WorldWideScience

Sample records for reconstruction experimental pilot

  1. Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was built to convert transuranic contaminated solid waste into a form acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. There are about 2.0 million cubic ft of transuranic waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) located at the RWMC will examine this stored transuranic waste to determine if the waste is acceptable for direct shipment to and storage at WIPP, or if it requires shipment to PREPP for processing before shipment to WIPP. The PREPP process shreds the waste, incinerates the shredded waste, and cements (grouts) the shredded incinerated waste in new 55-gal drums. Unshreddable items are repackaged and returned to SWEPP. The process off-gas is cleaned prior to its discharge to the atmosphere, and complies with the effluent standards of the State of Idaho, EPA, and DOE. Waste liquid generated is used in the grouting operation

  2. Study of the CMS Phase 1 Pixel Pilot Blade Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system. It was replaced in March 2017 with an upgraded one, called the Phase 1 upgrade detector. During Long Shutdown 1, a third disk was inserted into the present forward pixel detector with eight prototype blades constructed using a new digital read-out chip architecture and a prototype readout chain. Testing the performance of these pilot modules enabled us to gain experience with the Phase 1 upgrade modules. In this document, the data reconstruction with the pilot system is presented. The hit finding efficiency and residual of these new modules is also shown, and how these observables were used to adjust the timing of the pilot blades.

  3. Flaw shape reconstruction – an experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena STANCULESCU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Flaws can be classified as acceptable and unacceptable flaws. As a result of nondestructive testing, one takes de decision Admit/Reject regarding the tested product related to some acceptability criteria. In order to take the right decision, one should know the shape and the dimension of the flaw. On the other hand, the flaws considered to be acceptable, develop in time, such that they can become unacceptable. In this case, the knowledge of the shape and dimension of the flaw allows determining the product time life. For interior flaw shape reconstruction the best procedure is the use of difference static magnetic field. We have a stationary magnetic field problem, but we face the problem given by the nonlinear media. This paper presents the results of the experimental work for control specimen with and without flaw.

  4. Study of the CMS Phase-1 Pixel Pilot Blade Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Vami, Tamas Almos

    2017-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is one of two general-purpose detectors that measure the products of high energy particle interactions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system. The detector which was in operation between 2009 and 2016 has now been replaced with an upgraded one in the beginning of 2017. During the previous shutdown period of the LHC, a prototype readout system and a third disk was inserted into the old forward pixel detector with eight prototype blades constructed using the new digital read-out chips. Testing the performance of these pilot modules enabled us to gain operational experience with the upgraded detector. In this paper, the reconstruction and analysis of the data taken with the new modules are presented including information on the calibration of the reconstruction software. The hit finding efficiency and track-hit residual distributions are also shown.

  5. Top reconstruction and boosted top experimental overview

    CERN Document Server

    Skinnari, Louise

    2015-01-01

    An overview of techniques used to reconstruct resolved and boosted top quarks is presented. Techniques for resolved top quark reconstruction include kinematic likelihood fitters and pseudo- top reconstruction. Many tools and methods are available for the reconstruction of boosted top quarks, such as jet grooming techniques, jet substructure variables, and dedicated top taggers. Different techniques as used by ATLAS and CMS analyses are described and the performance of different variables and top taggers are shown.

  6. Nonlocal Regularized Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques for MRI: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to revitalize researchers' interest in algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART by expanding their capabilities and demonstrating their potential in speeding up the process of MRI acquisition. Using a continuous-to-discrete model, we experimentally study the application of ART into MRI reconstruction which unifies previous nonuniform-fast-Fourier-transform- (NUFFT- based and gridding-based approaches. Under the framework of ART, we advocate the use of nonlocal regularization techniques which are leveraged from our previous research on modeling photographic images. It is experimentally shown that nonlocal regularization ART (NR-ART can often outperform their local counterparts in terms of both subjective and objective qualities of reconstructed images. On one real-world k-space data set, we find that nonlocal regularization can achieve satisfactory reconstruction from as few as one-third of samples. We also address an issue related to image reconstruction from real-world k-space data but overlooked in the open literature: the consistency of reconstructed images across different resolutions. A resolution-consistent extension of NR-ART is developed and shown to effectively suppress the artifacts arising from frequency extrapolation. Both source codes and experimental results of this work are made fully reproducible.

  7. Cultural reconstruction and experimental exploration for peace in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural reconstruction and experimental exploration for peace in Olu Obafemi's Dark times are over? ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...

  8. Sparsity reconstruction in electrical impedance tomography: An experimental evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Gehre, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the potential of sparsity constraints in the electrical impedance tomography (EIT) inverse problem of inferring the distributed conductivity based on boundary potential measurements. In sparsity reconstruction, inhomogeneities of the conductivity are a priori assumed to be sparse with respect to a certain basis. This prior information is incorporated into a Tikhonov-type functional by including a sparsity-promoting ℓ1-penalty term. The functional is minimized with an iterative soft shrinkage-type algorithm. In this paper, the feasibility of the sparsity reconstruction approach is evaluated by experimental data from water tank measurements. The reconstructions are computed both with sparsity constraints and with a more conventional smoothness regularization approach. The results verify that the adoption of ℓ1-type constraints can enhance the quality of EIT reconstructions: in most of the test cases the reconstructions with sparsity constraints are both qualitatively and quantitatively more feasible than that with the smoothness constraint. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 3D and 4D Simulations for Landscape Reconstruction and Damage Scenarios: GIS Pilot Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, Cristano; Van Der Schee, Joop; Pavia, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The project "3D and 4D Simulations for Landscape Reconstruction and Damage Scenarios: GIS Pilot Applications" has been devised with the intention to deal with the demand for research, innovation and applicative methodology on the part of the international programme, requiring concrete results to increase the capacity to know, anticipate…

  10. Venus project : experimentation at ENEA's pilot site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargellini, M.L.; Fontana, F.; Niccolai, L.; Scavino, G.; Mancini, R.; Levialdi, S.

    1996-12-01

    The document describes the ENEA's (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) experience in the Venus Project (Esprit III 6398). Venus is an advanced visual interface based on icon representation that permits to end-user to inquiry databases. VENUS interfaces to ENEA's databases: cometa materials Module, Cometa Laboratories Module and European Programs. This report contents the results of the experimentation and of the validation carried out in ENEA's related to the Venus generations. Moreover, the description of the architecture, the user requirements syntesis and the validation methodology of the VENUS systems have been included

  11. Reconstruction of dynamic structures of experimental setups based on measurable experimental data only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tian-Yu; Chen, Yang; Yang, Hu-Jiang; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Hu, Gang

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, massive amounts of data have been accumulated in various and wide fields, it has become today one of the central issues in interdisciplinary fields to analyze existing data and extract as much useful information as possible from data. It is often that the output data of systems are measurable while dynamic structures producing these data are hidden, and thus studies to reveal system structures by analyzing available data, i.e., reconstructions of systems become one of the most important tasks of information extractions. In the past, most of the works in this respect were based on theoretical analyses and numerical verifications. Direct analyses of experimental data are very rare. In physical science, most of the analyses of experimental setups were based on the first principles of physics laws, i.e., so-called top-down analyses. In this paper, we conducted an experiment of “Boer resonant instrument for forced vibration” (BRIFV) and inferred the dynamic structure of the experimental set purely from the analysis of the measurable experimental data, i.e., by applying the bottom-up strategy. Dynamics of the experimental set is strongly nonlinear and chaotic, and itʼs subjects to inevitable noises. We proposed to use high-order correlation computations to treat nonlinear dynamics; use two-time correlations to treat noise effects. By applying these approaches, we have successfully reconstructed the structure of the experimental setup, and the dynamic system reconstructed with the measured data reproduces good experimental results in a wide range of parameters.

  12. Reconstruction of 3D PIV data in complicated experimental arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlík David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a three-dimensional reconstruction of flow field behind flat plate representing a wing is presented. The reconstruction is always performed for pair of 2D vector maps obtained by 3D PIV with two cameras which record measurement area from different locations. Three-dimensional reconstruction can be obtained in various ways. This paper summarizes two: the reconstruction based on the known correspondences and the reconstruction based on the knowledge of intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of cameras. The methods can be used in the cases when it is impossible to use a calibration pattern or when reconstruction by commercial software fails.

  13. Sparsity reconstruction in electrical impedance tomography: An experimental evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Gehre, Matthias; Kluth, Tobias; Lipponen, Antti; Jin, Bangti; Seppä nen, Aku; Kaipio, Jari P.; Maass, Peter

    2012-01-01

    smoothness regularization approach. The results verify that the adoption of ℓ1-type constraints can enhance the quality of EIT reconstructions: in most of the test cases the reconstructions with sparsity constraints are both qualitatively and quantitatively

  14. Three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction for operative planning in robotic segmentectomy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moal, Julien; Peillon, Christophe; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas; Baste, Jean-Marc

    2018-01-01

    The objective of our pilot study was to assess if three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction performed by Visible Patient™ could be helpful for the operative planning, efficiency and safety of robot-assisted segmentectomy. Between 2014 and 2015, 3D reconstructions were provided by the Visible Patient™ online service and used for the operative planning of robotic segmentectomy. To obtain 3D reconstruction, the surgeon uploaded the anonymized computed tomography (CT) image of the patient to the secured Visible Patient™ server and then downloaded the model after completion. Nine segmentectomies were performed between 2014 and 2015 using a pre-operative 3D model. All 3D reconstructions met our expectations: anatomical accuracy (bronchi, arteries, veins, tumor, and the thoracic wall with intercostal spaces), accurate delimitation of each segment in the lobe of interest, margin resection, free space rotation, portability (smartphone, tablet) and time saving technique. We have shown that operative planning by 3D CT using Visible Patient™ reconstruction is useful in our practice of robot-assisted segmentectomy. The main disadvantage is the high cost. Its impact on reducing complications and improving surgical efficiency is the object of an ongoing study.

  15. Experimental validation of incomplete data CT image reconstruction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, J.W.; Hsiao, M.L.; Tam, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray CT inspection of large metal parts is often limited by x-ray penetration problems along many of the ray paths required for a complete CT data set. In addition, because of the complex geometry of many industrial parts, manipulation difficulties often prevent scanning over some range of angles. CT images reconstructed from these incomplete data sets contain a variety of artifacts which limit their usefulness in part quality determination. Over the past several years, the authors' company has developed 2 new methods of incorporating a priori information about the parts under inspection to significantly improve incomplete data CT image quality. This work reviews the methods which were developed and presents experimental results which confirm the effectiveness of the techniques. The new methods for dealing with incomplete CT data sets rely on a priori information from part blueprints (in electronic form), outer boundary information from touch sensors, estimates of part outer boundaries from available x-ray data, and linear x-ray attenuation coefficients of the part. The two methods make use of this information in different fashions. The relative performance of the two methods in detecting various flaw types is compared. Methods for accurately registering a priori information with x-ray data are also described. These results are critical to a new industrial x-ray inspection cell built for inspection of large aircraft engine parts

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in situ experimental program for HLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) will be a facility to demonstrate the environmental and operational safety of storing radioactive wastes in a deep geologic bedded salt facility. The WIPP will be located in southeastern New Mexico, approximately 30 miles east of the city of Carlsbad. The major focus of the pilot plant operation involves ERDA defense related low and intermediate-level transuranic wastes. The scope of the project also specifically includes experimentation utilizing commercially generated high-level wastes, or alternatively, spent unreprocessed fuel elements. WIPP HLW experiments are being conducted in an inter-related laboratory, bench-scale, and in situ mode. This presentation focuses on the planned in situ experiments which, depending on the availability of commercially reprocessed waste plus delays in the construction schedule of the WIPP, will begin in approximately 1985. Such experiments are necessary to validate preceding laboratory results and to provide actual, total conditions of geologic storage which cannot be adequately simulated. One set of planned experiments involves emplacing bare HLW fragments into direct contact with the bedded salt environment. A second set utilizes full-size canisters of waste emplaced in the salt in the same manner as planned for a future HLW repository. The bare waste experiments will study in an accelerated manner waste-salt bed-brine interactions including matrix integrity/degradation, brine leaching, system chemistry, and potential radionuclide migration through the salt bed. Utilization of full-size canisters of HLW in situ permits us to demonstrate operational effectiveness and safety. Experiments will evaluate corrosion and compatibility interactions between the waste matrix, canister and overpack materials, getter materials, stored energy, waste buoyancy, etc. Using full size canisters also allows us to demonstrate engineered retrievability of wastes, if necessary, at the end of experimentation

  17. Remotely Piloted Vehicles for Experimental Flight Control Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motter, Mark A.; High, James W.

    2009-01-01

    A successful flight test and training campaign of the NASA Flying Controls Testbed was conducted at Naval Outlying Field, Webster Field, MD during 2008. Both the prop and jet-powered versions of the subscale, remotely piloted testbeds were used to test representative experimental flight controllers. These testbeds were developed by the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project s emphasis on new flight test techniques. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The purpose of these testbeds is to quickly and inexpensively evaluate advanced concepts and experimental flight controls, with applications to adaptive control, system identification, novel control effectors, correlation of subscale flight tests with wind tunnel results, and autonomous operations. Flight tests and operator training were conducted during four separate series of tests during April, May, June and August 2008. Experimental controllers were engaged and disengaged during fully autonomous flight in the designated test area. Flaps and landing gear were deployed by commands from the ground control station as unanticipated disturbances. The flight tests were performed NASA personnel with support from the Maritime Unmanned Development and Operations (MUDO) team of the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division

  18. The Nonuse, Misuse, and Proper Use of Pilot Studies in Experimental Evaluation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlund, Erik; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the nonuse, misuse, and proper use of pilot studies in experimental evaluation research. The authors first show that there is little theoretical, practical, or empirical guidance available to researchers who seek to incorporate pilot studies into experimental evaluation research designs. The authors then discuss how pilot…

  19. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

  20. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included

  1. Elbow joint stability following experimental osteoligamentous injury and reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Søren R; Jensen, Steen Lund; Tyrdal, Stein

    2003-01-01

    Elbow joint dislocation was simulated in cadaveric specimens to quantify laxity induced by radial head and coronoid process lesions, either alone or in combination with collateral ligament insufficiency. The effects of lateral ligament reconstruction and radial head prosthesis replacement were also...

  2. Science Column: Reconstruction: The Experimental Side of Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cohen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many in digital forensics seem to forget that the science part of digital forensics means experimentation and that implies a whole lot of things that most practitioners never learned.(see PDF for full column

  3. PARALLEL ITERATIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF PHANTOM CATPHAN ON EXPERIMENTAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mirzavand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of fast parallel iterative algorithms based on the use of graphics accelerators and OpenGL library are considered in the paper. The proposed approach provides simultaneous minimization of the residuals of the desired solution and total variation of the reconstructed three- dimensional image. The number of necessary input data, i. e. conical X-ray projections, can be reduced several times. It means in a corresponding number of times the possibility to reduce radiation exposure to the patient. At the same time maintain the necessary contrast and spatial resolution of threedimensional image of the patient. Heuristic iterative algorithm can be used as an alternative to the well-known three-dimensional Feldkamp algorithm.

  4. Automated comparison of Bayesian reconstructions of experimental profiles with physical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irishkin, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    In this work we developed an expert system that carries out in an integrated and fully automated way i) a reconstruction of plasma profiles from the measurements, using Bayesian analysis ii) a prediction of the reconstructed quantities, according to some models and iii) an intelligent comparison of the first two steps. This system includes systematic checking of the internal consistency of the reconstructed quantities, enables automated model validation and, if a well-validated model is used, can be applied to help detecting interesting new physics in an experiment. The work shows three applications of this quite general system. The expert system can successfully detect failures in the automated plasma reconstruction and provide (on successful reconstruction cases) statistics of agreement of the models with the experimental data, i.e. information on the model validity. (author) [fr

  5. Experimental study of stochastic noise propagation in SPECT images reconstructed using the conjugate gradient algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano-Goulart, D; Fourcade, M; Bernon, J L; Rossi, M; Zanca, M

    2003-01-01

    Thanks to an experimental study based on simulated and physical phantoms, the propagation of the stochastic noise in slices reconstructed using the conjugate gradient algorithm has been analysed versus iterations. After a first increase corresponding to the reconstruction of the signal, the noise stabilises before increasing linearly with iterations. The level of the plateau as well as the slope of the subsequent linear increase depends on the noise in the projection data.

  6. Experimental reconstruction of a highly reflecting fiber Bragg grating by using spectral regularization and inverse scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Amir; Horowitz, Moshe; Kieckbusch, Sven; Brinkmeyer, Ernst

    2007-10-01

    We demonstrate experimentally, for the first time to our knowledge, a reconstruction of a highly reflecting fiber Bragg grating from its complex reflection spectrum by using a regularization algorithm. The regularization method is based on correcting the measured reflection spectrum at the Bragg zone frequencies and enables the reconstruction of the grating profile using the integral-layer-peeling algorithm. A grating with an approximately uniform profile and with a maximum reflectivity of 99.98% was accurately reconstructed by measuring only its complex reflection spectrum.

  7. A Pilot Study of Common Bile Duct Reconstruction with CorMatrix Extracellular Matrix in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-06

    additional pages if necessary.) PROTOCOL#: FDG20140008A DATE: 6 February 2015 PROTOCOL TITLE: A Pilot Study of Common Bile Duct Reconstruction with...obstruction or bile peritonitis. This was reported to the IACUC chair. 9. REDUCTION, REFINEMENT, OR REPLACEMENT OF ANIMAL USE; REPLACEMENT...benefit the DoD/USAF? We developed a porcine model of common bile duct injury and interposition grafting, gained experience managing these patients

  8. Retrieval of canistered experimental waste at the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinebaugh, R.E.

    1979-07-01

    To assess the suitability of bedded salt for nuclear waste disposal, an extensive experimental program will be implemented at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In order to evaluate experimental results, it will be necessary to recover certain of these experiments for postmortem examination and analysis. This document describes the equipment and procedures used to effect recovery of one category of WIPP experiments

  9. An experimental evaluation of fire history reconstruction using dendrochronology in white oak (Quercus alba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan W. McEwan; Todd F. Hutchinson; Robert D. Ford; Brian C. McCarthy

    2007-01-01

    Dendrochronological analysis of fire scars on tree cross sections has been critically important for understanding historical fire regimes and has influenced forest management practices. Despite its value as a tool for understanding historical ecosystems, tree-ring-based fire history reconstruction has rarely been experimentally evaluated. To examine the efficacy of...

  10. Experimental results: Pilot plant calcine dissolution and liquid feed stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.S.; Fryer, D.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Johnson, C.K.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-02-01

    The dissolution of simulated Idaho Chemical Processing Plant pilot plant calcines, containing none of the radioactive actinides, lanthanides or fission products, was examined to evaluate the solubility of calcine matrix materials in acidic media. This study was a necessary precursor to dissolution and optimization experiments with actual radionuclide-containing calcines. The importance of temperature, nitric acid concentration, ratio of acid volume to calcine mass, and time on the amount, as a weight percentage of calcine dissolved, was evaluated. These parameters were studied for several representative pilot plant calcine types: (1) Run No. 74 Zirconia calcine; (2) Run No. 17 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 64 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 1027 Alumina calcine; and (4) Run No. 20 Alumina/Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Statistically designed experiments with the different pilot plant calcines indicated the effect of the studied process variables on the amount of calcine dissolved decreases in the order: Acid/Calcine Ratio > Temperature > HNO 3 Concentration > Dissolution Time. The following conditions are suitable to achieve greater than 90 wt. % dissolution of most Zr, Al, or Na blend calcines: (1) Maximum nitric acid concentration of 5M; (2) Minimum acid/calcine ratio of 10 mL acid/1 gram calcine; (3) Minimum dissolution temperature of 90 degrees C; and (4) Minimum dissolution time of 30 minutes. The formation of calcium sulphate (CaSO 4 ) precipitates was observed in certain dissolved calcine solutions during the dissolution experiments. Consequently, a study was initiated to evaluate if and under what conditions the resulting dissolved calcine solutions would be unstable with regards to precipitate formation. The results indicate that precipitate formation in the calcine solutions prepared under the above proposed dissolution conditions are not anticipated

  11. Experimental results and validation of a method to reconstruct forces on the ITER test blanket modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeile, Christian; Maione, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An in operation force measurement system for the ITER EU HCPB TBM has been developed. • The force reconstruction methods are based on strain measurements on the attachment system. • An experimental setup and a corresponding mock-up have been built. • A set of test cases representing ITER relevant excitations has been used for validation. • The influence of modeling errors on the force reconstruction has been investigated. - Abstract: In order to reconstruct forces on the test blanket modules in ITER, two force reconstruction methods, the augmented Kalman filter and a model predictive controller, have been selected and developed to estimate the forces based on strain measurements on the attachment system. A dedicated experimental setup with a corresponding mock-up has been designed and built to validate these methods. A set of test cases has been defined to represent possible excitation of the system. It has been shown that the errors in the estimated forces mainly depend on the accuracy of the identified model used by the algorithms. Furthermore, it has been found that a minimum of 10 strain gauges is necessary to allow for a low error in the reconstructed forces.

  12. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Screw Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizari, Mahmoud; Wang, Bin; Snow, Martyn; Barrett, Mel

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine bone and bovine tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.

  13. Design of an experimental four-camera setup for enhanced 3D surface reconstruction in microsurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzi Christian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Future fully digital surgical visualization systems enable a wide range of new options. Caused by optomechanical limitations a main disadvantage of today’s surgical microscopes is their incapability of providing arbitrary perspectives to more than two observers. In a fully digital microscopic system, multiple arbitrary views can be generated from a 3D reconstruction. Modern surgical microscopes allow replacing the eyepieces by cameras in order to record stereoscopic videos. A reconstruction from these videos can only contain the amount of detail the recording camera system gathers from the scene. Therefore, covered surfaces can result in a faulty reconstruction for deviating stereoscopic perspectives. By adding cameras recording the object from different angles, additional information of the scene is acquired, allowing to improve the reconstruction. Our approach is to use a fixed four-camera setup as a front-end system to capture enhanced 3D topography of a pseudo-surgical scene. This experimental setup would provide images for the reconstruction algorithms and generation of multiple observing stereo perspectives. The concept of the designed setup is based on the common main objective (CMO principle of current surgical microscopes. These systems are well established and optically mature. Furthermore, the CMO principle allows a more compact design and a lowered effort in calibration than cameras with separate optics. Behind the CMO four pupils separate the four channels which are recorded by one camera each. The designed system captures an area of approximately 28mm × 28mm with four cameras. Thus, allowing to process images of 6 different stereo perspectives. In order to verify the setup, it is modelled in silico. It can be used in further studies to test algorithms for 3D reconstruction from up to four perspectives and provide information about the impact of additionally recorded perspectives on the enhancement of a reconstruction.

  14. Analytical, experimental, and Monte Carlo system response matrix for pinhole SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Pablo; Pino, Francisco; Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús; Pavía, Javier; Ros, Doménec; Ruibal, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the performance of two approaches to the system response matrix (SRM) calculation in pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. Methods: Evaluation was performed using experimental data from a low magnification pinhole SPECT system that consisted of a rotating flat detector with a monolithic scintillator crystal. The SRM was computed following two approaches, which were based on Monte Carlo simulations (MC-SRM) and analytical techniques in combination with an experimental characterization (AE-SRM). The spatial response of the system, obtained by using the two approaches, was compared with experimental data. The effect of the MC-SRM and AE-SRM approaches on the reconstructed image was assessed in terms of image contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, image quality, and spatial resolution. To this end, acquisitions were carried out using a hot cylinder phantom (consisting of five fillable rods with diameters of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 mm and a uniform cylindrical chamber) and a custom-made Derenzo phantom, with center-to-center distances between adjacent rods of 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 mm. Results: Good agreement was found for the spatial response of the system between measured data and results derived from MC-SRM and AE-SRM. Only minor differences for point sources at distances smaller than the radius of rotation and large incidence angles were found. Assessment of the effect on the reconstructed image showed a similar contrast for both approaches, with values higher than 0.9 for rod diameters greater than 1 mm and higher than 0.8 for rod diameter of 1 mm. The comparison in terms of image quality showed that all rods in the different sections of a custom-made Derenzo phantom could be distinguished. The spatial resolution (FWHM) was 0.7 mm at iteration 100 using both approaches. The SNR was lower for reconstructed images using MC-SRM than for those reconstructed using AE-SRM, indicating that AE-SRM deals better with the

  15. Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

  16. Drying and purification of natural gas by clinoptilolite on an experimental pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsitsishvili, G V; Urotadze, S L; Lukin, V D; Bagirov, R M

    1976-02-01

    The paper deals with the process of the drying and purification of natural gas from CO/sub 2/ on an experimental pilot plant using the natural zeolite clinoptilolite. On the basis of the obtained data the dynamic activity of clinoptilolite against water and CO/sub 2/ has been calculated.

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant transuranic wastes experimental characterization program: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1978-11-01

    A general overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant transuranic wastes experimental characterization program is presented. Objectives and outstanding concerns of this program are discussed. Characteristics of transuranic wastes are also described. Concerns for the terminal isolation of such wastes in a deep bedded salt facility are divided into two phases, those during the short-term operational phase of the facility, and those potentially occurring in the long-term, after decommissioning of the repository. An inclusive summary covering individual studies, their importance to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, investigators, general milestones, and comments are presented

  18. Development of an Experimental Measurement System for Human Error Characteristics and a Pilot Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Tong-Il; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Moon, Kwangsu

    2017-01-01

    Some items out of individual and team characteristics were partially selected, and a pilot test was performed to measure and evaluate them using the experimental measurement system of human error characteristics. It is one of the processes to produce input data to the Eco-DBMS. And also, through the pilot test, it was tried to take methods to measure and acquire the physiological data, and to develop data format and quantification methods for the database. In this study, a pilot test to measure the stress and the tension level, and team cognitive characteristics out of human error characteristics was performed using the human error characteristics measurement and experimental evaluation system. In an experiment measuring the stress level, physiological characteristics using EEG was measured in a simulated unexpected situation. As shown in results, although this experiment was pilot, it was validated that relevant results for evaluating human error coping effects of workers’ FFD management guidelines and unexpected situation against guidelines can be obtained. In following researches, additional experiments including other human error characteristics will be conducted. Furthermore, the human error characteristics measurement and experimental evaluation system will be utilized to validate various human error coping solutions such as human factors criteria, design, and guidelines as well as supplement the human error characteristics database.

  19. Maxillectomy defects - to reconstruct or not? Pilot survey of Nigerian oral and maxillofacial surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrazaq Olanrewaju Taiwo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choice of reconstruction options for maxillectomy defects varies significantly. Factors affecting it range from the type of defect to the surgeon's expertise. This study aims to evaluate the practice of Nigerian Oral and Maxillofacial surgeons in the reconstruction of post-maxillectomy defects. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted by use of questionnaires administered at the annual scientific meeting of the oral and maxillofacial surgeons of Nigeria in Ibadan 2012. Results: A response rate of 66.7% was achieved. All of our respondents are consultant oral and maxillofacial surgeons, 80% of whom practice in a teaching hospital. All but one of them perform maxillectomies, however only 25% of them offer surgical reconstruction of the resulting defects to patients. Flaps have been used by 25% of the respondents, while none of them has employed microvascular reconstruction. Prosthetic rehabilitation of patients is pervasive among the respondents. Conclusion: Maxillectomy defects have far-reaching consequences on patients' quality of life and attempts should be made to reconstruct such defects. Although maxillectomy is a commonly performed procedure among oral and maxillofacial surgeons in Nigeria, especially for malignancies of the oral and paranasal sinuses, surgical reconstruction of resulting defects is not so frequently done. Microvascular surgery, which is becoming a frequently utilized option among surgeons in developed nations, is still infrequently used in our environment. There is a need for oral and maxillofacial surgeons in our climes to improve their skills so as to increase the range of reconstructive options offered.

  20. Venus project : experimentation at ENEA`s pilot site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargellini, M L; Fontana, F [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Bucci, C; Ferrara, F; Sottile, P A [GESI s.r.l., Rome (Italy); Niccolai, L; Scavino, G [Rome Univ. Sacro Cuore (Italy); Mancini, R; Levialdi, S [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Scienze dell` Informazione

    1996-12-01

    The document describes the ENEA`s (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) experience in the Venus Project (Esprit III ). Venus is an advanced visual interface based on icon representation that permits to end-user to inquiry databases. VENUS interfaces to ENEA`s databases: cometa materials Module, Cometa Laboratories Module and European Programs. This report contents the results of the experimentation and of the validation carried out in ENEA`s related to the Venus generations. Moreover, the description of the architecture, the user requirements syntesis and the validation methodology of the VENUS systems have been included.

  1. Determination of the most favorable experimental conditions for obtaining asphalt emulsions modified with discarded polymers in the reconstruction of pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coward Ugalde, Hector Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The most favorable experimental conditions are determined for the production of asphalt emulsions modified with tire scrap rubber, petroleum material and recycled asphalt in the reconstruction of flexible pavements in a slow breaking process. Asphalt emulsions are made with 65% V/V of fluidized asphalt at different conditions of operation and composition of soap solution. The equipment of a centrifugal pump and a colloidal mill are used. Two different compositions are employed to make soap solutions. The best conditions to prepare the asphalt emulsions in the pilot plant have been: a stirring speed of 2100 rpm in the centrifugal pump and a speed of 3300 rpm of the colloidal mill. Asphaltic grouts made with asphalt emulsion modified to 1% m/m of rubber have shown the best coverage in the stripping test, evidencing little asphalt release, high adhesion of the asphalt on the aggregate and good stability. Asphalt emulsions with rubber are recommended with a granulometry that passes the No. 200 mesh for rubber and use the indicated equipment to carry out the process of asphalt modification to obtain better results in the performance of asphalt emulsion [es

  2. Validation of a computer modelled forensic facial reconstruction technique using CT data from live subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Laura J; Khambay, Balvinder; Ayoub, Ashraf; Erolin, Caroline; Rynn, Chris; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    Human forensic facial soft tissue reconstructions are used when post-mortem deterioration makes identification difficult by usual means. The aim is to trigger recognition of the in vivo countenance of the individual by a friend or family member. A further use is in the field of archaeology. There are a number of different methods that can be applied to complete the facial reconstruction, ranging from two dimensional drawings, three dimensional clay models and now, with the advances of three dimensional technology, three dimensional computerised modelling. Studies carried out to assess the accuracy of facial reconstructions have produced variable results over the years. Advances in three dimensional imaging techniques in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery, particularly cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), now provides an opportunity to utilise the data of live subjects and assess the accuracy of the three dimensional computerised facial reconstruction technique. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a computer modelled facial reconstruction technique using CBCT data from live subjects. This retrospective pilot study was carried out at the Glasgow Dental Hospital Orthodontic Department and the Centre of Anatomy and Human Identification, Dundee University School of Life Sciences. Ten patients (5 male and 5 female; mean age 23 years) with mild skeletal discrepancies with pre-surgical cone beam CT data (CBCT) were included in this study. The actual and forensic reconstruction soft tissues were analysed using 3D software to look at differences between landmarks, linear and angular measurements and surface meshes. There were no statistical differences for 18 out of the 23 linear and 7 out of 8 angular measurements between the reconstruction and the target (p<0.05). The use of Procrustes superimposition has highlighted potential problems with soft tissue depth and anatomical landmarks' position. Surface mesh analysis showed that this virtual

  3. Experimental device, corresponding forward model and processing of the experimental data using wavelet analysis for tomographic image reconstruction applied to eddy current nondestructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert, P.Y.; Madaoui, N.

    1999-01-01

    In the context of eddy current non destructive evaluation using a tomographic image reconstruction process, the success of the reconstruction depends not only on the choice of the forward model and of the inversion algorithms, but also on the ability to extract the pertinent data from the raw signal provided by the sensor. We present in this paper, an experimental device designed for imaging purposes, the corresponding forward model, and a pre-processing of the experimental data using wavelet analysis. These three steps implemented with an inversion algorithm, will allow in the future to perform image reconstruction of 3-D flaws. (authors)

  4. Reducing the effects of acoustic heterogeneity with an iterative reconstruction method from experimental data in microwave induced thermoacoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinguo; Zhao, Zhiqin; Song, Jian; Chen, Guoping; Nie, Zaiping; Liu, Qing-Huo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: An iterative reconstruction method has been previously reported by the authors of this paper. However, the iterative reconstruction method was demonstrated by solely using the numerical simulations. It is essential to apply the iterative reconstruction method to practice conditions. The objective of this work is to validate the capability of the iterative reconstruction method for reducing the effects of acoustic heterogeneity with the experimental data in microwave induced thermoacoustic tomography. Methods: Most existing reconstruction methods need to combine the ultrasonic measurement technology to quantitatively measure the velocity distribution of heterogeneity, which increases the system complexity. Different to existing reconstruction methods, the iterative reconstruction method combines time reversal mirror technique, fast marching method, and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique to iteratively estimate the velocity distribution of heterogeneous tissue by solely using the measured data. Then, the estimated velocity distribution is used subsequently to reconstruct the highly accurate image of microwave absorption distribution. Experiments that a target placed in an acoustic heterogeneous environment are performed to validate the iterative reconstruction method. Results: By using the estimated velocity distribution, the target in an acoustic heterogeneous environment can be reconstructed with better shape and higher image contrast than targets that are reconstructed with a homogeneous velocity distribution. Conclusions: The distortions caused by the acoustic heterogeneity can be efficiently corrected by utilizing the velocity distribution estimated by the iterative reconstruction method. The advantage of the iterative reconstruction method over the existing correction methods is that it is successful in improving the quality of the image of microwave absorption distribution without increasing the system complexity

  5. Electromagnetic three-dimensional reconstruction of targets from free space experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffrin, J.-M.; Chaumet, P. C.; Eyraud, C.; Belkebir, K.; Sabouroux, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of reconstructing the relative permittivity of three-dimensional targets using experimental scattered fields. The fields concerned were measured in an anechoic chamber on the surface of a sphere surrounding the target. The inverse scattering problem is reformulated as an optimization problem that is iteratively solved thanks to a conjugate gradient method and by using the coupled dipoles method as a forward problem solver. The measurement technique and the inversion procedure are briefly described with the inversion results. This work demonstrates the reliability of the experiments and the efficiency of the proposed inverse scattering scheme

  6. The emotional and reconstructive determinants of emotional memories: an experimental approach to flashbulb memory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta; Semin, Gun R

    2010-07-01

    Flashbulb memories (FBMs) are vivid and detailed memories of the reception context of a public emotional event. Brown and Kulik (1977) introduced the label FBM to suggest the idea that individuals are able to preserve knowledge of an event in an indiscriminate way, in analogy with a photograph that preserves all details of a scene. Research work on FBMs has primarily been conducted using a naturalistic approach in order to explore the role of the emotional and reconstructive factors on FBM formation and maintenance. Nevertheless, these studies lack a sufficient control on the factors that might intervene in the process of FBM formation. The contribution of the present studies is addressed to experimentally investigating the role of emotional and reconstructive factors on emotionally charged memories, specifically on FBMs. Paralleling FBM findings, the two studies revealed that simply being in an emotional state allows people to remember all available information, such as irrelevant and unrelated details. Furthermore, the resulting memories are affected by reconstructive processes so that they are not as accurate as their richness of details would suggest.

  7. Analytical, experimental, and Monte Carlo system response matrix for pinhole SPECT reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Medicina Nuclear, CHUS, Spain and Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, IDIS, Santiago de Compostela 15706 (Spain); Pino, Francisco [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain and Servei de Física Médica i Protecció Radiológica, Institut Catalá d' Oncologia, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Medicina Nuclear, CHUS, Santiago de Compostela 15706 (Spain); Pavía, Javier [Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pí i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (Spain); CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Ros, Doménec [Unitat de Biofísica, Facultat de Medicina, Casanova 143 (Spain); Institut d' Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pí i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) (Spain); CIBER en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Ruibal, Álvaro [Servicio Medicina Nuclear, CHUS (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Facultade de Medicina (USC), IDIS, Santiago de Compostela 15706 (Spain); Fundación Tejerina, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the performance of two approaches to the system response matrix (SRM) calculation in pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. Methods: Evaluation was performed using experimental data from a low magnification pinhole SPECT system that consisted of a rotating flat detector with a monolithic scintillator crystal. The SRM was computed following two approaches, which were based on Monte Carlo simulations (MC-SRM) and analytical techniques in combination with an experimental characterization (AE-SRM). The spatial response of the system, obtained by using the two approaches, was compared with experimental data. The effect of the MC-SRM and AE-SRM approaches on the reconstructed image was assessed in terms of image contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, image quality, and spatial resolution. To this end, acquisitions were carried out using a hot cylinder phantom (consisting of five fillable rods with diameters of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 mm and a uniform cylindrical chamber) and a custom-made Derenzo phantom, with center-to-center distances between adjacent rods of 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 mm. Results: Good agreement was found for the spatial response of the system between measured data and results derived from MC-SRM and AE-SRM. Only minor differences for point sources at distances smaller than the radius of rotation and large incidence angles were found. Assessment of the effect on the reconstructed image showed a similar contrast for both approaches, with values higher than 0.9 for rod diameters greater than 1 mm and higher than 0.8 for rod diameter of 1 mm. The comparison in terms of image quality showed that all rods in the different sections of a custom-made Derenzo phantom could be distinguished. The spatial resolution (FWHM) was 0.7 mm at iteration 100 using both approaches. The SNR was lower for reconstructed images using MC-SRM than for those reconstructed using AE-SRM, indicating that AE-SRM deals better with the

  8. Validation of the stream function method used for reconstruction of experimental ionospheric convection patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. Israelevich

    Full Text Available In this study we test a stream function method suggested by Israelevich and Ershkovich for instantaneous reconstruction of global, high-latitude ionospheric convection patterns from a limited set of experimental observations, namely, from the electric field or ion drift velocity vector measurements taken along two polar satellite orbits only. These two satellite passes subdivide the polar cap into several adjacent areas. Measured electric fields or ion drifts can be considered as boundary conditions (together with the zero electric potential condition at the low-latitude boundary for those areas, and the entire ionospheric convection pattern can be reconstructed as a solution of the boundary value problem for the stream function without any preliminary information on ionospheric conductivities. In order to validate the stream function method, we utilized the IZMIRAN electrodynamic model (IZMEM recently calibrated by the DMSP ionospheric electrostatic potential observations. For the sake of simplicity, we took the modeled electric fields along the noon-midnight and dawn-dusk meridians as the boundary conditions. Then, the solution(s of the boundary value problem (i.e., a reconstructed potential distribution over the entire polar region is compared with the original IZMEM/DMSP electric potential distribution(s, as well as with the various cross cuts of the polar cap. It is found that reconstructed convection patterns are in good agreement with the original modelled patterns in both the northern and southern polar caps. The analysis is carried out for the winter and summer conditions, as well as for a number of configurations of the interplanetary magnetic field.

    Key words: Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; plasma convection; modelling and forecasting

  9. Research on non-uniform strain profile reconstruction along fiber Bragg grating via genetic programming algorithm and interrelated experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shijie; Zhang, Nan; Xia, Yanjun; Wang, Hongtao

    2014-03-01

    A new heuristic strategy for the non-uniform strain profile reconstruction along Fiber Bragg Gratings is proposed in this paper, which is based on the modified transfer matrix and Genetic Programming(GP) algorithm. The present method uses Genetic Programming to determine the applied strain field as a function of position along the fiber length. The structures that undergo adaptation in genetic programming are hierarchical structures which are different from that of conventional genetic algorithm operating on strings. GP regress the strain profile function which matches the 'measured' spectrum best and makes space resolution of strain reconstruction arbitrarily high, or even infinite. This paper also presents an experimental verification of the reconstruction of non-homogeneous strain fields using GP. The results are compared with numerical calculations of finite element method. Both the simulation examples and experimental results demonstrate that Genetic Programming can effectively reconstruct continuous profile expression along the whole FBG, and greatly improves its computational efficiency and accuracy.

  10. SPECT reconstruction of combined cone beam and parallel hole collimation with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jianying; Jaszczak, R.J.; Turkington, T.G.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed three methods to combine parallel and cone bean (P and CB) SPECT data using modified Maximum Likelihood-Expectation Maximization (ML-EM) algorithms. The first combination method applies both parallel and cone beam data sets to reconstruct a single intermediate image after each iteration using the ML-EM algorithm. The other two iterative methods combine the intermediate parallel beam (PB) and cone beam (CB) source estimates to enhance the uniformity of images. These two methods are ad hoc methods. In earlier studies using computer Monte Carlo simulation, they suggested that improved images might be obtained by reconstructing combined P and CB SPECT data. These combined collimation methods are qualitatively evaluated using experimental data. An attenuation compensation is performed by including the effects of attenuation in the transition matrix as a multiplicative factor. The combined P and CB images are compared with CB-only images and the result indicate that the combined P and CB approaches suppress artifacts caused by truncated projections and correct for the distortions of the CB-only images

  11. Impact of errors in experimental parameters on reconstructed breast images using diffuse optical tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bin; Lundqvist, Mats; Fang, Qianqian; Carp, Stefan A

    2018-03-01

    Near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (NIR-DOT) is an emerging technology that offers hemoglobin based, functional imaging tumor biomarkers for breast cancer management. The most promising clinical translation opportunities are in the differential diagnosis of malignant vs. benign lesions, and in early response assessment and guidance for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Accurate quantification of the tissue oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration across the field of view, as well as repeatability during longitudinal imaging in the context of therapy guidance, are essential for the successful translation of NIR-DOT to clinical practice. The ill-posed and ill-condition nature of the DOT inverse problem makes this technique particularly susceptible to model errors that may occur, for example, when the experimental conditions do not fully match the assumptions built into the image reconstruction process. To evaluate the susceptibility of DOT images to experimental errors that might be encountered in practice for a parallel-plate NIR-DOT system, we simulated 7 different types of errors, each with a range of magnitudes. We generated simulated data by using digital breast phantoms derived from five actual mammograms of healthy female volunteers, to which we added a 1-cm tumor. After applying each of the experimental error types and magnitudes to the simulated measurements, we reconstructed optical images with and without structural prior guidance and assessed the overall error in the total hemoglobin concentrations (HbT) and in the HbT contrast between the lesion and surrounding area vs. the best-case scenarios. It is found that slight in-plane probe misalignment and plate rotation did not result in large quantification errors. However, any out-of-plane probe tilting could result in significant deterioration in lesion contrast. Among the error types investigated in this work, optical images were the least likely to be impacted by breast shape inaccuracies but suffered the

  12. Experimental research of vehicle traction properties for reconstruction of traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudziak Marian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to broaden the database of motor vehicle traction properties in unusual conditions, the research team has performed experimental studies: on wet and snow-covered surfaces. Tests of vehicles equipped with winter tyres with non-skid snow chains have been performed on snow-covered surfaces. It has been shown that on snowy surface chains affect vehicle traction properties, mostly during acceleration. They increase the rate of acceleration up to 50% compared to a vehicle with winter tyres without chains. The results of the performed research can be the basis for the full reconstruction of road accidents under these conditions. Knowledge of traction properties of cars in difficult and unusual conditions is an important cognitive factor and serves to improve road safety.

  13. Offgas system particulate cleaning test and evaluation for the process experimental pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.; Gale, L.G.; Stermer, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The process experimental pilot plant (PREPP) incinerates mixed solid waste. The exhaust gas is processed through a wet offgas cleaning system. Rapid loading of the exhaust filters has been a problem and an important contributing factor is the use of quench solution containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved solids. The dissolved solids are released as a submicron particulate when the quench solution evaporates. A series of tests were performed to better identify the nature of the problem and explore solutions to the problem involving modifications to the quench process

  14. Offgas system particulate cleaning test and evaluation for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.; Gale, L.G.; Stermer, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) incinerates mixed solid waste. The exhaust gas is processed through a wet offgas cleaning system. Rapid loading of the exhaust filters has been a problem and an important contributing factor is the use of a quench solution containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved solids. The dissolved solids are released as a submicron particulate when the quench solution evaporates. A series of tests were performed to better identify the nature of the problem and explore solutions to the problem involving modifications to the quench process. 2 refs., 7 figs

  15. Experimental Investigation and Modelling of a Wet Flue Gas Desulphurisation Pilot Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Michelsen, Michael Locht; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1998-01-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate determining steps, absorption of SO2, oxidation of HSO3-, dissolution of limestone, and crystallisation of gypsum were included. Population balance...... equations, governing the description of particle size distributions of limestone in the plant, were derived. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas phase concentration profiles of SO2, slurry pH-profiles, solids content of the slurry, liquid phase concentrations, and residual...

  16. Experimental investigation of a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental parameter study was conducted in a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). The pilot plant is downscaled from a limestone-based, gypsum producing full-scale wet FGD plant. Important process parameters, such as slurry pH, inlet...... flue gas concentration of SO2, reactor temperature, and slurry concentration of Cl- have been varied. The degree of desulphurisation, residual limestone content of the gypsum, liquid phase concentrations, and solids content of the slurry were measured during the experimental series. The SO2 removal...... efficiency increased from 66.1% to 71.5% when the reactor slurry pH was changed from 3.5 to 5.5. Addition of Cl(in the form of CaCl2 . 2H(2)O) to the slurry (25 g Cl-/l) increased the degree of desulphurisation to above 99%, due to the onset of extensive foaming, which substantially increased the gas...

  17. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Experimental-Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) identifies the quality of data necessary to meet the specific objectives associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This experimental-waste characterization program is only one part of the WIPP Test Phase, both in the short- and long-term, to quantify and evaluate the characteristics and behavior of transuranic (TRU) wastes in the repository environment. Other parts include the bin-scale and alcove tests, drum-scale tests, and laboratory experiments. In simplified terms, the purpose of the Program is to provide chemical, physical, and radiochemical data describing the characteristics of the wastes that will be emplaced in the WIPP, while the remaining WIPP Test Phase is directed at examining the behavior of these wastes in the repository environment. 50 refs., 35 figs., 33 tabs

  18. An experimental study of the effect of a pilot flame on technically pre-mixed, self-excited combustion instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Bridget C.

    Combustion instabilities are a problem facing the gas turbine industry in the operation of lean, pre-mixed combustors. Secondary flames known as "pilot flames" are a common passive control strategy for eliminating combustion instabilities in industrial gas turbines, but the underlying mechanisms responsible for the pilot flame's stabilizing effect are not well understood. This dissertation presents an experimental study of a pilot flame in a single-nozzle, swirl-stabilized, variable length atmospheric combustion test facility and the effect of the pilot on combustion instabilities. A variable length combustor tuned the acoustics of the system to excite instabilities over a range of operating conditions without a pilot flame. The inlet velocity was varied from 25 -- 50 m/s and the equivalence ratio was varied from 0.525 -- 0.65. This range of operating conditions was determined by the operating range of the combustion test facility. Stability at each operating condition and combustor length was characterized by measurements of pressure oscillations in the combustor. The effect of the pilot flame on the magnitude and frequency of combustor stability was then investigated. The mechanisms responsible for the pilot flame effect were studied using chemiluminescence flame images of both stable and unstable flames. Stable flame structure was investigated using stable flame images of CH* chemiluminescence emission. The effect of the pilot on stable flame metrics such as flame length, flame angle, and flame width was investigated. In addition, a new flame metric, flame base distance, was defined to characterize the effect of the pilot flame on stable flame anchoring of the flame base to the centerbody. The effect of the pilot flame on flame base anchoring was investigated because the improved stability with a pilot flame is usually attributed to improved flame anchoring through the recirculation of hot products from the pilot to the main flame base. Chemiluminescence images

  19. Experimental investigation on 3D-SEM reconstructions of a wire gauge using stereo-pair technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carli, Lorenzo; Genta, G.; Cantatore, Angela

    2011-01-01

    In this work an experimental investigation is addressed concerning 3D-SEM reconstructions obtained from the so-called stereo-pair technique. Three-dimensional topography of an object can be derived from two SEM images acquired from two different angles, through item rotation by means of the SEM...

  20. Is Salvage of Recently Infected Breast Implant After Breast Augmentation or Reconstruction Possible? An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castus, P; Heymans, O; Melin, P; Renwart, L; Henrist, C; Hayton, E; Mordon, S; Leclère, F M

    2018-04-01

    The reinsertion of an infected implant when peri-prosthetic infection occurs early after breast augmentation or breast reconstruction remains controversial. In this experimental study, the authors tried to remove bacteria, and their biofilm, from the colonized surface of breast prostheses, without damaging their integrity. A total of 112 shell samples of silicone breast prostheses, smooth (SPSS) and textured (TPSS), were colonized by S. epidermidis (SE) or S. aureus (SA) strains, all able to produce biofilms. After 15 days, all the samples were removed from the contaminated culture broth and constituted 4 groups of 20 contaminated samples: SPSS/SE (group I), SPSS/SA (group II), TPSS/SE (group III), TPSS/SE (group IV). In another group-group SEM-, 16 colonized samples were used for documentation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The remaining 16 samples were used to test the limits of detection of the sterility test. All samples of groups I-IV and 8 samples of group SEM were « washed » with a smooth brush in a povidone-iodine bath and rinsed with saline solution. A subset of the washed samples was sent for SEM and the others were immersed in sterile broth and were incubated at 35 °C for 3 weeks (groups I-IV). Fifteen days after contamination, all the samples in groups I-IV were colonized. In the SEM group, SEM images attested to the presence of bacteria in biofilm attached to the shells. After cleaning, SEM did not reveal any bacteria and there was no visible alteration in the outer structure of the shell. Sterility tests performed after decontamination in groups I-IV remained negative for all the samples. Breast prostheses recently contaminated with Staphylococci, frequently involved in peri-prosthetic breast implant infection and capable of producing biofilms, can be efficiently decontaminated by the procedure used in this study. Our decontamination procedure did not alter the surface structure of the prostheses. This decontamination procedure

  1. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems: Experimental assessment of noise performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ke; Tang, Jie [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Chen, Guang-Hong, E-mail: gchen7@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To reduce radiation dose in CT imaging, the statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) method has been introduced for clinical use. Based on the principle of MBIR and its nonlinear nature, the noise performance of MBIR is expected to be different from that of the well-understood filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction method. The purpose of this work is to experimentally assess the unique noise characteristics of MBIR using a state-of-the-art clinical CT system. Methods: Three physical phantoms, including a water cylinder and two pediatric head phantoms, were scanned in axial scanning mode using a 64-slice CT scanner (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) at seven different mAs levels (5, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300). At each mAs level, each phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 times to generate an image ensemble for noise analysis. Both the FBP method with a standard kernel and the MBIR method (Veo{sup ®}, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for CT image reconstruction. Three-dimensional (3D) noise power spectrum (NPS), two-dimensional (2D) NPS, and zero-dimensional NPS (noise variance) were assessed both globally and locally. Noise magnitude, noise spatial correlation, noise spatial uniformity and their dose dependence were examined for the two reconstruction methods. Results: (1) At each dose level and at each frequency, the magnitude of the NPS of MBIR was smaller than that of FBP. (2) While the shape of the NPS of FBP was dose-independent, the shape of the NPS of MBIR was strongly dose-dependent; lower dose lead to a “redder” NPS with a lower mean frequency value. (3) The noise standard deviation (σ) of MBIR and dose were found to be related through a power law of σ ∝ (dose){sup −β} with the component β ≈ 0.25, which violated the classical σ ∝ (dose){sup −0.5} power law in FBP. (4) With MBIR, noise reduction was most prominent for thin image slices. (5) MBIR lead to better noise spatial

  2. Experimental evaluation of the ‘transport-of-intensity’ equation for magnetic phase reconstruction in Lorentz transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, Amit, E-mail: akohn@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Habibi, Avihay; Mayo, Martin [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 84105 Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2016-01-15

    The ‘transport-of-intensity’ equation (TIE) is a general phase reconstruction methodology that can be applied to Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (TEM) through the use of Fresnel-contrast (defocused) images. We present an experimental study to test the application of the TIE for quantitative magnetic mapping in Lorentz TEM without aberration correction by examining sub-micrometer sized Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (Permalloy) elements. For a JEOL JEM 2100F adapted for Lorentz microscopy, we find that quantitative magnetic phase reconstructions are possible for defoci distances ranging between approximately 200 μm and 800 μm. The lower limit originates from competing sources of image intensity variations in Fresnel-contrast images, namely structural defects and diffraction contrast. The upper defocus limit is due to a numerical error in the estimation of the intensity derivative based on three images. For magnetic domains, we show quantitative reconstructions of the product of the magnetic induction vector and thickness in element sizes down to approximately 100 nm in lateral size and 5 nm thick resulting in a minimal detection of 5 T nm. Three types of magnetic structures are tested in terms of phase reconstruction: vortex cores, domain walls, and element edges. We quantify vortex core structures at a diameter of 12 nm while the structures of domain walls and element edges are characterized qualitatively. Finally, we show by image simulations that the conclusions of this experimental study are relevant to other Lorentz TEM in which spherical aberration and defocus are dominant aberrations. - Highlights: • Testing TIE for quantitative magnetic phase reconstruction in Lorentz TEM. • Quantitative magnetic phase reconstructions for defoci distances in 200–800 μm range. • Minimal detection of the product of the magnetic induction and thickness is 5 T nm. • Quantitative phase reconstruction for vortex core structures at 12 nm diameter. • Observations

  3. [Artistic dream reconstructions of the Wolf Man in the light of experimental findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, W; Hau, S

    1995-07-01

    The authors take the famous dream picture by the "wolf-man" as the starting-point for experimental research of their own and relate the one to the other. They see the significance of pictorial representations of dreams less in the supplementary information they convey about the "text" of dreams than in the fact that they give separate expression to motility-based "gesture-associated" memories and ideas. These need to be distinguished from "language-associated" memories as there are dissociated modes of encoding experience underlying verbal and pictorial representation. The splitting of these modes into different part-codes is an important component of repression. In addition, the pictorial representation of dreams enables the patient to re-associate part-codes and thus achieve a "deferred" reconstruction and complementation of significant experiences. In the authors view, pictorial representation is favorable to the discovery of repressed material; it is as yet however impossible to say exactly what relationship there is between verbalized and pictorial representation in the context of analysis.

  4. [Experimental work: reconstruction of the pelvi-ureteric junction and ureter using testicular tunica vaginalis autograft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usupbaev, A Ch; Kurbanaliev, R M; Chernetsova, G S; Kolesnichenko, I V; Sultanov, B M; Myrzakanov, N M; Zolotukhin, A O; Vagner, N A

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the results of surgical reconstruction of the upper urinary tract using an autograft of testicular tunica vaginalis in experimental animals. The article presents the results of partial replacement of the renal pelvis and ureter with an autograft in 25 male dogs. The grafts were harvested by resection of the parietal layer of the testicular tunica vaginalis, which was transplanted into the region of the pelvi-ureteric junction and the proximal ureter. The upper urinary tract was drained using a ureteral stent catheter. The results were evaluated at week 1 and months 1, 3 and six after the operation. The functional state of the kidneys and ureters was analyzed using excretory urography and ultrasound; the autograft biopsy specimens were examined histologically. In all cases, the viability of the autograft was completely preserved, there were no signs of secondary infection, necrosis and impaired patency in the anastomosis zone. Histological examination revealed signs of epithelialization, connective tissue substitution and neovasculogenesis in the implantation zone. The proposed surgical modality is an alternative method to restore normal urine flow in the upper urinary tract in obstructive urological diseases. The group of obstructive urological diseases was studied using the model of the strictures of the pelvi-ureteric junction in the intrarenal pelvis and ureteral strictures measuring up to 3-4 cm in length.

  5. Development of quality assurance and performance testing for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, L.R.; McDaniel, E.W.; Robinson, S.M.

    1984-08-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is planned for operation by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to demonstrate a full-scale, cement-based, disposal process for transuranic (TRU) wastes. Procedures need to be developed to determine the quality of the waste product during processing and the durability of the final waste form produced in this facility. This report summarizes basic guidelines for the selection of the waste form composition and process conditions that affect product performance. Physical property tests that may be applicable for quality assurance during processing are also described. Approaches to accelerated performance tests needed to predict the performance of the cement-based waste form are identified, and suggestions are made for the development of processing tests to ensure the quality of the final waste-host product. 29 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  6. Development of quality assurance and performance testing for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, L.R.; McDaniel, E.W.; Robinson, S.M.

    1984-06-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is planned for operation by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to demonstrate a full-scale, cement-based, disposal process for transuranic (TRU) wastes. Procedures need to be developed to determine the quality of the waste product during processing and the durability of the final waste form produced in this facility. This report summarizes basic guidelines for the selection of the waste form composition and process conditions that affect product performance. Physical property tests that may be applicable for quality assurance during processing are also described. Approaches to accelerated performance tests needed to predict the performance of the cement-based waste form are identified, and suggestions are made for the development of processing tests to assure the quality of the final waste-host product. 29 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  7. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Experimental-Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) identifies the quality of data necessary to meet the specific objectives associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). DOE plans to conduct experiments in the WIPP during a Test Phase of approximately 5 years. These experiments will be conducted to reduce the uncertainties associated with the prediction of several processes (e.g., gas generation) that may influence repository performance. The results of the experiments will be used to assess the ability of the WIPP to meet regulatory requirements for the long-term protection of human health and the environment from the disposal of TRU wastes. 37 refs., 25 figs., 18 tabs

  8. Experimental results from a pilot plant for the ammonia removal from drinkable supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, G.; Di Sabatino, B.

    2001-01-01

    Ion exchange represents a valid alternative to chlorination for ammonia removal from drinking water, because it allows to prevent the main disadvantage of the chlorination process, i.e. the production of chlorinated organic compounds, which may be cancerous, occurring when the water to be treated contains organic substances. Ion exchange can be carried out by means of natural zeolites. Zeolites are microcrystalline aluminosilicates minerals, being common constituents of the quaternary tuffs emitted by volcanic alkaline - potassic districts of Lazio (Italy). Particularly, phyllipsite and chabasite were selected among several zeolites species because of their high specific selectivity with ammonium ion and high theoretical exchange capacity (3.5 meq/g). The concentrations of such mineral in the rocks employed were about 40-50%. A preliminary experimental step was performed in order to select the main operative parameters. Then, a pilot plant was built up at the 'Acquedotto Municipale' of Turin (Italy), made by filtration columns. A nitrifying biomass was observed to grow onto the zeolite granules, thus forming a combined chemical-biological system allowing a high removal efficiency to be attained throughout the experimental campaigns. The present paper deals with the results obtained from a two-year experimental investigation [it

  9. A realistic approach to modeling an in-duct desulfurization process based on an experimental pilot plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    This paper has been written to provide a realistic approach to modeling an in-duct desulfurization process and because of the disagreement between the results predicted by published kinetic models of the reaction between hydrated lime and SO{sub 2} at low temperature and the experimental results obtained in pilot plants where this process takes place. Results were obtained from an experimental program carried out in a 3-MWe pilot plant. Additionally, five kinetic models, from the literature, of the reaction of sulfation of Ca(OH){sub 2} at low temperatures were assessed by simulation and indicate that the desulfurization efficiencies predicted by them are clearly lower than those experimentally obtained in our own pilot plant as well as others. Next, a general model was fitted by minimizing the difference between the calculated and the experimental results from the pilot plant, using Matlab{sup TM}. The parameters were reduced as much as possible, to only two. Finally, after implementing this model in a simulation tool of the in-duct sorbent injection process, it was validated and it was shown to yield a realistic approach useful for both analyzing results and aiding in the design of an in-duct desulfurization process.

  10. Experimental demonstration of multi-pilot aided carrier phase estimation for DP-64QAM and DP-256QAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajovic, M.; Millar, D.S.; Koike-Akino, T.; Maher, R.; Lavery, D.; Alvarado, A.; Paskov, M.; Kojima, K.; Parsons, K.; Thomsen, B.C.; Savory, S.J.; Bayvel, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present a statistical inference based multi-pilot aided CPE algorithm and analyze its performance via simulations. We experimentally verify LDPC coded back-to-back performance using 10 GBd DP-64QAM and DP-256QAM modulation, with transmitter and receiver linewidths of 100 kHz.

  11. Experimental fact-finding in CFB biomass gasification for ECN's 500 kWth pilot-plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, W.; van der Drift, A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2003-01-01

    CFB biomass gasification has been studied by experimentation with ECN's pilot facility and a cold-flow model of this plant. Data obtained by normal operation of this plant and the results of some special experiments have provided new insight into the behavior of circulating fluidized bed reactors

  12. Pilot plant SERSE: Description and results of the experimental tests under treatment of simulated chemical liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, C.; Gili, M.; Luce, A.; Marrocchelli, A.; Pietrelli, L.; Troiani, F.

    1989-11-01

    The chemical processes for the selective separation of the actinides and long lived fission products from aged liquid wastes is described. The SERSE pilot plant is a cold facility which has been designed, by ENEA, for the engineering scale demonstration of the chemical separation processes. The experimental tests carried out in the plant are described and the results confirm the laboratory data. (author)

  13. The Effects of Experimentally Manipulated Social Status on Acute Eating Behavior: A Randomized, Crossover Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardel, MI; Johnson, SL; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, AD; Tomczik, AC; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, DM; Muller, K; Piff, PK; Peters, JC; Hill, JO; Allison, DB

    2016-01-01

    Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19–25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30 kg/m2). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of ‘privilege’ depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status

  14. The effects of experimentally manipulated social status on acute eating behavior: A randomized, crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardel, M I; Johnson, S L; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, A D; Tomczik, A C; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, D M; Muller, K; Piff, P K; Peters, J C; Hill, J O; Allison, D B

    2016-08-01

    Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19-25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30kg/m(2)). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of 'privilege' depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status and

  15. Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis--A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboodi, Guy M; Sima, Corneliu; Moffa, Eduardo B; Crosara, Karla T B; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L; Glogauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The protective mechanisms that maintain periodontal homeostasis in gingivitis and prevent periodontal tissue destruction are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the salivary proteome during experimental gingivitis. We used oral neutrophil quantification and whole saliva (WS) proteomics to assess changes that occur in the inflammatory and resolution phases of gingivitis in healthy individuals. Oral neutrophils and WS samples were collected and clinical parameters measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Increased oral neutrophil recruitment and salivary cytoprotective proteins increased progressively during inflammation and decreased in resolution. Oral neutrophil numbers in gingival inflammation and resolution correlated moderately with salivary β-globin, thioredoxin, and albumin and strongly with collagen alpha-1 and G-protein coupled receptor 98. Our results indicate that changes in salivary cytoprotective proteins in gingivitis are associated with a similar trend in oral neutrophil recruitment and clinical parameters. We found moderate to strong correlations between oral neutrophil numbers and levels of several salivary cytoprotective proteins both in the development of the inflammation and in the resolution of gingivitis. Our proteomics approach identified and relatively quantified specific cytoprotective proteins in this pilot study of experimental gingivitis; however, future and more comprehensive studies are needed to clearly identify and validate those protein biomarkers when gingivitis is active.

  16. Salivary Cytoprotective Proteins in Inflammation and Resolution during Experimental Gingivitis—A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboodi, Guy M.; Sima, Corneliu; Moffa, Eduardo B.; Crosara, Karla T. B.; Xiao, Yizhi; Siqueira, Walter L.; Glogauer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The protective mechanisms that maintain periodontal homeostasis in gingivitis and prevent periodontal tissue destruction are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the salivary proteome during experimental gingivitis. Study design: We used oral neutrophil quantification and whole saliva (WS) proteomics to assess changes that occur in the inflammatory and resolution phases of gingivitis in healthy individuals. Oral neutrophils and WS samples were collected and clinical parameters measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Results: Increased oral neutrophil recruitment and salivary cytoprotective proteins increased progressively during inflammation and decreased in resolution. Oral neutrophil numbers in gingival inflammation and resolution correlated moderately with salivary β-globin, thioredoxin, and albumin and strongly with collagen alpha-1 and G-protein coupled receptor 98. Conclusions: Our results indicate that changes in salivary cytoprotective proteins in gingivitis are associated with a similar trend in oral neutrophil recruitment and clinical parameters. Clinical relevance: We found moderate to strong correlations between oral neutrophil numbers and levels of several salivary cytoprotective proteins both in the development of the inflammation and in the resolution of gingivitis. Our proteomics approach identified and relatively quantified specific cytoprotective proteins in this pilot study of experimental gingivitis; however, future and more comprehensive studies are needed to clearly identify and validate those protein biomarkers when gingivitis is active. PMID:26779447

  17. Adaptive algorithms of position and energy reconstruction in Anger-camera type detectors: experimental data processing in ANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, A; Fraga, F A F; Fraga, M M F R; Margato, L M S; Pereira, L [LIP-Coimbra and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra (Portugal); Defendi, I; Jurkovic, M [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), TUM, Lichtenbergstr. 1, Garching (Germany); Engels, R; Kemmerling, G [Zentralinstitut für Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, Jülich (Germany); Gongadze, A; Guerard, B; Manzin, G; Niko, H; Peyaud, A; Piscitelli, F [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, Grenoble (France); Petrillo, C; Sacchetti, F [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Unità di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, Perugia (Italy); Raspino, D; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M, E-mail: andrei@coimbra.lip.pt [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot (United Kingdom); others, and

    2013-05-01

    The software package ANTS (Anger-camera type Neutron detector: Toolkit for Simulations), developed for simulation of Anger-type gaseous detectors for thermal neutron imaging was extended to include a module for experimental data processing. Data recorded with a sensor array containing up to 100 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) or silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) in a custom configuration can be loaded and the positions and energies of the events can be reconstructed using the Center-of-Gravity, Maximum Likelihood or Least Squares algorithm. A particular strength of the new module is the ability to reconstruct the light response functions and relative gains of the photomultipliers from flood field illumination data using adaptive algorithms. The performance of the module is demonstrated with simulated data generated in ANTS and experimental data recorded with a 19 PMT neutron detector. The package executables are publicly available at http://coimbra.lip.pt/∼andrei/.

  18. Framing and personalizing informed consent to prevent negative expectations: An experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Sarah R; Shedden-Mora, Meike C; Hidalgo, Pablo; Nestoriuc, Yvonne

    2015-10-01

    Informing patients about medical treatments and their possible side effects is ethically and legally obligatory but may trigger negative expectations and nocebo-related side effects. This pilot study aims to investigate the effect of different informed consent procedures on treatment expectations for adjuvant breast cancer treatments (Study 1: endocrine therapy; Study 2: chemotherapy). Using an experimental 2-factorial design, healthy women were informed about endocrine therapy (n = 60) or chemotherapy (n = 64) within a hypothetical scenario. Information was framed with or without treatment benefit information and delivered in a personalized or standardized interaction. Primary outcomes were necessity-concern beliefs about the treatment and side-effect expectations, secondary outcomes were decisional conflicts. In Study 1, side-effect expectations (η²p= .08) and decisional conflicts (η²p = .07) were lower when framed treatment information was given. Providing personalized information resulted in more functional necessity-concern beliefs (η²p = .06) and lower decisional conflicts (η²p = .07). Personalizing and framing of information resulted in more functional necessity-concern beliefs (η²p = .10) and lower decisional conflicts. In Study 2, necessity-concern beliefs were more functional with framing (η²p = .06). Participants in the personalized groups reported lower decisional conflicts (η²p = .06). No differences in side-effect expectations were revealed. This is the first study to provide evidence for optimized treatment expectations through altered informed consent strategies. The results emphasize that framing and personalizing informed consent can positively influence treatment expectations and reduce decisional conflicts. However, generalizations are impaired by the study's pilot character. The potential to prevent nocebo responses in clinical practice should be analyzed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Post-operative shampoo effects in neurosurgical patients: a pilot experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Moreale, Renzo; Noacco, Massimo; Pistrino, Flavia; Mastrolia, Irene; Sartor, Assunta; Scarparo, Claudio; Skrap, Miran

    2015-04-01

    Neurosurgical site infections are an important issue. Among the acknowledged preventive tactics, the non-shaving technique is well established in the neurosurgical setting. However, given that patient's hair around the surgical site may retain biologic material that emerges during the surgical procedure or that may simply become dirty, which may increase the risk of surgical site infections, if and when shampooing should be offered remains under debate. A pilot experimental study was undertaken from 2011 to 2012. A series of neurosurgical patients not affected by conditions that would increase the risk of post-operative infection were assigned randomly to the exposed group (receiving shampoo 72 h after surgical procedure) or control group (receiving standard dressing surveillance without shampooing). Comfort, surgical site contamination (measured as the number of colony-forming units [CFU]), and SSIs at 30 d after surgery were the main study outcomes. A total of 53 patients were included: 25 (47.2%) received a shampoo after 72 h whereas 28 (52.8%) received standard care. Patients who received a shampoo reported a similar level of comfort (average=8.04; standard deviation [SD] 1.05) compared with those receiving standard care (average 7.3; SD 3.2) although this was not statistically significant (p=0.345). No statistically significant difference emerged in the occurrence of surgical site contamination between the groups, and no SSIs were detected within 30 d. In our pilot study, the results of which are not generalizable because of the limited sample of patients involved, a gentle shampoo offered 72 h after the surgical procedure did not increase the SSIs occurrence or the contamination of the surgical site, although it may increase the perception of comfort by patients. Further studies are strongly recommended involving a larger sample size and designed to include more diversified neurosurgical patients undergoing surgical procedures in different centers.

  20. Immediate, but Not Delayed, Microsurgical Skull Reconstruction Exacerbates Brain Damage in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Tsz; Kaneko, Yuji; van Loveren, Harry; Borlongan, Cesario V.

    2012-01-01

    Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in malformations to the skull. Aesthetic surgical maneuvers may offer normalized skull structure, but inconsistent surgical closure of the skull area accompanies TBI. We examined whether wound closure by replacement of skull flap and bone wax would allow aesthetic reconstruction of the TBI-induced skull damage without causing any detrimental effects to the cortical tissue. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to TBI using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model. Immediately after the TBI surgery, animals were randomly assigned to skull flap replacement with or without bone wax or no bone reconstruction, then were euthanized at five days post-TBI for pathological analyses. The skull reconstruction provided normalized gross bone architecture, but 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and hematoxylin and eosin staining results revealed larger cortical damage in these animals compared to those that underwent no surgical maneuver at all. Brain swelling accompanied TBI, especially the severe model, that could have relieved the intracranial pressure in those animals with no skull reconstruction. In contrast, the immediate skull reconstruction produced an upregulation of the edema marker aquaporin-4 staining, which likely prevented the therapeutic benefits of brain swelling and resulted in larger cortical infarcts. Interestingly, TBI animals introduced to a delay in skull reconstruction (i.e., 2 days post-TBI) showed significantly reduced edema and infarcts compared to those exposed to immediate skull reconstruction. That immediate, but not delayed, skull reconstruction may exacerbate TBI-induced cortical tissue damage warrants a careful consideration of aesthetic repair of the skull in TBI. PMID:22438975

  1. Volume reconstruction optimization for tomo-PIV algorithms applied to experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Fabio J. W. A.; Foucaut, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Lionel; Azevedo, Luis F. A.; Stanislas, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Tomographic PIV is a three-component volumetric velocity measurement technique based on the tomographic reconstruction of a particle distribution imaged by multiple camera views. In essence, the performance and accuracy of this technique is highly dependent on the parametric adjustment and the reconstruction algorithm used. Although synthetic data have been widely employed to optimize experiments, the resulting reconstructed volumes might not have optimal quality. The purpose of the present study is to offer quality indicators that can be applied to data samples in order to improve the quality of velocity results obtained by the tomo-PIV technique. The methodology proposed can potentially lead to significantly reduction in the time required to optimize a tomo-PIV reconstruction, also leading to better quality velocity results. Tomo-PIV data provided by a six-camera turbulent boundary-layer experiment were used to optimize the reconstruction algorithms according to this methodology. Velocity statistics measurements obtained by optimized BIMART, SMART and MART algorithms were compared with hot-wire anemometer data and velocity measurement uncertainties were computed. Results indicated that BIMART and SMART algorithms produced reconstructed volumes with equivalent quality as the standard MART with the benefit of reduced computational time.

  2. Volume reconstruction optimization for tomo-PIV algorithms applied to experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Fabio J W A; Foucaut, Jean-Marc; Stanislas, Michel; Thomas, Lionel; Azevedo, Luis F A

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic PIV is a three-component volumetric velocity measurement technique based on the tomographic reconstruction of a particle distribution imaged by multiple camera views. In essence, the performance and accuracy of this technique is highly dependent on the parametric adjustment and the reconstruction algorithm used. Although synthetic data have been widely employed to optimize experiments, the resulting reconstructed volumes might not have optimal quality. The purpose of the present study is to offer quality indicators that can be applied to data samples in order to improve the quality of velocity results obtained by the tomo-PIV technique. The methodology proposed can potentially lead to significantly reduction in the time required to optimize a tomo-PIV reconstruction, also leading to better quality velocity results. Tomo-PIV data provided by a six-camera turbulent boundary-layer experiment were used to optimize the reconstruction algorithms according to this methodology. Velocity statistics measurements obtained by optimized BIMART, SMART and MART algorithms were compared with hot-wire anemometer data and velocity measurement uncertainties were computed. Results indicated that BIMART and SMART algorithms produced reconstructed volumes with equivalent quality as the standard MART with the benefit of reduced computational time. (paper)

  3. Metal for Zambujal: experimentally reconstructing a 5000-year-old technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning, Erica

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of 17 crucible smelting experiments were carried out as part of an interdisciplinary research project initiated to understand the innovation of copper metallurgy in the central and southern Portuguese Copper Age. The reconstructed smelting technology was based on information gathered from archaeological contexts, with emphasis on artifacts found at Zambujal and other sites in the Portuguese Estremadura, and ores collected from five different ore deposits in Portugal. Both the ore and smelting products were analysed using mineralogical and geochemical analyses, and compared with archaeological remains. Results of this comparative study are presented, and in light of technological observations made during the experiments, the role of copper production within the Chalcolithic society in southern and central Portugal is also discussed.

    Una serie de 17 experimentos de fundición fueron llevados a cabo como parte de un proyecto de investigación interdisciplinar, que fue iniciado con el propósito de entender las innovaciones en el ámbito de la metalurgia del cobre que se dieron en el centro y el sur de Portugal durante la Edad de Cobre. La tecnología de fundición utilizada en los experimentos fue recreada conforme a información recopilada y a artefactos encontrados en sitios arqueológicos, principalmente en Zambujal y otros lugares pertenecientes a la Estremadura Portuguesa. Asimismo, los minerales de cobre usados durante la fase experimental fueron recolectados en cinco yacimientos minerales de Portugal. El mineral y los productos finales del proceso de fundición fueron analizados mineralógica y geoquímicamente, para después ser comparados con el resto de las muestras arqueológicas. En el presente documento se discuten los resultados del estudio comparativo. Por último, se presenta una discusión del papel que tiene la producción de cobre en la sociedad del centro y del sur de Portugal durante el Calcolítico, basado en

  4. Using the T-scan III system to analyze occlusal function in mandibular reconstruction patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to analyze the post-rehabilitation occlusal function of subjects treated with complex mandibular resection and subsequently rehabilitated with fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps, dental implants, and fixed prostheses utilizing the T-scan system. Methods: Ten mandibular complex resection cases that adopted fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps, dental implants, and fixed prostheses to reconstruct occlusal function were analyzed. The mandibular reconstructions were divided into three groups based on size: full mandibular reconstructions, mandibular reconstructions larger than half of the arch, and mandibular reconstructions smaller than half of the arch. The T-scan III system was used to measure maximum occlusal force, occlusal time, anterior-posterior as well as left-right occlusal force asymmetries, and anterior-posterior as well as left-right asymmetrical locations of occlusal centers. Results: Subjects with larger mandibular reconstructions and dental implants with fixed partial dentures demonstrated decreased average occlusal force; however, the difference did not reach the statistically significant level (p > 0.05. The most significant asymmetry of occlusal center location occurred among subjects with mandibular reconstructed areas larger than half of the mandibular arch. Conclusions: Comparison of the parameters of T-scan system used to analyze the occlusal function showed that the occlusal force was not an objective reference. Measurements of the location of the occlusal center appeared more repeatable, and were less affected by additional factors. The research results of this study showed that the size of a reconstruction did not affect the occlusal force after reconstruction and larger reconstructed areas did not decrease the average occlusal force. The most significant parameter was left and right asymmetry of the occlusion center (LROC and was measured in subjects with reconstruction areas larger than half

  5. Fissile material holdup monitoring in the PREPP [Process Experimental Pilot Plant] process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.; Pawelko, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is an incineration system designed to thermally process mixed transuranic (TRU) waste and TRU contaminated low-level waste. The TRU isotopic composition is that of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) which necessitates that criticality prevention measures by incorporated into the plant design and operation. Criticality safety in the PREPP process is assured through the utilization of mass and moderation control in conjunction with favorable vessel geometries. The subject of this paper concerns the Pu mass holdup instrumentation system which is an integral part of the inprocess mass control strategy. Plant vessels and components requiring real-time mass holdup measurements were selected based on their evaluated potential for achieving physically credible Pu mass loadings and associated parameters which could lead to a criticality event. If the parameters requisite to a criticality occurrence could not physically be achieved under credible plant conditions, the particular location only required periodic portable holdup monitoring. Based on these analyses five real-time holdup monitoring locations were identified for criticality assurance purposes. An additional real-time instrument is part of the system but serves primarily in the capacity of providing operational support data. 1 fig

  6. Acceleration of skin wound healing with tragacanth (Astragalus preparation: an experimental pilot study in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Fayazzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gum tragacanth is a natural complex mixture of polysaccharides and alkaline minerals extracted from species of Astragalus plant, which is found widely in arid regions of the Middle East. In a pilot experimental study we examined the effects of its topical application on wound healing in ten albino adult male rats. Two similar parasagittal elliptical full-thickness wounds (control vs. test samples were created on the dorsum of each animal. Test group samples were fully covered by a thin layer of gum tragacanth daily. The extent of wound healing was evaluated by planimetric analysis on multiple occasions during the 10-day study period. On the 7th day of the study, the percent of wound closure was significantly higher in gum tragacanth-treated specimens compared to the control samples (87%±2% vs. 70%±4%, P<0.001. The majority of wounds in the test group were completely closed by the 10th day of the study. The difference in wound healing index measured by histological examination on day 10 of the study was also statistically meaningful between the two groups (0.624±0.097 vs. 0.255±0.063, P<0.05. The results of this study clearly showed the useful effects of topical application of gum tragacanth in acceleration of skin wound contraction and healing. More studies are encouraged to identify the implicating agents and precisely understand the mechanism by which they exert their wound healing effects.

  7. Acceleration of skin wound healing with tragacanth (Astragalus) preparation: an experimental pilot study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayazzadeh, Ehsan; Rahimpour, Sina; Ahmadi, Seyed Mohsen; Farzampour, Shahrokh; Sotoudeh Anvari, Maryam; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Ahmadi, Seyed Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Gum tragacanth is a natural complex mixture of polysaccharides and alkaline minerals extracted from species of Astragalus plant, which is found widely in arid regions of the Middle East. In a pilot experimental study we examined the effects of its topical application on wound healing in ten albino adult male rats. Two similar parasagittal elliptical full-thickness wounds (control vs. test samples) were created on the dorsum of each animal. Test group samples were fully covered by a thin layer of gum tragacanth daily. The extent of wound healing was evaluated by planimetric analysis on multiple occasions during the 10-day study period. On the 7th day of the study, the percent of wound closure was significantly higher in gum tragacanth-treated specimens compared to the control samples (87%±2% vs. 70%±4%, Ptragacanth in acceleration of skin wound contraction and healing. More studies are encouraged to identify the implicating agents and precisely understand the mechanism by which they exert their wound healing effects.

  8. Monitoring undergraduate student needs and activities at Experimental Biology: APS pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Matyas, Marsha L

    2017-06-01

    Life science professional societies play important roles for undergraduates in their fields and increasingly offer membership, fellowships, and awards for undergraduate students. However, the overall impacts of society-student interactions have not been well studied. Here, we sought to develop and test a pilot survey of undergraduate students to determine how they got involved in research and in presenting at the Experimental Biology (EB) meeting, what they gained from the scientific and career development sessions at the meeting, and how the American Physiological Society (APS) can best support and engage undergraduate students. This survey was administered in 2014 and 2015 to undergraduate students who submitted physiology abstracts for and attended EB. More than 150 students responded (38% response rate). Respondents were demographically representative of undergraduate students majoring in life sciences in the United States. Most students (72%) became involved in research through a summer research program or college course. They attended a variety of EB sessions, including poster sessions and symposia, and found them useful. Undergraduate students interacted with established researchers at multiple venues. Students recommended that APS provide more research fellowships (25%) and keep in touch with students via both e-mail (46%) and social media (37%). Our results indicate that APS' EB undergraduate activities are valued by students and are effective in helping them have a positive scientific meeting experience. These results also guided the development of a more streamlined survey for use in future years. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Self-transcendence facilitates meaning-making and flow: Evidence from a pilot experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osin, Evgeny N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We review the psychological theory of flow and focus on the notion of the autotelic personality, arguing that self-transcendence (understood within the existential tradition of Frankl and Längle as the individual’s ability to establish inner relationships with values can be viewed as a personality disposition conducive to flow experience. The study aimed to investigate the effects of situational task meaning and dispositional self-transcendence on productivity and flow experience. We present a pilot quasi-experimental study conducted in a student sample (N = 82 Students were asked to work in small-group settings on a creative task, which consisted in finding solutions to a social problem. Each group was randomly assigned to an instruction presenting the problem as happening either in a distant country (low-meaning or in their home country (high-meaning condition. The outcome variables were measures of flow, perceived meaning of the task, and satisfaction with time spent working. The solutions generated by the students were rated by three experts. The experimental manipulation had a main effect on the quality of the resulting solutions, but not on the subjective experience of the participants. A number of significant interaction effects were found, indicating that the associations of self-transcendence with experiential outcomes tended to be linear under the low-meaning condition, but curvilinear under the high-meaning condition. The findings suggest that self-transcendence is particularly beneficial to flow in situations with unclear meaning, but very high levels of self-transcendence may hinder flow in highly meaningful situations. Overall, the findings suggest that self-transcendence can be considered as a disposition of the autotelic personality.

  10. Experimental characterization of the Green’s function in a room using sparse reconstruction principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the Green’s function over the entire volume of a room would typically require an unfeasible number of measurements, due to requirements on spatial sampling. To alleviate the need for excessive measurements, sparse reconstruction methods can be employed, as they make it possible to recon...

  11. THREE-DIMENSIONAL TOMOGRAPHIC RECONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDRY ARTICLES ON LIMITED MODEL AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Vengrinovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ways of overcoming of lack of source information, The ways of overcoming of lack of source information, allowing to reduce energy of primary X-radiation, necessary  for radiography and to provide high quality of reconstruction, are offered.

  12. Evaluation of anastomotic microcirculation after low anterior rectal resection: an experimental study with different reconstruction forms in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S; Hölzl, F; Krones, C J; Tittel, A; Schumpelick, V

    2006-10-01

    Data on anastomotic microcirculation of coloanal anastomoses are contradictory. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to investigate perianastomotic blood perfusion in a standardized experimental setting comparing three forms of reconstruction using laser fluorescence videography, a new method for the evaluation of microcirculation. After a standardised rectal resection in dogs, reconstruction was performed as straight end-to-end (n = 6), side-to-end (n = 6), or J-pouch (n = 6) coloanal anastomosis. Bowel perfusion was evaluated using IC-View laser fluorescence videography. The perfusion index was significantly reduced in all three groups compared to the reference regions: endto-end anastomosis, median, 93% (range, 63%-136%); side-to-end-anastomosis, 65% (35%-138%); colonic-J-pouch anal anastomosis, 52% (32%-72%); p resections than colonic-J-pouch anal anastomoses or side-to-end anastomoses. However this effect does not seem to be decisive for the prevention of anastomotic leaks.

  13. Experimental demonstration of an OFDM based visible light communication system using inter-block precoding and superimposed pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei; Hong, Xuezhi; Liu, Jie; Guo, Changjian

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we investigate and experimentally demonstrate an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based high speed wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) visible light communication (VLC) system using an inter-block data precoding and superimposed pilots (DP-SP) based channel estimation (CE) scheme. The residual signal-to-pilot interference (SPI) can be eliminated by using inter-block data precoding, resulting in a significant improvement in estimated accuracy and the overall system performance compared with uncoded SP based CE scheme. We also study the power allocation/overhead problem of the training for DP-SP, uncoded SP and conventional preamble based CE schemes, from which we obtain the optimum signal-to-pilot power ratio (SPR)/overhead percentage for all above cases. Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) is also adopted to further enhance the accuracy of CE. By using the DP-SP based CE scheme, aggregate data rates of 1.87-Gbit/s and 1.57-Gbit/s are experimentally demonstrated over 0.8-m and 2-m indoor free space transmission, respectively, using a commercially available red, green and blue (RGB) light emitting diode (LED) with WDM. Experimental results show that the DP-SP based CE scheme is comparable to the conventional preamble based CE scheme in term of received Q factor and data rate while entailing a much smaller overhead-size.

  14. Reconstruction of gene regulatory modules from RNA silencing of IFN-α modulators: experimental set-up and inference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Angela; Di Camillo, Barbara; Ciccarese, Francesco; Agnusdei, Valentina; Zanovello, Paola; Amadori, Alberto; Finesso, Lorenzo; Indraccolo, Stefano; Toffolo, Gianna Maria

    2016-03-12

    Inference of gene regulation from expression data may help to unravel regulatory mechanisms involved in complex diseases or in the action of specific drugs. A challenging task for many researchers working in the field of systems biology is to build up an experiment with a limited budget and produce a dataset suitable to reconstruct putative regulatory modules worth of biological validation. Here, we focus on small-scale gene expression screens and we introduce a novel experimental set-up and a customized method of analysis to make inference on regulatory modules starting from genetic perturbation data, e.g. knockdown and overexpression data. To illustrate the utility of our strategy, it was applied to produce and analyze a dataset of quantitative real-time RT-PCR data, in which interferon-α (IFN-α) transcriptional response in endothelial cells is investigated by RNA silencing of two candidate IFN-α modulators, STAT1 and IFIH1. A putative regulatory module was reconstructed by our method, revealing an intriguing feed-forward loop, in which STAT1 regulates IFIH1 and they both negatively regulate IFNAR1. STAT1 regulation on IFNAR1 was object of experimental validation at the protein level. Detailed description of the experimental set-up and of the analysis procedure is reported, with the intent to be of inspiration for other scientists who want to realize similar experiments to reconstruct gene regulatory modules starting from perturbations of possible regulators. Application of our approach to the study of IFN-α transcriptional response modulators in endothelial cells has led to many interesting novel findings and new biological hypotheses worth of validation.

  15. The use of lyophilised bovine bone xenograft in mandibular reconstructive surgery - an animal experimental surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsudin, A.R.; Meor Kamal, M. Z.; Afifi Abu Bakar

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to look at the effectiveness of using lyophillised bovine bone xenograft in mandibular reconstructive surgery. Six adult merino sheep underwent bilateral marginal block resection of the mandible under general anaesthesia. The defect on the right body of mandible was left alone while the similar mandibulectomy defect on the left body of mandible was reconstructed using a cortico-cancellous block of radiosterilised lyophillised bovine bone xenograft which was procured from a calve femur. The bone xenograft was fixed and immobilized using titanium mini plates and screws. All the sheep returned to the controlled grazing ground on the 7th. Postoperative day. One sheep was sacrificed every month and the mandible was retrieved for postmortem gross and microscopical histological examination. Clinical results showed no evidence of tissue rejection in the mandible of the sheep and all the wounds healed well. All sheep showed no problem with normal eating habits. Histological examination showed resorption of the xenograft very early at one month postoperative and xenograft resorption together with new host bone deposition started at 2 months postoperative and maximise at 6 months postoperative. There is also evidence showing that the cancellous portion resorp more than the cortical portion of the xenograft. In conclusion, cortico-cancellous blocks of bovine bone xenograft may be use in mandibular reconstructive surgery giving esthetically acceptable, functional, biocompatible and overall clinically predictable results

  16. Off-gas treatment system Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) k-t evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.; Cargo, C.H.; Ayers, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    The scope of work for this task involves a systems' evaluation, using the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) decision analysis methodology, of off-gas treatment alternatives for a Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP). Two basic systems were evaluated: (1) a wet treatment system using a quencher and scrubber system; and (2) a dry treatment system using a spray dryer and baghouse arrangement. Both systems would neutralize acidic off-gases (HCL and SO 2 ) and remove radioactive particulates prior to release to the environment. The K-T analysis results provided a numerical comparison of the two basic off-gas treatments systems for PREPP. The overall ratings for the two systems differ by only 7%. The closeness of the evaluation indicates that either system is capable of treating the off-gases from PREPP. Based on the analysis, the wet treatment system design is slightly more favorable for PREPP. Technology development, expected operability, total costs, and safety aspects were determined to be more advantageous for the wet system design. Support technology was the only major category that appears less favorable for using the wet off-gas system for PREPP. When considering the two criteria considered most important for PREPP (capital cost and major accident prevention - both rated 10), the wet treatment system received maximum ratings. Space constraints placed on the design by the existing TAN-607 building configuration also are more easily met by the wet system design. Lastly, the level of development for the wet system indicates more applicable experience for nuclear waste processing

  17. PREPP [Process Experimental Pilot Plant] rotary kiln seals: Problem and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) is a facility designed to demonstrate processing of low level chemical and transuranic hazardous waste. The plant includes equipment for handling the incoming waste containers, shredding, incineration and cooling the waste, grouting the residue and scrubbing and filtration of the off gas. The process incinerator is a rotary kiln approximately 8-1/2 ft diameter and 25 ft long with a rotary seal assembly at each end. Each seal assembly consists of a primary, secondary and tertiary seal, with a positive air pressure between primary and secondary seals to prevent out-leakage from the kiln. The kiln operates at 0.5 inch water negative pressure. From the very outset the kiln seals exhibited excessive drag which taxed the kiln drive capacity and excessive in-leakage which limited kiln temperature. An engineering evaluation concluded that the original seals supplied by the kiln vendor could not accommodate expansion and centerline shift of the kiln resulting from heatup of the kiln and its support system. A totally new concept kiln seal design has been generated to replace the (modified) original seals. This new seal system has been designed to provide a very tight long lasting seal which will accommodate the 1.5 inch axial shift and up to 1 inch radial movement of the kiln shell. Design lifetime of the seal is 10,000 operating hours between major maintenance services while maintaining an acceptable leak rate hot or cold, rotating or stopped. The design appears adaptable to any size kiln and is suitable for retrofit to existing kilns. A one-third scale prototype seal assembly is being built to verify the concept prior to construction of the 10 ft diameter seals for the PREPP rotary kiln. 4 figs

  18. Examining pitch and numerical magnitude processing in congenital amusia: A quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Silva, Marilia; Moura, Ricardo; Lopes-Silva, Júlia Beatriz; Haase, Vitor Geraldi

    2016-08-01

    Congenital amusia is a developmental disorder associated with deficits in pitch height discrimination or in integrating pitch sequences into melodies. This quasi-experimental pilot study investigated whether there is an association between pitch and numerical processing deficits in congenital amusia. Since pitch height discrimination is considered a form of magnitude processing, we investigated whether individuals with amusia present an impairment in numerical magnitude processing, which would reflect damage to a generalized magnitude system. Alternatively, we investigated whether the numerical processing deficit would reflect a disconnection between nonsymbolic and symbolic number representations. This study was conducted with 11 adult individuals with congenital amusia and a control comparison group of 6 typically developing individuals. Participants performed nonsymbolic and symbolic magnitude comparisons and number line tasks. Results were available from previous testing using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and a pitch change detection task (PCD). Compared to the controls, individuals with amusia exhibited no significant differences in their performance on both the number line and the nonsymbolic magnitude tasks. Nevertheless, they showed significantly worse performance on the symbolic magnitude task. Moreover, individuals with congenital amusia, who presented worse performance in the Meter subtest, also presented less precise nonsymbolic numerical representation. The relationship between meter and nonsymbolic numerical discrimination could indicate a general ratio processing deficit. The finding of preserved nonsymbolic numerical magnitude discrimination and mental number line representations, with impaired symbolic number processing, in individuals with congenital amusia indicates that (a) pitch height and numerical magnitude processing may not share common neural representations, and (b) in addition to pitch processing, individuals with

  19. Human rhinovirus in experimental infection after peroral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG consumption, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiovaara, Laura; Kumpu, Minna; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Waris, Matti; Korpela, Riitta; Pitkäranta, Anne; Winther, Birgit

    2016-08-01

    Data has emerged on possible beneficial effects of probiotics in respiratory tract viral infections, but it is unclear if the promising positive effects evidenced are due to a reduced viral load during infections. The aims of this work were to investigate the effect of peroral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (American Type Culture Collection [ATCC], Accession No. 53103) consumption on human rhinovirus (HRV) load in nasopharyngeal lavage samples in experimental HRV infection, and to correlate viral load to clinical symptoms. Intranasal HRV A39 inoculation was performed on 59 adults, who had consumed juice enriched with live or heat-inactivated L. rhamnosus GG or control juice for 3 weeks prior to inoculation in a randomized, controlled, pilot trial setting. Nasopharyngeal lavage samples and symptom data were analyzed on day 0 before inoculation, and on days 2 and 5. Samples were subjected to quantitative HRV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Before inoculation 9 of 59 (15%) samples presented with another HRV strain than the studied A39. There was a tendency toward the lowest HRV loads in the L. rhamnosus GG groups and the highest in placebo group (log10 copies/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.20 [5.18 to 7.40] in live, 6.30 [4.91 to 7.08] in inactivated L. rhamnosus GG, and 7.25 [5.81 to 7.52] in placebo group, p = 0.57 in day 2) in the wild-type excluded population. The HRV load positively correlated with the symptom scores on days 2 and 5 (correlation coefficient 0.61 [p rhamnosus GG when compared to placebo. HRV load positively correlated with the total symptom scores. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  20. Tracheal reconstruction by re-inforced Gore-Tex in esophageal submuscular tunneling: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodjati Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tracheal reconstructions are aimed at rearranging or replacing parts of the tracheal tissue by different techniques. Here we introduce a new technique for tracheal reconstruction. Methods: In 10 adult dogs, after intubation with an endotracheal tube, a segment of trachea including seven tracheal rings was resected circumferentially. A submuscular tunnel was induced between mucosal and muscular layers of the adjacent esophagus lying right next to the trachea. The esophageal submuscular tunnel starts and ends exactly at the level of distal and proximal ends of tracheal resection, respectively. Inforced Gore-Tex passed through the esophageal submuscular tunnel the distal segment of trachea and end-to-end anastomosis were made between distal ends of Gore-Tex and trachea, then endotracheal tube removed and the same procedure was made for proximal ends of Gore-Tex and trachea. Afterward, the proximal and distal ends of the esophageal tunnel were approximated to proximal and distal tracheal parts over the anastomosis. Results: All dogs, except one due to anesthetic problem, survived and tolerated the operation; the first two dogs experienced postoperative fever, aspiration pneumonia, and died due to tracheoesophageal fistula. All survived animals were eating and barking well. We started to scarify dogs at least 6 and 12 weeks after operation for microscopy and pathologic examination. The Gore-Texes were patent and supported externally with fibrous connective tissue in esophageal tunneling, with in growth of respiratory epithelium on inner surfaces. Conclusion: Air tightness, good re-epithelialization, and relatively no limitation of esophageal length and no risk of luminal collapse are advantages of tracheal reconstruction by submuscular esophageal tunneling. This new method is worthy of further investigation, as it is technically feasible and easy to implement.

  1. Reconstruction of original indium distribution in InGaAs quantum wells from experimental SIMS depth profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudriavtsev, Yu., E-mail: yuriyk@cinvestav.mx [Departamento Ingeniería Eléctrica – SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN #2508, D.F., México (Mexico); Asomoza, R. [Departamento Ingeniería Eléctrica – SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN #2508, D.F., México (Mexico); Gallardo-Hernandez, S.; Ramirez-Lopez, M.; Lopez-Lopez, M. [Departamento de Física, CINVESTAV-IPN, México (Mexico); Nevedomsky, V.; Moiseev, K. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, S-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Depth profiling analysis of InGaAs/GaAs hetero-structures grown by MBE on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates is reported. A novel two-step procedure for de-convolving experimental SIMS depth distribution is employed and the original In distribution in InGaAs quantum wells (QW) is estimated. The QW thickness calculated from the de-convolved profiles is shown to be in good agreement with the cross-sectional TEM images. The experimental In depth profile is shifted from the original In distribution due to the ion mixing process during depth profiling analysis. It is shown that the de-convolution procedure is suitable for reconstruction of the original QW width and depth by SIMS even for relatively high primary ion energies.

  2. An equilibrium-point model of electromyographic patterns during single-joint movements based on experimentally reconstructed control signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, M L; Goodman, S R

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work has been to develop a model of electromyographic (EMG) patterns during single-joint movements based on a version of the equilibrium-point hypothesis, a method for experimental reconstruction of the joint compliant characteristics, the dual-strategy hypothesis, and a kinematic model of movement trajectory. EMG patterns are considered emergent properties of hypothetical control patterns that are equally affected by the control signals and peripheral feedback reflecting actual movement trajectory. A computer model generated the EMG patterns based on simulated movement kinematics and hypothetical control signals derived from the reconstructed joint compliant characteristics. The model predictions have been compared to published recordings of movement kinematics and EMG patterns in a variety of movement conditions, including movements over different distances, at different speeds, against different-known inertial loads, and in conditions of possible unexpected decrease in the inertial load. Changes in task parameters within the model led to simulated EMG patterns qualitatively similar to the experimentally recorded EMG patterns. The model's predictive power compares it favourably to the existing models of the EMG patterns. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Segmentation-free statistical image reconstruction for polyenergetic x-ray computed tomography with experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbakri, Idris A; Fessler, Jeffrey A

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a statistical image reconstruction method for x-ray CT that is based on a physical model that accounts for the polyenergetic x-ray source spectrum and the measurement nonlinearities caused by energy-dependent attenuation. Unlike our earlier work, the proposed algorithm does not require pre-segmentation of the object into the various tissue classes (e.g., bone and soft tissue) and allows mixed pixels. The attenuation coefficient of each voxel is modelled as the product of its unknown density and a weighted sum of energy-dependent mass attenuation coefficients. We formulate a penalized-likelihood function for this polyenergetic model and develop an iterative algorithm for estimating the unknown density of each voxel. Applying this method to simulated x-ray CT measurements of objects containing both bone and soft tissue yields images with significantly reduced beam hardening artefacts relative to conventional beam hardening correction methods. We also apply the method to real data acquired from a phantom containing various concentrations of potassium phosphate solution. The algorithm reconstructs an image with accurate density values for the different concentrations, demonstrating its potential for quantitative CT applications

  4. Segmentation-free statistical image reconstruction for polyenergetic x-ray computed tomography with experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris A, Elbakri; Fessler, Jeffrey A

    2003-08-07

    This paper describes a statistical image reconstruction method for x-ray CT that is based on a physical model that accounts for the polyenergetic x-ray source spectrum and the measurement nonlinearities caused by energy-dependent attenuation. Unlike our earlier work, the proposed algorithm does not require pre-segmentation of the object into the various tissue classes (e.g., bone and soft tissue) and allows mixed pixels. The attenuation coefficient of each voxel is modelled as the product of its unknown density and a weighted sum of energy-dependent mass attenuation coefficients. We formulate a penalized-likelihood function for this polyenergetic model and develop an iterative algorithm for estimating the unknown density of each voxel. Applying this method to simulated x-ray CT measurements of objects containing both bone and soft tissue yields images with significantly reduced beam hardening artefacts relative to conventional beam hardening correction methods. We also apply the method to real data acquired from a phantom containing various concentrations of potassium phosphate solution. The algorithm reconstructs an image with accurate density values for the different concentrations, demonstrating its potential for quantitative CT applications.

  5. Project Management Plan for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Experimental Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, M.J.; Sayer, D.L.

    1993-11-01

    EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. and Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) are participating in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL's) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program (WETP). The purpose of the INEL WET is to provide chemical, physical, and radiochemical data on transuranic (TRU) waste to be stored at WIPP. The waste characterization data collected will be used to support the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA), development of the disposal No-Migration Variance Petition (NMVP), and to support the WIPP disposal decision. The PA is an analysis required by the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 191 (40 CFR 191), which identifies the processes and events that may affect the disposal system (WIPP) and examines the effects of those processes and events on the performance of WIPP. A NMVP is required for the WIPP by 40 CFR 268 in order to dispose of land disposal restriction (LDR) mixed TRU waste in WIPP. It is anticipated that the detailed Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) waste characterization data of all INEL retrievably-stored TRU waste to be stored in WIPP will be required for the NMVP. Waste characterization requirements for PA and RCRA may not necessarily be identical. Waste characterization requirements for the PA will be defined by Sandia National Laboratories. The requirements for RCRA are defined in 40 CFR 268, WIPP RCRA Part B Application Waste Analysis Plan (WAP), and WIPP Waste Characterization Program Plan (WWCP). This Project Management Plan (PMP) addresses only the characterization of the contact handled (CH) TRU waste at the INEL. This document will address all work in which EG ampersand G Idaho is responsible concerning the INEL WETP. Even though EG ampersand G Idaho has no responsibility for the work that ANL-W is performing, EG ampersand G Idaho will keep a current status and provide a project coordination effort with ANL-W to ensure that the INEL, as a whole, is effectively and

  6. Anatomical Evaluation of the Proximity of Neurovascular Structures During Arthroscopically Assisted Acromioclavicular Joint Reconstruction: A Cadaveric Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszek, Daniel; Pickell, Michael; Wilson, Evan; Ducsharm, Melissa; Hesse, Daniel; Easteal, Ron; Bardana, Davide D

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the safety of an arthroscopic technique for acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) reconstruction by investigating its proximity to important neurovascular structures. Six shoulders from 4 cadaveric specimens were used for ACJ reconstruction in this study. The procedure consists of performing an arthroscopic acromioclavicular (AC) reduction with a double button construct, followed by coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction without drilling clavicular tunnels. Shoulders were subsequently dissected in order to identify and measure distances to adjacent neurovascular structures. The suprascapular artery and nerve were the closest neurovascular structures to implanted materials. The mean distances were 8.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 3.6) mm to the suprascapular nerve and 5.6 (SD = 4.2) mm to the suprascapular artery. The mean distance of the suprascapular nerve from implants was found to be greater than 5 mm (P = .040), while the distance to the suprascapular artery was not (P > .5). Neither difference was statistically significant (P = .80 for artery; P = .08 for nerve). Mini-open, arthroscopically assisted ACJ reconstruction safely avoids the surrounding nerves, with no observed damage to any neurovascular structures including the suprascapular nerve and artery, and may be a viable alternative to open techniques. However, surgeons must remain cognizant of possible close proximity to the suprascapular artery. This study represents an evaluation of the safety and feasibility of a minimally invasive ACJ reconstruction as it relates to the proximity of neurovascular structures. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tissue-engineered collateral ligament composite allografts for scapholunate ligament reconstruction: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ryan; Woon, Colin Y L; Farnebo, Simon J; Behn, Anthony; Bronstein, Joel; Pham, Hung; Yan, Xinrui; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Chang, James

    2012-08-01

    In patients with chronic scapholunate (SL) dissociation or dynamic instability, ligament repair is often not possible, and surgical reconstruction is indicated. The ideal graft ligament would recreate both anatomical and biomechanical properties of the dorsal scapholunate ligament (dorsal SLIL). The finger proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP joint) collateral ligament could possibly be a substitute ligament. We harvested human PIP joint collateral ligaments and SL ligaments from 15 cadaveric limbs. We recorded ligament length, width, and thickness, and measured the biomechanical properties (ultimate load, stiffness, and displacement to failure) of native dorsal SLIL, untreated collateral ligaments, decellularized collateral ligaments, and SL repairs with bone-collateral ligament-bone composite collateral ligament grafts. As proof of concept, we then reseeded decellularized bone-collateral ligament-bone composite grafts with green fluorescent protein-labeled adipo-derived mesenchymal stem cells and evaluated them histologically. There was no difference in ultimate load, stiffness, and displacement to failure among native dorsal SLIL, untreated and decellularized collateral ligaments, and SL repairs with tissue-engineered collateral ligament grafts. With pair-matched untreated and decellularized scaffolds, there was no difference in ultimate load or stiffness. However, decellularized ligaments revealed lower displacement to failure compared with untreated ligaments. There was no difference in displacement between decellularized ligaments and native dorsal SLIL. We successfully decellularized grafts with recently described techniques, and they could be similarly reseeded. Proximal interphalangeal joint collateral ligament-based bone-collateral ligament-bone composite allografts had biomechanical properties similar to those of native dorsal SLIL. Decellularization did not adversely affect material properties. These tissue-engineered grafts may offer surgeons another

  8. Parental Co-Viewing and Susceptibility for Smoking and Drinking in Adolescents: An Experimental Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Blom, H.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The current pilot study is the first experiment to examine whether parents are able to diminish the adverse influences of smoking and drinking depicted in movies through co-viewing. Methods: For this study, 99 adolescents (M - 12.82 years old; SD = .95; 38.8% boys) watched

  9. Experimental investigation of the chemical looping method on a 1 MW pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to counteract the consequences of climate change, leading industrial nations have agreed on reducing their CO 2 emissions significantly. To reach these reduction goals, it is essential to reduce the CO 2 emissions in the field of energy conversion. This PHD thesis covers the field of chemical looping combustion, a technology that uses fossil fuels for energy conversion with inherent capture of CO 2 . Since the research regarding chemical looping had so far focused mainly on lab scale or small scale experiments, a 1 MW pilot plant has been erected at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt in order to investigate the process in a semi-industrial scale and to check the process efficiency with commercially usable equipment. This pilot consists of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors and has an overall height of more than 11 m. In this thesis, some experiments with ilmenite - used as the oxygen carrier - are explained. Furthermore, the design, erection and commissioning of the pilot plant are presented as well as the results of the first test campaigns. The evaluation of the latter proves that the process can be handled in the design configuration and that CO 2 can be safely captured in a pilot plant of this scale.

  10. SU-F-T-117: A Pilot Study of Organ Dose Reconstruction for Wilms Tumor Patients Treated with Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkia, R; Pelletier, C; Jung, J [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Gopalakrishnan, M [Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States); Lee, C [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mille, M; Lee, C [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); Kalapurakal, J [Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To reconstruct major organ doses for the Wilms tumor pediatric patients treated with radiation therapy using pediatric computational phantoms, treatment planning system (TPS), and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation methods. Methods: A total of ten female and male pediatric patients (15–88 months old) were selected from the National Wilms Tumor Study cohort and ten pediatric computational phantoms corresponding to the patient’s height and weight were selected for the organ dose reconstruction. Treatment plans were reconstructed on the computational phantoms in a Pinnacle TPS (v9.10) referring to treatment records and exported into DICOM-RT files, which were then used to generate the input files for XVMC MC code. The mean doses to major organs and the dose received by 50% of the heart were calculated and compared between TPS and MC calculations. The same calculations were conducted by replacing the computational human phantoms with a series of diagnostic patient CT images selected by matching the height and weight of the patients to validate the anatomical accuracy of the computational phantoms. Results: Dose to organs located within the treatment fields from the computational phantoms and the diagnostic patient CT images agreed within 2% for all cases for both TPS and MC calculations. The maximum difference of organ doses was 55.9 % (thyroid), but the absolute dose difference in this case was 0.33 Gy which was 0.96% of the prescription dose. The doses to ovaries and testes from MC in out-of-field provided more discrepancy (the maximum difference of 13.2% and 50.8%, respectively). The maximum difference of the 50% heart volume dose between the phantoms and the patient CT images was 40.0%. Conclusion: This study showed the pediatric computational phantoms are applicable to organ doses reconstruction for the radiotherapy patients whose three-dimensional radiological images are not available.

  11. Comparison of reconstructed radial pin total fission rates with experimental results in full scale BWR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giust, Flavio [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Grimm, Peter; Jatuff, Fabian [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, Rakesh [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96+ in the zero power reactor PROTEUS at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This work presents comparisons of reconstructed 2D pin fission rates in two configurations, I-1A and I-2A. Both configurations contain, in the central test zone, an array of 3x3 SVEA-96+ fuel elements moderated with light water at 20 deg. C. In configuration I-2A, an L-shaped hafnium control blade (half of a real cruciform blade) is inserted adjacent to the NW corner of the central fuel element. To minimize the impact of the surroundings, all measurements were done in fuel pins belonging to the central assembly. The 3x3 experimental configuration was modeled using the core monitoring and design tools that are applied at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). These are the 2D transport code HELIOS, used for the cross-section generation, and the 3D, 2-group nodal diffusion code PRESTO-2. The exterior is represented, in the axial and radial directions, by 2-group albedos calculated at the test zone boundary using a full-core 3D MCNPX model. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) ratios of the total fission rates have a standard deviation of 1.3% in configuration I-1A (uncontrolled) and 3.2% in configuration I-2A (controlled). Sensitivity cases are analyzed to show the impact of certain parameters on the calculated fission rate distribution and reactivity. It is shown that the relative pin fission rate is only weakly dependent on these parameters. In cases without a control blade, the pin power reconstruction methodology delivers the same level of accuracy as 2D transport calculations. On the other hand, significant deviations, that are inherent to the use of reflected geometry in the lattice calculations, are observed in cases when the control blade is inserted. (authors)

  12. Effects of experimental insoles on body posture, mandibular kinematics and masticatory muscles activity. A pilot study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Ida; Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio; Bortolotti, Francesco; Bartolucci, Maria Lavinia; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Michelotti, Ambra

    2015-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that different plantar sensory inputs could influence the whole body posture and dental occlusion but there is a lack of evidence on this possible association. To investigate the effects of experimental insoles redistributing plantar pressure on body posture, mandibular kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles on healthy subjects. A pilot study was conducted on 19 healthy volunteers that wore custom-made insoles normalizing the plantar pressure distribution for 2 weeks. Body posture parameters were measured by means of an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis; mandibular kinematics was analyzed by means of gothic arch tracings; superficial EMG activity of head and neck muscles was performed. Measurements were carried out 10 days before the insertion of the insoles, immediately before the insertion, the day after, 7 and 14 days after, in four different exteroceptive conditions. The outcomes of the present study show that insoles do not modify significantly over time the parameters of body posture, SEMG activity of head and neck muscles and mandibular kinematics. In this pilot study the experimental insoles did not significantly influence the body posture, the mandibular kinematics and the activity of masticatory muscles during a 14-day follow up period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-dimensional visualization and characterization of bone structure using reconstructed in-vitro μCT images: A pilot study for bone microarchitecture analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar, E-mail: fourier@fi.itb.ac.id [Physics of Earth and Complex Systems, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina [2Biomedical Engineering Research Division, School of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Shari, Mohd Aliff Bin Mohd [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40000 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-03-24

    Micro Computed Tomography (μCT) has been largely used to perform micrometer scale imaging of specimens, bone biopsies and small animals for the study of porous or cavity-containing objects. One of its favored applications is for assessing structural properties of bone. In this research, we perform a pilot study to visualize and characterize bone structure of a chicken bone thigh, as well as to delineate its cortical and trabecular bone regions. We utilize an In-Vitro μCT scanner Skyscan 1173 to acquire a three dimensional image data of a chicken bone thigh. The thigh was scanned using X-ray voltage of 45 kV and current of 150 μA. The reconstructed images have spatial resolution of 142.50 μm/pixel. Using image processing and analysis e.i segmentation by thresholding the gray values (which represent the pseudo density) and binarizing the images, we were able to visualize each part of the bone, i.e., the cortical and trabecular regions. Total volume of the bone is 4663.63 mm{sup 3}, and the surface area of the bone is 7913.42 mm{sup 2}. The volume of the cortical is approximately 1988.62 mm{sup 3} which is nearly 42.64% of the total bone volume. This pilot study has confirmed that the μCT is capable of quantifying 3D bone structural properties and defining its regions separately. For further development, these results can be improved for understanding the pathophysiology of bone abnormality, testing the efficacy of pharmaceutical intervention, or estimating bone biomechanical properties.

  14. IoT European Large-Scale Pilots – Integration, Experimentation and Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén, Sergio Gustavo; Sala, Pilar; Fico, Giuseppe; Arredondo, Maria Teresa; Cano, Alicia; Posada, Jorge; Gutierrez, Germán; Palau, Carlos; Votis, Konstantinos; Verdouw, Cor N.; Wolfert, Sjaak; Beers, George; Sundmaeker, Harald; Chatzikostas, Grigoris; Ziegler, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    The IoT European Large-Scale Pilots Programme includes the innovation consortia that are collaborating to foster the deployment of IoT solutions in Europe through the integration of advanced IoT technologies across the value chain, demonstration of multiple IoT applications at scale and in a usage context, and as close as possible to operational conditions. The programme projects are targeted, goal-driven initiatives that propose IoT approaches to specific real-life industrial/societal challe...

  15. Three-dimensional kinematics of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint using x-ray reconstruction of moving morphology - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Bronwen A; Pugliese, Brenna R; Carballo, Cristina T; Miranda, Daniel L; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Kirker-Head, Carl A

    2017-07-20

    X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM) uses biplanar videoradiography and computed tomography (CT) scanning to capture three-dimensional (3D) bone motion. In XROMM, morphologically accurate 3D bone models derived from CT are animated with motion from videoradiography, yielding a highly accurate and precise reconstruction of skeletal kinematics. We employ this motion analysis technique to characterize metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) motion in the absence and presence of protective legwear in a healthy pony. Our in vivo marker tracking precision was 0.09 mm for walk and trot, and 0.10 mm during jump down exercises. We report MCPJ maximum extension (walk: -27.70 ± 2.78° [standard deviation]; trot: -33.84 ± 4.94°), abduction/adduction (walk: 0.04 ± 0.24°; trot: -0.23 ± 0.35°) and external/internal rotations (walk: 0.30 ± 0.32°; trot: -0.49 ± 1.05°) indicating that the MCPJ in this pony is a stable hinge joint with negligible extra-sagittal rotations. No substantial change in MCPJ maximum extension angles or vertical ground reaction forces (GRFv) were observed upon application of legwear during jump down exercise. Neoprene boot application yielded -65.20 ± 2.06° extension (GRFv = 11.97 ± 0.67 N/kg) and fleece polo wrap application yielded -64.23 ± 1.68° extension (GRFv = 11.36 ± 1.66 N/kg), when compared to naked control (-66.11 ± 0.96°; GRFv = 12.02 ± 0.53 N/kg). Collectively, this proof of concept study illustrates the benefits and practical limitations of using XROMM to document equine MCPJ kinematics in the presence and absence of legwear.

  16. The transfer of diatoms from freshwater to footwear materials: An experimental study assessing transfer, persistence, and extraction methods for forensic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E A; Morgan, R M; Scott, K R; Jones, V J

    2017-09-01

    . However, some samples produced slides with no valves, and the earliest time after which no diatom valves were found was 4h after the transfer. Analysis of the particle size distributions over time, by image analysis, suggests that the retention of diatoms may be size-selective; after 168h, no particles larger than 200μm 2 could be found on the samples of canvas, and >95% of the particles on the samples of suede were less than or equal to 200μm 2 . A pilot investigation into the effects of immersion interval was carried out upon samples of canvas. Greater numbers of valves were extracted from the samples with longer immersion intervals, but even after 30s, >500 valves could be recovered per cm 2 , suggesting that footwear may be sampled for diatoms even if the contact with a water body may have been brief. These findings indicate that, if the variability within and between experimental runs can be addressed, there is significant potential for diatoms to be incorporated into the trace analysis of footwear and assist forensic reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental Models Used in Fat Grafting Research for Volume Augmentation in Soft Tissue Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lujan-Hernandez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As the popularity of fat grafting research increases, animal models are being used as the source of pre-clinical experimental information for discovery and to enhance techniques. To date, animal models used in this research have not been compared to provide a standardized model. We analyzed publications from 1968–2015 to compare published accounts of animal models in fat grafting research. Data collected included: species used, graft characteristics (donor tissue, recipient area, amount injected, injection technique, time of sacrifice and quantification methods. Mice were most commonly used (56% of studies, with the “athymic nude” strain utilized most frequently (44%. Autologous fat was the most common source of grafted tissue (52%. Subcutaneous dorsum was the most common recipient site (51%. On average, 0.80±0.60 mL of fat was grafted. A single bolus technique was used in 57% of studies. Fat volume assessment was typically completed at the end of the study, occurring at less than 1 week to one year. Graft volume was quantified by weight (63%, usually in conjunction with another analysis. The results demonstrate the current heterogeneity of animal models in this research. We propose that the research community reach a consensus to allow better comparison of techniques and results. One example is the model used in our laboratory and others; this model is described in detail. Eventually, larger animal models may better translate to the human condition but, given increased financial costs and animal facility capability, should be explored when data obtained from small animal studies is exhausted or inconclusive.

  18. Influence of Cultural, Organizational, and Automation Capability on Human Automation Trust: A Case Study of Auto-GCAS Experimental Test Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Kolina; Ho, Nhut; Masequesmay, Gina; Niedober, David; Skoog, Mark; Cacanindin, Artemio; Johnson, Walter; Lyons, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a case study that examined the influence of cultural, organizational and automation capability upon human trust in, and reliance on, automation. In particular, this paper focuses on the design and application of an extended case study methodology, and on the foundational lessons revealed by it. Experimental test pilots involved in the research and development of the US Air Force's newly developed Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System served as the context for this examination. An eclectic, multi-pronged approach was designed to conduct this case study, and proved effective in addressing the challenges associated with the case's politically sensitive and military environment. Key results indicate that the system design was in alignment with pilot culture and organizational mission, indicating the potential for appropriate trust development in operational pilots. These include the low-vulnerability/ high risk nature of the pilot profession, automation transparency and suspicion, system reputation, and the setup of and communications among organizations involved in the system development.

  19. Learning from static versus animated pictures of embodied knowledge : A pilot study on reconstructing a ballet choreography as concept map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürstenau, B.; Kuhtz, M.; Simon-Hatala, B.; Kneppers, L.; Cañas, A.; Reiska, P.; Novak, J.

    2016-01-01

    In a research study we investigated whether static or animated pictures better support learning of abstract pedagogical content about action-oriented learning. For that purpose, we conducted a study with two experimental groups. One group received a narration about learning theory and a supporting

  20. Numerical study and pilot evaluation of experimental data measured on specimen loaded by bending and wedge splitting forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Seitl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fracture mechanical properties of silicate based materials are determined from various fracture mechanicals tests, e.g. three- or four- point bending test, wedge splitting test, modified compact tension test etc. For evaluation of the parameters, knowledge about the calibration and compliance functions is required. Therefore, in this paper, the compliance and calibration curves for a novel test geometry based on combination of the wedge splitting test and three-point bending test are introduced. These selected variants exhibit significantly various stress state conditions at the crack tip, or, more generally, in the whole specimen ligament. The calibration and compliance curves are compared and used for evaluation of the data from pilot experimental measurement.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION FOR THE TRAINING METHOD AND MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE PILOT SKILL FORMATION IN MAINTENANCE OF ATTITUDE ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim BARABANOV

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the drawbacks in artificial horizon indicator (HI of inside-in type (a view from an aircraft (A/C, where pilots produce mistakes in maintenance of attitude orientation most of all, the authors offer a novel training method. The method is based on the hypothesis that the manipulative ability of a human visual system can be trained. A mathematical model for the data accumulation during the corresponding training procedure has been proposed. Construction, design and results of the model evaluation are presented in the article. The experimental results revealed the increase of the probability of faultless operation by the test group of up to 0,892, whereas the faultless operation probability of a control group was 0,726. Thus, the trainee-students have statistically increased the reliability for the maintenance of attitude orientation thanks to the proposed method, and the hypothesis was confirmed.

  2. Experimental results and first {sup 22}Na source image reconstruction by two prototype modules in coincidence of a liquid xenon positron emission tomograph for small animal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallin-Martel, M.-L., E-mail: mlgallin@lpsc.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 avenue des Martyrs 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Grondin, Y. [Laboratoire TIMC/IMAG, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, Pavillon Taillefer 38706 La Tronche Cedex (France); Gac, N. [Laboratoire L2S, UMR 8506 CNRS - SUPELEC - Univ Paris-Sud, Gif sur Yvette F-91192 (France); Carcagno, Y.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Grondin, D.; Marton, M.; Muraz, J.-F; Rossetto, O.; Vezzu, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 avenue des Martyrs 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2012-08-01

    A detector with a very specific design using liquid Xenon (LXe) in the scintillation mode is studied for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of small animals. Two prototype modules equipped with Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tubes (PSPMTs) operating in the VUV range (178 nm) and at 165 K were built and studied in coincidence. This paper reports on energy, time and spatial resolution capabilities of this experimental test bench. Furthermore, these experimental results were used to perform the first image reconstruction of a {sup 22}Na source placed in the experimental setup.

  3. Experimental results and first 22Na source image reconstruction by two prototype modules in coincidence of a liquid xenon positron emission tomograph for small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallin-Martel, M.-L.; Grondin, Y.; Gac, N.; Carcagno, Y.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Grondin, D.; Marton, M.; Muraz, J.-F; Rossetto, O.; Vezzu, F.

    2012-01-01

    A detector with a very specific design using liquid Xenon (LXe) in the scintillation mode is studied for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of small animals. Two prototype modules equipped with Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tubes (PSPMTs) operating in the VUV range (178 nm) and at 165 K were built and studied in coincidence. This paper reports on energy, time and spatial resolution capabilities of this experimental test bench. Furthermore, these experimental results were used to perform the first image reconstruction of a 22 Na source placed in the experimental setup.

  4. A Pilot Study on the Use of Mobile Augmented Reality for Interactive Experimentation in Quadratic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Iván Barraza Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that the inclusion of new technological elements such as augmented reality (AR, for educational purposes, increases the learning interest and motivation of students. However, developing AR applications, especially with mobile content, is still a rather technical subject; thus the dissemination of the technology in the classroom has been rather limited. This paper presents a new software architecture for AR application development based on freely available components; it provides a detailed view of the subsystems and tasks that encompass the creation of a mobile AR application. The typical task of plotting a quadratic equation was selected as a case study to obtain feasibility insights on how AR could support the teaching-learning process and to observe the student’s reaction to the technology and the particular application. The pilot study was conducted with 59 students at a Mexican undergraduate school. A questionnaire was created in order to obtain information about the students’ experience using the AR application and the analysis of the results obtained is presented. The comments expressed by the users after the AR experience are positive, supporting the premise that AR can be, in the future, a valuable complimentary teaching tool for topics that benefit from contextual learning experience and multipoint visualization, such as the quadratic equation.

  5. Increasing Physical Activity Efficiently: An Experimental Pilot Study of a Website and Mobile Phone Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjærsti Thorsteinsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n=21 recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35–73 were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool.

  6. Increasing physical activity efficiently: an experimental pilot study of a website and mobile phone intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsen, Kjærsti; Vittersø, Joar; Svendsen, Gunnvald Bendix

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n = 21) recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35-73) were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool.

  7. Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in clinical CT systems. Part II. Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong, E-mail: gchen7@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Statistical model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) methods have been introduced to clinical CT systems and are being used in some clinical diagnostic applications. The purpose of this paper is to experimentally assess the unique spatial resolution characteristics of this nonlinear reconstruction method and identify its potential impact on the detectabilities and the associated radiation dose levels for specific imaging tasks. Methods: The thoracic section of a pediatric phantom was repeatedly scanned 50 or 100 times using a 64-slice clinical CT scanner at four different dose levels [CTDI{sub vol} =4, 8, 12, 16 (mGy)]. Both filtered backprojection (FBP) and MBIR (Veo{sup ®}, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) were used for image reconstruction and results were compared with one another. Eight test objects in the phantom with contrast levels ranging from 13 to 1710 HU were used to assess spatial resolution. The axial spatial resolution was quantified with the point spread function (PSF), while the z resolution was quantified with the slice sensitivity profile. Both were measured locally on the test objects and in the image domain. The dependence of spatial resolution on contrast and dose levels was studied. The study also features a systematic investigation of the potential trade-off between spatial resolution and locally defined noise and their joint impact on the overall image quality, which was quantified by the image domain-based channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) detectability index d′. Results: (1) The axial spatial resolution of MBIR depends on both radiation dose level and image contrast level, whereas it is supposedly independent of these two factors in FBP. The axial spatial resolution of MBIR always improved with an increasing radiation dose level and/or contrast level. (2) The axial spatial resolution of MBIR became equivalent to that of FBP at some transitional contrast level, above which MBIR demonstrated superior spatial resolution than

  8. Pilot experimental study on continual spectrum thermal neutron in-line phase contrast radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bin; Huo Heyong; Wu Yang

    2009-01-01

    The in-line phase contrast radiography is one of phase contrast imaging methods. The neutron in-line phase contrast is developed with X-rays phase contrast radiography. In the paper, the principle of in-line phase contrast is introduced briefly and the experimental result of thermal neutron in-line contrast at SPRR-300 is analysed. It shows that thermal neutron can be used as in-line phase contrast radiography and enhances the edge of some sample in radiography and complements the disadvantage of conventional neutron radiography. (authors)

  9. The quality of reconstructed 3D images in multidetector-row helical CT: experimental study involving scan parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul; Lim, Tae Hwan; Kang, Weechang

    2002-01-01

    To determine which multidetector-row helical CT scanning technique provides the best-quality reconstructed 3D images, and to assess differences in image quality according to the levels of the scanning parameters used. Four objects with different surfaces and contours were scanned using multidetector-row helical CT at three detector-row collimations (1.25, 2.50, 5.00 mm), two pitches (3.0, 6.0), and three different degrees of overlap between the reconstructed slices (0%, 25%, 50%). Reconstructed 3D images of the resulting 72 sets of data were produced using volumetric rendering. The 72 images were graded on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best) for each of four rating criteria, giving a mean score for each criterion and an overall mean score. Statistical analysis was used to assess differences in image quality according to scanning parameter levels. The mean score for each rating criterion, and the overall mean score, varied significantly according to the scanning parameter levels used. With regard to detector-row collimation and pitch, all levels of scanning parameters gave rise to significant differences, while in the degree of overlap of reconstructed slices, there were significant differences between overlap of 0% and of 50% in all levels of scanning parameters, and between overlap of 25% and of 50% in overall accuracy and overall mean score. Among the 18 scanning sequences, the highest score (4.94) was achieved with 1.25 mm detector-row collimation, 3.0 pitch, and 50% overlap between reconstructed slices. Comparison of the quality of reconstructed 3D images obtained using multidetector-row helical CT and various scanning techniques indicated that the 1.25 mm, 3.0, 50% scanning sequence was best. Quality improved as detector-row collimation decreased; as pitch was reduced from 6.0 to 3.0; and as overlap between reconstructed slices increased

  10. Pyrolysis process application on scrap tyres. Experimental results on pilot scale; Applicazione del processo di pirolisi al trattamento del granulato di pneumatico. Sperimentazione su impianto pilota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvagno, S.; Casu, S.; Casabianca, T.; Calabrese, A.; Cornacchia, G. [ENEA, Dipartimento Ambiente, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, MT (Italy)

    2001-04-01

    The world production of waste tyres amounts to 5 {center_dot} 10{sup 6} ton/year, 2 {center_dot} 10{sup 6} tons of which are produced in Europe; the Italian production of waste tyres is up to 360 thousand tons per year. Even today, the final destination of nearly 65-70% of waste tyres is the landfill, legal or illegal; but this solution seems to be not so advantageous, as far as the high added value materials lost and the environmental impact are concerned. Treatments alternative to land filling take into account the tyres reconstruction and reuse or the matter and/or energy recovery by means of thermal treatment processes. With respect to the latter processes, the pyrolysis process definitely shows the less environmental impact and gets to process products (gases, oils and solid residue) able to be back on the market after the suitable treatment. Present work shows the results of the pyrolysis process experimental survey on tyres granulate, developed on the pilot plant of ENEA-Trisaia Research Centre. [Italian] La produzione mondiale di pneumatici usati conta annualmente piu' di 5 milioni di tonnellate di cui 2 milioni generati in Europa: in Italia, sono generate circa 360 mila tonnellate l'anno di pneumatici usati. Il destino finale del 65-70% dei pneumatici usati e' ancora oggi lo smaltimento in discarica, sia essa autorizzata o abusiva; questa soluzione risulta poco vantaggiosa per la perdita di materiali che in precedenza possedevano un alto valore aggiunto e in termini d'impatto ambientale. Trattamenti alternativi alla discarica, prevedono la ricostruzione e il riutilizzo oppure il recupero di materia e/o di energia mediante processi di trattamento termico. Tra questi ultimi il processo di pirolisi presenta senz'altro il minor impatto ambientale e conduce a prodotti di processo (gas, olii e residuo solido) che, opportunamente trattati, possono essere immessi sul mercato. Questo lavoro presenta i risultati della sperimentazione del

  11. Experimental and theoretical investigation on unburned coal char burnout in a pilot-scale rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico Cangialosi; Francesco Di Canio; Gianluca Intini; Michele Notarnicola; Lorenzo Liberti; Giulio Belz; Pompilio Caramuscio [Technical University of Bari, Taranto (Italy). Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Development

    2006-11-15

    Oxidation reactivity studies are imperative for improving carbon re-burn technologies and valuing the heat content of unburned carbon within coal combustion ashes. Non-isothermal, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to examine the oxidation kinetics of unburned carbon in coal combustion fly ashes having different particle size distributions; TGA results were related to combustion efficiencies as measured in a bench-scale rotary kiln. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor were determined for the chemically-controlled reaction regime; the transition temperatures between chemically-controlled and partially diffusion-controlled combustion regimes were obtained for unburned carbon particles of different sizes. After the oxidation reaction rates were evaluated, the residence time distribution (RTD) of fly ashes in the rotary kiln were experimentally measured and the mean residence times related to process parameters, including the rotating velocity and kiln inclination. By comparing these results with an advective-dispersive model, the axial dispersion coefficient of fly ashes was determined. The reaction rates obtained by thermal analyses and the RTDs were used to predict combustion efficiencies within the kiln and oxidation conditions of unburned carbon using various processing options. 21 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Prophylactic Dextrose Gel Does Not Prevent Neonatal Hypoglycemia: A Quasi-Experimental Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Sarah M; Cousin, Joshua J; Hagan, Joseph L; Kaiser, Jeffrey R

    2018-03-28

    To test the hypothesis that prophylactic dextrose gel administered to newborn infants at risk for hypoglycemia will increase the initial blood glucose concentration after the first feeding and decrease neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions for treatment of asymptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia compared with feedings alone. This quasi-experimental study allocated asymptomatic at-risk newborn infants (late preterm, birth weight 4000 g, and infants of mothers with diabetes) to receive prophylactic dextrose gel (Insta-Glucose; Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC, Bridgewater, New Jersey); other at-risk infants formed the control group. After the initial feeding, the prophylactic group received dextrose gel (0.5 mL/kg) rubbed into the buccal mucosa. The blood glucose concentration was checked 30 minutes later. Initial glucose concentrations and rate of NICU admissions were compared between the prophylactic group and controls using bivariate analyses. A multivariable linear regression compared first glucose concentrations between groups, adjusting for at-risk categories and age at first glucose concentration. There were 236 subjects (72 prophylactic, 164 controls). The first glucose concentration was not different between the prophylactic and control groups in bivariate analysis (52.1 ± 17.1 vs 50.5 ± 15.3 mg/dL, P = .69) and after adjusting for covariates (P  = .18). Rates of NICU admission for treatment of transient neonatal hypoglycemia were 9.7% and 14.6%, respectively (P = .40). Prophylactic dextrose gel did not reduce transient neonatal hypoglycemia or NICU admissions for hypoglycemia. The carbohydrate concentration of Insta-Glucose (77%) may have caused a hyperinsulinemic response, or alternatively, exogenous enteral dextrose influences glucose homeostasis minimally during the first few hours when counter-regulatory mechanisms are especially active. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02523222. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  13. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of benign cystic lesion: an experimental pilot study in a porcine gallbladder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho Taek; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Choi, Jung Bin; Oh, Jae Cheon; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Seo, Heung Suk; Joo, Kyung Bin

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether radiofrequency thermal ablation can be used to treat benign cystic lesions in a porcine gallbladder model. This experimental study of radiofrequency thermal ablation involved the use of 15 exvivo porcine gallbladders and 15-G expandable needle electrodes. To investigate optimal temperature parameters, three groups of five were designated according to target temperature:Group A: 70 deg C; Group B: 80 deg C; Group C: 90 deg C. After the target temperature was reached, ablation lasted for one minute. Gallbladder width, height and length were measured before and after ablation , and the estimated volume reduction ratios of the three groups were compared. Whether adjacent liver parenchyma around the gallbladder fossa was ablated by heat conducted from hot bile was also determined, and the thickness of the ablated area of the liver was measured. The volume reduction ratio in Group A, B and C was 42.7%, 41.7% and 42.9%, respectively (ρ>.05). In all 15 cases, gallbladder walls lost their transparency and elasticity at about 70 deg C. In nine of ten cases in Groups B and C, the hepatic capsule around the gallbladder fossa was retracted at about 80 deg C. The mean thickness of liver parenchymal damage adjacent to the gallbladder was 5.4 mm in Group B and 9.8 mm in Group C. In Group A livers, only one case showed minimal gradual parenchymal change. Microscopically, all three groups showed complete coagulation necrosis of the wall. On the basis of this feasibility study, radiofrequency thermal ablation is potentially suitable for the ultrasound-guided treatment of symptomatic cystic lesions including benign hepatic or renal cyst

  14. Noise and signal properties in PSF-based fully 3D PET image reconstruction: an experimental evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, S; Alessio, A M; Kinahan, P E

    2010-01-01

    The addition of accurate system modeling in PET image reconstruction results in images with distinct noise texture and characteristics. In particular, the incorporation of point spread functions (PSF) into the system model has been shown to visually reduce image noise, but the noise properties have not been thoroughly studied. This work offers a systematic evaluation of noise and signal properties in different combinations of reconstruction methods and parameters. We evaluate two fully 3D PET reconstruction algorithms: (1) OSEM with exact scanner line of response modeled (OSEM+LOR), (2) OSEM with line of response and a measured point spread function incorporated (OSEM+LOR+PSF), in combination with the effects of four post-reconstruction filtering parameters and 1-10 iterations, representing a range of clinically acceptable settings. We used a modified NEMA image quality (IQ) phantom, which was filled with 68 Ge and consisted of six hot spheres of different sizes with a target/background ratio of 4:1. The phantom was scanned 50 times in 3D mode on a clinical system to provide independent noise realizations. Data were reconstructed with OSEM+LOR and OSEM+LOR+PSF using different reconstruction parameters, and our implementations of the algorithms match the vendor's product algorithms. With access to multiple realizations, background noise characteristics were quantified with four metrics. Image roughness and the standard deviation image measured the pixel-to-pixel variation; background variability and ensemble noise quantified the region-to-region variation. Image roughness is the image noise perceived when viewing an individual image. At matched iterations, the addition of PSF leads to images with less noise defined as image roughness (reduced by 35% for unfiltered data) and as the standard deviation image, while it has no effect on background variability or ensemble noise. In terms of signal to noise performance, PSF-based reconstruction has a 7% improvement in

  15. Polynomial reconstruction of radial catalyst concentration distribution in an experimental type FCC riser for a low number of transversal projections in gamma ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Silvio B.; Simoes, Francisco P.M.; Oliveira, Eric F. de; Santos, Maria das Gracas dos; Dantas, Carlos C.

    2007-01-01

    In the FCC - Fluid Catalytic Cracking process the Riser is an opaque cylinder, so that, in order to investigate the catalyst concentration inside, a gamma- ray based tomography is employed. Each section is submitted to a parallel beam and by means of the Beer-Lambert transmission is calculated. This tomography session is repeated from different angles, in manual tomographic experiments where the source/detector pair is rotated, producing in each direction what we called a transversal projection. In order to reconstruct the concentration of the present catalyst in a given moment some methods use successfully the inverse Radon transform through the filtered back-projection algorithm. The results are fully satisfactory for a large number of projections, widely seen as better than those produced by the algebraic methods. For a low number of projections, however, the algebraic methods become more competitive. In practice, simple experimental set-ups work with less than 10 projections, due to the time taken by the whole process. In this work, we present an investigation of polynomial reconstructions by using Bezier surfaces of arbitrary degree, adjusted to the experimental data through a least squares method. A computational algorithm was developed to implement the mathematical reconstruction for the 3D graphics presentation. (author)

  16. The robustness of two tomography reconstructing techniques with heavily noisy dynamical experimental data from a high speed gamma-ray tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Geovane Vitor; Melo, Silvio de Barros; Dantas, Carlos Costa; Moreira, Icaro Malta; Johansen, Geira; Maad, Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The PSIRT (Particle Systems Iterative Reconstructive Technique) is, just like the ART method, an iterative tomographic reconstruction technique with the recommended use in the reconstruction of catalytic density distribution in the refining process of oil in the FCC-type riser. The PSIRT is based upon computer graphics' particle systems, where the reconstructing material is initially represented as composed of particles subject to a force field emanating from the beams, whose intensities are parameterized by the differences between the experimental readings of a given beam trajectory, and the values corresponding to the current amount of particles landed in this trajectory. A dynamical process is set as the beams fields of attracting forces dispute the particles. At the end, with the equilibrium established, the particles are replaced by the corresponding regions of pixels. The High Speed Gamma-ray Tomograph is a 5-source-fan-beam device with a 17-detector deck per source, capable of producing up to a thousand complete sinograms per second. Around 70.000 experimental sinograms from this tomograph were produced simulating the move of gas bubbles in different angular speeds immersed in oil within the vessel, through the use of a two-hole-polypropylene phantom. The sinogram frames were set with several different detector integration times. This article studies and compares the robustness of both ART and PSIRT methods in this heavily noisy scenario, where this noise comes not only from limitations in the dynamical sampling, but also from to the underlying apparatus that produces the counting in the tomograph. These experiments suggest that PSIRT is a more robust method than ART for noisy data. Visual inspection on the resulting images suggests that PSIRT is a more robust method than ART for noisy data, since it almost never presents globally scattered noise. (author)

  17. Modification of UO2 grain re-crystallization temperature in function of burn-up as a base for Vitanza experimental curve reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuta, M.; Dąbrowski, L.

    2013-01-01

    Crossing the experimental critical fuel temperature dependent on burn-up, an onset of fission gas burst release is observed. This observed phenomena can be explained by assumption that the fission gas immobilization in the uranium dioxide irradiated to a fluency of greater than 10 19 fissions/cm 3 is mainly due to radiation induced chemical activity. Application of the “ab initio” method show that the bond energy of Xenon and Krypton is equal to –1.23 eV, and –3.42 eV respectively. Assuming further that the gas chemically bound can be released mainly in the process of re-crystallization and modifying the differential equation of Ainscough of grain growth by including the burn-up dependence and the experimental data of limiting grain size in function of the fuel temperature for the un-irradiated and irradiated fuel we can re-construct the experimental curve of Vitanza. (authors)

  18. Effectiveness of a universal school-based programme for preventing depression in Chinese adolescents: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W C; Fu, King-Wa; Chan, Kim Y K; Chan, Wincy S C; Liu, Patricia M Y; Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-12-15

    Evidence of the effectiveness, rather than efficacy, of universal school-based programmes for preventing depression among adolescents is limited. This study examined the effectiveness of a universal depression prevention programme, "The Little Prince is Depressed" (LPD), which adopted the cognitive-behavioural model and aimed to reduce depressive symptoms and enhance protective factors of depression among secondary school students in Hong Kong. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for this pilot study. Thirteen classes were assigned to the intervention or control conditions according to the deliberation of the programme administrator of the four participating schools. Implementation was carried out in two phases, with a professional-led first phase and teacher-led programme second phase. LPD consisted of a 12-week school-based face-to-face programme with psycho-educational lessons and homework assignments. Students completed the programme generally showed positive development in help-seeking attitudes and self-esteem. For students who had more depressive symptoms at pre-assessment, the programme was found to be significant in enhancing cognitive-restructuring skills and support-seeking behaviours. The programme was not, however, found to be statistically significant in reducing depressive symptoms of the participants over the study period. A small sample size, a high attrition rate, and a short follow-up time frame. The LPD programme was successful in building resilience of the students in general and enhancing the cognitive-behavioural skills of students with depressive symptoms. While we did not find sufficient evidence for concluding that the LPD was effective in reducing depressive symptoms, we believe that these results highlight the challenges of implementing evidence-based practices generated from highly controlled environments in real-life settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Design of a Polymeric Solution to Improve the Mobility Ratio in a Reservoir previous implementation of a pilot project of EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cuenca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes experimental formulations of polymeric solutions through lab evaluations with the objective of finding optimum solution concentration to fluid mobility in reservoirs as previous step before implementing a pilot project of enhanced oil recovery. The polymers, firstly, were selected based on the properties from fluids from reservoir. Two types of polymers were used TCC-330 and EOR909 and the experimental tests were: thermal stability, compatibility, adsorption, salinity, and displacement. The design with the best results was with polymer TCC-330 at 1,500 ppm concentration.

  20. 3D computed tomography using a microfocus X-ray source: Analysis of artifact formation in the reconstructed images using simulated as well as experimental projection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimmel, S.; Stephan, J.; Baumann, J.

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this contribution is to identify and to quantify the influence of different parameters on the formation of image artifacts in X-ray computed tomography (CT) resulting for example, from beam hardening or from partial lack of information using 3D cone beam CT. In general, the reconstructed image quality depends on a number of acquisition parameters concerning the X-ray source (e.g. X-ray spectrum), the geometrical setup (e.g. cone beam angle), the sample properties (e.g. absorption characteristics) and the detector properties. While it is difficult to distinguish the influence of different effects clearly in experimental projection data, they can be selected individually with the help of simulated projection data by varying the parameter set. The reconstruction of the 3D data set is performed with the filtered back projection algorithm according to Feldkamp, Davis and Kress for experimental as well as for simulated projection data. The experimental data are recorded with an industrial microfocus CT system which features a focal spot size of a few micrometers and uses a digital flat panel detector for data acquisition

  1. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Shared Information on Pilot/Controller Re-Route Negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John

    1999-01-01

    Air-ground data link systems are being developed to enable pilots and air traffic controllers to share information more fully. The sharing of information is generally expected to enhance their shared situation awareness and foster more collaborative decision making. An exploratory, part-task simulator experiment is described which evaluates the extent to which shared information may lead pilots and controllers to cooperate or compete when negotiating route amendments. The results indicate an improvement in situation awareness for pilots and controllers and a willingness to work cooperatively. Independent of data link considerations, the experiment also demonstrates the value of providing controllers with a good-quality weather representation on their plan view displays. Observed improvements in situation awareness and separation assurance are discussed. It is argued that deployment of this relatively simple, low-risk addition to the plan view displays be accelerated.

  2. Effects of environmental noise on cognitive (dys)functions in schizophrenia: A pilot within-subjects experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Bernice; Peters, Emmanuelle; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, particularly in attention, memory and executive function domains, is commonly present and associated with poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia. In healthy adults, environmental noise adversely affects many cognitive domains, including those known to be compromised in schizophrenia. This pilot study examined whether environmental noise causes further cognitive deterioration in a small sample of people with schizophrenia. Eighteen outpatients with schizophrenia on sta...

  3. Pilot study of breast sensation after breast reconstruction: evaluating the effects of radiation therapy and perforator flap neurotization on sensory recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarakis, Michael; Venkat, Raghunandan; Dellon, A Lee; Shridharani, Sachin M; Bellamy, Justin; Vaca, Elbert E; Jeter, Stacie C; Zoras, Odysseas; Manahan, Michele A; Rosson, Gedge D

    2013-09-01

    Some sensation to the breast returns after breast reconstruction, but recovery is variable and unpredictable. We primarily sought to assess the impact of different types of breast reconstruction [deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps versus implants] and radiation therapy on the return of sensation. Thirty-seven patients who had unilateral or bilateral breast reconstruction via a DIEP flap or implant-based reconstruction, with or without radiation therapy (minimum follow-up, 18 months; range, 18-61 months) were studied. Of the 74 breasts, 27 had DIEP flaps, 29 had implants, and 18 were nonreconstructed. Eleven breasts with implants and 10 with DIEP flaps had had prereconstruction radiation therapy. The primary outcome was mean patient-perceived static and moving cutaneous pressure threshold in nine areas. We used univariate and multivariate analyses to assess what independent factors affected the return of sensation (significance, P sensation (P = 0.041) than did DIEP flaps. However, among irradiated breasts, skin over DIEP flaps had significantly better sensation than did that over implants (static, P = 0.019; moving, P = 0.028). Implant reconstructions with irradiated skin had significantly worse static (P = 0.002) and moving sensation (P = 0.014) than did nonirradiated implant reconstructions. Without irradiation, skin overlying implants is associated with better sensation recovery than DIEP flap skin. However, with irradiation, DIEP flap skin had better sensation recovery than did skin over implants. Neurotization trended toward improvement in sensation in DIEP flaps. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Simulation and experimental studies of three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction from insufficient sampling data based on compressed-sensing theory for potential applications to dental cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Je, U.K.; Lee, M.S.; Cho, H.S.; Hong, D.K.; Park, Y.O.; Park, C.K.; Cho, H.M.; Choi, S.I.; Woo, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    In practical applications of three-dimensional (3D) tomographic imaging, there are often challenges for image reconstruction from insufficient sampling data. In computed tomography (CT), for example, image reconstruction from sparse views and/or limited-angle (<360°) views would enable fast scanning with reduced imaging doses to the patient. In this study, we investigated and implemented a reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed-sensing (CS) theory, which exploits the sparseness of the gradient image with substantially high accuracy, for potential applications to low-dose, high-accurate dental cone-beam CT (CBCT). We performed systematic simulation works to investigate the image characteristics and also performed experimental works by applying the algorithm to a commercially-available dental CBCT system to demonstrate its effectiveness for image reconstruction in insufficient sampling problems. We successfully reconstructed CBCT images of superior accuracy from insufficient sampling data and evaluated the reconstruction quality quantitatively. Both simulation and experimental demonstrations of the CS-based reconstruction from insufficient data indicate that the CS-based algorithm can be applied directly to current dental CBCT systems for reducing the imaging doses and further improving the image quality

  5. Dung matters : An experimental study into the effectiveness of using dung from hay-fed livestock to reconstruct local vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Mans; Van Haaster, Henk

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between standing vegetation and dung from hay-fed cattle and sheep. In an experimental study, hay is retrieved from a known hay field, surrounded by a semi-open landscape of hedgerows, forests and heather fields. The hay is fed to cattle and sheep, after which

  6. Effect of fatigue on landing performance assessed with the landing error scoring system (less) in patients after ACL reconstruction. A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gokeler, A; Eppinga, P; Dijkstra, P U; Welling, Wouter; Padua, D A; Otten, E.; Benjaminse, A

    BACKGROUND: Fatigue has been shown to affect performance of hop tests in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) compared to uninjured controls (CTRL). This may render the hop test less sensitive in detecting landing errors. The primary purpose of this study was to

  7. Experimental investigations of the effect of pilot injection on performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of Karanja biodiesel fuelled CRDI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Atul; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of multiple injections on CRDI engine performance, emission and combustion. • Effect of multiple injections, injection pressures and injection timings on biodiesel. • Lower biodiesel blends showed lower BSCO, BSHC but higher BSNOx emissions. • Maximum cylinder pressure at higher FIP was higher at same SOPI and SOMI. • Combustion duration of KOME50 was higher than mineral diesel. - Abstract: Pilot and post injections are being used in modern diesel engines for improving engine performance in addition to meeting stringent emission norms. Biodiesel produced from different feedstocks is gaining global recognition as partial replacement for mineral diesel in compression ignition (CI) engines. In this study, 10%, 20% and 50% Karanja biodiesel blends were used for investigation of pilot injections, injection pressures and injection timings on biodiesel blends. Experiments were carried out in a single cylinder CRDI research engine in multiple injection mode at 500 and 1000 bar fuel injection pressure (FIP) under varying start of pilot injection (SOPI) and start of main injection (SOMI) timings. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased with increasing Karanja biodiesel concentration in test fuels however brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of biodiesel blends was slightly higher than mineral diesel. Lower biodiesel blends showed lower brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO) and brake specific hydrocarbon (BSHC) emissions than mineral diesel. Brake specific nitrogen oxides (BSNOx) emissions from KOME20 and KOME10 were higher than mineral diesel. Combustion duration of KOME50 was also higher than mineral diesel

  8. Impact of Surgihoney Reactive Oxygen on surgical site infection (SSI after complex abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR of grade 3 and 4 ventral Hernias: A single arm pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Parker

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This study will provide an assessment of methods and feasibility of recruiting and following up patients who are treated with SHRO. On the basis of this pilot trial, a full trial may be proposed in the future which will provide additional, robust evidence on the clinical and cost effectiveness of SHRO in wound management following AWR. This may act as a model for the management of wounds in complex patients undergoing AWR.

  9. Rat optic nerve head anatomy within three- dimensional histomorphometric reconstructions of normal and early experimental glaucoma eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Pazos López, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Objetciu: Reconstruir en 3D caps del nervi òptic (CNOs) de rata camb glaucoma experimental (GExp) precoç unilateral, per proporcionar la primera descripció histomorfomètrica del CNO de controls normales i amb GExp primerenc en aquesta espècie. Métodos: Es va injectar sèrum salí hipertònic unilateralment en les venes epiesclerals de 8 rates noruegues que van ser sacrificades 4 setmantes després (fixació-perfusió). Cinc observadors enmascarats graduaren el dany de seccions del nervi òptic (NO) ...

  10. Experimental validation of radial reconstructed pin-power distributions in full-scale BWR fuel assemblies with and without control blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giust, Flavio, E-mail: flavio.giust@axpo.c [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Axpo Kernenergie AG, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Grimm, Peter [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, Rakesh [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full-size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96+ in the zero power reactor PROTEUS at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This paper presents comparisons of reconstructed 2D pin fission rates from nodal diffusion calculations to the experimental results in two configurations: one 'regular' (I-1A) and the other 'controlled' (I-2A). Both configurations consist of an array of 3 x 3 SVEA-96+ fuel assemblies moderated with light water at 20 {sup o}C. In configuration I-2A, an L-shaped hafnium control blade (half of a real cruciform blade) is inserted adjacent to the north-west corner of the central fuel assembly. To minimise the impact of the surroundings, all measurements were done in fuel pins belonging to the central assembly. The 3 x 3 experimental configuration (test zone) was modelled using the core monitoring and design tools that are applied at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). These are the 2D transport code HELIOS, used for the cross-section generation, and the 3D, 2-group nodal diffusion code PRESTO-2. The exterior is represented, in the axial and radial directions, by 2-group partial current ratios (PCRs) calculated at the test zone boundary using a 3D Monte Carlo (MCNPX) model of the whole PROTEUS reactor. Sensitivity cases are analysed to show the impact of changes in the 2D lattice modelling on the calculated fission rate distribution and reactivity. Further, the effects of variations in the test zone boundary PCRs and their behaviour in energy are investigated. For the test zone configuration without control blade, the pin-power reconstruction methodology delivers the same level of accuracy as the 2D transport calculations. On the other hand, larger deviations that are inherent to the use of reflected geometry in the lattice calculations are observed for the configuration with the control blade inserted. In the basic (reference) simulation cases, the calculated-to-experimental (C

  11. Effect of Alternate Nostril Breathing Exercise on Experimentally Induced Anxiety in Healthy Volunteers Using the Simulated Public Speaking Model: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Ashwin; Urval, Rathnakar P; Shenoy, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    A randomized controlled pilot study was carried out to determine the effect of a 15-minute practice of ANB exercise on experimentally induced anxiety using the simulated public speaking model in yoga-naïve healthy young adults. Thirty consenting medical students were equally divided into test and control groups. The test group performed alternate nostril breathing exercise for 15 minutes, while the control group sat in a quiet room before participating in the simulated public speaking test (SPST). Visual Analog Mood Scale and Self-Statements during Public Speaking scale were used to measure the mood state at different phases of the SPST. The psychometric scores of both groups were comparable at baseline. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant effect of phase ( p < 0.05), but group and gender did not have statistically significant influence on the mean anxiety scores. However, the test group showed a trend towards lower mean scores for the anxiety factor when compared with the control group. Considering the limitations of this pilot study and the trend seen towards lower anxiety in the test group, alternate nostril breathing may have potential anxiolytic effect in acute stressful situations. A study with larger sample size is therefore warranted. This trial is registered with CTRI/2014/03/004460.

  12. Guiding commercial pilot farms to bridge the gap between experimental and commercial farms; the project 'Cows & Opportunities'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, J.; Koskamp, G.J.; Galama, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the Netherlands there is a remarkable difference in environmental performance between the average commercial dairy farm and some experimental dairy farms. Despite 15 years of policies and measures to decrease nutrient losses, experimental dairy farms based on careful nutrient management, like 'De

  13. Experimental validation of 3D reconstructed pin-power distributions in full-scale BWR fuel assemblies with partial length rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giust, F. D. [Axpo Kernenergie, Parkstrasse 23, CH-5401 Baden (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Grimm, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full-size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96 Optima2 in the framework of Phase III of the LWR-PROTEUS experimental program at the Paul Scherrer Inst.. This paper presents comparisons of calculated, nodal reconstructed, pin-wise total-fission rate distributions with experimental results. Radial comparisons have been performed for the three sections of the assembly (96, 92 and 84 fuel pins), while three-dimensional effects have been investigated at pellet-level for the two transition regions, i.e. the tips of the short (1/3) and long (2/3) partial length rods. The test zone has been modeled using two different code systems: HELIOS/PRESTO-2 and CASMO-5/SIMULATE-5. The first is presently used for core monitoring and design at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). The second represents the most recent generation of the widely applied CASMO/SIMULATE system. For representing the PROTEUS test-zone boundaries, Partial Current Ratios (PCRs) - derived from a 3D MCNPX model of the entire reactor - have been applied to the PRESTO-2 and SIMULATE-5 models in the form of 2- and 5-group diagonal albedo matrices, respectively. The MCNPX results have also served as a reference, high-order transport solution in the calculation/experiment comparisons. It is shown that the performance of the nodal methodologies in predicting the global distribution of the total-fission rate is very satisfactory. Considering the various radial comparisons, the standard deviations of the calculated/experimental (C/E) distributions do not exceed 1.9% for any of the three methodologies - PRESTO-2, SIMULATE-5 and MCNPX. For the three-dimensional comparisons at pellet-level, the corresponding standard deviations are 2.7%, 2.0% and 2.1%, respectively. (authors)

  14. Impact of deep learning on the normalization of reconstruction kernel effects in imaging biomarker quantification: a pilot study in CT emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hyeongmin; Heo, Changyong; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2018-02-01

    Differing reconstruction kernels are known to strongly affect the variability of imaging biomarkers and thus remain as a barrier in translating the computer aided quantification techniques into clinical practice. This study presents a deep learning application to CT kernel conversion which converts a CT image of sharp kernel to that of standard kernel and evaluates its impact on variability reduction of a pulmonary imaging biomarker, the emphysema index (EI). Forty cases of low-dose chest CT exams obtained with 120kVp, 40mAs, 1mm thickness, of 2 reconstruction kernels (B30f, B50f) were selected from the low dose lung cancer screening database of our institution. A Fully convolutional network was implemented with Keras deep learning library. The model consisted of symmetric layers to capture the context and fine structure characteristics of CT images from the standard and sharp reconstruction kernels. Pairs of the full-resolution CT data set were fed to input and output nodes to train the convolutional network to learn the appropriate filter kernels for converting the CT images of sharp kernel to standard kernel with a criterion of measuring the mean squared error between the input and target images. EIs (RA950 and Perc15) were measured with a software package (ImagePrism Pulmo, Seoul, South Korea) and compared for the data sets of B50f, B30f, and the converted B50f. The effect of kernel conversion was evaluated with the mean and standard deviation of pair-wise differences in EI. The population mean of RA950 was 27.65 +/- 7.28% for B50f data set, 10.82 +/- 6.71% for the B30f data set, and 8.87 +/- 6.20% for the converted B50f data set. The mean of pair-wise absolute differences in RA950 between B30f and B50f is reduced from 16.83% to 1.95% using kernel conversion. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of applying the deep learning technique for CT kernel conversion and reducing the kernel-induced variability of EI quantification. The deep learning model has a

  15. Improved coronary in-stent visualization using a combined high-resolution kernel and a hybrid iterative reconstruction technique at 256-slice cardiac CT—Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Seitaro; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Funama, Yoshinori; Takaoka, Hiroko; Katahira, Kazuhiro; Honda, Keiichi; Noda, Katsuo; Oshima, Shuichi; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic performance of 256-slice cardiac CT for the evaluation of the in-stent lumen by using a hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) algorithm combined with a high-resolution kernel. Methods: This study included 28 patients with 28 stents who underwent cardiac CT. Three different reconstruction images were obtained with: (1) a standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm with a standard cardiac kernel (CB), (2) an FBP algorithm with a high-resolution cardiac kernel (CD), and (3) an HIR algorithm with the CD kernel. We measured image noise and kurtosis and used receiver operating characteristics analysis to evaluate observer performance in the detection of in-stent stenosis. Results: Image noise with FBP plus the CD kernel (80.2 ± 15.5 HU) was significantly higher than with FBP plus the CB kernel (28.8 ± 4.6 HU) and HIR plus the CD kernel (36.1 ± 6.4 HU). There was no significant difference in the image noise between FBP plus the CB kernel and HIR plus the CD kernel. Kurtosis was significantly better with the CD- than the CB kernel. The kurtosis values obtained with the CD kernel were not significantly different between the FBP- and HIR reconstruction algorithms. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves with HIR plus the CD kernel were significantly higher than with FBP plus the CB- or the CD kernel. The difference between FBP plus the CB- or the CD kernel was not significant. The average sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value for the detection of in-stent stenosis were 83.3, 50.0, 33.3, and 91.6% for FBP plus the CB kernel, 100, 29.6, 40.0, and 100% for FBP plus the CD kernel, and 100, 54.5, 40.0, and 100% for HIR plus the CD kernel. Conclusions: The HIR algorithm combined with the high-resolution kernel significantly improved diagnostic performance in the detection of in-stent stenosis

  16. A pilot study exploring the use of breath analysis to differentiate healthy cattle from cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine K Ellis

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle.

  17. A Pilot Study Exploring the Use of Breath Analysis to Differentiate Healthy Cattle from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Christine K.; Stahl, Randal S.; Nol, Pauline; Waters, W. Ray; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Rhyan, Jack C.; VerCauteren, Kurt C.; McCollum, Matthew; Salman, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease of international public health importance. Ante-mortem surveillance is essential for control; however, current surveillance tests are hampered by limitations affecting ease of use or quality of results. There is an emerging interest in human and veterinary medicine in diagnosing disease via identification of volatile organic compounds produced by pathogens and host-pathogen interactions. The objective of this pilot study was to explore application of existing human breath collection and analysis methodologies to cattle as a means to identify M. bovis infection through detection of unique volatile organic compounds or changes in the volatile organic compound profiles present in breath. Breath samples from 23 male Holstein calves (7 non-infected and 16 M. bovis-infected) were collected onto commercially available sorbent cartridges using a mask system at 90 days post-inoculation with M. bovis. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chromatographic data were analyzed using standard analytical chemical and metabolomic analyses, principle components analysis, and a linear discriminant algorithm. The findings provide proof of concept that breath-derived volatile organic compound analysis can be used to differentiate between healthy and M. bovis-infected cattle. PMID:24586655

  18. Measuring bacterial activity and community composition at high hydrostatic pressure using a novel experimental approach: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannicke, Nicola; Frindte, Katharina; Gust, Giselher; Liskow, Iris; Wacker, Alexander; Meyer, Andreas; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2015-05-01

    In this pilot study, we describe a high-pressure incubation system allowing multiple subsampling of a pressurized culture without decompression. The system was tested using one piezophilic (Photobacterium profundum), one piezotolerant (Colwellia maris) bacterial strain and a decompressed sample from the Mediterranean deep sea (3044 m) determining bacterial community composition, protein production (BPP) and cell multiplication rates (BCM) up to 27 MPa. The results showed elevation of BPP at high pressure was by a factor of 1.5 ± 1.4 and 3.9 ± 2.3 for P. profundum and C. maris, respectively, compared to ambient-pressure treatments and by a factor of 6.9 ± 3.8 fold in the field samples. In P. profundum and C. maris, BCM at high pressure was elevated (3.1 ± 1.5 and 2.9 ± 1.7 fold, respectively) compared to the ambient-pressure treatments. After 3 days of incubation at 27 MPa, the natural bacterial deep-sea community was dominated by one phylum of the genus Exiguobacterium, indicating the rapid selection of piezotolerant bacteria. In future studies, our novel incubation system could be part of an isopiestic pressure chain, allowing more accurate measurement of bacterial activity rates which is important both for modeling and for predicting the efficiency of the oceanic carbon pump. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Pilot plant SERSE: Description and results of the experimental tests under treatment of simulated chemical liquid waste; L'impianto pilota SERSE: Descrizione e risultati delle prove sperimentali del trattamento chimico di un rifiuto liquido simulato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calle, C; Gili, M; Luce, A; Marrocchelli, A; Pietrelli, L; Troiani, F [ENEA - Dipartimento Ciclo del Combustibile, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy)

    1989-11-15

    The chemical processes for the selective separation of the actinides and long lived fission products from aged liquid wastes is described. The SERSE pilot plant is a cold facility which has been designed, by ENEA, for the engineering scale demonstration of the chemical separation processes. The experimental tests carried out in the plant are described and the results confirm the laboratory data. (author)

  20. Light vs. heavy sedation during mechanical ventilation after oesophagectomy--a pilot experimental study focusing on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, K A M; Lundberg, D; Fridlund, B

    2008-09-01

    To assess and compare the feasibility and stressful memories of light vs. heavy sedation during post-operative mechanical ventilation. Randomized clinical trial in one general intensive care unit (ICU) in a Swedish university hospital. Thirty-six adults were randomly assigned to receive either light [Motor Activity Assessment Scale (MAAS) 3-4] or heavy (MAAS 1-2) sedation with continuous i.v. infusion of propofol during post-operative invasive mechanical ventilation after oesophagectomy. The patients were interviewed at the general ward 5 days post-ICU using the ICU Memory Tool and the ICU Stressful Experience Questionnaire, and 2 months post-ICU using the Impact of Event Scale Revised. Patient data and hourly recorded MAAS values were collected after the interviews. Seventy-four per cent of the 139 MAAS values in the light sedation group (n=18) and 79% of the 142 in the heavy sedation group (n=18) were within the targeted levels, and the median MAAS scores were 3.0 vs. 1.25, respectively. Intention-to-treat analyses showed no significant difference in the prevalence of stressful memories between groups, including endotracheal tube discomfort, presenting wide 95% confidence intervals for the difference in outcome estimates. Excluding the patients with a prolonged ICU stay (n=3), a higher prevalence of delusional memories was found in the heavy sedation group (31% vs. 0%, P=0.04). This small randomized-controlled pilot study suggests that a light sedation regimen during short-term post-operative mechanical ventilation after major surgery is feasible without increasing patient discomfort.

  1. Effects of environmental noise on cognitive (dys)functions in schizophrenia: A pilot within-subjects experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bernice; Peters, Emmanuelle; Ettinger, Ulrich; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairment, particularly in attention, memory and executive function domains, is commonly present and associated with poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia. In healthy adults, environmental noise adversely affects many cognitive domains, including those known to be compromised in schizophrenia. This pilot study examined whether environmental noise causes further cognitive deterioration in a small sample of people with schizophrenia. Eighteen outpatients with schizophrenia on stable doses of antipsychotics and 18 age and sex-matched healthy participants were assessed on a comprehensive cognitive battery including measures of psychomotor speed, attention, executive functioning, working memory, and verbal learning and memory under three different conditions [quiet: ~30dB(A); urban noise: building site noise, 68-78dB(A); and social noise: background babble and footsteps from a crowded hall without any discernible words, 68-78dB(A)], 7-14days apart, with counter-balanced presentation of noise conditions across participants of both groups. The results showed widespread cognitive impairment in patients under all conditions, and noise-induced impairments of equal magnitude on specific cognitive functions in both groups. Both patient and healthy participant groups showed significant disruption of delayed verbal recall and recognition by urban and social noise, and of working memory by social noise, relative to the quiet condition. Performance under urban and social noise did not differ significantly from each other for any cognitive measure in either group. We conclude that noise has adverse effects on the verbal and working memory domains in schizophrenia patients and healthy participants. This may be particularly problematic for patients as it worsens their pre-existing cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The efficacy of computerized alcohol intervention tailored to drinking motives among college students: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Santinello, Massimo; Chieco, Francesca; Andriolo, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Although motivational processes may influence the intervention effects and help prevention programmes identify students at great risk for alcohol-related problems, no computerized alcohol intervention has yet to be tailored to drinking motives. To describe the development and initial pilot testing of a computer-delivered intervention tailored to drinking motives, to prevent alcohol abuse and its adverse consequences among university students in general and among baseline hazardous drinkers specifically. 124 college students attending a public university in northeastern Italy participated in this study in October of 2012 (89.2% female- mean age = 21.64-34% baseline hazardous drinkers). Two classes (one undergraduate, one graduate) were assigned to one of two conditions: intervention and control group. Both groups received profile-specific feedback and then the intervention group received profile-specific online training for 4 weeks. This profile was based on their risk type (high-low) and drinking motives (enhancement-social-conformity-coping). Controlling for corresponding baseline alcohol measures, analyses showed a significant interaction between intervention condition and hazardous drinkers at baseline. For hazardous drinkers at baseline, the alcohol intervention results showed a significant decrease in frequency and quantity of alcohol use at follow-up, while no difference was observed between intervention conditions for non-hazardous drinkers at baseline. The results suggest that hazardous drinkers (college students) who completed the specific training and received personalized feedback seemed to do better on frequency and quantity of alcohol use than hazardous drinkers (college students) who received only personalized feedback. These results seem to provide support for a larger trial of the intervention and for more appropriate evaluations.

  3. Interactive local super-resolution reconstruction of whole-body MRI mouse data: a pilot study with applications to bone and kidney metastases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Dzyubachyk

    Full Text Available In small animal imaging studies, when the locations of the micro-structures of interest are unknown a priori, there is a simultaneous need for full-body coverage and high resolution. In MRI, additional requirements to image contrast and acquisition time will often make it impossible to acquire such images directly. Recently, a resolution enhancing post-processing technique called super-resolution reconstruction (SRR has been demonstrated to improve visualization and localization of micro-structures in small animal MRI by combining multiple low-resolution acquisitions. However, when the field-of-view is large relative to the desired voxel size, solving the SRR problem becomes very expensive, in terms of both memory requirements and computation time. In this paper we introduce a novel local approach to SRR that aims to overcome the computational problems and allow researchers to efficiently explore both global and local characteristics in whole-body small animal MRI. The method integrates state-of-the-art image processing techniques from the areas of articulated atlas-based segmentation, planar reformation, and SRR. A proof-of-concept is provided with two case studies involving CT, BLI, and MRI data of bone and kidney tumors in a mouse model. We show that local SRR-MRI is a computationally efficient complementary imaging modality for the precise characterization of tumor metastases, and that the method provides a feasible high-resolution alternative to conventional MRI.

  4. Interactive local super-resolution reconstruction of whole-body MRI mouse data: a pilot study with applications to bone and kidney metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyubachyk, Oleh; Khmelinskii, Artem; Plenge, Esben; Kok, Peter; Snoeks, Thomas J A; Poot, Dirk H J; Löwik, Clemens W G M; Botha, Charl P; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Weerd, Louise; Meijering, Erik; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

    2014-01-01

    In small animal imaging studies, when the locations of the micro-structures of interest are unknown a priori, there is a simultaneous need for full-body coverage and high resolution. In MRI, additional requirements to image contrast and acquisition time will often make it impossible to acquire such images directly. Recently, a resolution enhancing post-processing technique called super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) has been demonstrated to improve visualization and localization of micro-structures in small animal MRI by combining multiple low-resolution acquisitions. However, when the field-of-view is large relative to the desired voxel size, solving the SRR problem becomes very expensive, in terms of both memory requirements and computation time. In this paper we introduce a novel local approach to SRR that aims to overcome the computational problems and allow researchers to efficiently explore both global and local characteristics in whole-body small animal MRI. The method integrates state-of-the-art image processing techniques from the areas of articulated atlas-based segmentation, planar reformation, and SRR. A proof-of-concept is provided with two case studies involving CT, BLI, and MRI data of bone and kidney tumors in a mouse model. We show that local SRR-MRI is a computationally efficient complementary imaging modality for the precise characterization of tumor metastases, and that the method provides a feasible high-resolution alternative to conventional MRI.

  5. Pilot study to establish a nasal tip prediction method from unknown human skeletal remains for facial reconstruction and skull photo superimposition as applied to a Japanese male populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kageyama, Toru; Uchida, Keiichi; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakurada, Koichi; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Skull-photo superimposition is a technique used to identify the relationship between the skull and a photograph of a target person: and facial reconstruction reproduces antemortem facial features from an unknown human skull, or identifies the facial features of unknown human skeletal remains. These techniques are based on soft tissue thickness and the relationships between soft tissue and the skull, i.e., the position of the ear and external acoustic meatus, pupil and orbit, nose and nasal aperture, and lips and teeth. However, the ear and nose region are relatively difficult to identify because of their structure, as the soft tissues of these regions are lined with cartilage. We attempted to establish a more accurate method to determine the position of the nasal tip from the skull. We measured the height of the maxilla and mid-lower facial region in 55 Japanese men and generated a regression equation from the collected data. We obtained a result that was 2.0±0.99mm (mean±SD) distant from the true nasal tip, when applied to a validation set consisting of another 12 Japanese men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Establishment of a new pull-out strength testing method to quantify early osseointegration-An experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhoff, J; Moest, T; Schmitt, Christian Martin; Weisel, T; Bauer, S; Schlegel, K A

    2015-12-01

    The animal study aims to evaluate a new experimental model for measuring sole the influence of the surface characteristics independent from implant macro-design on the level of osseointegration by registering the pull-out strength needed for removal of experimental devices with different surfaces from artificial defects. Seventy-two test bodies (36 with the FRIADENT(®) plus surface, 36 with the P15/HAp biofunctionalized surface) were inserted in six adult domestic pigs with artificial calvarial defects. The experimental devices were designed to fit in the defects leaving a gap between the test body and the local bone. After 21 days of healing, the animals were sacrificed and the test bodies were pulled out with a standardised reproducible pull-out device measuring the pull-out strength. The pull-out strength for both groups was compared. Twenty-one days after insertion a mean force of 412 ± 142 N for the P15/HAp group and 183 ± 105 N for the FRIADENT(®) plus group was measured for the removal of the specimens from the calvarial bone. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (p implant surfaces on the early stage of osseointegration. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A pilot study using low-dose Spectral CT and ASIR (Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) algorithm to diagnose solitary pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huijuan; Liu, Yihe; Tan, Hongna; Liang, Pan; Wang, Bo; Su, Lei; Wang, Suya; Gao, Jianbo

    2015-11-17

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer which has the highest mortality rate. With the development of computed tomography (CT) techniques, the case detection rates of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) has constantly increased and the diagnosis accuracy of SPN has remained a hot topic in clinical and imaging diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of low-dose spectral CT and ASIR (Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction) algorithm in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). 62 patients with SPN (42 cases of benign SPN and 20 cases of malignant SPN, pathology confirmed) were scanned by spectral CT with a dual-phase contrast-enhanced method. The iodine and water concentration (IC and WC) of the lesion and the artery in the image that had the same density were measured by the GSI (Gemstone Spectral Imaging) software. The normalized iodine and water concentration (NIC and NWC) of the lesion and the normalized iodine and water concentration difference (ICD and WCD) between the arterial and venous phases (AP and VP) were also calculated. The spectral HU (Hounsfield Unit ) curve was divided into 3 sections based on the energy (40-70, 70-100 and 100-140 keV) and the slopes (λHU) in both phases were calculated. The ICAP, ICVP, WCAP and WCVP, NIC and NWC, and the λHU in benign and malignant SPN were compared by independent sample t-test. The iodine related parameters (ICAP, ICVP, NICAP, NICVP, and the ICD) of malignant SPN were significantly higher than that of benign SPN (t = 3.310, 1.330, 2.388, 1.669 and 3.251, respectively, P 0.05). The iodine related parameters and the slope of spectral curve are useful markers to distinguish the benign from the malignant lung diseases, and its application is extremely feasible in clinical applications.

  8. Experimental study of sector and linear array ultrasound accuracy and the influence of navigated 3D-reconstruction as compared to MRI in a brain tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmann, Max; Lothes, Thomas; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Coburger, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Currently, intraoperative ultrasound in brain tumor surgery is a rapidly propagating option in imaging technology. We examined the accuracy and resolution limits of different ultrasound probes and the influence of 3D-reconstruction in a phantom and compared these results to MRI in an intraoperative setting (iMRI). An agarose gel phantom with predefined gel targets was examined with iMRI, a sector (SUS) and a linear (LUS) array probe with two-dimensional images. Additionally, 3D-reconstructed sweeps in perpendicular directions were made of every target with both probes, resulting in 392 measurements. Statistical calculations were performed, and comparative boxplots were generated. Every measurement of iMRI and LUS was more precise than SUS, while there was no apparent difference in height of iMRI and 3D-reconstructed LUS. Measurements with 3D-reconstructed LUS were always more accurate than in 2D-LUS, while 3D-reconstruction of SUS showed nearly no differences to 2D-SUS in some measurements. We found correlations of 3D-reconstructed SUS and LUS length and width measurements with 2D results in the same image orientation. LUS provides an accuracy and resolution comparable to iMRI, while SUS is less exact than LUS and iMRI. 3D-reconstruction showed the potential to distinctly improve accuracy and resolution of ultrasound images, although there is a strong correlation with the sweep direction during data acquisition.

  9. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacqmin, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J (≥K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R (≤K) orthogonalized ''modes'' of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise

  10. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacqmin, Robert P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-12-10

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J (≥K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R (≤K) orthogonalized ``modes`` of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise.

  11. A semi-experimental nodal synthesis method for the on-line reconstruction of three-dimensional neutron flux-shapes and reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacqmin, R.P.

    1991-12-10

    The safety and optimal performance of large, commercial, light-water reactors require the knowledge at all time of the neutron-flux distribution in the core. In principle, this information can be obtained by solving the time-dependent neutron diffusion equations. However, this approach is complicated and very expensive. Sufficiently accurate, real-time calculations (time scale of approximately one second) are not yet possible on desktop computers, even with fast-running, nodal kinetics codes. A semi-experimental, nodal synthesis method which avoids the solution of the time-dependent, neutron diffusion equations is described. The essential idea of this method is to approximate instantaneous nodal group-fluxes by a linear combination of K, precomputed, three-dimensional, static expansion-functions. The time-dependent coefficients of the combination are found from the requirement that the reconstructed flux-distribution agree in a least-squares sense with the readings of J ({ge}K) fixed, prompt-responding neutron-detectors. Possible numerical difficulties with the least-squares solution of the ill-conditioned, J-by-K system of equations are brought under complete control by the use of a singular-value-decomposition technique. This procedure amounts to the rearrangement of the original, linear combination of K expansion functions into an equivalent more convenient, linear combination of R ({le}K) orthogonalized modes'' of decreasing magnitude. Exceedingly small modes are zeroed to eliminate any risk of roundoff-error amplification, and to assure consistency with the limited accuracy of the data. Additional modes are zeroed when it is desirable to limit the sensitivity of the results to measurement noise.

  12. Implementation of an experimental pilot reproducing the fouling of the exhaust gas recirculation system in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crepeau Gérald

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The European emission standards EURO 5 and EURO 6 define more stringent acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR system is a partial but essential solution for lowering the emission of nitrogen oxides and soot particulates. Yet, due to a more intensive use than in the past, the fouling of the EGR system is increased. Ensuring the reliability of the EGR system becomes a main challenge. In partnership with PSA Peugeot Citroën, we designed an experimental setup that mimics an operating EGR system. Its distinctive features are (1 its ability to reproduce precisely the operating conditions and (2 its ability to measure the temperature field on the heat exchanger surface with an Infra Red camera for detecting in real time the evolution of the fooling deposit based on its thermal resistance. Numerical codes are used in conjunction with this experimental setup to determine the evolution of the fouling thickness from its thermal resistance.

  13. Self-Reported Fear Predicts Functional Performance and Second ACL Injury After ACL Reconstruction and Return to Sport: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mark V; Flynn, Kaitlyn; Thomas, Staci; Schmitt, Laura C

    Outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are highly variable. Previous studies have failed to report the relationship between fear, objective measures of function, and reinjury rates. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fear was related to functional performance measures and risk of second ACL injury after ACLR and return to sport (RTS). Fear will be associated with performance on functional testing and second ACL injury rate. Prospective cohort study. Level 2. A total of 40 patients cleared to RTS after ACLR completed the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-11), hop testing, and quadriceps strength testing, bilaterally. Patients were tracked for 12 months after RTS to identify the incidence of second ACL injury. Chi-square analyses determined whether patients with high fear (TSK-11, ≥17) were more likely to have lower levels of activity, greater asymmetry on functional testing, and higher reinjury rates. Patients with greater fear on the TSK-11 (≥17) at RTS were 4 times (odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 0.98-14.23) more likely to report lower levels of activity, 7 times (OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.5-33.0) more likely to have a hop limb symmetry lower than 95%, and 6 times (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.3-27.8) more likely to have quadriceps strength symmetry lower than 90%. Patients who went on to suffer an ipsilateral second ACL injury had a greater TSK-11 score at the time of RTS (mean, 19.8 ± 4.0) than those who did not suffer a second ACL injury (mean, 16.4 ± 3.6) ( P = 0.03). Patients with a TSK-11 score of 19 or greater at the time of RTS were 13 times (relative risk, 13.0; 95% CI, 2.1-81.0) more likely to suffer a second ACL tear within 24 months after RTS. Patients with greater self-reported fear were less active, presented with lower single-leg hop performance and isometric quadriceps strength, and had an increased risk of suffering a second ACL injury in the 24 months after RTS. Self-reported fear of movement/reinjury after ACLR at

  14. Development of a New Intravascular Low-Profile Device for Exclusion of Aortic Aneurysm: An Experimental Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Haberstroh, Joerg; Boos, Irene; Metz, Stephan; Langer, Mathias; Moliner, Manuel Maynar

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To present a new intravascular device for the treatment of aorto-iliac aneurysms. Methods: This new device was tested in five dogs with abdominal aortic aneurysm created experimentally by overdilation of a balloon-expandable stent with a 16 or 18 mm wide PTA balloon catheter. The design of the device is based on a self-expanding aortic stent which consists of two stretchable circular frames filled with a textile Dacron mesh membrane that is suspended horizontally into the infrarenal abdominal aorta proximally to the aneurysm. The frames are part of a preshaped double helical structure that is introduced longitudinally through a catheter in a parallel fashion and forming the desired shape at the vessel site to be occluded. Two iliac stent-grafts are introduced in a low-profile status through the membrane sealing the aneurysm sac and holding the stent-grafts in place. After stent-graft expansion, a new bifurcation located more proximally than the natural one is created. The follow-up of the dogs was performed clinically and angiographically, and specimens were evaluated histomorphologically. Results: The membrane device can be introduced through a 9 Fr vascular sheath. Technical success was achieved in four of five dogs. Nine of ten stent-grafts could be fixed securely within the membrane, thus preventing dislocation. Aneurysms were excluded immediately, and blood flow to the external iliac arteries was restored by the stent-grafts. At 6-9 months follow-up of technically successful implanted devices, there were no endoleaks, no migration, no stenoses at contact sites between the implant material and vascular wall, and no stenosis or occlusion of the stent-grafts. At microscopic evaluation, the interspace between the membranes was filled with thrombotic material, thus ensuring exclusion of the aneurysm. Conclusion: This new device was found to be flexible, low profile and useful in excluding abdominal aortic aneurysm in the experimental setting

  15. Experimental pain ratings and reactivity of cortisol and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor II following a trial of hypnosis: Results of a randomized controlled pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Burel R.; Quinn, Noel B.; Kronfli, Tarek; King, Christopher D.; Page, Gayle G.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert R.; Stapleton, Laura M.; McGuire, Lynanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective Current evidence supports the efficacy of hypnosis for reducing the pain associated with experimental stimulation and various acute and chronic conditions; however, the mechanisms explaining how hypnosis exerts its effects remain less clear. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines represent potential targets for investigation given their purported roles in the perpetuation of painful conditions; yet, no clinical trials have thus far examined the influence of hypnosis on these mechanisms. Design Healthy participants, highly susceptible to the effects of hypnosis, were randomized to either a hypnosis intervention or a no-intervention control. Using a cold pressor task, assessments of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness were collected prior to the intervention (Pre) and following the intervention (Post) along with pain-provoked changes in salivary cortisol and the soluble receptor of tumor necrosis factor-α (sTNFαRII). Results Compared to the no-intervention control, data analyses revealed that hypnosis significantly reduced pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. Hypnosis was not significantly associated with suppression of cortisol or sTNFαRII reactivity to acute pain from Pre to Post; however, the effect sizes for these associations were medium-sized. Conclusions Overall, the findings from this randomized controlled pilot study support the importance of a future large-scale study on the effects of hypnosis for modulating pain-related changes of the HPA axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:22233394

  16. An approach to estimating radiological risk of offsite release from a design basis earthquake for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, V.; Meale, B.M.; Reny, D.A.; Brown, A.N.

    1990-09-01

    In compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 6430.1A, a seismic analysis was performed on DOE's Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP), a facility for processing low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste. Because no hazard curves were available for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), DOE guidelines were used to estimate the frequency for the specified design-basis earthquake (DBE). A dynamic structural analysis of the building was performed, using the DBE parameters, followed by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the PRA, a functional organization of the facility equipment was effected so that top events for a representative event tree model could be determined. Building response spectra (calculated from the structural analysis), in conjunction with generic fragility data, were used to generate fragility curves for the PREPP equipment. Using these curves, failure probabilities for each top event were calculated. These probabilities were integrated into the event tree model, and accident sequences and respective probabilities were calculated through quantification. By combining the sequences failure probabilities with a transport analysis of the estimated airborne source term from a DBE, onsite and offsite consequences were calculated. The results of the comprehensive analysis substantiated the ability of the PREPP facility to withstand a DBE with negligible consequence (i.e., estimated release was within personnel and environmental dose guidelines). 57 refs., 19 figs., 20 tabs

  17. An individualized exercise programme with and without behavioural change enhancement strategies for managing fatigue among frail older people: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Y-W; Lai, Claudia Ky; Siu, Parco M; Kwong, Enid; Tse, Mimi My

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effects of an individualized exercise programme with and without behavioural change enhancement strategies for frail older people with fatigue. A three-arm, single-blinded, quasi-experimental pilot study. Community health centres. A total of 79 frail older people with fatigue, mean age 79.32 years (±7.72). The combined group received a 16-week combined intervention consisting of exercise training and a behavioural change enhancement programme. The exercise group received exercise training and health talks, whereas the control group received only health talks. Feasibility was assessed through the participants' recruitment, retention, attendance and adherence, feedback, and reports of adverse events. The preliminary effects were assessed by the participants' level of fatigue, physical endurance, self-efficacy, and self-perceived compliance with exercise. Feasibility was achievable with high recruitment (87.2%) and low overall attrition (7.1%) rates. A similar reduction in fatigue was identified in all groups, but a trend of greater improvement in physical endurance was observed in the combined group than in the other two groups. The combined group also had a significantly better attendance rate [F(2,76) = 5.64, p behavioural change, when the participants are establishing the habit of exercising daily.

  18. Outcomes of an acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahnke, Johan; Lundgren, Tobias; Hursti, Timo; Hirvikoski, Tatja

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social impairments and behavioural inflexibility. In this pilot study, the feasibility and outcomes of a 6-week acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group were evaluated in a special school setting using a quasi-experimental design (acceptance and commitment therapy/school classes as usual). A total of 28 high-functioning students with autism spectrum disorder (aged 13-21 years) were assessed using self- and teacher-ratings at pre- and post-assessment and 2-month follow-up. All participants completed the skills training, and treatment satisfaction was high. Levels of stress, hyperactivity and emotional distress were reduced in the treatment group. The acceptance and commitment therapy group also reported increased prosocial behaviour. These changes were stable or further improved at the 2-month follow-up. Larger studies are needed to further evaluate the benefits of acceptance and commitment therapy for autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. An approach to estimating radiological risk of offsite release from a design basis earthquake for the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, V.; Meale, B.M.; Reny, D.A.; Brown, A.N.

    1990-09-01

    In compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 6430.1A, a seismic analysis was performed on DOE's Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP), a facility for processing low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste. Because no hazard curves were available for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), DOE guidelines were used to estimate the frequency for the specified design-basis earthquake (DBE). A dynamic structural analysis of the building was performed, using the DBE parameters, followed by a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the PRA, a functional organization of the facility equipment was effected so that top events for a representative event tree model could be determined. Building response spectra (calculated from the structural analysis), in conjunction with generic fragility data, were used to generate fragility curves for the PREPP equipment. Using these curves, failure probabilities for each top event were calculated. These probabilities were integrated into the event tree model, and accident sequences and respective probabilities were calculated through quantification. By combining the sequences failure probabilities with a transport analysis of the estimated airborne source term from a DBE, onsite and offsite consequences were calculated. The results of the comprehensive analysis substantiated the ability of the PREPP facility to withstand a DBE with negligible consequence (i.e., estimated release was within personnel and environmental dose guidelines). 57 refs., 19 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. A Pilot Study of Biomedical Text Comprehension using an Attention-Based Deep Neural Reader: Design and Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongsoon; Park, Donghyeon; Choi, Yonghwa; Lee, Kyubum; Kim, Byounggun; Jeon, Minji; Kim, Jihye; Tan, Aik Choon; Kang, Jaewoo

    2018-01-05

    With the development of artificial intelligence (AI) technology centered on deep-learning, the computer has evolved to a point where it can read a given text and answer a question based on the context of the text. Such a specific task is known as the task of machine comprehension. Existing machine comprehension tasks mostly use datasets of general texts, such as news articles or elementary school-level storybooks. However, no attempt has been made to determine whether an up-to-date deep learning-based machine comprehension model can also process scientific literature containing expert-level knowledge, especially in the biomedical domain. This study aims to investigate whether a machine comprehension model can process biomedical articles as well as general texts. Since there is no dataset for the biomedical literature comprehension task, our work includes generating a large-scale question answering dataset using PubMed and manually evaluating the generated dataset. We present an attention-based deep neural model tailored to the biomedical domain. To further enhance the performance of our model, we used a pretrained word vector and biomedical entity type embedding. We also developed an ensemble method of combining the results of several independent models to reduce the variance of the answers from the models. The experimental results showed that our proposed deep neural network model outperformed the baseline model by more than 7% on the new dataset. We also evaluated human performance on the new dataset. The human evaluation result showed that our deep neural model outperformed humans in comprehension by 22% on average. In this work, we introduced a new task of machine comprehension in the biomedical domain using a deep neural model. Since there was no large-scale dataset for training deep neural models in the biomedical domain, we created the new cloze-style datasets Biomedical Knowledge Comprehension Title (BMKC_T) and Biomedical Knowledge Comprehension Last

  1. An experimental pilot study of response to invalidation in young women with features of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodberry, Kristen A; Gallo, Kaitlin P; Nock, Matthew K

    2008-01-15

    One of the leading biosocial theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggests that individuals with BPD have biologically based abnormalities in emotion regulation contributing to more intense and rapid responses to emotional stimuli, in particular, invalidation [Linehan, M.M., 1993. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. Guilford, New York.]. This study used a 2 by 2 experimental design to test whether young women with features of BPD actually show increased physiological arousal in response to invalidation. Twenty-three women ages 18 to 29 who endorsed high levels of BPD symptoms and 18 healthy controls were randomly assigned to hear either a validating or invalidating comment during a frustrating task. Although we found preliminary support for differential response to these stimuli in self-report of valence, we found neither self-report nor physiological evidence of hyperarousal in the BPD features group, either at baseline or in response to invalidation. Interestingly, the BPD features group reported significantly lower comfort with emotion, and comfort was significantly associated with affective valence but not arousal. We discuss implications for understanding and responding to the affective intensity of this population.

  2. A pilot, quasi-experimental, mixed methods investigation into the efficacy of a group psychotherapy intervention for caregivers of outpatients with cancer: the COPE study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Rathi; Tan, Joyce Yi Siang; Griva, Konstadina; Lim, Haikel Asyraf; Ng, Hui Ying; Chua, Joanne; Lim, Siew Eng; Kua, Ee Heok

    2015-11-19

    Despite the rising trend of cancer prevalence and increase in family caregiving, little attention has been paid to the efficacy of psychosocial interventions among Asian caregiver samples, particularly support groups, given the benefits that have been shown in studies on Western populations. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot 4-week group psychotherapy for Singaporean family caregivers of patients receiving outpatient care. Facilitated by a clinical psychologist, this intervention is primarily based on the brief integrative psychological therapy with a supportive-expressive intent. Participants will be recruited while they are accompanying their care recipients for outpatient consultations. Since this is a pilot study, a sample size of 120 participants is targeted on the basis of sample sizes of previous studies. The study adopts a quasi-experimental design, as participants are assigned the intervention or control arms based on their availability to attend the intervention. A mixed methods approach is used to evaluate the outcomes of the intervention. A self-administered battery of tests is completed at four time points: baseline, postintervention and follow-up at 1-month and 2-month postinterventions; semi-structured interviews are conducted at baseline and post-intervention. Primary outcomes are quality of life and anxious and depressive symptoms; secondary outcomes are stress and basic psychological needs. Analysis using analysis of covariance would be conducted to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. This study protocol has ethics approval from the National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board (NHG DSRB Ref: 2013/00662). Written informed consent is obtained from every participant. Results will be disseminated through journals and conferences, and will be particularly relevant for clinicians intending to implement similar support groups to address the psychosocial concerns of caregivers, as well as for researchers

  3. An experimental setup to evaluate innovative therapy options for the enhancement of bone healing using BMP as a benchmark – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Preininger

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical or delayed bone healing in rat osteotomy (OT models is mostly achieved through large defects or instability. We aimed to design a rat OT model for impaired bone healing based on age, gender and parity. The outcome should be controllable through variations of the haematoma in the OT including a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 2 guided positive control.Using external fixation to stabilise femoral a 2 mm double OT in 12 month old, female Sprague Dawley rats after a minimum of 3 litters healing was characterised following in situ haematoma formation (ISH-group, transplantation of a BMP charged autologous blood clot (BMP-group and the artificial blood clot only (ABC-group into the OT-gap. In vivo micro-computer tomography (µCT scans were performed after 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After 6 weeks specimens underwent histological analyses.In µCT examinations and histological analyses no bony bridging was observed in all but one animal in the ISH-group. In the BMP group complete bridging was achieved in all animals. The ABC-group showed less mineralised tissue formation and smaller bridging scores during the course of healing than the ISH-group.In this pilot study we introduce a model for impaired bone healing taking the major biological risk factors into account. We could show that the in situ fracture haematoma is essential for bone regeneration. Using BMP as a positive control the presented experimental setup can serve to evaluate innovative therapeutical concepts in long bone application.

  4. Tissue response and wound healing after placement of two types of bioengineered grafts containing vital cells in submucosal maxillary pouches: an experimental pilot study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Michael M; Reichart, Peter A; Buser, Daniel; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the wound healing and tissue response after placement of two different skin substitutes in subgingival mucosal pouches in rabbits. Four rabbits were selected to receive a commercially available skin substitute consisting of a collagen matrix with fibroblasts and an epithelial layer (test membrane 1) and a prototype device consisting of a collagen matrix with fibroblasts only (test membrane 2). In each rabbit, two horizontal incisions were made in the buccal alveolar mucosa of the maxilla bilaterally to create submucosal pouches. Three pouches in each animal were filled with either the test 1 or test 2 membranes, and one pouch was left without a membrane (sham-operated control). All rabbits were sacrificed after a healing period of 4 weeks, and histologic samples were prepared and examined. After a healing period of 1 month, both tested membranes were still visible in the sections. Test membrane 1 was still bilayered, contained inflammatory cells in its center, and was encapsulated by a thick fibrous tissue. Numerous ectopic calcifications were evident in the collagenous part of the membrane and in association with some basal epithelial cells. Test membrane 2 was also encapsulated in fibrous tissue, with inflammatory cells present only between the fibrous encapsulation and the remnants of the membrane. For test membrane 2, no calcifications were visible. Test membrane 1 seemed to be more resistant to degradation, but there was also a more pronounced inflammatory reaction in comparison to test membrane 2, especially in the vicinity of the keratinocytes. The significance of the ectopic calcifications, along with that of the resorption or degradation processes of both tested membranes, must be evaluated in future experimental studies, with different time points after implantation examined.

  5. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    by conducting a literature review. The concept of pilot implementation, although commonly used in practice, is rather disregarded in research. In the literature, pilot implementations are mainly treated as secondary to the learning outcomes and are presented as merely a means to acquire knowledge about a given...... objective. The prevalent understanding is that pilot implementations are an ISD technique that extends prototyping from the lab and into test during real use. Another perception is that pilot implementations are a project multiple of co-existing enactments of the pilot implementation. From this perspective......This PhD dissertation engages in the study of pilot (system) implementation. In the field of information systems, pilot implementations are commissioned as a way to learn from real use of a pilot system with real data, by real users during an information systems development (ISD) project and before...

  6. Climate Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings...

  7. Impact of PET/CT system, reconstruction protocol, data analysis method, and repositioning on PET/CT precision: An experimental evaluation using an oncology and brain phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Syahir; Pfaehler, Elisabeth; Heijtel, Dennis; Lodge, Martin A; Boellaard, Ronald; Yaqub, Maqsood

    2017-12-01

    In longitudinal oncological and brain PET/CT studies, it is important to understand the repeatability of quantitative PET metrics in order to assess change in tracer uptake. The present studies were performed in order to assess precision as function of PET/CT system, reconstruction protocol, analysis method, scan duration (or image noise), and repositioning in the field of view. Multiple (repeated) scans have been performed using a NEMA image quality (IQ) phantom and a 3D Hoffman brain phantom filled with 18 F solutions on two systems. Studies were performed with and without randomly (PET/CT, especially in the case of smaller spheres (PET metrics depends on the combination of reconstruction protocol, data analysis methods and scan duration (scan statistics). Moreover, precision was also affected by phantom repositioning but its impact depended on the data analysis method in combination with the reconstructed voxel size (tissue fraction effect). This study suggests that for oncological PET studies the use of SUV peak may be preferred over SUV max because SUV peak is less sensitive to patient repositioning/tumor sampling. © 2017 The Authors. Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Experimental investigation of the chemical looping method on a 1 MW pilot plant; Experimentelle Untersuchung des Chemical Looping Verfahrens an einer 1 MW Versuchsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, Matthias

    2014-08-27

    Attempting to counteract the consequences of climate change, leading industrial nations have agreed on reducing their CO{sub 2} emissions significantly. To reach these reduction goals, it is essential to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions in the field of energy conversion. This PHD thesis covers the field of chemical looping combustion, a technology that uses fossil fuels for energy conversion with inherent capture of CO{sub 2}. Since the research regarding chemical looping had so far focused mainly on lab scale or small scale experiments, a 1 MW pilot plant has been erected at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt in order to investigate the process in a semi-industrial scale and to check the process efficiency with commercially usable equipment. This pilot consists of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors and has an overall height of more than 11 m. In this thesis, some experiments with ilmenite - used as the oxygen carrier - are explained. Furthermore, the design, erection and commissioning of the pilot plant are presented as well as the results of the first test campaigns. The evaluation of the latter proves that the process can be handled in the design configuration and that CO{sub 2} can be safely captured in a pilot plant of this scale.

  9. Vaginal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients

  10. ACL Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in moderate exercise and recreational activities, or play sports that put less stress on the knees. ACL reconstruction is generally recommended if: You're an athlete and want to continue in your sport, especially if the sport involves jumping, cutting or ...

  11. Rational reconstructions of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Newton’s classical physics and its underlying ontology are loaded with several metaphysical hypotheses that cannot be justified by rational reasoning nor by experimental evidence. Furthermore, it is well known that some of these hypotheses are not contained in the great theories of Modern Physics, such as the theory of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. This book shows that, on the basis of Newton’s classical physics and by rational reconstruction, the theory of Special Relativity as well as Quantum Mechanics can be obtained by partly eliminating or attenuating the metaphysical hypotheses. Moreover, it is shown that these reconstructions do not require additional hypotheses or new experimental results. In the second edition the rational reconstructions are completed with respect to General Relativity and Cosmology. In addition, the statistics of quantum objects is elaborated in more detail with respect to the rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics. The new material completes the approach of t...

  12. Equilibrium Reconstruction in EAST Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jinping; Wan Baonian; Shen Biao; Sun Youwen; Liu Dongmei; Xiao Bingjia; Ren Qilong; Gong Xianzu; Li Jiangang; Lao, L. L.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Reconstruction of experimental axisymmetric equilibria is an important part of tokamak data analysis. Fourier expansion is applied to reconstruct the vessel current distribution in EFIT code. Benchmarking and testing calculations are performed to evaluate and validate this algorithm. Two cases for circular and non-circular plasma discharges are presented. Fourier expansion used to fit the eddy current is a robust method and the real time EFIT can be introduced to the plasma control system in the coming campaign. (magnetically confined plasma)

  13. A new device for intraoperative renal blood flow measurement during open-heart surgery: an experimental study and the clinical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirilomis, Theodor; Popov, Aron F; Hanekop, Gunnar G; Braeuer, Anselm; Quintel, Michael; Schoendube, Friedrich A; Friedrich, Martin G

    2013-10-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) may vary during cardiopulmonary bypass and low flow may cause insufficient blood supply of the kidney triggering renal failure postoperatively. Still, a valid intraoperative method of continuous RBF measurement is not available. A new catheter combining thermodilution and intravascular Doppler was developed, first calibrated in an in vitro model, and the catheter specific constant was determined. Then, application of the device was evaluated in a pilot study in an adult cardiovascular population. The data of the clinical pilot study revealed high correlation between the flow velocities detected by intravascular Doppler and the RBF measured by thermodilution (Pearson's correlation range: 0.78 to 0.97). In conclusion, the RBF can be measured excellently in real time using the new catheter, even under cardiopulmonary bypass. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation.

  14. Maxillary reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown James

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the various defects that occur with maxillectomy with a full review of the literature and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques described. Reconstruction of the maxilla can be relatively simple for the standard low maxillectomy that does not involve the orbital floor (Class 2. In this situation the structure of the face is less damaged and the there are multiple reconstructive options for the restoration of the maxilla and dental alveolus. If the maxillectomy includes the orbit (Class 4 then problems involving the eye (enopthalmos, orbital dystopia, ectropion and diplopia are avoided which simplifies the reconstruction. Most controversy is associated with the maxillectomy that involves the orbital floor and dental alveolus (Class 3. A case is made for the use of the iliac crest with internal oblique as an ideal option but there are other methods, which may provide a similar result. A multidisciplinary approach to these patients is emphasised which should include a prosthodontist with a special expertise for these defects.

  15. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a iveelement model of pilot...... implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  16. Reconstruction of irradiated bone segmental defects with a biomaterial associating MBCP+(R), microstructured collagen membrane and total bone marrow grafting: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégoux, Franck; Goyenvalle, Eric; Cognet, Ronan; Malard, Olivier; Moreau, Francoise; Daculsi, Guy; Aguado, Eric

    2009-12-15

    The bone tissue engineering models used today are still a long way from any oncologic application as immediate postimplantation irradiation would decrease their osteoinductive potential. The aim of this study was to reconstruct a segmental critical size defect in a weight-bearing bone irradiated after implantation. Six white New Zealand rabbits were immediately implanted with a biomaterial associating resorbable collagen membrane EZ(R) filled and micro-macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate granules (MBCP+(R)). After a daily schedule of radiation delivery, and within 4 weeks, a total autologous bone marrow (BM) graft was injected percutaneously into the center of the implant. All the animals were sacrificed at 16 weeks. Successful osseous colonization was found to have bridged the entire length of the defects. Identical distribution of bone ingrowth and residual ceramics at the different levels of the implant suggests that the BM graft plays an osteoinductive role in the center of the defect. Periosteum-like formation was observed at the periphery, with the collagen membrane most likely playing a role. This model succeeded in bridging a large segmental defect in weight-bearing bone with immediate postimplantation fractionated radiation delivery. This has significant implications for the bone tissue engineering approach to patients with cancer-related bone defects.

  17. Biomechanical properties of patellar and hamstring graft tibial fixation techniques in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: experimental study with roentgen stereometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Frank; Pape, Dietrich; Schiel, Karin; Steimer, Oliver; Kohn, Dieter; Rupp, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Reliable fixation of the soft hamstring grafts in ACL reconstruction has been reported as problematic. The biomechanical properties of patellar tendon (PT) grafts fixed with biodegradable screws (PTBS) are superior compared to quadrupled hamstring grafts fixed with BioScrew (HBS) or Suture-Disc fixation (HSD). Controlled laboratory study with roentgen stereometric analysis (RSA). Ten porcine specimens were prepared for each group. In the PT group, the bone plugs were fixed with a 7 x 25 mm BioScrew. In the hamstring group, four-stranded tendon grafts were anchored within a tibial tunnel of 8 mm diameter either with a 7 x 25 mm BioScrew or eight polyester sutures knotted over a Suture-Disc. The grafts were loaded stepwise, and micromotion of the graft inside the tibial tunnel was measured with RSA. Hamstring grafts failed at lower loads (HBS: 536 N, HSD 445 N) than the PTBS grafts (658 N). Stiffness in the PTBS group was much greater compared to the hamstring groups (3500 N/mm versus HBS = 517 N/mm and HSD = 111 N/mm). Irreversible graft motion after graft loading with 200 N was measured at 0.03 mm (PTBS), 0.38mm (HBS), and 1.85mm (HSD). Elasticity for the HSD fixation was measured at 0.67 mm at 100 N and 1.32 mm at 200 N load. Hamstring graft fixation with BioScrew and Suture-Disc displayed less stiffness and early graft motion compared to PTBS fixation. Screw fixation of tendon grafts is superior to Suture-Disc fixation with linkage material since it offers greater stiffness and less graft motion inside the tibial tunnel. Our results revealed graft motion for hamstring fixation with screw or linkage material at loads that occur during rehabilitation. This, in turn, may lead to graft laxity.

  18. Determination of flow-rate characteristics and parameters of piezo pilot valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takosoglu Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic directional valves are used in most industrial pneumatic systems. Most of them are two-stage valves controlled by a pilot valve. Pilot valves are often chosen randomly. Experimental studies in order to determine the flow-rate characteristics and parameters of pilot valves were not conducted. The paper presents experimental research of two piezo pilot valves.

  19. PET reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, F.; Pawitan, Y.; Harrison, R.L.; Lewellen, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    In statistical terms, filtered backprojection can be viewed as smoothed Least Squares (LS). In this paper, the authors report on improvement in LS resolution by: incorporating locally adaptive smoothers, imposing positivity and using statistical methods for optimal selection of the resolution parameter. The resulting algorithm has high computational efficiency relative to more elaborate Maximum Likelihood (ML) type techniques (i.e. EM with sieves). Practical aspects of the procedure are discussed in the context of PET and illustrations with computer simulated and real tomograph data are presented. The relative recovery coefficients for a 9mm sphere in a computer simulated hot-spot phantom range from .3 to .6 when the number of counts ranges from 10,000 to 640,000 respectively. The authors will also present results illustrating the relative efficacy of ML and LS reconstruction techniques

  20. Effect of reconstruction algorithm on image quality and identification of ground-glass opacities and partly solid nodules on low-dose thin-section CT: Experimental study using chest phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hisanobu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Kono, Atsushi A.; Kusaka, Akiko; Konishi, Minoru; Yoshii, Masaru; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of reconstruction algorithm on identification and image quality of ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and partly solid nodules on low-dose thin-section CT. Materials and methods: A chest CT phantom including simulated GGOs and partly solid nodules was scanned with five different tube currents and reconstructed by using standard (A) and newly developed (B) high-resolution reconstruction algorithms, followed by visually assessment of identification and image quality of GGOs and partly solid nodules by two chest radiologists. Inter-observer agreement, ROC analysis and ANOVA were performed to compare identification and image quality of each data set with those of the standard reference. The standard reference used 120 mA s in conjunction with reconstruction algorithm A. Results: Kappa values (κ) of overall identification and image qualities were substantial or almost perfect (0.60 < κ). Assessment of identification showed that area under the curve of 25 mA reconstructed with reconstruction algorithm A was significantly lower than that of standard reference (p < 0.05), while assessment of image quality indicated that 50 mA s reconstructed with reconstruction algorithm A and 25 mA s reconstructed with both reconstruction algorithms were significantly lower than standard reference (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Reconstruction algorithm may be an important factor for identification and image quality of ground-glass opacities and partly solid nodules on low-dose CT examination.

  1. Experimental and theoretical analysis of effects of atomic, diatomic and polyatomic inert gases in air and EGR on mixture properties, combustion, thermal efficiency and NOx emissions of a pilot-ignited NG engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weifeng; Liu, Zhongchang; Wang, Zhongshu; Dou, Huili

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The specific heat ratio of the mixture increases with increasing Ar. • The thermal efficiency increases first and then decreases with increasing Ar. • Mechanisms of reducing NOx emissions are different for different dilution gases. • A suitable inert gas should be used to meet different requirements. - Abstract: Argon (Ar), nitrogen (N_2) and carbon dioxide (CO_2), present in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and air, are common atomic, diatomic and polyatomic inert gases, separately. As dilution gases, they are always added into the intake charge to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, directly or along with EGR and air. This paper presents the effects of Ar, N_2 and CO_2 on mixture properties, combustion, thermal efficiency and NOx emissions of pilot-ignited natural gas engines. Thermodynamic properties of the air-dilution gas mixture with increasing dilution gases, including density, gas constant, specific heat ratio, specific heat capacity, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity, were analyzed theoretically using thermodynamic relations and ideal gas equations based on experimental results. The thermal and diluent effects of dilution gases on NOx emissions were investigated based on Arrhenius Law and Zeldovich Mechanism, experimentally and theoretically. The experiments were arranged based on an electronically controlled heavy-duty, 6-cylinder, turbocharged, pilot-ignited natural gas engine. The resulted show that adding different inert gases into the intake charge had different influences on the thermodynamic properties of the air-dilution gas mixture. No great change in combustion phase was found with increasing dilution ratio (DR) of Ar, while the flame development duration increased significantly and CA50 moved far away from combustion top dead center (TDC) obviously with increasing DR for both of N_2 and CO_2. Adding Ar was superior in maintaining high thermal efficiencies than CO_2 and N_2, but adding CO_2 was superior in maintaining

  2. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy On This Page What is breast reconstruction? How do surgeons use implants to reconstruct a woman’s breast? How do surgeons ...

  3. Breast reconstruction - implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast implants surgery; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with implants; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with implants ... harder to find a tumor if your breast cancer comes back. Getting breast implants does not take as long as breast reconstruction ...

  4. Experimental Component Characterization, Monte-Carlo-Based Image Generation and Source Reconstruction for the Neutron Imaging System of the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, C A; Moran, M J

    2007-08-21

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is one of seven ignition target diagnostics under development for the National Ignition Facility. The NIS is required to record hot-spot (13-15 MeV) and downscattered (6-10 MeV) images with a resolution of 10 microns and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 10 at the 20% contour. The NIS is a valuable diagnostic since the downscattered neutrons reveal the spatial distribution of the cold fuel during an ignition attempt, providing important information in the case of a failed implosion. The present study explores the parameter space of several line-of-sight (LOS) configurations that could serve as the basis for the final design. Six commercially available organic scintillators were experimentally characterized for their light emission decay profile and neutron sensitivity. The samples showed a long lived decay component that makes direct recording of a downscattered image impossible. The two best candidates for the NIS detector material are: EJ232 (BC422) plastic fibers or capillaries filled with EJ399B. A Monte Carlo-based end-to-end model of the NIS was developed to study the imaging capabilities of several LOS configurations and verify that the recovered sources meet the design requirements. The model includes accurate neutron source distributions, aperture geometries (square pinhole, triangular wedge, mini-penumbral, annular and penumbral), their point spread functions, and a pixelated scintillator detector. The modeling results show that a useful downscattered image can be obtained by recording the primary peak and the downscattered images, and then subtracting a decayed version of the former from the latter. The difference images need to be deconvolved in order to obtain accurate source distributions. The images are processed using a frequency-space modified-regularization algorithm and low-pass filtering. The resolution and SNR of these sources are quantified by using two surrogate sources. The simulations show that all LOS

  5. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  6. Modified CBT using visualization for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), anxiety and avoidance behavior--a quasi-experimental open pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Elizabeth; Hiltunen, Arto J

    2015-12-01

    In recent studies it has been suggested that Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is beneficial to people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but that the method needs to be modified in relation to their cognitive profile. The aim of this study is to measure the effect of modified CBT, that is, using visualized language throughout the entire session for clients with ASD and anxiety and avoidance behavior. The modification of CBT in this study consists of focusing on CBT protocols for anxiety disorders and depression, while visualizing and systematizing "the invisible" in the conversation, in order for the clients to understand the social, cognitive and emotional context of self and others and how they should interact to avoid misunderstandings. ASD clients may need help to detect the invisible code of social interaction and communication. The level of anxiety and the frequency of target behavior were measured. Four assessments were made, two at the pre-assessment, and one in mid-therapy and end of therapy respectively. Generally, results suggest no improvement during pre-treatment period but a significant improvement during treatment. The values of the clients' psychological, social and occupational ability to function improved on the Global Function Rating scale. The preliminary conclusion of this pilot study indicates that the use of visualized language throughout the CBT therapy sessions is a promising modification of current CBT protocols for individuals with ASD. After manualization, larger studies with randomized controlled study designs can replicate or challenge these results. © 2015 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology published by Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A fast image reconstruction technique based on ART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shunli; Zhang Dinghua; Wang Kai; Huang Kuidong; Li Weibin

    2007-01-01

    Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) is an iterative method for image reconstruction. Improving its reconstruction speed has been one of the important researching aspects of ART. For the simplified weight coefficients reconstruction model of ART, a fast grid traverse algorithm is proposed, which can determine the grid index by simple operations such as addition, subtraction and comparison. Since the weight coefficients are calculated at real time during iteration, large amount of storage is saved and the reconstruction speed is greatly increased. Experimental results show that the new algorithm is very effective and the reconstruction speed is improved about 10 times compared with the traditional algorithm. (authors)

  8. Adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wenkai; Yin Fangfang

    2004-01-01

    Algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) are iterative procedures for reconstructing objects from their projections. It is proven that ART can be computationally efficient by carefully arranging the order in which the collected data are accessed during the reconstruction procedure and adaptively adjusting the relaxation parameters. In this paper, an adaptive algebraic reconstruction technique (AART), which adopts the same projection access scheme in multilevel scheme algebraic reconstruction technique (MLS-ART), is proposed. By introducing adaptive adjustment of the relaxation parameters during the reconstruction procedure, one-iteration AART can produce reconstructions with better quality, in comparison with one-iteration MLS-ART. Furthermore, AART outperforms MLS-ART with improved computational efficiency

  9. An experimental study of reconstructive procedures in lesions of the meniscus. Use of synovial flaps and carbon fiber implants for artificially made lesions in the meniscus of the rabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veth, R. P.; den Heeten, G. J.; Jansen, H. W.; Nielsen, H. K.

    1983-01-01

    Reconstructive procedures were investigated in meniscal lesions in 25 rabbits. Large meniscal defects were repaired with either a synovial flap or a carbon fiber implant. Fibrous tissue healing with occasional areas of fibrocartilage occurred after both types of reconstruction. When carbon fibers

  10. Using films as a psychoeducation tool for patients with schizophrenia: a pilot study using a quasi-experimental pre-post design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Maffei, Christian; Görges, Frauke; Kissling, Werner; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2015-04-30

    Relapses and, subsequently, readmissions are common in patients with schizophrenia. Psychoeducation has been shown to reduce the number and duration of readmissions. Yet, only little more than 20% of psychiatric patients in German speaking countries receive psychoeducation. Among other reasons, costs may be considered too high by hospitals. The objective of the present study was to test the feasibility of a new cost-efficient approach in the psychoeducation of patients with schizophrenia. In this study, films were used to impart knowledge about the illness to inpatients. A total of 113 participants were initially included in the study, eleven of which were not included in the final analyses. Six films about the symptoms, diagnosis, causes, warning signs, treatment of schizophrenia and about the influence of family members and friends were shown in a group setting in the presence of nursing staff. All films combined facts, expert opinions, and personal experiences of peers. As the main outcome criterion of this feasibility pilot study, we measured the effects on knowledge. Secondary outcome measures included compliance, insight into illness, side effects, and quality of life. Data were collected directly after the intervention and about half a year afterwards. The number and the duration of readmissions to the hospital were recorded and compared to the number and duration of prior admissions. Patients were also asked to state their subjective opinion about the films. Main data analyses were done using paired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Secondary analyses also involved ANOVAs and ANCOVAs. One hundred and two inpatients were included in the data analyses. Showing the films in the tested setting was shown to be feasible. Knowledge about schizophrenia (p < .001), compliance (ps < .01), insight into illness (p < .01), and quality of life (p < .001) all increased significantly after patients had watched the films and remained stable for at

  11. Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeester, G.H.; Swart, A.; Dijk, E. van

    1984-01-01

    In May 1980 it was decided to organize an intercomparison of personal dosimeters for photon radiations. The Commission of the European Communities initiated the intercomparison by starting a pilot study in which three laboratories NPL (United Kingdom), PTB (Germany) and RIV (The Netherlands) were asked to irradiate a series of personal dosemeters from institutes, GSF (Muenchen), CEA (Fontenay-aux-Roses), CNEN (Bologna) and CEGB (Berkeley). The latter institutes are secondary standard laboratories and have a radiation protection service as well. A new aspect of this pilot study is the fact that the irradiations also take place in front of a phantom. Irradiations took place in July and August 1980. The results of 4 institutes show that the personal dosemeters are quite capable of measuring the backscattered photon components

  12. Design and construction of a new furnace combustion pilot in IIE; Diseno y construccion de un nuevo horno experimental de combustion en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Flores, Marco Antonio; Tamayo Flores, G. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: mamf@iie.org.mx; gatamayo@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    To expand the scope of studies and technological developments in the Laboratory of Combustion of the Thermal Process Management a new experimental furnace with a capacity of 1.5 MWt was designed and built. Spray design studies with real operational evaluation (comparison of emission of Combustion products and thermal behavior) as well as information on the behavior of the NO{sub x} emissions will be produced. An automatic control system using a water cooling jacket provides the cooling of the furnace. The furnace design is modular, consisting of six sections. Currently three trials to its maximum load of operation have been performed. The results show that the global energy balance of the furnace matches the design. The flue gas residence time and temperature also match those at the exit of steam generators of big capacity. [Spanish] Para ampliar las posibilidades de estudios y desarrollos tecnologicos del laboratorio de combustion de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos, se diseno y construyo un nuevo horno experimental con capacidad maxima de 1.5 MegaWatts termicos (MWt). Este horno permitira realizar estudios de diseno de atomizadores con evaluacion de operacion real (comparacion de emision de productos de combustion y comportamiento termico), asi como ampliar la informacion que se tiene en el comportamiento de la emision de los oxidos de nitrogeno (NO{sub x}) que se producen en el horno. El diseno del horno es modular, compuesto por seis secciones, las cuales se enfrian de forma independiente a traves de un sistema de control automatico, empleando una chaqueta de enfriamiento por la cual circula agua. Actualmente se han realizado tres encendidos hasta alcanzar su carga maxima de operacion, los resultados obtenidos muestran que el balance de energia global del horno experimental es practicamente el de diseno y cumple con las caracteristicas de tiempo de residencia y temperatura de gases a la salida del horno de Generadores de Vapor de gran capacidad.

  13. A self-efficacy education programme on foot self-care behaviour among older patients with diabetes in a public long-term care institution, Malaysia: a Quasi-experimental Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoni, Siti Khuzaimah Ahmad; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Minhat, Halimatus Sakdiah; Shariff Ghazali, Sazlina; Azman Ong, Mohd Hanafi

    2017-06-08

    A pilot self-efficacy education programme was conducted to assess the feasibility, acceptability and potential impact of the self-efficacy education programme on improving foot self-care behaviour among older patients with diabetes in a public long-term care institution. A prequasi-experimental and postquasi-experimental study was conducted in a public long-term care institution in Selangor, Malaysia. Patients with diabetes aged 60 years and above who fulfilled the selection criteria were invited to participate in this programme. Four self-efficacy information sources; performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion and physiological information were translated into programme interventions. The programme consisted of four visits over a 12-week period. The first visit included screening and baseline assessment and the second visit involved 30 min of group seminar presentation. The third and fourth visits entailed a 20-min one-to-one follow-up discussion and evaluation. A series of visits to the respondents was conducted throughout the programme. The primary outcome was foot self-care behaviour. Foot self-efficacy (efficacy-expectation), foot care outcome expectation, knowledge of foot care, quality of life, fasting blood glucose and foot condition were secondary outcomes. Data were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics (McNemar's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test) using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences V.20.0. Fifty-two residents were recruited but only 31 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis at baseline and at 12 weeks postintervention. The acceptability rate was moderately high. At postintervention, foot self-care behaviour (p<0.001), foot self-efficacy (efficacy-expectation), (p<0.001), foot care outcome expectation (p<0.001), knowledge of foot care (p<0.001), quality of life (physical symptoms) (p=0.003), fasting blood glucose (p=0.010), foot hygiene (p=0.030) and anhydrosis (p=0

  14. A queueing model of pilot decision making in a multi-task flight management situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, R. S.; Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Allocation of decision making responsibility between pilot and computer is considered and a flight management task, designed for the study of pilot-computer interaction, is discussed. A queueing theory model of pilot decision making in this multi-task, control and monitoring situation is presented. An experimental investigation of pilot decision making and the resulting model parameters are discussed.

  15. Impaired down-regulation of negative emotion in self-referent social situations in bipolar disorder: A pilot study of a novel experimental paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærstad, Hanne L; Vinberg, Maj; Goldin, Philippe R; Køster, Nicolai; Støttrup, Mette Marie D; Knorr, Ulla; Kessing, Lars V; Miskowiak, Kamilla W

    2016-04-30

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of bipolar disorder (BD) that persists into periods of remission. Neuroimaging studies show aberrant neural responses during emotion regulation (ER) in patients with BD relative to healthy controls, but behavioural evidence for ER deficits is sparse and conflicting. This study aimed to explore ER in BD using a novel, personally relevant experimental paradigm. Twenty patients with BD and 20 patients with unipolar disorder (UD), in full or partial remission, and 20 healthy controls were given a novel computerised test. Participants were instructed to react naturally or dampen their emotional response to positive and negative social scenarios and associated self-beliefs. They were also given an established experimental task for comparison, involving reappraisal of negative affective picture stimuli, as well as a questionnaire of habitual ER strategies. BD patients showed reduced ability to down-regulate emotional responses in negative, but not positive, social scenarios relative to healthy controls and UD patients. In contrast, there were no between-group differences in the established ER task or in self-reported habitual reappraisal strategies. Findings highlight the novel social scenario paradigm as a sensitive test for detection of ER difficulties in BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Volunteer Mentorship for Young Adults With Self-Harm Behaviors Using a Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yik-Wa; Yip, Paul S F; Lai, Carmen C S; Kwok, Chi Leung; Wong, Paul W C; Liu, Kwong-Sun; Ng, Pauline W L; Liao, Carmen W M; Wong, Tai-Wai

    2016-11-01

    Studies have shown that postdischarge care for self-harm patients is effective in reducing repeated suicidal behaviors. Little is known about whether volunteer support can help reduce self-harm repetition and improve psychosocial well-being. This study investigated the efficacy of volunteer support in preventing repetition of self-harm. This study used a quasi-experimental design by assigning self-harm patients admitted to the emergency departments to an intervention group with volunteer support and treatment as usual (TAU) for 9 months and to a control group of TAU. Outcome measures include repetition of self-harm, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and level of depressive and anxiety symptoms. A total of 74 cases were recruited (38 participants; 36 controls). There were no significant differences in age, gender, and clinical condition between the two groups at the baseline. The intervention group showed significant improvements in hopelessness and depressive symptoms. However, the number of cases of suicide ideation and of repetition of self-harm episodes was similar for both groups at the postintervention period. Postdischarge care provided by volunteers showed significant improvement in hopelessness and depression. Volunteers have been commonly involved in suicide prevention services. Further research using rigorous methods is recommended for improving service quality in the long term.

  17. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue

  18. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSchmauss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction, as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue, the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction.

  19. Examining a participation-focused stroke self-management intervention in a day rehabilitation setting: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danbi; Fischer, Heidi; Zera, Sarah; Robertson, Rosetta; Hammel, Joy

    2017-12-01

    Background People with stroke often find discharge from rehabilitation distressing because they do not feel prepared to participate in life roles as they want. A self-management approach can facilitate improvement in confidence and ability to manage post-stroke community living and participation after transitioning into the community. Objective To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the Improving Participation After Stroke Self-management program - Rehab version (IPASS-R) in a day rehabilitation setting. Methods We used a mixed-method non-randomized quasi-experimental design. The IPASS-R program is a six-session group-based intervention led by a trained occupational therapist and lay person with stroke. The program uses an efficacy building approach to support aging adults to maintain active participation in home and community activities post-stroke. Primary outcome measures were the Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNLI), Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), and Participation Strategies Self-Efficacy Scale. Qualitative feedback was collected post-treatment. Results Seventeen participants with stroke (intervention n = 9; control n = 8) were enrolled across two sites. Non-parametric effect sizes calculated using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test revealed larger effects on RNLI and SIS outcomes in the intervention group. The Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences between the two groups' changes in scores on perceived recovery and strength. Conclusions The result shows that IPASS-R has the potential to be integrated into a day rehabilitation setting with a positive impact on community integration and perceived recovery outcomes. Future study is needed to investigate the IPASS-R with a larger sample size and more rigorous study design.

  20. 3D ultrasound computer tomography: Hardware setup, reconstruction methods and first clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmeke, Hartmut; Hopp, Torsten; Zapf, Michael; Kaiser, Clemens; Ruiter, Nicole V.

    2017-11-01

    A promising candidate for improved imaging of breast cancer is ultrasound computer tomography (USCT). Current experimental USCT systems are still focused in elevation dimension resulting in a large slice thickness, limited depth of field, loss of out-of-plane reflections, and a large number of movement steps to acquire a stack of images. 3D USCT emitting and receiving spherical wave fronts overcomes these limitations. We built an optimized 3D USCT, realizing for the first time the full benefits of a 3D system. The point spread function could be shown to be nearly isotropic in 3D, to have very low spatial variability and fit the predicted values. The contrast of the phantom images is very satisfactory in spite of imaging with a sparse aperture. The resolution and imaged details of the reflectivity reconstruction are comparable to a 3 T MRI volume. Important for the obtained resolution are the simultaneously obtained results of the transmission tomography. The KIT 3D USCT was then tested in a pilot study on ten patients. The primary goals of the pilot study were to test the USCT device, the data acquisition protocols, the image reconstruction methods and the image fusion techniques in a clinical environment. The study was conducted successfully; the data acquisition could be carried out for all patients with an average imaging time of six minutes per breast. The reconstructions provide promising images. Overlaid volumes of the modalities show qualitative and quantitative information at a glance. This paper gives a summary of the involved techniques, methods, and first results.

  1. Centrifuge Study of Pilot Tolerance to Acceleration and the Effects of Acceleration on Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Smedal, Harald A.; Wingrove, Rodney C.

    1960-01-01

    A research program the general objective of which was to measure the effects of various sustained accelerations on the control performance of pilots, was carried out on the Aviation Medical Acceleration Laboratory centrifuge, U.S. Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, PA. The experimental setup consisted of a flight simulator with the centrifuge in the control loop. The pilot performed his control tasks while being subjected to acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a forward-facing pilot flying an atmosphere entry vehicle. The study was divided into three phases. In one phase of the program, the pilots were subjected to a variety of sustained linear acceleration forces while controlling vehicles with several different sets of longitudinal dynamics. Here, a randomly moving target was displayed to the pilot on a cathode-ray tube. For each combination of acceleration field and vehicle dynamics, pilot tracking accuracy was measured and pilot opinion of the stability and control characteristics was recorded. Thus, information was obtained on the combined effects of complexity of control task and magnitude and direction of acceleration forces on pilot performance. These tests showed that the pilot's tracking performance deteriorated markedly at accelerations greater than about 4g when controlling a lightly damped vehicle. The tentative conclusion was also reached that regardless of the airframe dynamics involved, the pilot feels that in order to have the same level of control over the vehicle, an increase in the vehicle dynamic stability was required with increases in the magnitudes of the acceleration impressed upon the pilot. In another phase, boundaries of human tolerance of acceleration were established for acceleration fields such as might be encountered by a pilot flying an orbital vehicle. A special pilot restraint system was developed to increase human tolerance to longitudinal decelerations. The results of the tests showed that human tolerance

  2. Fast implementations of reconstruction-based scatter compensation in fully 3D SPECT image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadrmas, Dan J.; Karimi, Seemeen S.; Frey, Eric C.; Tsui, Benjamin M.W.

    1998-01-01

    Accurate scatter compensation in SPECT can be performed by modelling the scatter response function during the reconstruction process. This method is called reconstruction-based scatter compensation (RBSC). It has been shown that RBSC has a number of advantages over other methods of compensating for scatter, but using RBSC for fully 3D compensation has resulted in prohibitively long reconstruction times. In this work we propose two new methods that can be used in conjunction with existing methods to achieve marked reductions in RBSC reconstruction times. The first method, coarse-grid scatter modelling, significantly accelerates the scatter model by exploiting the fact that scatter is dominated by low-frequency information. The second method, intermittent RBSC, further accelerates the reconstruction process by limiting the number of iterations during which scatter is modelled. The fast implementations were evaluated using a Monte Carlo simulated experiment of the 3D MCAT phantom with 99m Tc tracer, and also using experimentally acquired data with 201 Tl tracer. Results indicated that these fast methods can reconstruct, with fully 3D compensation, images very similar to those obtained using standard RBSC methods, and in reconstruction times that are an order of magnitude shorter. Using these methods, fully 3D iterative reconstruction with RBSC can be performed well within the realm of clinically realistic times (under 10 minutes for 64x64x24 image reconstruction). (author)

  3. Direct 2-D reconstructions of conductivity and permittivity from EIT data on a human chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Claudia N L; Vallejo, Miguel F M; Mueller, Jennifer L; Lima, Raul G

    2015-01-01

    A novel direct D-bar reconstruction algorithm is presented for reconstructing a complex conductivity distribution from 2-D EIT data. The method is applied to simulated data and archival human chest data. Permittivity reconstructions with the aforementioned method and conductivity reconstructions with the previously existing nonlinear D-bar method for real-valued conductivities depicting ventilation and perfusion in the human chest are presented. This constitutes the first fully nonlinear D-bar reconstructions of human chest data and the first D-bar permittivity reconstructions of experimental data. The results of the human chest data reconstructions are compared on a circular domain versus a chest-shaped domain.

  4. Reconstruction of an InAs nanowire using geometric tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, Robert S.; König, Stefan; Alpers, Andreas

    Geometric tomography and conventional algebraic tomography algorithms are used to reconstruct cross-sections of an InAs nanowire from a tilt series of experimental annular dark-field images. Both algorithms are also applied to a test object to assess what factors affect the reconstruction quality....... When using the present algorithms, geometric tomography is faster, but artifacts in the reconstruction may be difficult to recognize....

  5. 75 FR 56857 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...-2006-26661; Amendment No., 141-14] RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School..., certification, and operating requirements for pilots, flight instructors, ground instructors, and pilot schools...: Background On August 21, 2009, the FAA published the ``Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School...

  6. Pilot solid-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and confirm technology for incinerating solid radioactive waste is in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in support of the short-term and long-term waste management objectives of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This report reviews the experience of a pilot incinerator with a capacity of 1.0 lb/hr. The facility was tested with nonradioactive materials similar to the radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River site. The experimental program included determining operating parameters, testing wet and dry off-gas treatment systems, and evaluating materials of construction

  7. Network reconstruction via graph blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Rolando

    2016-05-01

    Graphs estimated from empirical data are often noisy and incomplete due to the difficulty of faithfully observing all the components (nodes and edges) of the true graph. This problem is particularly acute for large networks where the number of components may far exceed available surveillance capabilities. Errors in the observed graph can render subsequent analyses invalid, so it is vital to develop robust methods that can minimize these observational errors. Errors in the observed graph may include missing and spurious components, as well fused (multiple nodes are merged into one) and split (a single node is misinterpreted as many) nodes. Traditional graph reconstruction methods are only able to identify missing or spurious components (primarily edges, and to a lesser degree nodes), so we developed a novel graph blending framework that allows us to cast the full estimation problem as a simple edge addition/deletion problem. Armed with this framework, we systematically investigate the viability of various topological graph features, such as the degree distribution or the clustering coefficients, and existing graph reconstruction methods for tackling the full estimation problem. Our experimental results suggest that incorporating any topological feature as a source of information actually hinders reconstruction accuracy. We provide a theoretical analysis of this phenomenon and suggest several avenues for improving this estimation problem.

  8. Image Reconstruction. Chapter 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuyts, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Matej, S. [Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This chapter discusses how 2‑D or 3‑D images of tracer distribution can be reconstructed from a series of so-called projection images acquired with a gamma camera or a positron emission tomography (PET) system [13.1]. This is often called an ‘inverse problem’. The reconstruction is the inverse of the acquisition. The reconstruction is called an inverse problem because making software to compute the true tracer distribution from the acquired data turns out to be more difficult than the ‘forward’ direction, i.e. making software to simulate the acquisition. There are basically two approaches to image reconstruction: analytical reconstruction and iterative reconstruction. The analytical approach is based on mathematical inversion, yielding efficient, non-iterative reconstruction algorithms. In the iterative approach, the reconstruction problem is reduced to computing a finite number of image values from a finite number of measurements. That simplification enables the use of iterative instead of mathematical inversion. Iterative inversion tends to require more computer power, but it can cope with more complex (and hopefully more accurate) models of the acquisition process.

  9. Update on orbital reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2010-08-01

    Orbital trauma is common and frequently complicated by ocular injuries. The recent literature on orbital fracture is analyzed with emphasis on epidemiological data assessment, surgical timing, method of approach and reconstruction materials. Computed tomographic (CT) scan has become a routine evaluation tool for orbital trauma, and mobile CT can be applied intraoperatively if necessary. Concomitant serious ocular injury should be carefully evaluated preoperatively. Patients presenting with nonresolving oculocardiac reflex, 'white-eyed' blowout fracture, or diplopia with a positive forced duction test and CT evidence of orbital tissue entrapment require early surgical repair. Otherwise, enophthalmos can be corrected by late surgery with a similar outcome to early surgery. The use of an endoscope-assisted approach for orbital reconstruction continues to grow, offering an alternative method. Advances in alloplastic materials have improved surgical outcome and shortened operating time. In this review of modern orbital reconstruction, several controversial issues such as surgical indication, surgical timing, method of approach and choice of reconstruction material are discussed. Preoperative fine-cut CT image and thorough ophthalmologic examination are key elements to determine surgical indications. The choice of surgical approach and reconstruction materials much depends on the surgeon's experience and the reconstruction area. Prefabricated alloplastic implants together with image software and stereolithographic models are significant advances that help to more accurately reconstruct the traumatized orbit. The recent evolution of orbit reconstruction improves functional and aesthetic results and minimizes surgical complications.

  10. Toward a Holistic Federated Future Internet Experimentation Environment: The Experience of NOVI Research and Experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglaris, V.; Papagianni, C.; Androulidakis, G.; Grammatikou, M.; Grosso, P.; van der Ham, J.; de Laat, C.; Pietrzak, B.; Belter, B.; Steger, J.; Laki, S.; Campanella, M.; Sallent, S.

    This article presents the design and pilot implementation of a suite of intelligent methods, algorithms, and tools for federating heterogeneous experimental platforms (domains) toward a holistic Future Internet experimentation ecosystem. The proposed framework developed within the NOVI research and

  11. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza

    2012-01-01

    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti...... optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed numerical routines. First prototype implementations easily allow reconstruction of a state of 20 qubits in a few minutes on a standard computer.......-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum...

  12. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  13. Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…

  14. The effects of display and autopilot functions on pilot workload for Single Pilot Instrument Flight Rule (SPIFR) operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Roger H.; Smith, James C.; Hinton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical and experimental research program was conducted to develop criteria for pilot interaction with advanced controls and displays in single pilot instrument flight rules (SPIFR) operations. The analytic phase reviewed fundamental considerations for pilot workload taking into account existing data, and using that data to develop a divided attention SPIFR pilot workload model. The pilot model was utilized to interpret the two experimental phases. The first experimental phase was a flight test program that evaluated pilot workload in the presence of current and near-term displays and autopilot functions. The second experiment was conducted on a King Air simulator, investigating the effects of co-pilot functions in the presence of very high SPIFR workload. The results indicate that the simplest displays tested were marginal for SPIFR operations. A moving map display aided the most in mental orientation, but had inherent deficiencies as a stand alone replacement for an HSI. Autopilot functions were highly effective for reducing pilot workload. The simulator tests showed that extremely high workload situations can be adequately handled when co-pilot functions are provided.

  15. Compressed Sensing, Pseudodictionary-Based, Superresolution Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-mei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial resolution of digital images is the critical factor that affects photogrammetry precision. Single-frame, superresolution, image reconstruction is a typical underdetermined, inverse problem. To solve this type of problem, a compressive, sensing, pseudodictionary-based, superresolution reconstruction method is proposed in this study. The proposed method achieves pseudodictionary learning with an available low-resolution image and uses the K-SVD algorithm, which is based on the sparse characteristics of the digital image. Then, the sparse representation coefficient of the low-resolution image is obtained by solving the norm of l0 minimization problem, and the sparse coefficient and high-resolution pseudodictionary are used to reconstruct image tiles with high resolution. Finally, single-frame-image superresolution reconstruction is achieved. The proposed method is applied to photogrammetric images, and the experimental results indicate that the proposed method effectively increase image resolution, increase image information content, and achieve superresolution reconstruction. The reconstructed results are better than those obtained from traditional interpolation methods in aspect of visual effects and quantitative indicators.

  16. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  17. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  18. DART: a practical reconstruction algorithm for discrete tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batenburg, Kees Joost; Sijbers, Jan

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we present an iterative reconstruction algorithm for discrete tomography, called discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART). DART can be applied if the scanned object is known to consist of only a few different compositions, each corresponding to a constant gray value in the reconstruction. Prior knowledge of the gray values for each of the compositions is exploited to steer the current reconstruction towards a reconstruction that contains only these gray values. Based on experiments with both simulated CT data and experimental μCT data, it is shown that DART is capable of computing more accurate reconstructions from a small number of projection images, or from a small angular range, than alternative methods. It is also shown that DART can deal effectively with noisy projection data and that the algorithm is robust with respect to errors in the estimation of the gray values.

  19. An Intelligent Actuator Fault Reconstruction Scheme for Robotic Manipulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bing; Yin, Shen

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates a difficult problem of reconstructing actuator faults for robotic manipulators. An intelligent approach with fast reconstruction property is developed. This is achieved by using observer technique. This scheme is capable of precisely reconstructing the actual actuator fault. It is shown by Lyapunov stability analysis that the reconstruction error can converge to zero after finite time. A perfect reconstruction performance including precise and fast properties can be provided for actuator fault. The most important feature of the scheme is that, it does not depend on control law, dynamic model of actuator, faults' type, and also their time-profile. This super reconstruction performance and capability of the proposed approach are further validated by simulation and experimental results.

  20. Overview of image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marr, R.B.

    1980-04-01

    Image reconstruction (or computerized tomography, etc.) is any process whereby a function, f, on R/sup n/ is estimated from empirical data pertaining to its integrals, ∫f(x) dx, for some collection of hyperplanes of dimension k < n. The paper begins with background information on how image reconstruction problems have arisen in practice, and describes some of the application areas of past or current interest; these include radioastronomy, optics, radiology and nuclear medicine, electron microscopy, acoustical imaging, geophysical tomography, nondestructive testing, and NMR zeugmatography. Then the various reconstruction algorithms are discussed in five classes: summation, or simple back-projection; convolution, or filtered back-projection; Fourier and other functional transforms; orthogonal function series expansion; and iterative methods. Certain more technical mathematical aspects of image reconstruction are considered from the standpoint of uniqueness, consistency, and stability of solution. The paper concludes by presenting certain open problems. 73 references

  1. The evolving breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally...... not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been criticized...... for oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery and will certainly become an invaluable addition to breast reconstructive methods....

  2. Forging Provincial Reconstruction Teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Honore, Russel L; Boslego, David V

    2007-01-01

    The Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) training mission completed by First U.S. Army in April 2006 was a joint Service effort to meet a requirement from the combatant commander to support goals in Afghanistan...

  3. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your surgical options and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of implant-based reconstruction, and may show you ... Policy Notice of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  4. Portable Weather Applications for General Aviation Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Ulf; Ohneiser, Oliver; Caddigan, Eamon

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential benefits and impact on pilot behavior from the use of portable weather applications. Seventy general aviation (GA) pilots participated in the study. Each pilot was randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group and flew a simulated single-engine GA aircraft, initially under visual meteorological conditions (VMC). The experimental group was equipped with a portable weather application during flight. We recorded measures for weather situation awareness (WSA), decision making, cognitive engagement, and distance from the aircraft to hazardous weather. We found positive effects from the use of the portable weather application, with an increased WSA for the experimental group, which resulted in credibly larger route deviations and credibly greater distances to hazardous weather (≥30 dBZ cells) compared with the control group. Nevertheless, both groups flew less than 20 statute miles from hazardous weather cells, thus failing to follow current weather-avoidance guidelines. We also found a credibly higher cognitive engagement (prefrontal oxygenation levels) for the experimental group, possibly reflecting increased flight planning and decision making on the part of the pilots. Overall, the study outcome supports our hypothesis that portable weather displays can be used without degrading pilot performance on safety-related flight tasks, actions, and decisions as measured within the constraints of the present study. However, it also shows that an increased WSA does not automatically translate to enhanced flight behavior. The study outcome contributes to our knowledge of the effect of portable weather applications on pilot behavior and decision making. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. Statistical reconstruction for cosmic ray muon tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Larry J; Blanpied, Gary S; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Fraser, Andrew M; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Klimenko, Alexei V; Morris, Christopher L; Orum, Chris; Sossong, Michael J

    2007-08-01

    Highly penetrating cosmic ray muons constantly shower the earth at a rate of about 1 muon per cm2 per minute. We have developed a technique which exploits the multiple Coulomb scattering of these particles to perform nondestructive inspection without the use of artificial radiation. In prior work [1]-[3], we have described heuristic methods for processing muon data to create reconstructed images. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood/expectation maximization tomographic reconstruction algorithm designed for the technique. This algorithm borrows much from techniques used in medical imaging, particularly emission tomography, but the statistics of muon scattering dictates differences. We describe the statistical model for multiple scattering, derive the reconstruction algorithm, and present simulated examples. We also propose methods to improve the robustness of the algorithm to experimental errors and events departing from the statistical model.

  6. Industrial dynamic tomographic reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Eric Ferreira de

    2016-01-01

    The state of the art methods applied to industrial processes is currently based on the principles of classical tomographic reconstructions developed for tomographic patterns of static distributions, or is limited to cases of low variability of the density distribution function of the tomographed object. Noise and motion artifacts are the main problems caused by a mismatch in the data from views acquired in different instants. All of these add to the known fact that using a limited amount of data can result in the presence of noise, artifacts and some inconsistencies with the distribution under study. One of the objectives of the present work is to discuss the difficulties that arise from implementing reconstruction algorithms in dynamic tomography that were originally developed for static distributions. Another objective is to propose solutions that aim at reducing a temporal type of information loss caused by employing regular acquisition systems to dynamic processes. With respect to dynamic image reconstruction it was conducted a comparison between different static reconstruction methods, like MART and FBP, when used for dynamic scenarios. This comparison was based on a MCNPx simulation as well as an analytical setup of an aluminum cylinder that moves along the section of a riser during the process of acquisition, and also based on cross section images from CFD techniques. As for the adaptation of current tomographic acquisition systems for dynamic processes, this work established a sequence of tomographic views in a just-in-time fashion for visualization purposes, a form of visually disposing density information as soon as it becomes amenable to image reconstruction. A third contribution was to take advantage of the triple color channel necessary to display colored images in most displays, so that, by appropriately scaling the acquired values of each view in the linear system of the reconstruction, it was possible to imprint a temporal trace into the regularly

  7. PET reconstruction via nonlocal means induced prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingfeng; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Bayesian priors for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods usually incorporate local neighborhood interactions that penalize large deviations in parameter estimates for adjacent pixels; therefore, only local pixel differences are utilized. This limits their abilities of penalizing the image roughness. To achieve high-quality PET image reconstruction, this study investigates a MAP reconstruction strategy by incorporating a nonlocal means induced (NLMi) prior (NLMi-MAP) which enables utilizing global similarity information of image. The present NLMi prior approximates the derivative of Gibbs energy function by an NLM filtering process. Specially, the NLMi prior is obtained by subtracting the current image estimation from its NLM filtered version and feeding the residual error back to the reconstruction filter to yield the new image estimation. We tested the present NLMi-MAP method with simulated and real PET datasets. Comparison studies with conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and a few iterative reconstruction methods clearly demonstrate that the present NLMi-MAP method performs better in lowering noise, preserving image edge and in higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). Extensive experimental results show that the NLMi-MAP method outperforms the existing methods in terms of cross profile, noise reduction, SNR, root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CORR).

  8. Charge reconstruction in large-area photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, M.; Montuschi, M.; Baldoncini, M.; Mantovani, F.; Ricci, B.; Andronico, G.; Antonelli, V.; Bellato, M.; Bernieri, E.; Brigatti, A.; Brugnera, R.; Budano, A.; Buscemi, M.; Bussino, S.; Caruso, R.; Chiesa, D.; Corti, D.; Dal Corso, F.; Ding, X. F.; Dusini, S.; Fabbri, A.; Fiorentini, G.; Ford, R.; Formozov, A.; Galet, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Giammarchi, M.; Giaz, A.; Insolia, A.; Isocrate, R.; Lippi, I.; Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Lombardi, P.; Marini, F.; Mari, S. M.; Martellini, C.; Meroni, E.; Mezzetto, M.; Miramonti, L.; Monforte, S.; Nastasi, M.; Ortica, F.; Paoloni, A.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pedretti, D.; Pelliccia, N.; Pompilio, R.; Previtali, E.; Ranucci, G.; Re, A. C.; Romani, A.; Saggese, P.; Salamanna, G.; Sawy, F. H.; Settanta, G.; Sisti, M.; Sirignano, C.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Strati, V.; Verde, G.; Votano, L.

    2018-02-01

    Large-area PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMT) allow to efficiently instrument Liquid Scintillator (LS) neutrino detectors, where large target masses are pivotal to compensate for neutrinos' extremely elusive nature. Depending on the detector light yield, several scintillation photons stemming from the same neutrino interaction are likely to hit a single PMT in a few tens/hundreds of nanoseconds, resulting in several photoelectrons (PEs) to pile-up at the PMT anode. In such scenario, the signal generated by each PE is entangled to the others, and an accurate PMT charge reconstruction becomes challenging. This manuscript describes an experimental method able to address the PMT charge reconstruction in the case of large PE pile-up, providing an unbiased charge estimator at the permille level up to 15 detected PEs. The method is based on a signal filtering technique (Wiener filter) which suppresses the noise due to both PMT and readout electronics, and on a Fourier-based deconvolution able to minimize the influence of signal distortions—such as an overshoot. The analysis of simulated PMT waveforms shows that the slope of a linear regression modeling the relation between reconstructed and true charge values improves from 0.769 ± 0.001 (without deconvolution) to 0.989 ± 0.001 (with deconvolution), where unitary slope implies perfect reconstruction. A C++ implementation of the charge reconstruction algorithm is available online at [1].

  9. Dynamic dual-tracer PET reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Liu, Huafeng; Jian, Yiqiang; Shi, Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    Although of important medical implications, simultaneous dual-tracer positron emission tomography reconstruction remains a challenging problem, primarily because the photon measurements from dual tracers are overlapped. In this paper, we propose a simultaneous dynamic dual-tracer reconstruction of tissue activity maps based on guidance from tracer kinetics. The dual-tracer reconstruction problem is formulated in a state-space representation, where parallel compartment models serve as continuous-time system equation describing the tracer kinetic processes of dual tracers, and the imaging data is expressed as discrete sampling of the system states in measurement equation. The image reconstruction problem has therefore become a state estimation problem in a continuous-discrete hybrid paradigm, and H infinity filtering is adopted as the estimation strategy. As H infinity filtering makes no assumptions on the system and measurement statistics, robust reconstruction results can be obtained for the dual-tracer PET imaging system where the statistical properties of measurement data and system uncertainty are not available a priori, even when there are disturbances in the kinetic parameters. Experimental results on digital phantoms, Monte Carlo simulations and physical phantoms have demonstrated the superior performance.

  10. Photoacoustic image reconstruction: a quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperl, Jonathan I.; Zell, Karin; Menzenbach, Peter; Haisch, Christoph; Ketzer, Stephan; Marquart, Markus; Koenig, Hartmut; Vogel, Mika W.

    2007-07-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a promising new way to generate unprecedented contrast in ultrasound diagnostic imaging. It differs from other medical imaging approaches, in that it provides spatially resolved information about optical absorption of targeted tissue structures. Because the data acquisition process deviates from standard clinical ultrasound, choice of the proper image reconstruction method is crucial for successful application of the technique. In the literature, multiple approaches have been advocated, and the purpose of this paper is to compare four reconstruction techniques. Thereby, we focused on resolution limits, stability, reconstruction speed, and SNR. We generated experimental and simulated data and reconstructed images of the pressure distribution using four different methods: delay-and-sum (DnS), circular backprojection (CBP), generalized 2D Hough transform (HTA), and Fourier transform (FTA). All methods were able to depict the point sources properly. DnS and CBP produce blurred images containing typical superposition artifacts. The HTA provides excellent SNR and allows a good point source separation. The FTA is the fastest and shows the best FWHM. In our study, we found the FTA to show the best overall performance. It allows a very fast and theoretically exact reconstruction. Only a hardware-implemented DnS might be faster and enable real-time imaging. A commercial system may also perform several methods to fully utilize the new contrast mechanism and guarantee optimal resolution and fidelity.

  11. Alternative reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooperman Avram M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the procedure of choice for tumors of the head of the pancreas and periampulla. Despite advances in surgical technique and postoperative care, the procedure continues to carry a high morbidity rate. One of the most common morbidities is delayed gastric emptying with rates of 15%–40%. Following two prolonged cases of delayed gastric emptying, we altered our reconstruction to avoid this complication altogether. Subsequently, our patients underwent a classic pancreaticoduodenectomy with an undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction. Methods We reviewed the charts of our last 13 Whipple procedures evaluating them for complications, specifically delayed gastric emptying. We compared the outcomes of those patients to a control group of 15 patients who underwent the Whipple procedure with standard reconstruction. Results No instances of delayed gastric emptying occurred in patients who underwent an undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction. There was 1 wound infection (8%, 1 instance of pneumonia (8%, and 1 instance of bleeding from the gastrojejunal staple line (8%. There was no operative mortality. Conclusion Use of the undivided Roux-en-Y technique for reconstruction following the Whipple procedure may decrease the incidence of delayed gastric emptying. In addition, it has the added benefit of eliminating bile reflux gastritis. Future randomized control trials are recommended to further evaluate the efficacy of the procedure.

  12. Voting based object boundary reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qi; Zhang, Like; Ma, Jingsheng

    2005-07-01

    A voting-based object boundary reconstruction approach is proposed in this paper. Morphological technique was adopted in many applications for video object extraction to reconstruct the missing pixels. However, when the missing areas become large, the morphological processing cannot bring us good results. Recently, Tensor voting has attracted people"s attention, and it can be used for boundary estimation on curves or irregular trajectories. However, the complexity of saliency tensor creation limits its applications in real-time systems. An alternative approach based on tensor voting is introduced in this paper. Rather than creating saliency tensors, we use a "2-pass" method for orientation estimation. For the first pass, Sobel d*etector is applied on a coarse boundary image to get the gradient map. In the second pass, each pixel puts decreasing weights based on its gradient information, and the direction with maximum weights sum is selected as the correct orientation of the pixel. After the orientation map is obtained, pixels begin linking edges or intersections along their direction. The approach is applied to various video surveillance clips under different conditions, and the experimental results demonstrate significant improvement on the final extracted objects accuracy.

  13. Reconstructing random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeong, C.L.; Torquato, S.

    1998-01-01

    We formulate a procedure to reconstruct the structure of general random heterogeneous media from limited morphological information by extending the methodology of Rintoul and Torquato [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 186, 467 (1997)] developed for dispersions. The procedure has the advantages that it is simple to implement and generally applicable to multidimensional, multiphase, and anisotropic structures. Furthermore, an extremely useful feature is that it can incorporate any type and number of correlation functions in order to provide as much morphological information as is necessary for accurate reconstruction. We consider a variety of one- and two-dimensional reconstructions, including periodic and random arrays of rods, various distribution of disks, Debye random media, and a Fontainebleau sandstone sample. We also use our algorithm to construct heterogeneous media from specified hypothetical correlation functions, including an exponentially damped, oscillating function as well as physically unrealizable ones. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  14. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  15. HEEL BONE RECONSTRUCTIVE OSTEOSYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Svetashov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To detect the most appropriate to heel bone injury severity variants of reconstructive osteosynthesis it was analyzed treatment results of 56 patients. In 15 (26.8% patients classic methods of surgical service were applied, in 41 (73.2% cases to restore the defect porous implants were used. Osteosynthesis without heel bone plastic restoration accomplishment was ineffective in 60% patients from control group. Reconstructive osteosynthesis method ensures long-term good functional effect of rehabilitation in 96.4% patients from the basic group.

  16. Vertex reconstruction in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanat, E.; D'Hondt, J.; Estre, N.; Fruehwirth, R.; Prokofiev, K.; Speer, T.; Vanlaer, P.; Waltenberger, W.

    2005-01-01

    Due to the high track multiplicity in the final states expected in proton collisions at the LHC experiments, novel vertex reconstruction algorithms are required. The vertex reconstruction problem can be decomposed into a pattern recognition problem ('vertex finding') and an estimation problem ('vertex fitting'). Starting from least-squares methods, robustifications of the classical algorithms are discussed and the statistical properties of the novel methods are shown. A whole set of different approaches for the vertex finding problem is presented and compared in relevant physics channels

  17. Vertex Reconstruction in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chabanat, E; D'Hondt, J; Vanlaer, P; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Frühwirth, R; Waltenberger, W

    2005-01-01

    Because of the high track multiplicity in the final states expected in proton collisions at the LHC experiments, novel vertex reconstruction algorithms are required. The vertex reconstruction problem can be decomposed into a pattern recognition problem ("vertex finding") and an estimation problem ("vertex fitting"). Starting from least-square methods, ways to render the classical algorithms more robust are discussed and the statistical properties of the novel methods are shown. A whole set of different approaches for the vertex finding problem is presented and compared in relevant physics channels.

  18. Reconstruction of emission coefficients for a non-axisymmetric coupling arc by algebraic reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangjun; Xiong Jun; Gao Hongming; Wu Lin

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of tomographic reconstruction of an asymmetric arc plasma has been carried out. The objective of this work aims at reconstructing emission coefficients of a non-axisymmetric coupling arc from measured intensities by means of an algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). In order to define the optimal experimental scheme for good quality with limited views, the dependence of the reconstruction quality on three configurations (four, eight, ten projection angles) are presented and discussed via a displaced Gaussian model. Then, the emission coefficients of a free burning arc are reconstructed by the ART with the ten-view configuration and an Abel inversion, respectively, and good agreement is obtained. Finally, the emission coefficient profiles of the coupling arc are successfully achieved with the ten-view configuration. The results show that the distribution of emission coefficient for the coupling arc is different from centrosymmetric shape. The ART is perfectly suitable for reconstructing emission coefficients of the coupling arc with the ten-view configuration, proving the feasibility and utility of the ART to characterize an asymmetric arc.

  19. Bayesian tomographic reconstruction of microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Sofia Fekih; Vabre, Alexandre; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

    2007-01-01

    The microtomography by X ray transmission plays an increasingly dominating role in the study and the understanding of microsystems. Within this framework, an experimental setup of high resolution X ray microtomography was developed at CEA-List to quantify the physical parameters related to the fluids flow in microsystems. Several difficulties rise from the nature of experimental data collected on this setup: enhanced error measurements due to various physical phenomena occurring during the image formation (diffusion, beam hardening), and specificities of the setup (limited angle, partial view of the object, weak contrast).To reconstruct the object we must solve an inverse problem. This inverse problem is known to be ill-posed. It therefore needs to be regularized by introducing prior information. The main prior information we account for is that the object is composed of a finite known number of different materials distributed in compact regions. This a priori information is introduced via a Gauss-Markov field for the contrast distributions with a hidden Potts-Markov field for the class materials in the Bayesian estimation framework. The computations are done by using an appropriate Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique.In this paper, we present first the basic steps of the proposed algorithms. Then we focus on one of the main steps in any iterative reconstruction method which is the computation of forward and adjoint operators (projection and backprojection). A fast implementation of these two operators is crucial for the real application of the method. We give some details on the fast computation of these steps and show some preliminary results of simulations

  20. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) were measured in two reconstructed Danish farmhouses (17-19th century) during two weeks of summer. During the first week intensive measurements were performed while test cooking fires were burned, during the second week the houses were monitored...... the first week the concentration Of PM2.5 averaged daily between 138 and 1650 mu g m(-3) inside the hearths and 21-160 mu g m(-3) in adjacent living rooms. CO averaged daily between 0.21 and 1.9 ppm in living areas, and up to 12 ppm in the hearths. Highest concentrations were measured when two fires were...... lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 mu g m(-3) (PM2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM2.5. However, air exchange and air...

  1. Network Reconstruction of Dynamic Biological Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Asadi, Behrang

    2013-01-01

    Inference of network topology from experimental data is a central endeavor in biology, since knowledge of the underlying signaling mechanisms a requirement for understanding biological phenomena. As one of the most important tools in bioinformatics area, development of methods to reconstruct biological networks has attracted remarkable attention in the current decade. Integration of different data types can lead to remarkable improvements in our ability to identify the connectivity of differe...

  2. Single spin stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Waldherr, Gerald; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate precision addressing of single quantum emitters by combined optical microscopy and spin resonance techniques. To this end we utilize nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond confined within a few ten nanometers as individually resolvable quantum systems. By developing a stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) technique for NV centers we are able to simultaneously perform sub diffraction-limit imaging and optically detected spin resonance (ODMR)...

  3. Preparing Pilots for Takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravage, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Why would schools consider partnering with a vendor to operate a pilot? Why not just wait until the final product is released? For starters, pilots provide schools with a golden opportunity to get an early look at the software, take it for a test flight, and ask for changes tailored to their operating environment and business needs. In some cases,…

  4. Reconstructing Neutrino Mass Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, A. Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Reconstruction of the neutrino mass spectrum and lepton mixing is one of the fundamental problems of particle physics. In this connection we consider two central topics: (i) the origin of large lepton mixing, (ii) possible existence of new (sterile) neutrino states. We discuss also possible relation between large mixing and existence of sterile neutrinos.

  5. Position reconstruction in LUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Fallon, S. R.; Fan, A.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Genovesi, J.; Ghag, C.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Velan, V.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.

    2018-02-01

    The (x, y) position reconstruction method used in the analysis of the complete exposure of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment is presented. The algorithm is based on a statistical test that makes use of an iterative method to recover the photomultiplier tube (PMT) light response directly from the calibration data. The light response functions make use of a two dimensional functional form to account for the photons reflected on the inner walls of the detector. To increase the resolution for small pulses, a photon counting technique was employed to describe the response of the PMTs. The reconstruction was assessed with calibration data including 83mKr (releasing a total energy of 41.5 keV) and 3H (β- with Q = 18.6 keV) decays, and a deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron beam (2.45 MeV) . Within the detector's fiducial volume, the reconstruction has achieved an (x, y) position uncertainty of σ = 0.82 cm and σ = 0.17 cm for events of only 200 and 4,000 detected electroluminescence photons respectively. Such signals are associated with electron recoils of energies ~0.25 keV and ~10 keV, respectively. The reconstructed position of the smallest events with a single electron emitted from the liquid surface (22 detected photons) has a horizontal (x, y) uncertainty of 2.13 cm.

  6. Blind compressed sensing image reconstruction based on alternating direction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinan; Guo, Shuxu

    2018-04-01

    In order to solve the problem of how to reconstruct the original image under the condition of unknown sparse basis, this paper proposes an image reconstruction method based on blind compressed sensing model. In this model, the image signal is regarded as the product of a sparse coefficient matrix and a dictionary matrix. Based on the existing blind compressed sensing theory, the optimal solution is solved by the alternative minimization method. The proposed method solves the problem that the sparse basis in compressed sensing is difficult to represent, which restrains the noise and improves the quality of reconstructed image. This method ensures that the blind compressed sensing theory has a unique solution and can recover the reconstructed original image signal from a complex environment with a stronger self-adaptability. The experimental results show that the image reconstruction algorithm based on blind compressed sensing proposed in this paper can recover high quality image signals under the condition of under-sampling.

  7. ADART: an adaptive algebraic reconstruction algorithm for discrete tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre-Deusto, F Javier; Scavello, Giovanni; Pizarro, Joaquín; Galindo, Pedro L

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we suggest an algorithm based on the Discrete Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (DART) which is capable of computing high quality reconstructions from substantially fewer projections than required for conventional continuous tomography. Adaptive DART (ADART) goes a step further than DART on the reduction of the number of unknowns of the associated linear system achieving a significant reduction in the pixel error rate of reconstructed objects. The proposed methodology automatically adapts the border definition criterion at each iteration, resulting in a reduction of the number of pixels belonging to the border, and consequently of the number of unknowns in the general algebraic reconstruction linear system to be solved, being this reduction specially important at the final stage of the iterative process. Experimental results show that reconstruction errors are considerably reduced using ADART when compared to original DART, both in clean and noisy environments.

  8. ACTS: from ATLAS software towards a common track reconstruction software

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00349786; The ATLAS collaboration; Salzburger, Andreas; Kiehn, Moritz; Hrdinka, Julia; Calace, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of charged particles' trajectories is a crucial task for most particle physics experiments. The high instantaneous luminosity achieved at the LHC leads to a high number of proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing, which has put the track reconstruction software of the LHC experiments through a thorough test. Preserving track reconstruction performance under increasingly difficult experimental conditions, while keeping the usage of computational resources at a reasonable level, is an inherent problem for many HEP experiments. Exploiting concurrent algorithms and using multivariate techniques for track identification are the primary strategies to achieve that goal. Starting from current ATLAS software, the ACTS project aims to encapsulate track reconstruction software into a generic, framework- and experiment-independent software package. It provides a set of high-level algorithms and data structures for performing track reconstruction tasks as well as fast track simulation. The software is de...

  9. Direct cone beam SPECT reconstruction with camera tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianying Li; Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.; Zongjian Cao; Tsui, B.M.W.

    1993-01-01

    A filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm is derived to perform cone beam (CB) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction with camera tilt using circular orbits. This algorithm reconstructs the tilted angle CB projection data directly by incorporating the tilt angle into it. When the tilt angle becomes zero, this algorithm reduces to that of Feldkamp. Experimentally acquired phantom studies using both a two-point source and the three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom have been performed. The transaxial tilted cone beam brain images and profiles obtained using the new algorithm are compared with those without camera tilt. For those slices which have approximately the same distance from the detector in both tilt and non-tilt set-ups, the two transaxial reconstructions have similar profiles. The two-point source images reconstructed from this new algorithm and the tilted cone beam brain images are also compared with those reconstructed from the existing tilted cone beam algorithm. (author)

  10. Quantitative tomography simulations and reconstruction algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.E.; Aufderheide, M.B.; Goodman, D.; Schach von Wittenau, A.; Logan, C.; Hall, J.; Jackson, J.; Slone, D.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray, neutron and proton transmission radiography and computed tomography (CT) are important diagnostic tools that are at the heart of LLNL's effort to meet the goals of the DOE's Advanced Radiography Campaign. This campaign seeks to improve radiographic simulation and analysis so that radiography can be a useful quantitative diagnostic tool for stockpile stewardship. Current radiographic accuracy does not allow satisfactory separation of experimental effects from the true features of an object's tomographically reconstructed image. This can lead to difficult and sometimes incorrect interpretation of the results. By improving our ability to simulate the whole radiographic and CT system, it will be possible to examine the contribution of system components to various experimental effects, with the goal of removing or reducing them. In this project, we are merging this simulation capability with a maximum-likelihood (constrained-conjugate-gradient-CCG) reconstruction technique yielding a physics-based, forward-model image-reconstruction code. In addition, we seek to improve the accuracy of computed tomography from transmission radiographs by studying what physics is needed in the forward model. During FY 2000, an improved version of the LLNL ray-tracing code called HADES has been coupled with a recently developed LLNL CT algorithm known as CCG. The problem of image reconstruction is expressed as a large matrix equation relating a model for the object being reconstructed to its projections (radiographs). Using a constrained-conjugate-gradient search algorithm, a maximum likelihood solution is sought. This search continues until the difference between the input measured radiographs or projections and the simulated or calculated projections is satisfactorily small

  11. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.

  12. Mutual information as a measure of reconstruction quality in 3D dynamic lung EIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabb, M G; Lionheart, W R B; Davidson, J L; Wright, P; McCann, H; Little, R; Naish, J H; Parker, G J M; Kikinis, R

    2013-01-01

    We report on a pilot study with healthy subjects who had an MR scan in addition to EIT data acquired with the Manchester fEITER system. The MR images are used to inform the external shape of a 3D EIT reconstruction model of the thorax, and small changes in the boundary that occur during respiration are addressed by incorporating the sensitivity with respect to boundary shape into a robust reconstruction algorithm. A quantitative comparison of the image quality for different EIT reconstructions is achieved through calculation of their mutual information with a segmented MR image. A shape corrected reconstruction algorithm reduces boundary artefacts relative to a standard reconstruction, and has a greater mutual information of approximately 4% with the segmented MR image.

  13. Reconstruction of incorrect sensor data : from failure to success

    OpenAIRE

    Os, van, E.A.; Bontsema, J.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental research on crop performance or climate control in greenhouses requires accurate measurement of climate conditions. Despite the use of calibrated sensors, afterwards it may appear that the collected climate data are incorrect. Then the question arises whether we need to repeat the experiment or whether we can reconstruct the correct climate data from the incorrect measurements. In this paper we show how correct data of temperature and air humidity could be reconstructed from inco...

  14. Single Pilot Workload Management During Cruise in Entry Level Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Barbara K.; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Silverman, Evan; Hackworth, Carla; Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Drechsler, Gena; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Advanced technologies and automation are important facilitators of single pilot operations, but they also contribute to the workload management challenges faced by the pilot. We examined task completion, workload management, and automation use in an entry level jet (ELJ) flown by single pilots. Thirteen certificated Cessna Citation Mustang (C510-S) pilots flew an instrument flight rules (IFR) experimental flight in a Cessna Citation Mustang simulator. At one point participants had to descend to meet a crossing restriction prior to a waypoint and prepare for an instrument approach into an un-towered field while facilitating communication from a lost pilot who was flying too low for ATC to hear. Four participants experienced some sort of difficulty with regard to meeting the crossing restriction and almost half (n=6) had problems associated with the instrument approach. Additional errors were also observed including eight participants landing at the airport with an incorrect altimeter setting.

  15. Computational acceleration for MR image reconstruction in partially parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Chen, Yunmei; Huang, Feng

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we present a fast numerical algorithm for solving total variation and l(1) (TVL1) based image reconstruction with application in partially parallel magnetic resonance imaging. Our algorithm uses variable splitting method to reduce computational cost. Moreover, the Barzilai-Borwein step size selection method is adopted in our algorithm for much faster convergence. Experimental results on clinical partially parallel imaging data demonstrate that the proposed algorithm requires much fewer iterations and/or less computational cost than recently developed operator splitting and Bregman operator splitting methods, which can deal with a general sensing matrix in reconstruction framework, to get similar or even better quality of reconstructed images.

  16. Potential of membrane bio rector process for N and P removal from urban wastewater through simulation and experimentation in a pilot plant located on Valdebebas WWTP; Evaluacion del potencial del proceso de borreactor de membranas para la eliminacion de nitrogeno y fosforo en aguas resuales urbans mediante experimentacion en planta piloto en la EDAR de Valdedebas y simulaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, C.; Casares, B.; Caminos, M.; Larrea, L.; Paz de la Cobos, E.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the first experimental phase in a pilot plant after analysing the potential of different configurations of the membrane bioreactor process. The pilot was fed with raw wastewater from Valdebebas WWTP in Madrid , and consists of abiological reactor of 2,5 m''3 and a membrane tank of 0.75 m''3 containing a module of flat submerged membranes from Kubota. The size for anaerobic, anoxic and aerated zones, as well as the flow rate for the recycles, were established from the simulation study. Targeting compact full scale plants, the solid and hydraulic retention times were maintained at low values (12 days and 8 hours respectively) and the suspended solids in the membrane tank between 10 and 15 g/l. Thus, an efficient nitrification was achieved which was a even better than expected by simulation. Effluent nitrate were between 6 and 8 mg/l by operating with low dissolved oxygen levels in the aerated zone. Phosphorous removal was also satisfactory with effluent phosphate below 1 mg P/l. (Author) 6 refs.

  17. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Zohir; Smith, Kirk R.

    2010-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM 2.5) were measured in two reconstructed Danish farmhouses (17-19th century) during two weeks of summer. During the first week intensive measurements were performed while test cooking fires were burned, during the second week the houses were monitored while occupied by guest families. A masonry hearth was located in the middle of each house for open cooking fires and with heating stoves. One house had a chimney leading to the outside over the hearth; in the other, a brickwork hood led the smoke into an attic and through holes in the roof. During the first week the concentration of PM 2.5 averaged daily between 138 and 1650 μg m -3 inside the hearths and 21-160 μg m -3 in adjacent living rooms. CO averaged daily between 0.21 and 1.9 ppm in living areas, and up to 12 ppm in the hearths. Highest concentrations were measured when two fires were lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM 2.5. However, air exchange and air distribution measurements revealed a large draw in the chimney, which ensured a fast removal of wood smoke from the hearth area. The guest families were in average exposed to no more than 0.21 ppm CO during 48 h. Based on a hypothetical time-activity pattern, however, a woman living in this type of house during the 17-19th century would be exposed to daily averages of 1.1 ppm CO and 196 μg m -3 PM 2.5, which exceeds WHO guideline for PM 2.5, and is comparable to what is today observed for women in rural areas of developing countries.

  18. Comparing 3-dimensional virtual methods for reconstruction in craniomaxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Senck, Sascha

    2011-04-01

    In the present project, the virtual reconstruction of digital osteomized zygomatic bones was simulated using different methods. A total of 15 skulls were scanned using computed tomography, and a virtual osteotomy of the left zygomatic bone was performed. Next, virtual reconstructions of the missing part using mirror imaging (with and without best fit registration) and thin plate spline interpolation functions were compared with the original left zygomatic bone. In general, reconstructions using thin plate spline warping showed better results than the mirroring approaches. Nevertheless, when dealing with skulls characterized by a low degree of asymmetry, mirror imaging and subsequent registration can be considered a valid and easy solution for zygomatic bone reconstruction. The mirroring tool is one of the possible alternatives in reconstruction, but it might not always be the optimal solution (ie, when the hemifaces are asymmetrical). In the present pilot study, we have verified that best fit registration of the mirrored unaffected hemiface and thin plate spline warping achieved better results in terms of fitting accuracy, overcoming the evident limits of the mirroring approach. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Algebraic reconstruction techniques for spectral reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendel, Bernhard; Ziegler, Ronny; Nielsen, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Reconstruction in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) necessitates solving the diffusion equation, which is nonlinear with respect to the parameters that have to be reconstructed. Currently applied solving methods are based on the linearization of the equation. For spectral three-dimensional reconstruction, the emerging equation system is too large for direct inversion, but the application of iterative methods is feasible. Computational effort and speed of convergence of these iterative methods are crucial since they determine the computation time of the reconstruction. In this paper, the iterative methods algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and conjugated gradients (CGs) as well as a new modified ART method are investigated for spectral DOT reconstruction. The aim of the modified ART scheme is to speed up the convergence by considering the specific conditions of spectral reconstruction. As a result, it converges much faster to favorable results than conventional ART and CG methods

  20. The structure of reconstructed chalcopyrite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinius, Sascha; Islam, Mazharul M.; Bredow, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) surfaces are of major interest for copper exploitation in aqueous solution, called leaching. Since leaching is a surface process knowledge of the surface structure, bonding pattern and oxidation states is important for improving the efficiency. At present such information is not available from experimental studies. Therefore a detailed computational study of chalcopyrite surfaces is performed. The structures of low-index stoichiometric chalcopyrite surfaces {hkl} h, k, l ∈ {0, 1, 2} have been studied with density functional theory (DFT) and global optimization strategies. We have applied ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) in combination with simulated annealing (SA) in order to explore possible reconstructions via a minima hopping (MH) algorithm. In almost all cases reconstruction involving substantial rearrangement has occurred accompanied by reduction of the surface energy. The analysis of the change in the coordination sphere and migration during reconstruction reveals that S-S dimers are formed on the surface. Further it was observed that metal atoms near the surface move toward the bulk forming metal alloys passivated by sulfur. The obtained surface energies of reconstructed surfaces are in the range of 0.53-0.95 J/m2.

  1. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  2. Reconstructing warm inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Ramón

    2018-03-01

    The reconstruction of a warm inflationary universe model from the scalar spectral index n_S(N) and the tensor to scalar ratio r( N) as a function of the number of e-folds N is studied. Under a general formalism we find the effective potential and the dissipative coefficient in terms of the cosmological parameters n_S and r considering the weak and strong dissipative stages under the slow roll approximation. As a specific example, we study the attractors for the index n_S given by nS-1∝ N^{-1} and for the ratio r∝ N^{-2}, in order to reconstruct the model of warm inflation. Here, expressions for the effective potential V(φ ) and the dissipation coefficient Γ (φ ) are obtained.

  3. Jet Vertex Charge Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Nektarijevic, Snezana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed algorithm called the jet vertex charge tagger, aimed at identifying the sign of the charge of jets containing $b$-hadrons, referred to as $b$-jets, is presented. In addition to the well established track-based jet charge determination, this algorithm introduces the so-called \\emph{jet vertex charge} reconstruction, which exploits the charge information associated to the displaced vertices within the jet. Furthermore, the charge of a soft muon contained in the jet is taken into account when available. All available information is combined into a multivariate discriminator. The algorithm has been developed on jets matched to generator level $b$-hadrons provided by $t\\bar{t}$ events simulated at $\\sqrt{s}$=13~TeV using the full ATLAS detector simulation and reconstruction.

  4. Dependence of reconstructed image characteristics on the observation condition in light-in-flight recording by holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Aya; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Toshihiro

    2005-08-01

    We analyze the dependence of the reconstructed image characteristic on the observation condition in the light-in-flight recording by holography both theoretically and experimentally. This holography makes it possible to record a propagating light pulse. We have found that the shape of the reconstructed image is changed when the observation position is vertically moved along the hologram plane. The reconstructed image is numerically simulated on the basis of the theory and is experimentally obtained by using a 373 fs pulsed laser. The numerical results agree with the experimental result, and the validity of the theory is verified. Also, experimental results are analyzed and the restoration of the reconstructed image is discussed.

  5. Segmentation-DrivenTomographic Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas

    such that the segmentation subsequently can be carried out by use of a simple segmentation method, for instance just a thresholding method. We tested the advantages of going from a two-stage reconstruction method to a one stage segmentation-driven reconstruction method for the phase contrast tomography reconstruction......The tomographic reconstruction problem is concerned with creating a model of the interior of an object from some measured data, typically projections of the object. After reconstructing an object it is often desired to segment it, either automatically or manually. For computed tomography (CT...

  6. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    determined experimentally. We compare the high precision salinity profiles determined using our new method to profiles determined from the traditional chloride titrations of parallel samples. Our technique provides a more accurate reconstruction of past salinity, informing questions of water mass composition and distribution during the LGM.

  7. LHCb jet reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, Oscar; Rangel, Murilo; Barter, William; Bursche, Albert; Potterat, Cedric; Coco, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than 4 X 10 32 cm -2 s -1 and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1,02fb -1 on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test perturbative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space ηX φ and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the colorimeters are used on the LHCb experiment to create objects called particle flow objects that are used as input to anti-kt algorithm. The LHCb is specially interesting for jets studies because its η region is complementary to the others main experiments on LHC. We will present the first results of jet reconstruction using 2011 LHCb data. (author)

  8. LHCb jet reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Oscar; Rangel, Murilo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Barter, William [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bursche, Albert [Universitat Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Potterat, Cedric [Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Coco, Victor [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than 4 X 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1,02fb{sup -1} on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test perturbative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space {eta}X {phi} and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the colorimeters are used on the LHCb experiment to create objects called particle flow objects that are used as input to anti-kt algorithm. The LHCb is specially interesting for jets studies because its {eta} region is complementary to the others main experiments on LHC. We will present the first results of jet reconstruction using 2011 LHCb data. (author)

  9. [Reconstructive methods after Fournier gangrene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, C; Behr, B; Ring, A; Mikhail, B D; Lehnhardt, M; Daigeler, A

    2016-04-01

    Fournier's gangrene is a variant of the necrotizing fasciitis restricted to the perineal and genital region. It presents as an acute life-threatening disease and demands rapid surgical debridement, resulting in large soft tissue defects. Various reconstructive methods have to be applied to reconstitute functionality and aesthetics. The objective of this work is to identify different reconstructive methods in the literature and compare them to our current concepts for reconstructing defects caused by Fournier gangrene. Analysis of the current literature and our reconstructive methods on Fournier gangrene. The Fournier gangrene is an emergency requiring rapid, calculated antibiotic treatment and radical surgical debridement. After the acute phase of the disease, appropriate reconstructive methods are indicated. The planning of the reconstruction of the defect depends on many factors, especially functional and aesthetic demands. Scrotal reconstruction requires a higher aesthetic and functional reconstructive degree than perineal cutaneous wounds. In general, thorough wound hygiene, proper pre-operative planning, and careful consideration of the patient's demands are essential for successful reconstruction. In the literature, various methods for reconstruction after Fournier gangrene are described. Reconstruction with a flap is required for a good functional result in complex regions as the scrotum and penis, while cutaneous wounds can be managed through skin grafting. Patient compliance and tissue demand are crucial factors in the decision-making process.

  10. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  11. Agile Web Pilot Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lang, Mark

    1997-01-01

    ... in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. The pilot program allowed 18 small and medium sized enterprises to experiment with new agile business practices in competitive manufacturing environments by forming virtual organizations within...

  12. CERN pilot greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot installation was situated near Bld. BA6 opposite to the main entrance of the Meyrin site, with respect to Route de Meyrin. See Weekly Bulletin 3/83, and also photo 8305594X, 8505898X, 8302200.

  13. Reconstruction of thermally quenched glow curves in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subedi, Bhagawan; Polymeris, George S.; Tsirliganis, Nestor C.; Pagonis, Vasilis; Kitis, George

    2012-01-01

    The experimentally measured thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of quartz samples are influenced by the presence of the thermal quenching effect, which involves a variation of the luminescence efficiency as a function of temperature. The real shape of the thermally unquenched TL glow curves is completely unknown. In the present work an attempt is made to reconstruct these unquenched glow curves from the quenched experimental data, and for two different types of quartz samples. The reconstruction is based on the values of the thermal quenching parameter W (activation energy) and C (a dimensionless constant), which are known from recent experimental work on these two samples. A computerized glow-curve deconvolution (CGCD) analysis was performed twice for both the reconstructed and the experimental TL glow curves. Special attention was paid to check for consistency between the results of these two independent CGCD analyses. The investigation showed that the reconstruction attempt was successful, and it is concluded that the analysis of reconstructed TL glow curves can provide improved values of the kinetic parameters E, s for the glow peaks of quartz. This also leads to a better evaluation of the half-lives of electron trapping levels used for dosimetry and luminescence dating.

  14. Spectral reconstruction for shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuxia; Chernavskaia, Olga; Popp, Jürgen; Bocklitz, Thomas

    2018-08-15

    Fluorescence emission is one of the major obstacles to apply Raman spectroscopy in biological investigations. It is usually several orders more intense than Raman scattering and hampers further analysis. In cases where the fluorescence emission is too intense to be efficiently removed via routine mathematical baseline correction algorithms, an alternative approach is needed. One alternative approach is shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS), where two Raman spectra are recorded with two slightly different excitation wavelengths. Ideally, the fluorescence emission at the two excitations does not change while the Raman spectrum shifts according to the excitation wavelength. Hence the fluorescence is removed in the difference of the two recorded Raman spectra. For better interpretability a spectral reconstruction procedure is necessary to recover the fluorescence-free Raman spectrum. This is challenging due to the intensity variations between the two recorded Raman spectra caused by unavoidable experimental changes as well as the presence of noise. Existent approaches suffer from drawbacks like spectral resolution loss, fluorescence residual, and artefacts. In this contribution, we proposed a reconstruction method based on non-negative least squares (NNLS), where the intensity variations between the two measurements are utilized in the reconstruction model. The method achieved fluorescence-free reconstruction on three real-world SERDS datasets without significant information loss. Thereafter, we quantified the performance of the reconstruction based on artificial datasets from four aspects: reconstructed spectral resolution, precision of reconstruction, signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), and fluorescence residual. The artificial datasets were constructed with varied Raman to fluorescence intensity ratio (RFIR), SNR, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), excitation wavelength shift, and fluorescence variation between the two spectra. It was demonstrated that

  15. Surface reconstruction through poisson disk sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguang Hou

    Full Text Available This paper intends to generate the approximate Voronoi diagram in the geodesic metric for some unbiased samples selected from original points. The mesh model of seeds is then constructed on basis of the Voronoi diagram. Rather than constructing the Voronoi diagram for all original points, the proposed strategy is to run around the obstacle that the geodesic distances among neighboring points are sensitive to nearest neighbor definition. It is obvious that the reconstructed model is the level of detail of original points. Hence, our main motivation is to deal with the redundant scattered points. In implementation, Poisson disk sampling is taken to select seeds and helps to produce the Voronoi diagram. Adaptive reconstructions can be achieved by slightly changing the uniform strategy in selecting seeds. Behaviors of this method are investigated and accuracy evaluations are done. Experimental results show the proposed method is reliable and effective.

  16. Wigner Function Reconstruction in Levitated Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muddassar; Toroš, Marko; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate the reconstruction of theWigner function from marginal distributions of the motion of a single trapped particle using homodyne detection. We show that it is possible to generate quantum states of levitated optomechanical systems even under the efect of continuous measurement by the trapping laser light. We describe the opto-mechanical coupling for the case of the particle trapped by a free-space focused laser beam, explicitly for the case without an optical cavity. We use the scheme to reconstruct the Wigner function of experimental data in perfect agreement with the expected Gaussian distribution of a thermal state of motion. This opens a route for quantum state preparation in levitated optomechanics.

  17. Hopfield neural network in HEP track reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muresan, R.; Pentia, M.

    1997-01-01

    In experimental particle physics, pattern recognition problems, specifically for neural network methods, occur frequently in track finding or feature extraction. Track finding is a combinatorial optimization problem. Given a set of points in Euclidean space, one tries the reconstruction of particle trajectories, subject to smoothness constraints.The basic ingredients in a neural network are the N binary neurons and the synaptic strengths connecting them. In our case the neurons are the segments connecting all possible point pairs.The dynamics of the neural network is given by a local updating rule wich evaluates for each neuron the sign of the 'upstream activity'. An updating rule in the form of sigmoid function is given. The synaptic strengths are defined in terms of angle between the segments and the lengths of the segments implied in the track reconstruction. An algorithm based on Hopfield neural network has been developed and tested on the track coordinates measured by silicon microstrip tracking system

  18. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  19. Penile surgery and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovic, Sava V; Djordjevic, Miroslav L J; Kekic, Zoran K; Djakovic, Nenad G

    2002-05-01

    This review will highlight recent advances in the field of penile reconstructive surgery in the paediatric and adult population. It is based on the work published during the year 2001. Besides the anatomical and histological studies of the penis, major contributions have been described in congenital and acquired penile anomalies. Also, a few new techniques and modifications of old procedures are described in order to improve the final functional and aesthetic outcome. The techniques for penile enlargement present a trend in the new millennium, but are still at the stage of investigation.

  20. Progressive Reconstruction: A Methodology for Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohr, Karl C

    2006-01-01

    ... these nations in accordance with stated United States' goals. The argument follows closely current and developing United States military doctrine on stabilization, reconstruction, and counterinsurgency operations...

  1. Experimental Studies of the Effects of Anode Composition and Process Parameters on Anode Slime Adhesion and Cathode Copper Purity by Performing Copper Electrorefining in a Pilot-Scale Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weizhi; Wang, Shijie; Free, Michael L.

    2016-10-01

    Copper electrorefining tests were conducted in a pilot-scale cell under commercial tankhouse environment to study the effects of anode compositions, current density, cathode blank width, and flow rate on anode slime behavior and cathode copper purity. Three different types of anodes (high, mid, and low impurity levels) were used in the tests and were analyzed under SEM/EDS. The harvested copper cathodes were weighed and analyzed for impurities concentrations using DC Arc. The adhered slimes and released slimes were collected, weighed, and analyzed for compositions using ICP. It was shown that the lead-to-arsenic ratio in the anodes affects the sintering and coalescence of slime particles. High current density condition can improve anode slime adhesion and cathode purity by intensifying slime particles' coalescence and dissolving part of the particles. Wide cathode blanks can raise the anodic current densities significantly and result in massive release of large slime particle aggregates, which are not likely to contaminate the cathode copper. Low flow rate can cause anode passivation and increase local temperatures in front of the anode, which leads to very intense sintering and coalescence of slime particles. The results and analyses of the tests present potential solutions for industrial copper electrorefining process.

  2. DIRAC universal pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.; Krzemien, W.; Consortium, DIRAC

    2017-10-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing models, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are in the form of opportunistic ones. Most but not all of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. In addition, some of them, present opportunities for multi-processor computing slots to the users. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to provide the transparent, uniform interface has become essential. The transparent access to the underlying resources is realized by implementing the pilot model. DIRAC’s newest generation of generic pilots (the so-called Pilots 2.0) are the “pilots for all the skies”, and have been successfully released in production more than a year ago. They use a plugin mechanism that makes them easily adaptable. Pilots 2.0 have been used for fetching and running jobs on every type of resource, being it a Worker Node (WN) behind a CREAM/ARC/HTCondor/DIRAC Computing element, a Virtual Machine running on IaaC infrastructures like Vac or BOINC, on IaaS cloud resources managed by Vcycle, the LHCb High Level Trigger farm nodes, and any type of opportunistic computing resource. Make a machine a “Pilot Machine”, and all diversities between them will disappear. This contribution describes how pilots are made suitable for different resources, and the recent steps taken towards a fully unified framework, including monitoring. Also, the cases of multi-processor computing slots either on real or virtual machines, with the whole node or a partition of it, is discussed.

  3. PULSE Pilot Certification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Pape-Lindstrom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The pilot certification process is an ambitious, nationwide endeavor designed to motivate important changes in life sciences education that are in line with the recommendations of the 2011 Vision and Change Report: A Call to Action (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2011.  It is the goal of the certification process to acknowledge departments that have progressed towards full implementation of the tenets of Vision and Change and to motivate departments that have not begun to adopt the recommendations to consider doing so.  More than 70 life science departments applied to be part of the pilot certification process, funded by a National Science Foundation grant, and eight were selected based on initial evidence of transformed and innovative educational practices.  The programs chosen represent a wide variety of schools, including two-year colleges, liberal-arts institutions, regional comprehensive colleges, research universities and minority serving institutions.  Outcomes from this pilot were released June 1, 2015 (www.pulsecommunity.org, with all eight programs being recognized as having progressed along a continuum of change.  Five levels of achievement were defined as PULSE Pilot Progression Levels.  Of the eight departments in the pilot, one achieved “PULSE Progression Level III: Accomplished”.  Six departments achieved “PULSE Progression Level II: Developing” and one pilot department achieved “PULSE Progression Level I: Beginning”.  All of the schools have made significant movement towards the recommendations of Vision and Change relative to a traditional life sciences curriculum.  Overall, the response from the eight pilot schools has been positive. 

  4. Population exposure dose reconstruction for the Urals Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vorobiova, M.I.; Burmistrov, D.S.; Khokhryakov, V.V.; Suslova, K.G.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.

    1996-06-01

    This presentation describes the first preliminary results of an ongoing joint Russian-US pilot feasibility study. Many people participated in workshops to determine what Russian and United States scientists could do together in the area of dose reconstruction in the Urals population. Most of the results presented here came from a joint work shop in St. Petersburg, Russia (11-13 July 1995). The Russians at the workshop represented the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), the Mayak Industrial Association, and Branch One of the Moscow Biophysics Institute. The US Collaborators were Dr. Anspaugh of LLNL, Dr. Nippier of PNL, and Dr. Bouville of the National Cancer Institute. The objective of the first year of collaboration was to look at the source term and levels of radiation contamination, the historical data available, and the results of previous work carried out by Russian scientists, and to determine a conceptual model for dose reconstruction

  5. Retrospective reconstruction of personal doses using mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phones are among objects usable for retrospective reconstruction of doses received by persons irradiated from serious radiation accidents or terrorist acts involving radioactivity. In this respect, it is an advantage of mobile phones that they are often worn close to the body and are used by the majority of population. Like other portable electronic devices, mobile phones contain electronic components which can include ceramic materials exhibiting radiation induced luminescence. Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) is an example; its layers are often used in chip resistors. This work summarizes the results of a pilot study investigating the dosimetric potential of Al2O3 measured via thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). A trial dose reconstruction performed with two mobile phones is described. It is shown that the material exhibits favourable dosimetric properties and the method is sufficiently accurate and operative for personal accident dosimetry purposes. (orig.)

  6. Linking the Pilot Structural Model and Pilot Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward; Hess, Ronald; Aponso, Bimal; Godfroy-Cooper, Martine

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral models are developed that closely reproduced pulsive control response of two pilots using markedly different control techniques while conducting a tracking task. An intriguing find was that the pilots appeared to: 1) produce a continuous, internally-generated stick signal that they integrated in time; 2) integrate the actual stick position; and 3) compare the two integrations to either issue or cease a pulse command. This suggests that the pilots utilized kinesthetic feedback in order to sense and integrate stick position, supporting the hypothesis that pilots can access and employ the proprioceptive inner feedback loop proposed by Hess's pilot Structural Model. A Pilot Cost Index was developed, whose elements include estimated workload, performance, and the degree to which the pilot employs kinesthetic feedback. Preliminary results suggest that a pilot's operating point (parameter values) may be based on control style and index minimization.

  7. 76 FR 54095 - Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... [Docket No.: FAA-2008-0938; Amendment Nos. 61-128, 91-324, 141-15, and 142-7] RIN 2120-AJ18 Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification Rules AGENCY... regulations concerning pilot, flight instructor, and pilot school certification. This rule will require pilot...

  8. Synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litzenberg, Dale W.; Hadley, Scott W.; Tyagi, Neelam; Balter, James M.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2007-01-01

    Variations in target volume position between and during treatment fractions can lead to measurable differences in the dose distribution delivered to each patient. Current methods to estimate the ongoing cumulative delivered dose distribution make idealized assumptions about individual patient motion based on average motions observed in a population of patients. In the delivery of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multi-leaf collimator (MLC), errors are introduced in both the implementation and delivery processes. In addition, target motion and MLC motion can lead to dosimetric errors from interplay effects. All of these effects may be of clinical importance. Here we present a method to compute delivered dose distributions for each treatment beam and fraction, which explicitly incorporates synchronized real-time patient motion data and real-time fluence and machine configuration data. This synchronized dynamic dose reconstruction method properly accounts for the two primary classes of errors that arise from delivering IMRT with an MLC: (a) Interplay errors between target volume motion and MLC motion, and (b) Implementation errors, such as dropped segments, dose over/under shoot, faulty leaf motors, tongue-and-groove effect, rounded leaf ends, and communications delays. These reconstructed dose fractions can then be combined to produce high-quality determinations of the dose distribution actually received to date, from which individualized adaptive treatment strategies can be determined

  9. LHCb; LHCb Jet Reconstruction

    CERN Multimedia

    Augusto, O

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than $4 \\times 10^{32} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1.02 $fb^{-1}$ on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test pertubative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space $\\eta \\times \\phi$ and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the calo...

  10. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context, qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  11. Three-dimensional ICT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Aidong; Li Ju; Chen Fa; Sun Lingxia

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional ICT reconstruction method is the hot topic of recent ICT technology research. In the context qualified visual three-dimensional ICT pictures are achieved through multi-piece two-dimensional images accumulation by order, combining with thresholding method and linear interpolation. Different direction and different position images of the reconstructed pictures are got by rotation and interception respectively. The convenient and quick method is significantly instructive to more complicated three-dimensional reconstruction of ICT images. (authors)

  12. CAT reconstruction and potting comparison of a LMFBR fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betten, P.R.; Tow, D.M.

    1984-04-01

    A standard Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassembly used in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) was investigated, by remote techniques, for fuel bundle distortion by both nondestructive and destructive methods, and the results from both methods were compared. The non-destructive method employed neutron tomography to reconstruct the locations of fuel elements through the use of a maximum entropy reconstruction algorithm known as MENT. The destructive method consisted of ''potting'' (a technique that embeds and permanently fixes the fuel elements in a solid matrix) the subassembly, and then cutting and polishing the individual sections. The comparison indicated that the tomography reconstruction provided good results in describing the bundle geometry and spacer-wire locations, with the overall resolution being on the order of a spacer-wire diameter. A dimensional consistency check indicated that the element and spacer-wire dimensions were accurately reproduced in the reconstruction

  13. Energy reconstruction in the long-baseline neutrino experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosel, U; Lalakulich, O; Gallmeister, K

    2014-04-18

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment aims at measuring fundamental physical parameters to high precision and exploring physics beyond the standard model. Nuclear targets introduce complications towards that aim. We investigate the uncertainties in the energy reconstruction, based on quasielastic scattering relations, due to nuclear effects. The reconstructed event distributions as a function of energy tend to be smeared out and shifted by several 100 MeV in their oscillatory structure if standard event selection is used. We show that a more restrictive experimental event selection offers the possibility to reach the accuracy needed for a determination of the mass ordering and the CP-violating phase. Quasielastic-based energy reconstruction could thus be a viable alternative to the calorimetric reconstruction also at higher energies.

  14. Digital reconstruction of Young's fringes using Fresnel transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulenovic, Rudi; Song, Yaozu; Renninger, P.; Groll, Manfred

    1997-11-01

    This paper deals with the digital numerical reconstruction of Young's fringes from laser speckle photography by means of the Fresnel-transformation. The physical model of the optical reconstruction of a specklegram is a near-field Fresnel-diffraction phenomenon which can be mathematically described by the Fresnel-transformation. Therefore, the interference phenomena can be directly calculated by a microcomputer.If additional a CCD-camera is used for specklegram recording the measurement procedure and evaluation process can be completely carried out in a digital way. Compared with conventional laser speckle photography no holographic plates, no wet development process and no optical specklegram reconstruction are needed. These advantages reveal a wide future in scientific and engineering applications. The basic principle of the numerical reconstruction is described, the effects of experimental parameters of Young's fringes are analyzed and representative results are presented.

  15. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  16. Entropy and transverse section reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A new approach to the reconstruction of a transverse section using projection data from multiple views incorporates the concept of maximum entropy. The principle of maximizing information entropy embodies the assurance of minimizing bias or prejudice in the reconstruction. Using maximum entropy is a necessary condition for the reconstructed image. This entropy criterion is most appropriate for 3-D reconstruction of objects from projections where the system is underdetermined or the data are limited statistically. This is the case in nuclear medicine time limitations in patient studies do not yield sufficient projections

  17. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  18. Orbital Reconstruction: Patient-Specific Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using a Mirroring Technique and a Customized Titanium Mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsitano, Achille; Badiali, Giovanni; Pizzigallo, Angelo; Marchetti, Claudio

    2016-10-01

    Enophthalmos is a severe complication of primary reconstruction of orbital floor fractures. The goal of secondary reconstruction procedures is to restore symmetrical globe positions to recover function and aesthetics. The authors propose a new method of orbital floor reconstruction using a mirroring technique and a customized titanium mesh, printed using a direct metal laser-sintering method. This reconstructive protocol involves 4 steps: mirroring of the healthy orbit at the affected site, virtual design of a patient-specific orbital floor mesh, CAM procedures for direct laser-sintering of the customized titanium mesh, and surgical insertion of the device. Using a computed tomography data set, the normal, uninjured side of the craniofacial skeleton was reflected onto the contralateral injured side, and a reconstructive orbital floor mesh was designed virtually on the mirrored orbital bone surface. The solid-to-layer files of the mesh were then manufactured using direct metal laser sintering, which resolves the shaping and bending biases inherent in the indirect method. An intraoperative navigation system ensured accuracy of the entire procedure. Clinical outcomes were assessed using 3dMD photogrammetry and computed tomography data in 7 treated patients. The technique described here appears to be a viable method to correct complex orbital floor defects needing delayed reconstruction. This study represents the first step in the development of a wider experimental protocol for orbital floor reconstruction using computer-assisted design-computer-assisted manufacturing technology.

  19. Reconstruction of an InAs nanowire using geometric and algebraic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, R S; Boothroyd, C B; König, S; Alpers, A; Dunin-Borkowski, R E

    2011-01-01

    Geometric tomography and conventional algebraic tomography algorithms are used to reconstruct cross-sections of an InAs nanowire from a tilt series of experimental annular dark-field images. Both algorithms are also applied to a test object to assess what factors affect the reconstruction quality. When using the present algorithms, geometric tomography is faster, but artifacts in the reconstruction may be difficult to recognize.

  20. Reconstruction of an InAs nanowire using geometric and algebraic tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, Robert S.; König, S.; Alpers, A.

    2011-01-01

    Geometric tomography and conventional algebraic tomography algorithms are used to reconstruct cross-sections of an InAs nanowire from a tilt series of experimental annular dark-field images. Both algorithms are also applied to a test object to assess what factors affect the reconstruction quality....... When using the present algorithms, geometric tomography is faster, but artifacts in the reconstruction may be difficult to recognize....

  1. Enhancing Tomo-PIV reconstruction quality by reducing ghost particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, C M; Baidya, R; Marusic, I

    2013-01-01

    A technique to enhance the reconstruction quality and consequently the accuracy of the velocity vector field obtained in Tomo-PIV experiments is presented here. The methodology involves detecting and eliminating spurious outliers in the reconstructed intensity field (ghost particles). A simulacrum matching-based reconstruction enhancement (SMRE) technique is proposed, which utilizes the characteristic shape and size of actual particles to remove ghost particles in the reconstructed intensity field. An assessment of SMRE is performed by a quantitative comparison of Tomo-PIV simulation results and DNS data, together with a comparison to Tomo-PIV experimental data measured in a turbulent channel flow at a matched Reynolds number (Re τ = 937) to the DNS study. For the simulation data, a comparative study is performed on the reconstruction quality based on an ideal reconstruction determined from known particle positions. The results suggest that a significant improvement in the reconstruction quality and flow statistics is achievable at typical seeding densities used in Tomo-PIV experiments. This improvement is further amplified at higher seeding densities, enabling the use of up to twice the typical seeding densities currently used in Tomo-PIV experiments. A reduction of spurious vectors present in the velocity field is also observed based on a median outlier detection criterion. The application of SMRE to Tomo-PIV experimental data shows an improvement in flow statistics, comparable to the improvement seen in simulations. Finally, due to the non-iterative nature of SMRE, the increase in processing time is marginal since only a single pass of the reconstruction algorithm is required. (paper)

  2. User Participation in Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Pilot implementations provide users with real-work experiences of how a system will affect their daily work before the design of the system is finalized. On the basis of a pilot implementation of a system for coordinating the transport of patients by hospital porters, we investigate pilot...... implementation as a method for participatory design. We find that to foster participation and learning about user needs a pilot implementation must create a space for reflecting on use, in addition to the space for using the pilot system. The space for reflection must also exist during the activities preparing...... the use of the pilot system because the porters and nurses learned about their needs throughout the pilot implementation, not just during use. Finally, we discuss how the scope and duration of a pilot implementation influence the conditions for participation....

  3. Adaptive multiresolution method for MAP reconstruction in electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, Erman, E-mail: erman.acar@tut.fi [Department of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 553, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); BioMediTech, Tampere University of Technology, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Peltonen, Sari; Ruotsalainen, Ulla [Department of Signal Processing, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 553, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); BioMediTech, Tampere University of Technology, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere (Finland)

    2016-11-15

    3D image reconstruction with electron tomography holds problems due to the severely limited range of projection angles and low signal to noise ratio of the acquired projection images. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods have been successful in compensating for the missing information and suppressing noise with their intrinsic regularization techniques. There are two major problems in MAP reconstruction methods: (1) selection of the regularization parameter that controls the balance between the data fidelity and the prior information, and (2) long computation time. One aim of this study is to provide an adaptive solution to the regularization parameter selection problem without having additional knowledge about the imaging environment and the sample. The other aim is to realize the reconstruction using sequences of resolution levels to shorten the computation time. The reconstructions were analyzed in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency using a simulated biological phantom and publically available experimental datasets of electron tomography. The numerical and visual evaluations of the experiments show that the adaptive multiresolution method can provide more accurate results than the weighted back projection (WBP), simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT), and sequential MAP expectation maximization (sMAPEM) method. The method is superior to sMAPEM also in terms of computation time and usability since it can reconstruct 3D images significantly faster without requiring any parameter to be set by the user. - Highlights: • An adaptive multiresolution reconstruction method is introduced for electron tomography. • The method provides more accurate results than the conventional reconstruction methods. • The missing wedge and noise problems can be compensated by the method efficiently.

  4. Dynamic Error Analysis Method for Vibration Shape Reconstruction of Smart FBG Plate Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape reconstruction of aerospace plate structure is an important issue for safe operation of aerospace vehicles. One way to achieve such reconstruction is by constructing smart fiber Bragg grating (FBG plate structure with discrete distributed FBG sensor arrays using reconstruction algorithms in which error analysis of reconstruction algorithm is a key link. Considering that traditional error analysis methods can only deal with static data, a new dynamic data error analysis method are proposed based on LMS algorithm for shape reconstruction of smart FBG plate structure. Firstly, smart FBG structure and orthogonal curved network based reconstruction method is introduced. Then, a dynamic error analysis model is proposed for dynamic reconstruction error analysis. Thirdly, the parameter identification is done for the proposed dynamic error analysis model based on least mean square (LMS algorithm. Finally, an experimental verification platform is constructed and experimental dynamic reconstruction analysis is done. Experimental results show that the dynamic characteristics of the reconstruction performance for plate structure can be obtained accurately based on the proposed dynamic error analysis method. The proposed method can also be used for other data acquisition systems and data processing systems as a general error analysis method.

  5. Optimal reconstruction angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, G.O. Jr.; Knight, L.

    1979-07-01

    The question of optimal projection angles has recently become of interest in the field of reconstruction from projections. Here, studies are concentrated on the n x n pixel space, where literative algorithms such as ART and direct matrix techniques due to Katz are considered. The best angles are determined in a Gauss--Markov statistical sense as well as with respect to a function-theoretical error bound. The possibility of making photon intensity a function of angle is also examined. Finally, the best angles to use in an ART-like algorithm are studied. A certain set of unequally spaced angles was found to be preferred in several contexts. 15 figures, 6 tables

  6. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot...

  7. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using...... pilot projects as enabler of transition. Aspects of how to create trust and deal with distrust during a transition are addressed. The transition in focus is the concept of New Public Management and how it is applied in the management of the Employment Service in Denmark. The transition regards...

  8. CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korolev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of meniscal repair during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction.Materials and methods: 45 patients who underwent meniscal repair during arthroscopic ACL reconstruction between 2007 and 2013 by the same surgeon were included in the study. In total, fifty meniscus were repaired (26 medial and 24 lateral. Procedures included use of one up to four Fast-Fix implants (Smith & Nephew. In five cases both medial and lateral meniscus were repaired. Cincinnati, IKDC and Lysholm scales were used for long-term outcome analysis.Results: 19 male and 26 female patients were included in the study aging from 15 to 59 years (mean age 33,2±1,5. Median time from injury to surgical procedure was zero months (ranging zero to one. Mean time from surgery to scale analysis was 55,9±3 months (ranged 20-102. Median Cincinnati score was 97 (ranged 90-100, with excellent results in 93% of cases (43 patients and good results in 7% (3 patients. Median IKDC score was 90,8 (ranged 86,2-95,4, with excellent outcomes in 51% of cases (23 patients, good in 33% (15 patients and satisfactory in 16% (7 patients. Median Lysholm score was 95 (ranged 90-100, with excellent outcomes in 76% of cases (34 patients and good in 24% (11 patients. Authors identified no statistical differences when comparing survey results in age, sex and time from trauma to surgery.Conclusions: Results of the present study match the data from orthopedic literature that prove meniscal repair as a safe and efficient procedure with good and excellent outcomes. All-inside meniscal repair can be used irrespectively of patients' age and is efficient even in case of delayed procedures.

  9. Tracheal transplantation for carinal reconstruction in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, K; Inutsuka, K; Hiratsuka, M; Makihata, S; Okabayashi, K; Shiraishi, T; Shirakusa, T

    1998-09-01

    Experimental carinal allotransplantation has been performed with tracheocarinal Y-shaped allografts in dogs. In this study we tried canine carinal reconstruction with cylindrical allografts. Carinal reconstruction was performed with allotransplantation of cylindrical trachea in dogs, and graft healing was evaluated by bronchoscopic observation, mucosal blood flow measurement, and histologic examination. A section of the recipient carina containing five tracheal rings and two main stem bronchi was removed, and a donor trachea seven rings long was inserted between the recipient trachea and the left main stem bronchus; then side-to-end anastomosis was performed between the graft midportion and recipient right main stem bronchus (new carina). The grafts were wrapped with pedicled omentum. Fresh grafts were transplanted into one group of dogs (n=8 ), and grafts cryopreserved for 1 week were transplanted into another group (n=7). No anastomotic leakage occurred in any dog. Excellent healing of grafts and graft anastomoses was observed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy in six dogs (75%) in the fresh graft group and in four dogs (57%) in the cryopreserved graft group. The mucosal blood flow in the new carina decreased remarkably and, although it recovered, mucosal blood flow remained under the preoperative level on day 28 after the operation. Cylindrical tracheal allotransplantation is useful for carinal reconstruction, and the method of side-to-end anastomosis between the donor trachea and recipient bronchus is a feasible and accessible procedure in dogs.

  10. Biofabrication and biomaterials for urinary tract reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsawy MM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moustafa M Elsawy,1–3 Achala de Mel1 1Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, Royal Free Hospital, NHS Trust, University College London (UCL, 2Division of Reconstructive Urology, University College London Hospitals (uclh, London, UK; 3Urology Department, School of Medicine, Alexandria, University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Reconstructive urologists are constantly facing diverse and complex pathologies that require structural and functional restoration of urinary organs. There is always a demand for a biocompatible material to repair or substitute the urinary tract instead of using patient’s autologous tissues with its associated morbidity. Biomimetic approaches are tissue-engineering tactics aiming to tailor the material physical and biological properties to behave physiologically similar to the urinary system. This review highlights the different strategies to mimic urinary tissues including modifications in structure, surface chemistry, and cellular response of a range of biological and synthetic materials. The article also outlines the measures to minimize infectious complications, which might lead to graft failure. Relevant experimental and preclinical studies are discussed, as well as promising biomimetic approaches such as three-dimensional bioprinting. Keywords: reconstruction, biofunctionalization, tissue engineering, urinary tract

  11. Reconstruction of multiple line source attenuation maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celler, A.; Sitek, A.; Harrop, R.

    1996-01-01

    A simple configuration for a transmission source for the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was proposed, which utilizes a series of collimated line sources parallel to the axis of rotation of a camera. The detector is equipped with a standard parallel hole collimator. We have demonstrated that this type of source configuration can be used to generate sufficient data for the reconstruction of the attenuation map when using 8-10 line sources spaced by 3.5-4.5 cm for a 30 x 40cm detector at 65cm distance from the sources. Transmission data for a nonuniform thorax phantom was simulated, then binned and reconstructed using filtered backprojection (FBP) and iterative methods. The optimum maps are obtained with data binned into 2-3 bins and FBP reconstruction. The activity in the source was investigated for uniform and exponential activity distributions, as well as the effect of gaps and overlaps of the neighboring fan beams. A prototype of the line source has been built and the experimental verification of the technique has started

  12. On an image reconstruction method for ECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Akira; Suzuki, Takayuki; Nishimura, Yoshihiro

    2007-04-01

    An image by Eddy Current Testing(ECT) is a blurred image to original flaw shape. In order to reconstruct fine flaw image, a new image reconstruction method has been proposed. This method is based on an assumption that a very simple relationship between measured data and source were described by a convolution of response function and flaw shape. This assumption leads to a simple inverse analysis method with deconvolution.In this method, Point Spread Function (PSF) and Line Spread Function(LSF) play a key role in deconvolution processing. This study proposes a simple data processing to determine PSF and LSF from ECT data of machined hole and line flaw. In order to verify its validity, ECT data for SUS316 plate(200x200x10mm) with artificial machined hole and notch flaw had been acquired by differential coil type sensors(produced by ZETEC Inc). Those data were analyzed by the proposed method. The proposed method restored sharp discrete multiple hole image from interfered data by multiple holes. Also the estimated width of line flaw has been much improved compared with original experimental data. Although proposed inverse analysis strategy is simple and easy to implement, its validity to holes and line flaw have been shown by many results that much finer image than original image have been reconstructed.

  13. Reconstructing phylogenetic networks using maximum parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Luay; Jin, Guohua; Zhao, Fengmei; Mellor-Crummey, John

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenies - the evolutionary histories of groups of organisms - are one of the most widely used tools throughout the life sciences, as well as objects of research within systematics, evolutionary biology, epidemiology, etc. Almost every tool devised to date to reconstruct phylogenies produces trees; yet it is widely understood and accepted that trees oversimplify the evolutionary histories of many groups of organims, most prominently bacteria (because of horizontal gene transfer) and plants (because of hybrid speciation). Various methods and criteria have been introduced for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. Parsimony is one of the most widely used and studied criteria, and various accurate and efficient heuristics for reconstructing trees based on parsimony have been devised. Jotun Hein suggested a straightforward extension of the parsimony criterion to phylogenetic networks. In this paper we formalize this concept, and provide the first experimental study of the quality of parsimony as a criterion for constructing and evaluating phylogenetic networks. Our results show that, when extended to phylogenetic networks, the parsimony criterion produces promising results. In a great majority of the cases in our experiments, the parsimony criterion accurately predicts the numbers and placements of non-tree events.

  14. Single-Pilot Workload Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Hackworth, Carla; Burian, Barbara; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Drechsler, Gena; Silverman, Evan; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Integrated glass cockpit systems place a heavy cognitive load on pilots (Burian Dismukes, 2007). Researchers from the NASA Ames Flight Cognition Lab and the FAA Flight Deck Human Factors Lab examined task and workload management by single pilots. This poster describes pilot performance regarding programming a reroute while at cruise and meeting a waypoint crossing restriction on the initial descent.

  15. Pilot pulsar surveys with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.

    2013-01-01

    We are performing two complementary pilot pulsar surveys as part of LOFAR commissioning. The LOFAR Pilot Pulsar Survey (LPPS) is a shallow all-sky survey using an incoherent combination of LOFAR stations. The LOFAR Tied-Array Survey (LOTAS) is a deeper pilot survey using 19 simultaneous tied-array

  16. Reconstruction of electric systems (ELE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohutovic, P.

    2001-01-01

    The original design of WWER-230 units consisted of a single common system EEPS (essential electric power supply system) per unit. The establishment of redundancy 2 x 100% EEPS was a global task. The task was started during the 'Small reconstruction' - MR V1, continued in 'Gradual reconstruction' and finished in the year 2000. (author)

  17. Isotopic analyses of food crusts on pottery: Implications for dating and palaeocuisine reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, δ13C and δ15N, can be used to roughly reconstruct the former content of Stone Age cooking vessels. This was supported by measurements on experimental food crusts. The reconstruction of the ingredients used in the vessels is not only...

  18. Muon Energy Reconstruction Through the Multiple Scattering Method in the NO$\\mathrm{\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psihas Olmedo, Silvia Fernanda [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Neutrino energy measurements are a crucial component in the experimental study of neutrino oscillations. These measurements are done through the reconstruction of neutrino interactions and energy measurements of their products. This thesis presents the development of a technique to reconstruct the energy of muons from neutrino interactions in the NO$\\mathrm{\

  19. Muon Energy Reconstruction Through the Multiple Scattering Method in the NO$\\mathrm{\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psihas Olmedo, Silvia Fernanda [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino energy measurements are a crucial component in the experimental study of neutrino oscillations. These measurements are done through the reconstruction of neutrino interactions and energy measurements of their products. This thesis presents the development of a technique to reconstruct the energy of muons from neutrino interactions in the NO$\\mathrm{\

  20. Breast Reconstruction Following Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Bernd; Marx, Mario; Untch, Michael; Faridi, Andree

    2015-08-31

    About 8000 breast reconstructions after mastectomy are per - formed in Germany each year. It has become more difficult to advise patients because of the wide variety of heterologous and autologous techniques that are now available and because of changes in the recommendations about radiotherapy. This article is based on a review of pertinent articles (2005-2014) that were retrieved by a selective search employing the search terms "mastectomy" and "breast reconstruction." The goal of reconstruction is to achieve an oncologically safe and aestically satisfactory result for the patient over the long term. Heterologous, i.e., implant-based, breast reconstruction (IBR) and autologous breast reconstruction (ABR) are complementary techniques. Immediate reconstruction preserves the skin of the breast and its natural form and prevents the psychological trauma associated with mastectomy. If post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is not indicated, implant-based reconstruction with or without a net/acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is a common option. Complications such as seroma formation, infection, and explantation are significantly more common when an ADM is used (15.3% vs. 5.4% ). If PMRT is performed, then the complication rate of implant-based breast reconstruction is 1 to 48% ; in particular, Baker grade III/IV capsular fibrosis occurs in 7 to 22% of patients, and the prosthesis must be explanted in 9 to 41% . Primary or, preferably, secondary autologous reconstruction is an alternative. The results of ABR are more stable over the long term, but the operation is markedly more complex. Autologous breast reconstruction after PMRT does not increase the risk of serious complications (20.5% vs. 17.9% without radiotherapy). No randomized controlled trials have yet been conducted to compare the reconstructive techniques with each other. If radiotherapy will not be performed, immediate reconstruction with an implant is recommended. On the other hand, if post-mastectomy radiotherapy

  1. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blijderveen, Maarten van; Bramer, Eddy A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model piloted ignition times of wood and plastics. ► The model is applied on a packed bed. ► When the air flow is above a critical level, no ignition can take place. - Abstract: To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained.

  2. PILOT DECONTAMINATION THROUGH PILOT SEQUENCE HOPPING IN MASSIVE MIMO SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    path between one of the users and one of the base stations define one of the channels. The system comprises a pilot generation unit configured to assign pilot sequences randomly among the users and a pilot processing unit configured to filter the pilot sequences received from a user of interest so...... that the channel coefficient of the channel of the user of interest is determined. The pilot sequences received from the user of interest are contaminated by other non-orthogonal or identical pilot sequences from other users of the cell of interest or other cells. The filter is configured so that the contamination...... caused by the other non-orthogonal or identical pilot sequences from the other users is reduced....

  3. Reconstruction of Galileo Galilei's Experiment: The Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straulino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the "Third Day" of the "Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Concerning Two New Sciences" Galileo Galilei describes the famous experiment of the inclined plane and uses it to bring an experimental confirmation to the laws of uniformly accelerated motion. We describe a reconstruction of the experiment and how the results can be used for…

  4. RECONSTRUCTION OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY MODELS FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reconstruction of Human Lung Morphology Models from Magnetic Resonance ImagesT. B. Martonen (Experimental Toxicology Division, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709) and K. K. Isaacs (School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514)

  5. Iterative reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks: an algorithmic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L Barrett

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of complete, publicly available genome sequences is now greater than 200, and this number is expected to rapidly grow in the near future as metagenomic and environmental sequencing efforts escalate and the cost of sequencing drops. In order to make use of this data for understanding particular organisms and for discerning general principles about how organisms function, it will be necessary to reconstruct their various biochemical reaction networks. Principal among these will be transcriptional regulatory networks. Given the physical and logical complexity of these networks, the various sources of (often noisy data that can be utilized for their elucidation, the monetary costs involved, and the huge number of potential experiments approximately 10(12 that can be performed, experiment design algorithms will be necessary for synthesizing the various computational and experimental data to maximize the efficiency of regulatory network reconstruction. This paper presents an algorithm for experimental design to systematically and efficiently reconstruct transcriptional regulatory networks. It is meant to be applied iteratively in conjunction with an experimental laboratory component. The algorithm is presented here in the context of reconstructing transcriptional regulation for metabolism in Escherichia coli, and, through a retrospective analysis with previously performed experiments, we show that the produced experiment designs conform to how a human would design experiments. The algorithm is able to utilize probability estimates based on a wide range of computational and experimental sources to suggest experiments with the highest potential of discovering the greatest amount of new regulatory knowledge.

  6. Magnetic flux reconstruction methods for shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsui, Chi-Wa.

    1993-12-01

    The use of a variational method permits the Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation to be solved by reducing the problem of solving the 2D non-linear partial differential equation to the problem of minimizing a function of several variables. This high speed algorithm approximately solves the GS equation given a parameterization of the plasma boundary and the current profile (p' and FF' functions). The author treats the current profile parameters as unknowns. The goal is to reconstruct the internal magnetic flux surfaces of a tokamak plasma and the toroidal current density profile from the external magnetic measurements. This is a classic problem of inverse equilibrium determination. The current profile parameters can be evaluated by several different matching procedures. Matching of magnetic flux and field at the probe locations using the Biot-Savart law and magnetic Green's function provides a robust method of magnetic reconstruction. The matching of poloidal magnetic field on the plasma surface provides a unique method of identifying the plasma current profile. However, the power of this method is greatly compromised by the experimental errors of the magnetic signals. The Casing Principle provides a very fast way to evaluate the plasma contribution to the magnetic signals. It has the potential of being a fast matching method. The performance of this method is hindered by the accuracy of the poloidal magnetic field computed from the equilibrium solver. A flux reconstruction package has been implemented which integrates a vacuum field solver using a filament model for the plasma, a multi-layer perception neural network as an interface, and the volume integration of plasma current density using Green's functions as a matching method for the current profile parameters. The flux reconstruction package is applied to compare with the ASEQ and EFIT data. The results are promising

  7. Evaluatie pilot Financieringslink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenboom, N.; Rougoor, W.; Fijnje, J.; Biesenbeek, C.

    Veel mkb-ondernemers hebben moeite om financiering te krijgen. Daarom heeft het ministerie van Economische Zaken in 2015 de pilot Financieringslink (Fink) opgezet– een online portal waar het mkb een financieringsverkenning kan indienen. Het hoofddoel van Fink is het verbeteren, standaardiseren en

  8. The Epoch Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenberg, Donald M.; Molenaar, Richard A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a program for high school students who are between their junior and senior years which provides an opportunity to take part in aviation courses at the University of North Dakota. Students take courses leading to a private pilot license, and earn college credit for their efforts. (JN)

  9. Evaluatie pilot Endogene Factoren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viet AL; Fiolet D; Voortman JK; Rover C de; Hanning C; Uitenbroek D; Loon AJM van; PZO; GGD Achterhoek; GGD Midden Holland; GG&GD Amsterdam

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the project on the Local and National Monitor for Public Health several pilot studies were carried out in three Municipal Health Centres (GGDs). The first aim was to investigate the feasibility of a physical examination at the health centre in combination with a health interview (or

  10. A fast sparse reconstruction algorithm for electrical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jia; Xu, Yanbin; Tan, Chao; Dong, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Electrical tomography (ET) has been widely investigated due to its advantages of being non-radiative, low-cost and high-speed. However, the image reconstruction of ET is a nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem and the imaging results are easily affected by measurement noise. A sparse reconstruction algorithm based on L 1 regularization is robust to noise and consequently provides a high quality of reconstructed images. In this paper, a sparse reconstruction by separable approximation algorithm (SpaRSA) is extended to solve the ET inverse problem. The algorithm is competitive with the fastest state-of-the-art algorithms in solving the standard L 2 −L 1 problem. However, it is computationally expensive when the dimension of the matrix is large. To further improve the calculation speed of solving inverse problems, a projection method based on the Krylov subspace is employed and combined with the SpaRSA algorithm. The proposed algorithm is tested with image reconstruction of electrical resistance tomography (ERT). Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the computational time and improve the noise robustness for the image reconstruction. (paper)

  11. Prospects of linear reconstruction in atomic resolution electron holographic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krehl, Jonas; Lubk, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Tomography commonly requires a linear relation between the measured signal and the underlying specimen property; for Electron Holographic Tomography this is given by the Phase Grating Approximation (PGA). While largely valid at medium resolution, discrepancies arise at high resolution imaging conditions. We set out to investigate the artefacts that are produced if the reconstruction still assumes the PGA even with an atomic resolution tilt series. To forego experimental difficulties the holographic tilt series was simulated. The reconstructed electric potential clearly shows peaks at the positions of the atoms. These peaks have characterisitic deformations, which can be traced back to the defocus a particular atom has in the holograms of the tilt series. Exchanging an atom for one of a different atomic number results in a significant change in the reconstructed potential that is well contained within the atom's peak. - Highlights: • We simulate a holographic tilt series of a nanocrystal with atomic resolution. • Using PGA-based Holographic Tomography we reconstruct the atomic structure. • The reconstruction shows characteristic artefacts, chiefly caused by defocus. • Changing one atom's Z produces a well localised in the reconstruction

  12. Prospects of linear reconstruction in atomic resolution electron holographic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krehl, Jonas, E-mail: Jonas.Krehl@triebenberg.de; Lubk, Axel

    2015-03-15

    Tomography commonly requires a linear relation between the measured signal and the underlying specimen property; for Electron Holographic Tomography this is given by the Phase Grating Approximation (PGA). While largely valid at medium resolution, discrepancies arise at high resolution imaging conditions. We set out to investigate the artefacts that are produced if the reconstruction still assumes the PGA even with an atomic resolution tilt series. To forego experimental difficulties the holographic tilt series was simulated. The reconstructed electric potential clearly shows peaks at the positions of the atoms. These peaks have characterisitic deformations, which can be traced back to the defocus a particular atom has in the holograms of the tilt series. Exchanging an atom for one of a different atomic number results in a significant change in the reconstructed potential that is well contained within the atom's peak. - Highlights: • We simulate a holographic tilt series of a nanocrystal with atomic resolution. • Using PGA-based Holographic Tomography we reconstruct the atomic structure. • The reconstruction shows characteristic artefacts, chiefly caused by defocus. • Changing one atom's Z produces a well localised in the reconstruction.

  13. Iterative reconstruction of magnetic induction using Lorentz transmission electron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phatak, C.; Gürsoy, D.

    2015-01-01

    Intense ongoing research on complex nanomagnetic structures requires a fundamental understanding of the 3D magnetization and the stray fields around the nano-objects. 3D visualization of such fields offers the best way to achieve this. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy provides a suitable combination of high resolution and ability to quantitatively visualize the magnetization vectors using phase retrieval methods. In this paper, we present a formalism to represent the magnetic phase shift of electrons as a Radon transform of the magnetic induction of the sample. Using this formalism, we then present the application of common tomographic methods particularly the iterative methods, to reconstruct the 3D components of the vector field. We present an analysis of the effect of missing wedge and the limited angular sampling as well as reconstruction of complex 3D magnetization in a nanowire using simulations. - Highlights: • We present a formalism to represent electron-optical magnetic phase shift as a Radon transform of the 3D magnetic induction of the nano-object. • We have analyzed four different tomographic reconstruction methods for vectorial data reconstruction. • Reconstruction methods were tested for varying experimental limitations such as limited tilt range and limited angular sampling. • The analysis showed that Gridrec and SIRT methods performed better with lower errors than other reconstruction methods

  14. Method of reconstructing a moving pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, S J; Horton, R D; Hwang, D Q; Evans, R W; Brockington, S J; Johnson, J [UC Davis Department of Applied Science, Livermore, CA, 94551 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    We present a method of analyzing a set of N time signals f{sub i}(t) that consist of local measurements of the same physical observable taken at N sequential locations Z{sub i} along the length of an experimental device. The result is an algorithm for reconstructing an approximation F(z,t) of the field f(z,t) in the inaccessible regions between the points of measurement. We also explore the conditions needed for this approximation to hold, and test the algorithm under a variety of conditions. We apply this method to analyze the magnetic field measurements taken on the Compact Toroid Injection eXperiment (CTIX) plasma accelerator; providing a direct means of visualizing experimental data, quantifying global properties, and benchmarking simulation.

  15. Optical image reconstruction using DC data: simulations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huabei Jiang; Paulsen, K.D.; Oesterberg, U.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we explore optical image formation using a diffusion approximation of light propagation in tissue which is modelled with a finite-element method for optically heterogeneous media. We demonstrate successful image reconstruction based on absolute experimental DC data obtained with a continuous wave 633 nm He-Ne laser system and a 751 nm diode laser system in laboratory phantoms having two optically distinct regions. The experimental systems used exploit a tomographic type of data collection scheme that provides information from which a spatially variable optical property map is deduced. Reconstruction of scattering coefficient only and simultaneous reconstruction of both scattering and absorption profiles in tissue-like phantoms are obtained from measured and simulated data. Images with different contrast levels between the heterogeneity and the background are also reported and the results show that although it is possible to obtain qualitative visual information on the location and size of a heterogeneity, it may not be possible to quantitatively resolve contrast levels or optical properties using reconstructions from DC data only. Sensitivity of image reconstruction to noise in the measurement data is investigated through simulations. The application of boundary constraints has also been addressed. (author)

  16. Greedy algorithms for diffuse optical tomography reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileep, B. P. V.; Das, Tapan; Dutta, Pranab K.

    2018-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that reconstructs the optical parameters of a highly scattering medium. However, the inverse problem of DOT is ill-posed and highly nonlinear due to the zig-zag propagation of photons that diffuses through the cross section of tissue. The conventional DOT imaging methods iteratively compute the solution of forward diffusion equation solver which makes the problem computationally expensive. Also, these methods fail when the geometry is complex. Recently, the theory of compressive sensing (CS) has received considerable attention because of its efficient use in biomedical imaging applications. The objective of this paper is to solve a given DOT inverse problem by using compressive sensing framework and various Greedy algorithms such as orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP), and stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit (StOMP), regularized orthogonal matching pursuit (ROMP) and simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit (S-OMP) have been studied to reconstruct the change in the absorption parameter i.e, Δα from the boundary data. Also, the Greedy algorithms have been validated experimentally on a paraffin wax rectangular phantom through a well designed experimental set up. We also have studied the conventional DOT methods like least square method and truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) for comparison. One of the main features of this work is the usage of less number of source-detector pairs, which can facilitate the use of DOT in routine applications of screening. The performance metrics such as mean square error (MSE), normalized mean square error (NMSE), structural similarity index (SSIM), and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) have been used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms mentioned in this paper. Extensive simulation results confirm that CS based DOT reconstruction outperforms the conventional DOT imaging methods in terms of

  17. Practical algorithms for simulation and reconstruction of digital in-line holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2015-03-20

    Here we present practical methods for simulation and reconstruction of in-line digital holograms recorded with plane and spherical waves. The algorithms described here are applicable to holographic imaging of an object exhibiting absorption as well as phase-shifting properties. Optimal parameters, related to distances, sampling rate, and other factors for successful simulation and reconstruction of holograms are evaluated and criteria for the achievable resolution are worked out. Moreover, we show that the numerical procedures for the reconstruction of holograms recorded with plane and spherical waves are identical under certain conditions. Experimental examples of holograms and their reconstructions are also discussed.

  18. Reconstruction of photon number conditioned states using phase randomized homodyne measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrzanowski, H M; Assad, S M; Bernu, J; Hage, B; Lam, P K; Symul, T; Lund, A P; Ralph, T C

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the reconstruction of a photon number conditioned state without using a photon number discriminating detector. By using only phase randomized homodyne measurements, we reconstruct up to the three photon subtracted squeezed vacuum state. The reconstructed Wigner functions of these states show regions of pronounced negativity, signifying the non-classical nature of the reconstructed states. The techniques presented allow for complete characterization of the role of a conditional measurement on an ensemble of states, and might prove useful in systems where photon counting still proves technically challenging. (paper)

  19. Evidence-Based ACL Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carlos RODRIGUEZ-MERCHAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the literature regarding a number of topics related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACLreconstruction. The purpose of this article is to answer the following questions: 1 Bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB reconstruction or hamstring reconstruction (HR; 2 Double bundle or single bundle; 3 Allograft or authograft; 4 Early or late reconstruction; 5 Rate of return to sports after ACL reconstruction; 6 Rate of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction. A Cochrane Library and PubMed (MEDLINE search of systematic reviews and meta-analysis related to ACL reconstruction was performed. The key words were: ACL reconstruction, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The main criteria for selection were that the articles were systematic reviews and meta-analysesfocused on the aforementioned questions. Sixty-nine articles were found, but only 26 were selected and reviewed because they had a high grade (I-II of evidence. BPTB-R was associated with better postoperative knee stability but with a higher rate of morbidity. However, the results of both procedures in terms of functional outcome in the long-term were similar. The double-bundle ACL reconstruction technique showed better outcomes in rotational laxity, although functional recovery was similar between single-bundle and double-bundle. Autograft yielded better results than allograft. There was no difference between early and delayed reconstruction. 82% of patients were able to return to some kind of sport participation. 28% of patients presented radiological signs of osteoarthritis with a follow-up of minimum 10 years.

  20. Reconstructing human evolution

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074069

    1999-01-01

    One can reconstruct human evolution using modern genetic data and models based on the mathematical theory of evolution and its four major factors : mutation, natural selection, statistical fluctuations in finite populations (random genetic drift), and migration. Archaeology gives some help on the major dates and events of the process. Chances of studying ancient DNA are very limited but there have been a few successful results. Studying DNA instead of proteins, as was done until a few years ago, and in particular the DNA of mitochondria and of the Y chromosome which are transmitted, respectively, by the maternal line and the paternal line, has greatly simplified the analysis. It is now possible to carry the analysis on individuals, while earlier studies were of necessity based on populations. Also the evolution of ÒcultureÓ (i.e. what we learn from others), in particular that of languages, gives some help and can be greatly enlightened by genetic studies. Even though it is largely based on mechanisms of mut...

  1. Reconstructing Topological Graphs and Continua

    OpenAIRE

    Gartside, Paul; Pitz, Max F.; Suabedissen, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    The deck of a topological space $X$ is the set $\\mathcal{D}(X)=\\{[X \\setminus \\{x\\}] \\colon x \\in X\\}$, where $[Z]$ denotes the homeomorphism class of $Z$. A space $X$ is topologically reconstructible if whenever $\\mathcal{D}(X)=\\mathcal{D}(Y)$ then $X$ is homeomorphic to $Y$. It is shown that all metrizable compact connected spaces are reconstructible. It follows that all finite graphs, when viewed as a 1-dimensional cell-complex, are reconstructible in the topological sense, and more genera...

  2. Tomographic reconstruction of binary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Stéphane; Leclerc, Hugo; Hild, François

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm is proposed for reconstructing binary images from their projection along a set of different orientations. Based on a nonlinear transformation of the projection data, classical back-projection procedures can be used iteratively to converge to the sought image. A multiscale implementation allows for a faster convergence. The algorithm is tested on images up to 1 Mb definition, and an error free reconstruction is achieved with a very limited number of projection data, saving a factor of about 100 on the number of projections required for classical reconstruction algorithms.

  3. Slushy weightings for the optimal pilot model. [considering visual tracking task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillow, J. D.; Picha, D. G.; Anderson, R. O.

    1975-01-01

    A pilot model is described which accounts for the effect of motion cues in a well defined visual tracking task. The effect of visual and motion cues are accounted for in the model in two ways. First, the observation matrix in the pilot model is structured to account for the visual and motion inputs presented to the pilot. Secondly, the weightings in the quadratic cost function associated with the pilot model are modified to account for the pilot's perception of the variables he considers important in the task. Analytic results obtained using the pilot model are compared to experimental results and in general good agreement is demonstrated. The analytic model yields small improvements in tracking performance with the addition of motion cues for easily controlled task dynamics and large improvements in tracking performance with the addition of motion cues for difficult task dynamics.

  4. Penalized maximum likelihood reconstruction for x-ray differential phase-contrast tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendel, Bernhard; Teuffenbach, Maximilian von; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Koehler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to propose a cost function with regularization to iteratively reconstruct attenuation, phase, and scatter images simultaneously from differential phase contrast (DPC) acquisitions, without the need of phase retrieval, and examine its properties. Furthermore this reconstruction method is applied to an acquisition pattern that is suitable for a DPC tomographic system with continuously rotating gantry (sliding window acquisition), overcoming the severe smearing in noniterative reconstruction. Methods: We derive a penalized maximum likelihood reconstruction algorithm to directly reconstruct attenuation, phase, and scatter image from the measured detector values of a DPC acquisition. The proposed penalty comprises, for each of the three images, an independent smoothing prior. Image quality of the proposed reconstruction is compared to images generated with FBP and iterative reconstruction after phase retrieval. Furthermore, the influence between the priors is analyzed. Finally, the proposed reconstruction algorithm is applied to experimental sliding window data acquired at a synchrotron and results are compared to reconstructions based on phase retrieval. Results: The results show that the proposed algorithm significantly increases image quality in comparison to reconstructions based on phase retrieval. No significant mutual influence between the proposed independent priors could be observed. Further it could be illustrated that the iterative reconstruction of a sliding window acquisition results in images with substantially reduced smearing artifacts. Conclusions: Although the proposed cost function is inherently nonconvex, it can be used to reconstruct images with less aliasing artifacts and less streak artifacts than reconstruction methods based on phase retrieval. Furthermore, the proposed method can be used to reconstruct images of sliding window acquisitions with negligible smearing artifacts

  5. Accelerating image reconstruction in three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography on graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Huang, Chao; Kao, Yu-Jiun; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Oraevsky, Alexander A; Anastasio, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) inverse problem. However, most studies of OAT image reconstruction still employ two-dimensional imaging models. One important reason is because 3D image reconstruction is computationally burdensome. The aim of this work is to accelerate existing image reconstruction algorithms for 3D OAT by use of parallel programming techniques. Parallelization strategies are proposed to accelerate a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm and two different pairs of projection/backprojection operations that correspond to two different numerical imaging models. The algorithms are designed to fully exploit the parallel computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). In order to evaluate the parallelization strategies for the projection/backprojection pairs, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm is implemented. Computer simulation and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the computational efficiency and numerical accuracy of the developed algorithms. The GPU implementations improve the computational efficiency by factors of 1000, 125, and 250 for the FBP algorithm and the two pairs of projection/backprojection operators, respectively. Accurate images are reconstructed by use of the FBP and iterative image reconstruction algorithms from both computer-simulated and experimental data. Parallelization strategies for 3D OAT image reconstruction are proposed for the first time. These GPU-based implementations significantly reduce the computational time for 3D image reconstruction, complementing our earlier work on 3D OAT iterative image reconstruction.

  6. 76 FR 63183 - Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-0938; Amendment Nos. 61-128, 91-324, 141-15, and 142-7] RIN 2120-AJ18 Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification Rules; Correction AGENCY: Federal... regulations to revise the pilot, flight instructor, and pilot school certification requirements. In particular...

  7. Blind spectrum reconstruction algorithm with L0-sparse representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hai; Zhang, Zhaoli; Liu, Sanyan; Shu, Jiangbo; Liu, Tingting; Zhang, Tianxu

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectrum often suffers from band overlap and Poisson noise. This paper presents a new blind Poissonian Raman spectrum reconstruction method, which incorporates the L 0 -sparse prior together with the total variation constraint into the maximum a posteriori framework. Furthermore, the greedy analysis pursuit algorithm is adopted to solve the L 0 -based minimization problem. Simulated and real spectrum experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively preserve spectral structure and suppress noise. The reconstructed Raman spectra are easily used for interpreting unknown chemical mixtures. (paper)

  8. Study of DNA reconstruction enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, M [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1976-12-01

    Description was made of the characteristics and mechanism of 3 reconstructive enzymes which received from M. luteus or E. coli or T4, and of which natures were clarified as reconstructive enzymes of DNA irradiated with ultraviolet rays. As characteristics, the site of breaking, reaction, molecular weight, electric charge in the neutrality and a specific adhesion to DNA irradiated with ultraviolet rays were mentioned. As to mutant of ultraviolet ray sensitivity, hereditary control mechanism of removal and reconstruction by endo-nuclease activation was described, and suggestion was referred to removal and reconstruction of cells of xedoderma pigmentosum which is a hereditary disease of human. Description was also made as to the mechanism of exonuclease activation which separates dimer selectively from irradiated DNA.

  9. Quantum Logic and Quantum Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Stairs, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Quantum logic understood as a reconstruction program had real successes and genuine limitations. This paper offers a synopsis of both and suggests a way of seeing quantum logic in a larger, still thriving context.

  10. Reconstructing see-saw models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    In this talk we discuss the prospects to reconstruct the high-energy see-saw Lagrangian from low energy experiments in supersymmetric scenarios. We show that the model with three right-handed neutrinos could be reconstructed in theory, but not in practice. Then, we discuss the prospects to reconstruct the model with two right-handed neutrinos, which is the minimal see-saw model able to accommodate neutrino observations. We identify the relevant processes to achieve this goal, and comment on the sensitivity of future experiments to them. We find the prospects much more promising and we emphasize in particular the importance of the observation of rare leptonic decays for the reconstruction of the right-handed neutrino masses

  11. Breast Reconstruction with Flap Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... augmented with a breast implant to achieve the desired breast size. Surgical methods Autologous tissue breast reconstruction ... as long as a year or two before feeling completely healed and back to normal. Future breast ...

  12. MBR pilot plant for textile wastewater treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Caffaz, S; Mangini, L; Santianni, D; Caretti, C

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of upgrading the conventional activated sludge WWTP of Seano (Prato, Italy) which treats municipal and textile wastewaters, by using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. The MBR pilot plant, set up within Seano WWTP, was fed with mixed municipal-industrial wastewaters during the first experimental period and with pure industrial wastewaters during the second. Performances and operation of the MBR were evaluated in terms of permeate characteristics and variability (COD, colour, surfactants, total N and P) and other operational parameters (sludge growth and observed yield). According to the experimental results the MBR permeate quality was always superior to the Seano WWTP one and it was suitable for industrial reuse in the textile district of the Prato area. Respirometric tests provided a modified IWA ASM1 model which fits very well the experimental data and can be used for the design and the monitoring of a full-scale MBR pilot plant.

  13. Pore REconstruction and Segmentation (PORES) method for improved porosity quantification of nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eyndhoven, G., E-mail: geert.vaneyndhoven@uantwerpen.be [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Kurttepeli, M. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van Oers, C.J.; Cool, P. [Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Bals, S. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Batenburg, K.J. [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1090 GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mathematical Institute, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 1, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sijbers, J. [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)

    2015-01-15

    Electron tomography is currently a versatile tool to investigate the connection between the structure and properties of nanomaterials. However, a quantitative interpretation of electron tomography results is still far from straightforward. Especially accurate quantification of pore-space is hampered by artifacts introduced in all steps of the processing chain, i.e., acquisition, reconstruction, segmentation and quantification. Furthermore, most common approaches require subjective manual user input. In this paper, the PORES algorithm “POre REconstruction and Segmentation” is introduced; it is a tailor-made, integral approach, for the reconstruction, segmentation, and quantification of porous nanomaterials. The PORES processing chain starts by calculating a reconstruction with a nanoporous-specific reconstruction algorithm: the Simultaneous Update of Pore Pixels by iterative REconstruction and Simple Segmentation algorithm (SUPPRESS). It classifies the interior region to the pores during reconstruction, while reconstructing the remaining region by reducing the error with respect to the acquired electron microscopy data. The SUPPRESS reconstruction can be directly plugged into the remaining processing chain of the PORES algorithm, resulting in accurate individual pore quantification and full sample pore statistics. The proposed approach was extensively validated on both simulated and experimental data, indicating its ability to generate accurate statistics of nanoporous materials. - Highlights: • An electron tomography reconstruction/segmentation method for nanoporous materials. • The method exploits the porous nature of the scanned material. • Validated extensively on both simulation and real data experiments. • Results in increased image resolution and improved porosity quantification.

  14. Research on compressive sensing reconstruction algorithm based on total variation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-xuan; Sun, Huayan; Zhang, Tinghua; Du, Lin

    2017-12-01

    Compressed sensing for breakthrough Nyquist sampling theorem provides a strong theoretical , making compressive sampling for image signals be carried out simultaneously. In traditional imaging procedures using compressed sensing theory, not only can it reduces the storage space, but also can reduce the demand for detector resolution greatly. Using the sparsity of image signal, by solving the mathematical model of inverse reconfiguration, realize the super-resolution imaging. Reconstruction algorithm is the most critical part of compression perception, to a large extent determine the accuracy of the reconstruction of the image.The reconstruction algorithm based on the total variation (TV) model is more suitable for the compression reconstruction of the two-dimensional image, and the better edge information can be obtained. In order to verify the performance of the algorithm, Simulation Analysis the reconstruction result in different coding mode of the reconstruction algorithm based on the TV reconstruction algorithm. The reconstruction effect of the reconfigurable algorithm based on TV based on the different coding methods is analyzed to verify the stability of the algorithm. This paper compares and analyzes the typical reconstruction algorithm in the same coding mode. On the basis of the minimum total variation algorithm, the Augmented Lagrangian function term is added and the optimal value is solved by the alternating direction method.Experimental results show that the reconstruction algorithm is compared with the traditional classical algorithm based on TV has great advantages, under the low measurement rate can be quickly and accurately recovers target image.

  15. Petz recovery versus matrix reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzäpfel, Milan; Cramer, Marcus; Datta, Nilanjana; Plenio, Martin B.

    2018-04-01

    The reconstruction of the state of a multipartite quantum mechanical system represents a fundamental task in quantum information science. At its most basic, it concerns a state of a bipartite quantum system whose subsystems are subjected to local operations. We compare two different methods for obtaining the original state from the state resulting from the action of these operations. The first method involves quantum operations called Petz recovery maps, acting locally on the two subsystems. The second method is called matrix (or state) reconstruction and involves local, linear maps that are not necessarily completely positive. Moreover, we compare the quantities on which the maps employed in the two methods depend. We show that any state that admits Petz recovery also admits state reconstruction. However, the latter is successful for a strictly larger set of states. We also compare these methods in the context of a finite spin chain. Here, the state of a finite spin chain is reconstructed from the reduced states of a few neighbouring spins. In this setting, state reconstruction is the same as the matrix product operator reconstruction proposed by Baumgratz et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 020401 (2013)]. Finally, we generalize both these methods so that they employ long-range measurements instead of relying solely on short-range correlations embodied in such local reduced states. Long-range measurements enable the reconstruction of states which cannot be reconstructed from measurements of local few-body observables alone and hereby we improve existing methods for quantum state tomography of quantum many-body systems.

  16. Animated Reconstruction of Forensic Animation

    OpenAIRE

    Hala, Albert; Unver, Ertu

    1998-01-01

    An animated accident display in court can be significant evidentiary tool. Computer graphics animation reconstructions which can be shown in court are cost effective, save valuable time and illustrate complex and technical issues, are realistic and can prove or disprove arguments or theories with reference to the perplexing newtonian physics involved in many accidents: this technology may well revolutionise accident reconstruction, thus enabling prosecution and defence to be more effective in...

  17. Performance of water distribution systems in a pilot cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognotti, L.; Giacomelli, A.; Zanelli, S.; Bellagamba, B.; Lotti, G.; Mattachini, F.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the water distribution system of a Pilot cooling tower of 160 m 3 /hr The performances of different industrial water distributors have been evaluated by changing the operative conditions of the pilot tower. In particular, the efficiency and the uniformity of the water distribution have been investigated and compared with the results obtained in a small-scale loop, in which the single nozzles were tested. Measurements in both systems, pilot tower and small scale loop, included the geometric characteristics of the jet umbrella by ensemble photography, the wetted zone by measuring the specific flowrate, the drop-size distribution and liquid concentration by high-speed photography. The results show that correlations exist between the nozzle behaviour in single and pilot tower configuration. The uniformity of water distribution in the pilot tower is strongly related to the nozzle installation pattern and to the operative conditions. Coalescence plays an important role on the drop size distribution in the pilot-tower. Comments upon the influence of these parameters on tower behaviour are also included

  18. Field Monitoring of Experimental Hot Mix Asphalt Projects Placed in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Since 2000, Massachusetts has been involved with numerous field trials of experimental hot mix asphalt mixtures. These experimental mixtures included several pilot projects using the Superpave mixture design methodology, utilization of warm mix aspha...

  19. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  20. Secondary reconstruction of maxillofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime; Van Sickels, Joseph E

    2017-08-01

    Craniomaxillofacial trauma is one of the most complex clinical conditions in contemporary maxillofacial surgery. Vital structures and possible functional and esthetic sequelae are important considerations following this type of trauma and intervention. Despite the best efforts of the primary surgery, there are a group of patients that will have poor outcomes requiring secondary reconstruction to restore form and function. The purpose of this study is to review current concepts on secondary reconstruction to the maxillofacial complex. The evaluation of a posttraumatic patient for a secondary reconstruction must include an assessment of the different subunits of the upper face, middle face, and lower face. Virtual surgical planning and surgical guides represent the most important innovations in secondary reconstruction over the past few years. Intraoperative navigational surgery/computed-assisted navigation is used in complex cases. Facial asymmetry can be corrected or significantly improved by segmentation of the computerized tomography dataset and mirroring of the unaffected side by means of virtual surgical planning. Navigational surgery/computed-assisted navigation allows for a more precise surgical correction when secondary reconstruction involves the replacement of extensive anatomical areas. The use of technology can result in custom-made replacements and prebent plates, which are more stable and resistant to fracture because of metal fatigue. Careful perioperative evaluation is the key to positive outcomes of secondary reconstruction after trauma. The advent of technological tools has played a capital role in helping the surgical team perform a given treatment plan in a more precise and predictable manner.

  1. Technical basis for dose reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider two general topics: Technical considerations of why dose-reconstruction studies should or should not be performed and methods of dose reconstruction. The first topic is of general and growing interest as the number of dose-reconstruction studies increases, and one asks the question whether it is necessary to perform a dose reconstruction for virtually every site at which, for example, the Department of Energy (DOE) has operated a nuclear-related facility. And there is the broader question of how one might logically draw the line at performing or not performing dose-reconstruction (radiological and chemical) studies for virtually every industrial complex in the entire country. The second question is also of general interest. There is no single correct way to perform a dose-reconstruction study, and it is important not to follow blindly a single method to the point that cheaper, faster, more accurate, and more transparent methods might not be developed and applied. 90 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Technical basis for dose reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider two general topics: technical considerations of why dose-reconstruction studies should or should not be performed and methods of dose reconstruction. The first topic is of general and growing interest as the number of dose-reconstruction studies increases, and one asks the question whether it is necessary to perform a dose reconstruction for virtually every site at which, for example, the Department of Energy (DOE) has operated a nuclear-related facility. And there is the broader question of how one might logically draw the line at performing or not performing dose-reconstruction (radiological and chemical) studies for virtually every industrial complex in the entire country. The second question is also of general interest. There is no single correct way to perform a dose-reconstruction study, and it is important not to follow blindly a single method to the point that cheaper, faster, more accurate, and more transparent methods might not be developed and applied

  3. 76 FR 19267 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    .... No. 61-127] RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical... for pilots, flight instructors, ground instructors, and pilot schools. This document reinstates two... entitled, ``Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Final Rule'' (74 FR 42500). That...

  4. Experimental study of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 modified tissue engineered bone in reconstruction of orbital fracture%重组人骨形态发生蛋白2修饰的组织工程化骨修复眼眶骨折的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田妮; 郑永欣; 王静; 李玲; 王明睿; 王安民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the efficiency of tissue engineered bone modified by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in reconstruction of orbital fracture.Methods Tissue engineered bone was established in vitro by using antologous bone marrow stromal cells as daughter cells,degradable absorbable biomaterial PLGA as vector and rhBMP-2 as growth factor.The laboratory animals were divided into control group (implanted with PLGA/rhBMP-2) and experimental group (implanted with tissue engineered bone).Wound healing,complications,orbit appearance,CT imaging and histological changes were observed at one,three and six months later after the surgery.Results All the animals were with well healed wounds.Neither complications nor enophthalmus was observed.The 3-D CT scan showed that orbital floor defect scope was smaller [ (25.1±6.8)mm2 vs (55.3±7.7)mm2] and CT values was higher in experiment group at 3 months later than in controls.Six months later after operation,the bone defect disappeared in experimental group but still existed in the controls.Marginal absorption of implanted bone with a small number of osteoblasts penetrating along the stent into the biomaterial was noted in the experimental group as early as one month later after operation,but not in the controls.At 3 months later,the experimental group showed strips of newly formed bone growing into or encapsulating the biomaterial,intersecting with each other and grew,with greater level of biomaterial degradation as compared with controls.At 6 months later,the implanted materials in experimental group were totally absorbed,replaced by newly formed osseous tissues,or fused perfectly with.inherent bone tissue.In contrast,the implants in controls showed only partial degradation and absorbance.Conclusions The tissue engineered bone modified by human bone morphogenetic protein 2 may well conduct and induce the activity of bone formation.Good biocompatibility and total degradability indicate that the implant is

  5. Continuous precipitation of uranium peroxide in process pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinelato, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study on uranium peroxide precipitation has been carried out with the objective to evaluate the influence of the main process parameters with a technological approach. The uraniferous solution used was obtained from the hydrometallurgical processing of an ore from Itataia - CE. Studies were developed in two distinct experimental stages. In the first stage, the precipitation was investigated by means of laboratory batch tests and, in the second stage, by means of continuous operation in a process pilot plant. (author)

  6. LANCELOT pilot report, June 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Meyer, Bente

    The aim of the Lancelot pilot evaluation process was to understand how teachers learn to teach and to relate to the online environment through the specific context of the Lancelot live online course. Following the Action Research in the autumn of 2006 the LANCELOT live online language course...... was revised for the piloting in the spring of 2007. A second aim of the pilot evaluation has therefore been to assess the revision of the course following the Action Research....

  7. 3D Reconstruction of human bones based on dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binkai; Wang, Xiang; Liang, Xiao; Zheng, Jinjin

    2017-11-01

    An effective method for reconstructing a 3D model of human bones from computed tomography (CT) image data based on dictionary learning is proposed. In this study, the dictionary comprises the vertices of triangular meshes, and the sparse coefficient matrix indicates the connectivity information. For better reconstruction performance, we proposed a balance coefficient between the approximation and regularisation terms and a method for optimisation. Moreover, we applied a local updating strategy and a mesh-optimisation method to update the dictionary and the sparse matrix, respectively. The two updating steps are iterated alternately until the objective function converges. Thus, a reconstructed mesh could be obtained with high accuracy and regularisation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has the potential to obtain high precision and high-quality triangular meshes for rapid prototyping, medical diagnosis, and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Automatic Texture Optimization for 3D Urban Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Ming

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of texture optimization in 3D city reconstruction by using multi-lens oblique images, the paper presents a method of seamless texture model reconstruction. At first, it corrects the radiation information of images by camera response functions and image dark channel. Then, according to the corresponding relevance between terrain triangular mesh surface model to image, implements occlusion detection by sparse triangulation method, and establishes the triangles' texture list of visible. Finally, combines with triangles' topology relationship in 3D triangular mesh surface model and means and variances of image, constructs a graph-cuts-based texture optimization algorithm under the framework of MRF(Markov random filed, to solve the discrete label problem of texture optimization selection and clustering, ensures the consistency of the adjacent triangles in texture mapping, achieves the seamless texture reconstruction of city. The experimental results verify the validity and superiority of our proposed method.

  9. Simulation and reconstruction of free-streaming data in CBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friese, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The CBM experiment will investigate heavy-ion reactions at the FAIR facility at unprecedented interaction rates. This implies a novel read-out and data acquisition concept with self-triggered front-end electronics and free-streaming data. Event association must be performed in software on-line, and may require four-dimensional reconstruction routines. In order to study the problem of event association and to develop proper algorithms, simulations must be performed which go beyond the normal event-by-event processing as available from most experimental simulation frameworks. In this article, we discuss the challenges and concepts for the reconstruction of such free-streaming data and present first steps for a time-based simulation which is necessary for the development and validation of the reconstruction algorithms, and which requires modifications to the current software framework FAIRROOT as well as to the data model.

  10. An alternative to the crystallographic reconstruction of austenite in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Nicolas; Bracke, Lieven; Malet, Loïc; Godet, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    An alternative crystallographic austenite reconstruction programme written in Matlab is developed by combining the best features of the existing models: the orientation relationship refinement, the local pixel-by-pixel analysis and the nuclei identification and spreading strategy. This programme can be directly applied to experimental electron backscatter diffraction mappings. Its applicability is demonstrated on both quenching and partitioning and as-quenched lath-martensite steels. - Highlights: • An alternative crystallographic austenite reconstruction program is developed. • The method combines a local analysis and a nuclei identification/spreading strategy. • The validity of the calculated orientation relationship is verified on a Q and P steel. • The accuracy of the reconstructed microtexture is investigated on a martensite steel

  11. Accurate phylogenetic tree reconstruction from quartets: a heuristic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaz, Rezwana; Bayzid, Md Shamsuzzoha; Rahman, M Sohel

    2014-01-01

    Supertree methods construct trees on a set of taxa (species) combining many smaller trees on the overlapping subsets of the entire set of taxa. A 'quartet' is an unrooted tree over 4 taxa, hence the quartet-based supertree methods combine many 4-taxon unrooted trees into a single and coherent tree over the complete set of taxa. Quartet-based phylogeny reconstruction methods have been receiving considerable attentions in the recent years. An accurate and efficient quartet-based method might be competitive with the current best phylogenetic tree reconstruction methods (such as maximum likelihood or Bayesian MCMC analyses), without being as computationally intensive. In this paper, we present a novel and highly accurate quartet-based phylogenetic tree reconstruction method. We performed an extensive experimental study to evaluate the accuracy and scalability of our approach on both simulated and biological datasets.

  12. Displacement disorder and reconstruction of the (001) face of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorushkin, V.E.; Kul'ment'ev, A.I.; Savushkin, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    The reconstruction of the (001) border of tungsten is examined taking into consideration random static displacements of surface atoms in the high-temperature (1 x 1) phase. A microscopic model is proposed, in which the creation of c(2 x 2) phase is described as a transition of the Jahn-Teller type and an ordering of static displacements. It is shown that displacement disorder induces instability of (001) tungsten with respect to reconstruction. The effect of a uniform electric field on a disordered reconstructing surface is examined. A possible reason is given for pronounced differences in the results of investigations of the structural conversion of the (001) face in tungsten when different experimental methods are used

  13. The Importance of Pilot Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Hundley, Vanora

    2001-01-01

    The term 'pilot studies' refers to mini versions of a full-scale study (also called 'feasibility' studies), as well as the specific pre-testing of a particular research instrument such as a questionnaire or interview schedule. \\ud Pilot studies are a crucial element of a good study design. Conducting a pilot study does not guarantee success in the main study, but it does increase the likelihood. \\ud Pilot studies fulfil a range of important functions and can provide valuable insights for othe...

  14. A pseudoproxy assessment of data assimilation for reconstructing the atmosphere-ocean dynamics of hydroclimate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Nathan J.; Smerdon, Jason E.

    2017-10-01

    Because of the relatively brief observational record, the climate dynamics that drive multiyear to centennial hydroclimate variability are not adequately characterized and understood. Paleoclimate reconstructions based on data assimilation (DA) optimally fuse paleoclimate proxies with the dynamical constraints of climate models, thus providing a coherent dynamical picture of the past. DA is therefore an important new tool for elucidating the mechanisms of hydroclimate variability over the last several millennia. But DA has so far remained untested for global hydroclimate reconstructions. Here we explore whether or not DA can be used to skillfully reconstruct global hydroclimate variability along with the driving climate dynamics. Through a set of idealized pseudoproxy experiments, we find that an established DA reconstruction approach can in principle be used to reconstruct hydroclimate at both annual and seasonal timescales. We find that the skill of such reconstructions is generally highest near the proxy sites. This set of reconstruction experiments is specifically designed to estimate a realistic upper bound for the skill of this DA approach. Importantly, this experimental framework allows us to see where and for what variables the reconstruction approach may never achieve high skill. In particular for tree rings, we find that hydroclimate reconstructions depend critically on moisture-sensitive trees, while temperature reconstructions depend critically on temperature-sensitive trees. Real-world DA-based reconstructions will therefore likely require a spatial mixture of temperature- and moisture-sensitive trees to reconstruct both temperature and hydroclimate variables. Additionally, we illustrate how DA can be used to elucidate the dynamical mechanisms of drought with two examples: tropical drivers of multiyear droughts in the North American Southwest and in equatorial East Africa. This work thus provides a foundation for future DA-based hydroclimate

  15. Reconstituição da valva pulmonar e via de saída do ventrículo direito, com prótese bivalvular e prótese tubular valvada de tronco pulmonar de porco: estudo experimental e aplicação clínica Pulmonary valve and right ventricular oulet tract reconstruction with biovalvular prostheses and valved tubular prostheses of the pig pulmonary artery: experimental study and clinical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Maluf

    1993-03-01

    aplicação clínica da prótese bivalvular foi realizada em 3 pacientes portadores de t. de Fallot associada a hipoplasía do anel pulmonar (2 casos e agenesia da valva pulmonar (1 caso, com idades de 16, 2 e 7 anos. Após evolução de 3 a 10 meses, os gradientes variaram entre 10 mmHg e 20 mmHg e discreta insuficiência pulmonar valvar ao estudo ecodopplercardiográfico. A prótese tubular valvar foi implantada em 2 pacientes portadores de atresia pulmonar associada a comunicação interventricular (CIV e outro a transposição corrigida das grandes artérias (TCGA associada a GIV e estenose subpulmonar, com idades de 10 e 6 anos, respectivamente. Após evolução de 5 a 12 meses, foram detectados suficiência da valva pulmonar, gradientes entre 15 mmHg e 18 mmHg, sem sinais de calcificação. Apesar de se considerar aceitáveis os resultados desta experiência, a ampliação das indicações deverá ser feita com cautela, até o melhor conhecimento da resistência da prótese a calcificação, infecção, obstrução e rotura.Obstruction of the right ventricle outlet tract (RVOT has been the object of arguments regarding its surgical correction, while there are different criteria for reconstruction. Thus two kinds of prostheses were developed from the pig pulmonary trunk (PT. 1 One with two valves of the pulmonary valve (PV, named bivalvular graft, and could be used for correction of Fallot with pulmonary ring hypoplasia. 2 The other, with a tubular form, containing the pig PV itself and named valved conduit, could be used in RVOT reconstruction for patients with pulmonary atresia (PA. These prostheses were tested in an experimental model: implant of the bivalvular graft was performed in 16 sheep with the aid of extracorporeal circulation (ECC. The surgical technique consisted of resection of the two valves of the PV and of the anterior wall of the infundibulum; this condition was similar to Fallot correction. Implant of the valvular conduit was carried out in 12

  16. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident (IPHECA). 'Epidemiological registry' Pilot project. Reconstruction of absorbed doses from external exposure of the population living in areas of Russia contaminated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkevic, V.A.; Duba, V.V.; Ivanov, V.K.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    In order to carry out epidemiological research on the influence of radiation factors on the health of people living in centres of population areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, a knowledge of the amount of external and internal exposure to the thyroid gland and the whole body is crucial. After seven years of the Chernobyl accident, an attempt was made to reconstruct the complete dynamic picture of radioactive contamination of Russian territory, taking into consideration current data on the temporal behavior of the source of accidental radionuclide emissions from the reactor where the accident occurred, meteorological conditions at the time, detailed measurements of cesium 137 fall-out density on CIS territory, air exposure dose rate measurements. Such an approach will enable to determine absorbed doses in centers of population, where radiation parameters were not measured at all. 17 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs, 1 map

  17. Beard reconstruction: A surgical algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninkovic, M; Heidekrueger, P I; Ehrl, D; von Spiegel, F; Broer, P N

    2016-06-01

    Facial defects with loss of hair-bearing regions can be caused by trauma, infection, tumor excision, or burn injury. The presented analysis evaluates a series of different surgical approaches with a focus on male beard reconstruction, emphasizing the role of tissue expansion of regional and free flaps. Locoregional and free flap reconstructions were performed in 11 male patients with 14 facial defects affecting the hair-bearing bucco-mandibular or perioral region. In order to minimize donor-site morbidity and obtain large amounts of thin, pliable, hair-bearing tissue, pre-expansion was performed in five of 14 patients. Eight of 14 patients were treated with locoregional flap reconstructions and six with free flap reconstructions. Algorithms regarding pre- and intraoperative decision making are discussed and long-term (mean follow-up 1.5 years) results analyzed. Major complications, including tissue expander infection with the need for removal or exchange, partial or full flap loss, occurred in 0% (0/8) of patients with locoregional flaps and in 17% (1/6) of patients undergoing free flap reconstructions. Secondary refinement surgery was performed in 25% (2/8) of locoregional flaps and in 67% (4/6) of free flaps. Both locoregional and distant tissue transfers play a role in beard reconstruction, while pre-expansion remains an invaluable tool. Paying attention to the presented principles and considering the significance of aesthetic facial subunits, range of motion, aesthetics, and patient satisfaction were improved long term in all our patients while minimizing donor-site morbidity. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Computer-aided assessment of aviation pilots attention: Design of an integrated test and its empirical validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Cannavò

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a battery of seven computerized tests, encompassing classical and innovative solutions inspired by the literature in the field, for the integrated measurement of the attention factors of aviation pilots. The computer software is validated by means of an experimental trial with 50 experienced aviation pilots and 50 untrained people as controls. Statistical analyzes confirm that the instrument can effectively classify aviation pilots, and identify a subset of distinctive attention factors that could be used for monitoring their duty.

  19. A pilot experiment with reactor neutrinos in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Henry T.; Li Jin

    1999-01-01

    A Collaboration comprising scientists from Taiwan, mainland China and the United States has been built up since 1996 to pursue an experimental program in neutrino and astro-particle physics in Taiwan. A pilot experiment to be performed at the Nuclear Power Station II in Taiwan is now under intense preparation. It will make use of a 500 kg CsI(Tl) crystal calorimeter to study various neutrino interactions. Various possible future directions will also be explored. The conceptual design and the physics to be addressed by the pilot experiment are discussed

  20. Urogenital Reconstructive Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte Kaasgaard

    bladder to those of the bladder from young pigs used in the animal model. Results: By further characterising the effect of congenital obstruction, regarding urodynamic properties of the bladder and structural changes in the bladder tissue and comparing the results after relief of obstruction by continous...... of the lower urinary tract causes voiding disabilities, renal failure and chronic bladder changes. Children with such malformations often require extensive treatment, and will experience side effects and not always satisfactory results. Aim: To develop an animal model of congenital infravesical obstruction...... will be collected. To supplement the experimental studies we will evaluate patients with posterior urethral valves, and compare the effects of obstruction seen in these patients with the effects observed in the animal model. Bladder tissue from fetal pigs will be investigated, comparing the properties of the fetal...

  1. ACTS: from ATLAS software towards a common track reconstruction software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpert, C.; Salzburger, A.; Kiehn, M.; Hrdinka, J.; Calace, N.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Reconstruction of charged particles’ trajectories is a crucial task for most particle physics experiments. The high instantaneous luminosity achieved at the LHC leads to a high number of proton-proton collisions per bunch crossing, which has put the track reconstruction software of the LHC experiments through a thorough test. Preserving track reconstruction performance under increasingly difficult experimental conditions, while keeping the usage of computational resources at a reasonable level, is an inherent problem for many HEP experiments. Exploiting concurrent algorithms and using multivariate techniques for track identification are the primary strategies to achieve that goal. Starting from current ATLAS software, the ACTS project aims to encapsulate track reconstruction software into a generic, framework- and experiment-independent software package. It provides a set of high-level algorithms and data structures for performing track reconstruction tasks as well as fast track simulation. The software is developed with special emphasis on thread-safety to support parallel execution of the code and data structures are optimised for vectorisation to speed up linear algebra operations. The implementation is agnostic to the details of the detection technologies and magnetic field configuration which makes it applicable to many different experiments.

  2. A new iterative algorithm to reconstruct the refractive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y J; Zhu, P P; Chen, B; Wang, J Y; Yuan, Q X; Huang, W X; Shu, H; Li, E R; Liu, X S; Zhang, K; Ming, H; Wu, Z Y

    2007-06-21

    The latest developments in x-ray imaging are associated with techniques based on the phase contrast. However, the image reconstruction procedures demand significant improvements of the traditional methods, and/or new algorithms have to be introduced to take advantage of the high contrast and sensitivity of the new experimental techniques. In this letter, an improved iterative reconstruction algorithm based on the maximum likelihood expectation maximization technique is presented and discussed in order to reconstruct the distribution of the refractive index from data collected by an analyzer-based imaging setup. The technique considered probes the partial derivative of the refractive index with respect to an axis lying in the meridional plane and perpendicular to the propagation direction. Computer simulations confirm the reliability of the proposed algorithm. In addition, the comparison between an analytical reconstruction algorithm and the iterative method has been also discussed together with the convergent characteristic of this latter algorithm. Finally, we will show how the proposed algorithm may be applied to reconstruct the distribution of the refractive index of an epoxy cylinder containing small air bubbles of about 300 micro of diameter.

  3. Quantum interferences reconstruction with low homodyne detection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Martina; Randi, Francesco [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Titimbo, Kelvin; Zimmermann, Klaus; Benatti, Fabio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Kourousias, Georgios; Curri, Alessio [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); Floreanini, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Parmigiani, Fulvio [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); University of Cologne, Institute of Physics II, Cologne (Germany); Fausti, Daniele [Universita degli studi di Trieste, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Optical homodyne tomography consists in reconstructing the quantum state of an optical field from repeated measurements of its amplitude at different field phases (homodyne data). The experimental noise, which unavoidably affects the homodyne data, leads to a detection efficiency η<1. The problem of reconstructing quantum states from noisy homodyne data sets prompted an intense scientific debate about the presence or absence of a lower homodyne efficiency bound (η>0.5) below which quantum features, like quantum interferences, cannot be retrieved. Here, by numerical experiments, we demonstrate that quantum interferences can be effectively reconstructed also for low homodyne detection efficiency. In particular, we address the challenging case of a Schroedinger cat state and test the minimax and adaptive Wigner function reconstruction technique by processing homodyne data distributed according to the chosen state but with an efficiency η>0.5. By numerically reproducing the Schroedinger's cat interference pattern, we give evidence that quantum state reconstruction is actually possible in these conditions, and provide a guideline for handling optical tomography based on homodyne data collected by low efficiency detectors. (orig.)

  4. Isokinetic Testing in Evaluation Rehabilitation Outcome After ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetkovic, Dragana Dragicevic; Bijeljac, Sinisa; Palija, Stanislav; Talic, Goran; Radulovic, Tatjana Nozica; Kosanovic, Milkica Glogovac; Manojlovic, Slavko

    2015-02-01

    Numerous rehab protocols have been used in rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. Isokinetic testing is an objective way to evaluate dynamic stability of the knee joint that estimates the quality of rehabilitation outcome after ACL reconstruction. Our investigation goal was to show importance of isokinetic testing in evaluation thigh muscle strength in patients which underwent ACL reconstruction and rehabilitation protocol. In prospective study, we evaluated 40 subjects which were divided into two groups. Experimental group consisted of 20 recreational males which underwent ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon and rehabilitation protocol 6 months before isokinetic testing. Control group (20 subjects) consisted of healthy recreational males. In all subjects knee muscle testing was performed on a Biodex System 4 Pro isokinetic dynamo-meter et velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s. We followed average peak torque to body weight (PT/BW) and classic H/Q ratio. In statistical analysis Student's T test was used. There were statistically significant differences between groups in all evaluated parameters except of the mean value of PT/BW of the quadriceps et velocity of 60°/s (p>0.05). Isokinetic testing of dynamic stabilizers of the knee is need in diagnostic and treatment thigh muscle imbalance. We believe that isokinetic testing is an objective parameter for return to sport activities after ACL reconstruction.

  5. Block Compressed Sensing of Images Using Adaptive Granular Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of block Compressed Sensing (CS, the reconstruction algorithm based on the Smoothed Projected Landweber (SPL iteration can achieve the better rate-distortion performance with a low computational complexity, especially for using the Principle Components Analysis (PCA to perform the adaptive hard-thresholding shrinkage. However, during learning the PCA matrix, it affects the reconstruction performance of Landweber iteration to neglect the stationary local structural characteristic of image. To solve the above problem, this paper firstly uses the Granular Computing (GrC to decompose an image into several granules depending on the structural features of patches. Then, we perform the PCA to learn the sparse representation basis corresponding to each granule. Finally, the hard-thresholding shrinkage is employed to remove the noises in patches. The patches in granule have the stationary local structural characteristic, so that our method can effectively improve the performance of hard-thresholding shrinkage. Experimental results indicate that the reconstructed image by the proposed algorithm has better objective quality when compared with several traditional ones. The edge and texture details in the reconstructed image are better preserved, which guarantees the better visual quality. Besides, our method has still a low computational complexity of reconstruction.

  6. Hybrid x-space: a new approach for MPI reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateo, A; Iurino, A; Settanni, G; Andrisani, A; Stifanelli, P F; Larizza, P; Mazzia, F; Mininni, R M; Tangaro, S; Bellotti, R

    2016-06-07

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging technique capable of recovering the distribution of superparamagnetic particles from their measured induced signals. In literature there are two main MPI reconstruction techniques: measurement-based (MB) and x-space (XS). The MB method is expensive because it requires a long calibration procedure as well as a reconstruction phase that can be numerically costly. On the other side, the XS method is simpler than MB but the exact knowledge of the field free point (FFP) motion is essential for its implementation. Our simulation work focuses on the implementation of a new approach for MPI reconstruction: it is called hybrid x-space (HXS), representing a combination of the previous methods. Specifically, our approach is based on XS reconstruction because it requires the knowledge of the FFP position and velocity at each time instant. The difference with respect to the original XS formulation is how the FFP velocity is computed: we estimate it from the experimental measurements of the calibration scans, typical of the MB approach. Moreover, a compressive sensing technique is applied in order to reduce the calibration time, setting a fewer number of sampling positions. Simulations highlight that HXS and XS methods give similar results. Furthermore, an appropriate use of compressive sensing is crucial for obtaining a good balance between time reduction and reconstructed image quality. Our proposal is suitable for open geometry configurations of human size devices, where incidental factors could make the currents, the fields and the FFP trajectory irregular.

  7. Complex Empiricism and the Quantification of Uncertainty in Paleoclimate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumble, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Because the global climate cannot be observed directly, and because of vast and noisy data sets, climate science is a rich field to study how computational statistics informs what it means to do empirical science. Traditionally held virtues of empirical science and empirical methods like reproducibility, independence, and straightforward observation are complicated by representational choices involved in statistical modeling and data handling. Examining how climate reconstructions instantiate complicated empirical relationships between model, data, and predictions reveals that the path from data to prediction does not match traditional conceptions of empirical inference either. Rather, the empirical inferences involved are "complex" in that they require articulation of a good deal of statistical processing wherein assumptions are adopted and representational decisions made, often in the face of substantial uncertainties. Proxy reconstructions are both statistical and paleoclimate science activities aimed at using a variety of proxies to reconstruct past climate behavior. Paleoclimate proxy reconstructions also involve complex data handling and statistical refinement, leading to the current emphasis in the field on the quantification of uncertainty in reconstructions. In this presentation I explore how the processing needed for the correlation of diverse, large, and messy data sets necessitate the explicit quantification of the uncertainties stemming from wrangling proxies into manageable suites. I also address how semi-empirical pseudo-proxy methods allow for the exploration of signal detection in data sets, and as intermediary steps for statistical experimentation.

  8. Titanium template for scaphoid reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, M; Schaefer, D J; Schumacher, R; Müller-Gerbl, M; Honigmann, P

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of a non-united scaphoid with a humpback deformity involves resection of the non-union followed by bone grafting and fixation of the fragments. Intraoperative control of the reconstruction is difficult owing to the complex three-dimensional shape of the scaphoid and the other carpal bones overlying the scaphoid on lateral radiographs. We developed a titanium template that fits exactly to the surfaces of the proximal and distal scaphoid poles to define their position relative to each other after resection of the non-union. The templates were designed on three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions and manufactured using selective laser melting technology. Ten conserved human wrists were used to simulate the reconstruction. The achieved precision measured as the deviation of the surface of the reconstructed scaphoid from its virtual counterpart was good in five cases (maximal difference 1.5 mm), moderate in one case (maximal difference 3 mm) and inadequate in four cases (difference more than 3 mm). The main problems were attributed to the template design and can be avoided by improved pre-operative planning, as shown in a clinical case. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Influence of Pilot Flame Parameters on the Stability of Turbulent Jet Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Guiberti, Thibault F.

    2016-11-08

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effects of pilot parameters on flame stability in a turbulent jet flame. The Sydney inhomogeneous piloted burner is employed as the experimental platform with two main fuels, namely, compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. Various concentrations of five gases are used in the pilot stream, hydrogen, acetylene, oxygen, nitrogen, and argon, to enable a sufficient range in exploring the following parameters: pilot heat release, temperature, burnt gas velocity, equivalence ratio, and H/C ratio. The experimental results are mainly presented in the form of blow-off limits and supported by simple calculations, which simulate various conditions of the pilot–mixture interface. It is found that increasing the pilot adiabatic flame temperature benefits the flame stability and has an even greater influence than the heat release, which is also known to enhance the blow-off limits. Conversely, increasing the pilot burnt gas velocity reduces the blow-off velocity, except for the limiting case when the jet is fully non-premixed. The H/C ratio has negligible effects, while resorting to lean pilots significantly increases the stability of globally rich partially premixed and premixed jets. Such findings are consistent with trends obtained from laminar flame calculations for rich fuel/air mixtures issuing against hot combustion products to simulate the pilot stream.

  10. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  11. Pilot plant study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories undertook the design and fabrication of an 8 ton/day dry sewage sludge irradiatior. The facility is intended (1) to function as a high-gamma-dose rate research facility; (2) to be a testbed for the unique electrical and mechanical components to be used in larger facilities; (3) to fulfill the formal requirements of a pilot plant so that design and construction of a demonstration facility could proceed; and (4) to provide accurate data base on construction and operating experience for the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), and the cost analyses for a larger facility. The facility and its component systems are described in detail

  12. Priming a Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus; Ie Pedersen, Maria

    Abstract. We report on the initial findings of an action research study about effects specifications. It is a part of larger IS pilot implementation project conducted in the Danish healthcare sector. Through interviews and a workshop we have identified and specified the main effects that comprise...... the basis for the evaluation of the project. The study indicates that cross-organisational effects specifications cause a significant number of effects. To further prioritize these we argue that both interview and workshop must be facilitated as mutual learning processes between interviewer and interviewee....

  13. Reconstructing a general inflationary action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Chung, Daniel J. H.; Geshnizjani, Ghazal

    2008-01-01

    If inflation is to be considered in an unbiased way, as possibly originating from one of a wide range of underlying theories, then observations need not be simply applied to reconstructing the inflaton potential V(φ) or a specific kinetic term, as in Dirac-Born-Infeld inflation, but rather to reconstruct the inflationary action in its entirety. We discuss the constraints that can be placed on a general single field action from measurements of the primordial scalar and tensor fluctuation power spectra and non-Gaussianities. The analytic form of the action that is consistent with data turns out to be surprisingly simple and easy to categorize. We also present the flow equation formalism for reconstructing a general inflationary Lagrangian L(X,φ), with X=(1/2)∂ μ φ∂ μ φ, in a general gauge, that reduces to canonical and DBI inflation in the specific gauge L X =c s -1 .

  14. Avoiding Complications with MPFL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marvin K; Werner, Brian C; Diduch, David R

    2018-05-12

    To discuss the potentially significant complications associated with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Additionally, to review the most current and relevant literature with an emphasis on avoiding these potential complications. Multiple cadaveric studies have characterized the anatomy of the MPFL and the related morphologic abnormalities that contribute to recurrent lateral patellar instability. Such abnormalities include patella alta, excessive tibial tubercle to trochlear grove (TT-TG) distance, trochlear dysplasia, and malalignment. Recent studies have evaluated the clinical outcomes associated with the treatment of concomitant pathology in combination with MPFL reconstruction, which is critical in avoiding recurrent instability and complications. Although there remains a lack of consensus regarding various critical aspects of MPFL reconstruction, certain concepts remain imperative. Our preferred methods and rationales for surgical techniques are described. These include appropriate work up, a combination of procedures to address abnormal morphology, anatomical femoral insertion, safe and secure patellar fixation, appropriate graft length fixation, and thoughtful knee flexion during fixation.

  15. Polaron-Driven Surface Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Reticcioli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Geometric and electronic surface reconstructions determine the physical and chemical properties of surfaces and, consequently, their functionality in applications. The reconstruction of a surface minimizes its surface free energy in otherwise thermodynamically unstable situations, typically caused by dangling bonds, lattice stress, or a divergent surface potential, and it is achieved by a cooperative modification of the atomic and electronic structure. Here, we combined first-principles calculations and surface techniques (scanning tunneling microscopy, non-contact atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy to report that the repulsion between negatively charged polaronic quasiparticles, formed by the interaction between excess electrons and the lattice phonon field, plays a key role in surface reconstructions. As a paradigmatic example, we explain the (1×1 to (1×2 transition in rutile TiO_{2}(110.

  16. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie H. Fu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Current Concepts in ACL Reconstruction is a complete reference text composed of the most thorough collection of topics on the ACL and its surgical reconstruction compiled, with contributions from some of the world's experts and most experienced ACL surgeons. Various procedures mentioned throughout the text are also demonstrated in an accompanying video CD-ROM. PURPOSE Composing a single, comprehensive and complete information source on ACL including basic sciences, clinical issues, latest concepts and surgical techniques, from evaluation to outcome, from history to future, editors and contributors have targeted to keep the audience pace with the latest concepts and techniques for the evaluation and the treatment of ACL injuries. FEATURES The text is composed of 27 chapters in 6 sections. The first section is mostly about basic sciences, also history of the ACL, imaging, clinical approach to adolescent and pediatric patients are subjected. In the second section, Graft Choices and Arthroscopy Portals for ACL Reconstruction are mentioned. The third section is about the technique and the outcome of the single-bundle ACL reconstruction. The fourth chapter includes the techniques and outcome of the double-bundle ACL reconstruction. In the fifth chapter revision, navigation technology, rehabilitation and the evaluation of the outcome of ACL reconstruction is subjected. The sixth/the last chapter is about the future advances to reach: What We Have Learned and the Future of ACL Reconstruction. AUDIENCE Orthopedic residents, sports traumatology and knee surgery fellows, orthopedic surgeons, also scientists in basic sciences or clinicians who are studying or planning a research on ACL forms the audience group of this book. ASSESSMENT This is the latest, the most complete and comprehensive textbook of ACL reconstruction produced by the editorial work up of two pioneer and masters "Freddie H. Fu MD and Steven B. Cohen MD" with the contribution of world

  17. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-01-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function......, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study...... was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery...

  18. Reconstruction of on-axis lensless Fourier transform digital hologram with the screen division method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongzhen; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yong; Li, Dong; Chen, Zhu; Zheng, Fanglan; Yu, Deqiang

    2017-10-01

    An effective approach for reconstructing on-axis lensless Fourier Transform digital hologram by using the screen division method is proposed. Firstly, the on-axis Fourier Transform digital hologram is divided into sub-holograms. Then the reconstruction result of every sub-hologram is obtained according to the position of corresponding sub-hologram in the hologram reconstruction plane with Fourier transform operation. Finally, the reconstruction image of on-axis Fourier Transform digital hologram can be acquired by the superposition of the reconstruction result of sub-holograms. Compared with the traditional reconstruction method with the phase shifting technology, in which multiple digital holograms are required to record for obtaining the reconstruction image, this method can obtain the reconstruction image with only one digital hologram and therefore greatly simplify the recording and reconstruction process of on-axis lensless Fourier Transform digital holography. The effectiveness of the proposed method is well proved with the experimental results and it will have potential application foreground in the holographic measurement and display field.

  19. Enlisted or Officer Drone Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    the property of the United States government. AU/ACSC/Rafnson, Gary B/AY10 3 Abstract This paper compares remotely piloted aircraft— drones ...operations in both the US Army and US Air Force. It argues that officers should continue to pilot Air Force drones because of the increased risks and

  20. Clinical applications of iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberl, S.

    1998-01-01

    Expectation maximisation (EM) reconstruction largely eliminates the hot and cold streaking artifacts characteristic of filtered-back projection (FBP) reconstruction around localised hot areas, such as the bladder. It also substantially reduces the problem of decreased inferior wall counts in MIBI myocardial perfusion studies due to ''streaking'' from high liver uptake. Non-uniform attenuation and scatter correction, resolution recovery, anatomical information, e.g. from MRI or CT tracer kinetic modelling, can all be built into the EM reconstruction imaging model. The properties of ordered subset EM (OSEM) have also been used to correct for known patient motion as part of the reconstruction process. These uses of EM are elaborated more fully in some of the other abstracts of this meeting. Currently we use OSEM routinely for: (i) studies where streaking is a problem, including all MIBI myocardial perfusion studies, to avoid hot liver inferior wall artifact, (ii) all whole body FDG PET, all lung V/Q SPECT (which have a short acquisition time) and all gated 201 TI myocardial perfusion studies due to improved noise characteristics of OSEM in these studies; (iii) studies with measured, non-uniform attenuation correction. With the accelerated OSEM algorithm, iterative reconstruction is practical for routine clinical applications and we have found OSEM to provide clearly superior reconstructions for the areas listed above and are investigating its application to other studies. In clinical use, we have not found OSEM to introduce artifacts which would not also occur with FBP, e.g. uncorrected patient motion will cause artifacts with both OSEM and FBP

  1. Reconstructing biochemical pathways from time course data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Crampin, Edmund J; McSharry, Patrick E; Schnell, Santiago

    2007-03-01

    Time series data on biochemical reactions reveal transient behavior, away from chemical equilibrium, and contain information on the dynamic interactions among reacting components. However, this information can be difficult to extract using conventional analysis techniques. We present a new method to infer biochemical pathway mechanisms from time course data using a global nonlinear modeling technique to identify the elementary reaction steps which constitute the pathway. The method involves the generation of a complete dictionary of polynomial basis functions based on the law of mass action. Using these basis functions, there are two approaches to model construction, namely the general to specific and the specific to general approach. We demonstrate that our new methodology reconstructs the chemical reaction steps and connectivity of the glycolytic pathway of Lactococcus lactis from time course experimental data.

  2. Prediction of pilot induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PANĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.

  3. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-01

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  4. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-15

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  5. Pilot testing of a hydraulic bridge exciter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a hydraulic bridge exciter and its first pilot testing on a full scale railway bridge in service. The exciter is based on a hydraulic load cylinder with a capacity of 50 kN and is intended for controlled dynamic loading up to at least 50 Hz. The load is applied from underneath the bridge, enabling testing while the railway line is in service. The system is shown to produce constant load amplitude even at resonance. The exciter is used to experimentally determine frequency response functions at all sensor locations, which serve as valuable input for model updating and verification. An FE-model of the case study bridge has been developed that is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Live Piloting and Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents current trends in service design research concerning large scale projects aimed at generating changes at a local scale. The strategy adopted to achieve this, is to co-design solutions including future users in the development process, prototyping and testing system of products and services before their actual implementation. On the basis of experience achieved in the European Project Life 2.0, this paper discusses which methods and competencies are applied in the development of these projects, eliciting the lessons learnt especially from the piloting phase in which the participatory design (PD approach plays a major role. In the first part, the topic is introduced jointly with the theoretical background where the user center design and participatory design methods are presented; then the Life 2.0 project development is described; finally the experience is discussed from a service design perspective, eliciting guidelines for piloting and prototyping services in a real context of use. The paper concludes reflecting on the designers’ role and competencies needed in this process.

  7. The design of a continuous ion-exchange pilot plant for the recovery of uranium from partially clarified solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloete, F.L.D.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary design is given for a pilot plant to recover uranium from partially clarified slime pulp by continuous ion exchange. Process and plant-design methods are indicated briefly, and an outline is given of experimental work that should be undertaken before the start-up of the pilot plant

  8. Model-based microwave image reconstruction: simulations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocan, Razvan; Jiang Huabei

    2004-01-01

    We describe an integrated microwave imaging system that can provide spatial maps of dielectric properties of heterogeneous media with tomographically collected data. The hardware system (800-1200 MHz) was built based on a lock-in amplifier with 16 fixed antennas. The reconstruction algorithm was implemented using a Newton iterative method with combined Marquardt-Tikhonov regularizations. System performance was evaluated using heterogeneous media mimicking human breast tissue. Finite element method coupled with the Bayliss and Turkel radiation boundary conditions were applied to compute the electric field distribution in the heterogeneous media of interest. The results show that inclusions embedded in a 76-diameter background medium can be quantitatively reconstructed from both simulated and experimental data. Quantitative analysis of the microwave images obtained suggests that an inclusion of 14 mm in diameter is the smallest object that can be fully characterized presently using experimental data, while objects as small as 10 mm in diameter can be quantitatively resolved with simulated data

  9. Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes.Methods: In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., “pitches”) relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system.Results: Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest

  10. Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes. Methods: In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., “pitches”) relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system. Results: Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest

  11. Pilots 2.0: DIRAC pilots for all the skies

    CERN Document Server

    Stagni, F; McNab, A; Luzzi, C

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing infrastructures, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are opportunistic. Most of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. Meanwhile, some concepts, such as distributed queues, lost appeal, while still supporting a vast amount of resources. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to hide the diversity of underlying resources has become essential. The DIRAC WMS is based on the concept of pilot jobs that was introduced back in 2004. A pilot is what creates the possibility to run jobs on a worker node. Within DIRAC, we developed a new generation of pilot jobs, that we dubbed Pilots 2.0. Pilots 2.0 are not tied to a specific infrastructure; rather they are generic, fully configurable and extendible pilots. A Pilot 2.0 can be s...

  12. Sound field reconstruction based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    be measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer; furthermore, it can be exploited to characterize an arbitrary sound field using tomographic techniques. This paper briefly reviews the fundamental principles governing the acousto-optic effect in air, and presents an investigation of the tomographic reconstruction...... within the audible frequency range by means of simulations and experimental results. The good agreement observed between simulations and measurements is further confirmed with representations of the sound field obtained with traditional microphone array measurements....

  13. Mutual construction and reconstruction in client-consultant interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Irene Skovgaard

    Based on preliminary interviews with client representatives and a pilot case study, the pa-per explores collaboration and mutual construction in client-consultant relationships. Both consultants and client actors take part in an active construction and reconstruction of knowledge that involve...... struggles over position, power and control. In the context of client-consultant interaction, it is thus not only ideas and solutions that are contested but also the power to define. Attention is paid to how ideas are brought into play and negotiated in the interaction between actors. The empirical material...... presented in the paper illustrates how consultancy projects evolve through processes of negotiation over whose interpretation should count and who should be in control. In the process, client actors with different posi-tions and interests play an active role in creating what become valid and what ideas...

  14. Ulysses S. Grant and Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role played by Ulysses S. Grant during the four years of Reconstruction before he became President of the United States. Describes the dynamics of the relationship between Grant and Andrew Johnson. Points out that Grant's attitude of service to the laws created by Congress submerged his desire to create a new South. (KO)

  15. ASME method for particle reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ierusalimov, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    The method of approximate solution of motion equation (ASME) was used to reconstruct the parameters for charged particles. It provides a good precision for momentum, angular and space parameters of particles in coordinate detectors. The application of the method for CBM, HADES and MPD/NICA setups is discussed

  16. A Survey of Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Musialski, P.

    2013-05-10

    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of urban reconstruction. While there exists a considerable body of literature, this topic is still under active research. The work reviewed in this survey stems from the following three research communities: computer graphics, computer vision and photogrammetry and remote sensing. Our goal is to provide a survey that will help researchers to better position their own work in the context of existing solutions, and to help newcomers and practitioners in computer graphics to quickly gain an overview of this vast field. Further, we would like to bring the mentioned research communities to even more interdisciplinary work, since the reconstruction problem itself is by far not solved. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of urban reconstruction. While there exists a considerable body of literature, this topic is still under active research. The work reviewed in this survey stems from the following three research communities: computer graphics, computer vision and photogrammetry and remote sensing. Our goal is to provide a survey that will help researchers to better position their own work in the context of existing solutions, and to help newcomers and practitioners in computer graphics to quickly gain an overview of this vast field. Further, we would like to bring the mentioned research communities to even more interdisciplinary work, since the reconstruction problem itself is by far not solved. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Survey of Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Musialski, P.; Wonka, Peter; Aliaga, D. G.; Wimmer, M.; van Gool, L.; Purgathofer, W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive overview of urban reconstruction. While there exists a considerable body of literature, this topic is still under active research. The work reviewed in this survey stems from the following three research communities: computer graphics, computer vision and photogrammetry and remote sensing. Our goal is to provide a survey that will help researchers to better position their own work in the context of existing solutions, and to help newcomers and practitioners in computer graphics to quickly gain an overview of this vast field. Further, we would like to bring the mentioned research communities to even more interdisciplinary work, since the reconstruction problem itself is by far not solved. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of urban reconstruction. While there exists a considerable body of literature, this topic is still under active research. The work reviewed in this survey stems from the following three research communities: computer graphics, computer vision and photogrammetry and remote sensing. Our goal is to provide a survey that will help researchers to better position their own work in the context of existing solutions, and to help newcomers and practitioners in computer graphics to quickly gain an overview of this vast field. Further, we would like to bring the mentioned research communities to even more interdisciplinary work, since the reconstruction problem itself is by far not solved. © 2013 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Solutions for autonomy and reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilming, Wilhelm

    2011-07-01

    Stand-alone systems, whether solar home or pico solar systems, have reached a cost level at which they are an increasingly interesting option for wide-area development in grid-remote regions or for reconstruction where the previous grid infrastructure has been destroyed. (orig.)

  19. Poethical: Breaking Ground for Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krojer, Jo; Holge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2008-01-01

    Departing from a methodological experiment performed by the authors, this article reflects on and discusses issues of ethics and politics in poetic strategies of "representation". In relation to the experiment the article questions how to conceive the notion of connectedness between empirical time and the reconstruction of it in poststructuralist…

  20. Reconstruction of the 3D representative volume element from the generalized two-point correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staraselski, Y; Brahme, A; Inal, K; Mishra, R K

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first application of three-dimensional (3D) cross-correlation microstructure reconstruction implemented for a representative volume element (RVE) to facilitate the microstructure engineering of materials. This has been accomplished by developing a new methodology for reconstructing 3D microstructure using experimental two-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction data. The proposed methodology is based on the analytical representation of the generalized form of the two-point correlation function—the distance-disorientation function (DDF). Microstructure reconstruction is accomplished by extending the simulated annealing techniques to perform three term reconstruction with a minimization of the DDF. The new 3D microstructure reconstruction algorithm is employed to determine the 3D RVE containing all of the relevant microstructure information for accurately computing the mechanical response of solids, especially when local microstructural variations influence the global response of the material as in the case of fracture initiation. (paper)

  1. Impact of Alternative Inputs and Grooming Methods on Large-R Jet Reconstruction in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    During Run 1 of the LHC, the optimal reconstruction algorithm for large-$R$ jets in ATLAS, characterized in terms of the ability to discriminate signal from background and robust reconstruction in the presence of pileup, was found to be anti-$k_{t}$ jets with a radius parameter of 1.0, formed from locally calibrated topological calorimeter cell clusters and groomed with the trimming algorithm to remove contributions from pileup and underlying event. Since that time, much theoretical, phenomenological, and experimental work has been performed to improve both the reconstruction of the jet inputs as well as the grooming techniques applied to reconstructed jets. In this work, an inclusive survey of both pileup mitigation algorithms applied to calorimeter cell clusters and grooming algorithms is done to study their pileup stability and ability to identify hadronically decaying W bosons within the ATLAS experiment. It is found that compared to the conventional reconstruction algorithm of large-$R$ trimmed jets form...

  2. Ray calibration and phase mapping for structured-light-field 3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Bruce Z

    2018-03-19

    In previous work, we presented a structured light field (SLF) method combining light field imaging with structured illumination to perform multi-view depth measurement. However, the previous work just accomplishes depth rather than 3D reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a novel active method involving ray calibration and phase mapping, to achieve SLF 3D reconstruction. We performed the ray calibration for the first time to determine each light field ray with metric spatio-angular parameters, making the SLF realize multi-view 3D reconstruction. Based on the ray parametric equation, we further derived the phase mapping in the SLF that spatial coordinates can be directly mapped from phase. A flexible calibration strategy was correspondently designed to determine mapping coefficients for each light field ray, achieving high-efficiency SLF 3D reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for high-efficiency multi-view 3D reconstruction in the SLF.

  3. Tomographic reconstruction of the time-averaged density distribution in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of time-average density and density distribution in a two-phase flow field. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model-independent method of obtaining flow-field density information. A tomographic densitometer system for the measurement of two-phase flow has two unique problems: a limited number of data values and a correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid. These problems were studied both experimentally through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically through computer generation of simulated data. The prototype data were taken on phantoms constructed of all Plexiglas and Plexiglas laminated with wood and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data are compared with reconstructions from the simulated data. Also presented are some representative results in a horizontal air/water flow

  4. Application of 3D reconstruction system in diabetic foot ulcer injury assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Jiang, Li; Li, Tianjian; Liang, Xiaoyao

    2018-04-01

    To deal with the considerable deviation of transparency tracing method and digital planimetry method used in current clinical diabetic foot ulcer injury assessment, this paper proposes a 3D reconstruction system which can be used to get foot model with good quality texture, then injury assessment is done by measuring the reconstructed model. The system uses the Intel RealSense SR300 depth camera which is based on infrared structured-light as input device, the required data from different view is collected by moving the camera around the scanned object. The geometry model is reconstructed by fusing the collected data, then the mesh is sub-divided to increase the number of mesh vertices and the color of each vertex is determined using a non-linear optimization, all colored vertices compose the surface texture of the reconstructed model. Experimental results indicate that the reconstructed model has millimeter-level geometric accuracy and texture with few artificial effect.

  5. Application of reconstructive tomography to the measurement of density distribution in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Berggren, M.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1980-01-01

    The technique of reconstructive tomography has been applied to the measurement of average density and density distribution in multiphase flows. The technique of reconstructive tomography provides a model independent method of obtaining flow field density information. The unique features of interest in application of a practical tomographic densitometer system are the limited number of data values and the correspondingly coarse reconstruction grid (0.5 by 0.5 cm). These features were studied both experimentally, through the use of prototype hardware on a 3-in. pipe, and analytically, through computer generation of simulated data. Prototypical data were taken on phantoms constructed of Plexiglas and laminated Plexiglas, wood, and polyurethane foam. Reconstructions obtained from prototype data were compared with reconstructions from the simulated data

  6. 76 FR 78141 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...-26661; Amdt. No. 61-129] RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification... requirements for pilots, flight instructors, ground instructors, and pilot schools. This document corrects an... a practical test for the issuance of a sport pilot certificate in a light-sport aircraft other than...

  7. Stability indicators in network reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Filosi

    Full Text Available The number of available algorithms to infer a biological network from a dataset of high-throughput measurements is overwhelming and keeps growing. However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a 'gold standard' is available to measure how close the reconstructed network is to the ground truth. One measure of this is the stability of these predictions to data resampling approaches. We introduce NetSI, a family of Network Stability Indicators, to assess quantitatively the stability of a reconstructed network in terms of inference variability due to data subsampling. In order to evaluate network stability, the main NetSI methods use a global/local network metric in combination with a resampling (bootstrap or cross-validation procedure. In addition, we provide two normalized variability scores over data resampling to measure edge weight stability and node degree stability, and then introduce a stability ranking for edges and nodes. A complete implementation of the NetSI indicators, including the Hamming-Ipsen-Mikhailov (HIM network distance adopted in this paper is available with the R package nettools. We demonstrate the use of the NetSI family by measuring network stability on four datasets against alternative network reconstruction methods. First, the effect of sample size on stability of inferred networks is studied in a gold standard framework on yeast-like data from the Gene Net Weaver simulator. We also consider the impact of varying modularity on a set of structurally different networks (50 nodes, from 2 to 10 modules, and then of complex feature covariance structure, showing the different behaviours of standard reconstruction methods based on Pearson correlation, Maximum Information Coefficient (MIC and False Discovery Rate (FDR strategy. Finally, we demonstrate a strong combined effect of different reconstruction methods and phenotype subgroups on a hepatocellular carcinoma miRNA microarray dataset (240 subjects, and we

  8. Genital reconstruction in exstrophy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgery for bladder exstrophy has been evolving over the last four to five decades. Because survival has become almost universal, the focus has changed in the exstrophy-epispadias complex to improving quality of life. The most prevalent problem in the long-term function of exstrophy patients is the sexual activity of the adolescent and adult males. The penis in exstrophy patients appears short because of marked congenital deficiency of anterior corporal tissue. Many patients approach for genital reconstruction to improve cosmesis as well as to correct chordee. We report our series of male patients seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Materials and Methods: Fourteen adolescent/adult male patients attended urology services during the period January 2000-December 2009 seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Results: Three patients underwent epispadias repair, four patients had chordee correction with cosmetic excision of skin tags and seven patients underwent chordee correction with penile lengthening. All patients reported satisfaction in the answered questionnaire. Patients undergoing penile lengthening by partial corporal dissection achieved a mean increase in length of 1.614 ± 0.279 cm dorsally and 1.543 ± 0.230 cm ventrally. The satisfactory rate assessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36 showed that irrespective of the different genital reconstructive procedures done, the patients were satisfied with cosmetic and functional outcome. Conclusions: Surgical procedures have transformed the management in these patients with bladder exstrophy. Bladders can be safely placed within the pelvis, with most patients achieving urinary continence and cosmetically acceptable external genitalia. Genital reconstruction in the form of correction of chordee, excision of ugly skin tags and lengthening of penis can be performed to give the patients a satisfactory cosmetic and functional

  9. 49 CFR 230.110 - Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilots. 230.110 Section 230.110 Transportation... and Equalizing System § 230.110 Pilots. (a) General provisions. Pilots shall be securely attached... clearance. The minimum clearance of pilot above the rail shall be 3 inches and the maximum clearance shall...

  10. Kvanefjeld refinery pilot plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Damien; Furfaro, Domenic

    2016-01-01

    Greenland Minerals and Energy is a junior project development company which is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (asx:GGG). It is developing the Kvanefjeld rare earth and uranium project located in the southern tip of Greenland. The project has completed a Feasibility Study and is currently in the permitting phase. Last year was a busy time for the company as it completed a Feasibility Study, a mining licence application (draft submitted in December 2015) and pilot plant operations. Beneficiation pilot plant operations were completed at GTK in Finland in April 2015. This pilot plant treated approximately 30 tonnes of ore to producing almost 2 tonnes of rare earth mineral concentrate. Later in the year a hydrometallurgical pilot plant was performed which mimicked the Refinery process. This pilot plant was performed at Outotec’s Pori Research laboratories in Finland from September till October 2015. The pilot plant treated approximately 200 kilograms of concentrate over 4 split operating campaigns. Each campaign was performed to focus on the performance of a specific part of the refinery flowsheet. This allowed for full operating focus on a single unit operation to ensure that it was operating correctly. The pilot plant operations were quite successful with no major issues with the flowsheet identified through continuous operation. Some fine tuning of conditions was required to ensure adequate removal of impurities was performed with recycle streams incorporated. Overall the leach extractions observed in the pilot plant exceeded the design assumptions in the Feasibility Study. These programs were partially funded by the EURARE program. The EURARE program aims to encourage the sustainable development of European based rare earth projects. This has the goal of allowing Europe to become less reliant on importation of these key raw materials. The professionalism and performance of both GTK and Outotec contributed significantly to the success of the pilot plant

  11. Digital holography super-resolution for accurate three-dimensional reconstruction of particle holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Nicolas; Fournier, Corinne

    2015-01-15

    In-line digital holography (DH) is used in many fields to locate and size micro or nano-objects spread in a volume. To reconstruct simple shaped objects, the optimal approach is to fit an imaging model to accurately estimate their position and their characteristic parameters. Increasing the accuracy of the reconstruction is a big issue in DH, particularly when the pixel is large or the signal-to-noise ratio is low. We suggest exploiting the information redundancy of videos to improve the reconstruction of the holograms by jointly estimating the position of the objects and the characteristic parameters. Using synthetic and experimental data, we checked experimentally that this approach can improve the accuracy of the reconstruction by a factor more than the square root of the image number.

  12. Accelerated gradient methods for total-variation-based CT image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Jakob H.; Hansen, Per Christian [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Informatics and Mathematical Modeling; Jensen, Tobias L.; Jensen, Soeren H. [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Electronic Systems; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan [Chicago Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2011-07-01

    Total-variation (TV)-based CT image reconstruction has shown experimentally to be capable of producing accurate reconstructions from sparse-view data. In particular TV-based reconstruction is well suited for images with piecewise nearly constant regions. Computationally, however, TV-based reconstruction is demanding, especially for 3D imaging, and the reconstruction from clinical data sets is far from being close to real-time. This is undesirable from a clinical perspective, and thus there is an incentive to accelerate the solution of the underlying optimization problem. The TV reconstruction can in principle be found by any optimization method, but in practice the large scale of the systems arising in CT image reconstruction preclude the use of memory-intensive methods such as Newton's method. The simple gradient method has much lower memory requirements, but exhibits prohibitively slow convergence. In the present work we address the question of how to reduce the number of gradient method iterations needed to achieve a high-accuracy TV reconstruction. We consider the use of two accelerated gradient-based methods, GPBB and UPN, to solve the 3D-TV minimization problem in CT image reconstruction. The former incorporates several heuristics from the optimization literature such as Barzilai-Borwein (BB) step size selection and nonmonotone line search. The latter uses a cleverly chosen sequence of auxiliary points to achieve a better convergence rate. The methods are memory efficient and equipped with a stopping criterion to ensure that the TV reconstruction has indeed been found. An implementation of the methods (in C with interface to Matlab) is available for download from http://www2.imm.dtu.dk/~pch/TVReg/. We compare the proposed methods with the standard gradient method, applied to a 3D test problem with synthetic few-view data. We find experimentally that for realistic parameters the proposed methods significantly outperform the standard gradient method. (orig.)

  13. The research of Digital Holographic Object Wave Field Reconstruction in Image and Object Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-Chang; PENG Zu-Jie; FU Yun-Chang

    2011-01-01

    @@ For conveniently detecting objects of different sizes using digital holography, usual measurements employ the object wave transformed by an optical system with different magnifications to fit charge coupled devices (CCDs), then the object field reconstruction involves the diffraction calculation of the optic wave passing through the optical system.We propose two methods to reconstruct the object field.The one is that, when the object is imaging in an image space in which we reconstruct the image of the object field, the object field can be expressed according to the object-image relationship.The other is that, when the object field reaching CCD is imaged in an object space in which we reconstruct the object field, the optical system is described by introducing matrix optics in this paper.The reconstruction formulae which easily use classic diffraction integral are derived.Finally, experimental verifications are also accomplished.%For conveniently detecting objects of different sizes using digital holography, usual measurements employ the object wave transformed by an optical system with different magnifications to fit charge coupled devices (CCDs), then the object Reid reconstruction involves the diffraction calculation of the optic wave passing through the optical system. We propose two methods to reconstruct the object field. The one is that, when the object is imaging in an image space in which we reconstruct the image of the object field, the object field can be expressed according to the object-image relationship. The other is that, when the object field reaching CCD is imaged in an object space in which we reconstruct the object field, the optical system is described by introducing matrix optics in this paper. The reconstruction formulae which easily use classic diffraction integral are derived. Finally, experimental verifications are also accomplished.

  14. Mandibular reconstruction in adults: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, B.T.; Lee, S.; Tideman, H.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Mandibular defects may result from trauma, inflammatory disease and benign or malignant tumours. Mastication, speech and facial aesthetics are often severely compromised without reconstruction. The goal of mandibular reconstruction is to restore facial form and function, implying repair of

  15. Discrete Wigner Function Reconstruction and Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jia-Ning; Fang, Lei; Ge, Mo-Lin

    2011-01-01

    A new reconstruction method for Wigner function is reported for quantum tomography based on compressed sensing. By analogy with computed tomography, Wigner functions for some quantum states can be reconstructed with less measurements utilizing this compressed sensing based method.

  16. Priming a Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt; Pedersen, Maria Ie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. We report on the initial findings of an exploratory action research study about effects specifications using the systems development method Effects-driven IT development. It is part of a larger IS pilot implementation project conducted in the Danish healthcare sector. Through interviews...... and a workshop we have identified and specified effects that comprise the basis for an evaluation of the project between several organisational agents with diverse professional backgrounds. Gathering organisational participants at a workshop with a common goal of discussing and prioritizing a finished list...... of effects has proved to be a valuable approach to create mutual learning process amongst the participants and the facilitators of the workshop. The challenges we experienced during the effects specification process were to balance a dichotomous focus between on one hand the visions of the participants...

  17. Liverpool Telecare Pilot: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Barnes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Telecare services use information and communications technology (ICT to support the provision of care to people in their own homes. This paper describes a pilot telecare service employed by Liverpool (UK City Council to support a sample of their frail and elderly social services users. The pilot has been running for over two years and has been deployed for 21 individuals in Liverpool. In this paper we present the pilot system and provide real example cases which help to illustrate the benefits of such a system.

  18. Graft infections after surgical aortic reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, P.

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic vascular grafts are frequently used to reconstruct (part) of the aorta. Every surgical procedure caries a certain risk for infection and when a prosthetic aortic graft is implanted, this may lead to an aortic graft infection (AGI). Endovascular techniques have gradually replaced open surgical reconstructions as first line of treatment for aorto-iliac diseases. Nowadays, open reconstructions are primarily reserved for patients unsuitable for endovascular reconstructions or for redo ...

  19. Craniofacial Reconstruction Evaluation by Geodesic Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Junli; Liu, Cuiting; Wu, Zhongke; Duan, Fuqing; Wang, Kang; Jia, Taorui; Liu, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial reconstruction is to estimate an individual’s face model from its skull. It has a widespread application in forensic medicine, archeology, medical cosmetic surgery, and so forth. However, little attention is paid to the evaluation of craniofacial reconstruction. This paper proposes an objective method to evaluate globally and locally the reconstructed craniofacial faces based on the geodesic network. Firstly, the geodesic networks of the reconstructed craniofacial face and the or...

  20. REGEN: Ancestral Genome Reconstruction for Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Kuan; Heath, Lenwood S.; Setubal, João C.

    2012-01-01

    Ancestral genome reconstruction can be understood as a phylogenetic study with more details than a traditional phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We present a new computational system called REGEN for ancestral bacterial genome reconstruction at both the gene and replicon levels. REGEN reconstructs gene content, contiguous gene runs, and replicon structure for each ancestral genome. Along each branch of the phylogenetic tree, REGEN infers evolutionary events, including gene creation and deleti...

  1. Effects of circular myotomy on the healing of esophageal suture anastomosis: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannuri, U; Tannuri, A C; Fukutaki, M F; de Oliveira, M S; Muoio, V M; Massaguer, A A

    1999-01-01

    For esophageal reconstruction in newborns with esophageal atresia, esophageal reunion with an end-to-end anastomosis is the ideal procedure, although it may result in leaks and strictures due to tension on the suture line, mainly in cases with a wide gap between the ends. Circular myotomy (Livaditis' procedure) is the best method to elongate the proximal esophageal pouch and reduce anastomotic tension. This experimental investigation in dogs was undertaken to attempt to verify that circular myotomy decreases the anastomotic leak rate in newborns with wide gap esophageal atresia, and to analyze whether the technique promotes morphologic changes in the anastomotic scar. A pilot study demonstrated that it is necessary to resect more than 8 cm (40% of the total esophageal length) in order to obtain high leak rates. In the experimental project, such resection was performed in dogs divided into two groups (control group, anastomosis only, and experimental group, anastomosis plus circular myotomy in the proximal esophageal segment). The animals were killed in the 14th postoperative day, submitted to autopsy, and were evaluated as to the presence of leaks and strictures, as well as to the features (macroscopic and microscopic aspects) of the anastomosis. Leak rates were the same in both groups. Morphometric analysis revealed that in animals in the experimental group, the anastomotic scar was thinner than the control animals, and the isolated muscular manchette distal to the site of myotomy was replaced by fibrous tissue. Correspondingly, a decreased number of newly formed small vessels were noted in the experimental animals, compared to control animals. We concluded that circular myotomy does not decrease the incidence of anastomotic leaks, and it also promotes deleterious changes in anastomotic healing.

  2. Effects of circular myotomy on the healing of esophageal suture anastomosis: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tannuri Uenis

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available For esophageal reconstruction in newborns with esophageal atresia, esophageal reunion with an end-to-end anastomosis is the ideal procedure, although it may result in leaks and strictures due to tension on the suture line, mainly in cases with a wide gap between the ends. Circular myotomy (Livaditis' procedure is the best method to elongate the proximal esophageal pouch and reduce anastomotic tension. This experimental investigation in dogs was undertaken to attempt to verify that circular myotomy decreases the anastomotic leak rate in newborns with wide gap esophageal atresia, and to analyze whether the technique promotes morphologic changes in the anastomotic scar. A pilot study demonstrated that it is necessary to resect more than 8 cm (40% of the total esophageal length in order to obtain high leak rates. In the experimental project, such resection was performed in dogs divided into two groups (control group, anastomosis only, and experimental group, anastomosis plus circular myotomy in the proximal esophageal segment. The animals were killed in the 14th postoperative day, submitted to autopsy, and were evaluated as to the presence of leaks and strictures, as well as to the features (macroscopic and microscopic aspects of the anastomosis. Leak rates were the same in both groups. Morphometric analysis revealed that in animals in the experimental group, the anastomotic scar was thinner than the control animals, and the isolated muscular manchette distal to the site of myotomy was replaced by fibrous tissue. Correspondingly, a decreased number of newly formed small vessels were noted in the experimental animals, compared to control animals. We concluded that circular myotomy does not decrease the incidence of anastomotic leaks, and it also promotes deleterious changes in anastomotic healing.

  3. Impact characteristics for high-pressure large-flow water-based emulsion pilot operated check valve reverse opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Huang, Chuanhui; Yu, Ping; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    To improve the dynamic characteristics and cavitation characteristics of large-flow pilot operated check valve, consider the pilot poppet as the research object, analyses working principle and design three different kinds of pilot poppets. The vibration characteristics and impact characteristics are analyzed. The simulation model is established through flow field simulation software. The cavitation characteristics of large-flow pilot operated check valve are studied and discussed. On this basis, high-pressure large-flow impact experimental system is used for impact experiment, and the cavitation index is discussed. Then optimal structure is obtained. Simulation results indicate that the increase of pilot poppet half cone angle can effectively reduce the cavitation area, reducing the generation of cavitation. Experimental results show that the pressure impact is not decreasing with increasing of pilot poppet half cone angle in process of unloading, but the unloading capacity, response speed and pilot poppet half cone angle are positively correlated. The impact characteristics of 60° pilot poppet, and its cavitation index is lesser, which indicates 60° pilot poppet is the optimal structure, with the theory results are basically identical.

  4. Particle collection by a pilot plant venturi scrubber downstream from a pilot plant electrostatic precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, L. E.; Ramsey, G. H.; Daniel, B. E.

    The results of pilot plant experiments of particulate collection by a venturi scrubber downstream from an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are presented. The data, which cover a range of scrubber operating conditions and ESP efficiencies, show that particle collection by the venturi scrubber is not affected by the upstream ESP; i.e., for a given scrubber pressure drop, particle collection efficiency as a function of particle diameter is the same for both ESP on and ESP off. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. Order of magnitude cost estimates indicate that particle collection by ESP scrubber systems may be economically attractive when scrubbers must be used for SO x control.

  5. Application aspects of advanced antenna diagnostics with the 3D reconstruction algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on two important applications of the 3D reconstruction algorithm of the commercial software DIATOOL for antenna diagnostics. The first one is the accurate and detailed identification of array malfunctioning, thanks to the available enhanced spatial resolution of the reconstruct...... fields and currents. The second one is the filtering of the scattering from support structures and feed network leakage. Representative experimental results are presented and guidelines on the recommended measurement parameters for obtaining the best diagnostics results are provided....

  6. Single-shot speckle reduction in numerical reconstruction of digitally recorded holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapie, Diego; Herrera-Ramírez, Jorge; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2015-04-15

    A single-shot method to reduce the speckle noise in the numerical reconstructions of electronically recorded holograms is presented. A recorded hologram with the dimensions N×M is split into S=T×T sub-holograms. The uncorrelated superposition of the individually reconstructed sub-holograms leads to an image with the speckle noise reduced proportionally to the 1/S law. The experimental results are presented to support the proposed methodology.

  7. Studying Galileo at Secondary School: A Reconstruction of His "Jumping-Hill" Experiment and the Process of Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    Finds that interpretation of Galileo's only known experimental manuscript produces some interesting questions that offer pedagogical applications. Promotes classroom "research games" consisting of reconstructed experiments with Galileo's inclined plane and with other instruments to allow further speculation. (Author/WRM)

  8. 2-D Fused Image Reconstruction approach for Microwave Tomography: a theoretical assessment using FDTD Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindu, G; Semenov, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient two-dimensional fused image reconstruction approach for Microwave Tomography (MWT). Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) models were created for a viable MWT experimental system having the transceivers modelled using thin wire approximation with resistive voltage sources. Born Iterative and Distorted Born Iterative methods have been employed for image reconstruction with the extremity imaging being done using a differential imaging technique. The forward solver in the imaging algorithm employs the FDTD method of solving the time domain Maxwell's equations with the regularisation parameter computed using a stochastic approach. The algorithm is tested with 10% noise inclusion and successful image reconstruction has been shown implying its robustness.

  9. Reconstruction of fiber grating refractive-index profiles from complex bragg reflection spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D W; Yang, C C

    1999-07-20

    Reconstruction of the refractive-index profiles of fiber gratings from their complex Bragg reflection spectra is experimentally demonstrated. The amplitude and phase of the complex reflection spectrum were measured with a balanced Michelson interferometer. By integrating the coupled-mode equations, we built the relationship between the complex coupling coefficient and the complex reflection spectrum as an iterative algorithm for reconstructing the index profile. This method is expected to be useful for reconstructing the index profiles of fiber gratings with any apodization, chirp, or dc structures. An apodized chirped grating and a uniform grating with a depression of index modulation were used to demonstrate the technique.

  10. Muon reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution in pp collisions at 8TeV with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrievska, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment identifies and reconstructs muons with two high precision tracking systems, the Inner Detector and the Muon Spectrometer, which provide independent measurements of the muon momentum. This poster summarizes the performance of the combined muon reconstruction in terms of reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution. Data-driven techniques are used to derive corrections to be applied to simulation in order to reproduce the reconstruction efficiency, momentum scale and resolution as observed in experimental data, and to asses systematic uncertainties on these quantities. The analysed dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20.4 fb−1 from 8 TeV pp collisions recorded in 2012.

  11. [The reconstruction of two-dimensional distributions of gas concentration in the flat flame based on tunable laser absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Shen; Wang, Fei; Xing, Da-Wei; Xu, Ting; Yan, Jian-Hua; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2012-11-01

    The experimental method by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy combined with the model and algo- rithm was studied to reconstruct the two-dimensional distribution of gas concentration The feasibility of the reconstruction program was verified by numerical simulation A diagnostic system consisting of 24 lasers was built for the measurement of H2O in the methane/air premixed flame. The two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame was reconstructed, showing that the reconstruction results reflect the real two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame. This diagnostic scheme provides a promising solution for combustion control.

  12. Vertex Reconstruction in ATLAS Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Matt; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Vertex reconstruction is the process of taking reconstructed tracks and using them to determine the locations of proton collisions. In this poster we present the performance of our current vertex reconstruction algorithm, and look at investigations into potential improvements from a new seed finding method.

  13. YF-12A #935 with test pilot Donald L. Mallick

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    flights including the first using the three-axis side controller. In 1967, he was assigned to fly as one of two NASA pilots on the joint NASA-USAF XB-70 flight test program. Don flew as one of two NASA test pilots on the NASA YF-12A and YF-12C test programs accumulating 215 hours in 105 flights of test time in the triple-sonic Blackbirds. He was project pilot on both programs. Mallick was appointed Chief Pilot of the Flight Research Center in 1967, a position that he held for fourteen years. He was proud of the fact that during this period he flew himself and also directed six other NASA test pilots without a fatal accident. In 1981, he became Deputy Chief of the Aircraft Operations Division. Don retired April 3, 1987, after logging over 11,000 flight hours in more than 125 different types of aircraft and helicopters. Mallick has written several reports. In 1975, he was selected and honored as a Fellow in the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, of which he is still a member.

  14. Mandibular reconstruction using bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Joon Yim

    1999-01-01

    Further understanding of bone healing mechanisms, bone physiology and bone biology, transplantation immunology, and development of Tissue Banking procedures has enabled oral and maxillofacial surgeons to reconstruct even the most difficult bony defects successfully with the preserved allogeneic bone implant. Although it had been known that bone allografts were clinically effective, its application has not been widespread until the reports of Inclan (I 942), Hyatt and Butler (I 950), and Wilson (I 95 1). Tissue Banking provides the surgeon with a readily available, relatively inexpensive, and relatively safe selection of allogeneic bone for clinical use. Now autogenous bone and allogeneic bone implants present a wide variety of surgical options to surgeons, whether used separately or in combination. The surgeons are able to make judicious and fruitful choices, only with a thorough knowledge of the above-mentioned biological principles and skillful techniques. Many kinds of bone grafting techniques have been tried for reconstructing defective osseous tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region, though they have varying degrees of success. The osseous defects which require grafting include those of various size, shape, position, or amount. Unlike autogenous grafts, whose function is to provide osteogenic cells, allografts are purely passive, offering only a matrix for the inductive phase of bone healing. The condition of the recipient bed is of primary importance, because the host must produce all of the essential elements for the bone allograft to become incorporated. Depending on the processing methods of the allogeneic bone, the bone graft materials have different qualities, different healing potentials and different indications. Proper selection of grafts and surgical techniques requires an understanding of graft immunology and the mechanisms of graft healing. The surgeons should know about the biological principles to raise the clinical success rate

  15. Post-disaster housing reconstruction: Perspectives of the NGO and local authorities on delay issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Khairin Norhashidah; Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Ismail, Risyawati Mohamed; Lin, Chong Khai

    2016-08-01

    Post disaster reconstruction is complex, dynamic and chaotic in nature and as such represents many challenges because it is unlike normal construction. However, the time scale of reconstruction is shorter than the normal construction, but it often deals with uncertainties and the scale of the construction activities required is relatively high. After a disaster impacts a country, many governments, institutions and aid organizations cooperate and involved with the reconstruction process. This is seen as a tool for applying policies and programs designed to remedy the weakness in developmental policies, infrastructure and institutional arrangements. This paper reports a part of an on-going research on post-disaster housing reconstruction in Malaysia. An extensive literature review and pilot interviews were undertaken to establish the factors that contribute to the delay in post-disaster reconstruction project. Accordingly, this paper takes the perspective of recovery from non-government organization (NGO) and local authorities which act as providers of social services, builders of infrastructure, regulators of economic activity and managers of the natural environment. As a result, it is important on how those decisions are made, who is involved in the decision-making, and what are the consequences of this decision.

  16. Choice of reconstructed tissue properties affects interpretation of lung EIT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2014-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of change in electrical properties within a body from stimulations and measurements at surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT as a tool to monitor and guide ventilation therapy in mechanically ventilated patients. In lung EIT, the EIT inverse problem is commonly linearized and only changes in electrical properties are reconstructed. Early algorithms reconstructed changes in resistivity, while most recent work using the finite element method reconstructs conductivity. Recently, we demonstrated that EIT images of ventilation can be misleading if the electrical contrasts within the thorax are not taken into account during the image reconstruction process. In this paper, we explore the effect of the choice of the reconstructed electrical properties (resistivity or conductivity) on the resulting EIT images. We show in simulation and experimental data that EIT images reconstructed with the same algorithm but with different parametrizations lead to large and clinically significant differences in the resulting images, which persist even after attempts to eliminate the impact of the parameter choice by recovering volume changes from the EIT images. Since there is no consensus among the most popular reconstruction algorithms and devices regarding the parametrization, this finding has implications for potential clinical use of EIT. We propose a program of research to develop reconstruction techniques that account for both the relationship between air volume and electrical properties of the lung and artefacts introduced by the linearization.

  17. Noninvasive Vascular Displacement Estimation for Relative Elastic Modulus Reconstruction in Transversal Imaging Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. de Korte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerotic plaque rupture can initiate stroke or myocardial infarction. Lipid-rich plaques with thin fibrous caps have a higher risk to rupture than fibrotic plaques. Elastic moduli differ for lipid-rich and fibrous tissue and can be reconstructed using tissue displacements estimated from intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency (RF data acquisitions. This study investigated if modulus reconstruction is possible for noninvasive RF acquisitions of vessels in transverse imaging planes using an iterative 2D cross-correlation based displacement estimation algorithm. Furthermore, since it is known that displacements can be improved by compounding of displacements estimated at various beam steering angles, we compared the performance of the modulus reconstruction with and without compounding. For the comparison, simulated and experimental RF data were generated of various vessel-mimicking phantoms. Reconstruction errors were less than 10%, which seems adequate for distinguishing lipid-rich from fibrous tissue. Compounding outperformed single-angle reconstruction: the interquartile range of the reconstructed moduli for the various homogeneous phantom layers was approximately two times smaller. Additionally, the estimated lateral displacements were a factor of 2–3 better matched to the displacements corresponding to the reconstructed modulus distribution. Thus, noninvasive elastic modulus reconstruction is possible for transverse vessel cross sections using this cross-correlation method and is more accurate with compounding.

  18. A comparison of quantitative reconstruction techniques for PIXE-tomography analysis applied to biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, D.G., E-mail: dgbeasley@ctn.ist.utl.pt [IST/C2TN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Alves, L.C. [IST/C2TN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Barberet, Ph.; Bourret, S.; Devès, G.; Gordillo, N.; Michelet, C. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Le Trequesser, Q. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (ICMCB, UPR9048) CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608 (France); Marques, A.C. [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Seznec, H. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Silva, R.C. da [IST/IPFN, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, E.N.10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    The tomographic reconstruction of biological specimens requires robust algorithms, able to deal with low density contrast and low element concentrations. At the IST/ITN microprobe facility new GPU-accelerated reconstruction software, JPIXET, has been developed, which can significantly increase the speed of quantitative reconstruction of Proton Induced X-ray Emission Tomography (PIXE-T) data. It has a user-friendly graphical user interface for pre-processing, data analysis and reconstruction of PIXE-T and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy Tomography (STIM-T). The reconstruction of PIXE-T data is performed using either an algorithm based on a GPU-accelerated version of the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation (MLEM) method or a GPU-accelerated version of the Discrete Image Space Reconstruction Algorithm (DISRA) (Sakellariou (2001) [2]). The original DISRA, its accelerated version, and the MLEM algorithm, were compared for the reconstruction of a biological sample of Caenorhabditis elegans – a small worm. This sample was analysed at the microbeam line of the AIFIRA facility of CENBG, Bordeaux. A qualitative PIXE-T reconstruction was obtained using the CENBG software package TomoRebuild (Habchi et al. (2013) [6]). The effects of pre-processing and experimental conditions on the elemental concentrations are discussed.

  19. GPU-accelerated Kernel Regression Reconstruction for Freehand 3D Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tiexiang; Li, Ling; Zhu, Qingsong; Qin, Wenjian; Gu, Jia; Yang, Feng; Xie, Yaoqin

    2017-07-01

    Volume reconstruction method plays an important role in improving reconstructed volumetric image quality for freehand three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging. By utilizing the capability of programmable graphics processing unit (GPU), we can achieve a real-time incremental volume reconstruction at a speed of 25-50 frames per second (fps). After incremental reconstruction and visualization, hole-filling is performed on GPU to fill remaining empty voxels. However, traditional pixel nearest neighbor-based hole-filling fails to reconstruct volume with high image quality. On the contrary, the kernel regression provides an accurate volume reconstruction method for 3D ultrasound imaging but with the cost of heavy computational complexity. In this paper, a GPU-based fast kernel regression method is proposed for high-quality volume after the incremental reconstruction of freehand ultrasound. The experimental results show that improved image quality for speckle reduction and details preservation can be obtained with the parameter setting of kernel window size of [Formula: see text] and kernel bandwidth of 1.0. The computational performance of the proposed GPU-based method can be over 200 times faster than that on central processing unit (CPU), and the volume with size of 50 million voxels in our experiment can be reconstructed within 10 seconds.

  20. Choice of reconstructed tissue properties affects interpretation of lung EIT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of change in electrical properties within a body from stimulations and measurements at surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT as a tool to monitor and guide ventilation therapy in mechanically ventilated patients. In lung EIT, the EIT inverse problem is commonly linearized and only changes in electrical properties are reconstructed. Early algorithms reconstructed changes in resistivity, while most recent work using the finite element method reconstructs conductivity. Recently, we demonstrated that EIT images of ventilation can be misleading if the electrical contrasts within the thorax are not taken into account during the image reconstruction process. In this paper, we explore the effect of the choice of the reconstructed electrical properties (resistivity or conductivity) on the resulting EIT images. We show in simulation and experimental data that EIT images reconstructed with the same algorithm but with different parametrizations lead to large and clinically significant differences in the resulting images, which persist even after attempts to eliminate the impact of the parameter choice by recovering volume changes from the EIT images. Since there is no consensus among the most popular reconstruction algorithms and devices regarding the parametrization, this finding has implications for potential clinical use of EIT. We propose a program of research to develop reconstruction techniques that account for both the relationship between air volume and electrical properties of the lung and artefacts introduced by the linearization. (paper)

  1. The effectiveness of origami on overall hand function after injury: A pilot controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, L; Roden, P; Taylor, Y; Marston, L

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study measured the effectiveness of using origami to improve the overall hand function of outpatients attending an NHS hand injury unit. The initiative came from one of the authors who had used origami informally in the clinical setting and observed beneficial effects. These observed effects were tested experimentally. The design was a pilot non-randomised controlled trial with 13 participants. Allocation of the seven control group members was based on patient preference. The exper...

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-27

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound, cost effective, permanent disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste left from production of nuclear weapons.

  3. Rockfish Pilot Permit Program (RPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rockfish Pilot Program was a five-year project that allowed harvesters to form voluntary cooperatives and receive an exclusive harvest privilege for groundfish...

  4. US Daily Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot Balloon observational forms for the United States. Taken by Weather Bureau and U.S. Army observers. Period of record 1918-1960. Records scanned from the NCDC...

  5. WIPP: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are discussed briefly: history and site selection; salt as a disposal medium; transporting waste materials; early key events; impacts on New Mexico; project organization; and site certification profile

  6. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS

    1980-01-01

    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  7. Magneto-acousto-electrical Measurement Based Electrical Conductivity Reconstruction for Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ma, Qingyu; Guo, Gepu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2018-05-01

    Based on the interaction of ultrasonic excitation and magnetoelectrical induction, magneto-acousto-electrical (MAE) technology was demonstrated to have the capability of differentiating conductivity variations along the acoustic transmission. By applying the characteristics of the MAE voltage, a simplified algorithm of MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction was developed. With the analyses of acoustic vibration, ultrasound propagation, Hall effect, and magnetoelectrical induction, theoretical and experimental studies of MAE measurement and conductivity reconstruction were performed. The formula of MAE voltage was derived and simplified for the transducer with strong directivity. MAE voltage was simulated for a three-layer gel phantom and the conductivity distribution was reconstructed using the modified Wiener inverse filter and Hilbert transform, which was also verified by experimental measurements. The experimental results are basically consistent with the simulations, and demonstrate that the wave packets of MAE voltage are generated at tissue interfaces with the amplitudes and vibration polarities representing the values and directions of conductivity variations. With the proposed algorithm, the amplitude and polarity of conductivity gradient can be restored and the conductivity distribution can also be reconstructed accurately. The favorable results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate conductivity reconstruction with improved spatial resolution using MAE measurement for tissues with conductivity variations, especially suitable for nondispersive tissues with abrupt conductivity changes. This study demonstrates that the MAE measurement based conductivity reconstruction algorithm can be applied as a new strategy for nondestructive real-time monitoring of conductivity variations in biomedical engineering.

  8. An improved muon reconstruction algorithm for INO-ICAL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Kolahal; MandaI, Naba K.

    2013-01-01

    The charge current interaction of neutrino in INO-ICAL detector will be identified with a muon (μ ± ) in the detector whose kinematics is related with the kinematics of the neutrino. So, muon reconstruction is a very important step in achieving INO physics goals. The existing muon reconstruction package for INO-ICAL has poor performance in specific regimes of experimental interest: (a) for larger zenith angle (θ > 50°), (b) for lower energies (E < 1 GeV); mainly due to poor error propagation scheme insensitive to energy E, angle (θ, φ) and inhomogeneous magnetic field along the muon track. Since, a significant fraction of muons from atmospheric neutrino interactions will have initial energy < 1 GeV and almost uniform distribution in cosθ a robust package for muon reconstruction is essential. We have implemented higher order correction terms in the propagation of the state and error covariance matrices of the Kalman Iter. The algorithm ensures track element merging in most cases and also increases reconstruction efficiency. The performance of this package will be presented in comparison with the previous one. (author)

  9. Inverse Monte Carlo: a unified reconstruction algorithm for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, C.E.; Coleman, R.E.; Jaszczak, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Inverse Monte Carlo (IMOC) is presented as a unified reconstruction algorithm for Emission Computed Tomography (ECT) providing simultaneous compensation for scatter, attenuation, and the variation of collimator resolution with depth. The technique of inverse Monte Carlo is used to find an inverse solution to the photon transport equation (an integral equation for photon flux from a specified source) for a parameterized source and specific boundary conditions. The system of linear equations so formed is solved to yield the source activity distribution for a set of acquired projections. For the studies presented here, the equations are solved using the EM (Maximum Likelihood) algorithm although other solution algorithms, such as Least Squares, could be employed. While the present results specifically consider the reconstruction of camera-based Single Photon Emission Computed Tomographic (SPECT) images, the technique is equally valid for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) if a Monte Carlo model of such a system is used. As a preliminary evaluation, experimentally acquired SPECT phantom studies for imaging Tc-99m (140 keV) are presented which demonstrate the quantitative compensation for scatter and attenuation for a two dimensional (single slice) reconstruction. The algorithm may be expanded in a straight forward manner to full three dimensional reconstruction including compensation for out of plane scatter

  10. Towards an inline reconstruction architecture for micro-CT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasse, David; Humbert, Bernard; Mathelin, Carole; Rio, Marie-Christine; Guyonnet, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in micro-CT have revolutionized the ability to examine in vivo living experimental animal models such as mouse with a spatial resolution less than 50 μm. The main requirements of in vivo imaging for biological researchers are a good spatial resolution, a low dose induced to the animal during the full examination and a reduced acquisition and reconstruction time for screening purposes. We introduce inline acquisition and reconstruction architecture to obtain in real time the 3D attenuation map of the animal fulfilling the three previous requirements. The micro-CT system is based on commercially available x-ray detector and micro-focus x-ray source. The reconstruction architecture is based on a cluster of PCs where a dedicated communication scheme combining serial and parallel treatments is implemented. In order to obtain high performance transmission rate between the detector and the reconstruction architecture, a dedicated data acquisition system is also developed. With the proposed solution, the time required to filter and backproject a projection of 2048 x 2048 pixels inside a volume of 140 mega voxels using the Feldkamp algorithm is similar to 500 ms, the time needed to acquire the same projection

  11. Instrument Variables for Reducing Noise in Parallel MRI Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchou Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA has been a widely used parallel MRI technique. However, noise deteriorates the reconstructed image when reduction factor increases or even at low reduction factor for some noisy datasets. Noise, initially generated from scanner, propagates noise-related errors during fitting and interpolation procedures of GRAPPA to distort the final reconstructed image quality. The basic idea we proposed to improve GRAPPA is to remove noise from a system identification perspective. In this paper, we first analyze the GRAPPA noise problem from a noisy input-output system perspective; then, a new framework based on errors-in-variables (EIV model is developed for analyzing noise generation mechanism in GRAPPA and designing a concrete method—instrument variables (IV GRAPPA to remove noise. The proposed EIV framework provides possibilities that noiseless GRAPPA reconstruction could be achieved by existing methods that solve EIV problem other than IV method. Experimental results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm can better remove the noise compared to the conventional GRAPPA, as validated with both of phantom and in vivo brain data.

  12. QR-decomposition based SENSE reconstruction using parallel architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Irfan; Nisar, Habab; Raza, Haseeb; Qasim, Malik; Inam, Omair; Omer, Hammad

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful medical imaging technique that provides essential clinical information about the human body. One major limitation of MRI is its long scan time. Implementation of advance MRI algorithms on a parallel architecture (to exploit inherent parallelism) has a great potential to reduce the scan time. Sensitivity Encoding (SENSE) is a Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging (pMRI) algorithm that utilizes receiver coil sensitivities to reconstruct MR images from the acquired under-sampled k-space data. At the heart of SENSE lies inversion of a rectangular encoding matrix. This work presents a novel implementation of GPU based SENSE algorithm, which employs QR decomposition for the inversion of the rectangular encoding matrix. For a fair comparison, the performance of the proposed GPU based SENSE reconstruction is evaluated against single and multicore CPU using openMP. Several experiments against various acceleration factors (AFs) are performed using multichannel (8, 12 and 30) phantom and in-vivo human head and cardiac datasets. Experimental results show that GPU significantly reduces the computation time of SENSE reconstruction as compared to multi-core CPU (approximately 12x speedup) and single-core CPU (approximately 53x speedup) without any degradation in the quality of the reconstructed images. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Atmospheric muons reconstruction with Antares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melissas, M.

    2007-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector contains 900 photomultiplier tubes, dispatched on 12 lines, in order to detect Cerenkov light from muon induced by neutrino interactions in the the vicinity of the detector. Currently the first 5 lines have been deployed. A first task consists in studying the stability of the detector calibration, which is a necessary step to understand the detector response. Then we studied optical properties of water, for this we developed a reconstruction method dedicated to LED Beacon. The extracted parameters are compatible with earlier measurements. A quality criteria to reject badly reconstructed track has been developed based on the likelihood of the tracks fit versus point fit. This has been applied to real data and a preliminary analysis of atmospheric muons with a 5-lines detector is performed. (author)

  14. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.; Kponou, A.

    1997-01-01

    Projections of charged particle beam current density (profiles) are frequently used as a measure of beam position and size. In conventional practice only two projections, usually horizontal and vertical, are measured. This puts a severe limit on the detail of information that can be achieved. A third projection provides a significant improvement. The Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) uses three or more projections to reconstruct 3-dimensional density profiles. At the 200 MeV H-linac, we have used this technique to measure beam density, and it has proved very helpful, especially in helping determine if there is any coupling present in x-y phase space. We will present examples of measurements of current densities using this technique

  15. Septal graft in laryngeal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahannan, Abdulrahman; Slavicek, A.; Taudy, M.; Chovanec, M.

    2006-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with symptoms of dyspnea. Ultrasonography and computed tomography examinations revealed mass extending from the cricoid cartilage to the left lobe of thyroid gland and thyroid cartilage. Cytology revealed possibility of cartilaginous origin, which was proven to be chondrosarcoma (Grade 1) from the biopsy specimen obtained during panendosopy. She underwent one stage radical resection and immediate reconstruction of laryngeal skeleton defect by mucocartilaginous graft from the nasal septum. Her postoperative course was optimal with preservation of the laryngeal functions. Twenty-eight months postoperatively, she had to undergo total laryngectomy as a salvage procedure for the advanced local recurrence. We report on the relatively easy technique for functional reconstruction of the large laryngeal defect with the employment cartilage graft from the nasal septum. (author)

  16. Phylogenetic reconstruction methods: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Alexandre; Martin, Darren P; Lefeuvre, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Initially designed to infer evolutionary relationships based on morphological and physiological characters, phylogenetic reconstruction methods have greatly benefited from recent developments in molecular biology and sequencing technologies with a number of powerful methods having been developed specifically to infer phylogenies from macromolecular data. This chapter, while presenting an overview of basic concepts and methods used in phylogenetic reconstruction, is primarily intended as a simplified step-by-step guide to the construction of phylogenetic trees from nucleotide sequences using fairly up-to-date maximum likelihood methods implemented in freely available computer programs. While the analysis of chloroplast sequences from various Vanilla species is used as an illustrative example, the techniques covered here are relevant to the comparative analysis of homologous sequences datasets sampled from any group of organisms.

  17. Direct reconstruction of dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Chris; Zunckel, Caroline

    2010-05-28

    An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With so few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space. We present a new nonparametric method which can accurately reconstruct a wide variety of dark energy behavior with no prior assumptions about it. It is simple, quick and relatively accurate, and involves no expensive explorations of parameter space. The technique uses principal component analysis and a combination of information criteria to identify real features in the data, and tailors the fitting functions to pick up trends and smooth over noise. We find that we can constrain a large variety of w(z) models to within 10%-20% at redshifts z≲1 using just SNAP-quality data.

  18. Piloted Aircraft Environment Simulation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    raS’I.Al. lIIf~iiI~.1 labL. lot. Rolmotion -oft. skylicav - ow d Roll rMotion -oft Skylicape - Off Fig 6 a A Effect of roll motion and akyscape, an msatwntn...greater realism and pilot involvement than ground based simu- lation, it still lacks some of the pilot motivating factors of actual combat. Flight

  19. Structure Assisted Compressed Sensing Reconstruction of Undersampled AFM Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxvig, Christian Schou; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    reconstruction algorithms that enables the use of our proposed structure model in the reconstruction process. Through a large set of reconstructions, the general reconstruction capability improvement achievable using our structured model is shown both quantitatively and qualitatively. Specifically, our...

  20. Parametric boundary reconstruction algorithm for industrial CT metrology application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhye; Khare, Kedar; De Man, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    incorporated as prior knowledge to improve the convergence of an iterative approach. In this paper, the feasibility of parametric boundary reconstruction algorithm is demonstrated with both simple and complex simulated objects. Finally, the proposed algorithm is applied to the experimental industrial CT system data.