target population was "difficult to reach" as identified by the authors of the study, this was noted. Out of 30 studies, 12 found social media to be the most effective recruitment method, 15 did not, and 3 found social media to be equally effective as another recruitment method. Of the 12 studies that found social media to be the best recruitment method, 8 were observational studies while 4 were interventional studies. Of the 15 studies that did not find social media to be the best recruitment method, 7 were interventional studies while 8 were observational studies. In total, 8 studies stated that the target population was "hard-to-reach," and 6 of these studies found social media to be the most effective recruitment

  19. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements: examples from research in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Toby; Arnone, Danilo; Marwood, Lindsey; Zahn, Roland; Lythe, Karen E; Young, Allan H

    2016-01-01

    Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations.

  20. Using Social Media as a Research Recruitment Tool: Ethical Issues and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Luke; Pierce, Robin; Winkler, Sabune; Cohen, I Glenn; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Bierer, Barbara E

    2017-03-01

    The use of social media as a recruitment tool for research with humans is increasing, and likely to continue to grow. Despite this, to date there has been no specific regulatory guidance and there has been little in the bioethics literature to guide investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) faced with navigating the ethical issues such use raises. We begin to fill this gap by first defending a nonexceptionalist methodology for assessing social media recruitment; second, examining respect for privacy and investigator transparency as key norms governing social media recruitment; and, finally, analyzing three relatively novel aspects of social media recruitment: (i) the ethical significance of compliance with website "terms of use"; (ii) the ethics of recruiting from the online networks of research participants; and (iii) the ethical implications of online communication from and between participants. Two checklists aimed at guiding investigators and IRBs through the ethical issues are included as appendices.

  1. Schools as Sites for Recruiting Participants and Implementing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Robin; Wright, Tiffany; Olarinde, Tia; Holmes, Tara; Beamon, Emily R; Wallace, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Schools can be a valuable resource for recruitment of participants for research involving children, adolescents, and parents. Awareness of the benefits and challenges of working with schools can assist researchers in developing effective school partnerships. This article discusses the advantages of conducting research within the school system as well as the challenges that may also arise. Such challenges include developing key contacts, building relationships, logistical arrangements, and facilitating trust in the research topic and team. Suggestions for strategies to forge successful collaborative relationships with schools are provided.

  2. The Use of Social Media in Recruitment for Medical Research Studies: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting an adequate number of participants into medical research studies is challenging for many researchers. Over the past 10 years, the use of social media websites has increased in the general population. Consequently, social media websites are a new, powerful method for recruiting participants into such studies. Objective The objective was to answer the following questions: (1) Is the use of social media more effective at research participant recruitment than traditional methods? (2) Does social media recruit a sample of research participants comparable to that recruited via other methods? (3) Is social media more cost-effective at research participant recruitment than traditional methods? Methods Using the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases, all medical research studies that used social media and at least one other method for recruitment were identified. These studies were then categorized as either interventional studies or observational studies. For each study, the effectiveness of recruitment, demographic characteristics of the participants, and cost-effectiveness of recruitment using social media were evaluated and compared with that of the other methods used. The social media sites used in recruitment were identified, and if a study stated that the target population was “difficult to reach” as identified by the authors of the study, this was noted. Results Out of 30 studies, 12 found social media to be the most effective recruitment method, 15 did not, and 3 found social media to be equally effective as another recruitment method. Of the 12 studies that found social media to be the best recruitment method, 8 were observational studies while 4 were interventional studies. Of the 15 studies that did not find social media to be the best recruitment method, 7 were interventional studies while 8 were observational studies. In total, 8 studies stated that the target population was “hard-to-reach,” and 6 of these studies found social

  3. Evaluating research recruitment strategies to improve response rates amongst South African nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate three research recruitment methods for their impact on recruitment and participation rates amongst South African nurses. Motivation for the study: A limited number of studies exist that formally evaluates different recruitment strategies to improve participation in research amongst nurses within developing contexts, especially South Africa. Research approach, design and method: Participants were recruited using three different methods. Of the 250 nurses randomly selected and invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey, 201 agreed and 162 (81% returned the questionnaires. Main findings: Nursing management participation in the recruitment and data collection process produces more favourable response rates. Reminders and the use of shorter questionnaires also aid higher response rates. Practical/managerial implications: Reminders as well as face-to-face recruitment strategies (especially by a familiar person successfully improved participation rates amongst South African nurses in this study. Contribution/value-add: This study identifies some strategies that could be used more widely to increase the recruitment and participation of South African nurses in research whilst potentially improving their work situation.

  4. Recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Azocar, F; Organista, K C; Muñoz, R F; Lieberman, A

    1996-10-01

    This article offers suggestions for recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in treatment studies. Because Latinos underuse traditional mental health services, places such as medical centers or churches with large Latino constituents are suggested as useful alternative sources. To keep Latinos in research protocols, providing culturally sensitive treatments are necessary. Culturally sensitive treatments should incorporate families as part of recruitment efforts, particularly older men in the family. In addition, showing respect is an important aspect of traditional Latino culture that includes using formal titles and taking time to listen carefully. Finally, traditional Latinos tend to like interactions with others that are more warm and personal than is generally part of a research atmosphere.

  5. Use of media for recruiting clinical research volunteers in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaherrera, Carlos Andrés; Palacios, Michael; Duarte, María Carolina; Santibáñez, Rocío; Tamariz, Leonardo; Palacio, Ana

    2015-12-10

    Up to this date, there are no reports made about the use of media for recruiting research volunteers in Latin American populations. Given the emergence of clinical research in Ecuador, a study of this kind in the local population will be beneficial for future research, and is probably applicable to other countries in the region. Two public calls were made for a cross-sectional study on cognitive function and diabetes. We only included people between 55 and 65 years of age without previous neurocognitive conditions. We invited individuals through interviews on the radio, television broadcasts and local newspapers, along with social media ads. Each individual was asked about the method by which they learned of the project. We calculated the frequency in which each method was reported and a chi-square test was used to assess gender differences in the results. A total of 274 patients were enrolled in the study, 64.2% are women and 35.8% men. We found that 29.93% learned of it from third persons, 20.8% through radio, 8.76% through social media, 8.39% by newspaper, and 5.11% by television, while a remaining 27.01% had not previously heard of the recruitment call. Methods reported varied significantly between men and women (p = 0.03). Traditional media were the most common method of recruitment, with radio interviews being the most frequently reported. Individually, none of them surpassed the frequency of people learning of the project from other people (snowball effect). Social networks play an important role, exceeding certain traditional media. We have described for the first time in Latin America the use of media as methods to recruit volunteers for research, and the importance of project dissemination by the participants to reach more people.

  6. Strategies for recruiting South Asian women to cancer screening research and the lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dorothy N S; So, Winnie K W

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the recruitment strategies used in a research study of cervical cancer screening among South Asian women, the challenges encountered and the lessons learnt from the experience. Ethnic minority populations face different barriers to participating in research studies. Strategies have been developed to recruit this population to health-related research in Western countries, but there is little information about such research in the Asian region. Discussion paper. The discussion is based on our previous experience. The source of this experience is the recruitment strategies used, their results and the challenges encountered during the process. Culturally, relevant strategies and maintaining good relationships with stakeholders improved participant recruitment. Familiarity with South Asians' traditional calendar - when cultural and religious festivals are held every year - would aid the setting up of appropriate schedules for participant recruitment, either before or after the periods when they cannot be reached, such as Ramadan. South Asian women are often busy with childcare and housework. This is their major responsibility in the family and any failure to fulfil such duties is a source of stress and may foster feelings of guilt. A better understanding of their daily routines is therefore important. Such information enables the establishment of daily meeting schedules to increase the success rate of recruitment. Recruitment is a tedious process, but appropriate planning and taking account of cultural and religious practices and daily schedules will help to improve its rate of success. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Research recruitment using Facebook advertising: big potential, big challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Julie M; Peters, Colleen; Oliver, Debra Parker

    2013-03-01

    To our knowledge, ours is the first study to report on Facebook advertising as an exclusive mechanism for recruiting women ages 35-49 years residing in the USA into a health-related research study. We directed our survey to women ages 35-49 years who resided in the USA exclusively using three Facebook advertisements. Women were then redirected to our survey site. There were 20,568,960 women on Facebook that met the eligibility criteria. The three ads resulted in 899,998 impressions with a reach of 374,225 women. Of the women reached, 280 women (0.075 %) clicked the ad. Of the women who clicked the ad, nine women (3.2 %) proceeded past the introductory page. Social networking, and in particular Facebook, is an innovative venue for recruiting participants for research studies. Challenges include developing an ad to foster interest without biasing the sample, and motivating women who click the ad to complete the survey. There is still much to learn about this potential method of recruitment.

  8. Ethical issues in identifying and recruiting participants for familial genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskow, Laura M; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Daly, Mary; Juengst, Eric T; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Merz, Jon F; Pentz, Rebecca; Press, Nancy A; Ross, Lainie Friedman; Sugarman, Jeremy; Susswein, Lisa R; Terry, Sharon F; Austin, Melissa A; Burke, Wylie

    2004-11-01

    Family-based research is essential to understanding the genetic and environmental etiology of human disease. The success of family-based research often depends on investigators' ability to identify, recruit, and achieve a high participation rate among eligible family members. However, recruitment of family members raises ethical concerns due to the tension between protecting participants' privacy and promoting research quality, and guidelines for these activities are not well established. The Cancer Genetics Network Bioethics Committee assembled a multidisciplinary group to explore the scientific and ethical issues that arise in the process of family-based recruitment. The group used a literature review as well as expert opinion to develop recommendations about appropriate approaches to identifying, contacting, and recruiting family members. We conclude that there is no single correct approach, but recommend a balanced approach that takes into account the nature of the particular study as well as its recruitment goals. Recruitment of family members should be viewed as part of the research protocol and should require appropriate informed consent of the already-enrolled participant. Investigators should inform prospective participants why they are being contacted, how information about them was obtained, and what will happen to that information if they decide not to participate. The recruitment process should also be sensitive to the fact that some individuals from families at increased genetic risk will have no prior knowledge of their risk status. These recommendations are put forward to promote further discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to family-based recruitment. They suggest a framework for considering alternative recruitment strategies and their implications, as well as highlight areas in need of further empirical research. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Training Needs of Clinical and Research Professionals to Optimize Minority Recruitment and Retention in Cancer Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, Soumya J; Durant, Raegan W; Wenzel, Jennifer A; Cook, Elise D; Fouad, Mona N; Vickers, Selwyn M; Konety, Badrinath R; Rutland, Sarah B; Simoni, Zachary R; Martin, Michelle Y

    2017-08-03

    The study of disparities in minority recruitment to cancer clinical trials has focused primarily on inquiries among minority patient populations. However, clinical trial recruitment is complex and requires a broader appreciation of the multiple factors that influence minority participation. One area that has received little attention is minority recruitment training for professionals who assume various roles in the clinical trial recruitment process. Therefore, we assessed the perspectives of cancer center clinical and research personnel on their training and education needs toward minority recruitment for cancer clinical trials. Ninety-one qualitative interviews were conducted at five U.S. cancer centers among four stakeholder groups: cancer center leaders, principal investigators, referring clinicians, and research staff. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analyses focused on response data related to training for minority recruitment for cancer clinical trials. Four prominent themes were identified: (1) Research personnel are not currently being trained to focus on recruitment and retention of minority populations; (2) Training for minority recruitment and retention provides for a specific focus on factors influencing minority research participation; (3) Training on cultural awareness may help to bridge cultural gaps between potential minority participants and research professionals; (4) Views differ regarding the importance of research personnel training designed to focus on recruitment of minority populations. There is a lack of systematic training for minority recruitment. Many stakeholders acknowledged the benefits of minority recruitment training and welcomed training that focuses on increasing cultural awareness to increase the participation of minorities in cancer clinical trials.

  10. Online social networks for patient involvement and recruitment in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gemma Sinead

    2013-01-01

    To review current literature and discuss the potential of online social networking to engage patients and the public and recruit and retain participants in clinical research. Online social networking is becoming a large influence on people's daily lives. Clinical research faces several challenges, with an increasing need to engage with patients and the public and for studies to recruit and retain increasing numbers of participants, particularly in under-served, under-represented and hard to reach groups and communities. Searches were conducted using EMBASE, BNI, ERIC, CINAHL, PSYCHinfo online databases and Google Scholar to identify any grey or unpublished literature that may be available. Review methods This is a methodology paper. Online social networking is a successful, cost-effective and efficient method by which to target and recruit a wide range of communities, adolescents, young people and underserved populations into quantitative and qualitative research. Retention of participants in longitudinal studies could be improved using social networks such as Facebook. Evidence indicates that a mixed approach to recruitment using social networking and traditional methods is most effective. Further research is required to strengthen the evidence available, especially in dissemination of research through online social networks. Researchers should consider using online social networking as a method of engaging the public, and also for the recruitment and follow up of participants.

  11. Recruiting for research studies using online public advertisements examples from research in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise T

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Toby Wise,1 Danilo Arnone,1 Lindsey Marwood,1 Roland Zahn,1–3 Karen E Lythe,2,3 Allan H Young1 1Centre for Affective Disorders, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, 2Neuroscience and Aphasia Research Unit, School of Psychological Sciences, 3Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Successful recruitment is vital for any research study. Difficulties in recruitment are not uncommon and can have important implications. This is particularly relevant to research conducted in affective disorders due to the nature of the conditions and the clinical services that serve these patients. Recently, online public advertisements have become more generally accessible and may provide an effective way to recruit patient populations. However, there is paucity of evidence on their viability as a method of recruiting patients into studies of disease mechanisms in these disorders. Public advertisement methods can be useful when researchers require specific populations, such as those not receiving pharmacological treatment. This work describes our experience in successfully recruiting participants into neuroimaging research studies in affective disorders using online public advertisements. Results suggest that these online public advertisements are an effective method for successfully recruiting participants with affective disorders into research studies, particularly for research focusing on disease mechanisms in specific populations. Keywords: recruitment, affective disorders, advertising, depression, anxiety, bipolar

  12. Guide to enable health charities to increase recruitment to clinical trials on dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Larry W.; Harris, Megan; Lusk, Elizabeth; Benczkowski, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Alzheimer Society embarked on a project to improve ways that the 60 provincial and local Societies in Canada can work with local researchers to support recruitment of volunteers to clinical trials and studies. A Guide to assist these offices was produced to design ethical recruitment of research volunteers within their client populations. Methods Consultations with individuals from provincial and local Societies, as well as researchers and leaders from health-related organiza...

  13. Conducting Biobehavioral Research in Patients With Advanced Cancer: Recruitment Challenges and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson-White, Stephanie; Bohr, Nicole; Wickersham, Karen E

    2017-10-01

    Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and symptom management interventions over the last decade, patients continue to struggle with cancer-related symptoms. Adequate baseline and longitudinal data are crucial for designing interventions to improve patient quality of life and reduce symptom burden; however, recruitment of patients with advanced cancer in longitudinal research is difficult. Our purpose is to describe challenges and solutions to recruitment of patients with advanced cancer in two biobehavioral research studies examining cancer-related symptoms. Study 1: Symptom data and peripheral blood for markers of inflammation were collected from newly diagnosed patients receiving chemotherapy on the first day of therapy and every 3-4 weeks for up to 6 months. Study 2: Symptom data, blood, and skin biopsies were collected from cancer patients taking epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors at specific time points over 4 months. Screening and recruitment results for both studies are summarized. Timing informed consent with baseline data collection prior to treatment initiation was a significant recruitment challenge for both the studies. Possible solutions include tailoring recruitment to fit clinic needs, increasing research staff availability during clinic hours, and adding recruitment sites. Identifying solutions to these challenges will permit the conduct of studies that may lead to identification of factors contributing to variability in symptoms and development of tailored patient interventions for patients with advanced cancer.

  14. Facebook as a recruitment tool for adolescent health research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Krestina L; Campbell, Andrew J; Hawke, Catherine; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly using social media to recruit participants to surveys and clinical studies. However, the evidence of the efficacy and validity of adolescent recruitment through Facebook is yet to be established. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the use of Facebook to recruit adolescents for health research. Nine electronic databases and reference lists were searched for articles published between 2004 and 2013. Studies were included in the review if: 1) participants were aged ≥ 10 to ≤ 18 years, 2) studies addressed a physical or mental health issue, 3) Facebook was identified as a recruitment tool, 4) recruitment details using Facebook were outlined in the methods section and considered in the discussion, or information was obtained by contacting the authors, 5) results revealed how many participants were recruited using Facebook, and 6) studies addressed how adolescent consent and/or parental consent was obtained. Titles, abstracts, and keywords were scanned and duplicates removed by 2 reviewers. Full text was evaluated for inclusion criteria, and 2 reviewers independently extracted data. The search resulted in 587 publications, of which 25 full-text papers were analyzed. Six studies met all the criteria for inclusion in the review. Three recruitment methods using Facebook was identified: 1) paid Facebook advertising, 2) use of the Facebook search tool, and 3) creation and use of a Facebook Page. Eligible studies described the use of paid Facebook advertising and Facebook as a search tool as methods to successfully recruit adolescent participants. Online and verbal consent was obtained from participants recruited from Facebook. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. EVALUATION OF E-RECRUITMENT LEVEL AMONG THE LARGEST COMPANIES IN POLAND - PROJECT OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Buchnowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes taking place in the labor market cause that it is increasingly difficult to recruit employees with the right skills and competencies to companies. To reach the right candidates, they use modern IT solutions, such as ATS (Applicant Tracking System, which are supporting the processes of recruitment. Among others, they enable the publication of job offers on the Internet - on corporate websites, job portals and business social networking services - and apply for jobs online through these channels. This article pre-sents the evolution of the use of the Internet, and particularly the social media, in the recruitment process and presents a projekt of comprehensive research, which aims is to analyze and evaluate of the level of development of e-recruitment in Poland among largest companies.

  16. Lessons Learned Recruiting Minority Participants for Research in Urban Community Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fam, Elizabeth; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2018-02-01

    To help understand and mitigate health disparities, it is important to conduct research with underserved and underrepresented minority populations under real world settings. There is a gap in the literature detailing real-time research staff experience, particularly in their own words, while conducting in-person patient recruitment in urban community health centers. This paper describes challenges faced at the clinic, staff, and patient levels, our lessons learned, and strategies implemented by research staff while recruiting predominantly low-income African-American women for an interviewer-administered survey study in four urban Federally Qualified Health Centers in New Jersey. Using a series of immersion-crystallization cycles, fieldnotes and research reflections written by recruiters, along with notes from team meetings during the study, were qualitatively analyzed. Clinic level barriers included: physical layout of clinic, very low or high patient census, limited private space, and long wait times for patients. Staff level barriers included: unengaged staff, overburdened staff, and provider and staff turnover. Patient level barriers included: disinterested patients, patient mistrust and concerns over confidentiality, no-shows or lack of patient time, and language barrier. We describe strategies used to overcome these barriers and provide recommendations for in-person recruitment of underserved populations into research studies. To help mitigate health disparities, disseminating recruiters' experiences, challenges, and effective strategies used will allow other researchers to build upon these experience in order to increase recruitment success of underserved and underrepresented minority populations into research studies. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maintenance of Certification Part 4 Credit and recruitment for practice-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzkowski, Julie A; Klein, Jonathan D; Harris, Donna L; Kaseeska, Kristen R; Whitmore Shaefer, Regina M; Bocian, Alison B; Davis, James B; Gotlieb, Edward M; Wasserman, Richard C

    2014-10-01

    Competing priorities in pediatric practice have created challenges for practice-based research. To increase recruitment success, researchers must design studies that provide added value to participants. This study evaluates recruitment of pediatricians into a study, before and after the development and addition of a quality improvement (QI) curriculum approved for American Board of Pediatrics Maintenance of Certification (MOC) Part 4 Credit as an enrollment incentive. Researchers implemented multiple outreach methods to enroll pediatric practices over 28 months. Field note review revealed that many physicians declined enrollment, stating that they prioritized MOC Part 4 projects over research studies. A QI curriculum meeting standards for MOC Part 4 Credit was developed and added to the study protocol as an enrollment incentive. Enrollment rates and characteristics of practitioners enrolled pre- and post-MOC were compared. Pre-MOC enrollment contributed 48% of practices in 22 months; post-MOC enrollment contributed 49% of practices in 6 months. An average of 3.5 practices enrolled per month pre-MOC, compared with 13.1 per month post-MOC (P recruitment success and increased enrollment of pediatricians working in underserved areas. Including QI initiatives meeting MOC Part 4 criteria in practice-based research protocols may enhance participation and aid in recruiting diverse practice and patient populations. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Rethinking the Structure of Student Recruitment and Efforts to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Doctoral Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Griffin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available While researchers, institutional leaders, and policymakers have made significant progress towards increasing undergraduate student diversity in the United States, diversity in graduate education has been less often studied and a more challenging goal on which to make progress. This qualitative study explores the roles and work of graduate diversity officers (GDOs in student recruitment activities with a focus on how race and issues of diversity manifest and influence this process. Interviews with fourteen GDOs at 11 different research universities in the United States highlight the phases in the graduate recruitment process, the manner in which diversity is considered at each stage, and GDOs’ perceptions of their ability to shape this process. Findings suggest that GDOs are important institutional agents in diversification efforts; however, faculty engagement and broad institutional commitment are required to increase diversity in graduate education due to GDOs’ often limited involvement in the admissions stage of the recruitment process, where race becomes the most salient in decision making.

  19. Recruitment bias in chronic pain research: whiplash as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Jo; Inghelbrecht, Els; Daenen, Liesbeth; Hachimi-Idrissi, Said; Hens, Luc; Willems, Bert; Roussel, Nathalie; Cras, Patrick; Wouters, Kristien; Bernheim, Jan

    2011-11-01

    In science findings which cannot be extrapolated to other settings are of little value. Recruitment methods vary widely across chronic whiplash studies, but it remains unclear whether this generates recruitment bias. The present study aimed to examine whether the recruitment method accounts for differences in health status, social support, and personality traits in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Two different recruitment methods were compared: recruiting patients through a local whiplash patient support group (group 1) and local hospital emergency department (group 2). The participants (n=118) filled in a set of questionnaires: the Neck Disability Index, Medical Outcome Study Short-Form General Health Survey, Anamnestic Comparative Self-Assessment measure of overall well-being, Symptom Checklist-90, Dutch Personality Questionnaire, and the Social Support List. The recruitment method (either through the local emergency department or patient support group) accounted for the differences in insufficiency, somatization, disability, quality of life, self-satisfaction, and dominance (all p values recruitment methods generated chronic WAD patients comparable for psychoneurotism, social support, self-sufficiency, (social) inadequacy, rigidity, and resentment (p>.01). The recruitment of chronic WAD patients solely through patient support groups generates bias with respect to the various aspects of health status and personality, but not social support. In order to enhance the external validity of study findings, chronic WAD studies should combine a variety of recruitment procedures.

  20. Research recruitment: A marketing framework to improve sample representativeness in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howcutt, Sarah J; Barnett, Anna L; Barbosa-Boucas, Sofia; Smith, Lesley A

    2018-04-01

    This discussion paper proposes a five-part theoretical framework to inform recruitment strategies. The framework is based on a marketing model of consumer decision-making. Respondents in surveys are typically healthier than non-respondents, which has an impact on the availability of information about those most in need. Previous research has identified response patterns, provided theories about why people participate in research and evaluated different recruitment strategies. Social marketing has been applied successfully to recruitment and promotes focus on the needs of the participant, but little attention has been paid to the periods before and after participant-researcher contact (during advertising and following completion of studies). We propose a new model which conceptualises participation as a decision involving motivation, perception of information, attitude formation, integration of intention and action and finally evaluation and sharing of experience. Discussion paper. This discussion paper presents a critical review. No literature was excluded on date and the included citations span the years 1981-2017. The proposed framework suggests that researchers could engage a broader demographic if they shape research design and advertising to perform functions that participants are seeking to achieve. The framework provides a novel and useful conceptualisation of recruitment which could help to inform public engagement in research design, researcher training and research policy. This framework challenges researchers to investigate the goals of the potential participants when designing a study's advertising and procedures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Participant Outcomes from Methods of Recruitment for Videogame Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Courtney; Dadabhoy, Hafza; Baranowski, Tom

    2018-02-01

    The most productive methods of recruitment for a videogame for health (G4H) trial are not known. Success or failure of recruitment methods has been reported for a variety of clinical trials, but few specifically for G4H trials. This study's goal was to recruit 444 overweight or obese (body mass index percentile between the 84.5th-99.4th percentiles) children between the ages of 10-12 years. The article reports the results of different methods of participant recruitment. Participants had to agree to three fasting blood samples (baseline, immediately after, and 2 months later); be willing to wear an accelerometer for 7 days at each assessment; read and speak English fluently (because the games were in English); have no history of any condition that would affect what he/she could eat or how much physical activity he/she could get; and have an eligible home computer purchased in the last 5 years with high-speed internet. Hardware criteria reflected the types of computers upon which Diab-Nano could be effectively played. Recruitment was conducted over a 35-month period and included electronic media, print advertising, community recruitment, and an internal volunteer list. Respondents were guided to a web-based screening questionnaire that asked for source of hearing about the study. Although diverse recruitment methods were used, slow recruitment resulted in obtaining only 45% of the recruitment goal (n = 199). Electronic media (e.g., radio, television, and internet), which reached millions of targeted parents, resulted in only 76 respondents, of whom 13 became participants; print media (e.g., magazine, newsletter/newspaper, and mail), which also reached large numbers of parents, resulted in 192 respondents, of whom 19 became participants; community recruitment (e.g., school, friend or family, doctors office, flyer, work, community program) resulted in 162 respondents, of whom 38 became participants; and the internal volunteer list resulted in 413 respondents, of

  2. "Ouch!" Recruitment of Overweight and Obese Adolescent Boys for Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Zachary; Gregory, David; Thibodeau, Steven; Copeland, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the complexities of recruiting overweight and obese adolescent boys for qualitative research, discuss specific recruitment considerations for this population, and offer guidance to researchers interested in recruiting overweight adolescent boys. Three overweight adolescent boys and six community…

  3. Recruitment methods for survey research: Findings from the Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, William J; Jackson, Natalie; Roumie, Christianne L; Harris, Paul A; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Pulley, Jill; Wilkins, Consuelo H; Williams, Neely A; Crenshaw, David; Leak, Cardella; Scherdin, Jon; Muñoz, Daniel; Bachmann, Justin; Rothman, Russell L; Kripalani, Sunil

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to report survey response rates and demographic characteristics of eight recruitment approaches to determine acceptability and effectiveness of large-scale patient recruitment among various populations. We conducted a cross sectional analysis of survey data from two large cohorts. Patients were recruited from the Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network using clinic-based recruitment, research registries, and mail, phone, and email approaches. Response rates are reported as patients who consented for the survey divided by the number of eligible patients approached. We contacted more than 90,000 patients and 13,197 patients completed surveys. Median age was 56.3years (IQR 40.9, 67.4). Racial/ethnic distribution was 84.1% White, non-Hispanic; 9.9% Black, non-Hispanic; 1.8% Hispanic; and 4.0% other, non-Hispanic. Face-to-face recruitment had the highest response rate of 94.3%, followed by participants who "opted-in" to a registry (76%). The lowest response rate was for unsolicited emails from the clinic (6.1%). Face-to-face recruitment enrolled a higher percentage of participants who self-identified as Black, non-Hispanic compared to other approaches (18.6% face-to-face vs. 8.4% for email). Technology-enabled recruitment approaches such as registries and emails are effective for recruiting but may yield less racial/ethnic diversity compared to traditional, more time-intensive approaches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Using social media for health research: Methodological and ethical considerations for recruitment and intervention delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Pagoto, Sherry; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Lillie, Sarah E; Nebeker, Camille

    2018-01-01

    As the popularity and diversity of social media platforms increases so does their utility for health research. Using social media for recruitment into clinical studies and/or delivering health behavior interventions may increase reach to a broader audience. However, evidence supporting the efficacy of these approaches is limited, and key questions remain with respect to optimal benchmarks, intervention development and methodology, participant engagement, informed consent, privacy, and data management. Little methodological guidance is available to researchers interested in using social media for health research. In this Tutorial, we summarize the content of the 2017 Society for Behavioral Medicine Pre-Conference Course entitled 'Using Social Media for Research,' at which the authors presented their experiences with methodological and ethical issues relating to social media-enabled research recruitment and intervention delivery. We identify common pitfalls and provide recommendations for recruitment and intervention via social media. We also discuss the ethical and responsible conduct of research using social media for each of these purposes.

  5. RAND Research Brief: Military Recruiting: Trends, Outlook, and Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...., those who score well on written aptitude exams and have high school diplomas). Recruiting resources had been cut after the Gulf War, and reports circulated that youth had less interest in joining the military...

  6. Can I get a retweet please? Health research recruitment and the Twittersphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anita; Jackson, Leigh; Goldsmith, Lesley; Skirton, Heather

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the social networking site Twitter™ as a vehicle for recruitment in online health research and to examine how the Twitter community would share information: the focus of our study was the antenatal experience of mothers of advanced maternal age. One result of growth in worldwide Internet and mobile phone usage is the increased ability to source health information online and to use social media sites including Facebook and Twitter. Although social media have been used in previous health research, there is a lack of literature on the use of Twitter in health research. A cross-sectional survey. We report a novel recruitment method via a social networking site between May and August 2012. Through a Twitter account, we tweeted and requested other Twitter users to retweet our invitation to be involved in the study. Tweets contained a unique URL directing participants to an online survey hosted on the Survey Monkey™ website. Over 11 weeks, 749 original tweets were posted by the researcher. A total of 529 mothers accessed the survey as a result of 359 researcher tweets and subsequent retweets that were seen by Twitter users. The survey was fully completed by 299 (56·5%) participants. Twitter is a cost-effective means of recruitment, enabling engagement with potentially difficult-to-reach populations, providing participants with transparency, anonymity and a more accessible method by which to participate in health research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Using Mechanical Turk to recruit participants for internet intervention research: experience from recruitment for four trials targeting hazardous alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John A; Godinho, Alexandra; Kushnir, Vladyslav

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is an online portal operated by Amazon where 'requesters' (individuals or businesses) can submit jobs for 'workers.' MTurk is used extensively by academics as a quick and cheap means of collecting questionnaire data, including information on alcohol consumption, from a diverse sample of participants. We tested the feasibility of recruiting for alcohol Internet intervention trials through MTurk. Participants, 18 years or older, who drank at least weekly were recruited for four intervention trials (combined sample size, N = 11,107). The same basic recruitment strategy was employed for each trial - invite participants to complete a survey about alcohol consumption (less than 15 min in length, US$1.50 payment), identify eligible participants who drank in a hazardous fashion, invite those eligible to complete a follow-up survey ($10 payment), randomize participants to be sent or not sent information to access an online intervention for hazardous alcohol use. Procedures where put in place to optimize the chances that participants could only complete the baseline survey once. There was a substantially slower rate of recruitment by the fourth trial compared to the earlier trials. Demographic characteristics also varied across trials (age, sex, employment and marital status). Patterns of alcohol consumption, while displaying some differences, did not appear to vary in a linear fashion between trials. It is possible to recruit large (but not inexhaustible) numbers of people who drink in a hazardous fashion. Issues for online intervention research when employing this sample are discussed.

  8. Recruitment of Individuals With Dementia and Their Carers for Social Research: Lessons Learned From Nine Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Elizabeth; Fielding, Elaine; O'Reilly, Maria; Brooks, Deborah; MacAndrew, Margaret; McCrow, Judy

    2018-05-01

    Many health and social care research studies report difficulties recruiting sufficient numbers of participants, adding to time and money expenditures and potentially jeopardizing the generalizability of findings. The current article reports the effectiveness and resource requirements of recruitment strategies used in nine dementia-related studies conducted in Australia. Articles, notices, or advertisements in targeted specialist newsletters were the most cost-effective method of recruitment. The use of service providers to aid recruitment yielded mixed results, but was lengthy in terms of research time. Online and social media were low cost but not reliably effective in terms of recruitment potential. Despite using multiple strategies to maximize recruitment, significant challenges were encountered achieving the required sample sizes; in most cases these challenges resulted in delays in the recruitment phase. Implications for researchers in the fields of dementia and general social/health research are discussed. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2018; 11(3):119-128.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Recruiting for health, medical or psychosocial research using Facebook: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Thornton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting participants is a challenge for many health, medical and psychosocial research projects. One tool more frequently being used to improve recruitment is the social networking website Facebook. A systematic review was conducted to identify studies that have used Facebook to recruit participants of all ages, to any psychosocial, health or medical research. 110 unique studies that used Facebook as a recruitment source were included in the review. The majority of studies used a cross-sectional design (80% and addressed a physical health or disease issue (57%. Half (49% of the included studies reported specific details of the Facebook recruitment process. Researchers paid between $1.36 and $110 per completing participants (Mean = $17.48, SD = $23.06. Among studies that examined the representativeness of their sample, the majority concluded (86% their Facebook-recruited samples were similarly representative of samples recruited via traditional methods. These results indicate that Facebook is an effective and cost-efficient recruitment method. Researchers should consider their target group, advertisement wording, offering incentives and no-cost methods of recruitment when considering Facebook as a recruitment source. It is hoped this review will assist researchers to make decisions regarding the use of Facebook as a recruitment tool in future research.

  10. Using Facebook for Health-related Research Study Recruitment and Program Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Kurz, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Facebook has become an important tool for recruiting research participants and for program delivery. Given the wide use of Facebook, there is much potential for the site to help with recruitment efforts in both physical and behavioral health care arenas; reaching groups typically difficult to recruit and providing outreach to individuals that may not have received services elsewhere. Health studies using Facebook have generally reported success, including cost-effectiveness, recruitment of sa...

  11. Strategies to enhance participant recruitment and retention in research involving a community-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Sanon, Marie-Anne; Cohen, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Challenges associated with recruiting and retaining community-based populations in research studies have been recognized yet remain of major concern for researchers. There is a need for exchange of recruitment and retention techniques that inform recruitment and retention strategies. Here, the authors discuss a variety of methods that were successful in exceeding target recruitment and retention goals in a randomized clinical trial of hearing protector use among farm operators. Recruitment and retention strategies were 1) based on a philosophy of mutually beneficial engagement in the research process, 2) culturally appropriate, 3) tailored to the unique needs of partnering agencies, and 4) developed and refined in a cyclical and iterative process. Sponsoring organizations are interested in cost-effective recruitment and retention strategies, particularly relating to culturally and ethnically diverse groups. These approaches may result in enhanced subject recruitment and retention, concomitant containment of study costs, and timely accomplishment of study aims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased Task Demand during Spatial Memory Testing Recruits the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joshua K.; Fournier, Neil M.; Lehmann, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether increasing retrieval difficulty in a spatial memory task would promote the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) similar to what is typically observed during remote memory retrieval. Rats were trained on the hidden platform version of the Morris Water Task and tested three or 30 d later. Retrieval difficulty was…

  13. GLP-1 increases microvascular recruitment but not glucose uptake in human and rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Holst, Jens Juul; Rattigan, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The insulinotropic gut hormone, glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been proposed to have effects on vascular function and glucose disposal. However, whether GLP-1 is able to increase microvascular recruitment (MVR) in humans has not been investigated. GLP-1 was infused in the femoral artery...... in overnight fasted healthy young men. Microvascular recruitment was measured with real time contrast-enhanced ultrasound and leg glucose uptake by the leg balance technique with and without inhibition of the insulinotropic response of GLP-1 by co-infusion of octreotide. As a positive control, MVR and leg...

  14. Optimizing donor scheduling before recruitment: An effective approach to increasing apheresis platelet collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhandwala, Parvez M; Shike, Hiroko; Wang, Ming; Domen, Ronald E; George, Melissa R

    2018-01-01

    Typical approach for increasing apheresis platelet collections is to recruit new donors. Here, we investigated the effectiveness of an alternative strategy: optimizing donor scheduling, prior to recruitment, at a hospital-based blood donor center. Analysis of collections, during the 89 consecutive months since opening of donor center, was performed. Linear regression and segmented time-series analyses were performed to calculate growth rates of collections and to test for statistical differences, respectively. Pre-intervention donor scheduling capacity was 39/month. In the absence of active donor recruitment, during the first 29 months, the number of collections rose gradually to 24/month (growth-rate of 0.70/month). However, between month-30 and -55, collections exhibited a plateau at 25.6 ± 3.0 (growth-rate of -0.09/month) (pcollection days/week (month-72). Consequently, the scheduling capacity increased to 130/month. Post-interventions, apheresis platelet collections between month-56 and -81 exhibited a spontaneous renewed growth at a rate of 0.62/month (pcollections. Apheresis platelet collections plateau at nearly 2/3rd of the scheduling capacity. Optimizing the scheduling capacity prior to active donor recruitment is an effective strategy to increase platelet collections at a hospital-based donor center.

  15. Recruiting Adolescent Research Participants: In-Person Compared to Social Media Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Waite, Alan; Pumper, Megan; Colburn, Trina; Holm, Matt; Mendoza, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Recruiting adolescent participants for research is challenging. The purpose of this study was to compare traditional in-person recruitment methods to social media recruitment. We recruited adolescents aged 14-18 years for a pilot physical activity intervention study, including a wearable physical activity tracking device and a Facebook group. Participants were recruited (a) in person from a local high school and an adolescent medicine clinic and (b) through social media, including Facebook targeted ads, sponsored tweets on Twitter, and a blog post. Data collected included total exposure (i.e., reach), engagement (i.e., interaction), and effectiveness. Effectiveness included screening and enrollment for each recruitment method, as well as time and resources spent on each recruitment method. In-person recruitment reached a total of 297 potential participants of which 37 enrolled in the study. Social media recruitment reached a total of 34,272 potential participants of which 8 enrolled in the study. Social media recruitment methods utilized an average of 1.6 hours of staff time and cost an average of $40.99 per participant enrolled, while in-person recruitment methods utilized an average of 0.75 hours of staff time and cost an average of $19.09 per participant enrolled. Social media recruitment reached more potential participants, but the cost per participant enrolled was higher compared to traditional methods. Studies need to consider benefits and downsides of traditional and social media recruitment methods based on study goals and population.

  16. Design, development and deployment of a Diabetes Research Registry to facilitate recruitment in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Meng H; Bernstein, Steven J; Gendler, Stephen; Hanauer, David; Herman, William H

    2016-03-01

    A major challenge in conducting clinical trials/studies is the timely recruitment of eligible subjects. Our aim is to develop a Diabetes Research Registry (DRR) to facilitate recruitment by matching potential subjects interested in research with approved clinical studies using study entry criteria abstracted from their electronic health records (EHR). A committee with expertise in diabetes, quality improvement, information technology, and informatics designed and developed the DRR. Using a hybrid approach, we identified and consented patients interested in research, abstracted their EHRs to assess common eligibility criteria, and contacted them about their interest in participating in specific studies. Investigators submit their requests with study entry criteria to the DRR which then provides a list of potential subjects who may be directly contacted for their study. The DRR meets all local, regional and federal regulatory requirements. After 5 years, the DRR has over 5000 registrants. About 30% have type 1 diabetes and 70% have type 2 diabetes. There are almost equal proportions of men and women. During this period, 31 unique clinical studies from 19 unique investigators requested lists of potential subjects for their studies. Eleven grant applications from 10 unique investigators used aggregated counts of potentially eligible subjects in their applications. The DRR matches potential subjects interested in research with approved clinical studies using study entry criteria abstracted from their EHR. By providing large lists of potentially eligible study subjects quickly, the DRR facilitated recruitment in 31 clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Using Mechanical Turk to recruit participants for internet intervention research: experience from recruitment for four trials targeting hazardous alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Cunningham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical Turk (MTurk is an online portal operated by Amazon where ‘requesters’ (individuals or businesses can submit jobs for ‘workers.’ MTurk is used extensively by academics as a quick and cheap means of collecting questionnaire data, including information on alcohol consumption, from a diverse sample of participants. We tested the feasibility of recruiting for alcohol Internet intervention trials through MTurk. Methods Participants, 18 years or older, who drank at least weekly were recruited for four intervention trials (combined sample size, N = 11,107. The same basic recruitment strategy was employed for each trial – invite participants to complete a survey about alcohol consumption (less than 15 min in length, US$1.50 payment, identify eligible participants who drank in a hazardous fashion, invite those eligible to complete a follow-up survey ($10 payment, randomize participants to be sent or not sent information to access an online intervention for hazardous alcohol use. Procedures where put in place to optimize the chances that participants could only complete the baseline survey once. Results There was a substantially slower rate of recruitment by the fourth trial compared to the earlier trials. Demographic characteristics also varied across trials (age, sex, employment and marital status. Patterns of alcohol consumption, while displaying some differences, did not appear to vary in a linear fashion between trials. Conclusions It is possible to recruit large (but not inexhaustible numbers of people who drink in a hazardous fashion. Issues for online intervention research when employing this sample are discussed.

  18. A data-rich recruitment core to support translational clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Rhonda G; Corregano, Lauren M; Rainer, Tyler-Lauren; Melendez, Caroline; Coller, Barry S

    2015-04-01

    Underenrollment of clinical studies wastes resources and delays assessment of research discoveries. We describe the organization and impact of a centralized recruitment core delivering comprehensive recruitment support to investigators. The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science supports a centralized recruitment core, call center, Research Volunteer Repository, data infrastructure, and staff who provide expert recruitment services to investigators. During protocol development, consultations aim to optimize enrollment feasibility, develop recruitment strategy, budget, and advertising. Services during study conduct include advertising placement, repository queries, call management, prescreening, referral, and visit scheduling. Utilization and recruitment outcomes are tracked using dedicated software. For protocols receiving recruitment services during 2009-2013: median time from initiation of recruitment to the first enrolled participant was 10 days; of 4,047 first-time callers to the call center, 92% (n = 3,722) enrolled in the Research Volunteer Repository, with 99% retention; 23% of Repository enrollees subsequently enrolled in ≥1 research studies, with 89% retention. Of volunteers referred by repository queries, 49% (280/537) enrolled into the study, with 92% retained. Provision of robust recruitment infrastructure including expertise, a volunteer repository, data capture and real-time analysis accelerates protocol accrual. Application of recruitment science improves the quality of clinical investigation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A Data‐Rich Recruitment Core to Support Translational Clinical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corregano, Lauren M.; Rainer, Tyler‐Lauren; Melendez, Caroline; Coller, Barry S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Underenrollment of clinical studies wastes resources and delays assessment of research discoveries. We describe the organization and impact of a centralized recruitment core delivering comprehensive recruitment support to investigators. Methods The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science supports a centralized recruitment core, call center, Research Volunteer Repository, data infrastructure, and staff who provide expert recruitment services to investigators. During protocol development, consultations aim to optimize enrollment feasibility, develop recruitment strategy, budget, and advertising. Services during study conduct include advertising placement, repository queries, call management, prescreening, referral, and visit scheduling. Utilization and recruitment outcomes are tracked using dedicated software. Results For protocols receiving recruitment services during 2009–2013: median time from initiation of recruitment to the first enrolled participant was 10 days; of 4,047 first‐time callers to the call center, 92% (n = 3,722) enrolled in the Research Volunteer Repository, with 99% retention; 23% of Repository enrollees subsequently enrolled in ≥1 research studies, with 89% retention. Of volunteers referred by repository queries, 49% (280/537) enrolled into the study, with 92% retained. Conclusions Provision of robust recruitment infrastructure including expertise, a volunteer repository, data capture and real‐time analysis accelerates protocol accrual. Application of recruitment science improves the quality of clinical investigation. PMID:25381717

  20. Cost-effectiveness of health research study participant recruitment strategies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Lynn; Johns, Benjamin; Liu, Su-Hsun; Vedula, S Swaroop; Li, Tianjing; Puhan, Milo A

    2014-10-01

    A large fraction of the cost of conducting clinical trials is allocated to recruitment of participants. A synthesis of findings from studies that evaluate the cost and effectiveness of different recruitment strategies will inform investigators in designing cost-efficient clinical trials. To systematically identify, assess, and synthesize evidence from published comparisons of the cost and yield of strategies for recruitment of participants to health research studies. We included randomized studies in which two or more strategies for recruitment of participants had been compared. We focused our economic evaluation on studies that randomized participants to different recruitment strategies. We identified 10 randomized studies that compared recruitment strategies, including monetary incentives (cash or prize), direct contact (letters or telephone call), and medical referral strategies. Only two of the 10 studies compared strategies for recruiting participants to clinical trials. We found that allocating additional resources to recruit participants using monetary incentives or direct contact yielded between 4% and 23% additional participants compared to using neither strategy. For medical referral, recruitment of prostate cancer patients by nurses was cost-saving compared to recruitment by consultant urologists. For all underlying study designs, monetary incentives cost more than direct contact with potential participants, with a median incremental cost per recruitment ratio of Int$72 (Int$-International dollar, a theoretical unit of currency) for monetary incentive strategy compared to Int$28 for direct contact strategy. Only monetary incentives and source of referral were evaluated for recruiting participants into clinical trials. We did not review studies that presented non-monetary cost or lost opportunity cost. We did not adjust for the number of study recruitment sites or the study duration in our economic evaluation analysis. Systematic and explicit reporting of

  1. Recruiting African Americans into Research on Cognitive Aging

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, Graham J.; Holston, Ezra C.; Wilke, Pat

    2001-01-01

    A total of 218 adults with an average age of seventy-eight years participated in a study of memory performance in community elders. A computer-generated random zip code list of adults ≥70 years of age was purchased and a four-phase telephone-screening plan was adopted. During the second year, the sampling plan had to be changed, with a convenience-sampling plan being adopted to recruit adequate numbers of African-American subjects. Fifty-seven percent of the African-American subjects (N = 55)...

  2. Recruitment and retention of young women into nutrition research studies: practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Alecia; Hutchesson, Melinda; Patterson, Amanda; Chalmers, Kerry; Collins, Clare

    2014-01-16

    Successful recruitment and retention of participants into research studies is critical for optimising internal and external validity. Research into diet and lifestyle of young women is important due to the physiological transitions experienced at this life stage. This paper aims to evaluate data related to recruitment and retention across three research studies with young women, and present practical advice related to recruiting and retaining young women in order to optimise study quality within nutrition research. Recruitment and retention strategies used in three nutrition studies that targeted young women (18 to 35 years) were critiqued. A randomised controlled trial (RCT), a crossover validation study and a cross-sectional survey were conducted at the University of Newcastle, Australia between 2010 and 2013Successful recruitment was defined as maximum recruitment relative to time. Retention was assessed as maximum participants remaining enrolled at study completion. Recruitment approaches included notice boards, web and social network sites (Facebook and Twitter), with social media most successful in recruitment. The online survey had the highest recruitment in the shortest time-frame (751 participants in one month). Email, phone and text message were used in study one (RCT) and study two (crossover validation) and assisted in low attrition rates, with 93% and 75.7% completing the RCT and crossover validation study respectively. Of those who did not complete the RCT, reported reasons were: being too busy; and having an unrelated illness. Recruiting young women into nutrition research is challenging. Use of social media enhances recruitment, while Email, phone and text message contact improves retention within interventions. Further research comparing strategies to optimise recruitment and retention in young women, including flexible testing times, reminders and incentives is warranted.

  3. Facebook as an effective recruitment strategy for mental health research of hard to reach populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Kayrouz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports indicate that Facebook (FB may facilitate recruitment of hard to reach participants into mental health research. The present study aimed to contribute to this emerging literature by exploring recruitment data from a recently completed trial of online treatment for symptoms of anxiety and depression that targeted Arab people. The present study compared traditional recruitment strategies such as media releases, emails, and print advertisements with Facebook strategies including boosting posts, promoting websites, events and FB public fan pages. The main outcomes of interest were the number of started applications and the time and cost per application associated with the FB and traditional recruitment strategies. A target sample of 350 was sought and a total of 81 participants applied to participate over the 42-week recruitment period. Overall, 86% of the resultant applications occurred via FB recruitment and a Poisson regression analysis indicated the FB strategies were more time-effective, recruiting participants 2.5 times faster than the traditional strategies. However, there were no differences in cost-effectiveness for FB ($US37 per participant and traditional strategies ($US40 per participant. The findings of the current study add to existing literature detailing the value of FB recruitment strategies, alongside more traditional strategies, as a way of recruiting hard-to-reach populations for research. However, more research is needed to explore alternative and optimal strategies for the successful recruitment of hard to reach populations via FB and other online social media platforms.

  4. Recruiting and retaining youth and young adults: challenges and opportunities in survey research for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Hair, Elizabeth C; Smith, Alexandria; Bennett, Morgane; Rath, Jessica Miller; Thomas, Randall K; Fahimi, Mansour; Dennis, J Michael; Vallone, Donna

    2018-03-01

    Evaluation studies of population-based tobacco control interventions often rely on large-scale survey data from numerous respondents across many geographic areas to provide evidence of their effectiveness. Significant challenges for survey research have emerged with the evolving communications landscape, particularly for surveying hard-to-reach populations such as youth and young adults. This study combines the comprehensive coverage of an address-based sampling (ABS) frame with the timeliness of online data collection to develop a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of young people aged 15-21. We constructed an ABS frame, partially supplemented with auxiliary data, to recruit this hard-to-reach sample. Branded and tested mail-based recruitment materials were designed to bring respondents online for screening, consent and surveying. Once enrolled, respondents completed online surveys every 6 months via computer, tablet or smartphone. Numerous strategies were utilized to enhance retention and representativeness RESULTS: Results detail sample performance, representativeness and retention rates as well as device utilization trends for survey completion among youth and young adult respondents. Panel development efforts resulted in a large, nationally representative sample with high retention rates. This study is among the first to employ this hybrid ABS-to-online methodology to recruit and retain youth and young adults in a probability-based online cohort panel. The approach is particularly valuable for conducting research among younger populations as it capitalizes on their increasing access to and comfort with digital communication. We discuss challenges and opportunities of panel recruitment and retention methods in an effort to provide valuable information for tobacco control researchers seeking to obtain representative, population-based samples of youth and young adults in the U.S. as well as across the globe. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  5. Comparison of internet and mailing methods to recruit couples into research on unaided smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Jaye L; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K; Hanny, Courtney; Britton, Maggie; Haddad, Sana

    2017-12-01

    In smoking cessation studies with restrictive criteria (e.g., single-smoker couples), thousands of potential participants might need to be screened to obtain a reasonable sample size. Consideration of recruitment methodology is critical because recruitment methods influence both the success and cost effectiveness of recruitment. Although traditional recruitment methods are often used to recruit participants into smoking cessation research, newer technologies, such as paid Facebook advertising, might offer more cost-effective alternatives for recruitment. The current analysis compares two versions of paid Facebook advertising and a specialized mass mailing method used to recruit single-smoker couples into an intensive three-week study of unaided smoking cessation. The three methods are compared in terms of demographic characteristics, eligibility, and cost-effectiveness. Although Facebook's "Promote Your Page" mechanism achieved the fastest recruitment rate (2.75 couples per month; 498 USD per couple), Facebook's "Send People to Your Website" mechanism was the least expensive and provided the most demographically diverse sample (1.64 couples per month; 181 USD per couple). The specialized mailing method was not productive or cost-effective (0.80 couples per month; 454 USD per couple). Paid Facebook advertising fared better as a recruitment method than a specialized mailing method often used in survey research. Studies that have less restrictive eligibility criteria, that draw from a larger local population, or that recruit for a less intense study might find paid Facebook advertising to be quite feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recruitment of oncology nurses for Internet research: issues and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik; Lim, Hyun Ju; Bender, Melinda; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Yang, Soon-Ok; Lee, Hungsa

    2006-11-03

    To provide future directions for Internet research based on issues raised during the recruitment process of an Internet survey of oncology nurses. Throughout the research process, the research staff recorded issues as they arose and wrote memos regarding recruitment issues and possible reasons for the issues. Weekly group discussions were conducted, and written records of the discussions were kept. The written memos and records were reviewed, and the content was analyzed. The recruitment issues included flexibility required, mutual trust, changing Internet dynamics, and potential selection bias. As the issues indicated, recruiting nurses for the study only through the Internet did not work well. For future Internet research, the authors suggest using multiple Internet and real settings for recruitment, a variety of strategies, the quota sampling method, and creative motivation strategies.

  7. Recruitment of single human low-threshold motor units with increasing loads at different muscle lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, P A; Cresswell, A G

    2004-06-01

    We investigated the recruitment behaviour of low threshold motor units in flexor digitorum superficialis by altering two biomechanical constraints: the load against which the muscle worked and the initial muscle length. The load was increased using isotonic (low load), loaded dynamic (intermediate load) and isometric (high load) contractions in two studies. The initial muscle position reflected resting muscle length in series A, and a longer length with digit III fully extended in series B. Intramuscular EMG was recorded from 48 single motor units in 10 experiments on five healthy subjects, 21 units in series A and 27 in series B, while subjects performed ramp up, hold and ramp down contractions. Increasing the load on the muscle decreased the force, displacement and firing rate of single motor units at recruitment at shorter muscle lengths (Precruitment pattern was observed between loaded dynamic and isotonic contractions, but not between isometric and loaded dynamic contractions. Thus, the recruitment properties of single motor units in human flexor digitorum superficialis are sensitive to changes in both imposed external loads and the initial length of the muscle.

  8. Recruitment of Refugees for Health Research: A Qualitative Study to Add Refugees' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Patricia; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Berry, Nicole

    2017-01-29

    Research is needed to understand refugees' health challenges and barriers to accessing health services during settlement. However, there are practical and ethical challenges for engaging refugees as participants. Despite this, there have been no studies to date specifically investigating refugee perspectives on factors affecting engagement in health research. Language-concordant focus groups in British Columbia, Canada, with four government-assisted refugee language groups (Farsi/Dari, Somali, Karen, Arabic) inquired about willingness to participate in health research. Twenty-three variables associated with the willingness of refugees to participate in health research were elicited. Variables related to research design included recruitment strategies, characteristics of the research team members and the nature of the research. Variables related to individual participants included demographic features such as gender and education, attitudes towards research and previous experience with research. This research can be used to increase opportunities for refugees' engagement in research and includes recommendations for subgroups of refugees that may have more difficulties engaging in research.

  9. Using information technology and social networking for recruitment of research participants: experience from an exploratory study of pediatric Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Sharron; Smaldone, Arlene; Fennoy, Ilene; Reame, Nancy; Grey, Margaret

    2013-03-19

    (23%) from a Web-based research recruitment program, and 16 (37%) from the university-affiliated recruitment website. For the initial 6 months, the university website was viewed approximately 2 to 3 times per day on average. An advertisement placed on a social networking site for 1 week increased website viewing to approximately 63 visits per day. Out of 112 families approached using all of these methods, 43 (38%) agreed to participate. Families who declined cited either travel distance to the study site (15, 22%) or unwillingness to disclose the Klinefelter syndrome diagnosis to their sons (54, 78%) as the reasons for nonparticipation. Use of Web-based technologies enhances the recruitment of difficult-to-reach populations. Of the many approaches employed in this study, the university-affiliated recruitment website supported by a Facebook advertisement appeared to be the most successful. Research grant budgets should include expenses for website registration and maintenance fees as well as online advertisements on social networking websites. Tracking of recruitment referral sources may be helpful in planning future recruitment campaigns.

  10. Barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asians to health research: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Leora; Janssen, Patricia A; Lamers, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Objectives People of South Asian ethnicity are under-represented in health research studies. The objectives of this scoping review were to examine the barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asians to health research studies and to describe strategies for improving recruitment. Design Scoping review Methods Using the Arksey and O’Malley framework for scoping reviews, we comprehensively searched electronic databases (MEDLINE via PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO). Studies that identified barriers and facilitators to recruitment, or recruitment strategies for South Asian populations were included. Recruitment barriers, facilitators and strategies were grouped thematically and summarised narratively. Synthesis Of 1846 potentially relevant articles, 15 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. Multiple facilitators and barriers to enrolment of South Asians in health research studies were identified; these most commonly related to logistical challenges, language and cultural barriers, concerns about adverse consequences of participating and mistrust of research. Several actionable strategies were discussed, the most common being engagement of South Asian communities, demonstration of cultural competency, provision of incentives and benefits, language sensitivity through the use of translators and translated materials and the development of trust and personal relationships. Conclusion There is a growing awareness of the barriers and facilitators to recruitment of South Asian participants to health research studies. Knowledge of effective recruitment strategies and implementation during the grant funding stages may reduce the risk of poor recruitment and representation of South Asians. PMID:28576896

  11. Research on U.S. Military Women: Recruitment and Retention Challenges and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lisa A; Kennedy, Holly P; Sadler, Lois S; Dixon, Jane

    2015-12-01

    To examine literature on recruitment and retention of military women in research studies as an underrepresented, and potentially marginalized, population. A literature search was conducted to examine challenges, identify potential barriers and facilitators, and to inform strategies for recruitment and retention of military women in research studies. This search was supplemented by findings in military-specific databases and discussions with Military Women's Health Research Interest Group subject matter experts. Ten articles addressed research recruitment and retention challenges and strategies in marginalized/underrepresented populations, providing an effective context to inform research recruitment and retention in military settings. Research with military women is often challenged by logistical, cultural, social, ethical, and methodological issues, which may hinder exploration of potentially sensitive issues. Researchers must consider military-specific challenges to conducting research that include lengthy deployments, unpredictable military exercises, and foreign assignments, in accessing research participants. A case example shows strategies used in a military cervical cancer screening study. There are few published articles specific to research recruitment and retention in female military populations. Available resources broadly address recruitment challenges for Veterans, marginalized, hard-to-access, and transient research participants, which may provide guidance and strategies for success when applied to military populations. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. Increased cross-bridge recruitment contributes to transient increase in force generation beyond maximal capacity in human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Chung, Jae-Hoon; Canan, Benjamin D; Fedorov, Vadim V; Whitson, Bryan A; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L

    2018-01-01

    Cross-bridge attachment allows force generation to occur, and rate of tension redevelopment (k tr ) is a commonly used index of cross-bridge cycling rate. Tension overshoots have been observed briefly after a slack-restretch k tr maneuver in various species of animal models and humans. In this study, we set out to determine the properties of these overshoots and their possible underlying mechanism. Utilizing human cardiac trabeculae, we have found that tension overshoots are temperature-dependent and that they do not occur at resting states. In addition, we have found that myosin cross-bridge cycle is vital to these overshoots as inhibition of the cycle results in the blunting of the overshoots and the magnitude of the overshoots are dependent on the level of myofilament activation. Lastly, we show that the number of cross-bridges transiently increase during tension overshoots. These findings lead us to conclude that tension overshoots are likely due to a transient enhancement of the recruitment of myosin heads into the cross-bridge cycling, regulated by the myocardium, and with potential physiological significance in determining cardiac output. We show that isolated human myocardium is capable of transiently increasing its maximal force generation capability by increasing cross-bridge recruitment following slack-restretch maneuver. This process can potentially have important implications and significance in cardiac contraction in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recruitment Strategies and Costs Associated with Community-Based Research in a Mexican-Origin Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S.; Mangione, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic-community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study…

  14. An Interdisciplinary Outreach Model of African American Recruitment for Alzheimer's Disease Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monique M.; Meisel, Marie M.; Williams, James; Morris, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The African American Outreach Satellite (Satellite) provides educational outreach to facilitate African American recruitment for longitudinal studies at the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). This descriptive article characterizes the Satellite's recruitment methods, plan for community engagement, results of…

  15. Participant recruitment and motivation for participation in optical technology for cervical cancer screening research trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhatovich, Olga M; Sharman, Mathilde P; Mirabal, Yvette N; Earle, Nan R; Follen, Michele; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2005-12-01

    In order to improve recruitment for cervical cancer screening trials, it is necessary to analyze the effectiveness of recruitment strategies used in current trials. A trial to test optical spectroscopy for the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia recruited 1000 women from the community; the trial evaluated the emerging technology against Pap smears and colposcopically directed biopsies for cervical dysplasia. We have examined women's reasons for participating as well as the effectiveness and efficiency for each recruitment strategy. Reasons for participation were identified and compared between trials. The recruitment method that resulted in the most contacts was newspaper reportorial coverage and advertising, followed by family and friends, then television news coverage. The most cost-effective method for finding eligible women who attend the research appointment is word of mouth from a family member or friend. Recommendations are given for maximizing the efficiency of recruitment for cervical cancer screening trials.

  16. Adapting the buying funnel model of consumer behavior to the design of an online health research recruitment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Aalap; Connally, Lisa; Spiroff, Meghan; Johnson, Anita; Mashour, George A

    2017-08-01

    UMHealthResearch is the University of Michigan's digital health research recruitment platform. It allows health researchers to connect efficiently with potentially eligible volunteers. In 2013, the UMHealthResearch team strategically adapted a consumer behavior model, the buying funnel, to create the Digital Health Research Participation Funnel. The Digital Health Research Participation Funnel was then used to design a more active way for potential participants to volunteer for research studies through UMHealthResearch. In the 5 years before the redesign (2007-2012), an average of 1844 new accounts were created every year, whereas in the completed years after the redesign (2013-2016) the annual average improved to 3906, an increase of 111%. Although a randomized design was not possible in this instance, these preintervention and postintervention data suggest that the focus on user experience is an effective strategy for improving web-based research recruitment platforms.

  17. Recruiting Chinese American adolescents to HIV/AIDS-related research: a lesson learned from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimizing primary care research participation: a comparison of three recruitment methods in data-sharing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Paul A; Willis, Thomas A; Carder, Paul; West, Robert M; Foy, Robbie

    2016-04-01

    Recruitment of representative samples in primary care research is essential to ensure high-quality, generalizable results. This is particularly important for research using routinely recorded patient data to examine the delivery of care. Yet little is known about how different recruitment strategies influence the characteristics of the practices included in research. We describe three approaches for recruiting practices to data-sharing studies, examining differences in recruitment levels and practice representativeness. We examined three studies that included varying populations of practices from West Yorkshire, UK. All used anonymized patient data to explore aspects of clinical practice. Recruitment strategies were 'opt-in', 'mixed opt-in and opt-out' and 'opt-out'. We compared aggregated practice data between recruited and not-recruited practices for practice list size, deprivation, chronic disease management, patient experience and rates of unplanned hospital admission. The opt-out strategy had the highest recruitment (80%), followed by mixed (70%) and opt-in (58%). Practices opting-in were larger (median 7153 versus 4722 patients, P = 0.03) than practices that declined to opt-in. Practices recruited by mixed approach were larger (median 7091 versus 5857 patients, P = 0.04) and had differences in the clinical quality measure (58.4% versus 53.9% of diabetic patients with HbA1c ≤ 59 mmol/mol, P Researchers should, with appropriate ethical safeguards, consider opt-out recruitment of practices for studies involving anonymized patient data sharing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Using Facebook for Health-related Research Study Recruitment and Program Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Kurz, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Facebook has become an important tool for recruiting research participants and for program delivery. Given the wide use of Facebook, there is much potential for the site to help with recruitment efforts in both physical and behavioral health care arenas; reaching groups typically difficult to recruit and providing outreach to individuals that may not have received services elsewhere. Health studies using Facebook have generally reported success, including cost-effectiveness, recruitment of samples in brief periods of time, and ability to locate participants for follow-up research. Still, the use of Facebook for research and program delivery is a relatively new area that warrants more research attention and guidance around issues like validity of data, representativeness of samples, and protections of human subjects.

  20. Can a customer relationship management program improve recruitment for primary care research studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sharon; Wong, Sabrina T; Blackman, Stephanie; Chau, Leena W; Grool, Anne M; Hogg, William

    2017-11-16

    Recruiting family physicians into primary care research studies requires researchers to continually manage information coming in, going out, and coming in again. In many research groups, Microsoft Excel and Access are the usual data management tools, but they are very basic and do not support any automation, linking, or reminder systems to manage and integrate recruitment information and processes. We explored whether a commercial customer relationship management (CRM) software program - designed for sales people in businesses to improve customer relations and communications - could be used to make the research recruitment system faster, more effective, and more efficient. We found that while there was potential for long-term studies, it simply did not adapt effectively enough for our shorter study and recruitment budget. The amount of training required to master the software and our need for ongoing flexible and timely support were greater than the benefit of using CRM software for our study.

  1. Improving subject recruitment, retention, and participation in research through Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penckofer, Sue; Byrn, Mary; Mumby, Patricia; Ferrans, Carol Estwing

    2011-04-01

    Recruitment and retention of persons participating in research is one of the most significant challenges faced by investigators. Although incentives are often used to improve recruitment and retention, evidence suggests that the relationship of the patient to study personnel may be the single, most important factor in subject accrual and continued participation. Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations provides a framework to study the nurse-patient relationship during the research process. In this paper the authors provide a brief summary of research strategies that have been used for the recruitment and retention of subjects and an overview of Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations including its use in research studies. In addition, a discussion of how this theory was used for the successful recruitment and retention of women with type 2 diabetes who participated in a clinical trial using a nurse-delivered psychoeducational intervention for depression is addressed.

  2. Understanding and Improving Recruitment to Randomised Controlled Trials: Qualitative Research Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Daisy; Husbands, Samantha; Hamdy, Freddie C; Holmberg, Lars; Donovan, Jenny L

    2017-11-01

    The importance of evidence from randomised trials is now widely recognised, although recruitment is often difficult. Qualitative research has shown promise in identifying the key barriers to recruitment, and interventions have been developed to reduce organisational difficulties and support clinicians undertaking recruitment. This article provides an introduction to qualitative research techniques and explains how this approach can be used to understand-and subsequently improve-recruitment and informed consent within a range of clinical trials. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase, and CINAHL. All studies with qualitative research methods that focused on the recruitment activity of clinicians were included in the review. The majority of studies reported that organisational difficulties and lack of time for clinical staff were key barriers to recruitment. However, a synthesis of qualitative studies highlighted the intellectual and emotional challenges that arise when combining research with clinical roles, particularly in relation to equipoise and patient eligibility. To support recruiters to become more comfortable with the design and principles of randomised controlled trials, interventions have been developed, including the QuinteT Recruitment Intervention, which comprises in-depth investigation of recruitment obstacles in real time, followed by implementation of tailored strategies to address these challenges as the trial proceeds. Qualitative research can provide important insights into the complexities of recruitment to trials and inform the development of interventions, and provide support and training initiatives as required. Investigators should consider implementing such methods in trials expected to be challenging or recruiting below target. Qualitative research is a term used to describe a range of methods that can be implemented to understand participants' perspectives and behaviours. Data are gathered from interviews, focus groups

  3. Recruitment of multiple stakeholders to health services research: Lessons from the front lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwers Melissa C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-administered surveys are an essential methodological tool for health services and knowledge translation research, and engaging end-users of the research is critical. However, few documented accounts of the efforts invested in recruitment of multiple different stakeholders to one health services research study exist. Here, we highlight the challenges of recruiting key stakeholders (policy-makers, clinicians, guideline developers to a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR funded health services research (HSR study aimed to develop an updated and refined version of a guideline appraisal tool, the AGREE. Methods Using evidence-based methods of recruitment, our goal was to recruit 192 individuals: 80 international guideline developers, 80 Canadian clinicians and 32 Canadian policy/decision-makers. We calculated the participation rate and the recruitment efficiency. Results We mailed 873 invitation letters. Of 838 approached, our participation rate was 29%(240 and recruitment efficiency, 19%(156. One policy-maker manager did not allow policy staff to participate in the study. Conclusions Based on the results from this study, we suggest that future studies aiming to engage similar stakeholders in HSR over sample by at least 5 times to achieve their target sample size and allow for participant withdrawals. We need continued efforts to communicate the value of research between researchers and end-users of research (policy-makers, clinicians, and other researchers, integration of participatory research strategies, and promotion of the value of end-user involvement in research. Future research to understand methods of improving recruitment efficiency and engaging key stakeholders in HSR is warranted.

  4. Recruitment of multiple stakeholders to health services research: lessons from the front lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Michelle E; Rawski, Ellen; Makarski, Julie; Brouwers, Melissa C

    2010-05-13

    Self-administered surveys are an essential methodological tool for health services and knowledge translation research, and engaging end-users of the research is critical. However, few documented accounts of the efforts invested in recruitment of multiple different stakeholders to one health services research study exist. Here, we highlight the challenges of recruiting key stakeholders (policy-makers, clinicians, guideline developers) to a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) funded health services research (HSR) study aimed to develop an updated and refined version of a guideline appraisal tool, the AGREE. Using evidence-based methods of recruitment, our goal was to recruit 192 individuals: 80 international guideline developers, 80 Canadian clinicians and 32 Canadian policy/decision-makers. We calculated the participation rate and the recruitment efficiency. We mailed 873 invitation letters. Of 838 approached, our participation rate was 29%(240) and recruitment efficiency, 19%(156). One policy-maker manager did not allow policy staff to participate in the study. Based on the results from this study, we suggest that future studies aiming to engage similar stakeholders in HSR over sample by at least 5 times to achieve their target sample size and allow for participant withdrawals. We need continued efforts to communicate the value of research between researchers and end-users of research (policy-makers, clinicians, and other researchers), integration of participatory research strategies, and promotion of the value of end-user involvement in research. Future research to understand methods of improving recruitment efficiency and engaging key stakeholders in HSR is warranted.

  5. Enhancing Survey Participation: Facebook Advertisements for Recruitment in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen; Tan, Hazel; Leder, Gilah; McLeod, Amber

    2018-01-01

    Surveys are commonly used to determine how people feel about a specific issue. The increasing availability of the internet and popularity of social networking sites have opened up new possibilities for conducting surveys and, with limited additional costs, enlarge the pool of volunteer respondents with the desired background, experience, or…

  6. Increasing educational indebtedness influences medical students to pursue specialization: a military recruitment potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Asha G; Coutinho, Karl; Swan, Kenneth G; Heinrich, George F

    2013-02-01

    Cost of medical education and student indebtedness has increased dramatically. This study surveyed medical students on educational debt, educational costs, and whether indebtedness influenced career choice. Responses should impact (1) Department of Defense (DoD) recruitment of physicians and (2) future of primary care. The authors surveyed 188 incoming medical students (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Class of 2012) concerning educational indebtedness, perceptions about educational costs, and plans regarding loan repayment. Data were analyzed and expressed as mean +/- standard error. Students with loans anticipated their medical educational costs to be $155,993. 62% felt costs were "exorbitant," and 28% "appropriate." 64% planned to specialize, whereas only 9% chose primary care. 28% of students planning specialization said income potential influenced their decision. 70% of students said cost was a factor in choosing New Jersey Medical School over a more expensive school. Students anticipated taking about 10 years to repay loans. As medical educational costs and student indebtedness rise, students are choosing less costly education and career paths with higher potential future earnings. These trends will negatively impact health care availability, accessibility, and cost. DoD programs to provide financial assistance in exchange for military service are not well publicized. These findings should increase DoD recruitment opportunities.

  7. Social Networking Site Usage Among Childhood Cancer Survivors - A Potential Tool for Research Recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Erica D.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Mensah, Edward K.; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors’ reported use of SNS such as facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Methods Sixty White, Black and Hispanic, adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18 – 48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study (CHLS), participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Results Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80% were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. Conclusions and implications for cancer survivors The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research. PMID:24532046

  8. Social networking site usage among childhood cancer survivors--a potential tool for research recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Erica D; Stolley, Melinda R; Mensah, Edward K; Sharp, Lisa K

    2014-09-01

    The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors' reported use of SNS such as Facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Sixty White, Black, and Hispanic adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18-48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study, participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80 % were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research.

  9. Recruiting bereaved parents for research after infant death in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Erin R; Roche, Cathy; Christian, Becky J; Bakitas, Marie; Meneses, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Understanding parental experiences following infant death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a high research priority and a necessary first step to improving health services. However, recruiting bereaved parents to discuss their experiences on such an extremely sensitive topic can be challenging and research procedures must be planned carefully in order to get an adequate sample. There is little published in the literature detailing specific strategies for recruiting bereaved parents for grief research, especially strategies for contacting parents and identifying factors that might affect participation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of recruiting bereaved parents into a qualitative research study exploring parental NICU experiences and grief responses following infant death. We describe a successful recruitment plan that led to the enrollment of difficult to recruit participants such as fathers, and individuals representing minorities and those from lower socioeconomic (SES) groups. Bereaved parents of infants after an NICU hospitalization should continue to be recruited for research studies for their unique perspectives and valuable insights about the devastating experience of infant death. Participants in this study reported more benefits than harm and the results addressed a critical gap in the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Successful minority recruitment and adherence in physical activity Internet-based research: the WIN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Georita M; Morrow, James R; Vidales, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Researchers studying physical activity often face challenges dealing with recruitment and resources, particularly when conducting longitudinal Internet-based research. Commonly raised methodological problems such as minority recruitment, participant commitment, and participant-staff involvement are addressed through a theoretically driven recruitment and adherence protocol in The Women's Exercise Injuries: Incidence and Risk Factors (WIN) Internet-based study. The objectives of this paper were to review and suggest solutions to problems of: (1) low recruitment of diverse samples, (2) low adherence, and (3) staffing needs. We recruited 1303 community-dwelling women and followed them through a multiple-phase, longitudinal, Internet-based study. Recruitment and adherence data were analyzed through descriptive methods and logistic regressions to examine participant adherence and sociodemographic factors and predictors of who entered the long-term phase of the study. We successfully retained 71.6% of the sample through 4 recruitment phases. Twenty-seven percent of the initially recruited sample was racial/ethnically diverse, 24% began the long-term phase, and 23% completed. Several strategies to enhance participant commitment were successfully used during the practice phase, providing a successful, low staff to participant ratio. Logistic regression indicated being married, being older, and having greater Internet skills were predictive of successfully entering the long-term phase of the study. Recruitment and compliance protocols were successful in meeting overall and racial/ethnic enrollment and recruitment goals. The theoretically based practice phase techniques were successful in re-engaging noncompliant participants. Strategies for minority enrollment and compliance are evaluated.

  11. Using Facebook and participant information clips to recruit emergency nurses for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Rebekah Jay Howerton; Mentes, Janet C; Pavlish, Carol; Phillips, Linda R

    2014-07-01

    To examine the use of social networking sites in recruiting research participants. Workplace violence is an important issue for staff and patients. One workplace that reports the highest levels of violence is the emergency department. The ability to research issues such as workplace violence in real time is important in addressing them expeditiously, and social media can be used to advertise and recruit research subjects, implement studies and disseminate information. The experience of recruiting subjects through social networks, specifically Facebook, and the use of participant information clips (PICs) for advertising. A brief discussion of the history of advertising and communication using the internet is presented to provide an understanding of the trajectory of social media and implications for recruitment in general. The paper then focuses on the lead author's experience of recruiting subjects using Facebook, including its limitations and advantages, and her experience of using participant information clips. The low cost of advertising and recruiting participants this way, as well as the convenience provided to participants, resulted in almost half the study's total participants being obtained within 72 hours. Using Facebook to target a younger age range of nurses to participate in a study was successful and yielded a large number of completed responses in a short time period at little cost to the researcher. Recording the PIC was cheap, and posting it and a link to the site on pre-existing group pages was free, providing valuable viral marketing and snowball recruiting. Future researchers should not overlook using social network sites for recruitment if the demographics of the desired study population and subject matter permit it.

  12. Strategies to successfully recruit and engage clinical nurses as participants in qualitative clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Elisabeth; Grafton, Eileen; Reid, Alayne

    2016-12-01

    Research conducted in the clinical area promotes the delivery of evidence-based patient care. Involving nurses as participants in research is considered essential to link patient care with evidence-based interventions. However recruitment is influenced by nurses' competing demands and understanding engagement strategies may assist future research. This reflective analysis aimed to understand influencing factors and strategies that support successful recruitment nurses in clinical research. A reflective analysis of research notes and focus group data from research with oncology nurses was completed. This research identified that gaining support from key staff, understanding work constraints and developing a rapport with nurses is important. Establishing clear relevance and benefits of the research and being flexible with research requirements enabled nurses to participate in the research. Clear information and a willingness to accommodate the demands and dynamic nature of the environment, ensures ongoing support and engagement of nurses in the clinical setting as participants in research.

  13. Recruiting a representative sample in adherence research-The MALT multisite prospective cohort study experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Eyal; Mitchell, Jeffrey; Neighbors, Katie; Feist, Susan; Hawkins, Andre; Brown, Amanda; Wanrong, Yin; Anand, Ravinder; Stuber, Margaret L; Annunziato, Rachel A

    2017-12-01

    Medication adherence is an important determinant of transplant outcomes. Attempts to investigate adherence are frequently undermined by selection bias: It is very hard to recruit and retain non-adherent patients in research efforts. This manuscript presents recruitment strategies and results from the MALT (Medication Adherence in children who had a Liver Transplant) multisite prospective cohort study. MALT sites recruited 400 pediatric liver transplant patients who agreed to be followed for 2 years. The primary purpose was to determine whether a marker of adherence, the Medication Level Variability Index (MLVI), predicts rejection outcomes. The present manuscript describes methods used in MALT to ensure that a representative sample was recruited, and presents detailed recruitment results. MALT sites were able to recruit a nationally representative sample, as determined by a comparison between the MALT cohort and a national sample of transplant recipients. Strategies that helped ensure that the sample was representative included monitoring of the outcome measure in comparison with a national sample, drastically limiting patient burden, and specific recruitment methods. We discuss the importance of a representative sample in adherence research and recommend that future efforts to study adherence pay special attention to sample characteristics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A Personal Touch: The Most Important Strategy for Recruiting Latino Research Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexandra A; Zuñiga, Julie A; Lagon, Czarina

    2017-07-01

    People from non-White racial groups and other underserved populations, including Latinos, are frequently reluctant to participate in research. Yet their participation into research is foundational to producing information that researchers and health care providers need to address health disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe challenges we have encountered along with culturally relevant strategies we used in five research studies to recruit Mexican American participants from community settings, some of whom were also of low socioeconomic status. We found that the most effective recruitment strategies reflect the common cultural values of personalismo, simpátia, confianza, respeto, and familismo.

  15. A survey of the SWISS researchers on the impact of sibling privacy protections on pedigree recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Bradford B; Chen, Donna T; Brown, Robert D; Brott, Thomas G; Meschia, James F

    2005-01-01

    To understand the perceptions and attitudes about privacy safeguards in research and investigate the impact of letter-based proband-initiated contact on recruitment, we surveyed researchers in the Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS). All 49 actively recruiting sites provided at least 1 response, and 61% reported that potential probands were enthusiastic. Although 66% of researchers valued proband-initiated contact, only 23% said that probands viewed this strategy as important to protecting the privacy of siblings. A substantial minority of researchers (37%) said the strategy impeded enrollment, and 44% said it was overly burdensome to probands.

  16. Beyond Traditional Advertisements: Leveraging Facebook’s Social Structures for Research Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterbock, Thomas M; Thompson, Morgan J; Reilly, Jeremiah D; Menefee, Hannah K; Bennici, Maria S; Williams, Ishan C; Rexrode, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Obtaining access to a demographically and geographically diverse sample for health-related research can be costly and time consuming. Previous studies have reported mixed results regarding the potential of using social media-based advertisements to overcome these challenges. Objective Our aim was to develop and assess the feasibility, benefits, and challenges of recruiting for research studies related to consumer health information technology (IT) by leveraging the social structures embedded in the social networking platform, Facebook. Methods Two recruitment strategies that involved direct communication with existing Facebook groups and pages were developed and implemented in two distinct populations. The first recruitment strategy involved posting a survey link directly to consenting groups and pages and was used to recruit Filipino-Americans to a study assessing the perceptions, use of, and preferences for consumer health IT. This study took place between August and December 2013. The second recruitment strategy targeted individuals with type 2 diabetes and involved creating a study-related Facebook group and asking administrators of other groups and pages to publicize our group to their members. Group members were then directly invited to participate in an online pre-study survey. This portion of a larger study to understand existing health management practices as a foundation for consumer health IT design took place between May and June 2014. In executing both recruitment strategies, efforts were made to establish trust and transparency. Recruitment rate, cost, content of interaction, and characteristics of the sample obtained were used to assess the recruitment methods. Results The two recruitment methods yielded 87 and 79 complete responses, respectively. The first recruitment method yielded a rate of study completion proportionate to that of the rate of posts made, whereas recruitment successes of the second recruitment method seemed to follow

  17. Recruitment and Participation of Recreational Runners in a Large Epidemiological and Genetic Research Study: Retrospective Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanero, Silvia; Kozlovskaia, Maria; Vlahovich, Nicole; Hughes, David C

    2018-05-23

    With the increasing capacity for remote collection of both data and samples for medical research, a thorough assessment is needed to determine the association of population characteristics and recruitment methodologies with response rates. The aim of this research was to assess population representativeness in a two-stage study of health and injury in recreational runners, which consisted of an epidemiological arm and genetic analysis. The cost and success of various classical and internet-based methods were analyzed, and demographic representativeness was assessed for recruitment to the epidemiological survey, reported willingness to participate in the genetic arm of the study, actual participation, sample return, and approval for biobank storage. A total of 4965 valid responses were received, of which 1664 were deemed eligible for genetic analysis. Younger age showed a negative association with initial recruitment rate, expressed willingness to participate in genetic analysis, and actual participation. Additionally, female sex was associated with higher initial recruitment rates, and ethnic origin impacted willingness to participate in the genetic analysis (all P<.001). The sharp decline in retention through the different stages of the study in young respondents suggests the necessity to develop specific recruitment and retention strategies when investigating a young, physically active population. ©Silvia Manzanero, Maria Kozlovskaia, Nicole Vlahovich, David C Hughes. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 23.05.2018.

  18. Recruiting community health centers into pragmatic research: Findings from STOP CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D; Retecki, Sally; Schneider, Jennifer; Taplin, Stephen H; Burdick, Tim; Green, Beverly B

    2016-04-01

    Challenges of recruiting participants into pragmatic trials, particularly at the level of the health system, remain largely unexplored. As part of Strategies and Opportunities to STOP Colon Cancer in Priority Populations (STOP CRC), we recruited eight separate community health centers (consisting of 26 individual safety net clinics) into a large comparative effectiveness pragmatic study to evaluate methods of raising the rates of colorectal cancer screening. In partnership with STOP CRC's advisory board, we defined criteria to identify eligible health centers and applied these criteria to a list of health centers in Washington, Oregon, and California affiliated with Oregon Community Health Information Network, a 16-state practice-based research network of federally sponsored health centers. Project staff contacted centers that met eligibility criteria and arranged in-person meetings of key study investigators with health center leadership teams. We used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to thematically analyze the content of discussions during these meetings to identify major facilitators of and barriers to health center participation. From an initial list of 41 health centers, 11 met the initial inclusion criteria. Of these, leaders at three centers declined and at eight centers (26 clinic sites) agreed to participate (73%). Participating and nonparticipating health centers were similar with respect to clinic size, percent Hispanic patients, and percent uninsured patients. Participating health centers had higher proportions of Medicaid patients and higher baseline colorectal cancer screening rates. Common facilitators of participation were perception by center leadership that the project was an opportunity to increase colorectal cancer screening rates and to use electronic health record tools for population management. Barriers to participation were concerns of center leaders about ability to provide fecal testing to and assure follow-up of

  19. Recruitment strategies and costs associated with community-based research in a Mexican-origin population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S; Mangione, Carol M

    2011-06-01

    We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic-community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study methodology to categorize recruitment methods, examine community partnerships, and calculate study costs. We employed several recruitment methods to identify and solicit 154 female caregivers for participation in qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys. Recruitment approaches included using flyers and word of mouth, attending health fairs, and partnering with nonprofit community-based organizations (CBOs) to sponsor targeted recruitment events. Face-to-face contact with community residents and partnerships with CBOs were most effective in enrolling caregivers into the studies. Almost 70% of participants attended a recruitment event sponsored or supported by CBOs. The least effective recruitment strategy was the use of flyers, which resulted in only 7 completed interviews or questionnaires. Time and costs related to carrying out the research varied by study, where personal interviews cost more on a per-participant basis ($1,081) than the questionnaires ($298). However, almost the same amount of time was spent in the community for both studies. Partnerships with CBOs were critical for reaching the target enrollment for our studies. The relationship between the University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) Resource Center for Minority Aging Research/Center for Health Improvement for Minority Elderly and the Department of Aging provided the infrastructure for maintaining connections with academic-community partnerships. Nevertheless, building partnerships required time, effort, and resources for both researchers and local organizations.

  20. Recruitment Strategies and Costs Associated With Community-Based Research in a Mexican-Origin Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.; Trejo, Laura; Miranda, Jeanne; Jimenez, Elizabeth; Quiter, Elaine S.; Mangione, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the recruitment strategies and personnel and materials costs associated with two community-based research studies in a Mexican-origin population. We also highlight the role that academic–community partnerships played in the outreach and recruitment process for our studies. We reviewed study documents using case study methodology to categorize recruitment methods, examine community partnerships, and calculate study costs. Results: We employed several recruitment methods to identify and solicit 154 female caregivers for participation in qualitative interviews and quantitative surveys. Recruitment approaches included using flyers and word of mouth, attending health fairs, and partnering with nonprofit community-based organizations (CBOs) to sponsor targeted recruitment events. Face-to-face contact with community residents and partnerships with CBOs were most effective in enrolling caregivers into the studies. Almost 70% of participants attended a recruitment event sponsored or supported by CBOs. The least effective recruitment strategy was the use of flyers, which resulted in only 7 completed interviews or questionnaires. Time and costs related to carrying out the research varied by study, where personal interviews cost more on a per-participant basis ($1,081) than the questionnaires ($298). However, almost the same amount of time was spent in the community for both studies. Implications: Partnerships with CBOs were critical for reaching the target enrollment for our studies. The relationship between the University of California–Los Angeles (UCLA) Resource Center for Minority Aging Research/Center for Health Improvement for Minority Elderly and the Department of Aging provided the infrastructure for maintaining connections with academic–community partnerships. Nevertheless, building partnerships required time, effort, and resources for both researchers and local organizations. PMID:21565824

  1. Recruitment and Participation of Older Lesbian and Bisexual Women in Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Susan F; Brooks, Jacquetta; Eliason, Michele J; Garbers, Samantha; McElroy, Jane A; Ingraham, Natalie; Haynes, Suzanne G

    2016-07-07

    Very little research has addressed issues of recruitment and participation of lesbian and bisexual (LB) women, aged 40 and older, into research studies. This study is based on a larger cross-site intervention study that recruited women from five geographic regions in the United States for culturally specific LB healthy weight programs, lasting 12 or 16 weeks. Principal investigators (PIs) of the five intervention programs completed a questionnaire on recruitment and participation strategies and barriers. Participant data on completion and sociodemographic variables were compiled and analyzed. The recruitment strategies the programs' PIs identified as most useful included word-of-mouth participant referrals, emails to LB participants' social networks, and use of electronic health records (at the two clinic-based programs) to identify eligible participants. Flyers and web postings were considered the least useful. Once in the program, participation and completion rates were fairly high (approximately 90%), although with varying levels of engagement in the different programs. Women who were younger or single were more likely to drop out. Women with disabilities had a lower participation/completion rate (82%) than women without any disability (93%). Dropouts were associated with challenges in scheduling (time of day, location) and changes in health status. Implementation of key strategies can improve both recruitment and participation, but there is a great need for further study of best practices to recruit and promote participation of LB women for health intervention research. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  2. Recruitment to a physical activity intervention study in women at increased risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drinkard Bart

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is being studied as a breast cancer prevention strategy. Women at risk of breast cancer report interest in lifestyle modification, but recruitment to randomized physical activity intervention studies is challenging. Methods We conducted an analysis of recruitment techniques used for a prospective, randomized pilot study of physical activity in women at risk of breast cancer. We evaluated differences in proportion of eligible patients, enrolled patients, and successful patients identified by each individual recruitment method. The Fisher-Freeman-Halton test (an extension of Fisher's exact test from 2 × 2 tables to general row by column tables was used to compare the success of different recruitment strategies. Results We received 352 inquiries from women interested in participating, of whom 171 (54% were eligible. Ninety-nine women completed a baseline activity evaluation, and 58 (34% of eligible; 16% of total inquiries were randomized. Recruitment methods fell into three broad categories: media techniques, direct contact with potential participants, and contacts with health care providers. Recruitment strategies differed significantly in their ability to identify eligible women (p = 0.01, and women who subsequently enrolled in the study (p = 0.02. Conclusion Recruitment techniques had varying success. Our data illustrate the challenges in recruiting to behavior modification studies, and provide useful information for tailoring future recruitment efforts for lifestyle intervention trials. Trial Registration No(s CDR0000393790, NCI-04-C-0276, NCI-NAVY-B05-001

  3. Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J C; Hechinger, R F; Wood, A C; Stewart, T E; Kuris, A M; Lafferty, K D

    2017-08-01

    Most species aggregate in local patches. High host density in patches increases contact rate between hosts and parasites, increasing parasite transmission success. At the same time, for environmentally transmitted parasites, high host density can decrease infection risk to individual hosts, because infective stages are divided among all hosts in a patch, leading to safety in numbers. We tested these predictions using the California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica (=Cerithidea californica), which is the first intermediate host for at least 19 digenean trematode species in California estuaries. Snails become infected by ingesting trematode eggs or through penetration by free-swimming miracidia that hatch from trematode eggs deposited with final-host (bird or mammal) feces. This complex life cycle decouples infective-stage production from transmission, raising the possibility of an inverse relationship between host density and infection risk at local scales. In a field survey, higher snail density was associated with increased trematode (infected snail) density, but decreased trematode prevalence, consistent with either safety in numbers, parasitic castration, or both. To determine the extent to which safety in numbers drove the negative snail-density-trematode-prevalence association, we manipulated uninfected snail density in 83 cages at eight sites within Carpinteria Salt Marsh (California, USA). At each site, we quantified snail density and used data on final-host (bird and raccoon) distributions to control for between-site variation in infective-stage supply. After three months, overall trematode infections per cage increased with snail biomass density. For egg-transmitted trematodes, per-snail infection risk decreased with snail biomass density in the cage and surrounding area, whereas per-snail infection risk did not decrease for miracidium-transmitted trematodes. Furthermore, both trematode recruitment and infection risk increased with infective

  4. Communications between volunteers and health researchers during recruitment and informed consent: qualitative content analysis of email interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Anne; Amarsi, Zubin; Backman, Catherine L; Cox, Susan M; Li, Linda C

    2011-10-13

    While use of the Internet is increasingly widespread in research, little is known about the role of routine electronic mail (email) correspondence during recruitment and early volunteer-researcher interactions. To gain insight into the standpoint of volunteers we analyzed email communications in an early rheumatoid arthritis qualitative interview study. The objectives of our study were (1) to understand the perspectives and motivations of individuals who volunteered for an interview study about the experiences of early rheumatoid arthritis, and (2) to investigate the role of emails in volunteer-researcher interactions during recruitment. Between December 2007 and December 2008 we recruited 38 individuals with early rheumatoid arthritis through rheumatologist and family physician offices, arthritis Internet sites, and the Arthritis Research Centre of Canada for a (face-to-face) qualitative interview study. Interested individuals were invited to contact us via email or telephone. In this paper, we report on email communications from 12 of 29 volunteers who used email as their primary communication mode. Emails offered insights into the perspective of study volunteers. They provided evidence prospectively about recruitment and informed consent in the context of early rheumatoid arthritis. First, some individuals anticipated that participating would have mutual benefits, for themselves and the research, suggesting a reciprocal quality to volunteering. Second, volunteering for the study was strongly motivated by a need to access health services and was both a help-seeking and self-managing strategy. Third, volunteers expressed ambivalence around participation, such as how far participating would benefit them, versus more general benefits for research. Fourth, practical difficulties of negotiating symptom impact, medical appointments, and research tasks were revealed. We also reflect on how emails documented volunteer-researcher interactions, illustrating typically

  5. Communications Between Volunteers and Health Researchers during Recruitment and Informed Consent: Qualitative Content Analysis of Email Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Anne; Amarsi, Zubin; Backman, Catherine L; Cox, Susan M; Li, Linda C

    2011-01-01

    Background While use of the Internet is increasingly widespread in research, little is known about the role of routine electronic mail (email) correspondence during recruitment and early volunteer?researcher interactions. To gain insight into the standpoint of volunteers we analyzed email communications in an early rheumatoid arthritis qualitative interview study. Objectives The objectives of our study were (1) to understand the perspectives and motivations of individuals who volunteered for ...

  6. Ethics and Privacy Implications of Using the Internet and Social Media to Recruit Participants for Health Research: A Privacy-by-Design Framework for Online Recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Alaina B; Arbuckle, Luk; Ferris, Lorraine E

    2017-01-01

    Background The Internet and social media offer promising ways to improve the reach, efficiency, and effectiveness of recruitment efforts at a reasonable cost, but raise unique ethical dilemmas. We describe how we used social media to recruit cancer patients and family caregivers for a research study, the ethical issues we encountered, and the strategies we developed to address them. Objective Drawing on the principles of Privacy by Design (PbD), a globally recognized standard for privacy protection, we aimed to develop a PbD framework for online health research recruitment. Methods We proposed a focus group study on the dietary behaviors of cancer patients and their families, and the role of Web-based dietary self-management tools. Using an established blog on our hospital website, we proposed publishing a recruitment post and sharing the link on our Twitter and Facebook pages. The Research Ethics Board (REB) raised concern about the privacy risks associated with our recruitment strategy; by clicking on a recruitment post, an individual could inadvertently disclose personal health information to third-party companies engaged in tracking online behavior. The REB asked us to revise our social media recruitment strategy with the following questions in mind: (1) How will you inform users about the potential for privacy breaches and their implications? and (2) How will you protect users from privacy breaches or inadvertently sharing potentially identifying information about themselves? Results Ethical guidelines recommend a proportionate approach to ethics assessment, which advocates for risk mitigation strategies that are proportional to the magnitude and probability of risks. We revised our social media recruitment strategy to inform users about privacy risks and to protect their privacy, while at the same time meeting our recruitment objectives. We provide a critical reflection of the perceived privacy risks associated with our social media recruitment strategy and

  7. Nurse leaders' perceptions of the ethical recruitment of study subjects in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Sanna-Maria; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kangasniemi, Mari; Halkoaho, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe nurse leaders' perceptions of ethical recruitment in clinical research. Nurse leaders are expected to get involved in clinical research, but there are few studies that focus on their role, particularly the ethical issues. Qualitative data were collected from ten nurse leaders using thematic one-to-one interviews and analysed with content analysis. Nurse leaders considered clinical research at their workplace in relation to the key issues that enabled ethical recruitment of study subjects in clinical research. These were: early information and collaboration for incorporating clinical research in everyday work, an opportune and peaceful recruitment moment and positive research culture. Getting involved in clinical research is part of the nurse leader's professional responsibility in current health care. They have an essential role to play in ensuring that recruitment is ethical and that the dignity of study subjects is maintained. The duty of nurse leaders is to maintain good contact with other collaborators and to ensure good conditions for implementing clinical research at their site. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the overall situation on their wards. Implementing clinical research requires careful planning, together with educating, supporting and motivating nursing staff. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Recruitment of Yoruba families from Nigeria for genetic research: experience from a multisite keloid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Peter B; Odesina, Victoria; Ademola, Samuel; Fadiora, Solomon O; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M; Reichenberger, Ernst J

    2014-09-02

    More involvement of sub-Saharan African countries in biomedical studies, specifically in genetic research, is needed to advance individualized medicine that will benefit non-European populations. Missing infrastructure, cultural and religious beliefs as well as lack of understanding of research benefits can pose a challenge to recruitment. Here we describe recruitment efforts for a large genetic study requiring three-generation pedigrees within the Yoruba homelands of Nigeria. The aim of the study was to identify genes responsible for keloids, a wound healing disorder. We also discuss ethical and logistical considerations that we encountered in preparation for this research endeavor. Protocols for this bi-national intercultural study were approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in the US and the ethics committees of the Nigerian institutions for consideration of cultural differences. Principles of community based participatory research were employed throughout the recruitment process. Keloid patients (patient advisors), community leaders, kings/chiefs and medical directors were engaged to assist the research teams with recruitment strategies. Community meetings, church forums, and media outlets (study flyers, radio and TV announcements) were utilized to promote the study in Nigeria. Recruitment of research participants was conducted by trained staff from the local communities. Pedigree structures were re-analyzed on a regular basis as new family members were recruited and recruitment challenges were documented. Total recruitment surpassed 4200 study participants over a 7-year period including 79 families with complete three-generation pedigrees. In 9 families more than 20 family members participated, however, in 5 of these families, we encountered issues with pedigree structure as members from different branches presented inconsistent family histories. These issues were due to the traditional open family structure amongst the Yoruba and by beliefs in

  9. Increased recruitment rates indicate recovering populations of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum on Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.; Debrot, A.O.; Hal, van der N.; Bakker, J.; Bak, R.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Recruitment of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum philippi, 1845 was studied on artificial recruitment panels along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Data were compared with historical data from the same coast that were collected before (1982-1983) and after (1984) the

  10. Using Culturally Informed Strategies to Enhance Recruitment of African Americans in Dementia Research: A Nurse Researcher's Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayron Recha Epps

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Decreased research participation hinders advancement in the understanding and treatment of dementia in African Americans. This article describes the experience of a nurse researcher using culturally informed strategies to enhance recruitment in the African American population in southern Louisiana, as part of a study on family involvement in health promotion activities for older adults with dementia. Strategies went beyond having minority recruiters and recruiting from churches to becoming familiar with the context and culture of southern Louisiana through engagement with the community and attaining buy-in from formal and informal contacts. The researcher kept field notes, journals, and a record of recruitment activities to assure accountability during recruitment. An analysis of the field notes revealed the salience of six themes, namely Gaining Trust, Visibility, Networking, Follow-up, Purposeful Activity, and Community Engagement. Barriers that were overcome included knowledge deficit about dementia in the target community and the cultural unsuitability of the terminology linked to dementia. Benefits included community awareness and development of community and family partnerships, and of course, the recruitment of adequate number of research participants.

  11. The Use of Facebook in Recruiting Participants for Health Research Purposes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Christopher; Stevelink, Sharon; Fear, Nicola

    2017-08-28

    Social media is a popular online tool that allows users to communicate and exchange information. It allows digital content such as pictures, videos and websites to be shared, discussed, republished and endorsed by its users, their friends and businesses. Adverts can be posted and promoted to specific target audiences by demographics such as region, age or gender. Recruiting for health research is complex with strict requirement criteria imposed on the participants. Traditional research recruitment relies on flyers, newspaper adverts, radio and television broadcasts, letters, emails, website listings, and word of mouth. These methods are potentially poor at recruiting hard to reach demographics, can be slow and expensive. Recruitment via social media, in particular Facebook, may be faster and cheaper. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding the current use and success of Facebook to recruit participants for health research purposes. A literature review was completed in March 2017 in the English language using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, Google Scholar, and a hand search of article references. Papers from the past 12 years were included and number of participants, recruitment period, number of impressions, cost per click or participant, and conversion rate extracted. A total of 35 studies were identified from the United States (n=22), Australia (n=9), Canada (n=2), Japan (n=1), and Germany (n=1) and appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. All focused on the feasibility of recruitment via Facebook, with some (n=10) also testing interventions, such as smoking cessation and depression reduction. Most recruited young age groups (16-24 years), with the remaining targeting specific demographics, for example, military veterans. Information from the 35 studies was analyzed with median values being 264 recruited participants, a 3-month recruitment period, 3.3 million impressions, cost

  12. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...... in the second half of the 2000s, new analyses of stomach content of sprat and herring were conducted, to elucidate the contribution of changes in predation pressure on cod recruitment. Comparison of stomach contents of sprat and herring in 2004–2008 with data from the 1990s showed a similar diet composition...

  13. Using Twitter to recruit participants for health research: An example from a caregiving study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, Marina Bastawrous; Stinson, Jennifer N; Webster, Fiona; Cameron, Jill Irene

    2018-05-01

    Twitter has the potential to optimize research conduct, but more research is needed around the nature of study-related tweets and strategies for optimizing reach. In the context of our caregiving study, we aimed to describe the nature and extent of study-related tweets, the extent to which they were shared by others, and their potential reach. To do so, we conducted a secondary analysis of our Twitter recruitment. We aggregated and categorized study-related tweets and analyzed the reach of the 10 most retweeted tweets. Results indicated that of 71 caregivers, 27 were recruited via Twitter. General recruitment tweets were most-shared by users. Tweet reach ranged from 5273 to 62,144 users. Twitter caregivers were demographically comparable to non-Twitter caregivers but had higher Internet proficiency and fewer children. Overall, using a personal Twitter account can expand the reach of study recruitment. Future research should compare different recruitment strategies and explore characteristics that may challenge the heterogeneity of Twitter samples.

  14. Strategies for moving towards equity in recruitment of rural and Aboriginal research participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sabrina T; Wu, Leena; Boswell, Brooke; Housden, Laura; Lavoie, Josee

    2013-01-01

    Equitable recruitment strategies, designed to ensure improved opportunities to participate in the research, are needed to include First Nations (FN) communities. The purpose of this article is to report on a set of successful strategies trialed with rural and FN communities in Canada. The strategies discussed were designed as part of a larger mixed-method study examining the effectiveness of Group Medical Visits (GMVs) on the quality of primary healthcare (PHC) in both FN reserve and northern communities in British Columbia (BC). Community partners and the study's decision-maker partners helped to identify and recruit primary care practices and reserve communities who were offering GMVs. Eleven communities (6 rural and 5 FN reserve) within the Northern Health Authority, BC participated in the study. Participants completed a survey either in person or via telephone. Content analysis was conducted on team meeting and field notes, focusing on issues related to the data collection process. Financial analysis was conducted on monetary resources spent on recruitment efforts in the various communities. Data were recorded regarding the number of times potential participants were contacted and mode of interview. Descriptive statistics were used to examine whether there were differences by mode of data collection, gender, and FN status. Logistic regression was used to examine whether FN status remained statistically significant after controlling for sex, education, employment status, age and health status. Once people were contacted, participation rate was 68% with 269 (n=90 men, n=179 women) people. Of those who participated in the survey, 42% were from FN communities. Content analysis revealed two overarching categories: (1) communication and coordination of the geographically dispersed research team and participating communities was maintained using synchronous and asynchronous methods; and (2) flexibility was needed to tailor recruitment strategies. Financial resources

  15. A summary report on recruitment type researches on nuclear fuel cycle in fiscal year of 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The promotion system on recruitment type researches on nuclear fuel cycle begun on fiscal year of 1999, aims to intend to activate researching environment of the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) through intercourses, information exchanges, publication of research results, and so on between researchers in other organizations and JNC, as a result, to effectively promote fundamental and basic R and Ds. This report contains summaries of 28 items of research results on the recruitment type researches on nuclear fuel cycle as 9 items relating to fast breeder reactors, 8 items relating to nuclear fuel cycle, 1 item relating to radiation safety, and 10 items relating to geological disposal and science, carried out on fiscal year of 2001. (G.K.)

  16. Social Media Use in Research: Engaging Communities in Cohort Studies to Support Recruitment and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina-Henry, Eva; Waterston, Leo B; Blaisdell, Laura L

    2015-07-22

    This paper presents the first formal evaluation of social media (SM) use in the National Children's Study (NCS). The NCS is a prospective, longitudinal study of the effects of environment and genetics on children's health, growth and development. The Study employed a multifaceted community outreach campaign in combination with a SM campaign to educate participants and their communities about the Study. SM essentially erases geographic differences between people due to its omnipresence, which was an important consideration in this multi-site national study. Using SM in the research setting requires an understanding of potential threats to confidentiality and privacy and the role that posted content plays as an extension of the informed consent process. This pilot demonstrates the feasibility of creating linkages and databases to measure and compare SM with new content and engagement metrics. Metrics presented include basic use metrics for Facebook as well as newly created metrics to assist with Facebook content and engagement analyses. Increasing Likes per month demonstrates that online communities can be quickly generated. Content and Engagement analyses describe what content of posts NCS Study Centers were using, what content they were posting about, and what the online NCS communities found most engaging. These metrics highlight opportunities to optimize time and effort while determining the content of future posts. Further research about content analysis, optimal metrics to describe engagement in research, the role of localized content and stakeholders, and social media use in participant recruitment is warranted.

  17. Using community-based participatory research principles to develop more understandable recruitment and informed consent documents in genomic research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlyn G Skinner

    Full Text Available Heart Healthy Lenoir is a transdisciplinary project aimed at creating long-term, sustainable approaches to reduce cardiovascular disease risk disparities in Lenoir County, North Carolina using a design spanning genomic analysis and clinical intervention. We hypothesized that residents of Lenoir County would be unfamiliar and mistrustful of genomic research, and therefore reluctant to participate; additionally, these feelings would be higher in African-Americans.To test our hypothesis, we conducted qualitative research using community-based participatory research principles to ensure our genomic research strategies addressed the needs, priorities, and concerns of the community. African-American (n = 19 and White (n = 16 adults in Lenoir County participated in four focus groups exploring perceptions about genomics and cardiovascular disease. Demographic surveys were administered and a semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate discussions. The discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed in ATLAS.ti.From our analysis, key themes emerged: transparent communication, privacy, participation incentives and barriers, knowledge, and the impact of knowing. African-Americans were more concerned about privacy and community impact compared to Whites, however, African-Americans were still eager to participate in our genomic research project. The results from our formative study were used to improve the informed consent and recruitment processes by: 1 reducing misconceptions of genomic studies; and 2 helping to foster participant understanding and trust with the researchers. Our study demonstrates how community-based participatory research principles can be used to gain deeper insight into the community and increase participation in genomic research studies. Due in part to these efforts 80.3% of eligible African-American participants and 86.9% of eligible White participants enrolled in the Heart Healthy Lenoir Genomics

  18. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Molgat-Seon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  19. Recruiting primary care practices for practice-based research: a case study of a group-randomized study (TRANSLATE CKD) recruitment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutova, Natalia Y; Smail, Craig; Ajayi, Kemi; Pace, Wilson D; Fox, Chester H

    2018-01-16

    We assessed the challenging process of recruiting primary care practices in a practice-based research study. In this descriptive case study of recruitment data collected for a large practice-based study (TRANSLATE CKD), 48 single or multiple-site health care organizations in the USA with a total of 114 practices were invited to participate. We collected quantitative and qualitative measures of recruitment process and outcomes for the first 25 practices recruited. Information about 13 additional practices is not provided due to staff transitions and limited data collection resources. Initial outreach was made to 114 practices (from 48 organizations, 41% small); 52 (45%) practices responded with interest. Practices enrolled in the study (n = 25) represented 22% of the total outreach number, or 48% of those initially interested. Average time to enroll was 71 calendar days (range 11-107). There was no difference in the number of days practices remained under recruitment, based on enrolled versus not enrolled (44.8 ± 30.4 versus 46.8 ± 25.4 days, P = 0.86) or by the organization size, i.e. large versus small (defined by having ≤4 distinct practices; 52 ± 23.6 versus 43.6 ± 27.8 days; P = 0.46). The most common recruitment barriers were administrative, e.g. lack of perceived direct organizational benefit, and were more prominent among large organizations. Despite the general belief that the research topic, invitation method, and interest in research may facilitate practice recruitment, our results suggest that most of the recruitment challenges represent managerial challenges. Future research projects may need to consider relevant methodologies from businesses administration and marketing fields. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Southern Coup: Recruiting African American Faculty Members at an Elite Private Southern Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Thomas Gregory; Smith, Theophus

    2008-01-01

    Competition for highly qualified African American faculty members among elite universities in the United States remains keen. Two of the most successful research universities at recruiting African American faculty members are located in the Southeast. Employing a conceptual framework grounded in organizational culture and climate literature, in…

  1. A Comparison of Internet-Based Participant Recruitment Methods: Engaging the Hidden Population of Cannabis Users in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Clare Temple

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While a growing number of researchers are embracing Internet-based data collection methods, the adoption of Internet-based recruitment methods has been relatively slow. This may be because little is known regarding the relative strengths and weaknesses of different methods of Internet-based participant recruitment, nor how these different recruitment strategies impact on the data collected. These issues are addressed in this article with reference to a study comparing the effectiveness of three Internet-based strategies in recruiting cannabis users for an online study. Consideration of the recruitment data leads us to recommend that researchers use multipronged Internet-based recruitment campaigns with appropriately detailed recruitment messages tailored to the population of interest and located carefully to ensure they reach the intended audience. Further, we suggest that building rapport directly with potential participants, or utilising derived rapport and implicit endorsements, is an important aspect of successful Internet-based participant recruitment strategies.

  2. Employee recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaugh, James A

    2013-01-01

    The way an organization recruits can influence the type of employees it hires, how they perform, and their retention rate. This article provides a selective review of research that has addressed recruitment targeting, recruitment methods, the recruitment message, recruiters, the organizational site visit, the job offer, and the timing of recruitment actions. These and other topics (e.g., the job applicant's perspective) are discussed in terms of their potential influence on prehire (e.g., the quality of job applicants) and posthire (e.g., new employee retention) recruitment outcomes. In reviewing research, attention is given to the current state of scientific knowledge, limitations of previous research, and important issues meriting future investigation.

  3. Truth in Advertising: Disclosure of Participant Payment in Research Recruitment Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, Luke; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Largent, Emily A; Shachar, Carmel; Cohen, I Glenn; Bierer, Barbara E

    2018-05-01

    The practice of paying research participants has received significant attention in the bioethics literature, but the focus has been almost exclusively on consideration of factors relevant to determining acceptable payment amounts. Surprisingly little attention has been paid to what happens once the payment amount is set. What are the ethical parameters around how offers of payment may be advertised to prospective participants? This article seeks to answer this question, focusing on the ethical and practical issues associated with disclosing information about payment, and payment amounts in particular, in recruitment materials. We argue that it is permissible-and indeed typically ethically desirable-for recruitment materials to disclose the amount that participants will be paid. Further, we seek to clarify the regulatory guidance on "emphasizing" payment in a way that can facilitate design and review of recruitment materials.

  4. The operating organization and the recruitment, training and qualification of personnel for research reactors. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations on meeting the requirements on the operating organization and on personnel for research reactors. It covers the typical operating organization for research reactor facilities; the recruitment process and qualification in terms of education, training and experience; programmes for initial and continuing training; the authorization process for those individuals having an immediate bearing on safety; and the processes for their requalification and reauthorization

  5. Beyond Traditional Newspaper Advertisement: Leveraging Facebook-Targeted Advertisement to Recruit Long-Term Smokers for Research

    OpenAIRE

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Bartlett Ellis, Rebecca; Warrick, Adam; Rawl, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokers are a stigmatized population, but an important population to reach for the purpose of research. Therefore, innovative recruitment methods are needed that are both cost-effective and efficacious in recruiting this population. Objective The aim of the present article was to evaluate the feasibility of Facebook-targeted advertisement to recruit long-term smokers eligible for lung cancer screening for a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Methods A social media recruitment cam...

  6. Strategies for research recruitment and retention of older adults of racial and ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Graham J; Simpson, Gaynell; Friend, Mary Louanne

    2015-05-01

    racial and ethnic minorities in cognitive aging research. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose. The numbers of Hispanic and African American older adults in the United States are expected to increase by 86% and more than 31%, respectively. African American and Hispanic American individuals are more likely than Caucasian individuals to have chronic health conditions, and researchers have argued that these health disparities may contribute to their higher rates of dementia-related illnesses. The current article explores strategies to improve participation in cognitive aging research by older adults, particularly minority older adults. The cultural aspects of cognitive aging are examined, especially the role of stigma and stereotype threat. The perceptions of cognitive aging of African American and Hispanic older adults are also described. Specific strategies are presented that have been successfully implemented to improve recruitment and retention in research targeting minority older adults. Strategies that yielded retention of minority older adults included advertising and marketing a randomized clinical trial, media relations, intervention tailoring, and adaptation of psychometric instruments. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Using Google AdWords for international multilingual recruitment to health research websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Margaret S; Liu, Nancy H; Contreras, Omar; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Leykin, Yan

    2014-01-20

    Google AdWords, the placement of sponsored links in Google search results, is a potent method of recruitment to Internet-based health studies and interventions. However, the performance of Google AdWords varies considerably depending on the language and the location of the target audience. Our goal was to describe differences in AdWords performance when recruiting participants to the same study conducted in four languages and to determine whether AdWords campaigns can be optimized in order to increase recruitment while decreasing costs. Google AdWords were used to recruit participants to the Mood Screener, a multilingual online depression screening tool available in English, Russian, Spanish, and Chinese. Two distinct recruitment periods are described: (1) "Unmanaged", a 6-month period in which ads were allowed to run using only the AdWords tool itself, with no human intervention, and (2) "Managed", a separate 7-week period during which we systematically sought to optimize our recruitment campaigns. During 6 months of unmanaged recruitment, our ads were shown over 1.3 million times, resulting in over 60,000 site visits. The average click-through rate (ratio of ads clicked to ads displayed) varied from 1.86% for Chinese ads to 8.48% for Russian ads, as did the average cost-per-click (from US $0.20 for Chinese ads to US $0.50 for English ads). Although Chinese speakers' click-through rate was lowest, their rate of consenting to participate was the highest, at 3.62%, with English speakers exhibiting the lowest consent rate (0.97%). The conversion cost (cost to recruit a consenting participant) varied from US $10.80 for Russian speakers to US $51.88 for English speakers. During the 7 weeks of "managed" recruitment, we attempted to improve AdWords' performance in regards to the consent rate and cost by systematically deleting underperforming ads and adjusting keywords. We were able to increase the number of people who consent after coming to the site by 91.8% while also

  8. Ethics and Privacy Implications of Using the Internet and Social Media to Recruit Participants for Health Research: A Privacy-by-Design Framework for Online Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jacqueline Lorene; Cyr, Alaina B; Arbuckle, Luk; Ferris, Lorraine E

    2017-04-06

    The Internet and social media offer promising ways to improve the reach, efficiency, and effectiveness of recruitment efforts at a reasonable cost, but raise unique ethical dilemmas. We describe how we used social media to recruit cancer patients and family caregivers for a research study, the ethical issues we encountered, and the strategies we developed to address them. Drawing on the principles of Privacy by Design (PbD), a globally recognized standard for privacy protection, we aimed to develop a PbD framework for online health research recruitment. We proposed a focus group study on the dietary behaviors of cancer patients and their families, and the role of Web-based dietary self-management tools. Using an established blog on our hospital website, we proposed publishing a recruitment post and sharing the link on our Twitter and Facebook pages. The Research Ethics Board (REB) raised concern about the privacy risks associated with our recruitment strategy; by clicking on a recruitment post, an individual could inadvertently disclose personal health information to third-party companies engaged in tracking online behavior. The REB asked us to revise our social media recruitment strategy with the following questions in mind: (1) How will you inform users about the potential for privacy breaches and their implications? and (2) How will you protect users from privacy breaches or inadvertently sharing potentially identifying information about themselves? Ethical guidelines recommend a proportionate approach to ethics assessment, which advocates for risk mitigation strategies that are proportional to the magnitude and probability of risks. We revised our social media recruitment strategy to inform users about privacy risks and to protect their privacy, while at the same time meeting our recruitment objectives. We provide a critical reflection of the perceived privacy risks associated with our social media recruitment strategy and the appropriateness of the risk

  9. "You Have to Approach Us Right": A Qualitative Framework Analysis for Recruiting African Americans into mHealth Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C. S.; Harville, Cedric, II; Efunbumi, Orisatalabi; Babazadeh, Ida; Ali, Sheriza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite the high ownership of smartphones, African Americans (AAs) remain underrepresented in health research and specifically mobile health (mHealth) research. This may be due to ineffective recruitment efforts. Purpose: To explore strategies for recruiting AAs into mHealth research and examine how these strategies may vary by gender…

  10. Barriers and facilitators to recruitment of physicians and practices for primary care health services research at one centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogg William

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While some research has been conducted examining recruitment methods to engage physicians and practices in primary care research, further research is needed on recruitment methodology as it remains a recurrent challenge and plays a crucial role in primary care research. This paper reviews recruitment strategies, common challenges, and innovative practices from five recent primary care health services research studies in Ontario, Canada. Methods We used mixed qualitative and quantitative methods to gather data from investigators and/or project staff from five research teams. Team members were interviewed and asked to fill out a brief survey on recruitment methods, results, and challenges encountered during a recent or ongoing project involving primary care practices or physicians. Data analysis included qualitative analysis of interview notes and descriptive statistics generated for each study. Results Recruitment rates varied markedly across the projects despite similar initial strategies. Common challenges and creative solutions were reported by many of the research teams, including building a sampling frame, developing front-office rapport, adapting recruitment strategies, promoting buy-in and interest in the research question, and training a staff recruiter. Conclusions Investigators must continue to find effective ways of reaching and involving diverse and representative samples of primary care providers and practices by building personal connections with, and buy-in from, potential participants. Flexible recruitment strategies and an understanding of the needs and interests of potential participants may also facilitate recruitment.

  11. Barriers and facilitators to recruitment of physicians and practices for primary care health services research at one centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sharon; Liddy, Clare; Hogg, William; Donskov, Melissa; Russell, Grant; Gyorfi-Dyke, Elizabeth

    2010-12-13

    While some research has been conducted examining recruitment methods to engage physicians and practices in primary care research, further research is needed on recruitment methodology as it remains a recurrent challenge and plays a crucial role in primary care research. This paper reviews recruitment strategies, common challenges, and innovative practices from five recent primary care health services research studies in Ontario, Canada. We used mixed qualitative and quantitative methods to gather data from investigators and/or project staff from five research teams. Team members were interviewed and asked to fill out a brief survey on recruitment methods, results, and challenges encountered during a recent or ongoing project involving primary care practices or physicians. Data analysis included qualitative analysis of interview notes and descriptive statistics generated for each study. Recruitment rates varied markedly across the projects despite similar initial strategies. Common challenges and creative solutions were reported by many of the research teams, including building a sampling frame, developing front-office rapport, adapting recruitment strategies, promoting buy-in and interest in the research question, and training a staff recruiter. Investigators must continue to find effective ways of reaching and involving diverse and representative samples of primary care providers and practices by building personal connections with, and buy-in from, potential participants. Flexible recruitment strategies and an understanding of the needs and interests of potential participants may also facilitate recruitment.

  12. Challenges and strategies pertaining to recruitment and retention of frail elderly in research studies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Véronique; Mortenson, W Ben; Tanguay-Garneau, Laurence; Bélanger, Karine; Dagenais, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of frail elderly in research studies can be difficult. To identify challenges and strategies pertaining to recruitment and retention of frail elderly in research studies. A systematic review was conducted. Four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, AgeLine, Embase) were searched from January 1992 to December 2012. Empirical studies were included if they explored barriers to or strategies for recruitment or retention of adults aged 60-plus who were identified as frail, vulnerable or housebound. Two researchers independently determined the eligibility of each abstract reviewed and assessed the level of evidence presented. Data concerning challenges encountered (type and impact) and strategies used (type and impact) were abstracted. Of 916 articles identified in the searches, 15 met the inclusion criteria. The level of evidence of the studies retained varied from poor to good. Lack of perceived benefit, distrust of research staff, poor health and mobility problems were identified as common challenges. The most frequently reported strategies used were to establish a partnership with staff that participants knew and trusted, and be flexible about the time and place of the study. However, few studies performed analyses to compare the impact of specific challenges and strategies on refusal or drop-out rates. This review highlights the need to improve knowledge about the impact of barriers and strategies on recruitment and retention of frail older adults. This knowledge will help to develop innovative and cost-effective ways to increase and maintain participation, which may improve the generalizability of research findings to this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Constructing a Local Potential Participant Registry to Improve Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Research Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Joshua D; Hoang, Dan; Gillen, Daniel L; Cox, Chelsea G; Gombosev, Adrijana; Klein, Kirsten; O'Leary, Steve; Witbracht, Megan; Pierce, Aimee

    2018-01-01

    Potential participant registries are tools to address the challenge of slow recruitment to clinical research. In particular, registries may aid recruitment to secondary prevention clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which enroll cognitively normal older individuals meeting specific genetic or biomarker criteria. Evidence of registry effectiveness is sparse, as is guidance on optimal designs or methods of conduct. We report our experiences of developing a novel local potential participant registry that implemented online enrollment and data collection. In the first year of operation, 957 individuals submitted email addresses to the registry, of whom 592 self-reported demographic, family history, and medical data. In addition, registrants provided information related to their interest and willingness to be contacted about studies. Local earned media and community education were the most effective methods of recruitment into the registry. Seventy-six (26%) of 298 registrants contacted about studies in the first year enrolled in those studies. One hundred twenty-nine registrants were invited to enroll in a preclinical AD trial, of whom 25 (18%) screened and 6 were randomized. These results indicate that registries can aid recruitment and provide needed guidance for investigators initiating new local registries.

  14. The Use of Facebook in Recruiting Participants for Health Research Purposes: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Christopher; Stevelink, Sharon; Fear, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social media is a popular online tool that allows users to communicate and exchange information. It allows digitalcontent such as pictures, videos and websites to be shared, discussed, republished and endorsed by its users, their friends andbusinesses. Adverts can be posted and promoted to specific target audiences by demographics such as region, age or gender.Recruiting for health research is complex with strict requirement criteria imposed on the participants. Traditional resear...

  15. Use of a social networking web site for recruiting Canadian youth for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jennifer L; Snider, Carolyn E

    2013-06-01

    The use of advertising on Facebook for medical research is not widely utilized, and we sought to describe the effectiveness of this tool in medical research recruitment. A survey study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Canadian youth who were affected by violence. Participants were recruited from an advertisement on Facebook that targeted Canadian users aged 15 to 24 years and linked them to an online survey. This secondary analysis is a descriptive study of the effectiveness of the Facebook campaign. Over the course of the study, the advertisement was displayed 17.5 million times resulting in 3,440 clicks on the link to the survey (.020%). The overall cost worked out to $15.35 per final subject, totaling $1351.17. Facebook advertising is a cost-effective method of recruiting youth from a wide population. There are many potential uses for social networking in medical research. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Trust Building Recruitment Strategies for Researchers Conducting Studies in African American (AA) Churches: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Gloria; Williams, Sharon; Wilkie, Diana; Hart, Alysha; Burnett, Glenda; Peacock, Geraldine

    2017-12-01

    An initial and vital important step in recruiting participants for church-based hospice and palliative care research is the establishment of trust and credibility within the church community. Mistrust of medical research is an extremely important barrier hindering recruitment in African American (AA) communities. A church-based EOL dementia education project is currently being conducted at four large urban AA churches. Church leaders voiced mistrust concerns of previous researchers who conducted investigations in their faith-based institutions. We explored strategies to ameliorate the mistrust concerns. Specific aim: To identify trust-rebuilding elements for researchers following others who violated trust of AA church leaders. Face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted from a convenient sample of four established AA church leaders. Interviews were held in the informants' churches to promote candor and comfort in revealing sensitive information about trust /mistrust. Content analysis framework was used to analyze the data. Elements identified from the analysis were then used to create themes. Multidimensional overarching themes emerged from the analysis included: Experience with researchers (positive and extremely negative), violation of trust and trust building strategies. Findings suggest that researchers who wish to conduct successful studies in the AA religious institutions must implement trust rebuilding strategies that include mutual respect, collaboration and partnership building. If general moral practices continue to be violated, threat to future hospice and palliative care research within the institutions may prevail. Thus, potential benefits are thwarted for the church members, AA community, and advancement of EOL care scholarship.

  17. A cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of eHealth-supported patient recruitment in primary care research: the TRANSFoRm study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellos, Nikolaos; Andreasson, Anna; Huckvale, Kit; Larsen, Mark; Curcin, Vasa; Car, Josip; Agreus, Lars; Delaney, Brendan

    2015-02-03

    Opportunistic recruitment is a highly laborious and time-consuming process that is currently performed manually, increasing the workload of already busy practitioners and resulting in many studies failing to achieve their recruitment targets. The Translational Medicine and Patient Safety in Europe (TRANSFoRm) platform enables automated recruitment, data collection and follow-up of patients, potentially improving the efficiency, time and costs of clinical research. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of TRANSFoRm in improving patient recruitment and follow-up in primary care trials. This multi-centre, parallel-arm cluster randomised controlled trial will compare TRANSFoRm-supported with standard opportunistic recruitment. Participants will be general practitioners and patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease from 40 primary care centres in five European countries. Randomisation will take place at the care centre level. The intervention arm will use the TRANSFoRm tools for recruitment, baseline data collection and follow-up. The control arm will use web-based case report forms and paper self-completed questionnaires. The primary outcome will be the proportion of eligible patients successfully recruited at the end of the 16-week recruitment period. Secondary outcomes will include the proportion of recruited patients with complete baseline and follow-up data and the proportion of participants withdrawn or lost to follow-up. The study will also include an economic evaluation and measures of technology acceptance and user experience. The study should shed light on the use of eHealth to improve the effectiveness of recruitment and follow-up in primary care research and provide an evidence base for future eHealth-supported recruitment initiatives. Reporting of results is expected in October 2015. EudraCT: 2014-001314-25.

  18. Mycorrhizal symbiosis increases growth, reproduction and recruitment of Abutilon theophrasti Medic. in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Margot R; Koide, Roger T; Shumway, Durland L

    1993-05-01

    We examined in the field the effect of the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorhizal symbiosis on the reproductive success of Abutilon theophrasti Medic., an early successional annual member of the Malvaceae. Mycorrhizal infection greatly enhanced vegetative growth, and flower, fruit and seed production, resulting in significantly greater recruitment the following year. In addition, the seeds produced by mycorrhizal plants were significantly larger and contained significantly more phosphorus than seeds from non-mycorrhizal plants, an effect which may improve offspring vigor. Infection by mycorrhizal fungi may thus contribute to the overall fitness of a host plant and strongly influence long-term plant population dynamics.

  19. Developing Online Recruitment and Retention Methods for HIV Prevention Research Among Adolescent Males Who Are Interested in Sex with Males: Interviews with Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Ramirez, Jaime J; Carey, Michael P

    2017-12-21

    Adolescent males interested in sex with males (AMSM) are an important audience for HIV prevention interventions, but they are difficult to reach due to their age and social stigma. We aim to identify efficient methods to recruit and retain AMSM in online research. Interviews with 14-to-18-year-old AMSM (N=16) were conducted at 2017 Pride events in Boston, MA and Providence, RI. Participants reported that (1) social media platforms are viable recruitment venues; (2) recruitment advertisements should describe the study using colorful/bright pictures, familiar words, and information about compensation; (3) surveys should be recruitment and retention procedures to increase the efficiency of HIV prevention research for this at-risk group. ©Kimberly M Nelson, Jaime J Ramirez, Michael P Carey. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 21.12.2017.

  20. Strategic Planning for Recruitment and Retention of Older African Americans in Health Promotion Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreer, Laura E; Weston, June; Owsley, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) describe a strategic plan for recruitment and retention used in conducting eye health education research with African-Americans living in urban and rural areas of Alabama and 2) characterize recruitment and retention patterns for this community-based project. We evaluated an eye health education program tailored specifically to older African Americans. InCHARGE© was designed to promote eye disease prevention by conveying the personal benefits of annual, dilated, comprehensive eye care and teaching strategies to minimize barriers to regular eye care. The InCHARGE© program or a social contact control program was delivered at 20 senior centers in predominately African American urban and rural communities. From pooled data across three studies, 380 African Americans completed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes/beliefs about eye disease and eye care before the program and by telephone at either 3 or 6 months after the presentation. The project consisted of 4 phases and a total of 10 strategic objectives for recruitment as well as retention of older African Americans that were implemented in a systematic fashion. Overall, retention rates for follow-up at either 3 or 6 months were 75% and 66% respectively. African Americans from rural areas were more likely to be lost to follow-up compared to those from urban areas. We discuss the benefits of utilizing a strategic plan that serves to address problems with underrepresentation of minorities in clinical research.

  1. Why is it so difficult to recruit patients to research in emergency care? Lessons from the AHEAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rowena; Kuczawski, Maxine; Mason, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    In February 2014, all 23 National Institute for Health Research medical research specialities were failing to meet recruitment targets, with 'Injuries and Emergencies' research performing particularly poorly. In this paper, the multicentre AHEAD study was used to explore issues surrounding recruitment in UK emergency departments. The AHEAD study investigated management and outcomes in over 3000 anticoagulated patients who suffered a head injury. Data from the study were used to compare patient recruitment at 33 Type-1 emergency departments. A questionnaire was sent to a research nurse at each of these sites and 30 replied (91% response rate). The survey investigated the difficulties encountered during patient recruitment and whether these were related to recruitment methods. More detailed interviews were conducted with three research nurses, to gain further insight into the barriers and facilitators involved. Overall recruitment varied widely between sites with an eightfold variation in recruitment rates. Population demographics and other uncontrollable factors will partly contribute to this variation. However, research nurses reported many problems, including site resources, lack of staff engagement and flaws in recruitment strategies, which could be improved. Many of the barriers to recruiting patients for research studies encountered by research nurses have previously been reported in the literature, but there remain consistent problems. Until solutions are found, researchers will continue to miss recruitment targets and this will have implications for the efficiency and quality of emergency medicine research in the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Effective Recruiting and Intrusive Retention Strategies for Diversifying the Geosciences through a Research Experiences for Undergraduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou-Mark, J.; Blake, R.; Norouzi, H.; Yuen-Lau, L.; Ikramova, M.

    2016-12-01

    Worse than in most Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields, underrepresented minority (URM) groups in the geosciences are reported to be farthest beneath the national benchmarks. Even more alarming, the geosciences have the lowest diversity of all the STEM disciplines at all three levels of higher education. In order to increase the number of underrepresented groups in the geosciences, a National Science Foundation funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program at the New York City College of Technology has implemented effective recruitment strategies to attract and retain diverse student cohorts. Recruitment efforts include: 1) establishing partnership with the local community colleges; 2) forging collaborations with scientists of color; 3) reaching out to the geoscience departments; and 4) forming relationships with STEM organizations. Unlike the other REU programs which primarily provide a summer-only research experience, this REU program engages students in a year-long research experience. Students begin their research in the summer for nine weeks, and they continue their research one day a week in the fall and spring semesters. During the academic year, they present their projects at conferences. They also serve as STEM ambassadors to community and high school outreach events. This one-year triad connection of 1) professional organizations/conferences, 2) continual research experience, and 3) service constituent has resulted in higher retention and graduation rates of URMs in the STEM disciplines. Both formative and summative program assessment have uncovered and shown that strong recruitment efforts accompanied by intrusive retention strategies are essential to: a) sustain and support STEM URMs in developing confidence as scientists; b) create formal and informal STEM communities; and c) provide a clear pathway to advanced degrees and to the geoscience workforce. This project is supported by NSF REU Grant #1560050.

  3. Recruitment of ethnic minorities for public health research: An interpretive synthesis of experiences from six interlinked Danish studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Vitus, Kathrine; Ditlevsen, Kia; TØrslev, Mette Kirstine; Kristiansen, Maria

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational settings as sites for recruitment. Inspired by interpretive reviewing, data on recruitment methods from the different studies were synthesized with a focus on the various levels of recruitment success achieved. This involved an iterative process of comparison, analysis and discussion of experiences among the researchers involved. Success in recruitment seemed to depend partly on recruitment site. Using healthcare facilities as the recruitment site and healthcare professionals as gatekeepers was less efficient than using schools and employees from educational institutions. Successful study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite their interest in high-quality health research into all population groups, fail to facilitate research access to some of the most disadvantaged groups, who need to be included in order to understand the mechanisms behind health disparities. This happens despite the genuine wish of many healthcare professionals to help facilitate such research. In this way, the findings indirectly emphasize the specific challenge of accessing more vulnerable and sick groups in research studies.

  4. A Diversified Recruitment Approach Incorporating Social Media Leads to Research Participation Among Young Adult-Aged Female Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R; Roberts, Samantha C; Dominick, Sally A; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Dietz, Andrew C; Su, H Irene

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer survivors in their adolescent and young adult (AYA) years are an understudied population, possibly in part because of the high effort required to recruit them into research studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the specific recruitment strategies used in four studies recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors and to identify the highest yielding approaches. We also discuss challenges and recommendations. Methods: We recruited AYA-aged female cancer survivors for two studies conducted locally and two conducted nationally. Recruitment strategies included outreach and referral via: healthcare providers and clinics; social media and the internet; community and word of mouth; and a national fertility information hotline. We calculated the yield of each recruitment approach for the local and national studies by comparing the number that participated to the number of potential participants. Results: We recruited a total of 534 participants into four research studies. Seventy-one percent were diagnosed as young adults and 61% were within 3 years of their cancer diagnosis. The highest-yielding local recruitment strategy was healthcare provider and clinic referral. Nationally, social media and internet outreach yielded the highest rate of participation. Overall, internet-based recruitment resulted in the highest number and yield of participants. Conclusion: Our results suggest that outreach through social media and the internet are effective approaches to recruiting AYA-aged female cancer survivors. Forging collaborative relationships with survivor advocacy groups' members and healthcare providers also proved beneficial.

  5. Web-based recruiting for health research using a social networking site: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Yeshe; Garland, Suzanne M; Moore, Elya E; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Fletcher, Ashley; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Gunasekaran, Bharathy; Wark, John D

    2012-02-01

    Recruitment of young people for health research by traditional methods has become more expensive and challenging over recent decades. The Internet presents an opportunity for innovative recruitment modalities. To assess the feasibility of recruiting young females using targeted advertising on the social networking site Facebook. We placed an advertisement on Facebook from May to September 2010, inviting 16- to 25-year-old females from Victoria, Australia, to participate in a health study. Those who clicked on the advertisement were redirected to the study website and were able to express interest by submitting their contact details online. They were contacted by a researcher who assessed eligibility and invited them to complete a health-related survey, which they could do confidentially and securely either at the study site or remotely online. A total of 551 females responded to the advertisement, of whom 426 agreed to participate, with 278 completing the survey (139 at the study site and 139 remotely). Respondents' age distribution was representative of the target population, while 18- to 25-year-olds were more likely to be enrolled in the study and complete the survey than 16- to 17-year-olds (prevalence ratio=1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.78, P=.02). The broad geographic distribution (major city, inner regional, and outer regional/remote) and socioeconomic profile of participants matched the target population. Predictors of participation were older age, higher education level, and higher body mass index. Average cost in advertising fees per compliant participant was US $20, making this highly cost effective. Results demonstrate the potential of using modern information and communication technologies to engage young women in health research and penetrate into nonurban communities. The success of this method has implications for future medical and population research in this and other demographics.

  6. Web-Based Recruiting for Health Research Using a Social Networking Site: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Yeshe; Garland, Suzanne M; Moore, Elya E; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Fletcher, Ashley; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Gunasekaran, Bharathy

    2012-01-01

    Background Recruitment of young people for health research by traditional methods has become more expensive and challenging over recent decades. The Internet presents an opportunity for innovative recruitment modalities. Objective To assess the feasibility of recruiting young females using targeted advertising on the social networking site Facebook. Methods We placed an advertisement on Facebook from May to September 2010, inviting 16- to 25-year-old females from Victoria, Australia, to participate in a health study. Those who clicked on the advertisement were redirected to the study website and were able to express interest by submitting their contact details online. They were contacted by a researcher who assessed eligibility and invited them to complete a health-related survey, which they could do confidentially and securely either at the study site or remotely online. Results A total of 551 females responded to the advertisement, of whom 426 agreed to participate, with 278 completing the survey (139 at the study site and 139 remotely). Respondents’ age distribution was representative of the target population, while 18- to 25-year-olds were more likely to be enrolled in the study and complete the survey than 16- to 17-year-olds (prevalence ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.78, P = .02). The broad geographic distribution (major city, inner regional, and outer regional/remote) and socioeconomic profile of participants matched the target population. Predictors of participation were older age, higher education level, and higher body mass index. Average cost in advertising fees per compliant participant was US $20, making this highly cost effective. Conclusions Results demonstrate the potential of using modern information and communication technologies to engage young women in health research and penetrate into nonurban communities. The success of this method has implications for future medical and population research in this and other demographics

  7. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Adult Veterans: Online Mental Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Veteran research has primarily been conducted with clinical samples and those already involved in health care systems, but much is to be learned about veterans in the community. Facebook is a novel yet largely unexplored avenue for recruiting veteran participants for epidemiological and clinical studies. Objective In this study, we utilized Facebook to recruit a sample of young adult veterans for the first phase of an online alcohol intervention study. We describe the successful Facebook recruitment process, including data collection from over 1000 veteran participants in approximately 3 weeks, procedures to verify participation eligibility, and comparison of our sample with nationally available norms. Methods Participants were young adult veterans aged 18-34 recruited through Facebook as part of a large study to document normative drinking behavior among a large community sample of veterans. Facebook ads were targeted toward young veterans to collect information on demographics and military characteristics, health behaviors, mental health, and health care utilization. Results We obtained a sample of 1023 verified veteran participants over a period of 24 days for the advertising price of approximately US $7.05 per verified veteran participant. Our recruitment strategy yielded a sample similar to the US population of young adult veterans in most demographic areas except for race/ethnicity and previous branch of service, which when we weighted the sample on race/ethnicity and branch a sample better matched with the population data was obtained. The Facebook sample recruited veterans who were engaged in a variety of risky health behaviors such as binge drinking and marijuana use. One fourth of veterans had never since discharge been to an appointment for physical health care and about half had attended an appointment for service compensation review. Only half had attended any appointment for a mental health concern at any clinic or hospital. Despite more

  8. Using facebook to recruit young adult veterans: online mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Helmuth, Eric D; Marshall, Grant N; Schell, Terry L; PunKay, Marc; Kurz, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Veteran research has primarily been conducted with clinical samples and those already involved in health care systems, but much is to be learned about veterans in the community. Facebook is a novel yet largely unexplored avenue for recruiting veteran participants for epidemiological and clinical studies. In this study, we utilized Facebook to recruit a sample of young adult veterans for the first phase of an online alcohol intervention study. We describe the successful Facebook recruitment process, including data collection from over 1000 veteran participants in approximately 3 weeks, procedures to verify participation eligibility, and comparison of our sample with nationally available norms. Participants were young adult veterans aged 18-34 recruited through Facebook as part of a large study to document normative drinking behavior among a large community sample of veterans. Facebook ads were targeted toward young veterans to collect information on demographics and military characteristics, health behaviors, mental health, and health care utilization. We obtained a sample of 1023 verified veteran participants over a period of 24 days for the advertising price of approximately US $7.05 per verified veteran participant. Our recruitment strategy yielded a sample similar to the US population of young adult veterans in most demographic areas except for race/ethnicity and previous branch of service, which when we weighted the sample on race/ethnicity and branch a sample better matched with the population data was obtained. The Facebook sample recruited veterans who were engaged in a variety of risky health behaviors such as binge drinking and marijuana use. One fourth of veterans had never since discharge been to an appointment for physical health care and about half had attended an appointment for service compensation review. Only half had attended any appointment for a mental health concern at any clinic or hospital. Despite more than half screening positive for

  9. Cortactin deficiency is associated with reduced neutrophil recruitment but increased vascular permeability in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoor, Michael; Lai, Frank P L; Zarbock, Alexander; Kläver, Ruth; Polaschegg, Christian; Schulte, Dörte; Weich, Herbert A; Oelkers, J Margit; Rottner, Klemens; Vestweber, Dietmar

    2011-08-01

    Neutrophil extravasation and the regulation of vascular permeability require dynamic actin rearrangements in the endothelium. In this study, we analyzed in vivo whether these processes require the function of the actin nucleation-promoting factor cortactin. Basal vascular permeability for high molecular weight substances was enhanced in cortactin-deficient mice. Despite this leakiness, neutrophil extravasation in the tumor necrosis factor-stimulated cremaster was inhibited by the loss of cortactin. The permeability defect was caused by reduced levels of activated Rap1 (Ras-related protein 1) in endothelial cells and could be rescued by activating Rap1 via the guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) exchange factor EPAC (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP). The defect in neutrophil extravasation was caused by enhanced rolling velocity and reduced adhesion in postcapillary venules. Impaired rolling interactions were linked to contributions of β(2)-integrin ligands, and firm adhesion was compromised by reduced ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) clustering around neutrophils. A signaling process known to be critical for the formation of ICAM-1-enriched contact areas and for transendothelial migration, the ICAM-1-mediated activation of the GTPase RhoG was blocked in cortactin-deficient endothelial cells. Our results represent the first physiological evidence that cortactin is crucial for orchestrating the molecular events leading to proper endothelial barrier function and leukocyte recruitment in vivo.

  10. Use of community engagement strategies to increase research participation in practice-based research networks (PBRNs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, William; Tsoh, Janice Y; Potter, Michael B; Weller, Nancy; Brown, Anthony E; Campbell-Voytal, Kimberly; Getrich, Christina M; Sussman, Andrew L; Pascoe, John; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) are increasingly encouraged to use community engagement approaches. The extent to which PBRNs engage clinic and community partners in strategies to recruit and retain participants from their local communities (specifically racial/ethnic communities) is the focus of this study. The design was a cross-sectional survey of PBRN directors in the United States. Survey respondents indicated whether their research network planned for, implemented, and has capacity for activities that engage clinic and community partners in 7 recommended strategies organized into study phases, called the cycle of trust. The objectives of the national survey were to (1) describe the extent to which PBRNs across the United States routinely implement the strategies recommended for recruiting diverse patient groups and (2) identify factors associated with implementing the recommended strategies. The survey response rate was 63%. Activities that build trust often are used more with clinic partners than with community partners. PBRNs that adopt engagement strategies when working with clinic and community partners have less difficulty in recruiting diverse populations. Multivariate analysis showed that the targeting racial/ethnic communities for study recruitment, Clinical and Translational Science Award affiliation, and planning to use community engagement strategies were independent correlates of PBRN implementation of the recommended strategies. PBRNs that successfully engage racial/ethnic communities as research partners use community engagement strategies. New commitments are needed to support PBRN researchers in developing relationships with the communities in which their patients live. Stable PBRN infrastructure funding that appreciates the value of maintaining community engagement between funded studies is critical to the research enterprise that values translating research findings into generalizable care models for patients in the community.

  11. PTSD symptom severity is associated with increased recruitment of top-down attentional control in a trauma-exposed sample

    OpenAIRE

    White, Stuart F.; Costanzo, Michelle E.; Blair, James R.; Roy, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent neuroimaging work suggests that increased amygdala responses to emotional stimuli and dysfunction within regions mediating top down attentional control (dorsomedial frontal, lateral frontal and parietal cortices) may be associated with the emergence of anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This report examines amygdala responsiveness to emotional stimuli and the recruitment of top down attention systems as a function of task demands in a populat...

  12. How to Engage Occupational Physicians in Recruitment of Research Participants : A Mixed-Methods Study of Challenges and Opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; Bultmann, Ute; Shaw, William S.; van Rhenen, Willem; Roelen, Corne; Nielsen, Karina; van der Klink, Jac J. L.

    Purpose To investigate barriers and facilitators for research participant recruitment by occupational physicians (OPs). Methods A mixed-methods approach was used. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with OPs to explore perceived barriers and facilitators for recruitment. Based on data of a

  13. How to engage occupational physicians in recruitment of research participants : A mixed-methods study of challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, I; et al.,; Shaw, W.S.; Bültmann, U.; Rhenen, van W.; Roelen, C.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate barriers and facilitators for research participant recruitment by occupational physicians (OPs). Methods A mixed-methods approach was used. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with OPs to explore perceived barriers and facilitators for recruitment. Based on data of a

  14. A Method for Recruiting Participants from Isolated Islands of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) for Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Sheena; Koopman-Boyden, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Representing isolated small island communities through social survey research continues to be challenging. We examine a locally developed method to reach and recruit older people (65+ years) for a survey on well-being in the small island developing state of Maldives. The use of messengers to recruit participants is examined in the context of these…

  15. Schizophrenia research participants' responses to protocol safeguards: recruitment, consent, and debriefing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D; Anderson, Charles T; Smithpeter, Megan V; Rogers, Melinda K

    2004-04-01

    To examine the perspectives and preferences regarding ethically important aspects of recruitment, consent, and debriefing of people with schizophrenia who volunteered for research protocols. A structured interview to assess research-related views of people with schizophrenia was developed and piloted. Data collection occurred at three sites. For this analysis, we examined the subset of responses from schizophrenia patients currently enrolled in a protocol. Data from 28 schizophrenia research volunteers were analyzed. Of these, 22 were men and 11 were voluntary inpatients. Most (n=23) recalled speaking with someone before enrolling in the protocol, and most (n=26) reported trusting the person who told them about it. Participants reported a moderate understanding of their protocols. All but one person (n=27) remembered signing a consent form. Twenty-one volunteers indicated that consent forms are meant to help both the patient and the researcher. Most (n=23) reported making the enrollment decision alone, with 22 making this decision prior to reviewing the consent form. The decision was described as relatively easy. Respondents felt some pressure to enroll, with women experiencing more pressure. Debriefing practices were strongly endorsed by participants. All 28 of the volunteers wished to be informed if a health problem (i.e., "something wrong") was discovered during the protocol. The persons living with schizophrenia who were interviewed for this project expressed interesting perspectives and preferences regarding ethically important aspects of recruitment, consent, and debriefing in clinical research that may help guide efforts to make research processes more attuned to participants and merit further inquiry.

  16. Can Facebook Be Used for Research? Experiences Using Facebook to Recruit Pregnant Women for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Laura M; Manca, Donna P; Bell, Rhonda C

    2016-09-21

    Recruitment is often a difficult and costly part of any human research study. Social media and other emerging means of mass communication hold promise as means to complement traditional strategies used for recruiting participants because they can reach a large number of people in a short amount of time. With the ability to target a specified audience, paid Facebook advertisements have potential to reach future research participants of a specific demographic. This paper describes the experiences of a randomized controlled trial in Edmonton, Alberta, attempting to recruit healthy pregnant women between 8 and 20 weeks' gestation for participation in a prenatal study. Various traditional recruitment approaches, in addition to paid Facebook advertisements were trialed. To evaluate the effectiveness of paid advertisements on Facebook as a platform for recruiting pregnant women to a randomized controlled trial in comparison with traditional recruitment approaches. Recruitment using traditional approaches occurred for 7 months, whereas Facebook advertisements ran for a total of 26 days. Interested women were prompted to contact the study staff for a screening call to determine study eligibility. Costs associated with each recruitment approach were recorded and used to calculate the cost to recruit eligible participants. Performance of Facebook advertisements was monitored using Facebook Ads Manager. Of the 115 women included, 39.1% (n=45) of the women who contacted study staff heard about the study through Facebook, whereas 60.9% (n=70) of them heard about it through traditional recruitment approaches. During the 215 days (~7 months) that the traditional approaches were used, the average rate of interest was 0.3 (0.2) women/day, whereas the 26 days of Facebook advertisements resulted in an average rate of interest of 2.8 (1.7) women/day. Facebook advertisements cost Can $506.91 with a cost per eligible participant of Cad $20.28. In comparison, the traditional approaches

  17. Can Facebook Be Used for Research? Experiences Using Facebook to Recruit Pregnant Women for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Laura M; Manca, Donna P

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment is often a difficult and costly part of any human research study. Social media and other emerging means of mass communication hold promise as means to complement traditional strategies used for recruiting participants because they can reach a large number of people in a short amount of time. With the ability to target a specified audience, paid Facebook advertisements have potential to reach future research participants of a specific demographic. This paper describes the experiences of a randomized controlled trial in Edmonton, Alberta, attempting to recruit healthy pregnant women between 8 and 20 weeks’ gestation for participation in a prenatal study. Various traditional recruitment approaches, in addition to paid Facebook advertisements were trialed. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of paid advertisements on Facebook as a platform for recruiting pregnant women to a randomized controlled trial in comparison with traditional recruitment approaches. Methods Recruitment using traditional approaches occurred for 7 months, whereas Facebook advertisements ran for a total of 26 days. Interested women were prompted to contact the study staff for a screening call to determine study eligibility. Costs associated with each recruitment approach were recorded and used to calculate the cost to recruit eligible participants. Performance of Facebook advertisements was monitored using Facebook Ads Manager. Results Of the 115 women included, 39.1% (n=45) of the women who contacted study staff heard about the study through Facebook, whereas 60.9% (n=70) of them heard about it through traditional recruitment approaches. During the 215 days (~7 months) that the traditional approaches were used, the average rate of interest was 0.3 (0.2) women/day, whereas the 26 days of Facebook advertisements resulted in an average rate of interest of 2.8 (1.7) women/day. Facebook advertisements cost Can $506.91 with a cost per eligible participant of Cad $20.28. In

  18. A novel recruiting and surveying method: Participatory research during a Pacific Islander community’s traditional cultural event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Donoho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the health status of Marshallese, a Pacific Islander subpopulation living in the United States. The Marshallese have established a growing community in Northwest Arkansas, providing a unique opportunity for increasing knowledge regarding the health of this minority group. This article describes how a community-based participatory research process was used by a community and university coalition to identify and refine questionnaires and recruit study participants. Questionnaires were self-administered on computers during a one-week traditional cultural event. A total of 874 Marshallese from Arkansas completed the questionnaire, exceeding the goal of 600 respondents. Lessons learned, including the level and timing of involvement of both the leadership and the community at large, are discussed in detail. This approach enhanced communication and collaboration between the Marshallese community, service providers and researchers, resulting in higher participation and interest among the Marshallese community. Keywords: participatory research, minority populations, community health assessment, community coalition, Marshallese

  19. Facilitating the recruitment of minority ethnic people into research: qualitative case study of South Asians and asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Sheikh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There is international interest in enhancing recruitment of minority ethnic people into research, particularly in disease areas with substantial ethnic inequalities. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis found that UK South Asians are at three times increased risk of hospitalisation for asthma when compared to white Europeans. US asthma trials are far more likely to report enrolling minority ethnic people into studies than those conducted in Europe. We investigated approaches to bolster recruitment of South Asians into UK asthma studies through qualitative research with US and UK researchers, and UK community leaders.Interviews were conducted with 36 researchers (19 UK and 17 US from diverse disciplinary backgrounds and ten community leaders from a range of ethnic, religious, and linguistic backgrounds, followed by self-completion questionnaires. Interviews were digitally recorded, translated where necessary, and transcribed. The Framework approach was used for analysis. Barriers to ethnic minority participation revolved around five key themes: (i researchers' own attitudes, which ranged from empathy to antipathy to (in a minority of cases misgivings about the scientific importance of the question under study; (ii stereotypes and prejudices about the difficulties in engaging with minority ethnic populations; (iii the logistical challenges posed by language, cultural differences, and research costs set against the need to demonstrate value for money; (iv the unique contexts of the two countries; and (v poorly developed understanding amongst some minority ethnic leaders of what research entails and aims to achieve. US researchers were considerably more positive than their UK counterparts about the importance and logistics of including ethnic minorities, which appeared to a large extent to reflect the longer-term impact of the National Institutes of Health's requirement to include minority ethnic people.Most researchers and community leaders

  20. Online advertising as a public health and recruitment tool: comparison of different media campaigns to increase demand for smoking cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L; Milner, Pat; Saul, Jessie E; Pfaff, Lillian

    2008-12-15

    To improve the overall impact (reach x efficacy) of cessation treatments and to reduce the population prevalence of smoking, innovative strategies are needed that increase consumer demand for and use of cessation treatments. Given that 12 million people search for smoking cessation information each year, online advertising may represent a cost-efficient approach to reach and recruit online smokers to treatment. Online ads can be implemented in many forms, and surveys consistently show that consumers are receptive. Few studies have examined the potential of online advertising to recruit smokers to cessation treatments. The aims of the study were to (1) demonstrate the feasibility of online advertising as a strategy to increase consumer demand for cessation treatments, (2) illustrate the tools that can be used to track and evaluate the impact of online advertising on treatment utilization, and (3) highlight some of the methodological challenges and future directions for researchers. An observational design was used to examine the impact of online advertising compared to traditional recruitment approaches (billboards, television and radio ads, outdoor advertising, direct mail, and physician detailing) on several dependent variables: (1) number of individuals who enrolled in Web- or telephone-based cessation treatment, (2) the demographic, smoking, and treatment utilization characteristics of smokers recruited to treatment, and (3) the cost to enroll smokers. Several creative approaches to online ads (banner ads, paid search) were tested on national and local websites and search engines. The comparison group was comprised of individuals who registered for Web-based cessation treatment in response to traditional advertising during the same time period. A total of 130,214 individuals responded to advertising during the study period: 23,923 (18.4%) responded to traditional recruitment approaches and 106,291 (81.6%) to online ads. Of those who clicked on an online ad, 9655

  1. Online Advertising as a Public Health and Recruitment Tool: Comparison of Different Media Campaigns to Increase Demand for Smoking Cessation Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Pat; Saul, Jessie E; Pfaff, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Background To improve the overall impact (reach × efficacy) of cessation treatments and to reduce the population prevalence of smoking, innovative strategies are needed that increase consumer demand for and use of cessation treatments. Given that 12 million people search for smoking cessation information each year, online advertising may represent a cost-efficient approach to reach and recruit online smokers to treatment. Online ads can be implemented in many forms, and surveys consistently show that consumers are receptive. Few studies have examined the potential of online advertising to recruit smokers to cessation treatments. Objective The aims of the study were to (1) demonstrate the feasibility of online advertising as a strategy to increase consumer demand for cessation treatments, (2) illustrate the tools that can be used to track and evaluate the impact of online advertising on treatment utilization, and (3) highlight some of the methodological challenges and future directions for researchers. Methods An observational design was used to examine the impact of online advertising compared to traditional recruitment approaches (billboards, television and radio ads, outdoor advertising, direct mail, and physician detailing) on several dependent variables: (1) number of individuals who enrolled in Web- or telephone-based cessation treatment, (2) the demographic, smoking, and treatment utilization characteristics of smokers recruited to treatment, and (3) the cost to enroll smokers. Several creative approaches to online ads (banner ads, paid search) were tested on national and local websites and search engines. The comparison group was comprised of individuals who registered for Web-based cessation treatment in response to traditional advertising during the same time period. Results A total of 130,214 individuals responded to advertising during the study period: 23,923 (18.4%) responded to traditional recruitment approaches and 106,291 (81.6%) to online ads. Of

  2. Increased Risk of Upper Respiratory Infection in Military Recruits Who Report Sleeping Less Than 6 h per night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Laurel M; Ward, Mark D; Potter, Claire; Oliver, Samuel J; Jackson, Sarah; Izard, Rachel M; Greeves, Julie P; Walsh, Neil P

    2018-05-09

    Professional sleep associations recommend 7-9 h of sleep per night for young adults. Habitually sleeping less than 6 h per night has been shown to increase susceptibility to common cold in otherwise healthy, adult civilians. However, no investigations have examined the importance of sleep duration on upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and loss of training days in military recruits. The purpose of this study was to describe self-reported sleep duration in a large cohort of military recruits and to assess the relationship between reported sleep duration and incidence of URTI's. We hypothesized that recruits who reported sleeping less than the recommended 7-9 h per night during training suffered a greater incidence of URTI and, as a consequence, lost more training days compared with recruits who met sleep recommendations. Participants included 651 British Army recruits aged 22 ± 3 yr who completed 13 wk of basic military training (67% males, 33% females). Participants were members of 21 platoons (11 male, 10 female) who commenced training across four seasons (19% winter, 20% spring, 29% summer, and 32% autumn). At the start and completion of training, participants completed a questionnaire asking the typical time they went to sleep and awoke. Incidence of physician-diagnosed URTI and lost training days due to URTI were retrieved from medical records. Self-reported sleep duration decreased from before to during training (8.5 ± 1.6 vs. 7.0 ± 0.8 h; p h sleep per night; however, this increased to 38% during training (X2 = 3.8; p= 0.05). Overall, 49 participants (8%) were diagnosed by a physician with at least one URTI and 3 participants (h per night during training were four times more likely to be diagnosed with URTI compared with participants who slept 7-9 h per night in a logistic regression model (OR 4.4; 95% CI, 1.5-12.9, p h per night were four times more likely to be diagnosed with an URTI and lost more training days due to URTI. Since sleep restriction

  3. Recruiting Hard-to-Reach Populations for Survey Research: Using Facebook and Instagram Advertisements and In-Person Intercept in LGBT Bars and Nightclubs to Recruit LGBT Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Wiant, Kristine F; Farrelly, Matthew; Fiacco, Leah; Alam, Ishrat; Hoffman, Leah; Crankshaw, Erik; Delahanty, Janine; Alexander, Tesfa N

    2018-06-18

    Tobacco public education campaigns focus increasingly on hard-to-reach populations at higher risk for smoking, prompting campaign creators and evaluators to develop strategies to reach hard-to-reach populations in virtual and physical spaces where they spend time. The aim of this study was to describe two novel recruitment strategies (in-person intercept interviews in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender [LGBT] social venues and targeted social media ads) and compares characteristics of participants recruited via these strategies for the US Food and Drug Administration's This Free Life campaign evaluation targeting LGBT young adults who smoke cigarettes occasionally. We recruited LGBT adults aged 18-24 years in the United States via Facebook and Instagram ads (N=1709, mean age 20.94, SD 1.94) or intercept in LGBT social venues (N=2348, mean age 21.98, SD 1.69) for the baseline evaluation survey. Covariates related to recruitment strategy were age; race or ethnicity; LGBT identity; education; pride event attendance; and alcohol, cigarette, and social media use. Lesbian or gay women (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.54-2.29, PInstagram at least once daily were less likely to be recruited via social media (AOR 0.73, 95% CI 0.62-0.86, P<.001). Social media recruitment was faster (incidence rate ratio, IRR=3.31, 95% CI 3.11-3.52, P<.001) and less expensive (2.2% of combined social media and intercept recruitment cost) but had greater data quality issues-a larger percentage of social media respondents were lost because of duplicate and low-quality responses (374/4446, 8.41%) compared with intercept respondents lost to interviewer misrepresentation (15/4446, 0.34%; P<.001). Social media combined with intercept provided access to important LGBT subpopulations (eg, gender and other sexual minorities) and a more diverse sample. Social media methods have more data quality issues but are faster and less expensive than intercept. Recruiting hard-to-reach populations

  4. Establishing the ACORN National Practitioner Database: Strategies to Recruit Practitioners to a National Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jon; Steel, Amie; Moore, Craig; Amorin-Woods, Lyndon; Sibbritt, David

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the recruitment and promotion strategies employed by the Australian Chiropractic Research Network (ACORN) project aimed at helping recruit a substantial national sample of participants and to describe the features of our practice-based research network (PBRN) design that may provide key insights to others looking to establish a similar network or draw on the ACORN project to conduct sub-studies. The ACORN project followed a multifaceted recruitment and promotion strategy drawing on distinct branding, a practitioner-focused promotion campaign, and a strategically designed questionnaire and distribution/recruitment approach to attract sufficient participation from the ranks of registered chiropractors across Australia. From the 4684 chiropractors registered at the time of recruitment, the project achieved a database response rate of 36% (n = 1680), resulting in a large, nationally representative sample across age, gender, and location. This sample constitutes the largest proportional coverage of participants from any voluntary national PBRN across any single health care profession. It does appear that a number of key promotional and recruitment features of the ACORN project may have helped establish the high response rate for the PBRN, which constitutes an important sustainable resource for future national and international efforts to grow the chiropractic evidence base and research capacity. Further rigorous enquiry is needed to help evaluate the direct contribution of specific promotional and recruitment strategies in attaining high response rates from practitioner populations who may be invited to participate in future PBRNs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Recruiting to cohort studies in specialist healthcare services: Lessons learned from clinical research nurses in UK cleft services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Fabio; Rumsey, Nichola; Humphries, Kerry; Bennett, Rhiannon; Davies, Amy; Sandy, Jonathan; Stock, Nicola Marie

    2018-03-01

    To explore the experiences of clinical research nurses recruiting patients in a large specialist care-based cohort study. Longitudinal studies are vital to better understand the aetiology and moderators of health conditions. This need is especially salient for congenital conditions, such as cleft lip and/or palate, where establishing large, comprehensive data sets from birth is vital to improve understanding and to inform interventions. Various barriers exist in recruiting patients to large cohort studies. The role of clinical research nurses embedded within health settings has grown over past decades to facilitate data collection, yet challenges remain. Qualitative descriptive study. Individual semi-structured interviews with 12 clinical research nurses based in 10 National Health Service cleft services across the UK, recruiting to the Cleft Collective Birth Cohort Study. Of seven emergent themes, three highlighted challenges to recruiting patients, another three described facilitative factors, and one theme overlapped challenges and facilitators. Challenges included the life circumstances of potential participants; language barriers; and limited clinical research nurse time for study. Facilitative factors included integrating research into clinical practice; patient information shared with clinical research nurses; and support from the university-based research study team. The theme "Method of data collection" related to both challenges and facilitators. The qualitative data from clinical research nurses recruiting to a large birth cohort study provide helpful practical detail for specialist healthcare teams, specialist nurses, clinical research nurses and researchers looking to optimise recruitment and data collection in longitudinal studies. The findings suggest the importance of specialist clinical services and research study teams cooperating to embed research into everyday clinical practice, without compromising care. This should facilitate patients

  6. Effective strategies for recruiting of Asian cancer patients in internet research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Ju; Lin, Chia-Ju; Liu, Yi; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2006-01-01

    This poster is aims to provide directions for effective strategies for recruiting Asian cancer patients in Internet study among Asian American cancer patients. In the study, we used four different strategies to recruit Asian cancer participants: (a) general and ethnic specific Internet cancer support groups; (b) Asian Internet communities/groups; (c) Asian physician clinics, Asian community and culture center; and (d) community consultants. The most effective recruitment strategy among them was the recruitment through community consultant. The findings support the importance of using key persons in ethnic minority communities to recruit ethnic minority participants.

  7. Recruiting migrants for health research through social network sites: an online survey among chinese migrants in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Wong, Kam Cheong; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-04-27

    Traditionally, postal surveys or face to face interviews are the main approaches for health researchers to obtain essential research data. However, with the prevalence of information technology and Internet, Web-based surveys are gaining popularity in health research. This study aims to report the process and outcomes of recruiting Chinese migrants through social network sites in Australia and to examine the sample characteristics of online recruitment by comparing the sample which was recruited by an online survey to a sample of Australian Chinese migrants collected by a postal survey. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe and compare the process and outcomes of online recruitment with postal survey questionnaires. Chi square tests and t tests were performed to assess the differences between the two samples for categorical and continuous variables respectively. In total, 473 Chinese migrants completed the online health survey from July to October 2013. Out of 426 participants recruited through the three Chinese social network sites in Australia, over 86.6% (369/426) were recruited within six weeks. Participants of the Web-based survey were younger, with a higher education level or had resided in Australia for less time compared to those recruited via a postal survey. However, there was no significant difference in gender, marital status, and professional occupation. The recruitment of Chinese migrants through social network sites in our online survey was feasible. Compared to a postal survey of Chinese migrants, the online survey attracted different group of Chinese migrants who may have diverse health needs and concerns. Our findings provided insightful information for researchers who are considering employing a Web-based approach to recruit migrants and ethnic minority participants.

  8. Candidate Screening for the Recruitment of Critical Research and Development Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Katharina; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin

    inventive activity make a candidate attractive for firms specializing in clean technology or mechanical elements. The report is based on a combination of survey and experimental data collected from 194 HR decision makers in German high-tech firms and from 89 technology experts in the clean technology......The report focuses on résumé-based screening strategies for the recruitment of highly qualified research and development (R&D) workers (critical R&D workers) in high-tech firms. We investigate which kinds of professional background, job-related experience, motivations, specific skills, and previous...... and mechanical elements fields. A mixed logit model is used to analyse hiring preferences because this model allows us to deal with repeated choices. We find that HR decision makers prefer candidates with technology-specific patenting experience, an engineering background, analytical thinking skills...

  9. Ethical issues in recruitment of "healthy volunteers": study of a clinical research organisation in Hyderabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Shilpa; Prasad, N Purendra

    2014-01-01

    This paper raises some of the ethical issues involved in the recruitment of healthy volunteers (HVs) by clinical research organizations (CROs) for bioavailability and bioequivalent (BA/BE) studies. It also explores the underlying reasons for the participation of the HVs and their interaction with the CROs. The findings are based on the data collected from 50 HVs participating in a BA/BE study conducted by a CRO in Hyderabad and from the key officials involved in it. The findings indicate the existence of various complex networks, throw some light on the role of middlemen ("Anna") and the negotiation process, and give us an insight into the social norms and values that compelled the HVs to participate in the study. The paper offers a critical analysis of a few ethical concerns.

  10. Do Public Involvement Activities in Biomedical Research and Innovation Recruit Representatively? A Systematic Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Jonas; Hainz, Tobias; Hirschberg, Irene; Bossert, Sabine; Strech, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Public involvement activities (PIAs) may contribute to the governance of ethically challenging biomedical research and innovation by informing, consulting with and engaging the public in developments and decision-making processes. For PIAs to capture a population's preferences (e.g. on issues in whole genome sequencing, biobanks or genome editing), a central methodological requirement is to involve a sufficiently representative subgroup of the general public. While the existing literature focusses on theoretical and normative aspects of 'representation', this study assesses empirically how such considerations are implemented in practice. It evaluates how PIA reports describe representation objectives, the recruitment process and levels of representation achieved. PIA reports were included from a systematic literature search if they directly reported a PIA conducted in a relevant discipline such as genomics, biobanks, biotechnology or others. PIA reports were analyzed with thematic text analysis. The text analysis was guided by an assessment matrix based on PIA-specific guidelines and frameworks. We included 46 relevant reports, most focusing on issues in genomics. 27 reports (59%) explicitly described representation objectives, though mostly without adjusting eligibility criteria and recruiting methods to the specific objective. 11 reports (24%) explicitly reported to have achieved the intended representation; the rest either reported failure or were silent on this issue. Representation of study samples in PIAs in biomedical research and innovation is currently not reported systematically. Improved reporting on representation would not only improve the validity and value of PIAs, but could also contribute to PIA results being used more often in relevant policy and decision-making processes. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Strategies to enhance patient recruitment and retention in research involving patients with a first episode of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furimsky, Ivana; Cheung, Amy H; Dewa, Carolyn S; Zipursky, Robert B

    2008-11-01

    Recruitment and retention of research participants is often the most labor-intensive and difficult component of clinical trials. Poor recruitment and retention frequently pose as a major barrier in the successful completion of clinical trials. In fact, many studies are prematurely terminated, or their findings questioned due to low recruitment and retention rates. The conduct of clinical trials involving youth with a first episode of mental illness comes with additional challenges in recruitment and retention including barriers associated with engagement and family involvement. To develop effective early interventions for first episode mental illness, it is necessary to develop strategies to enhance recruitment and retention in this patient population. This article presents the recruitment and retention challenges experienced in two clinical trials: one involving participants experiencing a first episode of depression and one involving participants experiencing a first episode psychosis. Challenges with recruitment and retention are identified and reviewed at both the patient level and clinician level. Strategies that were implemented to enhance recruitment and retention in these two studies are also discussed. Finally, ethical issues to consider when implementing these strategies are also highlighted.

  12. How to engage occupational physicians in recruitment of research participants: a mixed-methods study of challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Iris; Bültmann, Ute; Shaw, William S; van Rhenen, Willem; Roelen, Corné; Nielsen, Karina; van der Klink, Jac J L

    2014-03-01

    To investigate barriers and facilitators for research participant recruitment by occupational physicians (OPs). A mixed-methods approach was used. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with OPs to explore perceived barriers and facilitators for recruitment. Based on data of a cluster-randomised controlled trial (cluster-RCT), univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to investigate associations between OPs' personal and work characteristics and the number of recruited participants for the cluster-RCT per OP. Perceived barriers and facilitators for recruitment were categorised into: study characteristics (e.g. concise inclusion criteria); study population characteristics; OP's attention; OP's workload; context (e.g. working at different locations); and OP's characteristics (e.g. motivated to help). Important facilitators were encouragement by colleagues and reminders by information technology tools. Multivariate analyses showed that the number of OPs within the clinical unit who recruited participants was positively associated with the number of recruited participants per OP [rate ratio of 1.43, 95 % confidence interval 1.24-1.64]. When mobilising OPs for participant recruitment, researchers need to engage entire clinical units rather than approach OPs on an individual basis. OPs consider regular communication, especially face-to-face contact and information technology tools serving as reminders, as helpful.

  13. Strategies to Build Trust and Recruit African American and Latino Community Residents for Health Research: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaré, Ibrahima C; Bross, Rachelle; Brown, Arleen F; Del Pino, Homero E; Jones, Loretta F; Morris, D'Ann M; Porter, Courtney; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Vargas, Roberto; Forge, Nell; Norris, Keith C; Kahn, Katherine L

    2015-10-01

    This study used Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) to address low participation of racial and ethnic minorities in medical research and the lack of trust between underrepresented communities and researchers. Using a community and academic partnership in July 2012, residents of a South Los Angeles neighborhood were exposed to research recruitment strategies: referral by word-of-mouth, community agencies, direct marketing, and extant study participants. Among 258 community members exposed to recruitment strategies, 79.8% completed the study. Exposed individuals identified their most important method for learning about the study as referral by study participants (39.8%), community agencies (30.6%), word-of-mouth (17.5%), or direct marketing promotion (12.1%). Study completion rates varied by recruitment method: referral by community agencies (88.7%), referral by participants (80.4%), direct marketing promotion (86.2%), word of mouth (64.3%). Although African American and Latino communities are often described as difficult to engage in research, we found high levels of research participation and completion when recruitment strategies emerged from the community itself. This suggests recruitment strategies based on CPPR principles represent an important opportunity for addressing health disparities and our high rates of research completion should provide optimism and a road map for next steps. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. "You Have to Approach Us Right": A Qualitative Framework Analysis for Recruiting African Americans Into mHealth Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Delores C S; Harville, Cedric; Efunbumi, Orisatalabi; Babazadeh, Ida; Ali, Sheriza

    2017-10-01

    Despite the high ownership of smartphones, African Americans (AAs) remain underrepresented in health research and specifically mobile health (mHealth) research. This may be due to ineffective recruitment efforts. To explore strategies for recruiting AAs into mHealth research and examine how these strategies may vary by gender and age-group. Twenty triad focus groups ( n = 60) were conducted with AA males ( n = 9 groups) and females ( n = 11 groups). The framework method was used to manage, organize, synthesize, and analyze data themes by gender and age-group (18-29, 30-50, 51+). Most participants owned smartphones (71%) and were willing to participate in mHealth research (62%). The participants' narrative revealed the tension between mistrust of researchers and the excitement of participating in technology-based research. Both genders and all age-groups can be reached via word-of-mouth because it is "the best advertisement." Personal contact must precede traditional and electronic recruitment strategies because "we have to know you." Churches are excellent places for recruitment because they are "trustworthy" and have a "repeat audience." Facebook may be effective for both genders and all age-groups because "everybody is on Facebook" and it can "reach more people than text and e-mail." Beauty/barber shops may be limited in reaching both genders and age-groups, but especially young women who style their own hair natural, and young men who wear braids and dreadlocks. Personal contact must precede traditional and electronic recruitment strategies because "we have to know you." A tailored, multipronged strategy that combines traditional recruitment methods with texting, e-mail, and social media may be effective in recruiting AA adults into mHealth research.

  15. Recruiting Minority Men Who Have Sex With Men for HIV Research: Results From a 4-City Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Anthony J.; Hylton, John B.; Johnson, Lisette M.; Houston, Carmoncelia; Witt, Mallory; Jacobson, Lisa; Ostrow, David

    2006-01-01

    We describe the efforts of a 4-city campaign to recruit Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men into an established HIV epidemiological study. The campaign used community organizing principles and a social marketing model that focused on personnel, location, product, costs and benefits, and promotion. The campaign was developed at the community, group, and individual levels to both increase trust and reduce barriers. The proportion of Hispanic men recruited during the 2002–2003 campaign doubled compared with the 1987 campaign, and the proportion and number of White men decreased by 20%. The proportion of Black men decreased because of the large increase in Hispanic men, although the number of Black men increased by 56%. Successful recruitment included training recruitment specialists, involving knowledgeable minority community members during planning, and having an accessible site with convenient hours. PMID:16670218

  16. Beyond Traditional Newspaper Advertisement: Leveraging Facebook-Targeted Advertisement to Recruit Long-Term Smokers for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Bartlett Ellis, Rebecca; Warrick, Adam; Rawl, Susan

    2016-06-15

    Smokers are a stigmatized population, but an important population to reach for the purpose of research. Therefore, innovative recruitment methods are needed that are both cost-effective and efficacious in recruiting this population. The aim of the present article was to evaluate the feasibility of Facebook-targeted advertisement to recruit long-term smokers eligible for lung cancer screening for a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. A social media recruitment campaign was launched using Facebook-targeted advertisement to target age and keywords related to tobacco smoking in the Facebook users profile, interests, and likes. A 3-day newspaper advertisement recruitment campaign was used as a comparison. The study that used both recruitment methods aimed to test the psychometric properties of 4 newly developed lung cancer screening health belief scales. Data were collected via cross-sectional survey methodology using an Web-based survey platform. The Facebook-targeted advertisements were viewed 56,621 times over an 18-day campaign in 2015 in the United States. The advertisement campaign yielded 1121 unique clicks to the Web-based survey platform at a cost of $1.51 per completed survey. Of those who clicked through to the study survey platform, 423 (37.7%) consented to participate; 92 (8.2%) dropped out during completion of the survey yielding a final study pool of 331 completed surveys. Recruitment by newspaper advertisement yielded a total of 30 participants in response to a 3-day advertisement campaign; recruitment efficacy resulted in 10 participants/day at $40.80 per completed survey. Participants represented current (n=182; 51%) and former smokers (n=178; 49%) with a mean age of 63.4 years (SD 6.0). Cost of the advertisement campaign was $500 total for the 18-day campaign. Recruitment by Facebook was more efficacious and cost-effective compared with newspaper advertisement. Facebook offers a new venue for recruitment into research studies that offer the potential

  17. Beyond Traditional Newspaper Advertisement: Leveraging Facebook-Targeted Advertisement to Recruit Long-Term Smokers for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Smokers are a stigmatized population, but an important population to reach for the purpose of research. Therefore, innovative recruitment methods are needed that are both cost-effective and efficacious in recruiting this population. Objective The aim of the present article was to evaluate the feasibility of Facebook-targeted advertisement to recruit long-term smokers eligible for lung cancer screening for a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Methods A social media recruitment campaign was launched using Facebook-targeted advertisement to target age and keywords related to tobacco smoking in the Facebook users profile, interests, and likes. A 3-day newspaper advertisement recruitment campaign was used as a comparison. The study that used both recruitment methods aimed to test the psychometric properties of 4 newly developed lung cancer screening health belief scales. Data were collected via cross-sectional survey methodology using an Web-based survey platform. Results The Facebook-targeted advertisements were viewed 56,621 times over an 18-day campaign in 2015 in the United States. The advertisement campaign yielded 1121 unique clicks to the Web-based survey platform at a cost of $1.51 per completed survey. Of those who clicked through to the study survey platform, 423 (37.7%) consented to participate; 92 (8.2%) dropped out during completion of the survey yielding a final study pool of 331 completed surveys. Recruitment by newspaper advertisement yielded a total of 30 participants in response to a 3-day advertisement campaign; recruitment efficacy resulted in 10 participants/day at $40.80 per completed survey. Participants represented current (n=182; 51%) and former smokers (n=178; 49%) with a mean age of 63.4 years (SD 6.0). Cost of the advertisement campaign was $500 total for the 18-day campaign. Conclusions Recruitment by Facebook was more efficacious and cost-effective compared with newspaper advertisement. Facebook offers a new venue for

  18. Ways to Increase the Efficiency of Recruitment, Selection and Employment Strategies in Large Organizations from Dambovita County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel CROITORU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Those organizations developing team activities need to use new methods of analysis, recruitment and socializing activities. Thus, more concern for human resources (HR management implications upon labour force diversity is generated. The impact of organization structure upon HR management is more obvious within international and multinational organizations. Developing knowledge, abilities and skills becomes a long term task of the organization's employees and managers. Continuous development helps both employees and organizations to reach the targets. HR development is a key factor in motivating and keeping the good employees. It will give the employees the chance to hold high level responsabilities, to have more authority, to set targets and measurement indicators and to work in teams. HR development delegates the employees and increases their loyalty. Globalization and fast exchange of working environment determine organizations to invest more money in HR development. Knowing that HR are the fundamental element in the organization success, it has been considered that by analyzing the strategies of recruitment, selection, employment and integration of the new comers into organization, we will find the solution to acquire and keep the most suitable persons for organization in order to get organizational and individual performances.

  19. Recruitment of patients into head and neck clinical trials: acceptability of studies to patients from perspective of the research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M W; Pick, A S; Sutton, D N; Dyker, K; Cardale, K; Gilbert, K; Johnson, J; Quantrill, J; McCaul, J A

    2018-05-01

    We reviewed longitudinal recruitment data to assess recruitment into head and neck cancer trials, and to identify factors that could influence this and affect their acceptability to patients. We retrieved data from the prospective computerised database (2009-2016) to measure acceptability to patients using the recruitment:screening ratio, and compared observational with interventional studies, single specialty (or site) with multispecialty (or site) studies, and "step-up" randomisation with "non-inferiority" randomisation designs. A total of 1283 patients were screened and 583 recruited. The recruitment:screening ratio for all National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) portfolio studies combined was 0.47 (486/1133). Studies that involved treatment by several specialties or at several sites had a significantly adverse impact on acceptability (p=0.01). Recruitment into non-inferiority randomised controlled studies was lower than that into step-up randomised studies (p=0.06). The complexity of a study's design did not compromise recruitment. Treatment across several specialties or several sites and perceived non-inferiority designs, reduced the acceptability of some trials. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategies for Recruiting Women Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Community-Based Research: Lessons from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Kath; Carter, Allison; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Dubuc, Danièle; Nicholson, Valerie; Beaver, Kerrigan; Gasingirwa, Claudine; Ménard, Brigitte; O'Brien, Nadia; Mitchell, Kayla; Bajard, Micaela Pereira; Ding, Erin; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Kaida, Angela

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to describe the recruitment of women living with HIV (WLWH) into the community-based Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), because women are under-represented in HIV research. There were 1,424 WLWH were enrolled from British Columbia, Ontario, and Québec, who completed detailed questionnaires administered by peer research associates (PRAs; WLWH with research training). During screening, participants were asked: "How did you hear about the study?" We describe recruitment strategies by subpopulation and offer reflections on challenges and successes. Of 1,131 participants with complete data, 40% identified as White, 33% African/Caribbean/Black, and 19% Indigenous. The median age was 45 years (interquartile range, 37-51) and 4% identified as trans women. Overall, 35% were recruited through PRAs/peers, 34% clinics, and 19% AIDS service organizations (ASOs). PRAs/peers were the predominant recruitment method in Ontario (49%), compared with clinics in British Columbia (40%), and Québec (43%). Nationally, PRAs/peers were more successful in recruiting WLWH commonly considered to be "harder to reach" (e.g., women identifying as trans, using drugs, not receiving HIV care). Clinics were more effective in recruiting younger women (16-29 years) and women not using ASOs. Recruitment challenges centered on engaging these harder to reach women. Successes included hiring PRAs who built participant trust, linking with clinics to reach women isolated from HIV communities, involving outreach workers to engage street-involved women, and disseminating study information to diverse stakeholders. Having multiple approaches, engaging a diverse team of PRAs, ensuring flexibility, and cultivating reciprocal relationships with community stakeholders were key to recruiting a diverse and representative sample of WLWH.

  1. Agricultural extension, research, and development for increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of food security and agricultural development in South Africa cannot simply be solved by limiting extension and research development to the public sector. However, if shortcomings arise in the public sector while addressing extension, research and development, the potential involvement of the private sector ...

  2. Differential response to targeted recruitment strategies to fitness promotion research by African-American women of varying body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K; Miles, O L; McCarthy, W J; Sandoval, G; Hill, J; Leslie, J J; Harrison, G G

    2001-01-01

    To assess patterns of recruitment into a community-based NCI-funded physical activity and dietary lifestyle change program targeting African-American women. Acquisition of a convenience sample to be screened for participation in a randomized, controlled prevention intervention. African-American-owned and -operated health club located in an area of Los Angeles in which African Americans are concentrated. 893 African-American women. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES: Social networking/word-of-mouth, staff presentations, mass and targeted media, and physician referral. Completion of screening questionnaire indicating a desire to enroll in the study. Screening questionnaire domains included self-reported height and weight, recent participation in organized weight loss programs, ability to walk one mile unassisted, current medication use, smoking status, personal medical history of cancer, sociodemographic variables, and recruitment source. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics distinguished between respondents obtained through different recruitment strategies. In particular, women with a higher body mass index (BMI) were more likely than those with lower BMIs (P = .014) to be recruited through more personalized methods (eg, social networking). Culturally tailored recruitment strategies are critical in securing the participation of members of "hard-to-reach" populations, who are both under-represented in health promotion research and at high risk for chronic diseases.

  3. PTSD symptom severity is associated with increased recruitment of top-down attentional control in a trauma-exposed sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart F. White

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: We suggest that these data may reflect two phenomena associated with increased PTSD symptomatology in combat-exposed, but PTSD negative, armed services members. First, these data indicate increased emotional responsiveness by: (i the positive relationship between PTSD symptom severity and amygdala responsiveness to emotional relative to neutral stimuli; (ii greater BOLD response as a function of PTSD symptom severity in regions implicated in emotion (striatum and representation (occipital and temporal cortices during emotional relative to neutral conditions; and (iii increased connectivity between the amygdala and regions implicated in emotion (insula/caudate and representation (middle temporal cortex as a function of PTSD symptom severity during emotional relative to neutral trials. Second, these data indicate a greater need for the recruitment of regions implicated in top down attention as indicated by (i greater BOLD response in superior/middle frontal gyrus as a function of PTSD symptom severity in task relative to view conditions; (ii greater BOLD response in dmFC/dACC, lateral frontal and inferior parietal cortices as a function of PTSD symptom severity in emotional relative to neutral conditions and (iii greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and inferior parietal cortex as a function of PTSD symptom severity during emotional relative to neutral conditions.

  4. Increased recruitment rates indicate recovering populations of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum on Curaçao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, M.J.A.; Debrot, A.O.; van der Hal, N.; Bakker, J.; Bak, R.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Recruitment of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum philippi, 1845 was studied on artificial recruitment panels along the leeward coast of the island of Curaçao, southern Caribbean. Data were compared with historical data from the same coast that were collected before (1982-1983) and after (1984) the

  5. Teacher Research Programs = Increased Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubner, J.

    2011-12-01

    Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP), founded in 1990, is one of the largest, best known university professional development programs for science teachers in the U.S. For eight weeks in each of two consecutive summers, teachers participate as a member of a research team, led by a member of Columbia University's research faculty. In addition to the laboratory experience, all teachers meet weekly during the summer for a series of pedagogical activities to assist them in transferring the experience to their classrooms. The primary goal of the program is to provide K-12 science teachers with opportunities to work at the cutting edge of science and engineering, and thus to revitalize their teaching and help them to appreciate the use of inquiry-based methods in their classroom instruction. The secondary goals of the program are to give the pre-college teacher the ability to guide their students toward careers in science and engineering, to develop new teaching strategies, and to foster long-term scholarly collaborations. The last is especially important as it leads to a model of the teacher as active in science yet committed to the pre-college classroom. Since its inception, SRP has focused on an objective assessment of the program's impact on attitudes and instructional practices of participating teachers, on the performance of these teachers in their mentors' laboratories, and most importantly, on the impact of their participation in the program has on student interest and performance in science. Our research resulted in a paper published in the journal Science. SRP also facilitates a multi-site survey-based evaluation of other teacher research programs around the country. The author will present the findings of both studies.

  6. Increased expression of chemerin in squamous esophageal cancer myofibroblasts and role in recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Dinesh Kumar

    Full Text Available Stromal cells such as myofibroblasts influence tumor progression. The mechanisms are unclear but may involve effects on both tumor cells and recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs which then colonize tumors. Using iTRAQ and LC-MS/MS we identified the adipokine, chemerin, as overexpressed in esophageal squamous cancer associated myofibroblasts (CAMs compared with adjacent tissue myofibroblasts (ATMs. The chemerin receptor, ChemR23, is expressed by MSCs. Conditioned media (CM from CAMs significantly increased MSC cell migration compared to ATM-CM; the action of CAM-CM was significantly reduced by chemerin-neutralising antibody, pretreatment of CAMs with chemerin siRNA, pretreatment of MSCs with ChemR23 siRNA, and by a ChemR23 receptor antagonist, CCX832. Stimulation of MSCs by chemerin increased phosphorylation of p42/44, p38 and JNK-II kinases and inhibitors of these kinases and PKC reversed chemerin-stimulated MSC migration. Chemerin stimulation of MSCs also induced expression and secretion of macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF that tended to restrict migratory responses to low concentrations of chemerin but not higher concentrations. In a xenograft model consisting of OE21 esophageal cancer cells and CAMs, homing of MSCs administered i.v. was inhibited by CCX832. Thus, chemerin secreted from esophageal cancer myofibroblasts is a potential chemoattractant for MSCs and its inhibition may delay tumor progression.

  7. Does excellence have a gender? A national research on recruitment and selection procedures for professional appointments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.C.L. van den; Brouns, M.L.M.; Waslander, S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to show that upward mobility of female academics in regular selection procedures is evolving extremely slowly, especially in The Netherlands. This paper aims at a more profound understanding of professorial recruitment and selection procedures in relation to

  8. Correction Notice: Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JMBE Production Editor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Correction for Sarah E. Council and Julie E. Horvath, “Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom,” which appeared in the Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, volume 17, number 1, March 2016, pages 38–40.

  9. Facebook advertisements recruit parents of children with cancer for an online survey of web-based research preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akard, Terrah Foster; Wray, Sarah; Gilmer, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Studies involving samples of children with life-threatening illnesses and their families face significant challenges, including inadequate sample sizes and limited diversity. Social media recruitment and Web-based research methods may help address such challenges yet have not been explored in pediatric cancer populations. This study examined the feasibility of using Facebook advertisements to recruit parent caregivers of children and teenagers with cancer. We also explored the feasibility of Web-based video recording in pediatric palliative care populations by surveying parents of children with cancer regarding (a) their preferences for research methods and (b) technological capabilities of their computers and phones. Facebook's paid advertising program was used to recruit parent caregivers of children currently living with cancer to complete an electronic survey about research preferences and technological capabilities. The advertising campaign generated 3 897 981 impressions, which resulted in 1050 clicks at a total cost of $1129.88. Of 284 screened individuals, 106 were eligible. Forty-five caregivers of children with cancer completed the entire electronic survey. Parents preferred and had technological capabilities for Web-based and electronic research methods. Participant survey responses are reported. Facebook was a useful, cost-effective method to recruit a diverse sample of parent caregivers of children with cancer. Web-based video recording and data collection may be feasible and desirable in samples of children with cancer and their families. Web-based methods (eg, Facebook, Skype) may enhance communication and access between nurses and pediatric oncology patients and their families.

  10. PTSD symptom severity is associated with increased recruitment of top-down attentional control in a trauma-exposed sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F; Costanzo, Michelle E; Blair, James R; Roy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging work suggests that increased amygdala responses to emotional stimuli and dysfunction within regions mediating top down attentional control (dorsomedial frontal, lateral frontal and parietal cortices) may be associated with the emergence of anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This report examines amygdala responsiveness to emotional stimuli and the recruitment of top down attention systems as a function of task demands in a population of U.S. military service members who had recently returned from combat deployment in Afghanistan/Iraq. Given current interest in dimensional aspects of pathophysiology, it is worthwhile examining patients who, while not meeting full PTSD criteria, show clinically significant functional impairment. Fifty-seven participants with sub-threshold levels of PTSD symptoms completed the affective Stroop task while undergoing fMRI. Participants with PTSD or depression at baseline were excluded. Greater PTSD symptom severity scores were associated with increased amygdala activation to emotional, particularly positive, stimuli relative to neutral stimuli. Furthermore, greater PTSD symptom severity was associated with increased superior/middle frontal cortex response during task conditions relative to passive viewing conditions. In addition, greater PTSD symptom severity scores were associated with: (i) increased activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal, lateral frontal, inferior parietal cortices and dorsomedial frontal cortex/dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dmFC/dACC) in response to emotional relative to neutral stimuli; and (ii) increased functional connectivity during emotional trials, particularly positive trials, relative to neutral trials between the right amygdala and dmFC/dACC, left caudate/anterior insula cortex, right lentiform nucleus/caudate, bilateral inferior parietal cortex and left middle temporal cortex. We suggest that these data may reflect two phenomena associated with

  11. Procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating research participants in Qatar: findings from a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killawi, Amal; Khidir, Amal; Elnashar, Maha; Abdelrahim, Huda; Hammoud, Maya; Elliott, Heather; Thurston, Michelle; Asad, Humna; Al-Khal, Abdul Latif; Fetters, Michael D

    2014-02-04

    Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n = 24), English (n = 20), Hindi (n = 20), and Urdu (n = 20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n = 43) and men (n = 41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as "incidental research participants", the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general adult population in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. This

  12. Experiences of service users involved in recruitment for nursing courses: A phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Katie; Bernal, Cathy; Devis, Kate; Southgate, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into service users' experiences of participating in recruitment for Adult, Mental Health and Child nursing studies at the authors' university; to establish potential motivations behind such participation; and to make suggestions for improved future practice. The involvement of service users in nurse education and recruitment has for some years been required by the Nursing and Midwifery Council, but there is a dearth of publications on the meaning of that involvement to participating service users. It is hoped that this study will contribute to this body of knowledge. A phenomenological approach was selected, field-specific focus groups of service users being facilitated using a semi-structured interview format; these were audio recorded and transcribed. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. Participation was subject to the service users having been involved in recruitment to nursing studies at the authors' university and the focus groups took place either at the university or at the child participants' school. Themes identified demonstrated largely positive experiences and a sense of meaningful involvement for all concerned. Findings indicated a close link between the values of the participants and those of the wider NHS, benefits to a sense of wellbeing and achievement, as well as the need for greater ownership of the recruitment process by service users. Potential lessons for academics wishing to promote greater service user involvement in student recruitment are articulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Different Recruitment Methods for Sexual and Reproductive Health Research: Social Media-Based Versus Conventional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Yoko; Miyagi, Etsuko; Taguri, Masataka; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Enomoto, Takayuki; Wark, John Dennis; Garland, Suzanne Marie

    2017-03-10

    Prior research about the sexual and reproductive health of young women has relied mostly on self-reported survey studies. Thus, participant recruitment using Web-based methods can improve sexual and reproductive health research about cervical cancer prevention. In our prior study, we reported that Facebook is a promising way to reach young women for sexual and reproductive health research. However, it remains unknown whether Web-based or other conventional recruitment methods (ie, face-to-face or flyer distribution) yield comparable survey responses from similar participants. We conducted a survey to determine whether there was a difference in the sexual and reproductive health survey responses of young Japanese women based on recruitment methods: social media-based and conventional methods. From July 2012 to March 2013 (9 months), we invited women of ages 16-35 years in Kanagawa, Japan, to complete a Web-based questionnaire. They were recruited through either a social media-based (social networking site, SNS, group) or by conventional methods (conventional group). All participants enrolled were required to fill out and submit their responses through a Web-based questionnaire about their sexual and reproductive health for cervical cancer prevention. Of the 243 participants, 52.3% (127/243) were recruited by SNS, whereas 47.7% (116/243) were recruited by conventional methods. We found no differences between recruitment methods in responses to behaviors and attitudes to sexual and reproductive health survey, although more participants from the conventional group (15%, 14/95) chose not to answer the age of first intercourse compared with those from the SNS group (5.2%, 6/116; P=.03). No differences were found between recruitment methods in the responses of young Japanese women to a Web-based sexual and reproductive health survey. ©Yoko Motoki, Etsuko Miyagi, Masataka Taguri, Mikiko Asai-Sato, Takayuki Enomoto, John Dennis Wark, Suzanne Marie Garland. Originally

  14. Craigslist versus print newspaper advertising for recruiting research participants for alcohol studies: Cost and participant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Christopher J; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2016-03-01

    Technology has transformed our lifestyles in dramatic and significant ways, including new and less expensive options for recruiting study participants. This study examines cost and participant differences between two recruitment sources, Craigslist (CL), and print newspapers (PNs). This paper also reviewed and compared studies involving clinical trials published since 2010 that recruited participants using CL alone or in combination with other methods. Secondary data analyses from a parent study involving a randomized controlled trial of a mail-based intervention to promote self-change with problem drinkers. Significant differences were found between CL and PN participants on most demographic and pretreatment drinking variables. While all participants had AUDIT scores suggestive of an alcohol problem and reported drinking at high-risk levels, CL participants had less severe drinking problem histories, were considerably younger, and had a higher socioeconomic status than PN participants. The total advertising costs for the 65 CL ads ($275) were significantly less than the 69 PN ads ($33, 311). The recruiting cost per eligible participant was vastly less expensive using CL ($1.46) compared to print newspaper ads ($116.88). Using CL is a viable recruitment method for soliciting participants, particularly those that are younger, for alcohol intervention studies. It is also less expensive than newspaper ads. When CL participants were recruited, they reported being slightly more confident to change their drinking than PN participants. Limitations of using CL are discussed, including that some initial ad responders gave inconsistent answers to similar questions and a few tried to enter the study more than once. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 'To be honest, I haven't even thought about it' - recruitment in small-scale, qualitative research in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessiman, Wendy C

    2013-11-01

    To review strategies for successful recruitment in small-scale, qualitative research in primary care by exploring those used in a variety of settings and providing a reflective analysis of the strategies used in one such study. Recruitment of participants in small-scale, qualitative research in primary care is problematic. Researchers need to be more aware of the issues involved, but there is little practical guidance available to help them devise efficient strategies for maximising recruitment. This paper draws on a study conducted in the Highlands of Scotland examining the emotional wellbeing of pregnant and non-pregnant women. This was a qualitative study using diaries and interviews over a period of nine months. Ten women were recruited over a period of more than two years. The author reviews the strategies for successful recruitment based on both a review of the available literature as well as the experience of one study. Recruitment of subjects to a study is one of the major elements of a research proposal and requires significant effort, yet there is little to guide researchers through this difficult process. The challenge of recruitment is seldom debated and studies rarely report problems encountered or outline approaches that proved particularly successful. The importance of successful recruitment is discussed and the arguably typical recruitment difficulties encountered by researchers conducting a study in the Highlands of Scotland are outlined. The elements that comprised successful recruitment in this and other studies are appraised. Although focused specifically on recruitment in small-scale, qualitative studies in primary care, this paper raises broader issues about the recruitment of participants in all types of research. Recruitment has implications for the trustworthiness and dependability of the data and hence the findings of research. Despite this, there remains a lack of evidence about what enhances research recruitment, leaving researchers to

  16. The impact of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act on the recruitment of children for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharav, Vera Hassner

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that contrary to the claims made by research stakeholders in industry, academia and government, the shift in public policy since the enactment of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) of 1997 and its financial incentives to industry to test drugs on children, has had a deleterious impact on children's dignity, health and welfare. Those lucrative incentives offered an opportunity to accelerate the pace of FDA approval for pediatric drug marketing. FDAMA resulted in a radical shift in federal policy to accommodate an expansion of pediatric trials. Children who are precluded from exercising a human adult's right to informed consent to research are increasingly sought as test subjects even when the trials offer no potential benefit for them. Prior to FDAMA children were protected under federal regulations that prohibited their recruitment for experiments that were not in their best interest. This article discusses eight cases and controversies demonstrating that children have been subjected to experiments that exposed them to pain, discomfort, and serious risks of harm. Babies have died testing a lethal heartburn drug; children have been subjected to "forced dose titration" in antidepressant drug trials that resulted in several suicide attempts. Toddlers are currently being subjected to methylphenidate dose tolerance tests without evidence of any pathological condition. Healthy teenagers are being exposed to antipsychotic drugs known to induce severe pathological side effects in speculative "schizophrenia prevention" experiments.

  17. Fathers' Perceived Reasons for Their Underrepresentation in Child Health Research and Strategies to Increase Their Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Kirsten K; Charles, Jo N; Khandpur, Neha; Nelson, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Examine fathers' perceived reasons for their lack of inclusion in pediatric research and strategies to increase their participation. Description We conducted expert interviews with researchers and practitioners (N = 13) working with fathers to inform the development of an online survey. The survey-which measured fathers' perceived reasons for their underrepresentation in pediatric research, recommended recruitment venues, and research personnel and study characteristics valued by fathers-was distributed online and in-person to fathers. Assessment Respondents included 303 fathers. Over 80 % of respondents reported that fathers are underrepresented in pediatric research because they have not been asked to participate. Frequently recommended recruitment venues included community sports events (52 %), social service programs (48 %) and the internet (60 %). Compared with white fathers, more non-white fathers recommended public transit (19 % vs. 10 %, p = .02), playgrounds (16 % vs. 6 %, p = .007) and barber shops (34 % vs. 14 %, p research may increase if researchers explicitly invite father to participate, target father-focused recruitment venues, clearly communicate the benefits of the research for fathers and their families and adopt streamlined study procedures.

  18. Recruitment and retention of health professionals across Europe : A literature review and multiple case study research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, Marieke; Dussault, Gilles; Craveiro, Isabel; Dieleman, Marjolein; Jansen, Christel; Buchan, James; Barriball, Louise; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Bremner, Jeni; Sermeus, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Many European countries are faced with health workforce shortages and the need to develop effective recruitment and retention (R&R) strategies. Yet comparative studies on R&R in Europe are scarce. This paper provides an overview of the measures in place to improve the R&R of health professionals

  19. A Research Study for Developing a Strategic Plan for Recruiting Academically Superior Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sarada; Murphy, Michael

    The study reported in this document was conducted to facilitate strategic recruiting and marketing plans aimed at enhancing enrollments of academically superior students at the University of Wisconsin-Washington County (UWWC). Data on college choice criteria, perceptions, evaluations, information sources, "influentials," and choice outcomes…

  20. A qualitative study of recruitment barriers, motivators, and community-based strategies for increasing clinical trials participation among rural and urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline D; Tanner, Andrea; Kim, Sei-Hill

    2015-01-01

    Participation in clinical trials (CTs) is low among rural communities. Investigators report difficulty recruiting rural individuals for CTs. The study purpose was to identify recruitment barriers, motivators, and strategies to help increase access to and participation in CTs in rural and urban communities. Qualitative focus groups/interviews. Rural and urban counties in one southeastern state. Two hundred twelve African-American and white men and women ages 21+. Nineteen focus groups and nine interviews were conducted. Audio files were transcribed and organized into NVivo10. Recurring themes were examined by geographic location. Although similar barriers, motivators, and strategies were reported by urban and rural groups, perceptions regarding their importance varied. Recruitment barriers mentioned in both rural and urban groups included fear, side effects, limited understanding, limited time, and mistrust. Rural groups were more mindful of time commitment involved. Both rural and urban participants reported financial incentives as the top motivator to CT participation, followed by personal illness (urban groups) and benefits to family (rural groups). Recruitment strategies suggested by rural participants involved working with schools/churches and using word of mouth, whereas partnering with schools, word of mouth, and media were recommended most by urban groups. Perceived recruitment barriers, motivators, and strategies did not differ considerably between rural and urban groups. Major barriers identified by participants should be addressed in future CT recruitment and education efforts. Findings can inform recruitment and communication strategies for reaching both urban and rural communities.

  1. Influences on recruitment to randomised controlled trials in mental health settings in England: a national cross-sectional survey of researchers working for the Mental Health Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschmann, Rohan; Patterson, Sue; Poovendran, Dilkushi; Wilson, Danielle; Weaver, Tim

    2014-02-17

    Recruitment to trials is complex and often protracted; selection bias may compromise generalisability. In the mental health field (as elsewhere), diverse factors have been described as hindering researcher access to potential participants and various strategies have been proposed to overcome barriers. However, the extent to which various influences identified in the literature are operational across mental health settings in England has not been systematically examined. A cross-sectional, online survey of clinical studies officers employed by the Mental Health Research Network in England to recruit to trials from National Health Service mental health services. The bespoke questionnaire invited participants to report exposure to specified influences on recruitment, the perceived impact of these on access to potential participants, and to describe additional positive or negative influences on recruitment. Analysis employed descriptive statistics, the framework approach and triangulation of data. Questionnaires were returned by 98 (58%) of 170 clinical studies officers who reported diverse experience. Data demonstrated a disjunction between policy and practice. While the particulars of trial design and various marketing and communication strategies could influence recruitment, consensus was that the culture of NHS mental health services is not conducive to research. Since financial rewards for recruitment paid to Trusts and feedback about studies seldom reaching frontline services, clinicians were described as distanced from research. Facing continual service change and demanding clinical workloads, clinicians generally did not prioritise recruitment activities. Incentives to trial participants had variable impact on access but recruitment could be enhanced by engagement of senior investigators and integrating referral with routine practice. Comprehensive, robust feasibility studies and reciprocity between researchers and clinicians were considered crucial to

  2. Finding people who will tell you their thoughts on genomics-recruitment strategies for social sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, A; Bragin, E; Parker, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper offers a description of how social media, traditional media and direct invitation were used as tools for the recruitment of 6,944 research participants for a social sciences study on genomics. The remit was to gather the views of various stakeholders towards sharing incidental findings from whole genome studies. This involved recruiting members of the public, genetic health professionals, genomic researchers and non-genetic health professionals. A novel survey was designed that contained ten integrated films; this was made available online and open for completion by anyone worldwide. The recruitment methods are described together with the convenience and snowballing sampling framework. The most successful strategy involved the utilisation of social media; Facebook, Blogging, Twitter, LinkedIn and Google Ads led to the ascertainment of over 75 % of the final sample. We conclude that the strategies used were successful in recruiting in eclectic mix of appropriate participants. Design of the survey and results from the study are presented separately.

  3. Feasibility of a patient-driven approach to recruiting older adults, caregivers, and clinicians for provider–patient communication research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingler, Jennifer H.; Martire, Lynn M.; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Greene, Michele G.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This report describes the implementation of a novel, patient-driven approach to recruitment for a study of interpersonal communication in a primary care setting involving persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), their family caregivers, and their primary care providers (PCPs). Data sources Patients and caregivers were centrally recruited from a university-based memory clinic, followed by the recruitment of patient’s individual PCPs. Recruitment tracking, naturalistic observation, and survey methods were used to evaluate recruitment success. Conclusions About half of the patients and caregivers (n = 54; 51%) and most of the PCPs (n = 31; 76%) who we approached agreed to an audiorecording of the patient’s next PCP visit. Characteristics of patient, caregiver, and PCP participants were compared to those of nonparticipants. Patient characteristics did not differ by participation status. Caregivers who volunteered for the study were more likely to be female and married than were those who declined to participate. Compared to nonparticipants, PCPs who agreed to the study were appraised slightly more favorably by patients’ caregivers on a measure of satisfaction with care on the day of the visit. The vast majority of participating PCPs (95%) reported that the study had little or no impact on the flow of routine clinical operations. Implications for research Findings support the feasibility of a patient-driven approach to recruitment for studies involving multiple linked participants. Our discussion highlights possible advantages of such an approach, including the potential to empower patient participants while achieving maximum variability within the pool of clinician participants. PMID:19594656

  4. Approaches to Recruiting 'Hard-To-Reach' Populations into Re-search: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghi, Abdolreza; Bhopal, Raj S; Sheikh, Aziz

    2011-01-01

    'Hard-to-reach' is a term used to describe those sub-groups of the population that may be difficult to reach or involve in research or public health programmes. Application of a single term to call these sub-sections of populations implies a homogeneity within distinct groups, which does not necessarily exist. Different sampling techniques were introduced so far to recruit hard-to-reach populations. In this article, we have reviewed a range of ap-proaches that have been used to widen participation in studies. We performed a Pubmed and Google search for relevant English language articles using the keywords and phrases: (hard-to-reach AND population* OR sampl*), (hidden AND population* OR sample*) and ("hard to reach" AND population* OR sample*) and a consul-tation of the retrieved articles' bibliographies to extract empirical evidence from publications that discussed or examined the use of sampling techniques to recruit hidden or hard-to-reach populations in health studies. Reviewing the literature has identified a range of techniques to recruit hard-to-reach populations, including snowball sampling, respondent-driven sampling (RDS), indigenous field worker sampling (IFWS), facility-based sampling (FBS), targeted sampling (TS), time-location (space) sampling (TLS), conventional cluster sampling (CCS) and capture re-capture sampling (CR). The degree of compliance with a study by a certain 'hard-to-reach' group de-pends on the characteristics of that group, recruitment technique used and the subject of inter-est. Irrespective of potential advantages or limitations of the recruitment techniques reviewed, their successful use depends mainly upon our knowledge about specific characteristics of the target populations. Thus in line with attempts to expand the current boundaries of our know-ledge about recruitment techniques in health studies and their applications in varying situa-tions, we should also focus on possibly all contributing factors which may have an impact on

  5. Research participation registers can increase opportunities for patients and the public to participate in health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Verity; Redwood, Sabi; Lasseter, Gemma; Walther, Axel; Reid, Colette; Blazeby, Jane; Martin, Richard; Donovan, Jenny

    2016-07-01

    Members of the public and patients repeatedly indicate their willingness to take part in research, but current United Kingdom research governance involves complex rules about gaining consent. Research participation registers that seek consent from participants to be approached about future studies have several potential benefits, including: increased research participation across clinical and healthy populations; simplified recruitment to health care research; support for people's autonomy in decision making; and improved efficiency and generalizability of research. These potential benefits have to be balanced against ethical and governance considerations. With appropriate processes in place, seeking prospective consent from patients and members of the public to be approached about future studies could potentially increase public participation in health research without compromising informed consent and other ethical principles. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. The chances of successful recruitment of volunteers among management students (in the light of empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankiewicz Janina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations pursue social objectives. They base on the work of volunteers - people who devote their time to help others without expecting in return material benefits. They can perform various works, including those ones which require knowledge and skills in the area of management. It is possible to find such competences among the students of Management. The aim of the article is to discuss some opportunities of recruitment volunteers among that target market.

  7. The Influence of Firm Ecological Recruitment Advertisements On Organizational Attractiveness and Career Choices: An Experimental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pracoyo Budi Jatmiko

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This present study investigates college students’ interest to a green company and intention to work for the company. This study also investigates how much salary they are willing to receive to work for the company. The results of the study show construct validity evidence that being attracted to the organization and desire to pursue a job in the organization are divergence constructs. Both constructs are influenced by different factors in magnitude. This study also finds that environmental information stated in the recruitment brochure can positively influence applicants’ interest and intention to pursue a job in the company. Yet, applicants only react positively to an environment-friendly company that offers high pay level. They are more attracted to an environment-friendly company that offers high pay level. However, this relationship does not influence applicants’ intention to pursue a job. Applicants’ personal concern on the environment do not influence applicants’ interest and intention to pursue a job in a green company. This suggests that a positive environmental information articulated in the recruitment brochure could positively affect potential recruits, even when applicants did not personally see herself or himself as being particularly pro-environment.

  8. Patient responses to research recruitment and follow-up surveys: findings from a diverse multicultural health care setting in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Khidir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care researchers working in the Arabian Gulf need information on how to optimize recruitment and retention of study participants in extremely culturally diverse settings. Implemented in Doha, Qatar in 2012 with 4 language groups, namely Arabic, English, Hindi, and Urdu, this research documents persons’ responses to recruitment, consent, follow-up, and reminder procedures during psychometric testing of the Multicultural Assessment Instrument (MAI, a novel self- or interviewer-administered survey. Methods Bilingual research assistants recruited adults in outpatient clinics by approaching persons in particular who appeared to be from a target language group. Participants completed the MAI, a second acculturation instrument used for content-validity assessment, and a demographics questionnaire. Participants were asked to take the MAI again in 2–3 weeks, in person or by post, to assess test-retest reliability. Recruitment data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Results Of 1503 persons approached during recruitment, 400 enrolled (27 %—100 per language group. The enrollment rates in the language groups were: Arabic-32 %; English-33 %; Hindi-18 %; Urdu-30 %. The groups varied somewhat in their preferences regarding consent procedure, follow-up survey administration, contact mode for follow-up reminders, and disclosure of personal mailing address (for postal follow-up. Over all, telephone was the preferred medium for follow-up reminders. Of 64 persons who accepted a research assistant’s invitation for in-person follow-up, 40 participants completed the interview (follow-up rate, 63 %; among 126 persons in the postal group with a deliverable address, 29 participants mailed back a completed follow-up survey (response rate, 23 %. Conclusions Researchers in the Arabian Gulf face challenges to successfully identify, enroll, and retain eligible study participants. Although bilingual assistants

  9. Developing an Army Market Research Index in Support of Army Recruiting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morath, Ray

    2001-01-01

    .... Generating appropriate market research for the Army requires first cataloguing the existing market research databases and identifying the critical questions that are not answered by current research...

  10. Recruiting Pregnant Patients for Survey Research: A Head to Head Comparison of Social Media-Based Versus Clinic-Based Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admon, Lindsay; Haefner, Jessica K; Kolenic, Giselle E; Chang, Tammy; Davis, Matthew M; Moniz, Michelle H

    2016-12-21

    Recruiting a diverse sample of pregnant women for clinical research is a challenging but crucial task for improving obstetric services and maternal and child health outcomes. To compare the feasibility and cost of recruiting pregnant women for survey research using social media-based and clinic-based approaches. Advertisements were used to recruit pregnant women from the social media website Facebook. In-person methods were used to recruit pregnant women from the outpatient clinic of a large, tertiary care center. In both approaches, potential respondents were invited to participate in a 15-minute Web-based survey. Each recruitment method was monitored for 1 month. Using bivariate statistics, we compared the number, demographic characteristics, and health characteristics of women recruited and the cost per completed survey for each recruitment method. The social media-based approach recruited 1178 women and the clinic-based approach recruited 219 women. A higher proportion of subjects recruited through social media identified as African American (29.4%, 207/705 vs 11.2%, 20/179), reported household incomes social media had earned a college degree (21.3%, 153/717 vs 62.3%, 114/183) and were married or in a domestic partnership (45.7%, 330/722 vs 72.1%, 132/183; all PSocial media-based recruitment costs were US $14.63 per completed survey, compared with US $23.51 for clinic-based recruitment. Web-based recruitment through a social networking platform is a feasible, inexpensive, and rapid means of recruiting a large, diverse sample of pregnant women for survey research. ©Lindsay Admon, Jessica K Haefner, Giselle E Kolenic, Tammy Chang, Matthew M Davis, Michelle H Moniz. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 21.12.2016.

  11. Facebook Ads Recruit Parents of Children with Cancer for an Online Survey of Web-Based Research Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akard, Terrah Foster; Wray, Sarah; Gilmer, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies involving samples of children with life-threatening illnesses and their families face significant challenges, including inadequate sample sizes and limited diversity. Social media recruitment and web-based research methods may help address such challenges yet have not been explored in pediatric cancer populations. Objective This study examined the feasibility of using Facebook ads to recruit parent caregivers of children and teens with cancer. We also explored the feasibility of web-based video recording in pediatric palliative care populations by surveying parents of children with cancer regarding (a) their preferences for research methods and (b) technological capabilities of their computers and phones. Methods Facebook's paid advertising program was used to recruit parent caregivers of children currently living with cancer to complete an electronic survey about research preferences and technological capabilities. Results The advertising campaign generated 3,897,981 impressions which resulted in 1050 clicks at a total cost of $1129.88. Of 284 screened individuals, 106 were eligible. Forty-five caregivers of children with cancer completed the entire electronic survey. Parents preferred and had technological capabilities for web-based and electronic research methods. Participant survey responses are reported. Conclusion Facebook was a useful, cost-effective method to recruit a diverse sample of parent caregivers of children with cancer. Web-based video recording and data collection may be feasible and desirable in samples of children with cancer and their families. Implications for Practice Web-based methods (e.g., Facebook, Skype) may enhance communication and access between nurses and pediatric oncology patients and their families. PMID:24945264

  12. Networking for Successful Diversity Recruiting: Creating a Highly Diverse Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program by Networking with Mentors, Faculty, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbotten, D. M.; Berthelote, A.; Watts, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    Successfully recruiting for diversity begins as you plan your program and make sure that all elements of the program support diverse participation. The REU on Sustainable Land and Water Resources continues to be one of the most diverse NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduate Programs in the geosciences. Every aspect of the program, from recruiting, the application process, selecting participants, and the methods developed to support participant success have been scrutinized and tailored towards broadening participation. While the focus of the research has been on collaboration with Native American reservations to create community-based participatory research projects and improving access for Native American students, the PIs strive for ethnic and cultural diversity of the participants. Emphasis on networking and building relationships with minority-serving institutions has led to increasing numbers of underrepresented students applying to the REU. In 2017, a full 30% of our applications were from underrepresented groups. The authors will discuss methods for improved diversity recruiting, as well as ways to make every aspect of your program support diversity in the geosciences.

  13. Rhizosphere Microbiome Recruited from a Suppressive Compost Improves Plant Fitness and Increases Protection against Vascular Wilt Pathogens of Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Anastasis; Tsolakidou, Maria-Dimitra; Stringlis, Ioannis A.; Pantelides, Iakovos S.

    2017-01-01

    Suppressive composts represent a sustainable approach to combat soilborne plant pathogens and an alternative to the ineffective chemical fungicides used against those. Nevertheless, suppressiveness to plant pathogens and reliability of composts are often inconsistent with unpredictable effects. While suppressiveness is usually attributed to the compost’s microorganisms, the mechanisms governing microbial recruitment by the roots and the composition of selected microbial communities are not fully elucidated. Herein, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of a compost on tomato plant growth and its suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Foxl) and Verticillium dahliae (Vd). First, growth parameters of tomato plants grown in sterile peat-based substrates including 20 and 30% sterile compost (80P/20C-ST and 70P/30C-ST) or non-sterile compost (80P/20C and 70P/30C) were evaluated in a growth room experiment. Plant height, total leaf surface, and fresh and dry weight of plants grown in the non-sterile compost mixes were increased compared to the plants grown in the sterile compost substrates, indicating the plant growth promoting activity of the compost’s microorganisms. Subsequently, compost’s suppressiveness against Foxl and Vd was evaluated with pathogenicity experiments on tomato plants grown in 70P/30C-ST and 70P/30C substrates. Disease intensity was significantly less in plants grown in the non-sterile compost than in those grown in the sterile compost substrate; AUDPC was 2.3- and 1.4-fold less for Foxl and Vd, respectively. Moreover, fungal quantification in planta demonstrated reduced colonization in plants grown in the non-sterile mixture. To further investigate these findings, we characterized the culturable microbiome attracted by the roots compared to the unplanted compost. Bacteria and fungi isolated from unplanted compost and the rhizosphere of plants were sequence-identified. Community-level analysis revealed

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EUROPEAN CHARTER FOR RESEARCHERS AND THE CODE OF CONDUCT FOR RECRUITMENT OF RESEARCHERS IN THE SELECTION PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR ROMANIAN ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina GICA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the Human Resources Management became a very important area of activity, which brought relevant changes to the human resources approach in terms of place and role within the Romanian R&D entities. Also, HR proved its importance through the solutions offered for personnel allocation in order to achieve the entities’ objectives and, meanwhile, it supported the employees’ aspirations. At present, although promoted a series of regulations on the status of the researcher, both, national and European level, as the main human resource in the establishment of RDI, to the research staff are imposed in most cases the general rules of human resources management. Starting with the strengthening of the concept of European Research Area - ERA, the European Commission adopted the "European Charter for Researchers" and the Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers. These documents are addressed to researchers and to public and private sector employers. Also, are considered key elements of EU policy researchers, to make careers more attractive, being considered vital for economic growth strategy and increase the number of employees of RDI. Human resource development requires good knowledge and understanding of their particular role to the organization. Researchers, regardless of hierarchy or job name, are the key resource of RDI entities (universities, institutes, NGOs, SMEs that ensure their survival, development and competitive success. The evolution of knowledge-based companies needs to improve relations between knowledge and development. Knowledge is a necessary tool to meet economic needs and an important component of sustainable development at European level. European Research Area concept was launched at the Lisbon European Council meeting in March 2000, but true recognition began in 2007 with the launch of the European Commission's Green Paper on ERA. In 2008 the Council set in motion the Ljubljana process to improve

  15. Experience in the recruitment, organization and training of operations and maintenance personnel for the Malaysian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal Khair Ibrahim.

    1983-01-01

    The TRIGA Reactor located at the Tun Ismail Atomic Research Centre (PUSPATI) Complex is owned and operated by the Nuclear Energy Unit of the Prime Minster's Department. The operations and maintenance personnel are part and parcel of the national civil service organization. As such, the requirement and remuneration of these personnel are handled by a central federal government personnel management agency in common with personnel from other federal government agencies. In addition, the reactor is the first and only one in Malaysia, a developing country, which is the process of committing herself towards a nuclear power programme. These factors coupled with the absence of an independent reactor operator licensing agency posed unique problems in the recruitment, organization, training and licensing of operations personnel for the facility. The paper discusses these factors and their bearing on the recruitment, training, licensing and career development prospects of the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor operators. (author)

  16. Warm water temperatures and shifts in seasonality increase trout recruitment but only moderately decrease adult size in western North American tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, Kimberly L.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2018-01-01

    Dams throughout western North America have altered thermal regimes in rivers, creating cold, clear “tailwaters” in which trout populations thrive. Ongoing drought in the region has led to highly publicized reductions in reservoir storage and raised concerns about potential reductions in downstream flows. Large changes in riverine thermal regimes may also occur as reservoir water levels drop, yet this potential impact has received far less attention. We analyzed historic water temperature and fish population data to anticipate how trout may respond to future changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river temperatures. We found that summer temperatures were inversely related to reservoir water level, with warm temperatures associated with reduced storage and with dams operated as run-of-river units. Variation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) recruitment was linked to water temperature variation, with a 5-fold increase in recruitment occurring at peak summer temperatures (18 °C vs. 7 °C) and a 2.5-fold increase in recruitment when peak temperatures occurred in summer rather than fall. Conversely, adult trout size was only moderately related to temperature. Rainbow and brown trout (Salmo trutta) size decreased by ~24 mm and 20 mm, respectively, as mean annual and peak summer temperatures increased. Further, rainbow trout size decreased by ~29 mm with an earlier onset of cold winter temperatures. While increased recruitment may be the more likely outcome of a warmer and drier climate, density-dependent growth constraints could exacerbate temperature-dependent growth reductions. As such, managers may consider implementing flows to reduce recruitment or altering infrastructure to maintain coldwater reservoir releases.

  17. The Recruitment Process:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna

    , which were carried out in Denmark in 2008-2009 using qualitative research methods, revealed changes in the sequence, divisibility and repetitiveness of a number of recruitment tasks and subtasks. The new recruitment process design was identified and presented in the paper. The study concluded......The aim of this research was to determine whether the introduction of e-recruitment has an impact on the process and underlying tasks, subtasks and activities of recruitment. Three large organizations with well-established e-recruitment practices were included in the study. The three case studies...

  18. Barriers and opportunities for enhancing patient recruitment and retention in clinical research: findings from an interview study in an NHS academic health science centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary; Caffrey, Louise; McKevitt, Christopher

    2015-03-12

    In the UK, the recruitment of patients into clinical research is a national health research and development policy priority. There has been limited investigation of how national level factors operate as barriers or facilitators to recruitment work, particularly from the perspective of staff undertaking patient recruitment work. The aim of this study is to identify and examine staff views of the key organisational barriers and facilitators to patient recruitment work in one clinical research group located in an NHS Academic Health Science Centre. A qualitative study utilizing in-depth, one-to-one semi-structured interviews with 11 purposively selected staff with particular responsibilities to recruit and retain patients as clinical research subjects. Thematic analysis classified interview data by recurring themes, concepts, and emergent categories for the purposes of establishing explanatory accounts. The findings highlight four key factors that staff perceived to be most significant for the successful recruitment and retention of patients in research and identify how staff located these factors within patients, studies, the research centre, the trust, and beyond the trust. Firstly, competition for research participants at an organisational and national level was perceived to undermine recruitment success. Secondly, the tension between clinical and clinical research workloads was seen to interrupt patient recruitment into studies, despite national funding arrangements to manage excess treatment costs. Thirdly, staff perceived an imbalance between personal patient burden and benefit. Ethical committee regulation, designed to protect patients, was perceived by some staff to detract from clarification and systematisation of incentivisation strategies. Finally, the structure and relationships within clinical research teams, in particular the low tacit status of recruitment skills, was seen as influential. The results of this case-study, conducted in an exemplary NHS

  19. Tools for Citizen-Science Recruitment and Student Engagement in Your Research and in Your Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Council

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of citizen science is exploding and offers not only a great way to engage the general public in science literacy through primary research, but also an avenue for teaching professionals to engage their students in meaningful community research experiences. Though this field is expanding, there are many hurdles for researchers and participants, as well as challenges for teaching professionals who want to engage their students. Here we highlight one of our projects that engaged many citizens in Raleigh, NC, and across the world, and we use this as a case study to highlight ways to engage citizens in all kinds of research. Through the use of numerous tools to engage the public, we gathered citizen scientists to study skin microbes and their associated odors, and we offer valuable ideas for teachers to tap into resources for their own students and potential citizen-science projects.

  20. Ecological Requirements for Pallid Sturgeon Reproduction and Recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: A Research Synthesis 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Bonnot, Tom W.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a synthesis of results obtained between 2005 and 2008 from the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program, an interagency collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Missouri River Recovery - Integrated Science Program. The goal of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program is to improve fundamental understanding of reproductive ecology of the pallid sturgeon with the intent that improved understanding will inform river and species management decisions. Specific objectives include: *Determining movement, habitat-use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; *Understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; *Determining origin, transport, and fate of drifting pallid sturgeon larvae, and evaluating bottlenecks for recruitment of early life stages; *Quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages; and *Managing databases, integrating understanding, and publishing relevant information into the public domain. Management actions to increase reproductive success and survival of pallid sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River have been focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. Integration of 2005-08 Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program research provides insight into linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and pallid sturgeon reproduction and survival. The research approach of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program integrates opportunistic field studies, field-based experiments, and controlled laboratory studies. The field study plan is designed to explore the role of flow regime and associated environmental cues using two complementary approaches. An upstream-downstream approach compares sturgeon reproductive behavior between an upstream section of the Lower Missouri River with highly

  1. Recruiting participants for interventions to prevent the onset of depressive disorders: Possibile ways to increase participation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Straten Annemieke

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although indicated prevention of depression is available for about 80% of the Dutch population at little or no cost, only a small proportion of those with subthreshold depression make use of these services. Methods A narrative review is conducted of the Dutch preventive services in mental health care, also addressing the problem of low participation rates. We describe possible causes of these low participation rates, which may be related to the participants themselves, the service system, and the communication to the public, and we put forward possible solutions to this problem. Results There are three main groups of reasons why the participation rates are low: reasons within the participants (e.g., not considering themselves as being at risk; thinking the interventions are not effective; or being unwilling to participate because of the stigma associated with depression; reasons within the health care system; and reasons associated with the communication about the preventive services. Possible solutions to increasing the participation rate include organizing mass media campaigns, developing internet-based preventive interventions, adapting preventive interventions to the needs of specific subpopulations, positioning the services in primary care, integrating the interventions in community-wide interventions, and systematically screening high-risk groups for potential participants. Discussion Prevention could play an important role in public mental health in reducing the enormous burden of depression. However, before this can be realized more research is needed to explore why participation rates are low and how these rates can be improved.

  2. 76 FR 74040 - Emerging Technology and Research Advisory Committee (ETRAC): Notice of Recruitment of Private...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... impact on U.S. economic competitiveness and innovation. In order to meet this objective, the President... greatest impact; (iii) the potential impact of dual-use export control requirements on research activities..., the DEAC submitted its final report, The Deemed Export Rule in the Era of Globalization, to the...

  3. Developing research and recruitment while fostering stakeholder engagement in a National Institutes of Mental Health-funded Interventions and Practice Research Infrastructure Programs grant for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Goldstein, Lizabeth A; Wrenn, Glenda; Barrett, Marna; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Casiano, Delane; Thompson, Donald; Green, Patricia P; Heintz, Laura; Barber, Jacques P; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In the context of a National Institutes of Mental Health-funded Interventions and Practice Research Infrastructure Programs (IP-RISP) grant for the treatment of depression, a partnership was developed between a community mental health organization and a team of researchers. This paper describes the collaborative process, key challenges, and strategies employed to meet the goals of the first phase of the grant, which included development of a working and sustainable partnership and building capacity for recruitment and research. This paper was developed through the use of qualitative interviews and discussion with a variety of IP-RISP partners. Communication with multiple stakeholders through varied channels, feedback from stakeholders on research procedures, and employing a research liaison at the clinic have been key strategies in the first phase of the grant. The strategies we employed allowed multiple stakeholders to contribute to the larger mission of the IP-RISP and helped to establish an ongoing research program within the mental health organization.

  4. Online Advertising as a Public Health and Recruitment Tool: Comparison of Different Media Campaigns to Increase Demand for Smoking Cessation Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Amanda L; Milner, Pat; Saul, Jessie E; Pfaff, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Background To improve the overall impact (reach ? efficacy) of cessation treatments and to reduce the population prevalence of smoking, innovative strategies are needed that increase consumer demand for and use of cessation treatments. Given that 12 million people search for smoking cessation information each year, online advertising may represent a cost-efficient approach to reach and recruit online smokers to treatment. Online ads can be implemented in many forms, and surveys consistently s...

  5. Recruitment of Diverse Students in School Psychology Programs: Direction for Future Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Simpson, Chamane M.; Levin, Jacqueline; Hackimer, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Lack of racially, ethnically, and linguistically (REL) diverse school psychologists has been a concern for decades. Recent and rapid increases in student diversity within America's public schools require that school psychology address the longstanding lack of diversity within the field. This article details the demographics of school…

  6. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Frandsen, Mai; Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-re...

  7. Increasing chronic disease research capacity in Guatemala through a mentoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Monzon, Jose C; Colditz, Graham A

    2013-09-12

    The Chronic Disease Research Fellowship Program (RFP) aims to build the research capacity of recent medical graduates to support the development of chronic disease control strategies. Guatemala is undergoing an epidemiologic transition. However, given the way universities and the health care system are structured, it lacks an environment that fosters research careers and generates the required knowledge to implement sound public health policies and clinical strategies. The RFP was implemented at the Cardiovascular Unit of Guatemala. This 4-year Program recruited two one-year fellows and provided funding to define a research topic, write a protocol and implement the research. Strong emphasis is placed on developing skills in knowledge translation and exchange to bridge the "know-do" gap. Close mentoring relationships between the Principal Investigator and former and current fellows are fostered through the Program. The mentoring Program has generated strategic data to support the implementation of sound chronic disease control strategies, mainly related to tobacco control. Results have been presented nationally and internationally. Research training has included principles of biostatistics and epidemiology, and a journal club. The Program is increasingly generating interest among medical graduates to pursue further research training abroad and is building local research capacity. Fellows and research assistants have created a research network in Guatemala and abroad. The main obstacle the Program faces is ensuring long-term sustainability. A mentoring program can lead to an increase in research interest and capacity in a low-income country with little research infrastructure.

  8. Recruiting and engaging new mothers in nutrition research studies: lessons from the Australian NOURISH randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniels Lynne A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite important implications for the budgets, statistical power and generalisability of research findings, detailed reports of recruitment and retention in randomised controlled trials (RCTs are rare. The NOURISH RCT evaluated a community-based intervention for first-time mothers that promoted protective infant feeding practices as a primary prevention strategy for childhood obesity. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description and evaluation of the recruitment and retention strategies used. Methods A two stage recruitment process designed to provide a consecutive sampling framework was used. First- time mothers delivering healthy term infants were initially approached in postnatal wards of the major maternity services in two Australian cities for consent to later contact (Stage 1. When infants were approximately four months old mothers were re-contacted by mail for enrolment (Stage 2, baseline measurements (Time 1 and subsequent random allocation to the intervention or control condition. Outcomes were assessed at infant ages 14 months (Time 2 and 24 months (Time 3. Results At Stage 1, 86% of eligible mothers were approached and of these women, 76% consented to later contact. At Stage 2, 3% had become ineligible and 76% could be recontacted. Of the latter, 44% consented to full enrolment and were allocated. This represented 21% of mothers screened as eligible at Stage 1. Retention at Time 3 was 78%. Mothers who did not consent or discontinued the study were younger and less likely to have a university education. Conclusions The consent and retention rates of our sample of first time mothers are comparable with or better than other similar studies. The recruitment strategy used allowed for detailed information from non-consenters to be collected; thus selection bias could be estimated. Recommendations for future studies include being able to contact participants via mobile phone (particularly text messaging

  9. eHealth Recruitment Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was…

  10. Diabetes Impairs the Vascular Recruitment of Normal Stem Cells by Oxidant Damage, Reversed by Increases in pAMPK, Heme Oxygenase-1, and Adiponectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambuceti, Gianmario; Morbelli, Silvia; Vanella, Luca; Kusmic, Claudia; Marini, Cecilia; Massollo, Michela; Augeri, Carla; Corselli, Mirko; Ghersi, Chiara; Chiavarina, Barbara; Rodella, Luigi F; L'Abbate, Antonio; Drummond, George; Abraham, Nader G; Frassoni, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis progression is accelerated in diabetes mellitus (DM) by either direct endothelial damage or reduced availability and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Both alterations are related to increased oxidant damage. Aim We examined if DM specifically impairs vascular signaling, thereby reducing the recruitment of normal EPCs, and if increases in antioxidant levels by induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) can reverse this condition. Methods Control and diabetic rats were treated with the HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) once a week for 3 weeks. Eight weeks after the development of diabetes, EPCs harvested from the aorta of syngenic inbred normal rats and labeled with technetium-99m-exametazime were infused via the femoral vein to estimate their blood clearance and aortic recruitment. Circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and the aortic expression of thrombomodulin (TM), CD31, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were used to measure endothelial damage. Results DM reduced blood clearance and aortic recruitment of EPCs. Both parameters were returned to control levels by CoPP treatment without affecting EPC kinetics in normal animals. These abnormalities of EPCs in DM were paralleled by reduced serum adiponectin levels, increased numbers of CECs, reduced endothelial expression of phosphorylated eNOS, and reduced levels of TM, CD31, and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK). CoPP treatment restored all of these parameters to normal levels. Conclusion Type II DM and its related oxidant damage hamper the interaction between the vascular wall and normal EPCs by mechanisms that are, at least partially, reversed by the induction of HO-1 gene expression, adiponectin, and pAMPK levels. PMID:19038792

  11. Recruiting intensity

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman

    2014-01-01

    To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.

  12. Human neural progenitor cell engraftment increases neurogenesis and microglial recruitment in the brain of rats with stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hassani

    Full Text Available Stem cell transplantation is to date one of the most promising therapies for chronic ischemic stroke. The human conditionally immortalised neural stem cell line, CTX0E03, has demonstrable efficacy in a rodent model of stroke and is currently in clinical trials. Nonetheless, the mechanisms by which it promotes brain repair are not fully characterised. This study investigated the cellular events occurring after CTX0E03 transplantation in the brains of rats that underwent ischemic stroke.We focused on the endogenous proliferative activity of the host brain in response to cell transplantation and determined the identity of the proliferating cells using markers for young neurons (doublecortin, Dcx and microglia (CD11b. So as to determine the chronology of events occurring post-transplantation, we analysed the engrafted brains one week and four weeks post-transplantation.We observed a significantly greater endogenous proliferation in the striatum of ischemic brains receiving a CTX0E03 graft compared to vehicle-treated ischemic brains. A significant proportion of these proliferative cells were found to be Dcx+ striatal neuroblasts. Further, we describe an enhanced immune response after CTX0E03 engraftment, as shown by a significant increase of proliferating CD11b+ microglial cells.Our study demonstrates that few Dcx+ neuroblasts are proliferative in normal conditions, and that this population of proliferative neuroblasts is increased in response to stroke. We further show that CTX0E03 transplantation after stroke leads to the maintenance of this proliferative activity. Interestingly, the preservation of neuronal proliferative activity upon CTX0E03 transplantation is preceded and accompanied by a high rate of proliferating microglia. Our study suggests that microglia might mediate in part the effect of CTX0E03 transplantation on neuronal proliferation in ischemic stroke conditions.

  13. Solving the Puzzle of Recruitment and Retention-Strategies for Building a Robust Clinical and Translational Research Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Kathryn A; Hunt, Cerise; Presley, Jessica H; Nuechterlein, Bridget M; Moss, Marc; Manson, Spero M

    2015-10-01

    This paper is the first in a five-part series on the clinical and translational science educational pipeline and presents strategies to support recruitment and retention to create diverse pathways into clinical and translational research (CTR). The strategies address multiple levels or contexts of persistence decisions and include: (1) creating a seamless pipeline by forming strategic partnerships to achieve continuity of support for scholars and collective impact; (2) providing meaningful research opportunities to support identity formation as a scientist and sustain motivation to pursue and persist in CTR careers; (3) fostering an environment for effective mentorship and peer support to promote academic and social integration; (4) advocating for institutional policies to alleviate environmental pull factors; and, (5) supporting program evaluation-particularly, the examination of longitudinal outcomes. By combining institutional policies that promote a culture and climate for diversity with quality, evidence-based programs and integrated networks of support, we can create the environment necessary for diverse scholars to progress successfully and efficiently through the pipeline to achieve National Institutes of Health's vision of a robust CTR workforce. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Increasing European Support for Neglected Infectious Disease Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole F. Olesen

    Full Text Available Neglected infectious diseases (NIDs are a persistent cause of death and disability in low-income countries. Currently available drugs and vaccines are often ineffective, costly or associated with severe side-effects. Although the scale of research on NIDs does not reflect their disease burden, there are encouraging signs that NIDs have begun to attract more political and public attention, which have translated into greater awareness and increased investments in NID research by both public and private donors. Using publicly available data, we analysed funding for NID research in the European Union's (EU's 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7, which ran from 2007 to 2013. During FP7, the EU provided €169 million for 65 NID research projects, and thereby placed itself among the top global funders of NID research. Average annual FP7 investment in NID research exceeded €24 million, triple that committed by the EU before the launch of FP7. FP7 NID projects involved research teams from 331 different institutions in 72 countries on six continents, underlining the increasingly global nature of European research activities. NID research has remained a priority in the current EU Framework Programme for research and innovation, Horizon 2020, launched in 2014. This has most notably been reflected in the second programme of the European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP, which provides unprecedented opportunities to advance the clinical development of new medical interventions against NIDs. Europe is thus better positioned than ever before to play a major role in the global fight against NIDs.

  15. Lessons From the Dot Contraceptive Efficacy Study: Analysis of the Use of Agile Development to Improve Recruitment and Enrollment for mHealth Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, Dominick; Haile, Liya T; Simmons, Rebecca G

    2018-04-20

    Smartphone apps that provide women with information about their daily fertility status during their menstrual cycles can contribute to the contraceptive method mix. However, if these apps claim to help a user prevent pregnancy, they must undergo similar rigorous research required for other contraceptive methods. Georgetown University's Institute for Reproductive Health is conducting a prospective longitudinal efficacy trial on Dot (Dynamic Optimal Timing), an algorithm-based fertility app designed to help women prevent pregnancy. The aim of this paper was to highlight decision points during the recruitment-enrollment process and the effect of modifications on enrollment numbers and demographics. Recruiting eligible research participants for a contraceptive efficacy study and enrolling an adequate number to statistically assess the effectiveness of Dot is critical. Recruiting and enrolling participants for the Dot study involved making decisions based on research and analytic data, constant process modification, and close monitoring and evaluation of the effect of these modifications. Originally, the only option for women to enroll in the study was to do so over the phone with a study representative. On noticing low enrollment numbers, we examined the 7 steps from the time a woman received the recruitment message until she completed enrollment and made modifications accordingly. In modification 1, we added call-back and voicemail procedures to increase the number of completed calls. Modification 2 involved using a chat and instant message (IM) features to facilitate study enrollment. In modification 3, the process was fully automated to allow participants to enroll in the study without the aid of study representatives. After these modifications were implemented, 719 women were enrolled in the study over a 6-month period. The majority of participants (494/719, 68.7%) were enrolled during modification 3, in which they had the option to enroll via phone, chat, or the

  16. E-recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna

    2012-01-01

    E-recruitment, also known as online or web-based recruitment, is little discussed in research from an organizational perspective. The purpose of this chapter is therefore to analyze and discuss the process of e-recruitment, its key constituents and organizing principles. In doing so I draw...... on the results of a qualitative study conducted in 2008-2009, and on data stemming from industrial reports, articles from practitioner magazines, and in-depth interviews. The chapter provides a summary of e-recruitment properties and a composite matrix of the overall elements of e-recruitment organizing. E-recruitment...... is viewed as a case of virtual organizing- the organization of processes and activities which, via technology and human agents, facilitate time- and space-independent interaction and collaboration. In closure I offer a brief discussion of implications of the findings for HR managers and professionals...

  17. Designing and recruiting to UK autism spectrum disorder research databases: do they include representative children with valid ASD diagnoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R

    2015-09-04

    (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Dasl(n)e), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2-16 years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals' reports about their children. 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30 months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Dasl(n)e, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. Published by the BMJ

  18. Effects of increased discharge on spawning and age-0 recruitment of rainbow trout in the Colorado River at Lees Ferry, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Luke A.; Korman, Josh; Persons, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Negative interactions of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha pose challenges to the operation of Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) to manage for both species in the Colorado River. Operations to enhance the Rainbow Trout tailwater fishery may lead to an increase in downstream movement of the trout to areas where they are likely to interact with Humpback Chub. We evaluated the effects of dam operations on age-0 Rainbow Trout in the tailwater fishery to inform managers about how GCD operations could benefit a tailwater fishery for Rainbow Trout; although this could affect a Humpback Chub population farther downstream. A near year-long increase in discharge at GCD in 2011 enabled us to evaluate whether high and stable flows led to increased spawning and production of age-0 Rainbow Trout compared with other years. Rainbow Trout spawning was monitored by fitting a model to observed redd counts to estimate the number of redds created over a spawning season. Data collected during electrofishing trips in July–September and November were used to acquire age-0 trout population and mortality rate estimates. We found that high and stable flows in 2011 resulted in 3,062 redds (1.7 times the mean of all survey years) and a population estimate of 686,000 age-0 Rainbow Trout (second highest on record). Despite high initial abundance, mortality remained low through the year (0.0043%/d) resulting in significant recruitment with a record high November population estimate of 214,000 age-0 Rainbow Trout. Recent monitoring indicates this recruitment event was followed by an increase in downstream migration, which may lead to increased interactions with downstream populations of Humpback Chub. Consequently, while our results indicate that manipulating flow at GCD can be used to manage Rainbow Trout spawning and recruitment, fisheries managers should use flow manipulation in moderation to minimize downstream migration in order to reduce negative

  19. Using marketing theory to inform strategies for recruitment: a recruitment optimisation model and the txt2stop experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Leandro; Knight, Rosemary; Robertson, Steven; Hoile, Elizabeth; Oladapo, Olubukola; Francis, David; Free, Caroline

    2014-05-22

    Recruitment is a major challenge for many trials; just over half reach their targets and almost a third resort to grant extensions. The economic and societal implications of this shortcoming are significant. Yet, we have a limited understanding of the processes that increase the probability that recruitment targets will be achieved. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to bring analytical rigour to the task of improving recruitment, thereby increasing the likelihood that trials reach their recruitment targets. This paper presents a conceptual framework that can be used to improve recruitment to clinical trials. Using a case-study approach, we reviewed the range of initiatives that had been undertaken to improve recruitment in the txt2stop trial using qualitative (semi-structured interviews with the principal investigator) and quantitative (recruitment) data analysis. Later, the txt2stop recruitment practices were compared to a previous model of marketing a trial and to key constructs in social marketing theory. Post hoc, we developed a recruitment optimisation model to serve as a conceptual framework to improve recruitment to clinical trials. A core premise of the model is that improving recruitment needs to be an iterative, learning process. The model describes three essential activities: i) recruitment phase monitoring, ii) marketing research, and iii) the evaluation of current performance. We describe the initiatives undertaken by the txt2stop trial and the results achieved, as an example of the use of the model. Further research should explore the impact of adopting the recruitment optimisation model when applied to other trials.

  20. Recruitment of general practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Allan; Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2016-01-01

    -factors as determinants for successfully recruiting healthcare professionals: relationships, reputation, requirements, rewards, reciprocity, resolution, and respect. Method: This is a process evaluation of the seven R-factors. We applied these factors to guide the design of our recruitment strategy as well as to make......Introduction: Health service research often involves the active participation of healthcare professionals. However, their ability and commitment to research varies. This can cause recruitment difficulties and thereby prolong the study period and inflate budgets. Solberg has identified seven R...... adjustments when recruiting general practices in a guideline implementation study. In the guideline implementation study, we studied the effect of outreach visits, quality reports, and new patient stratification tools for low back pain patients. Results: During a period of 15 months, we recruited 60 practices...

  1. The occurrence of recruitment supported from the finding of an increase in radiosensitivity of quiescent cells in solid tumors after fractionated irradiation with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    We examined the behavior of quiescent cells in solid tumors irradiated twice at various intervals with X-rays, using our recently developed method for selectively detecting the response of quiescent cells in solid tumors. To determine the labeling indices of tumors at the second irradiation, each mouse group included mice that were continuously administered BrdU until just before the second irradiation using mini-osmotic pumps which had been implanted before the first irradiation. Radiosensitivity of total tumor cells at the second irradiation decreased in proportion to the increase in interval time. However, radiosensitivity of quiescent cells was raised with increase in the interval time. In addition, the labeling index at the second irradiation was higher than that at the first irradiation. These findings supported the occurrence of recruitment from quiescent to proliferating state during fractionated irradiation. (author)

  2. Young Researchers Engaged in Educational Outreach to Increase Polar Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, M.; Baeseman, J.; Xavier, J.; Kaiser, B.; Vendrell-Simon, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) grew out of the 4th International Polar Year (IPY-4) 2007-08 and is an international and interdisciplinary organization of over 1200 undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere from more than 40 countries. Our aims are to stimulate interdisciplinary and international research collaborations, and develop effective future leaders in polar research, education and outreach. As potentially one of the major legacies of IPY-4, APECS members have been at the forefront of increasing scientific knowledge and public interest in the polar regions, centered around global climate change, and enhancing scientific understanding, media attention, primary and secondary school (K-12) educational programs, undergraduate institutions, and public literacy campaigns. Research and Educational Outreach activities by APECS members during IPY-4 have improved both our understanding and the communication of all aspects of the Polar Regions and the importance of their broader global connections. APECS National Committees have run Polar Contests where young researchers partnered with teachers and students to develop curriculum and activities to share their research, have participated in many field based communication exchanges and are mentoring youth to pursue careers in science, and enhancing the public perception of scientists through photo, video and museum exhibits. In cooperation with the IPY Teachers Network and the IPY IPO, APECS is developing a polar education resource book that will feature education and outreach activities by young researchers, as well as provide examples of classroom activities for teachers to incorporate polar literacy into their curriculum and a How-To guide for researchers interested in conducting education and outreach. As young researchers interactively share their excitement and

  3. Going social: Success in online recruitment of men who have sex with men for prevention HIV vaccine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Lindsey; Becher, Julie; Voytek, Chelsea D; Fiore, Danielle; Dunbar, Debora; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David S; Frank, Ian

    2017-06-14

    To compare the use of four different social media sites to recruit men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women to a phase 2b HIV prevention vaccine trial, HVTN 505. Retrospective, observational study. The University of Pennsylvania HIV Vaccine Trials Unit (Penn HVTU) employed street outreach and online recruitment methods to recruit participants for HVTN 505 using a combination of national recruitment images/messages with Philadelphia-specific language and imagery. We compared the efficiency (number of enrolled participants per number of completed phone screens) and effectiveness (number of enrolled participants per time interval employed) of each strategy, as well as the demographics and risk behaviors of the populations. Online recruitment strategies populated 37% (71/191) of trial participants at our site. Among the four social media strategies employed, 45.1% (32/71) were enrolled through Facebook, 16.9% (12/71) through Craigslist, 15.5% (11/71) through a web-based marketing company (WBMC), and 22.5% (16/71) via GRINDR. The number of participants enrolled per month of strategy and the months the strategy was employed were Facebook - 32(33months), Craigslist - 12(33months), WBMC - 11(6months), and GRINDR - 16(0.56months). In-person and online recruitment strategies yielded participants of similar demographics and levels of risk behavior. Use of several social media recruitment modalities produced large numbers of MSM engaging in high risk behavior and willing to participate in an HIV prevention vaccine trial. In comparison to other social media and online strategies, recruitment via GRINDR was the most effective. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Feasibility of a patient-driven approach to recruiting older adults, caregivers, and clinicians for provider-patient communication research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingler, Jennifer H; Martire, Lynn M; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Greene, Michele G; Dew, Mary Amanda; Schulz, Richard

    2009-07-01

    This report describes the implementation of a novel, patient-driven approach to recruitment for a study of interpersonal communication in a primary care setting involving persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD), their family caregivers, and their primary care providers (PCPs). Patients and caregivers were centrally recruited from a university-based memory clinic, followed by the recruitment of patient's individual PCPs. Recruitment tracking, naturalistic observation, and survey methods were used to evaluate recruitment success. About half of the patients and caregivers (n = 54; 51%) and most of the PCPs (n = 31; 76%) who we approached agreed to an audiorecording of the patient's next PCP visit. Characteristics of patient, caregiver, and PCP participants were compared to those of nonparticipants. Patient characteristics did not differ by participation status. Caregivers who volunteered for the study were more likely to be female and married than were those who declined to participate. Compared to nonparticipants, PCPs who agreed to the study were appraised slightly more favorably by patients' caregivers on a measure of satisfaction with care on the day of the visit. The vast majority of participating PCPs (95%) reported that the study had little or no impact on the flow of routine clinical operations. Findings support the feasibility of a patient-driven approach to recruitment for studies involving multiple linked participants. Our discussion highlights possible advantages of such an approach, including the potential to empower patient participants while achieving maximum variability within the pool of clinician participants.

  5. Increasing the amount of payment to research subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, DB

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses some ethical issues that can arise when researchers decide to increase the amount of payment offered to research subjects to boost enrollment. Would increasing the amount of payment be unfair to subjects who have already consented to participate in the study? This article considers how five different models of payment—the free market model, the wage payment model, the reimbursement model, the appreciation model, and the fair benefits model—would approach this issue. The article also considers several practical problems related to changing the amount of payment, including determining whether there is enough money in the budget to offer additional payments to subjects who have already enrolled, ascertaining how difficult it will be to re-contact subjects, and developing a plan of action for responding to subjects who find out they are receiving less money and demand an explanation. PMID:18757614

  6. Increasing User Involvement in Health Care and Health Research Simultaneously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    of the effects of different actions and interventions on their health, including those implying contact with health care services. We see their research as primarily carried out in order to make better decisions for themselves, but they can offer to contribute the results to the wider population. We see...... at the point of decision need, when motivation is highest. Some basic distinctions, such as those between science and non-science, research and practice, community and individual, and lay and professional become somewhat blurred and may need to be rethought in light of this approach....... to increased user involvement, though somewhat more aligned with the former. METHODS: Our online decision support tools, delivered directly to the person in the community and openly accessible, are to be seen as research resources. They will take the form of interactive decision aids for a variety of specific...

  7. Recruitment and enrollment for the simultaneous conduct of 2 randomized controlled trials for patients with subacute and chronic low back pain at a CAM research center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondras, Maria A; Long, Cynthia R; Haan, Andrea G; Spencer, Lori Byrd; Meeker, William C

    2008-10-01

    To describe recruitment and enrollment experiences of 2 low back pain (LBP) randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Descriptive report. Chiropractic research center in the midwest United States that is not a fee-for-service clinic. Both trials enrolled participants with subacute or chronic LBP without neurologic signs who had not received spinal manipulative care during the previous month. For study 1 we screened 1940 potential participants to enroll 192 participants (89 women and 103 men), mean age 40.0 +/- 9.4 years (range, 21-54 years). For study 2 we screened 1849 potential participants to enroll 240 participants (105 women and 135 men) at least 55 years old (mean, 63.1 +/- 6.7 years). Study 1 randomly assigned participants to 2 weeks of 2 different chiropractic techniques or a wait list control group. Study 2 randomly assigned participants to 6 weeks of 2 different chiropractic techniques or medical care consisting of 3 provider visits for medications. Recruitment source costs and yield, and baseline characteristics of enrolled versus nonparticipants were recorded. We conducted 3789 telephone screens for both trials to enroll 432 (11%) participants, at a cost in excess of $156,000 for recruitment efforts. The cost per call for all callers averaged $41, ranging from $4 to $300 based on recruitment method; for enrolled participants, the cost per call was $361, ranging from $33 to $750. Direct mail efforts accounted for 62% of all callers, 57% for enrolled participants, and had the second lowest cost per call for recruitment efforts. It is important that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research can be successfully conducted at CAM institutions. However, the costs associated with recruitment efforts for studies conducted at CAM institutions may be higher than expected and many self-identified participants are users of the CAM therapy. Therefore, strategies for efficient recruitment methods and targeting nonusers of CAM therapies should be developed early

  8. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-reach populations), cost effectiveness, and usability. However, to date, no studies have examined how participants recruited via social media progress through a study compared with those recruited using more traditional recruitment strategies. Objectives (1) Examine whether visiting the study website prior to being contacted by researchers creates self-screened participants who are more likely to progress through all study phases (eligible, enrolled, completed); (2) compare conversion percentages and cost effectiveness of each recruitment method at each study phase; and, (3) compare demographic and smoking characteristics of participants recruited through each strategy to determine if they attract similar samples. Methods Participants recruited to a smoking cessation clinical trial were grouped by how they had become aware of the study: via social media (Facebook) or traditional media (eg, newspaper, flyers, radio, word of mouth). Groups were compared based on throughput data (conversion percentages and cost) as well as demographic and smoking characteristics. Results Visiting the study website did not result in individuals who were more likely to be eligible for (P=.24), enroll in (P=.20), or complete (P=.25) the study. While using social media was more cost effective than traditional methods when we examined earlier endpoints of the recruitment process (cost to obtain a screened respondent: AUD $22.73 vs $29.35; cost to obtain an eligible respondent: $37.56 vs $44.77), it was

  9. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Mai; Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-08-10

    Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-reach populations), cost effectiveness, and usability. However, to date, no studies have examined how participants recruited via social media progress through a study compared with those recruited using more traditional recruitment strategies. (1) Examine whether visiting the study website prior to being contacted by researchers creates self-screened participants who are more likely to progress through all study phases (eligible, enrolled, completed); (2) compare conversion percentages and cost effectiveness of each recruitment method at each study phase; and, (3) compare demographic and smoking characteristics of participants recruited through each strategy to determine if they attract similar samples. Participants recruited to a smoking cessation clinical trial were grouped by how they had become aware of the study: via social media (Facebook) or traditional media (eg, newspaper, flyers, radio, word of mouth). Groups were compared based on throughput data (conversion percentages and cost) as well as demographic and smoking characteristics. Visiting the study website did not result in individuals who were more likely to be eligible for (P=.24), enroll in (P=.20), or complete (P=.25) the study. While using social media was more cost effective than traditional methods when we examined earlier endpoints of the recruitment process (cost to obtain a screened respondent: AUD $22.73 vs $29.35; cost to obtain an eligible respondent: $37.56 vs $44.77), it was less cost effective in later endpoints

  10. Slit stimulation recruits Dock and Pak to the roundabout receptor and increases Rac activity to regulate axon repulsion at the CNS midline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xueping; Labrador, Juan Pablo; Hing, Huey; Bashaw, Greg J

    2003-09-25

    Drosophila Roundabout (Robo) is the founding member of a conserved family of repulsive axon guidance receptors that respond to secreted Slit proteins. Here we present evidence that the SH3-SH2 adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock), the p21-activated serine-threonine kinase (Pak), and the Rac1/Rac2/Mtl small GTPases can function during Robo repulsion. Loss-of-function and genetic interaction experiments suggest that limiting the function of Dock, Pak, or Rac partially disrupts Robo repulsion. In addition, Dock can directly bind to Robo's cytoplasmic domain, and the association of Dock and Robo is enhanced by stimulation with Slit. Furthermore, Slit stimulation can recruit a complex of Dock and Pak to the Robo receptor and trigger an increase in Rac1 activity. These results provide a direct physical link between the Robo receptor and an important cytoskeletal regulatory protein complex and suggest that Rac can function in both attractive and repulsive axon guidance.

  11. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and…

  12. Increasing sustainable stormwater management adaption through transdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Thea; Potter, Karen; Jones, Gareth; Spees, Jack; Macdonald, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The Ribble Rivers Trust leads a partnership of land and water management organisations that use a holistic approach to water management in the Ribble catchment. They are interested in incorporating sustainable stormwater systems, into their program of delivery with a view to ensuring that their activities to improve the environments and habitats of the catchment also contribute to reducing flood risk. A methodology, to locate interventions that would slow water within the catchment are identified; however partner buy in, institutional caution and economic barriers are felt to be hindering delivery. In response a transdisciplinary research project in which both the academics of the University of Liverpool and the practitioners of The Ribble Rivers Trust are active investigators has been established. The project aims to increase the uptake of sustainable stormwater management techniques through the analysis of the institutional, experiential and governance processes and their interactions with the physical hydrological processes governing stormwater systems. Research that is transdisciplinary must integrate academic knowledge with practitioner, local understanding and practice. Furthermore methodologies belonging to different academic fields must be blended together to collect, analyse and interpret data in order to examine complex problems through different disciplinary lenses in an integrated way. This approach has been developed in response to the complex relationships of cause and effect of contemporary inter-related economic, environmental and societal challenges. There have been a number of challenges to overcome as transdisciplinary researchers, the first and most important was to understand the different research philosophies and theoretical assumptions behind various natural science and social science research methods. Without this understanding research methodologies could be flawed and would not be effectively integrated and the data would not be

  13. Increasing global participation in genetics research through DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Sarah J; Steinke, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    DNA barcoding--the sequencing of short, standardized DNA regions for specimen identification and species discovery--has promised to facilitate rapid access to biodiversity knowledge by diverse users. Here, we advance our opinion that increased global participation in genetics research is beneficial, both to scientists and for science, and explore the premise that DNA barcoding can help to democratize participation in genetics research. We examine publication patterns (2003-2014) in the DNA barcoding literature and compare trends with those in the broader, related domain of genomics. While genomics is the older and much larger field, the number of nations contributing to the published literature is similar between disciplines. Meanwhile, DNA barcoding exhibits a higher pace of growth in the number of publications as well as greater evenness among nations in their proportional contribution to total authorships. This exploration revealed DNA barcoding to be a highly international discipline, with growing participation by researchers in especially biodiverse nations. We briefly consider several of the challenges that may hinder further participation in genetics research, including access to training and molecular facilities as well as policy relating to the movement of genetic resources.

  14. Free Market Challenge And Increasing Of Researchers Role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febrianto; Suharno

    2003-01-01

    The free market or globalization is a phenomenon which have to be observed carefully. In this era, the market becomes global and the countries have no border in which products/goods and services flow freely from country to others according to market mechanism. The products/goods and services which have more added value will win in the tight market competition. The same case valid to human resources. Human resources who be able take participation in competition must refer to the professionalism, specialization and competence or knowledge in related field. For researcher in order to get participation in the near free market, they have to master the competence, anticipation for future needs, link with industries and strong motivation. The role of researcher is very important in the increasing of added value and product development to win competition. These role is applied in the R and D activity in cooperation between researcher and industry. The cooperation should be developed through several ways in the mutual benefit and the researcher can obtain reward that can trigger their motivation. (author)

  15. A randomised controlled trial of an active telephone-based recruitment strategy to increase childcare-service staff attendance at a physical activity and nutrition training workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke; Finch, Meghan; Williams, Amanda; Dodds, Pennie; Gillham, Karen; Wyse, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Centre-based childcare services represent a promising setting to target the prevention of excessive weight gain in preschool-aged children. Staff training is a key component of multi-strategy interventions to improve implementation of effective physical activity and nutrition promoting practices for obesity prevention in childcare services. This randomised controlled trial aimed to examine whether an active telephone-based strategy to invite childcare-service staff to attend a training workshop was effective in increasing the proportion of services with staff attending training, compared with a passive strategy. Services were randomised to an active telephone-based or a passive-recruitment strategy. Those in the active arm received an email invitation and one to three follow-up phone calls, whereas services in the passive arm were informed of the availability of training only via newsletters. The proportion of services with staff attending the training workshop was compared between the two arms. One hundred and twenty-eight services were included in this study. A significantly larger proportion (52%) of services in the active arm compared with those in the passive-strategy arm (3.1%) attended training (d.f.=1, χ2=34.3; Pstaff attending training. Further strategies to improve staff attendance at training need to be identified and implemented. SO WHAT?: Active-recruitment strategies including follow-up telephone calls should be utilised to invite staff to participate in training, in order to maximise the use of training as an implementation strategy for obesity prevention in childcare services.

  16. Increasing the Pool of Minority Candidates: An Administrator's Guide on the Recruitment and Retention of Effective Minority Teachers in Inner City Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Jacquelyn; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    This paper provides an extensive literary review and presents guidelines and strategies to help school administrators recruit and retain highly effective minority teachers for culturally diverse school districts. The literature review identifies successful teacher recruitment approaches and specific techniques that make these approaches work.…

  17. A Strategic Systems Model for Effective Recruiting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woolever, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    .... After introducing a model for effective and efficient recruiting, this Strategic Research Project describes the Air Force recruiting organizational structure, management processes and practices...

  18. Kahenman and Tversky's Research on Heuristics and Its Application to Junior Athletic Development and the College Recruiting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Brendan M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper will apply the work of Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in Prospect theory to the college recruiting process. Prospect theory challenges one of the fundamental ideas of Economics; humans are rational creatures and make rational decisions. The theory demonstrates that in fact, often humans do not make rational decisions and are instead…

  19. Building a recruitment database for asthma trials: a conceptual framework for the creation of the UK Database of Asthma Research Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, Bright I; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Simpson, Colin R; Griffiths, Chris; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-05-26

    Randomised clinical trials are the 'gold standard' for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. However, successful recruitment of participants remains a key challenge for many trialists. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for creating a digital, population-based database for the recruitment of asthma patients into future asthma trials in the UK. Having set up the database, the goal is to then make it available to support investigators planning asthma clinical trials. The UK Database of Asthma Research Volunteers will comprise a web-based front-end that interactively allows participant registration, and a back-end that houses the database containing participants' key relevant data. The database will be hosted and maintained at a secure server at the Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research based at The University of Edinburgh. Using a range of invitation strategies, key demographic and clinical data will be collected from those pre-consenting to consider participation in clinical trials. These data will, with consent, in due course, be linkable to other healthcare, social, economic, and genetic datasets. To use the database, asthma investigators will send their eligibility criteria for participant recruitment; eligible participants will then be informed about the new trial and asked if they wish to participate. A steering committee will oversee the running of the database, including approval of usage access. Novel communication strategies will be utilised to engage participants who are recruited into the database in order to avoid attrition as a result of waiting time to participation in a suitable trial, and to minimise the risk of their being approached when already enrolled in a trial. The value of this database will be whether it proves useful and usable to researchers in facilitating recruitment into clinical trials on asthma and whether patient privacy and data security are protected in meeting this aim. Successful recruitment is

  20. A Research Experiences for Undergraduates program (REU) Program Designed to Recruit, Engage and Prepare a Diverse Student Population for Careers in Ocean Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkston, B. E.; Garza, C.

    2016-02-01

    The problem of improving diversity within the Ocean Sciences workforce—still underperforming relative to other scientific disciplines—can only be addressed by first recruiting and engaging a more diverse student population into the discipline, then retaining them in the workforce. California State University, Monterey Bay (CSUMB) is home to the Monterey Bay Regional Ocean Science Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. As an HSI with strong ties to multiple regional community colleges and other Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) in the CSU system, the Monterey Bay REU is uniquely positioned to address the crucial recruitment and engagement of a diverse student body. Eleven sophomore and junior-level undergraduate students are recruited per year from academic institutions where research opportunities in STEM are limited and from groups historically underrepresented in the Ocean Sciences, including women, underrepresented minorities, persons with disabilities, and veterans. During the program, students engage in a 10-week original research project guided by a faculty research mentor in one of four themes: Oceanography, Marine Biology and Ecology, Ocean Engineering, and Marine Geology. In addition to research, students develop scientific self-efficacy and literacy skills through rigorous weekly professional development workshops in which they practice critical thinking, ethical decision-making, peer review, writing and oral communication skills. These workshops include tangible products such as an NSF-style proposal paper, Statement of Purpose and CV modelled for the SACNAS Travel Award Application, research abstract, scientific report and oral presentation. To help retain students in Ocean Sciences, students build community during the REU by living together in the CSUMB dormitories; post-REU, students stay connected through an online facebook group, LinkedIn page and group webinars. To date, the REU has supported 22 students in two

  1. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits high glucose-induced NADPH oxidase 4 expression and matrix increase by recruiting inducible nitric oxide synthase in kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hak Joo; Lee, Doug Yoon; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M; Feliers, Denis; Ghosh-Choudhury, Goutam; Abboud, Hanna E; Gorin, Yves; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S

    2017-04-07

    High-glucose increases NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) expression, reactive oxygen species generation, and matrix protein synthesis by inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in renal cells. Because hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) inhibits high glucose-induced matrix protein increase by activating AMPK in renal cells, we examined whether H 2 S inhibits high glucose-induced expression of NOX4 and matrix protein and whether H 2 S and NO pathways are integrated. High glucose increased NOX4 expression and activity at 24 h in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, which was inhibited by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a source of H 2 S. High glucose decreased AMPK phosphorylation and activity, which was restored by NaHS. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, prevented NaHS inhibition of high glucose-induced NOX4 expression. NaHS inhibition of high glucose-induced NOX4 expression was abrogated by N (ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of NOS. NaHS unexpectedly augmented the expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) but not endothelial NOS. iNOS siRNA and 1400W, a selective iNOS inhibitor, abolished the ameliorative effects of NaHS on high glucose-induced NOX4 expression, reactive oxygen species generation, and, matrix laminin expression. Thus, H 2 S recruits iNOS to generate NO to inhibit high glucose-induced NOX4 expression, oxidative stress, and matrix protein accumulation in renal epithelial cells; the two gasotransmitters H 2 S and NO and their interaction may serve as therapeutic targets in diabetic kidney disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Views on clinical trial recruitment, biospecimen collection, and cancer research: population science from landscapes of the Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Rodney C; Henry, Whitney Ann; Hudson, Maui; Rodriguez, Elisa M; Taualii, Maile

    2018-02-01

    Biomedical research in culturally distinct communities is often a challenge. Potential barriers to participation occur because science is presented in a format that lacks cultural acknowledgement. Investigations may also fail to showcase beneficial relevance to the communities or include them in true partnership. The history of biomedical research within Native American societies has been complicated by these issues. Historical trauma among many Native groups sometimes transcends into contemporary challenges in both recruitment to and participation particularly in biobanking research. The participants for this study included members of the Haudenosaunee, the People of the Longhouse. Native Americans, including the Haudenosaunee, endure some of the worst health disparities in the country. These include high rates of cancer, obesity, and diabetes which may be linked at least partially to genetic predisposition. Results from a Haudenosaunee urban population shared response on ways to improve recruitment strategies for biospecimen, cancer, and other health-related clinical trials. Mixed methods approaches were used, and community responses indicated the importance of creating trust through respectful partnership; promoting culturally appropriate recruitment materials; the need for a greater understanding of consenting and signature processes; the necessity for concise summary sheets; and a desire to have information that community member understand. Discussion items also include international Indigenous perspectives to biobanking and genetic-related health disparity research.

  3. Nurse recruitment. Going places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James

    2002-08-01

    Overseas nurses account for 40 per cent of all new registrations in the UK and this may be rising to 50 per cent. This upward trend is likely to continue. International recruitment is to be part of the NHS's long-term strategy and is becoming the focus of increasing policy attention. The international labour market will become tighter: the US needs to recruit an extra million nurses of its own.

  4. Lessons From the Viagra Study: Methodological Challenges in Recruitment of Older and Minority Heterosexual Men for Research on Sexual Practices and Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into...

  5. Using Facebook to Recruit Young Australian Men Into a Cross-Sectional Human Papillomavirus Study

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Roopa; Machalek, Dorothy A; Molesworth, Edmund G; Garland, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    Background Young men can be difficult to engage in health research using traditional methods of recruitment. Social networking sites are increasingly being used to recruit participants into health research, due to their cost effectiveness, overall generalizability, and wide reach. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit young Australian men into a human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence study. Methods We recruited male permanent residents of...

  6. Building the Partners HealthCare Biobank at Partners Personalized Medicine: Informed Consent, Return of Research Results, Recruitment Lessons and Operational Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth W. Karlson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Partners HealthCare Biobank is a Partners HealthCare enterprise-wide initiative whose goal is to provide a foundation for the next generation of translational research studies of genotype, environment, gene-environment interaction, biomarker and family history associations with disease phenotypes. The Biobank has leveraged in-person and electronic recruitment methods to enroll >30,000 subjects as of October 2015 at two academic medical centers in Partners HealthCare since launching in 2010. Through a close collaboration with the Partners Human Research Committee, the Biobank has developed a comprehensive informed consent process that addresses key patient concerns, including privacy and the return of research results. Lessons learned include the need for careful consideration of ethical issues, attention to the educational content of electronic media, the importance of patient authentication in electronic informed consent, the need for highly secure IT infrastructure and management of communications and the importance of flexible recruitment modalities and processes dependent on the clinical setting for recruitment.

  7. A research education program model to prepare a highly qualified workforce in biomedical and health-related research and increase diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Elahé T

    2014-09-24

    The National Institutes of Health has recognized a compelling need to train highly qualified individuals and promote diversity in the biomedical/clinical sciences research workforce. In response, we have developed a research-training program known as REPID (Research Education Program to Increase Diversity among Health Researchers) to prepare students/learners to pursue research careers in these fields and address the lack of diversity and health disparities. By inclusion of students/learners from minority and diverse backgrounds, the REPID program aims to provide a research training and enrichment experience through team mentoring to inspire students/learners to pursue research careers in biomedical and health-related fields. Students/learners are recruited from the University campus from a diverse population of undergraduates, graduates, health professionals, and lifelong learners. Our recruits first enroll into an innovative on-line introductory course in Basics and Methods in Biomedical Research that uses a laboratory Tool-Kit (a lab in a box called the My Dr. ET Lab Tool-Kit) to receive the standard basics of research education, e.g., research skills, and lab techniques. The students/learners will also learn about the responsible conduct of research, research concept/design, data recording/analysis, and scientific writing/presentation. The course is followed by a 12-week hands-on research experience during the summer. The students/learners also attend workshops and seminars/conferences. The students/learners receive scholarship to cover stipends, research related expenses, and to attend a scientific conference. The scholarship allows the students/learners to gain knowledge and seize opportunities in biomedical and health-related careers. This is an ongoing program, and during the first three years of the program, fifty-one (51) students/learners have been recruited. Thirty-six (36) have completed their research training, and eighty percent (80%) of them have

  8. eHealth recruitment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-11-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was literature-informed, it failed to enroll the desired number of girls within a reasonable time period. Therefore, the recruitment strategy was reformulated to incorporate principles of social marketing and traditional marketing techniques. The resulting plan included both targeted, highly specific strategies (e.g., selected churches), and more broad-based approaches (e.g., media exposure, mass mailings, radio advertisements). The revised plan enabled recruitment goals to be attained. Media appeared to be particularly effective at reaching the intended audience. Future research should identify the most effective recruitment strategies for reaching potential eHealth audiences.

  9. New York's Health Care Workforce Recruitment and Retention Act: an investigation of the effects of nonrecurring increases in health worker wage on health worker supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kavin

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes New York's Health Care Workforce Recruitment and Retention Act of 2002. The analysis comes in 4 parts: part 1 provides a brief overview of New York's economy as it relates to health care, a feel for the political climate at the time, and a detailed presentation of the chain of events that connect this climate to the birth of the Health Care Workforce Recruitment and Retention Act of 2002; part 2 consists of a breakdown of the provisions contained within bill, including major and minor goals, intended effects, and the mechanics behind raising supporting funds; part 3 explores what actually happened by evaluating available data to determine whether the bill's 2 major goals of workforce recruitment and retention were fulfilled; and finally, part 4 will take all the aforementioned information to determine the overall success of the bill, the implications, and specific suggestions for future policy changes that time has revealed since its inception.

  10. Bush Pledges Increased Science Research and Education Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-02-01

    In his 31 January State of the Union address, U.S. President George W. Bush announced two new initiatives aimed at galvanizing scientific research and education. For the American Competitiveness Initiative, Bush proposes to ``double the federal commitment to the most critical basic research programs in the physical sciences in the next 10 years. . .[and to] make permanent the research and development tax credit to encourage bolder private-sector initiative in technology.''

  11. Editorial : initiating cultural heritage research to increase Europe's competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira Roders, A.R.; Oers, van R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the contribution of European Commission (EC) initiatives to stimulate cultural heritage research over the last 20 years and the contribution of the research results to cultural heritage management and sustainable development.

  12. iTunes song-gifting is a low-cost, efficient recruitment tool to engage high-risk MSM in internet research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christine M; Ritchie, Natalie D; Du Bois, Steve N

    2015-10-01

    This brief report describes methodology and results of a novel, efficient, and low-cost recruitment tool to engage high-risk MSM in online research. We developed an incentivization protocol using iTunes song-gifting to encourage participation of high-risk MSM in an Internet-based survey of HIV status, childhood sexual abuse, and adult behavior and functioning. Our recruitment methodology yielded 489 participants in 4.5 months at a total incentive cost of $1.43USD per participant. The sample comprised a critically high-risk group of MSM, including 71.0 % who reported recent condomless anal intercourse. We offer a "how-to" guide to aid future investigators in using iTunes song-gifting incentives.

  13. Teacher Research Experience Programs = Increase in Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubner, J.

    2010-12-01

    Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP), founded in 1990, is one of the largest, best known university-based professional development programs for science teachers in the U.S. The program’s basic premise is simple: teachers cannot effectively teach science if they have not experienced it firsthand. For eight weeks in each of two consecutive summers, teachers participate as a member of a research team, led by a member of Columbia University’s research faculty. In addition to the laboratory experience, all teachers meet as a group one day each week during the summer for a series of pedagogical activities. A unique quality of the Summer Research Program is its focus on objective assessment of its impact on attitudes and instructional practices of participating teachers, on the performance of these teachers in their mentors’ laboratories, and most importantly, on the impact of their participation in the program on student interest and performance in science. SRP uses pass rate on the New York State Regents standardized science examinations as an objective measure of student achievement. SRP's data is the first scientific evidence of a connection between a research experience for teachers program and gains in student achievement. As a result of the research, findings were published in Science Magazine. The author will present an overview of Columbia's teacher research program and the results of the published program evaluation.

  14. Increasing Community Research Capacity to Address Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaie, Goldie; Ekenga, Christine C; Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Goodman, Melody S

    2017-02-01

    The Community Research Fellows Training program is designed to enhance capacity for community-based participatory research; program participants completed a 15-week, Master of Public Health curriculum. We conducted qualitative, semistructured interviews with 81 participants from two cohorts to evaluate the learning environment and how the program improved participants' knowledge of public health research. Key areas that provided a conducive learning environment included the once-a-week schedule, faculty and participant diversity, and community-focused homework assignments. Participants discussed how the program enhanced their understanding of the research process and raised awareness of public health-related issues for application in their personal lives, professional occupations, and in their communities. These findings highlight key programmatic elements of a successful public health training program for community residents.

  15. The role of social media in recruiting for clinical trials in pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash Shere

    Full Text Available Recruitment of women in the periconceptional period to clinical studies using traditional advertising through medical establishments is difficult and slow. Given the widespread use of the internet as a source for medical information and research, we analyze the impact of social media in the second phase of an ongoing randomized, open-label clinical trial among pregnant women. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of social media as a recruitment tool through the comparison of diverse recruitment techniques in two different phases of the trial.Recruitment in Phase 1 of the study consisted solely of traditional healthcare-based sources. This was compared to Phase 2 of the study where traditional recruitment was continued and expanded, while social media was used as a supplementary source. Yearly recruitment and recruitment rates in the two phases were compared using the Mann Whitney U test. The contributions of each recruitment source to overall recruitment were analyzed, and the impact of potential confounders on recruitment rate was evaluated using a multiple regression and Interrupted Time Series Analysis.In the first phase of the study, with over 56 months of recruitment using traditional sources, 35 women were enrolled in the study, resulting in a mean rate of ±0.62 recruits/month. In the 6 months implementing recruitment through social media, 45 women were recruited, for a 12-fold higher rate of ±7.5 recruits/month. Attrition rates remained constant, suggesting that social media had a positive impact on recruitment. The Interrupted Time Series Analysis detected a significant difference in recruitment after the intervention of social media (p<0.0001 with an evident increase in the number of recruits observed after the use of social media.Clinicians and scientists recruiting for clinical studies should learn how to use online social media platforms to improve recruitment rates, thus increasing recruitment efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

  16. Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treweek, Shaun; Pitkethly, Marie; Cook, Jonathan; Fraser, Cynthia; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Frank; Jackson, Catherine; Taskila, Tyna K; Gardner, Heidi

    2018-02-22

    Recruiting participants to trials can be extremely difficult. Identifying strategies that improve trial recruitment would benefit both trialists and health research. To quantify the effects of strategies for improving recruitment of participants to randomised trials. A secondary objective is to assess the evidence for the effect of the research setting (e.g. primary care versus secondary care) on recruitment. We searched the Cochrane Methodology Review Group Specialised Register (CMR) in the Cochrane Library (July 2012, searched 11 February 2015); MEDLINE and MEDLINE In Process (OVID) (1946 to 10 February 2015); Embase (OVID) (1996 to 2015 Week 06); Science Citation Index & Social Science Citation Index (ISI) (2009 to 11 February 2015) and ERIC (EBSCO) (2009 to 11 February 2015). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of methods to increase recruitment to randomised trials. This includes non-healthcare studies and studies recruiting to hypothetical trials. We excluded studies aiming to increase response rates to questionnaires or trial retention and those evaluating incentives and disincentives for clinicians to recruit participants. We extracted data on: the method evaluated; country in which the study was carried out; nature of the population; nature of the study setting; nature of the study to be recruited into; randomisation or quasi-randomisation method; and numbers and proportions in each intervention group. We used a risk difference to estimate the absolute improvement and the 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the effect in individual trials. We assessed heterogeneity between trial results. We used GRADE to judge the certainty we had in the evidence coming from each comparison. We identified 68 eligible trials (24 new to this update) with more than 74,000 participants. There were 63 studies involving interventions aimed directly at trial participants, while five evaluated interventions aimed at people recruiting participants. All studies were in

  17. Increasing value and reducing waste: addressing inaccessible research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, An-Wen; Song, Fujian; Vickers, Andrew; Jefferson, Tom; Dickersin, Kay; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Krumholz, Harlan M; Ghersi, Davina; van der Worp, H Bart

    2014-01-18

    The methods and results of health research are documented in study protocols, full study reports (detailing all analyses), journal reports, and participant-level datasets. However, protocols, full study reports, and participant-level datasets are rarely available, and journal reports are available for only half of all studies and are plagued by selective reporting of methods and results. Furthermore, information provided in study protocols and reports varies in quality and is often incomplete. When full information about studies is inaccessible, billions of dollars in investment are wasted, bias is introduced, and research and care of patients are detrimentally affected. To help to improve this situation at a systemic level, three main actions are warranted. First, academic institutions and funders should reward investigators who fully disseminate their research protocols, reports, and participant-level datasets. Second, standards for the content of protocols and full study reports and for data sharing practices should be rigorously developed and adopted for all types of health research. Finally, journals, funders, sponsors, research ethics committees, regulators, and legislators should endorse and enforce policies supporting study registration and wide availability of journal reports, full study reports, and participant-level datasets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding the 'four directions of travel': qualitative research into the factors affecting recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Thi Thu Ha, Bui; Shengalia, Bakhuti; Vujicic, Marko

    2011-08-17

    Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage) and contingent valuation (third stage). For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents); in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents); and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants). The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions). It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and from public to private practice. Substantial differences in

  19. Understanding the 'four directions of travel': qualitative research into the factors affecting recruitment and retention of doctors in rural Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witter Sophie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. Methods This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage and contingent valuation (third stage. For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents; in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents; and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants. Results The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions. It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Conclusions Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and

  20. Increasing Scalability of Researcher Network Extraction from the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yohei; Matsuo, Yutaka; Ishizuka, Mitsuru

    Social networks, which describe relations among people or organizations as a network, have recently attracted attention. With the help of a social network, we can analyze the structure of a community and thereby promote efficient communications within it. We investigate the problem of extracting a network of researchers from the Web, to assist efficient cooperation among researchers. Our method uses a search engine to get the cooccurences of names of two researchers and calculates the streangth of the relation between them. Then we label the relation by analyzing the Web pages in which these two names cooccur. Research on social network extraction using search engines as ours, is attracting attention in Japan as well as abroad. However, the former approaches issue too many queries to search engines to extract a large-scale network. In this paper, we propose a method to filter superfluous queries and facilitates the extraction of large-scale networks. By this method we are able to extract a network of around 3000-nodes. Our experimental results show that the proposed method reduces the number of queries significantly while preserving the quality of the network as compared to former methods.

  1. Using marketing theory to inform strategies for recruitment: a recruitment optimisation model and the txt2stop experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment is a major challenge for many trials; just over half reach their targets and almost a third resort to grant extensions. The economic and societal implications of this shortcoming are significant. Yet, we have a limited understanding of the processes that increase the probability that recruitment targets will be achieved. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to bring analytical rigour to the task of improving recruitment, thereby increasing the likelihood that trials reach their recruitment targets. This paper presents a conceptual framework that can be used to improve recruitment to clinical trials. Methods Using a case-study approach, we reviewed the range of initiatives that had been undertaken to improve recruitment in the txt2stop trial using qualitative (semi-structured interviews with the principal investigator) and quantitative (recruitment) data analysis. Later, the txt2stop recruitment practices were compared to a previous model of marketing a trial and to key constructs in social marketing theory. Results Post hoc, we developed a recruitment optimisation model to serve as a conceptual framework to improve recruitment to clinical trials. A core premise of the model is that improving recruitment needs to be an iterative, learning process. The model describes three essential activities: i) recruitment phase monitoring, ii) marketing research, and iii) the evaluation of current performance. We describe the initiatives undertaken by the txt2stop trial and the results achieved, as an example of the use of the model. Conclusions Further research should explore the impact of adopting the recruitment optimisation model when applied to other trials. PMID:24886627

  2. Recruitment Practices And Institutional Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna; Ulhøi, John Parm

    Up to now, there has been little research on recruitment practices from an organizational perspective, and in part it lags behind practice. This paper attempts to rectify this by studying recent changes in the recruitment practices of Danish organizations. We employ new institutional theory......, and individuals’ social cognition. Among other things, this is reflected in the use of online recruitment and employer branding. The study concludes that the recruitment field has transformed and reviewed its practices due to institutional changes in how individuals search for employment and expect to be hired....

  3. Radioisotope aided micronutrient research for increasing fertiliser use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.; Gupta, G.N.; Meisheri, M.B.; Rattan, R.K.; Sarkar, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Results of fundamental studies involving the use of radioisotopes of micronutrients especially of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cl to find out the effect of soi l characteristics on the diffusion coefficient of these ions and the availability of micronutrient fertilisers to the crops have been reported for a large number of soils. The usefulness of mathematical models for evolving rational basis of micronutrient fertiliser recommendation for crops from soil factors such as intensity, capacity and rate factors of a nutrient in a given soil and plant characteristics such as root morphology and nutrient demand of a crop have been studied. Results showed good agreement between observed and predicted uptake of fertiliser Zn by wheat roots. Results of fundamental studies on severa l soils strongly suggest that the diffusion coefficient to Zn to plant root in a soil can be increased by appropriate manipulation of soil characters even without the application of fertiliser Zn. The effects of various sources, methods and rate of application of fertilizer Zn on the grain yield and fertiliz er Zn use efficiency in rice under water-logged conditions have been studied in alluvial and black soils of Delhi and Hyderabad, respectively. The fate of fe rtilizer Zn in these soils has been studied and the results are reported. (author). 5 figs., 9 tabs., 25 refs

  4. Radioisotope aided micronutrient research for increasing fertiliser use efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, D L; Gupta, G N; Meisheri, M B; Rattan, R K; Sarkar, A K

    1986-02-01

    Results of fundamental studies involving the use of radioisotopes of micronutrients especially of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cl to find out the effect of soi l characteristics on the diffusion coefficient of these ions and the availability of micronutrient fertilisers to the crops have been reported for a large number of soils. The usefulness of mathematical models for evolving rational basis of micronutrient fertiliser recommendation for crops from soil factors such as intensity, capacity and rate factors of a nutrient in a given soil and plant characteristics such as root morphology and nutrient demand of a crop have been studied. Results showed good agreement between observed and predicted uptake of fertiliser Zn by wheat roots. Results of fundamental studies on severa l soils strongly suggest that the diffusion coefficient to Zn to plant root in a soil can be increased by appropriate manipulation of soil characters even without the application of fertiliser Zn. The effects of various sources, methods and rate of application of fertilizer Zn on the grain yield and fertiliz er Zn use efficiency in rice under water-logged conditions have been studied in alluvial and black soils of Delhi and Hyderabad, respectively. The fate of fe rtilizer Zn in these soils has been studied and the results are reported. (author). 5 figs., 9 tabs., 25 refs.

  5. One College's Journey into the Unconscious Mind of Its Prospective Students: How a New Research Methodology Is Helping Us Recruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmar, Jennifer; Memory, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    People tend to assume that the motivations for their behavior--whether choosing a school, buying a car or pursuing a particular career--are readily available to them, waiting to be articulated. But a great deal of new multi-disciplinary research--in psychology, cognition, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology--is suggesting otherwise. In…

  6. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Environmental Exposure Studies: Lessons from the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was a complex 3-year personal exposure study. The six geographically defined areas in the Detroit (Wayne County), Michigan, area used as study locations are ethnically diverse; the majority ...

  7. The role of social media in recruiting for clinical trials in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shere, Mahvash; Zhao, Xiu Yan; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment of women in the periconceptional period to clinical studies using traditional advertising through medical establishments is difficult and slow. Given the widespread use of the internet as a source for medical information and research, we analyze the impact of social media in the second phase of an ongoing randomized, open-label clinical trial among pregnant women. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of social media as a recruitment tool through the comparison of diverse recruitment techniques in two different phases of the trial. Recruitment in Phase 1 of the study consisted solely of traditional healthcare-based sources. This was compared to Phase 2 of the study where traditional recruitment was continued and expanded, while social media was used as a supplementary source. Yearly recruitment and recruitment rates in the two phases were compared using the Mann Whitney U test. The contributions of each recruitment source to overall recruitment were analyzed, and the impact of potential confounders on recruitment rate was evaluated using a multiple regression and Interrupted Time Series Analysis. In the first phase of the study, with over 56 months of recruitment using traditional sources, 35 women were enrolled in the study, resulting in a mean rate of ±0.62 recruits/month. In the 6 months implementing recruitment through social media, 45 women were recruited, for a 12-fold higher rate of ±7.5 recruits/month. Attrition rates remained constant, suggesting that social media had a positive impact on recruitment. The Interrupted Time Series Analysis detected a significant difference in recruitment after the intervention of social media (precruits observed after the use of social media. Clinicians and scientists recruiting for clinical studies should learn how to use online social media platforms to improve recruitment rates, thus increasing recruitment efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

  8. The Role of Social Media in Recruiting for Clinical Trials in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shere, Mahvash; Zhao, Xiu Yan; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment of women in the periconceptional period to clinical studies using traditional advertising through medical establishments is difficult and slow. Given the widespread use of the internet as a source for medical information and research, we analyze the impact of social media in the second phase of an ongoing randomized, open-label clinical trial among pregnant women. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of social media as a recruitment tool through the comparison of diverse recruitment techniques in two different phases of the trial. Methods Recruitment in Phase 1 of the study consisted solely of traditional healthcare-based sources. This was compared to Phase 2 of the study where traditional recruitment was continued and expanded, while social media was used as a supplementary source. Yearly recruitment and recruitment rates in the two phases were compared using the Mann Whitney U test. The contributions of each recruitment source to overall recruitment were analyzed, and the impact of potential confounders on recruitment rate was evaluated using a multiple regression and Interrupted Time Series Analysis. Results In the first phase of the study, with over 56 months of recruitment using traditional sources, 35 women were enrolled in the study, resulting in a mean rate of ±0.62 recruits/month. In the 6 months implementing recruitment through social media, 45 women were recruited, for a 12-fold higher rate of ±7.5 recruits/month. Attrition rates remained constant, suggesting that social media had a positive impact on recruitment. The Interrupted Time Series Analysis detected a significant difference in recruitment after the intervention of social media (psocial media. Conclusions Clinicians and scientists recruiting for clinical studies should learn how to use online social media platforms to improve recruitment rates, thus increasing recruitment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. PMID:24671210

  9. Predictors of locating women six to eight years after contact: internet resources at recruitment may help to improve response rates in longitudinal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gignac Monique AM

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to locate those sampled has important implications for response rates and thus the success of survey research. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of locating women requiring tracing using publicly available methods (primarily Internet searches, and to determine the additional benefit of vital statistics linkages. Methods Random samples of women aged 65–89 years residing in two regions of Ontario, Canada were selected from a list of those who completed a questionnaire between 1995 and 1997 (n = 1,500. A random sample of 507 of these women had been searched on the Internet as part of a feasibility pilot in 2001. All 1,500 women sampled were mailed a newsletter and information letter prior to recruitment by telephone in 2003 and 2004. Those with returned mail or incorrect telephone number(s required tracing. Predictors of locating women were examined using logistic regression. Results Tracing was required for 372 (25% of the women sampled, and of these, 181 (49% were located. Predictors of locating women were: younger age, residing in less densely populated areas, having had a web-search completed in 2001, and listed name identified on the Internet prior to recruitment in 2003. Although vital statistics linkages to death records subsequently identified 41 subjects, these data were incomplete. Conclusion Prospective studies may benefit from using Internet resources at recruitment to determine the listed names for telephone numbers thereby facilitating follow-up tracing and improving response rates. Although vital statistics linkages may help to identify deceased individuals, these may be best suited for post hoc response rate adjustment.

  10. Cornell Astronomy REU: Casting a Wide Net to Increase Access to Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Castro, Patricia; Haynes, Martha P.

    2018-01-01

    We describe a Research Experience for Undergraduates program in astrophysics and planetary science hosted in a major university setting that is geared especially but not exclusively to students who matriculate at smaller colleges and universities without major astronomy research programs, have not previously had off-campus research experiences and/or have non-traditional academic backgrounds.Individual research projects which students undertake with faculty mentors and their research groups are the keystone of the program. Built around this central activity are a set of other components that aim to expose students to the broad areas of astrophysical and planetary science research and to foster their appreciation of the research enterprise and their possible place within it. We describe the professional development activities that are offered to students, including lectures and workshops on a broad range of topics in astrophysics and planetary science, research group meetings, tutorials on research and scientific presentation skills, participation in outreach, education on the graduate school experience and application process, and discussions of the scientific enterprise, career paths and options in astronomy and related fields as well as the role REU group meetings with the program director (which complement meetings students attend within the context of their research group) play in developing students’ scientific competencies and pre-professional development. Also described are program elements that aim to make the program accessible to all students, including older students, those in relationships or with children as well as cohort building. Finally, we discuss lessons learned on how recruiting on merit and suitability to the research projects on offer, with a strong emphasis on smaller colleges and universities without major astronomy research programs can work towards a broader and more inclusive recruitment.This work was supported by NSF award AST-1156780.

  11. Leveraging social and digital media for participant recruitment: A review of methods from the Bayley Short Form Formative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Mathew, Sunitha

    2017-06-01

    Social media is increasingly being used in research, including recruitment. For the Bayley Short Form Formative Study, which was conducted under the the National Children's Study, traditional methods of recruitment proved to be ineffective. Therefore, digital media were identified as potential channels for recruitment. Results included successful recruitment of over 1800 infant and toddler participants to the Study. This paper outlines the methods, results, and future research opportunities.

  12. SemEHR: A general-purpose semantic search system to surface semantic data from clinical notes for tailored care, trial recruitment, and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honghan; Toti, Giulia; Morley, Katherine I; Ibrahim, Zina M; Folarin, Amos; Jackson, Richard; Kartoglu, Ismail; Agrawal, Asha; Stringer, Clive; Gale, Darren; Gorrell, Genevieve; Roberts, Angus; Broadbent, Matthew; Stewart, Robert; Dobson, Richard J B

    2018-05-01

    Unlocking the data contained within both structured and unstructured components of electronic health records (EHRs) has the potential to provide a step change in data available for secondary research use, generation of actionable medical insights, hospital management, and trial recruitment. To achieve this, we implemented SemEHR, an open source semantic search and analytics tool for EHRs. SemEHR implements a generic information extraction (IE) and retrieval infrastructure by identifying contextualized mentions of a wide range of biomedical concepts within EHRs. Natural language processing annotations are further assembled at the patient level and extended with EHR-specific knowledge to generate a timeline for each patient. The semantic data are serviced via ontology-based search and analytics interfaces. SemEHR has been deployed at a number of UK hospitals, including the Clinical Record Interactive Search, an anonymized replica of the EHR of the UK South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust, one of Europe's largest providers of mental health services. In 2 Clinical Record Interactive Search-based studies, SemEHR achieved 93% (hepatitis C) and 99% (HIV) F-measure results in identifying true positive patients. At King's College Hospital in London, as part of the CogStack program (github.com/cogstack), SemEHR is being used to recruit patients into the UK Department of Health 100 000 Genomes Project (genomicsengland.co.uk). The validation study suggests that the tool can validate previously recruited cases and is very fast at searching phenotypes; time for recruitment criteria checking was reduced from days to minutes. Validated on open intensive care EHR data, Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III, the vital signs extracted by SemEHR can achieve around 97% accuracy. Results from the multiple case studies demonstrate SemEHR's efficiency: weeks or months of work can be done within hours or minutes in some cases. SemEHR provides a more

  13. State Health Mapper: An Interactive, Web-Based Tool for Physician Workforce Planning, Recruitment, and Health Services Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Denise D

    2015-11-01

    Health rankings in Mississippi are abysmal. Mississippi also has fewer physicians to serve its population compared with all other states. Many residents of this predominately rural state do not have access to healthcare providers. To better understand the demographics and distribution of the current health workforce in Mississippi, the main objective of the study was to design a Web-based, spatial, interactive application to visualize and explore the physician workforce. A Web application was designed to assist in health workforce planning. Secondary datasets of licensure and population information were obtained, and live feeds from licensure systems are being established. Several technologies were used to develop an intuitive, user-friendly application. Custom programming was completed in JavaScript so the application could run on most platforms, including mobile devices. The application allows users to identify and query geographic locations of individual or aggregated physicians based on attributes included in the licensure data, to perform drive time or buffer analyses, and to explore sociodemographic population data by geographic area of choice. This Web-based application with analytical tools visually represents the physician workforce licensed in Mississippi and its attributes, and provides access to much-needed information for statewide health workforce planning and research. The success of the application is not only based on the practicality of the tool but also on its ease of use. Feedback has been positive and has come from a wide variety of organizations across the state.

  14. Research on the variability of psychological quality in submarine recruits and surface vessel recruits%潜艇与水面舰艇新兵心理素质差异性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡久波; 陈国民

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对潜艇和水面舰艇新兵心理素质的测试,评价现行征兵体检中心理测试的有效性和针对性.方法 对2010年海军某部新征的1746名潜艇新兵和2549名水面舰艇新兵,采用瑞文标准推理能力测验、个性成熟度问卷和症状自评量表(SCL-90)进行智力水平、个性成熟度及环境适应力、心理健康水平的团体心理测试,并用统计学方法对潜艇新兵与水面舰艇新兵的各项测试结果进行统计学差异性比较分析.结果 潜艇新兵和水面舰艇新兵的瑞文总分分别为(47.22±7.15)分和(44.81 ±8.22)分,两者差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);在个性成熟度问卷的10个维度中,潜艇新兵在工作适应障碍量表的得分显著高于水面舰艇新兵(P<0.05),其余9项差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);在SCL-90的11项得分中,潜艇新兵在躯体化因子得分显著高于水面舰艇新兵(P<0.05),其余10项得分显著低于水面舰艇新兵(P<0.05).结论 潜艇新兵的心理素质总体优于水面舰艇新兵.现行心理选拔手段和方法在新兵个性成熟度和环境适应能力等方面尚缺乏有效性和针对性.%Objective To study the effectiveness of psychological screening among submarine recruits and surface vessel recruits,and also to evaluate the effectiveness and orientation of psychological testing in current recruit medical examination.Methods Intelligent level,personality maturity,environmental adaptability and mental health of 1 746 submarine recruits and 2 549 surface vessel recruits enlisted by a certain naval unit in 2010 were monitored by using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM),Personality Maturity Questionnaire (PMQ),and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90).Differences in the variability of the scores between the two groups were statistically analyzed.Results Total scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices for the submarine recruits and naval surface vessel recruits were (47.22 ± 7

  15. Perspectives on barriers and facilitators to minority recruitment for clinical trials among cancer center leaders, investigators, research staff, and referring clinicians: enhancing minority participation in clinical trials (EMPaCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Raegan W; Wenzel, Jennifer A; Scarinci, Isabel C; Paterniti, Debora A; Fouad, Mona N; Hurd, Thelma C; Martin, Michelle Y

    2014-04-01

    The study of disparities in minority recruitment to cancer clinical trials has focused primarily on inquiries among minority populations. Yet very little is known about the perceptions of individuals actively involved in minority recruitment to clinical trials within cancer centers. Therefore, the authors assessed the perspectives of cancer center clinical and research personnel on barriers and facilitators to minority recruitment. In total, 91 qualitative interviews were conducted at 5 US cancer centers among 4 stakeholder groups: cancer center leaders, principal investigators, research staff, and referring clinicians. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analyses of response data was focused on identifying prominent themes related to barriers and facilitators to minority recruitment. The perspectives of the 4 stakeholder groups were largely overlapping with some variations based on their unique roles in minority recruitment. Four prominent themes were identified: 1) racial and ethnic minorities are influenced by varying degrees of skepticism related to trial participation, 2) potential minority participants often face multilevel barriers that preclude them from being offered an opportunity to participate in a clinical trial, 3) facilitators at both the institutional and participant level potentially encourage minority recruitment, and 4) variation between internal and external trial referral procedures may limit clinical trial opportunities for racial and ethnic minorities. Multilevel approaches are needed to address barriers and optimize facilitators within cancer centers to enhance minority recruitment for cancer clinical trials. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  16. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  17. Social defeat promotes a reactive endothelium in a brain region-dependent manner with increased expression of key adhesion molecules, selectins and chemokines associated with the recruitment of myeloid cells to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, C M; McKim, D B; Wohleb, E S; Jarrett, B L; Reader, B F; Norden, D M; Godbout, J P; Sheridan, J F

    2015-08-27

    Repeated social defeat (RSD) in mice causes myeloid cell trafficking to the brain that contributes to the development of prolonged anxiety-like behavior. Myeloid cell recruitment following RSD occurs in regions where neuronal and microglia activation is observed. Thus, we hypothesized that crosstalk between neurons, microglia, and endothelial cells contributes to brain myeloid cell trafficking via chemokine signaling and vascular adhesion molecules. Here we show that social defeat caused an exposure- and brain region-dependent increase in several key adhesion molecules and chemokines involved in the recruitment of myeloid cells. For example, RSD induced distinct patterns of adhesion molecule expression that may explain brain region-dependent myeloid cell trafficking. VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 mRNA expression were increased in an exposure-dependent manner. Furthermore, RSD-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression were localized to the vasculature of brain regions implicated in fear and anxiety responses, which spatially corresponded to previously reported patterns of myeloid cell trafficking. Next, mRNA expression of additional adhesion molecules (E- and P-selectin, PECAM-1) and chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL12, CCL2) were determined in the brain. Social defeat induced an exposure-dependent increase in mRNA levels of E-selectin, CXCL1, and CXCL2 that increased with additional days of social defeat. While CXCL12 was unaffected by RSD, CCL2 expression was increased by six days of social defeat. Last, comparison between enriched CD11b(+) cells (microglia/macrophages) and enriched GLAST-1(+)/CD11b(-) cells (astrocytes) revealed RSD increased mRNA expression of IL-1β, CCL2, and CXCL2 in microglia/macrophages but not in astrocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that key mediators of leukocyte recruitment were increased in the brain vasculature following RSD in an exposure- and brain region-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Sales Training for Army Recruiter Success: Interviews with Excellent Recruiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    merit of an expert modeling system of the skills and strategies used by excel- lent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the...7. AUTHOR(&) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Steven R. Frieman 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK U.S...Recruiting 2M AUSTIRACT (rcnttm ame r orw am nssry i Identify by block number) s-This report describes a program of research on communication strategies and

  19. Recruitment strategies for caregivers of children with mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruche, Ukamaka M; Gerkensmeyer, Janis E; Austin, Joan K; Perkins, Susan M; Scott, Eric; Lindsey, Laura M; Mullins, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe strategies for recruiting participants into an intervention study that focused on improving problem-solving skills in caregivers of children with mental health problems. Caregivers of children with mental health problems report feeling physically and psychologically overwhelmed and have high rates of depression because of the demands of caregiving. Research on the needs of these caregivers and interventions to ameliorate their stress is needed. However, recruiting this population can be particularly difficult because of the stigma of mental illness. Available literature on recruitment of caregivers of persons with physical illness cannot be transferred to caregivers of children with mental health problems because of the different caregiving situations. There is a need to identify effective recruitment strategies to reduce cost and answer research questions. Clinical nurse specialists have the skills to facilitate the recruitment of research participants. We revised and expanded health system referrals, community outreach, and recruiting advertisement (ads). When these strategies did not increase recruitment, radio ads were used. The Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization was selected as a guiding framework. Radio ads were the most effective strategy for recruiting caregivers of children with mental health problems for this study. Recruitment was ultimately successful because we were flexible and made decisions consistent with the Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization. Clinical nurse specialists who study this population of caregivers should really consider the use of radio ads and systematically track which recruitment strategies lead to the greatest number of participants screened, eligible, and enrolled into studies.

  20. A house divided: cooperative and competitive recruitment in vital industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, William K; Muslin, Ivan; Timko, Karlyn N

    2016-03-01

    To propose a theoretical based model approach to address the nursing shortage problem of recruiting qualified applicants. Vital industries such as nursing and trucking face a large labour shortage. A literature review focusing on recruitment and realistic job previews examines relevant theories and an indication of the focus of similar research. Game theory illustrates cooperative and competitive recruitment strategies in vital industries. Proposition and model development where cooperative or competitive strategies for recruitment can either increase or decrease the employee applicant pool. Institutional theory states that firms within a population become isomorphic in nature. Firms employing cooperative or competitive strategies for recruitment can change organisational practices through isomorphic processes. Industries facing a labour market shortage using cooperative strategy will use realistic job previews accurately to disseminate information about industry jobs. Realistic job previews will increase the applicant pool through individuals self-selecting into, rather than out of, the applicant pool. Recruitment in the nursing industry has been examined at the individual applicant and organisational level, yet the overall industry has been ignored. As nursing shortages continue, viewing recruitment at the macro level (the overall industry) is appropriate. Game theory as proposed provides opportunities for current research at the industry level. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Leveraging social and digital media for participant recruitment: A review of methods from the Bayley Short Form Formative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Mathew, Sunitha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Social media is increasingly being used in research, including recruitment. Methods For the Bayley Short Form Formative Study, which was conducted under the the National Children’s Study, traditional methods of recruitment proved to be ineffective. Therefore, digital media were identified as potential channels for recruitment. Results Results included successful recruitment of over 1800 infant and toddler participants to the Study. Conclusions This paper outlines the methods, res...

  2. Prevention of overuse injuries by a concurrent exercise program in subjects exposed to an increase in training load: a randomized controlled trial of 1020 army recruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, Christoffer; Larsen, Klaus; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    on a literature review of intrinsic risk factors, and performed concurrent with an increase in physical activity, can reduce the incidence of overuse knee injuries and medial tibial stress syndrome, as well as increase running distance. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS...... no significant differences in incidence of injury between the prevention group and the placebo group (incidence, 0.22 vs 0.19; P = .162; relative risk = 1.05 [range, 0.98-1.11]). The soldiers in the prevention group had the greater improvement in running distance in 12-minute run tests (82 vs 43 m; P = .037......BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. HYPOTHESIS: A preventive training program based...

  3. Prevention of overuse injuries by a concurrent exercise program in subjects exposed to an increase in training load - A randomized controlled trial of 1020 army recruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushoj, C.; Larsen, K.; Albrecht-Beste, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. Hypothesis: A preventive training program base...

  4. Issues in recruiting community-dwelling stroke survivors to clinical trials: the AMBULATE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gemma; Dean, Catherine M; Ada, Louise

    2010-07-01

    Recruitment to clinical trials is often slow and difficult, with a growing body of research examining this issue. However there is very little work related to stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the success and efficiency of recruitment of community-dwelling stroke survivors over the first two years of a clinical trial aiming to improve community ambulation. Recruitment strategies fell into 2 broad categories: (i) advertisement (such as newspaper advertising and media releases), and (ii) referral (via hospital and community physiotherapists, a stroke liaison officer and other researchers). Records were kept of the number of people who were screened, were eligible and were recruited for each strategy. The recruitment target of 60 in the first two years was not met. 111 stroke survivors were screened and 57 were recruited (i.e., a recruitment rate of 51%). The most successful strategy was referral via hospital-based physiotherapists (47% of recruited participants) and the least successful were media release and local newspaper advertising. The referral strategies were all more efficient than any of the advertisement strategies. In general, recruitment was inefficient and costly in terms of human resources. Given that stroke research is underfunded, it is important to find efficient ways of recruiting stroke survivors to clinical trials. An Australian national database similar to other disease-specific data bases (such as the National Cancer Database) is under development. In the interim, recruiting for several clinical trials at once may increase efficiency.

  5. Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with recruitment of eosinophils to airway mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E.; Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M.; Miller, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. -- Highlights: ► Ozone can modulate the localization of eosinophils in infant allergic airways. ► Expression of eotaxins within the lung is affected by ozone and allergen exposure. ► CCL24 induction by ozone and allergen exposure is not linked to eosinophilia.

  6. Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with recruitment of eosinophils to airway mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Miller, Lisa A., E-mail: lmiller@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ozone can modulate the localization of eosinophils in infant allergic airways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of eotaxins within the lung is affected by ozone and allergen exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCL24 induction by

  7. A thematic analysis of factors influencing recruitment to maternal and perinatal trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Philippa F

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment of eligible participants remains one of the biggest challenges to successful completion of randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Only one third of trials recruit on time, often requiring a lengthy extension to the recruitment period. We identified factors influencing recruitment success and potentially effective recruitment strategies. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1966 to December Week 2, 2006, the Cochrane Library Methodology Register in December 2006, and hand searched reference lists for studies of any design which focused on recruitment to maternal/perinatal trials, or if no studies of maternal or perinatal research could be identified, other areas of healthcare. Studies of nurses' and midwives' attitudes to research were included as none specifically about trials were located. We synthesised the data narratively, using a basic thematic analysis, with themes derived from the literature and after discussion between the authors. Results Around half of the included papers (29/53 were specific to maternal and perinatal healthcare. Only one study was identified which focused on factors for maternal and perinatal clinicians and only seven studies considered recruitment strategies specific to perinatal research. Themes included: participant assessment of risk; recruitment process; participant understanding of research; patient characteristics; clinician attitudes to research and trials; protocol issues; and institutional or organisational issues. While no reliable evidence base for strategies to enhance recruitment was identified in any of the review studies, four maternal/perinatal primary studies suggest that specialised recruitment staff, mass mailings, physician referrals and strategies targeting minority women may increase recruitment. However these findings may only be applicable to the particular trials and settings studied. Conclusion Although factors reported by both participants and clinicians

  8. Increasing Access to Atmospheric Science Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.; Bethea, K. L.; LaPan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Science Directorate (SD) at NASA's Langley Research Center conducts cutting edge research in fundamental atmospheric science topics including radiation and climate, air quality, active remote sensing, and upper atmospheric composition. These topics matter to the public, as they improve our understanding of our home planet. Thus, we have had ongoing efforts to improve public access to the results of our research. These efforts have accelerated with the release of the February OSTP memo. Our efforts can be grouped in two main categories: 1. Visual presentation techniques to improve science understanding: For fundamental concepts such as the Earth's energy budget, we have worked to display information in a more "digestible" way for lay audiences with more pictures and fewer words. These audiences are iPad-lovers and TV-watchers with shorter attention spans than audiences of the past. They are also educators and students who need a basic understanding of a concept delivered briefly to fit into busy classroom schedules. We seek to reach them with a quick, visual message packed with important information. This presentation will share several examples of visual techniques, such as infographics (e.g., a history of lidar at Langley and a timeline of atmospheric research, ozone garden diagrams (http://science-edu.larc.nasa.gov/ozonegarden/ozone-cycle.php); history of lidar at LaRC; DISCOVER-AQ maps. It will also share examples of animations and interactive graphics (DISCOVER-AQ); and customized presentations (e.g., to explain the energy budget or to give a general overview of research). One of the challenges we face is a required culture shift between the way scientists traditionally share knowledge with each other and the way these public audiences ingest knowledge. A cross-disciplinary communications team in SD is crucial to bridge that gap. 2. Lay research summaries to make research more accessible: Peer-reviewed publications are a primary product of the SD, with more

  9. University and Course Choice: Implications for Positioning, Recruitment and Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, Felix

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Higher education environments have become increasingly competitive and institutions have to compete for students in the recruitment markets. With the introduction of student fees, it is hypothesised that potential applicants to HE will increasingly become consumerist. The research upon which this paper was based was aimed at finding out…

  10. The Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders: recruitment, assessment instruments, methods for the development of multicenter collaborative studies and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Rosário, Maria Conceição do; Mathis, Maria Alice de; Torres, Albina Rodrigues; Fontenelle, Leonardo Franklin; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Shavitt, Roseli Gedanke; Cordioli, Aristides Volpato; Gonzalez, Christina Hojaij; Petribú, Kátia; Diniz, Juliana Belo; Malavazzi, Dante Marino; Torresan, Ricardo C; Raffin, Andréa Litvin; Meyer, Elisabeth; Braga, Daniela T; Borcato, Sonia; Valério, Carolina; Gropo, Luciana N; Prado, Helena da Silva; Perin, Eduardo Alliende; Santos, Sandro Iêgo; Copque, Helen; Borges, Manuela Corrêa; Lopes, Angélica Prazeres; Silva, Elenita D da

    2008-09-01

    To describe the recruitment of patients, assessment instruments, implementation, methods and preliminary results of The Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders, which includes seven university sites. This cross-sectional study included a comprehensive clinical assessment including semi-structured interviews (sociodemographic data, medical and psychiatric history, disease course and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses), and instruments to assess obsessive-compulsive (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale), depressive (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxious (Beck Anxiety Inventory) symptoms, sensory phenomena (Universidade de São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale), insight (Brown Assessment Beliefs Scale), tics (Yale Global Tics Severity Scale) and quality of life (Medical Outcome Quality of Life Scale Short-form-36 and Social Assessment Scale). The raters' training consisted of watching at least five videotaped interviews and interviewing five patients with an expert researcher before interviewing patients alone. The reliability between all leaders for the most important instruments (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Universidade de São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale) was measured after six complete interviews. Inter-rater reliability was 96%. By March 2008, 630 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients had been systematically evaluated. Mean age (+/-SE) was 34.7 (+/-0.51), 56.3% were female, and 84.6% Caucasian. The most prevalent obsessive compulsive symptom dimensions were symmetry and contamination. The most common comorbidities were major depression, generalized anxiety and social anxiety disorder. The most common DSM-IV impulsive control disorder was skin picking. The sample was composed mainly by Caucasian individuals, unmarried, with some kind of occupational activity, mean age of 35 years, onset of obsessive

  11. Participant recruitment into a randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy for people with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Sharrack, Basil; Daley, Amanda; Petty, Jane; Woodroofe, Nicola; Saxton, John

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of a clinical trial is often dependant on whether recruitment targets can be met in the required time frame. Despite an increase in research into the benefits of exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), no trial has reported detailed data on effective recruitment strategies for large-scale randomised controlled trials. The main purpose of this report is to provide a detailed outline of recruitment strategies, rates and estimated costs in the Exercise Intervent...

  12. Social Networking Versus Facebook Advertising to Recruit Survey Respondents: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gilligan, Conor; Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people’s attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment...

  13. Status of anesthesiology resident research education in the United States: structured education programs increase resident research productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shireen; De Oliveira, Gildasio S; McCarthy, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The enhancement of resident research education has been proposed to increase the number of academic anesthesiologists with the skills and knowledge to conduct meaningful research. Program directors (PDs) of the U.S. anesthesiology residency programs were surveyed to evaluate the status of research education during residency training and to test the hypothesis that structured programs result in greater resident research productivity based on resident publications. Survey responses were solicited from 131 anesthesiology residency PDs. Seventy-four percent of PDs responded to the survey. Questions evaluated department demographic information, the extent of faculty research activity, research resources and research funding in the department, the characteristics of resident research education and resident research productivity, departmental support for resident research, and perceived barriers to resident research education. Thirty-two percent of programs had a structured resident research education program. Structured programs were more likely to be curriculum based, require resident participation in a research project, and provide specific training in presentation and writing skills. Productivity expectations were similar between structured and nonstructured programs. Forty percent of structured programs had > 20% of trainees with a publication in the last 2 years compared with 14% of departments with unstructured programs (difference, 26%; 99% confidence interval [CI], 8%-51%; P = 0.01). The percentage of programs that had research rotations for ≥2 months was not different between the structured and the nonstructured programs. A research rotation of >2 months did not increase the percentage of residents who had published an article within the last 2 months compared with a research rotation of 20% of residents with a publication in the last 2 years compared with 36% in programs with >20% of faculty involvement (difference, 21%; 99% CI, -4% to 46%; P = 0.03). Our

  14. Technology and Navy Recruiting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golfin, Peggy

    1997-01-01

    Since November 1996, CNA has participated on a Technology Task Force established by the Commander, Navy Recruiting Command, to address several issues concerning the use of technology and Navy recruiting...

  15. 77 FR 21843 - Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Assessment Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... in the promotions budget and to increase investment in marketing and research programs. At its... assessment rate increase will enable it to make additional investments in its marketing and research programs... current assessment provides a negative return on investment. Another commenter also noted that the Board...

  16. Increasing the trustworthiness of research results: the role of computers in qualitative text analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal

    2000-01-01

    By using computer packages designed for qualitative data analysis a researcher can increase trustworthiness (i.e., validity and reliability) of conclusions drawn from qualitative research results. This paper examines trustworthiness issues and therole of computer software (QSR's NUD*IST) in the context of a current research project investigating the social...

  17. Managing recruitment and selection in the digital age: e-HRM and resumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furtmueller-Ettinger, Elfriede; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Tate, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Recruiters, in the business of screening job applicants, are increasingly dependent on information systems especially digital resume databases. However, the current literature does not provide a consensus on the requirements for resume content for digital recruiting. This research contributes to the

  18. Increasing Use of Research Findings in Improving Evidence-Based Health Policy at the National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiwita Budiharsana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In February 2016, the Minister of Health decided to increase the use of research findings in improving the quality of the national health policy and planning. The Ministry of Health has instructed the National Institute of Health Research and Development or NIHRD to play a stronger role of monitoring and evaluating all health programs, because “their opinion and research findings should be the basis for changes in national health policies and planning”. Compared to the past, the Ministry of Health has increased the research budget for evidence-based research tremendously. However, there is a gap between the information needs of program and policy-makers and the information offered by researchers. A close dialogue is needed between the users (program managers, policy makers and planners and the suppliers (researchers and evaluators to ensure that the evidence-based supplied by research is useful for programs, planning and health policy.

  19. Microvascular Recruitment in Insulin Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, Kim Anker

    the resonating sound from the microbubbles in the systemic circulation were recorded for determination of microvascular recruitment in designated muscle segments. Results showed that microvascular recruitment increased with insulin stimulation by ~30% in rats and ~40% in humans (study I). Furthermore......, it was observed that muscle contractions increased muscle perfusion rapidly by 3-4 fold and by 1-2 fold compared to basal and insulin, respectively, in both rat and human skeletal muscle (study I). The real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound method was applied to investigate the vaso-active effect of the incretin...... hormone glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the microcirculation. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 analogs are drugs used for treatments of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes but the vascular effects of GLP-1 in vivo are elusive. Here it was shown that GLP-1 rapidly increased the microvascular recruitment...

  20. Publications as an indicator of increased tobacco control research productivity (quantity and quality) in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kira, Anette; Glover, Marewa; Bullen, Chris; Viehbeck, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Tobacco control (TC) research capacity and productivity are critical for developing evidence-informed interventions that will reduce the harmful effects of smoking. The aim of this paper was to investigate New Zealand's (NZ) TC research capacity along with the quantity and quality of publications, following two government initiatives aimed, in part, at improving the quantity and quality of NZ TC research. Scopus was searched for articles with at least one NZ author and where the topic was of primary relevance to TC. Publications were organized into two time periods, following the government initiatives, 1993-2003 and 2004-2009. We analyzed the number of publications, publication journals, type of publications, impact (using the impact factor), and authorship. There has been an increase in number and impact of publications and number of authors. The number of publications has increased from an average of 14 (1994-2003) to 38 per year (2004-2009). The number of journals published increased from 64 to 86. The impact during 2004-2009 was almost threefold than in 1993-2003. The number of authors increased from 212 to 345, and the number of authors who had at least one first-authored publication increased from 80 to 124. These results show an encouraging trend in NZ TC research, with an increase in research productivity, quality, and in research capacity. It is possible that government-initiated and -funded infrastructural support contributed to increasing needed TC research, which supports the worth of such initiatives.

  1. Recruiting Trends, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collegiate Employment Research Institute (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the recruiting trends for 2007-2008. This year's report is based on 994 respondents, including 84 K-12 school districts. The researchers focused attention on growing companies, based on lists from Forbes and Inc. magazines, and as a result, they have more small and medium-size employers represented this year. The sample…

  2. Recruiting Strategies for Women's Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for combating declining applicant pools at women's colleges are discussed. Research suggests that effective student recruitment can be facilitated by the use of single-gender market niche as a means for differentiation and parent influence for promotion. Review of strategies currently used indicate these marketing methods are underused and…

  3. Interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Katherine

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been considerable interest recently in developing and evaluating interventions to increase research use by clinicians. However, most work has focused on medical practices; and nursing is not well represented in existing systematic reviews. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Objective To assess the evidence on interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Methods A systematic review of research use in nursing was conducted using databases (Medline, CINAHL, Healthstar, ERIC, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Psychinfo, grey literature, ancestry searching (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, key informants, and manual searching of journals. Randomized controlled trials and controlled before- and after-studies were included if they included nurses, if the intervention was explicitly aimed at increasing research use or evidence-based practice, and if there was an explicit outcome to research use. Methodological quality was assessed using pre-existing tools. Data on interventions and outcomes were extracted and categorized using a pre-established taxonomy. Results Over 8,000 titles were screened. Three randomized controlled trials and one controlled before- and after-study met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Three investigators evaluated single interventions. The most common intervention was education. Investigators measured research use using a combination of surveys (three studies and compliance with guidelines (one study. Researcher-led educational meetings were ineffective in two studies. Educational meetings led by a local opinion leader (one study and the formation of multidisciplinary committees (one study were both effective at increasing research use. Conclusion Little is known about how to increase research use in

  4. Participant recruitment from minority religious groups: the case of the Islamic population in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, N; Jones, T; Evans, D

    2008-12-01

    Participant recruitment is a fundamental component of the research process and the methods employed to attract individuals will depend on the nature of the study. Recruitment may be more challenging when the study involves people from a minority religious group. However, this issue has not been well addressed in the literature. To discuss the challenges of recruiting participants from a minority religious group (the Islamic population) to participate in an interpretive, hermeneutic study concerning the experience of hospitalization. The challenges of recruitment encountered during this study are used as the basis for a broader discussion of this important issue. To ensure the success of this phase of the study, a pre-planned recruitment strategy was essential. Multiple recruitment strategies were used, including hospital-based recruitment, snowball sampling, advertising and contact with key people. Despite the use of multiple strategies, recruitment of participants was difficult and required an extended period of time to achieve sufficiently rich data. Thirteen participants shared their lived experience to provide an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. Recruiting participants from minority religious group involves potentially sensitive issues. There is an increased need for the researchers to carefully consider potential participants' rights and ensure that sound ethical principles underpin the study, as failure to do this may hinder the recruitment process. The two most effective strategies of recruitment were snowball sampling and contact with key Islamic people, with the least effective being advertising. This paper highlights the importance of anticipating potential difficulties and pre-planning strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment. Implementation of multiple strategies is recommended to ensure successful research recruitment.

  5. E-Learning: A Means to Increase Learner Involvement in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Marie; Mason, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a method for increasing the involvement of marketing fourth year learners in academic research, by encouraging greater participation in, and commitment to, their research project in the Applied Marketing IV subject. It is assumed that greater involvement will result in a greater pass rate. The main reasons for this lack of…

  6. Dr. Stefan Ambs: Increasing Diversity in Cancer Research: One Lab at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the series “Increasing Diversity in Cancer Research,” CRCHD interviewed Dr. Stefan Ambs, an investigator at NCI’s Center for Cancer Research, who is using novel approaches to discover gene differences in the tumors of African American patients.

  7. Using In-Service and Coaching to Increase Teachers' Accurate Use of Research-Based Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretlow, Allison G.; Cooke, Nancy L.; Wood, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing the accurate use of research-based practices in classrooms is a critical issue. Professional development is one of the most practical ways to provide practicing teachers with training related to research-based practices. This study examined the effects of in-service plus follow-up coaching on first grade teachers' accurate delivery of…

  8. Still Human: A Call for Increased Focus on Ethical Standards in Cadaver Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Michelle C

    2016-12-01

    Research on human cadavers is an important mechanism of scientific progress and comprises a large industry in the United States. However, despite its importance and influence, there is little ethical or regulatory oversight of cadaver-based research. This lack of transparency raises important ethical questions. Thus, this paper serves as a call for ethicists and regulators to pay increased attention to cadaver research. I argue that cadaver research ought to be considered a subset of human subjects research and held accountable to higher ethical standards. After describing current practices, I argue that oversight of cadaver research as a form of human subjects research is appropriate because cadaver research is similar to other types of human research, participants in cadaver research incur risks of harm, and a current lack of oversight has allowed the cadaver industry to entice research participation through ethically questionable practices. This paper urges greater dialogue among human subjects research ethicists and regulators about what constitutes appropriate protections for participants in cadaver research.

  9. Internet and Social Network Recruitment: Two Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kathy A.; Peace, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment of study participants is a significant research challenge. The Internet, with its ability to reach large numbers of people in networks connected by email, Facebook and other social networking mechanisms, appears to offer new avenues for recruitment. This paper reports recruitment experiences from two research projects that engaged the Internet and social networks in different ways for study recruitment. Drawing from the non-Internet recruitment literature, we speculate that th...

  10. The utility of Twitter as a tool for increasing reach of research on sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, Christine; Vakili, Negar; Stewart, Sherry H; Black, Tara

    2018-05-16

    Researchers in violence prevention areas seek to disseminate work for impact to practice and policy. Knowledge transfer, exchange, and mobilization are common terms for research knowledge utilization where public communication platforms are playing an increasing role, having unique capacity to connect stakeholders in advocacy and lived experience, academia, non-governmental organizations, government-supported organizations, such as child welfare, and research funding bodies. Social networking platforms provide a communication intervention opportunity to test the effectiveness of the research reach. A Canadian Institutes of Health Research- funded team grant in boys' and men's health, focusing on sexual violence (SV) victimization, health, and resilience undertook an evaluation to examine whether a strategic approach involving a cadre of SV experts (n = 46) and their research increased engagement. Using a unique identifier (#CIHRTeamSV) content was shared on social media (Twitter) within an ABABAB experimental monthly format (A = no sharing; B = sharing content), following a baseline entry of researchers. Active Twitter engagement lead to increases in the number of individuals' profile views, article downloads, and citations. These findings encourage further research into the utility of social media for disseminating sexual violence research, and that social media has developed as a forum for evidence-based conversation on sensitive topics of public health import. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An evaluation of the effectiveness of recruitment methods: the staying well after depression randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, Adele; Rudolf von Rohr, Isabelle; Muse, Kate; Duggan, Danielle; Crane, Catherine; Williams, J Mark G

    2014-04-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are widely accepted as being the most efficient way of investigating the efficacy of psychological therapies. However, researchers conducting RCTs commonly report difficulties in recruiting an adequate sample within planned timescales. In an effort to overcome recruitment difficulties, researchers often are forced to expand their recruitment criteria or extend the recruitment phase, thus increasing costs and delaying publication of results. Research investigating the effectiveness of recruitment strategies is limited, and trials often fail to report sufficient details about the recruitment sources and resources utilized. We examined the efficacy of strategies implemented during the Staying Well after Depression RCT in Oxford to recruit participants with a history of recurrent depression. We describe eight recruitment methods utilized and two further sources not initiated by the research team and examine their efficacy in terms of (1) the return, including the number of potential participants who contacted the trial and the number who were randomized into the trial; (2) cost-effectiveness, comprising direct financial cost and manpower for initial contacts and randomized participants; and (3) comparison of sociodemographic characteristics of individuals recruited from different sources. Poster advertising, web-based advertising, and mental health worker referrals were the cheapest methods per randomized participant; however, the ratio of randomized participants to initial contacts differed markedly per source. Advertising online, via posters, and on a local radio station were the most cost-effective recruitment methods for soliciting participants who subsequently were randomized into the trial. Advertising across many sources (saturation) was found to be important. It may not be feasible to employ all the recruitment methods used in this trial to obtain participation from other populations, such as those currently unwell, or in

  12. Enabling recruitment success in bariatric surgical trials: pilot phase of the By-Band-Sleeve study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, S; Rogers, C A; Welbourn, R; Byrne, J P; Salter, N; Mahon, D; Noble, H; Kelly, J; Mazza, G; Whybrow, P; Andrews, R C; Wilson, C; Blazeby, J M; Donovan, J L

    2017-11-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving surgical procedures are challenging for recruitment and infrequent in the specialty of bariatrics. The pilot phase of the By-Band-Sleeve study (gastric bypass versus gastric band versus sleeve gastrectomy) provided the opportunity for an investigation of recruitment using a qualitative research integrated in trials (QuinteT) recruitment intervention (QRI). The QRI investigated recruitment in two centers in the pilot phase comparing bypass and banding, through the analysis of 12 in-depth staff interviews, 84 audio recordings of patient consultations, 19 non-participant observations of consultations and patient screening data. QRI findings were developed into a plan of action and fed back to centers to improve information provision and recruitment organization. Recruitment proved to be extremely difficult with only two patients recruited during the first 2 months. The pivotal issue in Center A was that an effective and established clinical service could not easily adapt to the needs of the RCT. There was little scope to present RCT details or ensure efficient eligibility assessment, and recruiters struggled to convey equipoise. Following presentation of QRI findings, recruitment in Center A increased from 9% in the first 2 months (2/22) to 40% (26/65) in the 4 months thereafter. Center B, commencing recruitment 3 months after Center A, learnt from the emerging issues in Center A and set up a special clinic for trial recruitment. The trial successfully completed pilot recruitment and progressed to the main phase across 11 centers. The QRI identified key issues that enabled the integration of the trial into the clinical setting. This contributed to successful recruitment in the By-Band-Sleeve trial-currently the largest in bariatric practice-and offers opportunities to optimize recruitment in other trials in bariatrics.

  13. Research articles published by Korean spine surgeons: Scientific progress and the increase in spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Eon; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Kim, Hyun Jib; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu

    2017-02-01

    There has been a marked increase in spine surgery in the 21st century, but there are no reports providing quantitative and qualitative analyses of research by Korean spine surgeons. The study goal was to assess the status of Korean spinal surgery and research. The number of spine surgeries was obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Research articles published by Korean spine surgeons were reviewed by using the Medline/PubMed online database. The number of spine surgeries in Korea increased markedly from 92,390 in 2004 to 164,291 in 2013. During the 2000-2014 period, 1982 articles were published by Korean spine surgeons. The annual number of articles increased from 20 articles in 2000 to 293 articles in 2014. There was a positive correlation between the annual spine surgery and article numbers (particles with Oxford levels of evidence 1, 2, and 3. The mean five-year impact factor (IF) for article quality was 1.79. There was no positive correlation between the annual IF and article numbers. Most articles (65.9%) were authored by neurosurgical spine surgeons. But spinal deformity-related topics were dominant among articles authored by orthopedics. The results show a clear quantitative increase in Korean spinal surgery and research over the last 15years. The lack of a correlation between annual IF and published article numbers indicate that Korean spine surgeons should endeavor to increase research value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing Cultural Change in the United States Army Recruiting Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-10

    September 2008) 10Joint Advertising, Marketing Research Studies, 2008 Recruiter Quality of Life Survey: Preliminary Topline Findings, (Arlington, VA...Joint Advertising, Marketing Research Studies), http://www.dmren.org/jamrs/execute/mrs/studies/recruiter-study/2008, (accessed on 10 November 2008...October 2008, (Fort Knox, Kentucky, 17 October 2008), 19. 13 Ibid. 14 Joint Advertising, Marketing Research Studies, 2005 Recruiter Quality of Life

  15. Recruitment in a Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Kubricht, Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with human resources in company and focuses on personal strategy and recruitment. Its aim is to characterize and compare processes of recruitment and selection of new employees in two companies and propose solutions to increase the efficiency of these processes. The theoretical part is mainly focused on the overall characteristics of the recruitment and selection of new employees. In the practical is the theoretical knowledge confronted with real information from ...

  16. Academic Faculty Governance and Recruitment Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Walz, U.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the implications of the governance structure in academic faculties for their recruitment decisions when competing for new researchers. The value to individual members through social interaction within the faculty depends on the average status of their fellow members. In recruitment

  17. Academic faculty governance and recruitment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.; Walz, U.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the implications of the governance structure in academic faculties for their recruitment decisions when competing for new researchers. The value to individual members through social interaction within the faculty depends on the average status of their fellow members. In recruitment

  18. The impact of social media on recruitment: Are you LinkedIn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Koch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: With many organisations vying for the same talent, it is important to ensure that the correct methods are utilised in identifying and attracting the best talent to an organisation. Research purpose: This research investigates the impact of social media on the recruitment process in South Africa. Motivation for the study: As the competition for qualified talent increases, organisations need to understand where to focus their resources to attract the best talent possible. The use of social media is growing daily and its use in the recruitment process seems to have grown exponentially. Research design, approach and method: The sample comprised 12 recruiters, spanning a wide range of industries in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and a thematic analysis was utilised to identify themes and subthemes. Main findings: Despite still utilising some traditional methods of recruiting, South African recruiters follow their international counterparts, with LinkedIn being central to their respective recruitment processes. The use of Twitter and Facebook for recruitment was found to be substantially lower in South Africa than elsewhere. Without following a focused approach, the volume of work that emanates from using social media may overwhelm a recruiter. Practical and managerial implications: Recruiters cannot execute effective recruitment without applying social media tools such as LinkedIn. However, training in the optimal use of social media is essential. Contribution: This study indicates that LinkedIn has a major impact on recruitment in South Africa, but that social media is not a panacea for recruitment issues.

  19. Recruitment of rural healthcare professionals for live continuing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holuby, Ronnie Scott; Pellegrin, Karen L; Barbato, Anna; Ciarleglio, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The availability of rural healthcare is a growing concern in the United States as fewer healthcare providers choose to work in rural areas. Accessing quality continuing education (CE) for rural healthcare practitioners (HCPs) remains a challenge and may pose a barrier to quality care. To maximize attendance at a live, in-person, free CE program focusing on geriatric medication and issues specifically targeted to HCPs in rural areas, two methods were implemented sequentially. The first method used formal advertising implemented by a professional marketing service to promote CE events. The second method enlisted local healthcare organizations and physician groups to promote the CE event to their employees. Cost per attendee was calculated for comparison. Professional marketing services recruited 31 HCPs (March 2011) and resulted in a per-participant recruitment cost of US$428.62. Local healthcare organizations and physician groups' marketing recruited 48 HCPs (July-August 2011) and resulted in a per-participant recruitment cost of US$55.19. Providing free CE coordinated through local healthcare organizations and physician groups was the most cost-effective method of recruiting rural HCPs for CE. Formal advertising added cost without increasing the number of participants per event. Although this is the first study of the cost-effectiveness of recruitment methods targeting HCPs in rural areas, results are consistent with research on cost-effectiveness of outreach to rural lay community members.

  20. Recruitment of rural healthcare professionals for live continuing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Scott Holuby

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The availability of rural healthcare is a growing concern in the United States as fewer healthcare providers choose to work in rural areas. Accessing quality continuing education (CE for rural healthcare practitioners (HCPs remains a challenge and may pose a barrier to quality care. Methods: To maximize attendance at a live, in-person, free CE program focusing on geriatric medication and issues specifically targeted to HCPs in rural areas, two methods were implemented sequentially. The first method used formal advertising implemented by a professional marketing service to promote CE events. The second method enlisted local healthcare organizations and physician groups to promote the CE event to their employees. Cost per attendee was calculated for comparison. Results: Professional marketing services recruited 31 HCPs (March 2011 and resulted in a per-participant recruitment cost of US$428.62. Local healthcare organizations and physician groups’ marketing recruited 48 HCPs (July–August 2011 and resulted in a per-participant recruitment cost of US$55.19. Discussion: Providing free CE coordinated through local healthcare organizations and physician groups was the most cost-effective method of recruiting rural HCPs for CE. Formal advertising added cost without increasing the number of participants per event. Although this is the first study of the cost-effectiveness of recruitment methods targeting HCPs in rural areas, results are consistent with research on cost-effectiveness of outreach to rural lay community members.

  1. Motivated reasoning during recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Heather Barry; Balcetis, Emily; De Cremer, David

    2018-03-01

    This research shows how job postings can lead job candidates to see themselves as particularly deserving of hiring and high salary. We propose that these entitlement beliefs entail both personal motivations to see oneself as deserving and the ability to justify those motivated judgments. Accordingly, we predict that people feel more deserving when qualifications for a job are vague and thus amenable to motivated reasoning, whereby people use information selectively to reach a desired conclusion. We tested this hypothesis with a 2-phase experiment (N = 892) using materials drawn from real online job postings. In the first phase of the experiment, participants believed themselves to be more deserving of hiring and deserving of higher pay after reading postings composed of vaguer types of qualifications. In the second phase, yoked observers believed that participants were less entitled overall, but did not selectively discount endorsement of vaguer qualifications, suggesting they were unaware of this effect. A follow-up preregistered experiment (N = 905) using postings with mixed qualification types replicated the effect of including more vague qualifications on participants' entitlement beliefs. Entitlement beliefs are widely seen as problematic for recruitment and retention, and these results suggest that reducing the inclusion of vague qualifications in job postings would dampen the emergence of these beliefs in applicants, albeit at the cost of decreasing application rates and lowering applicants' confidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Establishing the Research Agenda for Increasing the Representation of Women in Engineering and Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Kathleen; Hill, Catherine; Benson, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    While there is an extensive body of research on gender equity in engineering and computing, there have been few efforts to glean insight from a dialog among experts. To encourage collaboration and to develop a shared vision of the future research agenda, a 2 day workshop of 50 scholars who work on the topic of gender in engineering and computing was held at a rural conference center. The structure of the conference and the location allowed for time to reflect, dialog, and to craft an innovative research agenda aimed at increasing the representation of women in engineering and computing. This paper has been written by the conference organizers and details the ideas and recommendations from the scholars. The result is an innovative, collaborative approach to future research that focuses on identifying effective interventions. The new approach includes the creation of partnerships with stakeholders including businesses, government agencies, non-profits and academic institutions to allow a broader voice in setting research priorities. Researchers recommend incorporating multiple disciplines and methodologies, while expanding the use of data analytics, merging and mining existing databases and creating new datasets. The future research agenda is detailed and includes studies focused on socio-cultural interventions particularly on career choice, within undergraduate and graduate programs, and for women in professional careers. The outcome is a vision for future research that can be shared with researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders that will lead to gender equity in the engineering and computing professions.

  3. Community-Engaged Strategies to Increase Diversity of Participants in Health Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Balls-Berry, Joyce; Price, James H; Webb, Fern J

    2016-05-01

    Minorities have historically been underrepresented in health-related research. Several strategies have been recommended to increase the participation of minorities in health-related research. However, most of the recommendations and guidelines apply to research in clinical or laboratory contexts. One of the more prominent methods to enhance minority participation in health-related research that has recently come to the fore is the use of community-engaged strategies. The purpose of this article is to summarize community-engaged outreach efforts that can be translated into useable strategies for health education research teams seeking to diversify the pool of research participants. Also, we provide a succinct overview of the various components of a research endeavor that may influence minority participation in health-related research. Finally, we analyze how health education specialists and SOPHE (Society of Public Health Education) can play a leading role in helping enhance minority participation in health-related research. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. A Comparison of Recruitment Methods for an mHealth Intervention Targeting Mothers: Lessons from the Growing Healthy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Rachel A; Litterbach, Eloise-Kate V; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth A; Russell, Catherine G; Taki, Sarah; Ong, Kok-Leong; Elliott, Rosalind M; Lymer, Sharyn J; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-09-15

    Mobile health (mHealth) programs hold great promise for increasing the reach of public health interventions. However, mHealth is a relatively new field of research, presenting unique challenges for researchers. A key challenge is understanding the relative effectiveness and cost of various methods of recruitment to mHealth programs. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the effectiveness of various methods of recruitment to an mHealth intervention targeting healthy infant feeding practices, and (2) explore factors influencing practitioner referral to the intervention. The Growing healthy study used a quasi-experimental design with an mHealth intervention group and a concurrent nonrandomized comparison group. Eligibility criteria included: expectant parents (>30 weeks of gestation) or parents with an infant mobile phone, ≥18 years old, and living in Australia. Recruitment to the mHealth program consisted of: (1) practitioner-led recruitment through Maternal and Child Health nurses, midwives, and nurses in general practice; (2) face-to-face recruitment by researchers; and (3) online recruitment. Participants' baseline surveys provided information regarding how participants heard about the study, and their sociodemographic details. Costs per participant recruited were calculated by taking into account direct advertising costs and researcher time/travel costs. Practitioner feedback relating to the recruitment process was obtained through a follow-up survey and qualitative interviews. A total of 300 participants were recruited to the mHealth intervention. The cost per participant recruited was lowest for online recruitment (AUD $14) and highest for practice nurse recruitment (AUD $586). Just over half of the intervention group (50.3%, 151/300) were recruited online over a 22-week period compared to practitioner recruitment (29.3%, 88/300 over 46 weeks) and face-to-face recruitment by researchers (7.3%, 22/300 over 18 weeks). No significant differences were

  5. Understanding the Process and Success Factors to Increase Synergies between Research and Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Ballou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While the synergies between research for knowledge discovery and teaching are widely accepted, the evidence is mostly implicit, verbal and poorly documented, and many times contradictive. In an effort to better understand the interaction between these important activities, the main objective of this study is to collect knowledge illustrating their synergies through specific cases. A complementary objective is to identify the important factors, which professionals should implement or avoid for increasing the likelihood that these synergies will be derived. To collect the necessary information personal interviews have been used to address the research question. The same set of questions was sent to several professionals known to have extensive experience in the areas of academic research and teaching. The respondents were asked to: 1. briefly describe the knowledge area in which the synergies occurred; 2. For the specified knowledge area, to please describe in summary form but specifically how they derived the synergy between research and teaching; and 3. Based on their personal experience, to please identify the important factors to increase the likelihood that academic research will produce benefits for teaching, and vice versa. The results strongly corroborate the importance of academic research for effective teaching. Based on the results, a set of recommendations are made to faculty members and school administrators to further promote academic research as an important factor for more effective teaching.

  6. Redes En Acción. Increasing Hispanic participation in cancer research, training, and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Talavera, Gregory A; Marti, Jose; Penedo, Frank J; Medrano, Martha A; Giachello, Aida L; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2006-10-15

    Hispanics are affected by many health care disparities. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through its Special Populations Branch, is supporting networking and capacity-building activities designed to increase Hispanic participation and leadership in cancer research. Redes En Acción established a national network of cancer research centers, community-based organizations, and federal partners to facilitate opportunities for junior Hispanic scientists to participate in training and research projects on cancer control. Since 2000, Redes En Acción has established a network of more than 1800 Hispanic leaders involved in cancer research and education. The project has sustained 131 training positions and submitted 29 pilot projects to NCI for review, with 16 awards for a total of $800,000, plus an additional $8.8 million in competing grant funding based on pilot study results to date. Independent research has leveraged an additional $32 million in non-Redes funding, and together the national and regional network sites have participated in more than 1400 community and professional awareness events. In addition, the program conducted extensive national survey research that provided the basis for the Redes En Acción Latino Cancer Report, a national agenda on Hispanic cancer issues. Redes En Acción has increased participation in cancer control research, training, and awareness among Hispanic scientists and within Hispanic communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  7. Increasing Research Capacity in Underserved Communities: Formative and Summative Evaluation of the Mississippi Community Research Fellows Training Program (Cohort 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fastring

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe Mississippi Community Research Fellows Training Program (MSCRFTP is a 15-week program conducted in Jackson, MS, USA consisting of training in the areas of evidence-based public health, research methods, research ethics, and cultural competency. The purpose of the program was to increase community knowledge and understanding of public health research, develop community-based projects that addressed health disparity in the participants’ community, increase individual and community capacity, and to engage community members as equal partners in the research process.MethodsA comprehensive evaluation of the MSCRFTP was conducted that included both quantitative and qualitative methods. All participants were asked to complete a baseline, midterm, and final assessment as part of their program requirements. Knowledge gained was assessed by comparing baseline assessment responses to final assessment responses related to 27 key content areas addressed in the training sessions. Assessments also collected participants’ attitudes toward participating in research within their communities, their perceived influence over community decisions, and their perceptions of community members’ involvement in research, satisfaction with the program, and the program’s impact on the participants’ daily practice and community work.ResultsTwenty-one participants, the majority of which were female and African-American, completed the MSCRFTP. Knowledge of concepts addressed in 15 weekly training sessions improved significantly on 85.2% of 27 key areas evaluated (p < 0.05. Two mini-grant community based participatory research projects proposed by participants were funded through competitive application. Most participants agreed that by working together, the people in their community could influence decisions that affected the community. All participants rated their satisfaction with the overall program as “very high” (76.2%, n = 16 or

  8. Internet and social network recruitment: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kathy A; Peace, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment of study participants is a significant research challenge. The Internet, with its ability to reach large numbers of people in networks connected by email, Facebook and other social networking mechanisms, appears to offer new avenues for recruitment. This paper reports recruitment experiences from two research projects that engaged the Internet and social networks in different ways for study recruitment. Drawing from the non-Internet recruitment literature, we speculate that the relationship with the source of the research and the purpose of the engaged social network should be a consideration in Internet or social network recruitment strategies.

  9. Contribute to Wikipedia: An approach to Increase Research Visibility on the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-01-01

    Wikipedia is a tool for collaboration, information sharing and knowledge/content management which anyone can edit. Wikipedia is widely used by students during the research process. So, due to Wikipedia popularity, contributing to Wikipedia website is one way of increasing citation score. In this workshop, I try to answer “Does including your papers as citations on Wikipedia increase the number of academic citations you get?” if yes, how?.

  10. Recruiting and Retaining Cyberwarriors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Westermeyer, Roger H

    2008-01-01

    .... Recruiting and retaining this highly skilled workforce is a significant challenge for the Air Force due to the high public and private sector demand for people with IT and related engineering skills...

  11. Recruiting and Retaining Cyberwarriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-07

    2007 hearing of the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Information Policy, Gregory Wilshusen, director of Information Technology at...Abbott Laboratories in Chicago, recruiters are reaching out to College students by offering flexible work schedules, telecommuting , full tuition

  12. 75 FR 31279 - Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ..., Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Blueberry promotion, Reporting and recordkeeping... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1218 [Document Number AMS-FV-09-0022; FV-09-705] Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Increase Membership AGENCY...

  13. Using Norm-Based Appeals to Increase Response Rates in Evaluation Research: A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shalini; Stokols, Daniel; Marino, Anne Heberger

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of norm-based persuasive messages for increasing response rates in online survey research. Participants in an interdisciplinary conference were asked to complete two successive postconference surveys and randomly assigned to one of two groups at each time point. The experimental group…

  14. Increasing High School Student Interest in Science: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartuli, Cindy A.

    2016-01-01

    An action research study was conducted to determine how to increase student interest in learning science and pursuing a STEM career. The study began by exploring 10th-grade student and teacher perceptions of student interest in science in order to design an instructional strategy for stimulating student interest in learning and pursuing science.…

  15. Targeted Facebook Advertising is a Novel and Effective Method of Recruiting Participants into a Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Effectiveness Study

    OpenAIRE

    Subasinghe, Asvini K; Nguyen, Margaret; Wark, John D; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Background Targeted advertising using social networking sites (SNS) as a recruitment strategy in health research is in its infancy. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of targeted Facebook advertisements to increase recruitment of unvaccinated women into a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness study. Methods Between September 2011 and November 2013, females aged 18 to 25 years, residing in Victoria, Australia, were recruited through Facebook advertiseme...

  16. When all children comprehend: increasing the external validity of narrative comprehension development research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Silas E.; Brown, Danielle D.

    2014-01-01

    Narratives, also called stories, can be found in conversations, children's play interactions, reading material, and television programs. From infancy to adulthood, narrative comprehension processes interpret events and inform our understanding of physical and social environments. These processes have been extensively studied to ascertain the multifaceted nature of narrative comprehension. From this research we know that three overlapping processes (i.e., knowledge integration, goal structure understanding, and causal inference generation) proposed by the constructionist paradigm are necessary for narrative comprehension, narrative comprehension has a predictive relationship with children's later reading performance, and comprehension processes are generalizable to other contexts. Much of the previous research has emphasized internal and predictive validity; thus, limiting the generalizability of previous findings. We are concerned these limitations may be excluding underrepresented populations from benefits and implications identified by early comprehension processes research. This review identifies gaps in extant literature regarding external validity and argues for increased emphasis on externally valid research. We highlight limited research on narrative comprehension processes in children from low-income and minority populations, and argue for changes in comprehension assessments. Specifically, we argue both on- and off-line assessments should be used across various narrative types (e.g., picture books, televised narratives) with traditionally underserved and underrepresented populations. We propose increasing the generalizability of narrative comprehension processes research can inform persistent reading achievement gaps, and have practical implications for how children learn from narratives. PMID:24659973

  17. When All Children Comprehend: Increasing the External Validity of Narrative Comprehension Development Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas E. Burris

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Narratives, also called stories, can be found in conversations, children’s play interactions, reading material, and television programs. From infancy to adulthood, narrative comprehension processes interpret events and inform our understanding of physical and social environments. These processes have been extensively studied to ascertain the multifaceted nature of narrative comprehension. From this research we know that three overlapping processes (i.e., knowledge integration, goal structure understanding, and causal inference generation proposed by the constructionist paradigm are necessary for narrative comprehension, narrative comprehension has a predictive relationship with children’s later reading performance, and comprehension processes are generalizable to other contexts. Much of the previous research has emphasized internal and predictive validity; thus, limiting the generalizability of previous findings. We are concerned these limitations may be excluding underrepresented populations from benefits and implications identified by early comprehension processes research. This review identifies gaps in extant literature regarding external validity and argues for increased emphasis on externally valid research. We highlight limited research on narrative comprehension processes in children from low-income and minority populations, and argue for changes in comprehension assessments. Specifically, we argue both on- and off-line assessments should be used across various narrative types (e.g., picture books, televised narratives with traditionally underserved and underrepresented populations. We propose increasing the generalizability narrative comprehension processes research can inform persistent reading achievement gaps, and have practical implications for how children learn from narratives.

  18. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  19. Retailing research: increasing the role of evidence in clinical services for childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, J

    1993-01-01

    A current review of the structures and assumptions of research transfer for clinical care reveals some progress from "passive diffusion" to "active dissemination" models, but little or no progress has been made toward targeting local influences on practitioner behavior for "coordinated implementation" of clinically relevant research into childbirth (or other) medical practices. The implementation of scientifically valid research syntheses, such as Effective Care in Pregnancy and Childbirth (ECPC), is therefore constrained by a poorly developed marketplace for retailing research information to practitioners. A survey in Canada of the four most significant potential retailing groups demonstrated that whereas clinical and community groups were adopting the necessary knowledge and attitudes, public policy makers and administrators trailed well behind them. To increase the probability of thorough retailing of ECPC, a three-phase plan could be instituted that would identify product champions within potential retailing groups, develop implementation activities for each retailing group, and convene annual conferences.

  20. Recruiting Filipino Immigrants in a Randomized Controlled Trial Promoting Enrollment in an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R; Reyes, Angela; Coffey, Dean M; Schrager, Sheree M; Samson, Allan; Palinkas, Lawrence; Kipke, Michele D; Miranda, Jeanne

    2018-05-17

    Filipinos, the second largest Asian subgroup in the U.S., experience significant youth behavioral health disparities but remain under-represented in health research. We describe lessons learned from using the Matching Model of Recruitment to recruit 215 Filipinos to participate in a large, randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored video aimed at increasing enrollment in the Incredible Years® Parent Program. We recruited participants from schools, churches, clinics, community events, and other community-based locations. Facilitators of participation included: partnership with local community groups, conducting research in familiar settings, building on existing social networks, and matching perspectives of community members and researchers. Findings suggest recruitment success occurs when there is a match between goals of Filipino parents, grandparents and the research community. Understanding the perspectives of ethnic minority communities and effectively communicating goals of research studies are critical to successful recruitment of hard-to-reach immigrant populations in randomized controlled trials.

  1. NASA Plan for Increasing Access to the Results of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This plan is issued in response to the Executive Office of the President's February 22, 2013, Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, "Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research." Through this memorandum, OSTP directed all agencies with more than $100 million in annual research and development expenditures to prepare a plan for improving the public's access to the results of federally funded research. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invests on the order of $3 billion annually in fundamental and applied research and technology development1 across a broad range of topics, including space and Earth sciences, life and physical sciences, human health, aeronautics, and technology. Promoting the full and open sharing of data with research communities, private industry, academia, and the general public is one of NASA's longstanding core values. For example, NASA's space and suborbital mission personnel routinely process, archive, and distribute their data to researchers around the globe. This plan expands the breadth of NASA's open-access culture to include data and publications for all of the scientific research that the Agency sponsors.

  2. Participant Recruitment and Engagement in Automated eHealth Trial Registration: Challenges and Opportunities for Recruiting Women Who Experience Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol-McLain, Jane; McLean, Christine; Rohan, Maheswaran; Sisk, Rose; Dobbs, Terry; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Wilson, Denise; Vandal, Alain C

    2016-10-25

    Automated eHealth Web-based research trials offer people an accessible, confidential opportunity to engage in research that matters to them. eHealth trials may be particularly useful for sensitive issues when seeking health care may be accompanied by shame and mistrust. Yet little is known about people's early engagement with eHealth trials, from recruitment to preintervention autoregistration processes. A recent randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of an eHealth safety decision aid for New Zealand women in the general population who experienced intimate partner violence (isafe) provided the opportunity to examine recruitment and preintervention participant engagement with a fully automated Web-based registration process. The trial aimed to recruit 340 women within 24 months. The objective of our study was to examine participant preintervention engagement and recruitment efficiency for the isafe trial, and to analyze dropout through the registration pathway, from recruitment to eligibility screening and consent, to completion of baseline measures. In this case study, data collection sources included the trial recruitment log, Google Analytics reports, registration and program metadata, and costs. Analysis included a qualitative narrative of the recruitment experience and descriptive statistics of preintervention participant engagement and dropout rates. A Koyck model investigated the relationship between Web-based online marketing website advertisements (ads) and participant accrual. The isafe trial was launched on September 17, 2012. Placement of ads in an online classified advertising platform increased the average number of recruited participants per month from 2 to 25. Over the 23-month recruitment period, the registration website recorded 4176 unique visitors. Among 1003 women meeting eligibility criteria, 51.55% (517) consented to participate; among the 501 women who enrolled (consented, validated, and randomized), 412 (82.2%) were

  3. Participant Recruitment and Engagement in Automated eHealth Trial Registration: Challenges and Opportunities for Recruiting Women Who Experience Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Christine; Rohan, Maheswaran; Sisk, Rose; Dobbs, Terry; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Wilson, Denise; Vandal, Alain C

    2016-01-01

    Background Automated eHealth Web-based research trials offer people an accessible, confidential opportunity to engage in research that matters to them. eHealth trials may be particularly useful for sensitive issues when seeking health care may be accompanied by shame and mistrust. Yet little is known about people’s early engagement with eHealth trials, from recruitment to preintervention autoregistration processes. A recent randomized controlled trial that tested the effectiveness of an eHealth safety decision aid for New Zealand women in the general population who experienced intimate partner violence (isafe) provided the opportunity to examine recruitment and preintervention participant engagement with a fully automated Web-based registration process. The trial aimed to recruit 340 women within 24 months. Objective The objective of our study was to examine participant preintervention engagement and recruitment efficiency for the isafe trial, and to analyze dropout through the registration pathway, from recruitment to eligibility screening and consent, to completion of baseline measures. Methods In this case study, data collection sources included the trial recruitment log, Google Analytics reports, registration and program metadata, and costs. Analysis included a qualitative narrative of the recruitment experience and descriptive statistics of preintervention participant engagement and dropout rates. A Koyck model investigated the relationship between Web-based online marketing website advertisements (ads) and participant accrual. Results The isafe trial was launched on September 17, 2012. Placement of ads in an online classified advertising platform increased the average number of recruited participants per month from 2 to 25. Over the 23-month recruitment period, the registration website recorded 4176 unique visitors. Among 1003 women meeting eligibility criteria, 51.55% (517) consented to participate; among the 501 women who enrolled (consented, validated

  4. Recruiting physicians without inviting trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, L J

    1989-05-01

    Many hospitals use physician recruitment strategies--generally assistance or employment strategies--to ensure medical staff loyalty. Although these strategies appeal to both hospitals and physicians, they are becoming increasingly problematic. Over the past three years, the government has issued pronouncements that question their legality. Thus any hospital considering physician recruitment strategies would be wise to evaluate them in light of various legal issues. such as reimbursement, nonprofit taxation, corporate practice of medicine, and certificate-of-need statutes. The consequences of failing to consider these issues can be ominous. The penalties for violating the proscribed remuneration provision of the Medicare act can include a fine, imprisonment, suspension from the Medicare and Medicaid programs, or loss of license. Payment issues can result in reduced reimbursement levels. Nonprofit taxation issues can trigger the loss of tax exemption. As a result of the corporate practice of medicine, a physician recruitment strategy may not be reimbursable by third-party payers or may even constitute the unauthorized practice of medicine. Finally, in some states, physician recruitment may trigger certificate-of-need review.

  5. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn E. Brodar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants, word of mouth (23%, Facebook (16%, and flyers or postcards (14%. Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p < 0.05. Hispanic and gay, lesbian, and bisexual smokers were more likely to be recruited by Craigslist than non-Hispanic and straight smokers (both p < 0.05. Of the recruitment methods requiring cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker. The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker. Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  6. Strategies for improving patient recruitment to focus groups in primary care: a case study reflective paper using an analytical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilling Michelle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting to primary care studies is complex. With the current drive to increase numbers of patients involved in primary care studies, we need to know more about successful recruitment approaches. There is limited evidence on recruitment to focus group studies, particularly when no natural grouping exists and where participants do not regularly meet. The aim of this paper is to reflect on recruitment to a focus group study comparing the methods used with existing evidence using a resource for research recruitment, PROSPeR (Planning Recruitment Options: Strategies for Primary Care. Methods The focus group formed part of modelling a complex intervention in primary care in the Resources for Effective Sleep Treatment (REST study. Despite a considered approach at the design stage, there were a number of difficulties with recruitment. The recruitment strategy and subsequent revisions are detailed. Results The researchers' modifications to recruitment, justifications and evidence from the literature in support of them are presented. Contrary evidence is used to analyse why some aspects were unsuccessful and evidence is used to suggest improvements. Recruitment to focus group studies should be considered in two distinct phases; getting potential participants to contact the researcher, and converting those contacts into attendance. The difficulty of recruitment in primary care is underemphasised in the literature especially where people do not regularly come together, typified by this case study of patients with sleep problems. Conclusion We recommend training GPs and nurses to recruit patients during consultations. Multiple recruitment methods should be employed from the outset and the need to build topic related non-financial incentives into the group meeting should be considered. Recruitment should be monitored regularly with barriers addressed iteratively as a study progresses.

  7. Recruit and ADVANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue V.

    2007-04-01

    Beginning in 2001, the National Science Foundation launched the ADVANCE Initiative, which has now awarded more than 70 million to some thirty institutions for transformations to advance women. Results of studies on how to attract and retain women students and faculty underpinned our ADVANCE Institutional Transformation grant funded by the NSF for 3.7 million for five years, beginning in 2001. As co-principal investigator on this grant, I insured that this research informed the five major threads of the grant: 1) Four termed ADVANCE professors to mentor junior women faculty in each college; 2) Collection of MIT-Report-like data indicators to assess whether advancement of women really occurs during and after the institutional transformation undertaken through ADVANCE; 3) Family-friendly policies and practices to stop the tenure clock and provide active service, modified duties, lactation stations and day care; 4) Mini-retreats to facilitate access for tenure-track women faculty to male decision-makers and administrators for informal conversations and discussion on topics important to women faculty; 5) Removal of subtle gender, racial, and other biases in promotion and tenure. The dynamic changes resulting from the grant in quality of mentoring, new understanding of promotion and tenure, numbers of women retained and given endowed chairs, and emergence of new family friendly policies gave me hope for genuine diversification of leadership in science and technology. As the grant funding ends, the absence of NSF prestige and monitoring, coupled with a change in academic leadership at the top, provide new challenges for institutionalization, recruitment, and advancement of women into leadership positions in science and engineering.

  8. Seedling recruitment of Colophospermum mopane on the Highveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedling recruitment of Colophospermum mopane on the Highveld of Zimbabwe: research note. ... Open areas with bare ground or sparse grass cover were favourable sites for seedling recruitment. Seedlings ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. A Model of U.S. Army Recruit Labor Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wargelin, Mark

    1997-01-01

    .... This paper reviews previous military manpower research and critically examines two recruit labor supply experiments the Multiple Option Recruiting Experiment of 1979, and the Educational Assistance Test Program of 1981...

  10. Recruitment efforts to reduce adverse impact: targeted recruiting for personality, cognitive ability, and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Daniel A; Lyon, Julie S

    2009-03-01

    Noting the presumed tradeoff between diversity and performance goals in contemporary selection practice, the authors elaborate on recruiting-based methods for avoiding adverse impact while maintaining aggregate individual productivity. To extend earlier work on the primacy of applicant pool characteristics for resolving adverse impact, they illustrate the advantages of simultaneous cognitive ability- and personality-based recruiting. Results of an algebraic recruiting model support general recruiting for cognitive ability, combined with recruiting for conscientiousness within the underrepresented group. For realistic recruiting effect sizes, this type of recruiting strategy greatly increases average performance of hires and percentage of hires from the underrepresented group. Further results from a policy-capturing study provide initial guidance on how features of organizational image can attract applicants with particular job-related personalities and abilities, in addition to attracting applicants on the basis of demographic background. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Increasing High School Student Interest in Science: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartuli, Cindy A.

    An action research study was conducted to determine how to increase student interest in learning science and pursuing a STEM career. The study began by exploring 10th-grade student and teacher perceptions of student interest in science in order to design an instructional strategy for stimulating student interest in learning and pursuing science. Data for this study included responses from 270 students to an on-line science survey and interviews with 11 students and eight science teachers. The action research intervention included two iterations of the STEM Career Project. The first iteration introduced four chemistry classes to the intervention. The researcher used student reflections and a post-project survey to determine if the intervention had influence on the students' interest in pursuing science. The second iteration was completed by three science teachers who had implemented the intervention with their chemistry classes, using student reflections and post-project surveys, as a way to make further procedural refinements and improvements to the intervention and measures. Findings from the exploratory phase of the study suggested students generally had interest in learning science but increasing that interest required including personally relevant applications and laboratory experiences. The intervention included a student-directed learning module in which students investigated three STEM careers and presented information on one of their chosen careers. The STEM Career Project enabled students to explore career possibilities in order to increase their awareness of STEM careers. Findings from the first iteration of the intervention suggested a positive influence on student interest in learning and pursuing science. The second iteration included modifications to the intervention resulting in support for the findings of the first iteration. Results of the second iteration provided modifications that would allow the project to be used for different academic levels

  12. Results of fuel elements fabrication on the basis of increased concentration dioxide fuel for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.B.; Afanasiev, V.L.; Enin, A.A.; Suprun, V.B.

    1996-01-01

    According to the Russian Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, that were constructed under the Russian projects, at the Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant the pilot series of different configuration (WR-M2, MR, IRT-4M) fuel elements, based on increased concentration uranium dioxide fuel, have been fabricated for reactor tests. Comprehensive fabricated fuel elements quality estimation has been carried out. (author)

  13. Increasing Complexity of Clinical Research in Gastroenterology: Implications for Training Clinician-Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Frank I.; McConnell, Ryan A.; Lewis, Matthew E.; Lewis, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant advances have been made in clinical and epidemiologic research methods over the past 30 years. We sought to demonstrate the impact of these advances on published research in gastroenterology from 1980 to 2010. Methods Three journals (Gastroenterology, Gut, and American Journal of Gastroenterology) were selected for evaluation given their continuous publication during the study period. Twenty original clinical articles were randomly selected from each journal from 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Each article was assessed for topic studied, whether the outcome was clinical or physiologic, study design, sample size, number of authors and centers collaborating, and reporting of statistical methods such as sample size calculations, p-values, confidence intervals, and advanced techniques such as bioinformatics or multivariate modeling. Research support with external funding was also recorded. Results A total of 240 articles were included in the study. From 1980 to 2010, there was a significant increase in analytic studies (pgastroenterology and hepatology over the last three decades. This increase highlights the need for advanced training of clinical investigators to conduct future research. PMID:22475957

  14. A RESEARCH ON EXAMINATION OF SWIMMER CLOTHING FOR INCREASING SPORTSMAN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer ÖLÇER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to present the problems of swimmers about swimming clothing in trainings or competitions and their expectations from swimming clothing for increasing their performan ce . Descriptive method was used in the research . Survey was developed as a data collection tool on clothing comfort parameters and functional design p roperties that swimming clothing should have . The universe of the r esearch is composed of male and female swimmers interested in swimming sport in T urkey, in the province of Çorum. And the sample is composed of 50 swimmers who participate in the research v oluntarily among the members of Olympic Indoor Swimming Pool serving in Çorum Provincial Directorate of Youth Services and Spor ts . The findings were analyzed in Statistics Package Program in Social Sciences (SPSS. As a result of the r esearch ; it was determined that the problems experienced with the clothing were quick deform ation, restriction of movements, and the fact that fabric texture and sewing properties discomfort the skin and expectations from clothing were durability, ease of movement , to accord with the body and easy maintenance . It is considered that r esearch results shall be a guide for research and development activities to be performed about clothing comfort on both academic and sector basis for increasing sportive performan ce in running sport and protection of sportsmen health .

  15. Successful recruitment strategies for prevention programs targeting children of parents with mental health challenges: An international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesum, K.T.M. van; Riebschleger, J.; Carroll, J.; Grové, C.; Lauritzen, C.; Mordoch, E.; Skerfving, A.

    2016-01-01

    Research substantiates children of parents with mental disorders including substance abuse face increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems. Although evidence suggests that support programs for children enhance resiliency, recruiting children to these groups remains problematic. This study

  16. Increased scientific rigor will improve reliability of research and effectiveness of management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, Sarah N.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Barker, Kristin J.; Forshee, Shannon C.; Keever, Allison; Goerz, James W.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2018-01-01

    Rigorous science that produces reliable knowledge is critical to wildlife management because it increases accurate understanding of the natural world and informs management decisions effectively. Application of a rigorous scientific method based on hypothesis testing minimizes unreliable knowledge produced by research. To evaluate the prevalence of scientific rigor in wildlife research, we examined 24 issues of the Journal of Wildlife Management from August 2013 through July 2016. We found 43.9% of studies did not state or imply a priori hypotheses, which are necessary to produce reliable knowledge. We posit that this is due, at least in part, to a lack of common understanding of what rigorous science entails, how it produces more reliable knowledge than other forms of interpreting observations, and how research should be designed to maximize inferential strength and usefulness of application. Current primary literature does not provide succinct explanations of the logic behind a rigorous scientific method or readily applicable guidance for employing it, particularly in wildlife biology; we therefore synthesized an overview of the history, philosophy, and logic that define scientific rigor for biological studies. A rigorous scientific method includes 1) generating a research question from theory and prior observations, 2) developing hypotheses (i.e., plausible biological answers to the question), 3) formulating predictions (i.e., facts that must be true if the hypothesis is true), 4) designing and implementing research to collect data potentially consistent with predictions, 5) evaluating whether predictions are consistent with collected data, and 6) drawing inferences based on the evaluation. Explicitly testing a priori hypotheses reduces overall uncertainty by reducing the number of plausible biological explanations to only those that are logically well supported. Such research also draws inferences that are robust to idiosyncratic observations and

  17. The Increasing Interest of ANAMMOX Research in China: Bacteria, Process Development, and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen pollution created severe environmental problems and increasingly has become an important issue in China. Since the first discovery of ANAMMOX in the early 1990s, this related technology has become a promising as well as sustainable bioprocess for treating strong nitrogenous wastewater. Many Chinese research groups have concentrated their efforts on the ANAMMOX research including bacteria, process development, and application during the past 20 years. A series of new and outstanding outcomes including the discovery of new ANAMMOX bacterial species (Brocadia sinica, sulfate-dependent ANAMMOX bacteria (Anammoxoglobus sulfate and Bacillus benzoevorans, and the highest nitrogen removal performance (74.3–76.7 kg-N/m3/d in lab scale granule-based UASB reactors around the world were achieved. The characteristics, structure, packing pattern and floatation mechanism of the high-rate ANAMMOX granules in ANAMMOX reactors were also carefully illustrated by native researchers. Nowadays, some pilot and full-scale ANAMMOX reactors were constructed to treat different types of ammonium-rich wastewater including monosodium glutamate wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, and leachate. The prime objective of the present review is to elucidate the ongoing ANAMMOX research in China from lab scale to full scale applications, comparative analysis, and evaluation of significant findings and to set a design to usher ANAMMOX research in culmination.

  18. Increasing capacity for innovation in bureaucratic primary care organizations: a whole system participatory action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul; McDonnell, Juliet; McCulloch, Janette; While, Alison; Bosanquet, Nick; Ferlie, Ewan

    2005-01-01

    We wanted to identify what organizational features support innovation in Primary Care Groups (PCGs). Our study used a whole system participatory action research model. Four research teams provided complementary insights. Four case study PCGs were analyzed. Two had an intervention to help local facilitators reflect on their work. Data included 70 key informant interviews, observations of clinical governance interventions and committee meetings, analysis of written materials, surveys and telephone interviews of London Primary Care Organizations, interviews with 20 nurses, and interviews with 6 finance directors. A broad range of stakeholders reviewed data at annual conferences and formed conclusions about trustworthy principles. Sequential research phases were refocused in the light of these conclusions and in response to the changing political context. Five features were associated with increased organizational capacity for innovation: (1) clear structures and a vision for corporate and clinical governance; (2) multiple opportunities for people to reflect and learn at all levels of the organization, and connections between these "learning spaces"; (3) both clinicians and managers in leadership roles that encourage participation; (4) the right timing for an initiative and its adaptation to the local context; and (5) external facilitation that provides opportunities for people to make sense of their experiences. Low morale was commonly attributed to 3 features: (1) overwhelming pace of reform, (2) inadequate staff experience and supportive infrastructure, and (3) financial deficits. These features together may support innovation in other primary care bureaucracies. The research methodology enabled people from different backgrounds to make sense of diverse research insights.

  19. The Increasing Interest of ANAMMOX Research in China: Bacteria, Process Development, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Li-Yuan; Tang, Chong-Jian; Zheng, Ping; Min, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Song, Yu-Xia

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen pollution created severe environmental problems and increasingly has become an important issue in China. Since the first discovery of ANAMMOX in the early 1990s, this related technology has become a promising as well as sustainable bioprocess for treating strong nitrogenous wastewater. Many Chinese research groups have concentrated their efforts on the ANAMMOX research including bacteria, process development, and application during the past 20 years. A series of new and outstanding outcomes including the discovery of new ANAMMOX bacterial species (Brocadia sinica), sulfate-dependent ANAMMOX bacteria (Anammoxoglobus sulfate and Bacillus benzoevorans), and the highest nitrogen removal performance (74.3–76.7 kg-N/m3/d) in lab scale granule-based UASB reactors around the world were achieved. The characteristics, structure, packing pattern and floatation mechanism of the high-rate ANAMMOX granules in ANAMMOX reactors were also carefully illustrated by native researchers. Nowadays, some pilot and full-scale ANAMMOX reactors were constructed to treat different types of ammonium-rich wastewater including monosodium glutamate wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, and leachate. The prime objective of the present review is to elucidate the ongoing ANAMMOX research in China from lab scale to full scale applications, comparative analysis, and evaluation of significant findings and to set a design to usher ANAMMOX research in culmination. PMID:24381935

  20. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E; Hall, Marissa G; Butler, Eboneé N; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-16

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014-2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers.

  1. Recruitment Techniques and Strategies in a Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Study of Men and Women of African Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stacy N; Govindaraju, Swapamthi; Jackson, Brittany; Williams, Kimberly R; Christy, Shannon M; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Shibata, David; Roetzheim, Richard; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K

    Recruiting ethnically diverse Black participants to an innovative, community-based research study to reduce colorectal cancer screening disparities requires multipronged recruitment techniques. This article describes active, passive, and snowball recruitment techniques, and challenges and lessons learned in recruiting a diverse sample of Black participants. For each of the three recruitment techniques, data were collected on strategies, enrollment efficiency (participants enrolled/participants evaluated), and reasons for ineligibility. Five hundred sixty individuals were evaluated, and 330 individuals were enrolled. Active recruitment yielded the highest number of enrolled participants, followed by passive and snowball. Snowball recruitment was the most efficient technique, with enrollment efficiency of 72.4%, followed by passive (58.1%) and active (55.7%) techniques. There were significant differences in gender, education, country of origin, health insurance, and having a regular physician by recruitment technique (p recruitment techniques should be employed to increase reach, diversity, and study participation rates among Blacks. Although each recruitment technique had a variable enrollment efficiency, the use of multipronged recruitment techniques can lead to successful enrollment of diverse Blacks into cancer prevention and control interventions.

  2. Effective recruitment and retention strategies in community health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jennifer; Ridgers, Nicola D; Carver, Alison; Thornton, Lukar E; Teychenne, Megan

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this project was to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies used by health-promotion organisations that focus on increasing physical activity and improving nutrition within the local community. Semistructured telephone or face-to-face interviews with 25 key informants from stakeholder organisations were conducted. Key informants discussed strategies used by their organisation to effectively recruit and retain participants into community-based healthy eating and/or physical activity programs. Transcribed data were analysed with NVivo software. Effective recruitment strategies included word of mouth, links with organisations, dissemination of printed materials, media, referrals, cross-promotion of programs and face-to-face methods. Effective retention strategies included encouraging a sense of community ownership, social opportunities, recruiting a suitable leader and offering flexibility and support. Fees and support for recruiting and retaining participants was also identified. This study provides novel insights to a greatly under researched topic in the field of health promotion. There are two key take-home messages from the present study that are applicable to health practitioners as well as developers and deliverers of community health-promotion programs: (1) it is imperative that all community health organisations report on the effectiveness of their recruitment and retention, both successes and failures; and (2) there is a clear need to tailor the recruitment and retention approach to the target population and the setting the program is occurring in. SO WHAT? These findings provide important insights for the development of future community-based healthy eating and physical activity programs.

  3. [The increasing importance of tumor and tissue banks in the light of genomic and proteomic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschulik, A; Zatloukal, K

    2001-09-01

    Recent technological advances in genome and proteome research offer new perspectives for diagnosis and therapy. The DNA chip technology as well as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry is able to provide comprehensive information on gene and protein expression patterns, which allow insights into the dynamic and functional aspects of diseases. The application of these techniques depends on the availability of unfixed fresh or cryopreserved tissue with short ischaemia time. For this reason tissue banks are of increasing importance. The pathologist with his expertise and responsibility for histopathological diagnosis, plays a central role in the collection of the human tissues, in accordance with medical, legal and ethical standards, not only for diagnostic purposes, but also for research. The scientific value of a tissue bank is markedly increased if tissue samples are accompanied by detailed patient data as well as blood samples. Informed consent given by the patient is an essential requirement for the use of human tissue banks in biomedical research. The informed consent should not be restricted to scientific investigations but also include the potential commercial use of the data generated.

  4. Overcoming recruitment challenges in palliative care clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Thomas W; Lodato, Jordan E; Currow, David C; Abernethy, Amy P

    2013-11-01

    Palliative care is increasingly viewed as a necessary component of cancer care, especially for patients with advanced disease. Rigorous clinical trials are thus needed to build the palliative care evidence base, but clinical research-especially participant recruitment-is difficult. Major barriers include (1) patient factors, (2) "gatekeeping," and (3) ethical concerns. Here we discuss an approach to overcoming these barriers, using the Palliative Care Trial (PCT) as a case study. The PCT was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) of different service delivery models to improve pain control in the palliative setting. It used a recruitment protocol that fused evidence-based strategies with principles of "social marketing," an approach involving the systematic application of marketing techniques. Main components included (1) an inclusive triage algorithm, (2) information booklets targeting particular stakeholders, (3) a specialized recruitment nurse, and (4) standardization of wording across all study communications. From an eligible pool of 607 patients, the PCT enrolled 461 patients over 26 months. Twenty percent of patients referred to the palliative care service were enrolled (76% of those eligible after screening). Several common barriers were minimized; among those who declined participation, family disinterest was uncommon (5%), as was the perception of burden imposed (4%). Challenges to clinical trial recruitment in palliative care are significant but not insurmountable. A carefully crafted recruitment and retention protocol can be effective. Our experience with designing and deploying a social-marketing-based protocol shows the benefits of such an approach.

  5. Sales Force Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Flaviu MEGHISAN

    2008-01-01

    The sales plan is put into practice through the tasks associated with sales plan implementation. Whereas sales plan formulation focuses on "doing the right things," implementation emphasizes "doing things right." The three major tasks involved in implementing a sales plan are (1) salesforce recruitment and selection, (2) salesforce training, and (3) salesforce motivation and compensation.

  6. Recruitment and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Jolene

    1986-01-01

    Suggests ways community college journalism instructors can recruit and retain students in journalism classes (e.g., host a high school press day, fund a journalism scholarship, sponsor events for high school journalism teachers and advisers, serve as counselor for journalism majors, have a yearly journalism convocation, and involve campus…

  7. E-recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anna B.

    2012-01-01

    tasks and subtasks. For management, the main task is now that of communicating with candidates. In addition, a new on-going task of maintaining a corporate career website has become an integral part of the new recruitment process. The new design is presented in the following, and its implications...

  8. "So Often They Do Not Get Recruited": Exploring Service User and Staff Perspectives on Participation in Learning Disability Research and the Barriers That Inhibit It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Bradley; Tomlins, Rose; Bancroft, Ann; Ogi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The importance of making research participation accessible for people with learning disabilities is emphasised in government and NHS research strategies. This evaluation explored the realities of this goal from the perceptions of people with learning disabilities and clinicians within an NHS learning disability service. People with learning…

  9. Research and increase of expertise in arachno-entomology are urgently needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2012-01-01

    Considering the contents of international journals of parasitology dealing with broader topics inside this field show that rather a few papers appear with studies in the discipline of arachno-entomology. In the journals Journal of Parasitology, Parasitology Research and Trends in Parasitology, the relations of published papers on protozoology, helminthology and arachno-entomology showed that in all three journals, papers on protozoans were the most common, while those on helminths of any kind reached the second place being rather as common as the protozoan papers in Parasitology Research and in the Journal of Parasitology. In Trends of Parasitology, however, the papers on helminths reached only about 25% of the numbers published on protozoan topics. But in all three journals-and this is important-the papers on arachno-entomological themes were scarce reaching less than the half of the protozoan papers in Parasitology Research, and only about 15% in the Journal of Parasitology and in the Trends of Parasitology. These disproportions between the three great subdivisions of targets in the focus of parasitological research are dangerous, since this lack exists already for several decades and thus led to a backlog of unsolved increasing problems that are caused by ticks, mites, insects and/or parasitic crustaceans especially in times of intensive globalization and global warming. Studies on the biology, vectorship, invasion and spreading of wanted vectors and on the control of pests and parasites belonging to the field of arachno-entomology are urgently needed.

  10. Interrupted time series analysis in drug utilization research is increasing: systematic review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandoc, Racquel; Burden, Andrea M; Mamdani, Muhammad; Lévesque, Linda E; Cadarette, Suzanne M

    2015-08-01

    To describe the use and reporting of interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research. We completed a systematic search of MEDLINE, Web of Science, and reference lists to identify English language articles through to December 2013 that used interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research. We tabulated the number of studies by publication year and summarized methodological detail. We identified 220 eligible empirical applications since 1984. Only 17 (8%) were published before 2000, and 90 (41%) were published since 2010. Segmented regression was the most commonly applied interrupted time series method (67%). Most studies assessed drug policy changes (51%, n = 112); 22% (n = 48) examined the impact of new evidence, 18% (n = 39) examined safety advisories, and 16% (n = 35) examined quality improvement interventions. Autocorrelation was considered in 66% of studies, 31% reported adjusting for seasonality, and 15% accounted for nonstationarity. Use of interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research has increased, particularly in recent years. Despite methodological recommendations, there is large variation in reporting of analytic methods. Developing methodological and reporting standards for interrupted time series analysis is important to improve its application in drug utilization research, and we provide recommendations for consideration. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Method to Increase Undergraduate Laboratory Student Confidence in Performing Independent Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colton E. Kempton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of an undergraduate laboratory course should be not only to introduce the students to biology methodologies and techniques, but also to teach them independent analytical thinking skills and proper experiment design.  This is especially true for advanced biology laboratory courses that undergraduate students typically take as a junior or senior in college.  Many courses achieve the goal of teaching techniques, but fail to approach the larger goal of teaching critical thinking, experimental design, and student independence.  Here we describe a study examining the application of the scaffolding instructional philosophy in which students are taught molecular techniques with decreasing guidance to force the development of analytical thinking skills and prepare undergraduate students for independent laboratory research. This method was applied to our advanced molecular biology laboratory class and resulted in an increase of confidence among the undergraduate students in their abilities to perform independent research.

  12. Increasing Critical Health Literacy of Roma People trough Participatory Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Crondahl, Kristine

    to take a leading role in their integration process a 2-year action research was implemented in 2010-2012. The idea was to strengthen the Roma Peoples’ critical health literacy which allows them to analyze and apply health information to oppose the forces that are holding them oppressed and to take better...... control over their life situation. The objective of this paper is to discuss methodological issues based on experiences of the use of participatory research approach in increasing health literacy. Methods: The core of the intervention was ‘training of trainers’ of a group of Roma people from western....... Conclusions: The Roma participants’ strengthened critical health literacy improved their health chances and possibilities for participation in working life and decision making on Roma issues. The existing system of rules for project operations clashed with the character of the “soft” bottom-up approach...

  13. New perspectives on ecological mechanisms affecting coral recruitment on reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritson-Williams, R.; Arnold, S.N.; Fogarty, N.D.; Steneck, R.S.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Paul, V.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coral mortality has increased in recent decades, making coral recruitment more important than ever in sustaining coral reef ecosystems and contributing to their resilience. This review summarizes existing information on ecological factors affecting scleractinian coral recruitment. Successful

  14. U.S. Army Recruiting: Improving Advertising, Community Outreach, and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT U.S. ARMY RECRUITING: IMPROVING ADVERTISING , COMMUNITY...Information Line of Operation (LOO) within its overall recruiting strategy . Increased effectiveness in this LOO ( Advertising , community outreach , and... Marketing Plan Brief, 8 October 2009 28 17 Ries, Al, and Ries, Laura. The Fall Of Advertising & The Rise Of PR (New York City: Harper Collins

  15. Lessons learned from recruiting nursing homes to a quantitative cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzouvara, Vasiliki; Papadopoulos, Chris; Randhawa, Gurch

    2016-03-01

    A growing older adult population is leading to increased admission rates to long-term care facilities such as nursing homes and residential care homes. Assisted healthcare services should be flexible, integrated, and responsive to older adults' needs. However, there is a limited body of empirical evidence because of the recruitment challenges in these settings. To describe the barriers and challenges faced in recruiting to a recent pilot study, consider previously implemented and proposed recruitment strategies, and propose a new multi-method approach to maximising recruitment of care homes. The proposed multi-method approach harnesses key recruitment strategies previously highlighted as effective in navigating the many challenges and barriers that are likely to be encountered, such as mistrust, scepticism and concerns about disruption to routines. This includes making strategic use of existing personal and professional connections within the research team, engaging with care homes that have previously engaged with the research process, forming relationships of trust, and employing a range of incentives. Implementing carefully planned recruitment strategies is likely to improve relationships between nursing homes and researchers. As a consequence, recruitment can be augmented which can enable the production of rigorous evidence required for achieving effective nursing practice and patient wellbeing. Boosting recruitment rates is crucial in helping to build new and less biased research evidence and for informing and underpinning all forms of evidence-based practice. The lessons learned from our pilot and the review of the literature highlight these issues and better enable investigators to access research settings that commonly possess many complex recruitment barriers and challenges.

  16. International nurse recruitment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadria, Binod

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes the practice of international recruitment of Indian nurses in the model of a "business process outsourcing" of comprehensive training-cum-recruitment-cum-placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Despite the extremely low nurse to population ratio in India, hospital managers in India are not concerned about the growing exodus of nurses to other countries. In fact, they are actively joining forces with profitable commercial ventures that operate as both training and recruiting agencies. Most of this activity is concentrated in Delhi, Bangalore, and Kochi. Gaps in data on nursing education, employment, and migration, as well as nonstandardization of definitions of "registered nurse," impair the analysis of international migration of nurses from India, making it difficult to assess the impact of migration on vacancy rates. One thing is clear, however, the chain of commercial interests that facilitate nurse migration is increasingly well organized and profitable, making the future growth of this business a certainty.

  17. Efficacy of Mobile Serious Games in Increasing HIV Risk Perception in Swaziland: A Randomized Control Trial (SGprev Trial) Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Musumari, Patou; El-Saaidi, Christina; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Ono Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-11-22

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) continue to be a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), particularly in Swaziland, which has the highest HIV prevalence in this region. A wide range of strategies and interventions have been used to promote behavior change, though almost all such interventions have involved mass media. Therefore, innovative behavior change strategies beyond mass media communication are urgently needed. Serious games have demonstrated effectiveness in advancing health in the developed world; however, no rigorous serious games interventions have been implemented in HIV prevention in SSA. We plan to test whether a serious game intervention delivered on mobile phones to increase HIV risk perception, increase intention to reduce sexual partnerships, and increase intention to know own and partners HIV status will be more effective compared with current prevention efforts. This is a two-arm randomized intervention trial. We will recruit 380 participants who meet the following eligibility criteria: 18-29 years of age, own a smartphone running an Android-based operating system, have the WhatsApp messaging app, live in Swaziland, and can adequately grant informed consent. Participants will be allocated into a smartphone interactive, educational story game, and a wait-list control group in a 1:1 allocation ratio. Subsequently, a self-administered Web-based questionnaire will be issued at baseline and after 4 weeks of exposure to the game. We hypothesize that the change in HIV risk perception between pre- and post-intervention assessment is greater in the intervention group compared with the change in the control group. Our primary hypothesis is based on the assumption that increased perceived risk of HIV provides cues to engage in protective behavior. Our primary outcome measure is HIV risk perceived mean change between pre- and post-intervention compared with the mean change in the wait

  18. How to Increase Reach and Adherence of Web-Based Interventions: A Design Research Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludden, Geke D S; van Rompay, Thomas J L; Kelders, Saskia M; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C

    2015-07-10

    Nowadays, technology is increasingly used to increase people's well-being. For example, many mobile and Web-based apps have been developed that can support people to become mentally fit or to manage their daily diet. However, analyses of current Web-based interventions show that many systems are only used by a specific group of users (eg, women, highly educated), and that even they often do not persist and drop out as the intervention unfolds. In this paper, we assess the impact of design features of Web-based interventions on reach and adherence and conclude that the power that design can have has not been used to its full potential. We propose looking at design research as a source of inspiration for new (to the field) design approaches. The paper goes on to specify and discuss three of these approaches: personalization, ambient information, and use of metaphors. Central to our viewpoint is the role of positive affect triggered by well-designed persuasive features to boost adherence and well-being. Finally, we discuss the future of persuasive eHealth interventions and suggest avenues for follow-up research.

  19. U.S. energy research and development: Declining investment, increasing need, and the feasibility of expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemet, Gregory F.; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Investment in energy research and development in the U.S. is declining despite calls for an enhancement of the nation's capacity for innovation to address environmental, geopolitical, and macroeconomic concerns. We examine investments in research and development in the energy sector, and observe broad-based declines in funding since the mid-1990s. The large reductions in investment by the private sector should be a particular area of concern for policy makers. Multiple measures of patenting activity reveal widespread declines in innovative activity that are correlated with research and development (R and D) investment-notably in the environmentally significant wind and solar areas. Trends in venture capital investment and fuel cell innovation are two promising cases that run counter to the overall trends in the sector. We draw on prior work on the optimal level of energy R and D to identify a range of values which would be adequate to address energy-related concerns. Comparing simple scenarios based on this range to past public R and D programs and industry investment data indicates that a five to ten-fold increase in energy R and D investment is both warranted and feasible

  20. Addressing the crisis of GP recruitment and retention: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Catherine; Peckham, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    The numbers of GPs and training places in general practice are declining, and retaining GPs in their practices is an increasing problem. To identify evidence on different approaches to retention and recruitment of GPs, such as intrinsic versus extrinsic motivational determinants. Synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research using seven electronic databases from 1990 onwards (Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Health Management Information Consortium [HMIC], Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (Cinahl), PsycINFO, and the Turning Research Into Practice [TRIP] database). A qualitative approach to reviewing the literature on recruitment and retention of GPs was used. The studies included were English-language studies from Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. The titles and abstracts of 138 articles were reviewed and analysed by the research team. Some of the most important determinants to increase recruitment in primary care were early exposure to primary care practice, the fit between skills and attributes, and a significant experience in a primary care setting. Factors that seemed to influence retention were subspecialisation and portfolio careers, and job satisfaction. The most important determinants of recruitment and retention were intrinsic and idiosyncratic factors, such as recognition, rather than extrinsic factors, such as income. Although the published evidence relating to GP recruitment and retention is limited, and most focused on attracting GPs to rural areas, the authors found that there are clear overlaps between strategies to increase recruitment and retention. Indeed, the most influential factors are idiosyncratic and intrinsic to the individuals. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  1. System impact research - increasing public health and health care system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. System Impact Research - creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population. Key messages The new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features. SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency, and equality of services. SIR creates the

  2. System impact researchincreasing public health and health care system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. Aims To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). Methods The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. Results The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. Conclusions System Impact Research – creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population.Key messagesThe new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features.SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency

  3. Recruiting long-term survivors of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III clinical trials into quality of life studies : Challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.L.; Efficace, F.; Fosså, S.D.; Bolla, M.; de Giorgi, U.; De Wit, R.; Holzner, B.; van de Poll-Franse, L.; White, J.; Collette, L.; Osanto, S.; Aaronson, N.K.; European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Group; Genito-Urinary Cancers Group, The

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this pilot study we evaluated the feasibility of and methods for assessing the quality of life of long term survivors of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) phase III clinical trials. Here we report the results pertaining to the feasibility of conducting

  4. Recruiting long-term survivors of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III clinical trials into quality of life studies: Challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.; Efficace, F.; Fosså, S.D.; Bolla, M.; De Giorgi, U.; de Wit, R; Holzner, B.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; van Poppel, H.; White, J.; Collette, L.; Osanto, S.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In this pilot study we evaluated the feasibility of and methods for assessing the quality of life of long term survivors of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) phase III clinical trials. Here we report the results pertaining to the feasibility of conducting

  5. Successful recruitment to trials: findings from the SCIMITAR+ Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Emily; Arundel, Catherine; Bailey, Della; Callen, Tracy; Cusack, Christina; Crosland, Suzanne; Foster, Penny; Herlihy, Hannah; Hope, James; Ker, Suzy; McCloud, Tayla; Romain-Hooper, Crystal-Bella; Stribling, Alison; Phiri, Peter; Tait, Ellen; Gilbody, Simon

    2018-01-19

    Randomised controlled trials (RCT) can struggle to recruit to target on time. This is especially the case with hard to reach populations such as those with severe mental ill health. The SCIMITAR+ trial, a trial of a bespoke smoking cessation intervention for people with severe mental ill health achieved their recruitment ahead of time and target. This article reports strategies that helped us to achieve this with the aim of aiding others recruiting from similar populations. SCIMITAR+ is a multi-centre pragmatic two-arm parallel-group RCT, which aimed to recruit 400 participants with severe mental ill health who smoke and would like to cut down or quit. The study recruited primarily in secondary care through community mental health teams and psychiatrists with a smaller number of participants recruited through primary care. Recruitment opened in October 2015 and closed in December 2016, by which point 526 participants had been recruited. We gathered information from recruiting sites on strategies which led to the successful recruitment in SCIMITAR+ and in this article present our approach to trial management along with the strategies employed by the recruiting sites. Alongside having a dedicated trial manager and trial management team, we identified three main themes that led to successful recruitment. These were: clinicians with a positive attitude to research; researchers and clinicians working together; and the use of NHS targets. The overriding theme was the importance of relationships between both the researchers and the recruiting clinicians and the recruiting clinicians and the participants. This study makes a significant contribution to the limited evidence base of real-world cases of successful recruitment to RCTs and offers practical guidance to those planning and conducting trials. Building positive relationships between clinicians, researchers and participants is crucial to successful recruitment.

  6. Motor unit recruitment during neuromuscular electrical stimulation: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, C Scott; Gregory, Chris M; Dean, Jesse C

    2011-10-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in clinical settings to activate skeletal muscle in an effort to mimic voluntary contractions and enhance the rehabilitation of human skeletal muscles. It is also used as a tool in research to assess muscle performance and/or neuromuscular activation levels. However, there are fundamental differences between voluntary- and artificial-activation of motor units that need to be appreciated before NMES protocol design can be most effective. The unique effects of NMES have been attributed to several mechanisms, most notably, a reversal of the voluntary recruitment pattern that is known to occur during voluntary muscle contractions. This review outlines the assertion that electrical stimulation recruits motor units in a nonselective, spatially fixed, and temporally synchronous pattern. Additionally, it synthesizes the evidence that supports the contention that this recruitment pattern contributes to increased muscle fatigue when compared with voluntary actions and provides some commentary on the parameters of electrical stimulation as well as emerging technologies being developed to facilitate NMES implementation. A greater understanding of how electrical stimulation recruits motor units, as well as the benefits and limitations of its use, is highly relevant when using this tool for testing and training in rehabilitation, exercise, and/or research.

  7. Recruitment of subjects into clinical trials for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebl, Janice A; Patki, Deepti

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of Americans. It reduces the ability of the individual to remain independent, places a burden on caregivers, and substantially increases healthcare costs. New treatments are being tested in numerous clinical trials with the goal of preventing or delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease, slowing or modifying the disease's course, or finding a cure for patients with the disease. Alzheimer disease research can successfully proceed only if individuals who have this illness are willing to participate in clinical trials. However, recruitment and retention of subjects in clinical trials for Alzheimer disease is a challenging task. Furthermore, because of reductions in decision-making capacities of individuals with Alzheimer disease, clinical trials also need to involve caregivers. The present article delineates unique hurdles encountered in the recruitment process for Alzheimer disease clinical trials. The article also identifies strategies for effective recruitment of subjects in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, including guidelines to help principal investigators and clinical research coordinators reach recruitment goals.

  8. Recruiting Diverse Smokers: Enrollment Yields and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodar, Kaitlyn E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Butler, Eboneé N.; Parada, Humberto; Stein-Seroussi, Al; Hanley, Sean; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    To help tobacco control research better include vulnerable populations, we sought to identify effective ways to recruit diverse smokers. In 2014–2015, we recruited 2149 adult cigarette smokers in California and North Carolina, United States, to participate in a randomized trial of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. The most effective means of recruiting smokers were the classified advertising website Craigslist (28% of participants), word of mouth (23%), Facebook (16%), and flyers or postcards (14%). Low-income and African American smokers were more likely to respond to interpersonal contact (including staff in-person recruitment and word of mouth) than were high-income and non-African American smokers (all p cost, the cheapest was Craigslist ($3–7 per smoker). The most expensive methods were newspaper ads in California ($375 per smoker) and staff in-person recruiting in North Carolina ($180 per smoker). Successfully recruiting diverse smokers requires using multiple methods including interpersonal, online, and other media. Craigslist and word of mouth are especially useful and low-cost ways to recruit diverse smokers. PMID:27999280

  9. Rethinking Recruitment: The Comprehensive and Strategic Recruitment of Secondary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Julie A.; Wong, Sissy S.; Semken, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The shortage of science teachers has spurred a discussion about their retention and recruitment. While discussion about retaining science teachers has increased dramatically in just the last few years, science teacher educators have not attended to the recruitment of science teachers with the same tenacity. This paper is our effort to initiate…

  10. Social networking versus facebook advertising to recruit survey respondents: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Conor; Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-09-17

    Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people's attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region's schools using standard mail and email. Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods.

  11. Social Networking Versus Facebook Advertising to Recruit Survey Respondents: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people’s attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Results Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region’s schools using standard mail and email. Conclusions Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods. PMID:25230740

  12. Recruitment of motor units in the medial gastrocnemius muscle during human quiet standing: is recruitment intermittent? What triggers recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Taian M M; Loram, Ian D; Muceli, Silvia; Merletti, Roberto; Farina, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment and the rate of discharge of motor units are determinants of muscle force. Within a motoneuron pool, recruitment and rate coding of individual motor units might be controlled independently, depending on the circumstances. In this study, we tested whether, during human quiet standing, the force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle is predominantly controlled by recruitment or rate coding. If MG control during standing was mainly due to recruitment, then we further asked what the trigger mechanism is. Is it determined internally, or is it related to body kinematics? While seven healthy subjects stood quietly, intramuscular electromyograms were recorded from the MG muscle with three pairs of wire electrodes. The number of active motor units and their mean discharge rate were compared for different sway velocities and positions. Motor unit discharges occurred more frequently when the body swayed faster and forward (Pearson R = 0.63; P motor unit potentials was explained chiefly by the recruitment of additional units. During forward body shifts, the median number of units detected increased from 3 to 11 (P motor units did not discharge continuously throughout standing. They were recruited within individual, forward sways and intermittently, with a modal rate of two recruitments per second. This modal rate is consistent with previous circumstantial evidence relating the control of standing to an intrinsic, higher level planning process.

  13. The neutron beam intensity increase by in-core fuel management enhancement in multipurpose research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Vukadin, Z.; Konstantinovic, J.

    1986-01-01

    The exploitation characteristics of an existing multipurpose research reactor can be increased not only by great reconstruction, but also, to the considerable extent, by the in-core fuel management sophistication. The optimisation of the in-core fuel management procedure in such reactors is governed (among others) by the identified reactor utilisation goals, i.e. by weighting factors dedicated to different utilisation goals, which are often (regarding the in-core fuel management procedure) highly controversial. In this work the best solution for in-core fuel management is sought, with the highest weighting factor dedicated to the neutron beam usage, rather than sample irradiation in the reactor core. The term in-core fuel management includes: the core configuration, the locations of the fresh fuel inflow zone and spent fuel excite zone, and the fuel transfers between these two zones (author)

  14. Mind the gaps: increasing the impact of IS research on ISD performance improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh O Riordan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor performance has pervaded the last forty years of software development, evident across industry sectors, project size, budget, geographic location, system quality and functionality, and exacerbated by increased criticality of IT in organizational mission and strategy. A significant body of research has investigated the potential of emerging development methodologies to address these shortcomings but the effectiveness of these methods is largely supported by anecdotal evidence. At the same time, metrics and measurement are known to affect ISD performance but the existing literature on ISD metrics is misaligned with practitioners’ needs, leading to a lack of clarity about ISD metrics in practice. This paper presents an interdisciplinary literature review on ISD metrics to identify the underlying reasons for this misalignment and evaluate the extent to which existing literature can be used to better understand the impact of emerging software development methodologies on ISD performance.

  15. Presentations of scientific research results as a strategy to increase the interest of students in physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dalla Colletta Altermann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the search for strategies to arouse the interest of undergraduate students in science, it was proposed the project "Colloquiums in Physiology" in order to disseminate and discuss scientific discoveries and improve the students’ interest in Physiology. This work aimed to verify the perception of participants about the impact of this activity. The activity included lectures throughout the semester and at the end of each lecture, a questionnaire was applied to listeners. Among the 171 students who answered the questionnaire, 81% (n=139 considers that this proposal increased their interest in physiology, 96% (n=164 believes that it is an important activity and achieved its goal of promote science disclosure, and 83% (n=142 stated that the project promotes interaction between research, teaching and outreach activities. Thus, it highlights the importance of this type of event for the academic formation.

  16. A review of recent wake vortex research for increasing airport capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, James N.; Holzäpfel, Frank

    2018-04-01

    This paper is a brief review of recent wake vortex research as it affects the operational problem of spacing aircraft to increase airport capacity and throughput. The paper addresses the questions of what do we know about wake vortices and what don't we know about wake vortices. The introduction of Heavy jets in the late 1960s stimulated the study of wake vortices for safety reasons and the use of pulsed lidars and the maturity of computational fluid dynamics in the last three decades have led to extensive data collection and analyses which are now resulting in the development and implementation of systems to safely decrease separations in the terminal environment. Although much has been learned about wake vortices and their behavior, there is still more to be learned about the phenomena of aircraft wake vortices.

  17. Increasing Research Productivity and Professional Development in Psychology With a Writing Retreat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Chu, Carol; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-09-01

    Writing is a core feature of the training requirements and career demands of psychology faculty members and graduate students. Within academic psychology, specifically, writing is vital for the generation of scientific knowledge through manuscripts and grant applications. Although resources exist regarding how to improve one's writing skills, few models have been described regarding how to promote a culture of writing productivity that realizes tangible deliverables, such as manuscripts and grant applications. In this article, we discuss the rationale, model, and initial outcome data of a writing retreat developed and implemented to increase research productivity among psychology faculty and trainees. We also review best practices for conducting writing retreats and identify key areas for future SoTL on advancing writing.

  18. Process improvement methods increase the efficiency, accuracy, and utility of a neurocritical care research repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Sydney; Ayres, Alison; Cortellini, Lynelle; Rosand, Jonathan; Rosenthal, Eric; Kimberly, W Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Reliable and efficient data repositories are essential for the advancement of research in Neurocritical care. Various factors, such as the large volume of patients treated within the neuro ICU, their differing length and complexity of hospital stay, and the substantial amount of desired information can complicate the process of data collection. We adapted the tools of process improvement to the data collection and database design of a research repository for a Neuroscience intensive care unit. By the Shewhart-Deming method, we implemented an iterative approach to improve the process of data collection for each element. After an initial design phase, we re-evaluated all data fields that were challenging or time-consuming to collect. We then applied root-cause analysis to optimize the accuracy and ease of collection, and to determine the most efficient manner of collecting the maximal amount of data. During a 6-month period, we iteratively analyzed the process of data collection for various data elements. For example, the pre-admission medications were found to contain numerous inaccuracies after comparison with a gold standard (sensitivity 71% and specificity 94%). Also, our first method of tracking patient admissions and discharges contained higher than expected errors (sensitivity 94% and specificity 93%). In addition to increasing accuracy, we focused on improving efficiency. Through repeated incremental improvements, we reduced the number of subject records that required daily monitoring from 40 to 6 per day, and decreased daily effort from 4.5 to 1.5 h/day. By applying process improvement methods to the design of a Neuroscience ICU data repository, we achieved a threefold improvement in efficiency and increased accuracy. Although individual barriers to data collection will vary from institution to institution, a focus on process improvement is critical to overcoming these barriers.

  19. An Examination of Incentive Strategies to Increase Participation in Outcomes Research for an Adolescent Inpatient Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Carolyn; Madan, Alok; Long, Tessa A; Sharp, Carla

    2016-05-01

    Tracking adolescent outcomes after inpatient hospitalization is important in informing clinical care for this age group, as inpatient care is one of the most expensive treatment modalities. This study examined 4 incentive strategies used to maintain adolescent participation in follow-up research (at 6, 12, and 18 mo) after their discharge from the hospital (N=267). A generalized estimation equation approach was taken to investigate whether different incentive strategies predicted adolescent completion of the follow-up assessments at each time point. Findings demonstrate that implementation of social worker contact significantly differed from other incentive strategies in increasing adolescent completion of follow-up assessments (Z=2.51, P=0.012) over the 3 time points, even when controlling for age and sex. Although these findings ultimately need to be confirmed through a randomized controlled study of incentive strategies, they provide preliminary support for the notion that relational incentives, such as maintaining contact with a member of the clinical team at the hospital, may be particularly important in promoting adolescent participation in outcomes research.

  20. Clinical trials: the challenge of recruitment and retention of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Raisa B; Ali, Parveen A

    2010-01-01

    This article, based on the available literature, attempts to discuss the importance of recruitment and retention of research participants, the associated barriers and challenges, and various strategies to overcome these barriers. The inability to recruit and retain the required participants in a research project poses serious threats to both the internal and the external validity of a research study. Despite serious implications, the issues of recruitment and retention do not receive due attention in research and publications. Literature suggests a lack of coordinated efforts to collect information on the outcomes of recruitment experiences in clinical trials and population studies. Studies often mention the number of participants who refuse to participate; however, the majority of the studies often fail to mention the specific reasons insufficient recruitment or retention of the participants. A methodological paper. Various participant-, context-, environment- and research-related factors are examined that affect the phenomenon of recruitment and retention of the participants in a study. Delayed or inefficient recruitment also has financial and ethical implications. Although there are many pieces of information scattered throughout academic journals on recruitment and retention of participants in research, few authors have dealt with the issue holistically. It is imperative for researchers to understand the importance of recruitment and retention of research participants, the associated barriers and challenges, and various strategies to overcome these barriers. Appropriate recording and reporting of the problems faced while recruiting and retaining the participants in research studies can help not only in understating the challenge, but will also help in devising the strategies to overcome this problem. This article was an attempt to synthesise and review the available literature on recruitment and retention issues, which demand extensive theoretical and

  1. Accrual and recruitment practices at Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) institutions: a call for expectations, expertise, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Rhonda G; Mervin-Blake, Sabrena; Hallarn, Rose; Rathmann, Charles; Kolb, H Robert; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison; D'Agostino, Toni; Rubinstein, Eric P; Dozier, Ann M; Schuff, Kathryn G

    2014-08-01

    To respond to increased public and programmatic demand to address underenrollment of clinical translational research studies, the authors examined participant recruitment practices at Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) sites and make recommendations for performance metrics and accountability. The CTSA Recruitment and Retention taskforce in 2010 invited representatives at 46 CTSAs to complete an online 48-question survey querying accrual and recruitment outcomes, practices, evaluation methods, policies, and perceived gaps in related knowledge/practice. Descriptive statistical and thematic analyses were conducted. Forty-six respondents representing 44 CTSAs completed the survey. Recruitment conducted by study teams was the most common practice reported (78%-91%, by study type); 39% reported their institution offered recruitment services to investigators. Respondents valued study feasibility assessment as a successful practice (39%); desired additional resources included feasibility assessments (49%) and participant registries (44%). None reported their institution systematically required justification of feasibility; some indicated relevant information was considered prior to institutional review board (IRB) review (30%) or contract approval (22%). All respondents' IRBs tracked study progress, but only 10% of respondents could report outcome data for timely accrual. Few reported written policies addressing poor accrual or provided data to support recruitment practice effectiveness. Many CTSAs lack the necessary frame work to support study accrual. Recom men dations to enhance accrual include articulating institutional expectations and policy for routine recruitment plan ning; providing recruitment expertise to inform feasibility assessment and recruit ment planning; and developing interdepartmental coordination and integrated informatics infrastructure to drive the conduct, evaluation, and improvement of recruitment practices.

  2. Efficacy of Mobile Serious Games in Increasing HIV Risk Perception in Swaziland: A Randomized Control Trial (SGprev Trial) Research Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumari, Patou; El-Saaidi, Christina; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S. Pilar; Ono Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Background The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) continue to be a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), particularly in Swaziland, which has the highest HIV prevalence in this region. A wide range of strategies and interventions have been used to promote behavior change, though almost all such interventions have involved mass media. Therefore, innovative behavior change strategies beyond mass media communication are urgently needed. Serious games have demonstrated effectiveness in advancing health in the developed world; however, no rigorous serious games interventions have been implemented in HIV prevention in SSA. Objective We plan to test whether a serious game intervention delivered on mobile phones to increase HIV risk perception, increase intention to reduce sexual partnerships, and increase intention to know own and partners HIV status will be more effective compared with current prevention efforts. Methods This is a two-arm randomized intervention trial. We will recruit 380 participants who meet the following eligibility criteria: 18-29 years of age, own a smartphone running an Android-based operating system, have the WhatsApp messaging app, live in Swaziland, and can adequately grant informed consent. Participants will be allocated into a smartphone interactive, educational story game, and a wait-list control group in a 1:1 allocation ratio. Subsequently, a self-administered Web-based questionnaire will be issued at baseline and after 4 weeks of exposure to the game. We hypothesize that the change in HIV risk perception between pre- and post-intervention assessment is greater in the intervention group compared with the change in the control group. Our primary hypothesis is based on the assumption that increased perceived risk of HIV provides cues to engage in protective behavior. Our primary outcome measure is HIV risk perceived mean change between pre- and post-intervention compared with

  3. When is normative recruitment legitimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Øystein Ursin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rosamond Rhodes and John Harris have both recently argued that we all have a general moral duty to participate in medical research. However, neither Rhodes' nor Harris' arguments in support of this obligation stand up to scrutiny, and severe and convincing criticism has been levelled against their case. Still, to refute their arguments is not to refute the conclusion. There seems to be some truth in the view that when people are asked to take part in medical research, their choice is not completely morally neutral. In this article, we argue that the proper question to ask is when, rather than if, a certain moral duty to volunteer for medical research can be appealed to. To answer this question, we need a denser description of relevant research projects and their context rather than just describing medical research in general. Drawing on our study of participants in the Norwegian HUNT biobank, we use the normative implications of the Norwegian concept «dugnad» as an analogy to discuss the requirement of providing neutral information to potential biobank participants in order to promote their free and informed decision as to whether or not to take part. We suggest that normative recruitment is not just a question of principles and ethics. It is also a question of research design and the creation of the common good in the community where the research takes place.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v2i2.1697

  4. Teaching undergraduate students community nursing: using action research to increase engagement and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; English, Rebecca; Barnard, Alan

    2011-09-01

    Nurses play a pivotal role in responding to the changing needs of community health care. Therefore, nursing education must be relevant, responsive, and evidence based. We report a case study of curriculum development in a community nursing unit embedded within an undergraduate nursing degree. We used action research to develop, deliver, evaluate, and redesign the curriculum. Feedback was obtained through self-reflection, expert opinion from community stakeholders, formal student evaluation, and critical review. Changes made, especially in curriculum delivery, led to improved learner focus and more clearly linked theory and practice. The redesigned unit improved performance, measured with the university's student evaluation of feedback instrument (increased from 0.3 to 0.5 points below to 0.1 to 0.5 points above faculty mean in all domains), and was well received by teaching staff. The process confirmed that improved pedagogy can increase student engagement with content and perception of a unit as relevant to future practice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Payment of research participants: current practice and policies of Irish research ethics committees.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Payment of research participants helps to increase recruitment for research studies, but can pose ethical dilemmas. Research ethics committees (RECs) have a centrally important role in guiding this practice, but standardisation of the ethical approval process in Ireland is lacking.

  6. The Challenge of Recruiting Control Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2011-01-01

    . This study was a direct reaction to the first recruitment attempt that had a 10% response rate. This study consisted of four groups of randomly selected elderly married people (65-81 years) receiving a postal questionnaire measuring depression, social support, coping style, adult attachment, life......  Recruitment of a large and reliable control group is a challenge in psychological survey based research. The effect of recruitment styles and age on response-rate, data quality, and individual differences were investigated in a control group for a postal survey of elderly bereaved people...... incentive had the highest response-rate (51%), good data quality, and no sampling bias in individual differences. This method can be highly recommended in future control group recruitment....

  7. A model for increasing appreciation, accessibility and application of research in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Karen-Leigh

    2015-01-01

    The confidence and engagement of nurses (and midwives) in research are an area for continued development. The Research Appreciation, Accessibility, and Application Model (RAAAM), developed in 2011, provides a framework for enhancing research activities by nurses within the clinical setting. Unlike other models, the RAAAM does not assume a preexisting capacity or knowledge of research; however, the model incorporates the multiple research activities that comprise a research culture. Although it is acknowledged that undertaking a research project is not for everyone, using evidence-based knowledge for practice development is essential and relates to all clinical staff. The RAAAM model presents four domains-research appreciation, research accessibility, research application, and research sustainability. Research appreciation is a first step in realizing the potential beneficial impact of research in practice. Relating these activities to identified key result areas that are drawn from key stakeholders completes the loop, ensuring sustainability of research activities and processes. The model presented here offers a practical and user-friendly approach for research enhancement in nursing using the platform of a clinical and academic partnership. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF THE ASSESSMENT CRITERIA FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROJECTS - A PREMISE OF INCREASING THE UNIVERSITY SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Marius TOMA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Plan for Research, Development and Innovation 2007 – 2013, called herein the National Plan II, represents the main instrument used to implement the National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation. Universities play a unique role in the development of the knowledge-based society, through its contribution to knowledge generation, transmission, dissemination and utilization. The essential role of the university is to shape the highly qualified human resource, a process that implies a symbiosis between the education and research, the education system performances contributing in this way to a great extent to the society development. The highly qualified human resource represents an important asset of a nation. This study is dedicated to the analysis of the assessment criteria for the Exploratory Research Projects (ERP handed in the competitions in 2007, 2008, 2011 and 2012 and to highlight the importance of improving the assessment criteria in order to improve their quality.

  9. Comparison of Address-based Sampling and Random-digit Dialing Methods for Recruiting Young Men as Controls in a Case-Control Study of Testicular Cancer Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Ciosek, Stephanie L.; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J.; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-...

  10. Keeping up to date : Incorporating social network sites and employer branding in recruitment processes

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist, Malin; Ekström, Myran

    2016-01-01

    The use of social network sites (SNSs), such as Facebook and LinkedIn, by both organizations and the Swedish population is increasing. Previous publications in this research field lack empirical reinforcement and the empirical research that has been published often suggest a connection between recruitment via SNSs and employer branding. However, this connection has not yet been elaborated on or explained by previous research. Furthermore, both these research fields lack the insight of empiric...

  11. Report of China's innovation increase and research growth in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongcheng; Yang, Xi; Qin, Qin; Bian, Kangqi; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Hongyan; Sun, Xinchen

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the research status of radiation oncology in China through survey of literature in international radiation oncology journals and retrospectively compare the outputs of radiation oncology articles of the three major regions of China-Mainland (ML), Taiwan (TW) and Hong Kong (HK). Radiation oncology journals were selected from "oncology" and "radiology, nuclear & medical image" category from Science Citation Index Expand (SCIE). Articles from the ML, TW and HK were retrieved from MEDLINE. The number of total articles, clinical trials, case reports, impact factors (IF), institutions and articles published in each journals were conducted for quantity and quality comparisons. A total 818 articles from 13 radiation oncology journals were searched, of which 427 are from ML, 259 from TW, and 132 from HK. Ninety-seven clinical trials and 5 case reports are reported in China. Accumulated IF of articles from ML (1,417.11) was much higher than that of TW (1,003.093) and HK (544.711), while the average IF of articles from ML is the lowest. The total number of articles from China especially ML increased significantly in the last decade. The number of articles published from the ML has exceeded those from TW and HK. However, the quality of articles from TW and HK is better than that from ML.

  12. A Comparison of Three Online Recruitment Strategies for Engaging Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jodi; Hessel, Heather; Gliske, Kate; Rudi, Jessie H

    2016-10-01

    Family scientists can face the challenge of effectively and efficiently recruiting normative samples of parents and families. Utilizing the Internet to recruit parents is a strategic way to find participants where they already are, enabling researchers to overcome many of the barriers to in-person recruitment. The present study was designed to compare three online recruitment strategies for recruiting parents: e-mail Listservs, Facebook, and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Analyses revealed differences in the effectiveness and efficiency of data collection. In particular, MTurk resulted in the most demographically