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Sample records for recognize foreign antigens

  1. The Ability of Immunoglobulin Yolk Recognized the Antigen in the Tissue of Ascaridia galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antigen-antibody reaction is an important tool for the analysis of localization of target molecules, including antigenic protein within worm tissues. The purpose of the present research was to demonstrate the ability of immunoglobulin yolk (IgY anti-excretory/secretory recognized the antigen in the tissue of Ascaridia galli by mean of immunohistochemistry method. The excretory/secretory protein was procured from A. galli and concentrated by mean of vivaspin 30,000 MWCO. IgY was produced by egg yolks of immunized chickens with excretory/secretory, and purified using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC method. A. galli adult worms were cut in transversal and longitudinal section of the center and anterior region. Slides were incubated with both primary IgY for overnight at 4 oC and secondary antibody rabbit anti-chicken IgY HRP-conjugate for one hour at room temperature. The slides were stained with 3-amino, 9-ethylcarbazole (AEC chromogen, counterstained with Lillie Mayer Haematoxylin, and mounted in glyserin aqueous mount. Antigen-antibody reaction was investigated under a microscope. The result showed that antigen was appeared in the tissues such as cuticle, epicuticle, buccal cavity, and eggs inside the uterine of A. galli. This research concluded that IgY stimulated by the excretory/secretory was able to recognized the antigen scattered in the tissues of A. galli so the IgY could be applied for immunodiagnostic.

  2. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases

  3. T Cell Receptors that Recognize the Tyrosinase Tumor Antigen | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute, Surgery Branch, Tumor Immunology Section, is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize T Cells Attacking Cancer: T Cell Receptors that Recognize the Tyrosinase Tumor Antigen

  4. Structure-function analysis of the self-recognizing Antigen 43 autotransporter protein from Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Hjerrild, L.; Gjermansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Expression of Ag43 confers aggregation and fluffing of cells, promotes biofilm formation and is associated with enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents. Ag43 is an autotransporter protein and consi......Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Expression of Ag43 confers aggregation and fluffing of cells, promotes biofilm formation and is associated with enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents. Ag43 is an autotransporter protein......-clumping variants, we have pinpointed the region of the protein responsible for autoaggregation to be located within the N-terminal one-third of the passenger domain. Our data suggest that ionic interactions between charged residues residing in interacting pairs of Ag43(alpha) domains may be important for the self...

  5. H-2 restriction: Independent recognition of H-2 and foreign antigen by a single receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliciano, Robert F.; Zacharchuk, Charles M.; Shin, Hyun S.

    1980-01-01

    We describe two situations in which the recognition of hapten can compensate for the lack of recognition of appropriate H-2 gene products in hapten-specific, H-2 restricted, T lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis. First, we show that although recognition of appropriate H-2 gene products is essential for the lysis of target cells bearing a low hapten density, significant hapten-specific lysis of H-2 inappropriate target cells is observed at high levels of target cell derivatization. Secondly, we show that hapten-conjugated anti-H-2 antibody inhibits cytolysis poorly even though its binding to target cell H-2 antigens is equivalent to that of underivatized antibody. These results suggest that hapten and H-2 are recognized independently and are therefore inconsistent with the altered-self model. Although our data do not exclude the dual-recognition model, we prefer to interpret them within the framework of a single-receptor model in which hapten and H-2 are recognized independently by receptors of identical idiotype on the T cell. We postulate that the affinity of these receptors for the relevant H-2 gene product is low enough so that the T cell is not activated by encounters with normal-self cells expressing that H-2 gene product. However, when self cells express in addition a foreign antigen that can also be recognized by the same receptor, then the force of T cell-target cell interaction may be increased sufficiently to activate T cell effector function. PMID:6966404

  6. Topographic antigenic determinants recognized by monoclonal antibodies on human choriogonadotropin beta-subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidart, J.M.; Troalen, F.; Salesse, R.; Bousfield, G.R.; Bohuon, C.J.; Bellet, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a first attempt to study the antibody-combining sites recognized by monoclonal antibodies raised against the beta-subunit of human choriogonadotropin (hCG). Two groups of antibodies were first defined by their ability to recognize only the free beta-subunit or the free and combined subunit. Antibodies FBT-11 and FBT-11-L bind only to hCG beta-subunit but not to hCG, whereas antibodies FBT-10 and D1E8 bind to both the beta-subunit and the hormone. In both cases, the antigenic determinants were localized to the core of the protein (residues 1-112), indicating the weak immunogenicity of the specific carboxyl-terminal extension of hCG-beta. Nine synthetic peptides spanning different regions of hCG-beta and lutropin-beta were assessed for their capacity to inhibit antibody binding. A synthetic peptide inclusive of the NH2-terminal region (residues 1-7) of the hCG beta-subunit was found to inhibit binding to the radiolabeled subunit of a monoclonal antibody specific for free hCG-beta (FBT-11). Further delineation of the antigenic site recognized by this antibody provided evidence for the involvement of fragment 82-92. Moreover, monoclonal antibody FBT-11 inhibited the recombination of hCG-beta to hCG-alpha, indicating that its antigenic determinant might be located nearby or in the hCG-beta portion interacting with the alpha-subunit. Binding of monoclonal antibody FBT-10, corresponding to the second antigenic determinant, was weakly inhibited by fragment 82-105 and did not impair the recombination of the hCG beta-subunit to the hCG alpha-subunit. Its combining site appeared to be located in a region of the intact native choriogonadotropin present at the surface of the hormone-receptor complex

  7. The natural antibody repertoire of sharks and humans recognizes the potential universe of antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Miranda K; Schluter, Samuel F; Marchalonis, John J

    2004-02-01

    In ancestral sharks, a rapid emergence in the evolution of the immune system occurred, giving jawed-vertebrates the necessary components for the combinatorial immune response (CIR). To compare the natural antibody (NAb) repertoires of the most divergent vertebrates with the capacity to produce antibodies, we isolated NAbs to the same set of antigens by affinity chromatography from two species of Carcharhine sharks and from human polyclonal IgG and IgM antibody preparations. The activities of the affinity-purified anti-T-cell receptor (anti-TCR) NAbs were compared with those of monoclonal anti-TCR NAbs that were generated from a systemic lupus erythematosus patient. We report that sharks and humans, representing the evolutionary extremes of vertebrate species sharing the CIR, have NAbs to human TCRs, Igs, the human senescent cell antigen, and to numerous retroviral antigens, indicating that essential features of the combinatorial repertoire and the capacity to recognize the potential universe of antigens is shared among all jawed-vertebrates.

  8. Protein antigenic structures recognized by T cells: potential applications to vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzofsky, J A; Cease, K B; Cornette, J L; Spouge, J L; Margalit, H; Berkower, I J; Good, M F; Miller, L H; DeLisi, C

    1987-08-01

    In summary, our results using the model protein antigen myoglobin indicated, in concordance with others, that helper T lymphocytes recognize a limited number of immunodominant antigenic sites of any given protein. Such immunodominant sites are the focus of a polyclonal response of a number of different T cells specific for distinct but overlapping epitopes. Therefore, the immunodominance does not depend on the fine specificity of any given clone of T cells, but rather on other factors, either intrinsic or extrinsic to the structure of the antigen. A major extrinsic factor is the MHC of the responding individual, probably due to a requirement for the immunodominant peptides to bind to the MHC of presenting cells in that individual. In looking for intrinsic factors, we noted that both immunodominant sites of myoglobin were amphipathic helices, i.e., helices having hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues on opposite sides. Studies with synthetic peptides indicated that residues on the hydrophilic side were necessary for T-cell recognition. However, unfolding of the native protein was shown to be the apparent goal of processing of antigen, presumably to expose something not already exposed on the native molecule, such as the hydrophobic sides of these helices. We propose that such exposure is necessary to interact with something on the presenting cell, such as MHC or membrane, where we have demonstrated the presence of antigenic peptides by blocking of presentation of biotinylated peptide with avidin. The membrane may serve as a short-term memory of peptides from antigens encountered by the presenting cell, for dynamic sampling by MHC molecules to be available for presentation to T cells. These ideas, together with the knowledge that T-cell recognition required only short peptides and therefore had to be based only on primary or secondary structure, not tertiary folding of the native protein, led us to propose that T-cell immunodominant epitopes may tend to be amphipathic

  9. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Human Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) as Research and Theranostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Zora; Foss, Catherine A; Copeland, Benjamin T; Morath, Volker; Baranová, Petra; Havlínová, Barbora; Skerra, Arne; Pomper, Martin G; Barinka, Cyril

    2017-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated target for the imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Here, we report the detailed characterization of four novel murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing human PSMA as well as PSMA orthologs from different species. Performance of purified mAbs was assayed using a comprehensive panel of in vitro experimental setups including Western blotting, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, flow cytometry, and surface-plasmon resonance. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer was used to compare the suitability of the mAbs for in vivo applications. All mAbs demonstrate high specificity for PSMA as documented by the lack of cross-reactivity to unrelated human proteins. The 3F11 and 1A11 mAbs bind linear epitopes spanning residues 226-243 and 271-288 of human PSMA, respectively. 3F11 is also suitable for the detection of PSMA orthologs from mouse, pig, dog, and rat in experimental setups where the denatured form of PSMA is used. 5D3 and 5B1 mAbs recognize distinct surface-exposed conformational epitopes and are useful for targeting PSMA in its native conformation. Most importantly, using a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer we show that both the intact 5D3 and its Fab fragment are suitable for in vivo imaging. With apparent affinities of 0.14 and 1.2 nM as determined by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively, 5D3 has approximately 10-fold higher affinity for PSMA than the clinically validated mAb J591 and, therefore, is a prime candidate for the development of next-generation theranostics to target PSMA. Prostate 77:749-764, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Identification of an antigenic domain on Mycobacterium leprae protein antigen 85B, which is specifically recognized by antibodies from patients with leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filley, E.; Thole, J. E.; Rook, G. A.; Nagai, S.; Waters, M.; Drijfhout, J. W.; Rinke de Wit, T. F.; de Vries, R. R.; Abou-Zeid, C.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-three overlapping 15-oligomer peptides covering the 30-kDa protein antigen 85B of Mycobacterium leprae were tested by ELISA to identify epitopes recognized by human antibodies. Serum samples from patients with lepromatous leprosy (LL) reacted mainly with peptides comprising amino acid regions

  11. Rapid profiling of the antigen regions recognized by serum antibodies using massively parallel sequencing of antigen-specific libraries.

    KAUST Repository

    Domina, Maria; Lanza Cariccio, Veronica; Benfatto, Salvatore; D'Aliberti, Deborah; Venza, Mario; Borgogni, Erica; Castellino, Flora; Biondo, Carmelo; D'Andrea, Daniel; Grassi, Luigi; Tramontano, Anna; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Beninati, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for techniques capable of identifying the antigenic epitopes targeted by polyclonal antibody responses during deliberate or natural immunization. Although successful, traditional phage library screening is laborious and can map only some of the epitopes. To accelerate and improve epitope identification, we have employed massive sequencing of phage-displayed antigen-specific libraries using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This enabled us to precisely identify the regions of a model antigen, the meningococcal NadA virulence factor, targeted by serum antibodies in vaccinated individuals and to rank hundreds of antigenic fragments according to their immunoreactivity. We found that next generation sequencing can significantly empower the analysis of antigen-specific libraries by allowing simultaneous processing of dozens of library/serum combinations in less than two days, including the time required for antibody-mediated library selection. Moreover, compared with traditional plaque picking, the new technology (named Phage-based Representation OF Immuno-Ligand Epitope Repertoire or PROFILER) provides superior resolution in epitope identification. PROFILER seems ideally suited to streamline and guide rational antigen design, adjuvant selection, and quality control of newly produced vaccines. Furthermore, this method is also susceptible to find important applications in other fields covered by traditional quantitative serology.

  12. Rapid profiling of the antigen regions recognized by serum antibodies using massively parallel sequencing of antigen-specific libraries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Domina

    Full Text Available There is a need for techniques capable of identifying the antigenic epitopes targeted by polyclonal antibody responses during deliberate or natural immunization. Although successful, traditional phage library screening is laborious and can map only some of the epitopes. To accelerate and improve epitope identification, we have employed massive sequencing of phage-displayed antigen-specific libraries using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This enabled us to precisely identify the regions of a model antigen, the meningococcal NadA virulence factor, targeted by serum antibodies in vaccinated individuals and to rank hundreds of antigenic fragments according to their immunoreactivity. We found that next generation sequencing can significantly empower the analysis of antigen-specific libraries by allowing simultaneous processing of dozens of library/serum combinations in less than two days, including the time required for antibody-mediated library selection. Moreover, compared with traditional plaque picking, the new technology (named Phage-based Representation OF Immuno-Ligand Epitope Repertoire or PROFILER provides superior resolution in epitope identification. PROFILER seems ideally suited to streamline and guide rational antigen design, adjuvant selection, and quality control of newly produced vaccines. Furthermore, this method is also susceptible to find important applications in other fields covered by traditional quantitative serology.

  13. Rapid profiling of the antigen regions recognized by serum antibodies using massively parallel sequencing of antigen-specific libraries.

    KAUST Repository

    Domina, Maria

    2014-12-04

    There is a need for techniques capable of identifying the antigenic epitopes targeted by polyclonal antibody responses during deliberate or natural immunization. Although successful, traditional phage library screening is laborious and can map only some of the epitopes. To accelerate and improve epitope identification, we have employed massive sequencing of phage-displayed antigen-specific libraries using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This enabled us to precisely identify the regions of a model antigen, the meningococcal NadA virulence factor, targeted by serum antibodies in vaccinated individuals and to rank hundreds of antigenic fragments according to their immunoreactivity. We found that next generation sequencing can significantly empower the analysis of antigen-specific libraries by allowing simultaneous processing of dozens of library/serum combinations in less than two days, including the time required for antibody-mediated library selection. Moreover, compared with traditional plaque picking, the new technology (named Phage-based Representation OF Immuno-Ligand Epitope Repertoire or PROFILER) provides superior resolution in epitope identification. PROFILER seems ideally suited to streamline and guide rational antigen design, adjuvant selection, and quality control of newly produced vaccines. Furthermore, this method is also susceptible to find important applications in other fields covered by traditional quantitative serology.

  14. Autologous monoclonal antibodies recognize tumour-associated antigens in X-irradiated C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artus, A; Guillemain, B; Legrand, E; Astier-Gin, T; Mamoun, R; Duplan, J -F

    1986-09-01

    X-irradiation of C57BL/6 mice induces thymic lymphosarcomas which sometimes contain retroviruses which upon injection into normal mice mimic the effect of the irradiation. We examined whether specific antigenicities, viral or cellular, were expressed by tumour cells that could be recognized by antibodies from the irradiated animals. We developed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) using splenocytes of the diseased animal. The reactivity of such MAbs towards thymoma cell lines established in vitro was investigated by means of an ELISA. At least 10 antibody specificities were detected on the 13 tumours investigated, allowing separation of the MAbs into three classes: (i) those recognizing the autologous tumour, heterologous tumours as well as normal thymic tissue, (ii) those specific for the autologous tumour, and (iii) those specific for one tumour, but not ones of autologous origin. The last two classes corresponded to specific tumour-associated antigens. Our panel of MAbs defined each tumour by the particular pattern of antigens harboured. It is striking that most of the antigens were present in the normal thymus and that only two tumours had additional antigenicities. Additionally, quantitative variations were observed in the levels of expression of these antigens.

  15. Effector CD4+ T cells recognize intravascular antigen presented by patrolling monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhorpe, Clare L V; Norman, M Ursula; Hall, Pam; Snelgrove, Sarah L; Finsterbusch, Michaela; Li, Anqi; Lo, Camden; Tan, Zhe Hao; Li, Songhui; Nilsson, Susan K; Kitching, A Richard; Hickey, Michael J

    2018-02-21

    Although effector CD4 + T cells readily respond to antigen outside the vasculature, how they respond to intravascular antigens is unknown. Here we show the process of intravascular antigen recognition using intravital multiphoton microscopy of glomeruli. CD4 + T cells undergo intravascular migration within uninflamed glomeruli. Similarly, while MHCII is not expressed by intrinsic glomerular cells, intravascular MHCII-expressing immune cells patrol glomerular capillaries, interacting with CD4 + T cells. Following intravascular deposition of antigen in glomeruli, effector CD4 + T-cell responses, including NFAT1 nuclear translocation and decreased migration, are consistent with antigen recognition. Of the MHCII + immune cells adherent in glomerular capillaries, only monocytes are retained for prolonged durations. These cells can also induce T-cell proliferation in vitro. Moreover, monocyte depletion reduces CD4 + T-cell-dependent glomerular inflammation. These findings indicate that MHCII + monocytes patrolling the glomerular microvasculature can present intravascular antigen to CD4 + T cells within glomerular capillaries, leading to antigen-dependent inflammation.

  16. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Kiniwa

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8(+ T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4(+ T helper (Th cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4(+ T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1 as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4(+ Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4(+ T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma.

  17. Identification of DRG-1 As a Melanoma-Associated Antigen Recognized by CD4+ Th1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiniwa, Yukiko; Li, Jiang; Wang, Mingjun; Sun, Chuang; Lee, Jeffrey E; Wang, Rong-Fu; Wang, Helen Y

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of cancer immunotherapy using tumor antigens recognized by CD8(+) T cells. However, the overall immune responses induced by these antigens are too weak and transient to induce tumor regression in the majority of patients who received immunization. A growing body of evidence suggests that CD4(+) T helper (Th) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity. Therefore, the identification of MHC class II-restricted tumor antigens capable of stimulating CD4(+) T cells may provide opportunities for developing effective cancer vaccines. To this end, we describe the identification of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 1 (DRG-1) as a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by HLA-DR11-restricted CD4(+) Th1 cells. Epitope mapping analysis showed that the DRG1248-268 epitope of DRG-1 was required for T cell recognition. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that DRG-1 was highly expressed in melanoma cell lines but not in normal tissues. DRG-1 knockdown by lentiviral-based shRNA suppressed melanoma cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these data suggest that DRG-1 plays an important role in melanoma cell growth and transformation, indicating that DRG1 may represent a novel target for CD4(+) T cell-mediated immunotherapy in melanoma.

  18. Recognizing Visual and Auditory Cues in the Detection of Foreign-Language Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether nonverbal visual and/or auditory channels are more effective in detecting foreign-language anxiety. Recent research suggests that language teachers are often able to successfully decode the nonverbal behaviors indicative of foreign-language anxiety; however, relatively little is known about whether visual and/or…

  19. Even Teachers Get the Blues: Recognizing and Alleviating Language Teachers' Feelings of Foreign Language Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Elaine K.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that many nonnative foreign-language teachers experience foreign-language anxiety and that this anxiety can have negative consequences for language teaching. The article discusses how anxiety affects teachers' feelings of self-confidence, use of the target language, and instructional choices and offers suggestions for increasing teachers'…

  20. Large, but not small, antigens require time- and temperature-dependent processing in accessory cells before they can be recognized by T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    We have studied if antigens of different size and structure all require processing in antigen-presenting cells of guinea-pigs before they can be recognized by T cells. The method of mild paraformaldehyde fixation was used to stop antigen-processing in the antigen-presenting cells. As a measure...... of antigen presentation we used the proliferative response of appropriately primed T cells during a co-culture with the paraformaldehyde-fixed and antigen-exposed presenting cells. We demonstrate that the large synthetic polypeptide antigen, dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine, requires processing. After an initial......-dependent and consequently energy-requiring. Processing is strongly inhibited by the lysosomotrophic drug, chloroquine, suggesting a lysosomal involvement in antigen processing. The existence of a minor, non-lysosomal pathway is suggested, since small amounts of antigen were processed even at 10 degrees C, at which...

  1. Clostridium perfringens Antigens Recognized by Broiler Chickens Immune to Necrotic Enteritis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, R. R.; Parreira, V. R.; Sharif, S.; Prescott, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about immunity to necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens. A recent study of broiler chickens showed that protection against NE was associated with infection-immunization with virulent but not with avirulent Clostridium perfringens.In the current study, six secreted antigenic proteins unique to virulent C. perfringens that reacted to serum antibodies from immune birds were identified by mass spectrophotometry; three of these proteins are part of the VirR-VirS regulon.

  2. Interferon-¿ and interleukin-4 production by human T cells recognizing Leishmania donovani antigens separated by SDS-PAGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrenscheer, J; Kemp, M; Kurtzhals, J A

    1995-01-01

    of proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals who had recovered from visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani. The release of interleukin-4 (IL-4) by PBMC stimulated with the isolated L. donovani antigen fractions...... was measured after treatment with phorbol-myristate-acetate and ionomycin. The cells proliferated in response to all protein fractions with molecular weights in the range production...... was infrequently observed. The results show that T cells from individuals who have been cured of visceral leishmaniasis recognize and respond to a wide range of leishmanial antigens. There was no evidence of particular fractions constantly giving either IFN-gamma or IL-4-producing responses....

  3. Foreign or Domestic CARs: Receptor Ligands as Antigen-Binding Domains

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    Donald R. Shaffer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs are increasingly being used in clinical trials to treat a variety of malignant conditions and recent results with CD19-specific CARs showing complete tumor regressions has sparked the interest of researchers and the public alike. Traditional CARs have been generated using single-chain variable fragments (scFv, often derived from murine monoclonal antibodies, for antigen specificity. As the clinical experience with CAR T cells grows, so does the potential for unwanted immune responses against the foreign transgene. Strategies that may reduce the immunogenicity of CAR T cells are humanization of the scFv and the use of naturally occurring receptor ligands as antigen-binding domains. Herein, we review the experience with alternatively designed CARs that contain receptor ligands rather than scFv. While most of the experiences have been in the pre-clinical setting, clinical data is also emerging.

  4. Carbohydrate-rich high-molecular-mass antigens are strongly recognized during experimental Histoplasma capsulatum infection

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    Fabrine Sales Massafera Tristão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: During histoplasmosis, Histoplasma capsulatum soluble antigens (CFAg can be naturally released by yeast cells. Because CFAg can be specifically targeted during infection, in the present study we investigated CFAg release in experimental murine histoplasmosis, and evaluated the host humoral immune response against high-molecular-mass antigens (hMMAg. >150 kDa, the more immunogenic CFAg fraction. METHODS: Mice were infected with 2.2x10(4 H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 yeast cells. The soluble CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg circulating immune complexes (CIC levels were determined by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, at days 0, 7, 14, and 28 post-infection. RESULTS: We observed a progressive increase in circulating levels of CFAg, IgG anti-CFAg, IgG anti-hMMAg, and IgG-hMMAg CIC after H. capsulatum infection. The hMMAg showed a high percentage of carbohydrates and at least two main immunogenic components. CONCLUSIONS: We verified for the first time that hMMAg from H. capsulatum IMT/HC128 strain induce humoral immune response and lead to CIC formation during experimental histoplasmosis.

  5. Commercial bacterins did not induce detectable levels of antibodies in mice against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens strongly recognized by swine immune system

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    Andressa Fisch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic Pneumonia (EP caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae results in major economic losses to the swine industry. Hence, the identification of factors that provide protection against EP could help to develop effective vaccines. One such factor that provides partial protection are bacterins. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the induction of antibodies against fifteen M. hyopneumoniae antigens, strongly recognized by the swine immune system during natural infection, in mice vaccinated with six commercial bacterins. Each group of mice was inoculated with one bacterin, and seroconversion was assessed by indirect ELISA using recombinant antigens and M. hyopneumoniae 7448 whole cell extract. Sera from one inoculated group recognized antigen MHP_0067, and sera from four inoculated groups recognized antigens MHP_0513 and MHP_0580. None of the bacterins was able to induce seroconversion against the twelve remaining antigens. This absence of a serological response could be attributed to the lack of antigen expression in M. hyopneumoniae strains used in bacterin production. Additionally the partial protection provided by these vaccines could be due to low expression or misfolding of antigens during vaccine preparation. Therefore, the supplementation of bacterins with these recombinant antigens could be a potential alternative in the development of more effective vaccines.

  6. Cellular Immune Responses for Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen Recognized by T Cells 3 in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

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    Kiichiro Kaji

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cells 3 (SART3, a tumor-associated antigen expressed in many cancers, functions in tumor rejection. In this study, we investigated its usefulness as an immunotherapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC.The expression of SART3 in hepatoma cell lines and HCC tissues was investigated by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analyses. Two peptides derived from SART3 (SART3109 and SART3315 were used for immunological analysis. T-cell responses were investigated by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in 47 patients, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in 8 of 47 patients with HCC. The safety of immunotherapy using a SART3-derived peptide was investigated by vaccinations of SART3109 in 12 patients with HCC (trial registration: UMIN000005677.The immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical analyses showed that SART3 was expressed in six HCC cell lines, and in HCC tissues including of alpha-fetoprotein-negative individuals. SART3-specific CTLs were generated by stimulating PBMCs with the peptides, and they showed cytotoxicity against HCC cells expressing the protein. Of the 47 HCC patients, 25.5% and 10.6% showed significant responses to SART3109 and SART3315, respectively. The infiltration of SART3109-specific IFN-γ-producing CTLs into the tumor site was confirmed. In the vaccination study, no severe adverse events were observed, and the peptide-specific CTLs were newly induced in four of five patients tested.SART3 is an immunotherapeutic candidate, and peptides from this antigen may be applied in HCC immunotherapy.UMIN000005677.

  7. GM-CSF production allows the identification of immunoprevalent antigens recognized by human CD4+ T cells following smallpox vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Judkowski

    Full Text Available The threat of bioterrorism with smallpox and the broad use of vaccinia vectors for other vaccines have led to the resurgence in the study of vaccinia immunological memory. The importance of the role of CD4+ T cells in the control of vaccinia infection is well known. However, more CD8+ than CD4+ T cell epitopes recognized by human subjects immunized with vaccinia virus have been reported. This could be, in part, due to the fact that most of the studies that have identified human CD4+ specific protein-derived fragments or peptides have used IFN-γ production to evaluate vaccinia specific T cell responses. Based on these findings, we reasoned that analyzing a large panel of cytokines would permit us to generate a more complete analysis of the CD4 T cell responses. The results presented provide clear evidence that TNF-α is an excellent readout of vaccinia specificity and that other cytokines such as GM-CSF can be used to evaluate the reactivity of CD4+ T cells in response to vaccinia antigens. Furthermore, using these cytokines as readout of vaccinia specificity, we present the identification of novel peptides from immunoprevalent vaccinia proteins recognized by CD4+ T cells derived from smallpox vaccinated human subjects. In conclusion, we describe a "T cell-driven" methodology that can be implemented to determine the specificity of the T cell response upon vaccination or infection. Together, the single pathogen in vitro stimulation, the selection of CD4+ T cells specific to the pathogen by limiting dilution, the evaluation of pathogen specificity by detecting multiple cytokines, and the screening of the clones with synthetic combinatorial libraries, constitutes a novel and valuable approach for the elucidation of human CD4+ T cell specificity in response to large pathogens.

  8. Major role for carbohydrate epitopes preferentially recognized by chronically infected mice in the determination of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomulum surface antigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer-ali, P.; Magee, A.I.; Kelly, C.; Simpson, A.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay that makes use of whole Schistosomula and 125 I-labeled protein A has been used to characterize and to quantify the binding of antisera to the surface of 3 hr mechanically transformed schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. This technique facilitates the determination of epitopes on the schistosomula in addition to those detected by surface labeling and immunoprecipitation. By using this technique, it has been demonstrated that there is a much greater binding to the parasite surface of antibodies from chronically infected mice (CMS) than of antibodies from mice infected with highly irradiated cercariae (VMS), and CMS recognizes epitopes that VMS does not. Treatment of the surface of the schistosomula with trifluoromethanesulphonic acid and sodium metaperiodate has suggested that the discrepancy of the binding between the two sera is due to the recognition of a large number of additional epitopes by CMS, which are carbohydrate in nature. Some of the carbohydrate epitopes are expressed on the previously described surface glycoprotein antigens of M/sub r/ 200,000, 38,000, and 17,000

  9. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a surface antigen of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula recognized by sera of vassinated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.P.; Tom, T.D.; Strand, M.

    1987-01-01

    Spleen cells of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were used to produce monoclonal antibodies directed against newly transformed schistosomular surface antigens. One of these monoclonal antibodies recognized a polypeptide of 18 kDa. Binding was measured by radioimmunoassay. This glycoprotein was purified by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was prepared against it. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the polyclonal antiserum bound to the surface of newly transformed schistosomula and lung-stage organisms but not to the surface of liver-stage and adult worms. Using this polyclonal antiserum we isolated recombinant clones from an adult worm cDNA expression library constructed in λgt11. Clone 654.2 contained an insert of 0.52 kilobase and hybridized to a 1.2-kilobase mRNA species from adult worms. Most importantly, clone 654.2 produced a fusion protein of 125 kDa that was reactive with sera of vaccinated mice that are capable of transferring resistance. This result encourages future vaccination trials with the fusion protein

  10. Identification and analysis of cytochrome P450IID6 antigenic sites recognized by anti-liver-kidney microsome type-1 antibodies (LKM1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A M; Cresteil, D; Boniface, O; Clerc, F F; Alvarez, F

    1993-05-01

    Anti-liver-kidney microsome type-1 antibodies (LKM1), present in sera from a group of patients with autoimmune hepatitis, are directed against P450IID6. Previous work, using cDNA constructions spanning most of the P450IID6 protein defined the main immunogenic site between the amino acids (aa), 254-271 and predicted the presence of other putative immunogenic sites in the molecule. Fusion proteins from new cDNA constructions, spanning so-far-untested regions between aa 1-125 and 431-522, were not recognized by LKM1-positive sera. Synthetic peptides, representing sequences from putative immunogenic regions or previously untested regions, allowed a precise definition of four antigenic sites located between peptides 257-269, 321-351, 373-389 and 410-429, which were recognized, respectively, by 14, 8, 1 and 2 out of 15 LKM1-positive sera tested. The minimal sequence of the main antigenic site (peptide 257-269) recognized by the autoantibody was established to be WDPAQPPRD (peptide 262-270). In addition, deletion and replacement experiments showed that aa 263 (Asp) was essential for the binding of the autoantibody to peptide 262-270. Analysis of the second most frequently recognized peptide between aa 321-351, was performed using peptides 321-339 and 340-351 in competitive inhibition studies. Complete elimination of antibody binding to peptide 321-351 obtained by absorption of both shorter peptides indicated that peptide 321-351 is a discontinuous antigenic site. LKM1-positive sera reacting against peptide 321-351 recognized either both the shorter peptides or just one of them preferentially. Results of the present study suggest that the production of LKM1 antibodies is an antigen-driven, poly- or oligoclonal B cell response. The identification of antigenic sites will allow: (i) the development of specific diagnostic tests and (ii) further studies on the pathogenic value of LKM1 antibodies in autoimmune hepatitis.

  11. Plasma membrane associated, virus-specific polypeptides required for the formation of target antigen complexes recognized by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domber, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to define some of the poxvirus-specific target antigens which are synthesized in infected cells and recognized by vaccinia virus-specific CTLs (VV-CTLs). Since vaccinia virus infected, unmanipulated target cells express numerous virus-specific antigens on the plasma membrane, attempts were made to manipulate expression of the poxvirus genome after infection so that one or a few defined virus-specified antigens were expressed on the surface of infected cells. In vitro [ 51 Cr]-release assays determined that viral DNA synthesis and expression of late viral proteins were not necessary to form a target cell which was fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Under the conditions employed in these experiments, 90-120 minutes of viral protein synthesis were necessary to produce a competent cell for lysis by VV-CTLs. In order to further inhibit the expression of early viral proteins in infected cells, partially UV-inactivated vaccinia virus was employed to infect target cells. It was determined that L-cells infected with virus preparations which had been UV-irradiated for 90 seconds were fully competent for lysis by VV-CTLs. Cells infected with 90 second UV-irr virus expressed 3 predominant, plasma membrane associated antigens of 36-37K, 27-28K, and 19-17K. These 3 viral antigens represent the predominant membrane-associated viral antigens available for interaction with class I, major histocompatibility antigens and hence are potential target antigens for VV-CTLs

  12. Improved protection conferred by vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus that incorporates a foreign antigen into the extracellular enveloped virion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Heesun; Mustafa, Waleed; Speirs, Kendra; Abdool, Asha J.; Paterson, Yvonne; Isaacs, Stuart N.

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant poxviruses have shown promise as vaccine vectors. We hypothesized that improved cellular immune responses could be developed to a foreign antigen by incorporating it as part of the extracellular enveloped virion (EEV). We therefore constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus that replaced the cytoplasmic domain of the B5R protein with a test antigen, HIV-1 Gag. Mice immunized with the virus expressing Gag fused to B5R had significantly better primary CD4 T-cell responses than recombinant virus expressing HIV-Gag from the TK-locus. The CD8 T-cell responses were less different between the two groups. Importantly, although we saw differences in the immune response to the test antigen, the vaccinia virus-specific immune responses were similar with both constructs. When groups of vaccinated mice were challenged 30 days later with a recombinant Listeria monocytogenes that expresses HIV-Gag, mice inoculated with the virus that expresses the B5R-Gag fusion protein had lower colony counts of Listeria in the liver and spleen than mice vaccinated with the standard recombinant. Thus, vaccinia virus expressing foreign antigen incorporated into EEV may be a better vaccine strategy than standard recombinant vaccinia virus

  13. Identifying protective Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine antigens recognized by both B and T cells in human adults and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Rasmus; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Fredslund, Sine

    2016-01-01

    No commercial vaccine exists against Group A streptococci (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) and only little is known about anti-GAS protective immunity. In our effort to discover new protective vaccine candidates, we selected 21 antigens based on an in silico evaluation. These were all well-conserved......No commercial vaccine exists against Group A streptococci (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) and only little is known about anti-GAS protective immunity. In our effort to discover new protective vaccine candidates, we selected 21 antigens based on an in silico evaluation. These were all well...

  14. Insights into the biological features of the antigenic determinants recognized by four monoclonal antibodies in redia and adult stages of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Annia; Sánchez, Jorge; Hernández, Hilda; Mosqueda, Maryani; Rodríguez, Suanel Y; Capó, Virginia; Otero, Oscar; Alfonso, Carlos; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a digenean trematode which infects a wide variety of domestic animals and also humans. Previous studies have demonstrated that four monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against the total extract of F. hepatica redia (named as 1E4, 6G11, 4E5 and 4G11) also recognized the excretion - secretion antigens (ES Ag) of adult parasites, which is a biologically-relevant mixture of molecules with functional roles during infection and immune evasion on definitive hosts. In the present report we describe the partial characterization of the epitopes recognized by these Mabs by heat treatment, mercaptoethanol reduction, pronase proteolysis and sodium peryodate oxidation, which suggested their predominant protein and conformational nature. Also, a comparative study using immunodetection assays on crude extracts and on histological sections of both rediae and adults of F. hepatica were performed to explore the expression pattern of the antigenic determinants in these developmental stages. From these experiments it was found that the Mabs reacted most likely with the same proteins of approximately 64 and 105 kDa present on both rediae and adult's extracts. However, the 1E4, 6G11 and 4E5 Mabs also recognized other molecules of the total extract of F. hepatica adults, a fact that constitutes an evidence of the antigenic variation between both stages and points at a certain biological relevance of the recognized antigenic determinants. Immunolocalization studies on histological sections revealed that all Mabs reacted with the tegument of F. hepatica in both rediae and adults stages, while the epitopes recognized by 1E4, 6G11 and 4E5 antibodies were also preferentially localized in the intestinal caeca and in different organs of the reproductive system of adult specimens. The immunogenicity of these antigenic determinants, their conserved status among different stages of the life cycle of F. hepatica and their presence in both tegument and ES Ag of adult parasites

  15. Theileria parva antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells show varying degrees of diversity in buffalo-derived infected cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Tatjana; Pelle, Roger; Chepkwony, Maurine; Morrison, W Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2018-05-06

    The extent of sequence diversity among the genes encoding 10 antigens (Tp1-10) known to be recognized by CD8+ T lymphocytes from cattle immune to Theileria parva was analysed. The sequences were derived from parasites in 23 buffalo-derived cell lines, three cattle-derived isolates and one cloned cell line obtained from a buffalo-derived stabilate. The results revealed substantial variation among the antigens through sequence diversity. The greatest nucleotide and amino acid diversity were observed in Tp1, Tp2 and Tp9. Tp5 and Tp7 showed the least amount of allelic diversity, and Tp5, Tp6 and Tp7 had the lowest levels of protein diversity. Tp6 was the most conserved protein; only a single non-synonymous substitution was found in all obtained sequences. The ratio of non-synonymous: synonymous substitutions varied from 0.84 (Tp1) to 0.04 (Tp6). Apart from Tp2 and Tp9, we observed no variation in the other defined CD8+ T cell epitopes (Tp4, 5, 7 and 8), indicating that epitope variation is not a universal feature of T. parva antigens. In addition to providing markers that can be used to examine the diversity in T. parva populations, the results highlight the potential for using conserved antigens to develop vaccines that provide broad protection against T. parva.

  16. T lymphocytes from irradiation chimeras repopulated with 13-day fetal liver cells recognize antigens only in association with self-MHC products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet-Brown, E.; Diener, E.

    1986-01-01

    The restriction specificities of maturing thymocytes are determined by the Class II MHC antigens expressed by non-lymphoid thymic tissues. The proliferative response of mature T lymphocytes to antigen-presenting cells (APC) and antigen requires that the APC express the same MHC antigens as the thymus in which the T cells differentiated. Thus, in the two-way bone marrow chimera [A + B----(A x B)F1], T lymphocyte populations of A and B haplotypes have each acquired the potential to recognize antigens associated with either parental haplotype. In spite of the large body of work on MHC restriction, we still do not have a clear understanding of the mechanisms which impose self restriction. The chimeric model systems used previously to study MHC restriction have used adult bone marrow cells as the source of lymphoid precursors. During normal ontogeny, T cells are derived from precursors in the fetal liver and we felt that a direct comparison of T cells from fetal liver and bone marrow-repopulated animals would shed light on the development of MHC restriction specificities during T cell ontogeny in the thymus or prethymically. We found that parental T lymphocyte populations isolated from two-way fetal liver chimeras cooperated only with syngeneic APC, while those from bone marrow chimeras cooperated with APC of either parental haplotype. This suggests that fetal liver and bone marrow may not be equivalent sources of stem cells. Our results may be due to fundamental differences between thymocyte precursors in fetal liver and bone marrow, including the time course of their expression of T cell receptor gene products

  17. The Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin-1 (MGL1 Recognizes Taenia crassiceps Antigens, Triggers Intracellular Signaling, and Is Critical for Resistance to This Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Montero-Barrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1 recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1−/− mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1−/− macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1−/− mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1−/− mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4Rα, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-α on MGL1−/− macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance.

  18. Neural system antigens are recognized by autoantibodies from patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S; Yi, Hong; Gao, Weiqing; Hashimoto, Takashi; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2011-06-01

    Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF), is also known as "fogo selvagem" or "wild fire," reflecting the intense burning sensation of the skin reported by patients with this disease. Based on this finding, we tested for neural autoreactivity in patients affected by a new variant of EPF (El Bagre-EPF). We tested 20 El Bagre-EPF patients, 20 normal controls from the endemic area, and 20 age- and sex-matched normal controls from outside the endemic area. We tested for autoreactivity to several immunoglobulins and complement. Both human skin and bovine tail were used as antigens. We detected autoreactivity to neural structures, mechanoreceptors, nerves, perineural cell layers of the arachnoid envelope around the optic nerve, brain structures, and to neuromuscular spindles; these structures colocalized with several neural markers. The patient antibodies also colocalized with desmoplakins 1 and 2, with the armadillo repeat protein deleted in velo-cardio-facial syndrome and with p0071 antibodies. Autoreactivity was also found associated with neurovascular bundles innervating the skin, and immunoelectron microscopy using protein A gold against patient antibodies was positive against the nerve axons. Paucicellularity of the intraepidermal nerve endings and defragmentation of the neural plexus were seen in 70% of the cases and not in the controls from the endemic area (pEPF patients vis-a-vis the weakness of the extensor nerves, and furthermore, the autoreactivity to nerves in EPF could explain the "burning sensation" encountered in EPF disease.

  19. Construction of a hepatitis B virus neutralizing chimeric monoclonal antibody recognizing escape mutants of the viral surface antigen (HBsAg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsaz-Shirazi, Forough; Amiri, Mohammad Mehdi; Farid, Samira; Bahadori, Motahareh; Bohne, Felix; Altstetter, Sebastian; Wolff, Lisa; Kazemi, Tohid; Khoshnoodi, Jalal; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad; Chudy, Michael; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Protzer, Ulrike; Shokri, Fazel

    2017-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global burden on the health-care system and is considered as the tenth leading cause of death in the world. Over 248 million patients are currently suffering from chronic HBV infection worldwide and annual mortality rate of this infection is 686000. The "a" determinant is a hydrophilic region present in all antigenic subtypes of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and antibodies against this region can neutralize the virus and are protective against all subtypes. We have recently generated a murine anti-HBs monoclonal antibody (4G4), which can neutralize HBV infection in HepaRG cells and recognize most of the escape mutant forms of HBsAg. Here, we describe the production and characterization of the chimeric human-murine antibody 4G4 (c-4G4). Variable region genes of heavy and light chains of the m-4G4 were cloned and fused to constant regions of human kappa and IgG1 by splice overlap extension (SOE) PCR. The chimeric antibody was expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO)-K1 cells and purified from culture supernatant. Competition ELISA proved that both antibodies bind the same epitope within HBsAg. Antigen-binding studies using ELISA and Western blot showed that c-4G4 has retained the affinity and specificity of the parental murine antibody, and displayed a similar pattern of reactivity to 13 escape mutant forms of HBsAg. Both, the parental and c-4G4 showed a comparably high HBV neutralization capacity in cell culture even at the lowest concentration (0.6μg/ml). Due to the ability of c-4G4 to recognize most of the sub-genotypes and escape mutants of HBsAg, this antibody either alone or in combination with other anti-HBs antibodies could be considered as a potent alternative for Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) as an HBV infection prophylactic or for passive immunotherapy against HBV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Virus-Like Particles of Chimeric Recombinant Porcine Circovirus Type 2 as Antigen Vehicle Carrying Foreign Epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Virus-like particles (VLPs of chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 were generated by replacing the nuclear localization signal (NLS; at 1–39 aa of PCV2 capsid protein (Cap with classical swine fever virus (CSFV T-cell epitope (1446–1460 aa, CSFV B-cell epitope (693–716 aa and CSFV T-cell epitope conjugated with B-cell epitope. The recombinant proteins were expressed using the baculovirus expression system and detected by immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. The abilities to form PCV2 VLPs were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Immunogenicities of the three recombinant proteins were evaluated in mice. Our Results indicated that Cap protein NLS deletion or substitution with CSFV epitopes did not affect the VLPs assembly. Three chimeric Cap proteins could form VLPs and induce efficient humoral and cellular immunity against PCV2 and CSFV in mice. Results show that PCV2 VLPs can be used as an efficient antigen carrier for delivery of foreign epitopes, and a potential novel vaccine.

  1. Direct binding to antigen-coated beads refines the specificity and cross-reactivity of four monoclonal antibodies that recognize polymorphic epitopes of HLA class I molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, H G; Parham, P

    2013-04-01

    Monoclonal antibodies with specificity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I determinants of HLA were originally characterized using serological assays in which the targets were cells expressing three to six HLA class I variants. Because of this complexity, the specificities of the antibodies were defined indirectly by correlation. Here we use a direct binding assay, in which the targets are synthetic beads coated with 1 of 111 HLA class I variants, representing the full range of HLA-A, -B and -C variation. We studied one monoclonal antibody with monomorphic specificity (W6/32) and four with polymorphic specificity (MA2.1, PA2.1, BB7.2 and BB7.1) and compared the results with those obtained previously. W6/32 reacted with all HLA class I variants. MA2.1 not only exhibits high specificity for HLA-A*02, -B*57 and -B*58, but also exhibited cross-reactivity with HLA-A*11 and -B*15:16. At low concentration (1 µg/ml), PA2.1 and BB7.2 were both specific for HLA-A*02 and -A*69, and at high concentration (50 µg/ml) exhibited significant cross-reactions with HLA-A*68, -A*23 and -A*24. BB7.1 exhibits specificity for HLA-B*07 and -B*42, as previously described, but reacts equally well with HLA-B*81, a rare allotype defined some 16 years after the description of BB7.1. The results obtained with cell-based and bead-based assays are consistent and, in combination with amino acid sequence comparison, increase understanding of the polymorphic epitopes recognized by the MA2.1, PA2.1, BB7.2 and BB7.1 antibodies. Comparison of two overlapping but distinctive bead sets from two sources gave similar results, but the overall levels of binding were significantly different. Several weaker reactions were observed with only one of the bead sets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Circulating Autoantibodies in Age-Related Macular Degeneration Recognize Human Macular Tissue Antigens Implicated in Autophagy, Immunomodulation, and Protection from Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Iannaccone

    Full Text Available We investigated sera from elderly subjects with and without age-related macular degeneration (AMD for presence of autoantibodies (AAbs against human macular antigens and characterized their identity.Sera were collected from participants in the Age-Related Maculopathy Ancillary (ARMA Study, a cross-sectional investigation ancillary to the Health ABC Study, enriched with participants from the general population. The resulting sample (mean age: 79.2±3.9 years old included subjects with early to advanced AMD (n = 131 and controls (n = 231. Sera were tested by Western blots for immunoreactive bands against human donor macular tissue homogenates. Immunoreactive bands were identified and graded, and odds ratios (OR calculated. Based on these findings, sera were immunoprecipitated, and subjected to 2D gel electrophoresis (GE. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used to identify the targets recognized by circulating AAbs seen on 2D-GE, followed by ELISAs with recombinant proteins to confirm LC-MS/MS results, and quantify autoreactivities.In AMD, 11 immunoreactive bands were significantly more frequent and 13 were significantly stronger than in controls. Nine of the more frequent bands also showed stronger reactivity. OR estimates ranged between 4.06 and 1.93, and all clearly excluded the null value. Following immunoprecipitation, 2D-GE and LC-MS/MS, five of the possible autoreactivity targets were conclusively identified: two members of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 family, HSPA8 and HSPA9; another member of the HSP family, HSPB4, also known as alpha-crystallin A chain (CRYAA; Annexin A5 (ANXA5; and Protein S100-A9, also known as calgranulin B that, when complexed with S100A8, forms calprotectin. ELISA testing with recombinant proteins confirmed, on average, significantly higher reactivities against all targets in AMD samples compared to controls.Consistent with other evidence supporting the role of inflammation and the

  3. Identification of immediate early gene products of bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) as dominant antigens recognized by CD8 T cells in immune cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Jane; MacHugh, Niall D.; Sheldrake, Tara

    2017-01-01

    candidate viral gene products with CD8 T-cell lines from 3 BHV-1-immune cattle of defined MHC genotypes identified 4 antigens, including 3 immediate early (IE) gene products (ICP4, ICP22 and Circ) and a tegument protein (UL49). Identification of the MHC restriction specificities revealed that the antigens...... cases refined, the identity of the epitopes. Analyses of the epitope specificity of the CD8 T-cell lines showed that a large component of the response is directed against these IE epitopes. The results indicate that these IE gene products are dominant targets of the CD8 T-cell response in BHV...

  4. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  5. In silico and cell-based analyses reveal strong divergence between prediction and observation of T-cell-recognized tumor antigen T-cell epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julien; Guillaume, Philippe; Dojcinovic, Danijel; Karbach, Julia; Coukos, George; Luescher, Immanuel

    2017-07-14

    Tumor exomes provide comprehensive information on mutated, overexpressed genes and aberrant splicing, which can be exploited for personalized cancer immunotherapy. Of particular interest are mutated tumor antigen T-cell epitopes, because neoepitope-specific T cells often are tumoricidal. However, identifying tumor-specific T-cell epitopes is a major challenge. A widely used strategy relies on initial prediction of human leukocyte antigen-binding peptides by in silico algorithms, but the predictive power of this approach is unclear. Here, we used the human tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 (ESO) and the human leukocyte antigen variant HLA-A*0201 (A2) as a model and predicted in silico the 41 highest-affinity, A2-binding 8-11-mer peptides and assessed their binding, kinetic complex stability, and immunogenicity in A2-transgenic mice and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from ESO-vaccinated melanoma patients. We found that 19 of the peptides strongly bound to A2, 10 of which formed stable A2-peptide complexes and induced CD8 + T cells in A2-transgenic mice. However, only 5 of the peptides induced cognate T cells in humans; these peptides exhibited strong binding and complex stability and contained multiple large hydrophobic and aromatic amino acids. These results were not predicted by in silico algorithms and provide new clues to improving T-cell epitope identification. In conclusion, our findings indicate that only a small fraction of in silico -predicted A2-binding ESO peptides are immunogenic in humans, namely those that have high peptide-binding strength and complex stability. This observation highlights the need for improving in silico predictions of peptide immunogenicity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Diversity of Francisella tularensis Schu4 antigens recognized by T lymphocytes after natural infections in humans: identification of candidate epitopes for inclusion in a rationally designed tularemia vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurry, Julie A; Gregory, Stephen H; Moise, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    The T lymphocyte antigens, which may have a role in protection against tularemia, were predicted by immunoinformatics analysis of Francisella tularensis Schu4. Twenty-seven class II putative promiscuous epitopes and 125 putative class I supertype epitopes were chosen for synthesis; peptides were...... responded to pools of 25 A2, A24, and B7 peptides, respectively. These data can aid in the development of novel epitope-based and subunit tularemia vaccines....

  7. Imaging of non-small cell lung cancers with a monoclonal antibody, KC-4G3, which recognizes a human milk fat globule antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienhart, D.G.; Schmelter, R.F.; Lear, J.L.; Miller, G.J.; Glenn, S.D.; Bloedow, D.C.; Kasliwal, R.; Moran, P.; Seligman, P.; Murphy, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the role of lung cancer tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies directed against high molecular weight human milk fat globule antigens, we administered i.v. 111In-KC-4G3 to 24 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. One mg of 111In-KC-4G3 was mixed with 0, 9, 49, 99, or 499 mg of unlabeled KC-4G3 and infused i.v. over 1 to 5 h. The mean 111In-KC-4G3 radiochemical purity was greater than 97% and the resultant immunoreactivity averaged 62%. Successful imaging of cancer sites was accomplished in 92% of 24 patients, and 57% of 91 total lesions were visualized. Successful localization of tumor sites related to size (P less than 0.001), with 81% of lesions greater than 3.0 cm in diameter, 50% of lesions 1.5 to 3 cm, and 6% of lesions less than 1.5 cm successfully imaging, and to location (P less than 0.05), with 69% of pulmonary lesions, 80% of soft tissue lesions, and only 32% of bone metastases being visualized. Nonspecific reticulo-endothelial uptake of radioactivity was a major problem. Approximately 35% of 111In was chelated to serum transferrin by 24 and 48 h after infusion. The mean t 1/2 beta for plasma radioisotope and immunoreactive KC-4G3 was 29 and 27 h, respectively. There was no correlation between total infused antibody dose and imaging success or between total dose and effect on 111In and KC-4G3 kinetics. Circulating free KC-4 antigen was measurable in all but one patient before study. Tumor biopsy following infusion could demonstrate antibody presence but not saturable antigen binding. We conclude that (a) 111In-KC-4G3 demonstrates successful tumor localization in non-small cell lung cancers bearing generally high expression of its antigen and (b) further investigations to diminish nonspecific radioactivity for imaging and utilization of high dose radiolabeled antibody for therapeutic intent are warranted

  8. The potential for induction of autoimmune disease by a randomly-mutated self-antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm

    2007-01-01

    -antigens can be immunogenic and lead to autoimmunity against wildtype self-antigens. In theory, modified self-antigens can arise by random errors and mutations during protein synthesis and would be recognized as foreign antigens by naïve B and T lymphocytes. Here, it is postulated that the initial auto......, a relation to an infectious disease is described, and it is thought that microbes can play a direct role in induction of autoimmunity, for instance by molecular mimicry or bystander activation of autoreactive T cells. In contrast, less attention has been given to the possibility that modified self......-antigen is not a germline self-antigen, but rather a mutated self-antigen. This mutated self-antigen might interfere with peripheral tolerance if presented to the immune system during an infection. The infection lead to bystander activation of naïve T and B cells with specificity for mutated self-antigen and this can lead...

  9. Monoclonal Antibodies 13A4 and AC133 Do Not Recognize the Canine Ortholog of Mouse and Human Stem Cell Antigen Prominin-1 (CD133.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Thamm

    Full Text Available The pentaspan membrane glycoprotein prominin-1 (CD133 is widely used in medicine as a cell surface marker of stem and cancer stem cells. It has opened new avenues in stem cell-based regenerative therapy and oncology. This molecule is largely used with human samples or the mouse model, and consequently most biological tools including antibodies are directed against human and murine prominin-1. Although the general structure of prominin-1 including its membrane topology is conserved throughout the animal kingdom, its primary sequence is poorly conserved. Thus, it is unclear if anti-human and -mouse prominin-1 antibodies cross-react with their orthologs in other species, especially dog. Answering this issue is imperative in light of the growing number of studies using canine prominin-1 as an antigenic marker. Here, we address this issue by cloning the canine prominin-1 and use its overexpression as a green fluorescent protein fusion protein in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells to determine its immunoreactivity with antibodies against human or mouse prominin-1. We used immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry and immunoblotting techniques and surprisingly found no cross-species immunoreactivity. These results raise some caution in data interpretation when anti-prominin-1 antibodies are used in interspecies studies.

  10. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in US-Born and Foreign-Born Asian/Pacific Islander College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Yen N.; Vu, Joanne; Yuk, Jihey; Li, Chin-Shang; Chen, Moon; Bowlus, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) among college-age US-born Asian and Pacific Islanders (A/PI) is not well known. Objectives: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity in US-born to A/PI-born students at a public university. Participants: Undergraduate who self-identified themselves as A/PI. Results:…

  11. Tandem fusion of hepatitis B core antigen allows assembly of virus-like particles in bacteria and plants with enhanced capacity to accommodate foreign proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadrien Peyret

    Full Text Available The core protein of the hepatitis B virus, HBcAg, assembles into highly immunogenic virus-like particles (HBc VLPs when expressed in a variety of heterologous systems. Specifically, the major insertion region (MIR on the HBcAg protein allows the insertion of foreign sequences, which are then exposed on the tips of surface spike structures on the outside of the assembled particle. Here, we present a novel strategy which aids the display of whole proteins on the surface of HBc particles. This strategy, named tandem core, is based on the production of the HBcAg dimer as a single polypeptide chain by tandem fusion of two HBcAg open reading frames. This allows the insertion of large heterologous sequences in only one of the two MIRs in each spike, without compromising VLP formation. We present the use of tandem core technology in both plant and bacterial expression systems. The results show that tandem core particles can be produced with unmodified MIRs, or with one MIR in each tandem dimer modified to contain the entire sequence of GFP or of a camelid nanobody. Both inserted proteins are correctly folded and the nanobody fused to the surface of the tandem core particle (which we name tandibody retains the ability to bind to its cognate antigen. This technology paves the way for the display of natively folded proteins on the surface of HBc particles either through direct fusion or through non-covalent attachment via a nanobody.

  12. Rapid and selective expansion of nonclonotypic T cells in regulatory T cell-deficient, foreign antigen-specific TCR-transgenic scurfy mice: antigen-dependent expansion and TCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Ju, Angela Chiao-Ying; Kung, John T; Fu, Shu Man; Ju, Shyr-Te

    2008-11-15

    Foreign Ag-specific TCR-transgenic (Tg) mice contain a small fraction of T cells bearing the endogenous Vbeta and Valpha chains as well as a population expressing an intermediate level of Tg TCR. Importantly, these minor nonclonotypic populations contain > or = 99% of the CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and, despite low overall Treg expression, peripheral tolerance is maintained. In the OT-II TCR (OVA-specific, Vbeta5(high)Valpha2(high)) Tg scurfy (Sf) mice (OT-II Sf) that lack Treg, nonclonotypic T cells markedly expanded in the periphery but not in the thymus. Expanded T cells expressed memory/effector phenotype and were enriched in blood and inflamed lungs. In contrast, Vbeta5(high)Valpha2(high) clonotypic T cells were not expanded, displayed the naive phenotype, and found mainly in the lymph nodes. Importantly, Vbeta5(neg) T cells were able to transfer multiorgan inflammation in Rag1(-/-) recipients. T cells bearing dual TCR (dual Vbeta or dual Valpha) were demonstrated frequently in the Vbeta5(int) and Valpha2(int) populations. Our study demonstrated that in the absence of Treg, the lack of peripheral expansion of clonotypic T cells is due to the absence of its high-affinity Ag OVA. Thus, the rapid expansion of nonclonotypic T cells in OT-II Sf mice must require Ag (self and foreign) with sufficient affinity. Our study has implications with respect to the roles of Ag and dual TCR in the selection and regulation of Treg and Treg-controlled Ag-dependent T cell expansion in TCR Tg and TCR Tg Sf mice, respectively.

  13. 46 CFR 42.05-60 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 42.05-60 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-60 Recognized classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other...

  14. Accumulation of 111In-neutrophils in rabbit skin in allergic and non-allergic inflammatory reactions in vivo. Inhibition by neutrophil pretreatment in vitro with a monoclonal antibody recognizing the CD18 antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourshargh, S.; Rampart, M.; Hellewell, P.G.; Jose, P.J.; Harlan, J.M.; Edwards, A.J.; Williams, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The mAb 60.3 recognizes the neutrophil CD18 Ag. We have investigated the effect of in vitro pretreatment of radiolabeled neutrophils with mAb 60.3 on their accumulation in vivo. Further, we have compared the in vivo effects of mAb 60.3 with its effects on neutrophil adherence in vitro. Neutrophil accumulation in vivo was measured in response to: (1) exogenous mediators FMLP, C5a des Arg, LTB4 and IL-1; (2) endogenous mediators generated in a non-allergic inflammatory reaction induced by zymosan; and (3) endogenous mediators generated in two allergic inflammatory reactions, a passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction and a reversed passive Arthus reaction in rabbit skin. Pretreatment of neutrophils with mAb 60.3 inhibited their accumulation in all the responses. The results demonstrate that there is a common mechanism mediating neutrophil accumulation in these inflammatory reactions. Neutrophils pretreated with mAb 60.3 were also unresponsive to chemoattractants in in vitro adherence assays. However, the antibody-treated neutrophils responded normally to FMLP and C5a with respect to granular enzyme release. These results suggest that the basal expression of CD18 Ag is important for the adherence of neutrophils to microvascular endothelial cells stimulated by the local generation, or administration, of chemical mediators in vivo. Despite the fact that mediators such as FMLP can increase CD18 expression in vitro, it appears more likely that such mediators act in vivo by inducing a conformational change in the basally expressed neutrophil adhesive molecules

  15. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  16. Identification of immunogenic hot spots within plum pox potyvirus capsid protein for efficient antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, M Rosario; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L; Roncal, Fernando; Domínguez, Elvira; García, Juan Antonio

    2002-12-01

    PEPSCAN analysis has been used to characterize the immunogenic regions of the capsid protein (CP) in virions of plum pox potyvirus (PPV). In addition to the well-known highly immunogenic N- and C-terminal domains of CP, regions within the core domain of the protein have also shown high immunogenicity. Moreover, the N terminus of CP is not homogeneously immunogenic, alternatively showing regions frequently recognized by antibodies and others that are not recognized at all. These results have helped us to design efficient antigen presentation vectors based on PPV. As predicted by PEPSCAN analysis, a small displacement of the insertion site in a previously constructed vector, PPV-gamma, turned the derived chimeras into efficient immunogens. Vectors expressing foreign peptides at different positions within a highly immunogenic region (amino acids 43 to 52) in the N-terminal domain of CP were the most effective at inducing specific antibody responses against the foreign sequence.

  17. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  18. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  19. Identification of antigenic proteins of setaria cervi by immunoblotting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, N.A.; Kaushal, D.C.; Ghatak, S.

    1987-01-01

    Identification and characterization of antigenic proteins of Setaria cervi (bovine filarial parasite) adults and microfilariae was done by immunoblotting technique using hyperimmune rabbit sera against S. cervi and Brugia malayi. The antigens recognized by these sera were detected by using 125 I protein-A followed by autoradiography. Fifteen different antigens were observed to be common between adult and microfilarial stages of the parasite. Some stage specific antigens were also identified. Many antigens of S. cervi adults and microfilariae were also recognized by rabbit anti-B.malayi serum showing the existence of common antigenic determinants between the bovine and human filarial parasites

  20. Analysis of Swine Leukocyte Antigen Peptide Binding Profiles and the Identification of T cell Epitopes by Tetramer Staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers

    class I peptide binding characteristics in relation to immune responses to vaccination or infection. Applying proven technologies to newly produced, recombinant swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I proteins yielded a body of data for peptide:SLA:β2m (pSLA) complex affinity and stability. Mapping...... system to specifically identify and react upon non-self peptide fragments unique only to the foreign intruder. The polymorphism of the MHC molecule effectively individualizes the immune response of each member of any given species. Moreover, responding T cells recognize antigen ligands, only...... in the context of peptide:MHC:β2m (pMHC) complex. The gene encoding the MHC is one of the most polymorphic regions of the genome known. Despite thousands of different human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants identified, each member of a species only inherits and expresses a few of these MHC alleles. The “MHC...

  1. Burnout: Recognize and Reverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne, Samantha

    2014-07-01

    Physician burnout may be underrecognized and can cause significant detrimental effects on personal health and job satisfaction. Burnout has been associated with medical errors, alcohol and drug abuse, and neglect and abandonment of career goals. With self-awareness, development of coping mechanisms, and the adoption of a strong social and professional support network, burnout can be combated. This article focuses on recognizing characteristics of burnout and providing strategies to cope to avoid reaching a high degree of burnout. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  2. Recognizing Facial Slivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad-Gutnick, Sharon; Harmatz, Elia Samuel; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Yovel, Galit; Sinha, Pawan

    2018-07-01

    We report here an unexpectedly robust ability of healthy human individuals ( n = 40) to recognize extremely distorted needle-like facial images, challenging the well-entrenched notion that veridical spatial configuration is necessary for extracting facial identity. In face identification tasks of parametrically compressed internal and external features, we found that the sum of performances on each cue falls significantly short of performance on full faces, despite the equal visual information available from both measures (with full faces essentially being a superposition of internal and external features). We hypothesize that this large deficit stems from the use of positional information about how the internal features are positioned relative to the external features. To test this, we systematically changed the relations between internal and external features and found preferential encoding of vertical but not horizontal spatial relationships in facial representations ( n = 20). Finally, we employ magnetoencephalography imaging ( n = 20) to demonstrate a close mapping between the behavioral psychometric curve and the amplitude of the M250 face familiarity, but not M170 face-sensitive evoked response field component, providing evidence that the M250 can be modulated by faces that are perceptually identifiable, irrespective of extreme distortions to the face's veridical configuration. We theorize that the tolerance to compressive distortions has evolved from the need to recognize faces across varying viewpoints. Our findings help clarify the important, but poorly defined, concept of facial configuration and also enable an association between behavioral performance and previously reported neural correlates of face perception.

  3. Presentation of lipid antigens to T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro

    2008-04-15

    T cells specific for lipid antigens participate in regulation of the immune response during infections, tumor immunosurveillance, allergy and autoimmune diseases. T cells recognize lipid antigens as complexes formed with CD1 antigen-presenting molecules, thus resembling recognition of MHC-peptide complexes. The biophysical properties of lipids impose unique mechanisms for their delivery, internalization into antigen-presenting cells, membrane trafficking, processing, and loading of CD1 molecules. Each of these steps is controlled at molecular and celular levels and determines lipid immunogenicity. Lipid antigens may derive from microbes and from the cellular metabolism, thus allowing the immune system to survey a large repertoire of immunogenic molecules. Recognition of lipid antigens facilitates the detection of infectious agents and the initiation of responses involved in immunoregulation and autoimmunity. This review focuses on the presentation mechanisms and specific recognition of self and bacterial lipid antigens and discusses the important open issues.

  4. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  5. Recognize and classify pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, K.G.; Hofmann-Preiss, K.

    2014-01-01

    In the year 2012, out of the 10 most frequently recognized occupational diseases 6 were forms of pneumoconiosis. With respect to healthcare and economic aspects, silicosis and asbestos-associated diseases are of foremost importance. The latter are to be found everywhere and are not restricted to large industrial areas. Radiology has a central role in the diagnosis and evaluation of occupational lung disorders. In cases of known exposure mainly to asbestos and quartz, the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, with few exceptions will be established primarily by the radiological findings. As these disorders are asymptomatic for a long time they are quite often detected as incidental findings in examinations for other reasons. Therefore, radiologists have to be familiar with the pattern of findings of the most frequent forms of pneumoconiosis and the differential diagnoses. For reasons of equal treatment of the insured a quality-based, standardized performance, documentation and evaluation of radiological examinations is required in preventive procedures and evaluations. Above all, a standardized low-dose protocol has to be used in computed tomography (CT) examinations, although individualized concerning the dose, in order to keep radiation exposure as low as possible for the patient. The International Labour Office (ILO) classification for the coding of chest X-rays and the international classification of occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICOERD) classification used since 2004 for CT examinations meet the requirements of the insured and the occupational insurance associations as a means of reproducible and comparable data for decision-making. (orig.) [de

  6. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  7. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  8. The Duty to Recognize Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these......On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these...

  9. Radioimmunoassay for detecting antibodies against murine malarial parasite antigens: monoclonal antibodies recognizing Plasmodium yoelii antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Taylor, D.W.; Evans, C.B.; Asofsky, R.

    1980-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) in microtiter wells was established for detecting antibodies against Plasmodium yoelii Ag. The SPRIA was found (1) to require as little as 5 μg of crude parasite Ag per well, (2) to be able to detect 0.5 ng of monoclonal Ab, and (3) to be 10 4 times more sensitive than the indirect fluorescent Ab staining technique. In a modification of the above assay using intact RBC as an Ag, hyperimmune serum showed significant binding to the surface of erythrocytes of mice infected with P. yoelii parasites but not to RBC of normal mice. Hybridomas were prepared by fusing infected mouse spleen cells with myeloma cells. Using the SPRIA, hybrids secreting Ab against P. yoelii 17XL Ag were detected

  10. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  11. Immunity to tumour antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Ali, Selman A; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Mian, Shahid; Ahmad, Murrium; Miles, Amanda; Rees, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade, a large number of human tumour antigens have been identified. These antigens are classified as tumour-specific shared antigens, tissue-specific differentiation antigens, overexpressed antigens, tumour antigens resulting from mutations, viral antigens and fusion proteins. Antigens recognised by effectors of immune system are potential targets for antigen-specific cancer immunotherapy. However, most tumour antigens are self-proteins and are generally of low immunogenicity and the immune response elicited towards these tumour antigens is not always effective. Strategies to induce and enhance the tumour antigen-specific response are needed. This review will summarise the approaches to discovery of tumour antigens, the current status of tumour antigens, and their potential application to cancer treatment.

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal of ... foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal of ...

  13. Foreign correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, John Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of foreign news, its history, transformation and indeed its future have not been much studied. The scholarly community often calls attention to journalism's shortcomings covering the world, yet the topic has not been systematically examined across countries or over time. The need to redress this neglect and the desire to assess the impact of new media technologies on the future of journalism - including foreign correspondence - provide the motivation for this stimulating, exciting and thought-provoking book. While the old economic models supporting news have crumbled in

  14. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartorelli, A.; Accinni, R.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125 I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  16. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized

  17. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Leila; Ghaznavi-Rad, Ehsanollah; Soufian, Safieh; Farjadi, Vahideh; Abtahi, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity. Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis . PMID:23997913

  18. Expression and Antigenic Evaluation of VacA Antigenic Fragment of Helicobacter Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hasanzadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Helicobacter pylori, a human specific gastric pathogen is a causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA is an effective virulence factor involved in gastric injury. The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant protein containing antigenic region of VacA gene and determine its antigenicity.   Materials and Methods: The antigenic region of VacA gene was detected by bioinformatics methods. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify a highly antigenic region of VacA gene from chromosomal DNA of H. pylori. The eluted product was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET32a. The target protein was expressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS. The bacteria including pET32a-VacA plasmids were induced by IPTG. The antigenicity was finally studied by western blotting using sera of 15 H. pylori infected patients after purification. Results: Enzyme digestion analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing results showed that the target gene was inserted correctly into the recombinant vector. The expressed protein was purified successfully via affinity chromatography. Data indicated that antigenic region of VacA protein from Helicobacter pylori was recognized by all 15 patient’s sera. Conclusion : Our data showed that antigenic region of VacA protein can be expressed by in E. co.li. This protein was recognized by sera patients suffering from H. pylori infection. the recombinant protein has similar epitopes and close antigenic properties to the natural form of this antigen. Recombinant antigenic region of VacA protein also seems to be a promising antigen for protective and serologic diagnosis .

  19. Understanding original antigenic sin in influenza with a dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keyao

    2011-01-01

    Original antigenic sin is the phenomenon in which prior exposure to an antigen leads to a subsequent suboptimal immune response to a related antigen. Immune memory normally allows for an improved and rapid response to antigens previously seen and is the mechanism by which vaccination works. I here develop a dynamical system model of the mechanism of original antigenic sin in influenza, clarifying and explaining the detailed spin-glass treatment of original antigenic sin. The dynamical system describes the viral load, the quantities of healthy and infected epithelial cells, the concentrations of naïve and memory antibodies, and the affinities of naïve and memory antibodies. I give explicit correspondences between the microscopic variables of the spin-glass model and those of the present dynamical system model. The dynamical system model reproduces the phenomenon of original antigenic sin and describes how a competition between different types of B cells compromises the overall effect of immune response. I illustrate the competition between the naïve and the memory antibodies as a function of the antigenic distance between the initial and subsequent antigens. The suboptimal immune response caused by original antigenic sin is observed when the host is exposed to an antigen which has intermediate antigenic distance to a second antigen previously recognized by the host's immune system.

  20. Do You Recognize This Parent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Edna

    1997-01-01

    Suggests effective ways to work with parents who may be permissive, busy, detached, overprotective, or negative. Recommends that child care professionals be sensitive and understanding, recognize other demands on parents' time and communicate competitively with them, use terms parents understand, accept various levels of parental involvement, be…

  1. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  2. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…

  3. Strategy for eliciting antigen-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response against a cryptic CTL epitope of merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez Bianca P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a relatively new addition to the expanding category of oncovirus-induced cancers. Although still comparably rare, the number of cases has risen dramatically in recent years. Further complicating this trend is that MCC is an extremely aggressive neoplasm with poor patient prognosis and limited treatment options for advanced disease. The causative agent of MCC has been identified as the merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV. The MCPyV-encoded large T (LT antigen is an oncoprotein that is theorized to be essential for virus-mediated tumorigenesis and is therefore, an excellent MCC antigen for the generation of antitumor immune responses. As a foreign antigen, the LT oncoprotein avoids the obstacle of immune tolerance, which normally impedes the development of antitumor immunity. Ergo, it is an excellent target for anti-MCC immunotherapy. Since tumor-specific CD8+ T cells lead to better prognosis for MCC and numerous other cancers, we have generated a DNA vaccine that is capable of eliciting LT-specific CD8+ T cells. The DNA vaccine (pcDNA3-CRT/LT encodes the LT antigen linked to a damage-associated molecular pattern, calreticulin (CRT, as it has been demonstrated that the linkage of CRT to antigens promotes the induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Results The present study shows that DNA vaccine-induced generation of LT-specific CD8+ T cells is augmented by linking CRT to the LT antigen. This is relevant since the therapeutic effects of the pcDNA3-CRT/LT DNA vaccine is mediated by LT-specific CD8+ T cells. Mice vaccinated with the DNA vaccine produced demonstrably more LT-specific CD8+ T cells. The DNA vaccine was also able to confer LT-specific CD8+ T cell-mediated protective and therapeutic effects to prolong the survival of mice with LT-expressing tumors. In the interest of determining the LT epitope which most MCC-specific CD8+ T cells recognize, we identified the amino acid sequence of the

  4. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Anukriti; Rastogi, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial. This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder. PMID:26644741

  5. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F; Tutt, Andrew N J; Nestle, Frank O; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  6. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Correa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1 specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires.

  7. Evaluation of Antigen-Conjugated Fluorescent Beads to Identify Antigen-Specific B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Isabel; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Crescioli, Silvia; Lombardi, Sara; Figini, Mariangela; Cheung, Anthony; Spicer, James F.; Tutt, Andrew N. J.; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Lacy, Katie E.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of single antigen-specific B cells to identify their expressed antibodies is of considerable interest for evaluating human immune responses. Here, we present a method to identify single antibody-expressing cells using antigen-conjugated fluorescent beads. To establish this, we selected Folate Receptor alpha (FRα) as a model antigen and a mouse B cell line, expressing both the soluble and the membrane-bound forms of a human/mouse chimeric antibody (MOv18 IgG1) specific for FRα, as test antibody-expressing cells. Beads were conjugated to FRα using streptavidin/avidin-biotin bridges and used to select single cells expressing the membrane-bound form of anti-FRα. Bead-bound cells were single cell-sorted and processed for single cell RNA retrotranscription and PCR to isolate antibody heavy and light chain variable regions. Variable regions were then cloned and expressed as human IgG1/k antibodies. Like the original clone, engineered antibodies from single cells recognized native FRα. To evaluate whether antigen-coated beads could identify specific antibody-expressing cells in mixed immune cell populations, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were spiked with test antibody-expressing cells. Antigen-specific cells could comprise up to 75% of cells selected with antigen-conjugated beads when the frequency of the antigen-positive cells was 1:100 or higher. In PBMC pools, beads conjugated to recombinant antigens FRα and HER2 bound antigen-specific anti-FRα MOv18 and anti-HER2 Trastuzumab antibody-expressing cells, respectively. From melanoma patient-derived B cells selected with melanoma cell line-derived protein-coated fluorescent beads, we generated a monoclonal antibody that recognized melanoma antigen-coated beads. This approach may be further developed to facilitate analysis of B cells and their antibody profiles at the single cell level and to help unravel humoral immune repertoires. PMID:29628923

  8. Nonradiopaque penetrating foreign body: ''a sticky situation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laor, T.; Barnewolt, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Foreign bodies within soft tissues are common in children. They may cause a chronic inflammatory reaction that can result in abnormal findings on radiographs, including lytic or blastic osseous changes. These radiographic findings can mimic both benign and malignant processes. In cases where the history is uncertain and the foreign body is not recognized, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can make a specific diagnosis and direct appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  9. Foreign bodies in the torax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćerimagić Zenaida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metallic foreign bodies in the lung could be recognized using radiography. Non-metallic foreign bodies make difficulties because they are not as dense as metals. The aim of this report was to present the case of nonmetallic foreign bodies in the lung. Case report. A soldier of the Federation Army of Bosnia and Hertzegovina, injured in the explosion in 1998 was presented. The soldier was subjected to thoracic drainage and surgery tretment of the wound. After one year, the pulmologist treated him with tuberculostatics because of hemoptysis and pulmonary infiltration shown by a radiogram. This therapy had no effects, and the pulmologist presented this case to the thoracic surgeon who made thoracotomy removing a piece of wood (13 × 2 × 0.7 cm, 20 different-size pieces of wood, and a piece of textile from the lung. Conclusion. Patients with penetrating explosive lung injuries without metallic foreign bodies shown by a radiogram, with complications as hemoptisis, lung abscess, bronchiectasis, obstruction of the bronchus, chronic pneumonia should be subjected to thoracotomy for removing suspected foreign bodies without resecting the lung.

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ... good tool for guiding foreign body removal procedures. Risks While foreign body removal procedures are safe and ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 80 percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract ... blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ...

  12. Dissection and manipulation of antigen-specific T cell responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Koen

    2006-01-01

    T cells recognize pathogen-derived antigens and are crucial for fighting pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. In addition, T cells are able to recognize and attack certain types of tumors, in particular virally induced tumors. In this thesis we aimed 1) to obtain more insight into

  13. CD8(+) T cells of Listeria monocytogenes-infected mice recognize both linear and spliced proteasome products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Mishto, Michele; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Keller, Christin; Liepe, Juliane; Busch, Dirk H; Kloetzel, Peter M; Sijts, Alice J A M

    CD8(+) T cells responding to infection recognize pathogen-derived epitopes presented by MHC class-I molecules. While most of such epitopes are generated by proteasome-mediated antigen cleavage, analysis of tumor antigen processing has revealed that epitopes may also derive from proteasome-catalyzed

  14. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans.

  15. Foreign Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Hoz, Alejandro; Díaz, Eduardo; Feinstein, Max Moses

    2017-05-01

    In a large Colombian teaching hospital, a fifty-five-year-old woman complaining of stomach pain is examined by a foreign-exchange medical student from the United States. Speaking in Spanish, the student elicits a medical history that suggests a possible recurrence of gallstones, but nothing further. Upon discussing the patient's case in private with the attending physician, the student is shocked to learn that the patient is suffering from terminal, metastatic gastric cancer but is unaware of her diagnosis. The attending physician explains that the patient's husband instructed the health care providers not to tell the patient what her diagnosis is. The medical student feels uncomfortable withholding the diagnosis from the patient. The thought of disclosure feels equally uncomfortable, however, as it would mean contradicting the instructions of the attending physician at the host hospital as well as violating what the student suspects, but is not sure, may be acceptable medical practice in Colombia. How should the medical student proceed? © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  16. 77 FR 37837 - Overall Foreign Loss Recapture on Property Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... detailed rules for determining whether income is high-taxed, including rules for testing income based on... business, gain is recognized on that disposition and treated as foreign source income, regardless of... separate category of foreign source taxable income generated by the property. Section 1.904(f)-2(d...

  17. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…

  18. Producing and Recognizing Analogical Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  19. Molecular aspects of antibody-antigen interactions : size reduction of a herpes simplex virus neutralizing antibody and its antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Gerardus Antonius

    1996-01-01

    Antibody molecules, produced as a response against foreign substances, interact with their antigen in a very specific manner. Antibodies with a predetermined specificity (monoclonal antibodies) can be produced and are widely used in medicine and science as indicator molecules. Genetic engineering of

  20. Techniques for Intravascular Foreign Body Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhouse, Joe B.; Uberoi, Raman

    2013-01-01

    As endovascular therapies increase in frequency, the incidence of lost or embolized foreign bodies is increasing. The presence of an intravascular foreign body (IFB) is well recognized to have the potential to cause serious complications. IFB can embolize and impact critical sites such as the heart, with subsequent significant morbidity or mortality. Intravascular foreign bodies most commonly result from embolized central line fragments, but they can originate from many sources, both iatrogenic and noniatrogenic. The percutaneous approach in removing an IFB is widely perceived as the best way to retrieve endovascular foreign bodies. This minimally invasive approach has a high success rate with a low associated morbidity, and it avoids the complications related to open surgical approaches. We examined the characteristics, causes, and incidence of endovascular embolizations and reviewed the various described techniques that have been used to facilitate subsequent explantation of such materials

  1. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-2 - Recapture of overall foreign losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... $575 on the first disposition and, since the foreign oil related loss account is now reduced by $1,375... recognize foreign oil related income (which is net capital gain) on the first disposition in the amount of... of overall foreign losses from dispositions under section 904(f)(3)—(1) In general. If a taxpayer...

  2. Human Tumor Antigens Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Olivera J

    2017-05-01

    The question of whether human tumors express antigens that can be recognized by the immune system has been answered with a resounding YES. Most were identified through spontaneous antitumor humoral and cellular immune responses found in cancer patients and include peptides, glycopeptides, phosphopeptides, viral peptides, and peptides resulting from common mutations in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, or common gene fusion events. Many have been extensively tested as candidates for anticancer vaccines. More recently, attention has been focused on the potentially large number of unique tumor antigens, mutated neoantigens, that are the predicted products of the numerous mutations revealed by exome sequencing of primary tumors. Only a few have been confirmed as targets of spontaneous immunity and immunosurveillance, and even fewer have been tested in preclinical and clinical settings. The field has been divided for a long time on the relative importance of shared versus mutated antigens in tumor surveillance and as candidates for vaccines. This question will eventually need to be answered in a head to head comparison in well-designed clinical trials. One advantage that shared antigens have over mutated antigens is their potential to be used in vaccines for primary cancer prevention. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(5); 347-54. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. ForeignAssistance.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body. When your physician suspects that a blunt foreign body is stuck in the esophagus, you ... tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the digestive tract by ...

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foreign objects that have been ingested through the mouth or airway or introduced into the soft tissues. ... through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can leak into the bowel and cause mercury poisoning. Magnetic toys can obstruct the bowel when they ... soft tissue foreign body, contact your physician immediately. Treatment will depend on the type of foreign body ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  8. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... able to view the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in ... helps dilate, or widen, the esophagus. This helps advance the foreign body into the stomach, from where ...

  10. HIV p24 as scaffold for presenting conformational HIV Env antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tagliamonte

    Full Text Available Heterologous protein scaffolds engrafted with structurally defined HIV Env epitopes recognized by broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs represent a promising strategy to elicit broad neutralizing antibodies. In such regards, a protein scaffold based on the HIV p24 CA protein is a highly attractive approach, providing also Gag epitopes for eliciting HIV non-neutralizing protective antibodies and specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses. In the present study, computational techniques were employed to verify the presence of acceptor sites for conformational HIV Env epitopes and, as proof of concept, the analysis of HIV p24 CA-based scaffolds using a complete V3 loop in a MAb-bound conformation is presented. The V3-p24 epitope-scaffold proteins show the formation of capsomers made of hexamers similarly to the p24 wild type protein. Moreover, the conformational V3 loop presented on p24 scaffold is recognized by a panel of anti-V3 MAbs. The results suggest that HIV p24 CA protein has suitable acceptor sites for engrafting foreign epitopes, without disrupting the formation of capsomer hexamer structures, and that the V3 epitope does retain its antibody-bound conformation. This strongly support the feasibility of developing a scaffolding strategy based on p24 CA proteins displaying conformational minimal structural, antigenic HIV Env epitopes.

  11. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ephraim, K.H.; Cox, P.H.; Hamer, C.J.A. v.d.; Berends, W.; Delhez, H.

    1977-01-01

    The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a complex of antigen determinants and also the carrier of these determinants. Chemically it is a glycoprotein. Its occurrence in blood serum or urine is correlated with malignant disease. Several radioimmunoassays (RIA) have been developed, one by Hoffmann-Laroche and one by the Rotterdam Radiotherapeutic Institute. Both methods and the Hoffmann assay kit are tested. Specifications are given for isolation of the antigen, preparation of the antiserum, and the execution of the RIA. Biochemical and clinical aspects are discussed

  12. TITLE: OTIC FOREIGN BODIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A.O.A. Ogunleye

    A large variety of foreign bodies may be encountered in the external auditory meatus 1 . The objects may be organic or inorganic. Organic foreign bodies include paper, cotton wool, rubber, seeds, etc while inorganic objects include beads, ball bearings, stones, and crayons 1- 4. Foreign bodies are inserted into the ear.

  13. Molecular mimics of the tumour antigen MUC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharappel C James

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the development of cancer immunotherapy is the identification of tumour-associated antigens that are differentially or exclusively expressed on the tumour and recognized by the host immune system. However, immune responses to such antigens are often muted or lacking due to the antigens being recognized as "self", and further complicated by the tumour environment and regulation of immune cells within. In an effort to circumvent the lack of immune responses to tumour antigens, we have devised a strategy to develop potential synthetic immunogens. The strategy, termed mirror image phage display, is based on the concept of molecular mimicry as demonstrated by the idiotype/anti-idiotype paradigm in the immune system. Here as 'proof of principle' we have selected molecular mimics of the well-characterised tumour associated antigen, the human mucin1 protein (MUC1 from two different peptide phage display libraries. The putative mimics were compared in structure and function to that of the native antigen. Our results demonstrate that several of the mimic peptides display T-cell stimulation activity in vitro when presented by matured dendritic cells. The mimic peptides and the native MUC1 antigenic epitopes can cross-stimulate T-cells. The data also indicate that sequence homology and/or chemical properties to the original epitope are not the sole determining factors for the observed immunostimulatory activity of the mimic peptides.

  14. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  15. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  16. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

      The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...... that the theoretical relationship between foreign aid and FDI is indeterminate. Aid may raise the marginal productivity of capital by financing complementary inputs, such as public infrastructure projects and human capital investment. However, aid may also crowd out productive private investments if it comes...... in the shape of physical capital transfers. We therefore turn to an empirical analysis of the relationship between FDI and disaggregated aid flows. Our results strongly support the hypotheses that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in foreign capital while aid invested in physical capital crowds out...

  17. Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign- exclusively Exhibition Corporations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Foreign Investors Able to Establish Foreign-exclusively Exhibition Corporations In Feb, Ministry of Commerce issued its 1st decree on temporary regulation for foreign-investing corporations; the regulation allows foreign investors to set up foreign-investing convention & exhibition corporations exclusively or through cooperation with other Chinese corporations, enterprises or organizations. With legal protection on their regulatory management and legal rights, these foreign-investing corporations are in the charge of Department of Foreign Investment Administration, Ministry of Commerce.

  18. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Human Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) as Research and Theranostic Tools

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Zora; Foss, C. A.; Copeland, B. T.; Morath, V.; Baranová, Petra; Havlínová, Barbora; Skerra, A.; Pomper, M.G.; Bařinka, Cyril

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 7 (2017), s. 749-764 ISSN 0270-4137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/12/1513; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : monoclonal antibody * glutamate carboxypeptidase II * NAALADase Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Endocrinology and metabolism (including diabetes, hormones) Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016

  19. Label-free chronopotentiometric glycoprofiling of prostate specific antigen using sialic acid recognizing lectins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belicky, S.; Černocká, Hana; Bertok, T.; Holazova, A.; Réblová, K.; Paleček, Emil; Tkáč, J.; Ostatná, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, OCT2017 (2017), s. 89-94 ISSN 1567-5394 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-15479S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : amalgam electrodes * cancer * glycosylation * interface Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.346, year: 2016

  20. Apoptosis and necrosis increase antigenicity of proteins recognized by antinuclear antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Bollain-y-Goitia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Obiettivo. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di indagare se l’apoptosis e la necrosi aumentano l’antigenicità delle proteine riconosciute da anticorpi antinucleo. Materiale e metodi. Cellule HEp-2 sono state coltivate in condizioni standard; l’apoptosis è stata indotta con camptecina e la necrosi con cloruro di mercurio. L’antigenicità delle proteine estratte dalle cellule è stato testata su membrane di nitrocellulosa e sondata con sieri positivi o negativi per anticorpi antinucleo utilizzando un sistema ELISA a luminescenza (luminescent. Risultati. Le alterazioni apoptotiche nelle cellule HEp-2 sono apparse entro 24 ore dall’esposizione alla camptoicina, mentre i segni di necrosi si sono evidenziati più precocemente. La luminescenza si è dimostrata significativamente superiore nei sieri ANA positivi che nei controlli ANA negativi. Gli antcorpi antinucleari sieirici riconoscono meglio gli antigeni da cellule apoptotiche e necrotiche rispetto ai controlli che non hanno subito trattamenti chimici. Conclusioni. L’apoptosi e la necrosi incrementano la capacità legante degli ANA attraverso una migliore disponibilità di antigeni intracellulari o svelando epitopi criptici.

  1. Identification of chimpanzee leukocyte antigens (ChL-A) and their relation to HL-A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balner, H.

    1971-01-01

    The identification of a number of leukocyte antigens of chimpanzees is described. Suggestive evidence was obtained that some of the isoantisera recognize specificities of a hypothetical genetic system of chimpanzee antigens which, in analogy with the human HL-A system, is tentatively called ChL-A.

  2. Characterization of Antigen-Specific B Cells Using Nominal Antigen-Coated Flow-Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Ahmed; Lepetit, Maud; Crochette, Romain; Giral, Magali; Lepourry, Julie; Pallier, Annaick; Castagnet, Stéphanie; Dugast, Emilie; Guillot-Gueguen, Cécile; Jacq-Foucher, Marylène; Saulquin, Xavier; Cesbron, Anne; Laplaud, David; Nicot, Arnaud; Brouard, Sophie; Soulillou, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize the reactivity of B cells against nominal antigens, a method based on the coupling of antigens onto the surface of fluorescent core polystyrene beads was developed. We first demonstrate that murine B cells with a human MOG-specific BCR are able to interact with MOG-coated beads and do not recognize beads coated with human albumin or pp65. B cells purified from human healthy volunteer blood or immunized individuals were tested for their ability to interact with various nominal antigens, including viral, vaccine, self and alloantigens, chosen for their usefulness in studying a variety of pathological processes. A substantial amount of B cells binding self-antigen MOG-coated beads can be detected in normal blood. Furthermore, greater frequencies of B cell against anti-Tetanic Toxin or anti-EBNA1 were observed in primed individuals. This method can reveal increased frequencies of anti-HLA committed B cells in patients with circulating anti-HLA antibodies compared to unsensitized patients and normal individuals. Of interest, those specific CD19 cells were preferentially identified within CD27−IgD+ (i-e naïve) subset. These observations suggest that a broad range of medical situations could benefit from a tool that allows the detection, the quantification and the characterization of antigen-specific blood B cells. PMID:24386360

  3. Differential expression of the Escherichia coli autoaggregation factor antigen 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembri, Mark; Hjerrild, Louise; Gjermansen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Due to its excellent cell-to-cell aggregation characteristics, Ag43 expression confers clumping and fluffing of cells and promotes biofilm formation. Ag43 expression is repressed by the cellular redox...

  4. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  5. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antigen detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  7. Isocyanate test antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karol, M.H.; Alarie, Y.C.

    1980-01-01

    A test antigen for detecting antibodies to a diisocyanate comprises the reaction product of a protein and a monoisocyanate derived from the same radical as the diisocyanate. The diisocyanates most usually encountered and therefore calling for antibody detection are those of toluene, hexamethylene, methylene, isophorone and naphthylene. The preferred protein is human serum albumin. (author)

  8. β-endorphin antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the production of antigens comprising β-endorphin, βsub(h)-endorphin, or βsub(c)-endorphin, in covalent conjugation with human gammaglobulin as immunogenic carrier material, and an antibody having the property of specifically binding β-endorphin or fragments thereof, containing the (6-15) residue sequence. (U.K.)

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects by probing the wound. Additional tests ... magnets pulling together parts of bowel. Removal of soft-tissue foreign bodies will ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects by probing the wound. Additional tests ... magnets pulling together parts of bowel. Removal of soft-tissue foreign bodies will ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign ...

  12. Foreign Languages and Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Lucille J.; Brod, Richard I.

    1974-01-01

    Gives employment opportunity information in the following fields where foreign language can be used as an auxiliary skill: 1) Business, Industry, Commerce; 2) Civil Service; 3) Education; 4) Law; 5) Library Science; 6) Media; 7) Science; 8) Service; 9) Social Sciences; 10) Travel, Tourism. The fields of foreign language teaching and interpretation…

  13. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ New procedures will help facilitate mergers and acquisitions by foreign companies in China The State Council, or China's cabinet, said in a February statement that China will establish a ministerial panel to review foreign firms' attempts to buy, or merge with, domestic companies.

  14. Foreign Investment Welcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    New procedures will help facilitate mergers and acquisitions by foreign companies in China The State Council,or China’s cabinet,said in a February statement that China will establish a ministerial panel to review foreign firms’ attempts to buy,or merge with,domestic companies.The committee, led by the National Development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of

  15. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    to the firm?s productivity. Foreign-owned firms have, on average, higher productivity in equilibrium due to entry costs, which means that low-productivity foreign firms cannot enter. Foreign firms have higher wage growth and, with some exceptions, pay higher average wages, but not when compared to similarly...... large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...... characteristics, but, as expected, are reduced significantly when controlling for unobservable firm heterogeneity. Furthermore, acquired skills in foreign-owned and large firms appear to be transferable to both subsequent wage work and self-employment...

  16. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  17. Anti-liver-kidney microsome antibody type 1 recognizes human cytochrome P450 db1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, M; Yamamoto, A M; Bernard, O; Alvarez, F

    1989-03-15

    Anti-liver-kidney microsome antibody type 1 (LKM1), present in the sera of a group of children with autoimmune hepatitis, was recently shown to recognize a 50 kDa protein identified as rat liver cytochromes P450 db1 and db2. High homology between these two members of the rat P450 IID subfamily and human P450 db1 suggested that anti-LKM1 antibody is directed against this human protein. To test this hypothesis, a human liver cDNA expression library in phage lambda GT-11 was screened using rat P450 db1 cDNA as a probe. Two human cDNA clones were found to be identical to human P450 db1 by restriction mapping. Immunoblot analysis using as antigen, the purified fusion protein from one of the human cDNA clones showed that only anti-LKM1 with anti-50 kDa reactivity recognized the fusion protein. This fusion protein was further used to develop an ELISA test that was shown to be specific for sera of children with this disease. These results: 1) identify the human liver antigen recognized by anti-LKM1 auto-antibodies as cytochrome P450 db1, 2) allow to speculate that mutation on the human P450 db1 gene could alter its expression in the hepatocyte and make it auto-antigenic, 3) provide a simple and specific diagnostic test for this disease.

  18. Antibody Responses to Prostate-Associated Antigens in Patients with Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricque, Brett B.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Background An important focus of tumor immunotherapy has been the identification of appropriate antigenic targets. Serum-based screening approaches have led to the discovery of hundreds of tumor-associated antigens recognized by IgG. Our efforts to identify immunologically recognized proteins in prostate cancer have yielded a multitude of antigens, however prioritizing these antigens as targets for evaluation in immunotherapies has been challenging. In this report, we set out to determine whether the evaluation of multiple antigenic targets would allow the identification of a subset of antigens that are common immunologic targets in patients with prostate cancer. Methods Using a phage immunoblot approach, we evaluated IgG responses in patients with prostate cancer (n=126), patients with chronic prostatitis (n=45), and men without prostate disease (n=53). Results We found that patients with prostate cancer or prostatitis have IgG specific for multiple common antigens. A subset of 23 proteins was identified to which IgG were detected in 38% of patients with prostate cancer and 33% patients with prostatitis versus 6% of controls (pprostate and prostate cancer, and suggest that IgG responses to a panel of commonly recognized prostate antigens could be potentially used in the identification of patients at risk for prostate cancer or as a tool to identify immune responses elicited to prostate tissue. PMID:20632317

  19. [Foreign Body in Esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeki, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    An esophageal foreign body is the term for a foreign body in the esophagus. The 2 age groups most prone to this condition are children age 9 and under (and especially toddlers age 4 and under) and elderly individuals age 70 and over. A foreign body often lodges where the esophagus is most constricted. In toddlers, the foreign body is often currency or coins or a toy. In adults, the body is often a piece of fish, dentures, a piece of meat, a pin or needle, or a drug in its blister pack packaging. In children, an esophageal foreign body is treated by fluoroscopically guided removal of the body with a balloon catheter or magnetic catheter or removal of the body via endoscopy or direct esophagoscopy under general anesthesia. In adults, the best choice for treating an esophageal foreign body is removing the body with an endoscope but there are instances where surgery is performed because the body is hard to remove endoscopically, a puncture has occurred, or empyema or mediastinitis has developed. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of an esophageal foreign body.

  20. Cell-mediated immune response of synovial fluid lymphocytes to ureaplasma antigen in Reiter's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlica Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Reiter's syndrome (RS is an seronegative arthritis that occurs after urogenital or enteric infection which in addition with occular and/or mucocutaneous manifestations presents complete form of disease. According to previous understanding arthritis in the RS is the reactive one, which means that it is impossible to isolate its causative agent. However, there are the more and more authors suggesting that arthritis in the urogenital form of disease is caused by the infective agent in the affected joint. This suggestion is based on numerous studies on the presence of Chlmaydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the inflamed joint by using new diagnostic methods in molecular biology published in the recent literature [1-3]. Besides, numerous studies of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response to "triggering" bacteria in the affected joint have supported previous suggestions [4-7]. Aim of the study was to determine whether synovial fluid T-cells specifically recognize the "triggering" bacteria presumably responsible for the Reiter's syndrome. METHOD The 3H-thymidine uptake procedure for measuring lymphocyte responses was applied to lymphocytes derived concurrently from synovial fluid (SF and from peripheral blood (PB [8]. Ureaplasma antigen and mitogen PHA stimulated lymphocytes in 24 RS patients (24 PB samples, 9 SF samples and the results were compared with those found in 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA (10 PB samples, 5 SF samples. Preparation of ureaplasma antigen. Ureaplasma was cultured on cell-free liquid medium [9]. Sample of 8 ml was heat-inactivated for 15 minutes at 601C and permanently stirred with magnetic mixer. The sample was centrifuged at 2000 x g for 40 minutes and than deposits carefully carried to other sterile glass tubes (Corex and recentrifuged at 9000 x g for 30 minutes. The deposit was washed 3 times in sterile 0.9% NaCl, and final sediment was resuspended in 1.2 ml sterile 0.9% Na

  1. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  3. Recognizing textual entailment models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dagan, Ido; Sammons, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of NLP researchers have developed and participated in the task of Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). This task encapsulates Natural Language Understanding capabilities within a very simple interface: recognizing when the meaning of a text snippet is contained in the meaning of a second piece of text. This simple abstraction of an exceedingly complex problem has broad appeal partly because it can be conceived also as a component in other NLP applications, from Machine Translation to Semantic Search to Information Extraction. It also avoids commitment to any sp

  4. The original Pathologische Anatomie Leiden-Endothelium monoclonal antibody recognizes a vascular endothelial growth factor binding site within neuropilin-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaalouk, Diana E.; Ozawa, Nfichael G.; Sun, Jessica; Lahdenranta, Johanna; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2007-01-01

    For two decades, the antigen recognized by the Pathologische Anatomie Leiden-Endothelium (PAL-E) monoclonal antibody, a standard vascular endothelial cell marker, has remained elusive. Here, we used a combinatorial phage display-based approach ("epitope mapping") to select peptides binding to the

  5. Kidney Transplantation: The Challenge of Human Leukocyte Antigen and Its Therapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Alelign

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation remains the treatment of choice for end-stage renal failure. When the immune system of the recipient recognizes the transplanted kidney as a foreign object, graft rejection occurs. As part of the host immune defense mechanism, human leukocyte antigen (HLA is a major challenge for graft rejection in transplantation therapy. The impact of HLA mismatches between the donor and the potential recipient prolongs the time for renal transplantation therapy, tethered to dialysis, latter reduces graft survival, and increases mortality. The formation of pretransplant alloantibodies against HLA class I and II molecules can be sensitized through exposures to blood transfusions, prior transplants, and pregnancy. These preformed HLA antibodies are associated with rejection in kidney transplantation. On the other hand, the development of de novo antibodies may increase the risk for acute and chronic rejections. Allograft rejection results from a complex interplay involving both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. Thus, further insights into the mechanisms of tissue rejection and the risk of HLA sensitization is crucial in developing new therapies that may blunt the immune system against transplanted organs. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight facts about HLA and its sensitization, various mechanisms of allograft rejection, the current immunosuppressive approaches, and the directions for future therapy.

  6. Kidney Transplantation: The Challenge of Human Leukocyte Antigen and Its Therapeutic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Momina M.; Bobosha, Kidist; Tadesse, Yewondwossen; Howe, Rawleigh; Petros, Beyene

    2018-01-01

    Kidney transplantation remains the treatment of choice for end-stage renal failure. When the immune system of the recipient recognizes the transplanted kidney as a foreign object, graft rejection occurs. As part of the host immune defense mechanism, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a major challenge for graft rejection in transplantation therapy. The impact of HLA mismatches between the donor and the potential recipient prolongs the time for renal transplantation therapy, tethered to dialysis, latter reduces graft survival, and increases mortality. The formation of pretransplant alloantibodies against HLA class I and II molecules can be sensitized through exposures to blood transfusions, prior transplants, and pregnancy. These preformed HLA antibodies are associated with rejection in kidney transplantation. On the other hand, the development of de novo antibodies may increase the risk for acute and chronic rejections. Allograft rejection results from a complex interplay involving both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. Thus, further insights into the mechanisms of tissue rejection and the risk of HLA sensitization is crucial in developing new therapies that may blunt the immune system against transplanted organs. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to highlight facts about HLA and its sensitization, various mechanisms of allograft rejection, the current immunosuppressive approaches, and the directions for future therapy. PMID:29693023

  7. [Role of helminth antigens in the abnormal mitosis of bone marrow cells in laboratory animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkova, T N; Tatarnikova, N A; Berezhko, V K; Benediktov, I I

    2013-01-01

    The intraabdominal administration of somatic extracts of the cestodes Hydatigera taeniaformis Batsch 1786, Lamarck, 1816 and Diphyllobothrium latum Linnaeus, 1758 and the nematodes Anisakis simplex larva Rudolphi 1809, Toxocara canis Railliet et Henry, 1912 in albino mice proved that these helminths had a karyopathic effect on the bone marrow cells of the animals. The antigenic composition of these extracts was investigated using the agar gel immunodiffusion test. The antigenic composition of the parasites was ascertained to affect their karyopathic properties. The amount of antigens and their foreignness caused a marked karyopathic effect on the bone marrow cells of laboratory animals during intraabdominal administration.

  8. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may become lodged in the esophagus and cause pain, even though they are able to swallow. Larger ... the stomach or intestines can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... taking and allergies, especially to iodinated contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. ... blood vessels, so your physician may choose to leave it in place. The majority of foreign bodies ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue, such as a splinter embedded under the skin, you may undergo an ultrasound, x-ray or ... that gets embedded in the tissue under the skin. Soft tissue foreign bodies can cause infection and ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects pass through the digestive tract ... a thin tube that can be used to help trap smooth objects like a marble, or to ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into the soft tissues. Commonly swallowed objects include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small ... or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, are radio-opaque, meaning that x- ...

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... saved. Using an ultrasound transducer to visualize the location of the object, the physician may make an ... the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the esophagus, you may receive an intravenous drug to relax the esophagus and allow the object to pass through the digestive tract. Other drugs taken by mouth can help blunt foreign objects ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... small toys or pieces of toys and fish bones. Swallowing of magnets can cause significant problems including ... like toothpicks. Small esophageal foreign bodies like fish bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like ...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the large intestine, causing cramps, bloating, loss of appetite, vomiting, and sometimes fever. A sharp object that ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce ...

  18. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. If the foreign body is ...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ... Anesthesia Safety X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Videos related to Foreign Body Retrieval ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type of ... bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional evaluation is required when the suspected foreign body is ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish bones. Swallowing of magnets can cause significant problems ... bodies like toothpicks. Small esophageal foreign bodies like fish bones also may be difficult to visualize. Additional ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... two snares. The catheter is guided into place just beyond the foreign object using x-ray fluoroscopy. ... perform surgery using ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like coins and batteries, ... or white on x-ray. Fluoroscopy is a special x-ray technique that makes it possible to ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include coins, buttons, pins, nails, glass pieces, toothpicks, batteries, small toys or pieces of toys and fish ... foreign body ingestions. Sometimes problems occur when button batteries are swallowed as mercury within the batteries can ...

  5. Foreign Data Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Data Library consists of meteorological data from nations other than the United States. The data are on original observational forms, in publications,...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... related to Foreign Body Retrieval Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pieces of toys and fish bones. Swallowing of magnets can cause significant problems including bowel blockages that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign ...

  8. Foreign object - swallowed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 327. Pfau PR, Hancock SM. Foreign ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 27. Schoem SR, Rosbe KW, ...

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissues. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as infection. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Removal of a foreign body will reduce your ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... especially to iodinated contrast materials. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be ... relative or friend accompany you and drive you home afterward. Foreign bodies are typically dealt with in ...

  12. Foreign material exclusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Moreno, J.; Folguera Mateo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Foreign material is any element that is not part of the system as it has been designed. For example dirt, loose parts, wires, chips, etc. that may affect the operation of the system or component. (Author)

  13. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bodies. top of page How does the procedure work? Your physician may use an x-ray or ... not a bowel obstruction from the magnets pulling together parts of bowel. Removal of soft-tissue foreign ...

  14. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that may require surgical removal of magnets. Children account for about 80 percent of foreign body ingestions. ... anesthesia) and no IV. top of page Additional Information and Resources Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR) - Patient ...

  15. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stuck in their throat or esophagus. Drooling and difficulty swallowing are common symptoms. A small sharp object ... able to view the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in ...

  16. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you ingest a foreign body or witness a child ingest one or suspect the presence of a ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Computed Tomography ( ...

  17. Antigen specific T-cell responses against tumor antigens are controlled by regulatory T cells in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaschik, Boris; Su, Yun; Huter, Eva; Ge, Yingzi; Hohenfellner, Markus; Beckhove, Philipp

    2012-04-01

    Immunotherapy is a promising approach in an effort to control castration resistant prostate cancer. We characterized tumor antigen reactive T cells in patients with prostate cancer and analyzed the suppression of antitumor responses by regulatory T cells. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 57 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, 8 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 16 healthy donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and antigen specific interferon-γ secretion of isolated T cells was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. T cells were functionally characterized and T-cell responses before and after regulatory T-cell depletion were compared. As test tumor antigens, a panel of 11 long synthetic peptides derived from a total of 8 tumor antigens was used, including prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase. In patients with prostate cancer we noted a 74.5% effector T-cell response rate compared with only 25% in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 31% in healthy donors. In most patients 2 or 3 tumor antigens were recognized. Comparing various disease stages there was a clear increase in the immune response against prostate specific antigens from intermediate to high risk tumors and castration resistant disease. Regulatory T-cell depletion led to a significant boost in effector T-cell responses against prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase. Tumor specific effector T cells were detected in most patients with prostate cancer, especially those with castration resistant prostate cancer. Since effector T-cell responses against prostate specific antigens strongly increased after regulatory T-cell depletion, our results indicate that immunotherapy efficacy could be enhanced by decreasing regulatory T cells. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deteksi Antigen pada Kriptokokosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiatul Adawiyah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKriptokokosis merupakan infeksi sistemik yang disebabkan Cryptococcus sp. Predileksi jamur tersebut adalah susunan saraf pusat dan selaput otak. Terdapat 5 spesies Cryptococcus sp. yang menyebabkan penyakit pada manusia; yang paling banyak adalah Cr. neoformans dan Cr. gattii. Diagnosis kriptokokosis ditegakkan berdasarkan gejala klinis, pemeriksaan laboratoris serta radiologis. Pemeriksaan laboratoris dilakukan dengan identifikasi morfologi, serologi danPCR. Pemeriksaan secara morfologi dengan tinta India positif  bila jumlah sel jamur 10  sel/ml spesimen. Kultur dilakukan di media sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA dan niger sheed agar (NSA, jamur tumbuh setelah 5-7 hari. Deteksi antigen dan antibodi dilakukan pada cairan tubuh dan tidak membutuhkan waktu lama. Deteksi antibodi Cr.neoformans memiliki kelemahan yaitu tidak menunjukkan hasil positif pada infeksi akut, IgA masih positif setelah 1-2 tahun fase penyembuhan, IgG dapat persisten, pada individu imunokompromis menunjukkan hasil yang sangat kompleks dan dalam menentukan diagnosis sering tidak konsisten. Polisakarida adalah komponen paling berperan dalam virulensi Cr. neoformans. Komponen polisakarida terutama glucuronoxylomannan merupakan petanda penting dalam diagnosis kriptokokosis secara serologis. Deteksi antigen Cr. neoformans memiliki kelebihan yaitu menunjukkan hasil positif pada infeksi akut/kronis, sensitivitas dan spesifisitas tinggi, dapat mendeteksi polisakarida hingga 10 ng/ml sehingga dengan kadarantigen yang minimal tetap dapat mendiagnosis kriptokokosis.Kata kunci: Cr. neoformans, glucuronoxylomannan, antigenAbstractCryptococcosis is systemic infection that caused by Cryptococcus sp. Predilection of this fungi is the central nervous system and brain membrane. There are 5 species of Cryptococcus sp. that cause cryptococcosis in human; but the majority are caused by Cr. neoformans and Cr. gattii. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis is made based on clinical symptoms

  19. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  20. Esophageal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal foreign body aspiration is a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For that reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threateining complications. Children most often ingest coins and toys whereas adults commonly tend to have problems with meat and bones. Esophageal foreign bodies are located at the cricopharyngeus muscle level in 70%, the thoracic esophagus in 15% and the gastroesophageal junction in the remaining 15%. Symptoms can vary according to the shape and structure of the ingested object, type of location, patient%u2019s age and complications caused by the foreign body. Delay in treatment, esophageal perforation and an underlying esophageal disease are poor prognostic factors. In treatment, observation, foley catheter, rigid or flexible esophagoscopy and removing the foreign body with a Magill forceps, pushing the foreign body into the stomach, giving intravenous glucagon and surgical treatment methods can be used. Rigid esophagoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for foreign body diagnosis and removal. Improved endoscopic experience and clinical management of thoracic surgeons led to reduced morbidity and mortality in recent years. Most of those emergencies of childhood are preventable. Family education is very important.

  1. ‘ SILENT’ LARYNGEAL FOREIGN BODY

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar; Sreenivas

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal foreign bodies in adults are rare. The foreign bodies accidentally entering the larynx are symptomatic in the form of choking , stridor or even death. We are presenting a rare case of foreign body in the larynx in a 42 year old male who was symptom free except for dysphonia. The foreign body was removed successfully under local anesthesia.

  2. Determination of Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle Amphistomiasis Using Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Halajian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mixed infection with amphistomes seems common in native cattle of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic antigens in cattle mixed amphistomiasis."nMethods: Specific antigens of Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphisto­mum cervi (mixed infection, the most common species, were collected from cattle was deter­mined. Adult trematodes were collected from the rumen of naturally infected cattle at meat inspec­tion. After their homogenization and centrifugation, somatic antigens were prepared and ana­lyzed by SDS-PAGE. Specific antigens were determinated by western blot with homologous and heterolo­gous sera. SDS-PAGE of whole worms extract was performed at different concentrations and subse­quent gels staining. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from cattle naturally infected with am­phistomes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola spp. and hydatid cyst was performed."nResults: Electrophorese analysis of somatic antigens revealed the presence of 10 and 21 protein bands at 4 µgr/ml and 8 µgr/ml with molecular weights ranging from 25-120 and 25-150 kDa, respectively. The best result was taken at 8 mg/ml concentration. Although western blot of these proteins demon­strate 5 major antigenic polypeptides ranging from 50 to 100 kDa which were recognized by serum of cat­tle naturally infected with mixed amphistomes.

  3. Exploring Metacognitive Strategies and Hypermedia Annotations on Foreign Language Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hui-Fang

    2017-01-01

    The effective use of reading strategies has been recognized as an important way to increase reading comprehension in hypermedia environments. The purpose of the study was to explore whether metacognitive strategy use and access to hypermedia annotations facilitated reading comprehension based on English as a foreign language students' proficiency…

  4. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akute, O.

    1999-02-01

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  5. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...... investments), but aid may crowd out private investments when it comes in the shape of pure physical capital transfers. Empirically, we find that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in FDI, while aid invested in physical capital crowds it out. The paper shows that the composition of aid matters for its...

  6. THE ‘UNFORGETTABLE’ EXPERIENCE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morana Drakulić

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language anxiety (FLA has long been recognized as a factor that hinders the process of foreign language learning at all levels. Among numerous FLA sources identified in the literature, language classroom seems to be of particular interest and significance, especially in the formal language learning context, where the course and the teacher are often the only representatives of language. The main purpose of the study is to determine the presence and potential sources of foreign language anxiety among first year university students and to explore how high anxiety levels shape and affect students’ foreign language learning experience. In the study both the questionnaire and the interviews were used as the data collection methods. Thematic analysis of the interviews and descriptive statistics suggest that most anxiety-provoking situations stem from the language classroom itself.

  7. The ability of IgY to recognize surface proteins of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri A. Gani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus mutans are gram positive bacteria classified into viridians group, and have a role in pathogenesis of dental caries. It’s adhesion to the tooth surface is mediated by cell surface proteins, which interact with specific receptor located in tooth pellicle. Glucan binding protein, Glukosyltransferase, and antigen I/II are basic proteins of S. mutans, which have a role in initiating the interaction. A previous study showed that chicken’s IgY can interfere the interaction. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of IgY in recognizing the surface molecule of Streptococcus mutans expressed by various serotypes (c, d, e, f and a strain derived from IPB, Bogor. Method: Western blot was used as a method to determine such capability. Result: The result showed that IgY has a potency to recognize antigen I/II, but not the other proteins on the cell surface of all bacteria tested. Conclusion: The ability of IgY to bind the surface protein, antigen I/II, indicates that this avian antibody could be used as a candidate for anti-adhesion in preventing dental caries.

  8. Genetic and antigenic characterization of Bungowannah virus, a novel pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, P D; Frost, M J; King, K R; Finlaison, D S; Hornitzky, C L; Gu, X; Richter, M; Reimann, I; Dauber, M; Schirrmeier, H; Beer, M; Ridpath, J F

    2015-08-05

    Bungowannah virus, a possible new species within the genus Pestivirus, has been associated with a disease syndrome in pigs characterized by myocarditis with a high incidence of stillbirths. The current analysis of the whole-genome and antigenic properties of this virus confirms its unique identity, and further suggests that this virus is both genetically and antigenically remote from previously recognized pestiviruses. There was no evidence of reactivity with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are generally considered to be pan-reactive with other viruses in the genus, and there was little cross reactivity with polyclonal sera. Subsequently, a set of novel mAbs has been generated which allow detection of Bungowannah virus. The combined data provide convincing evidence that Bungowannah virus is a member of the genus Pestivirus and should be officially recognized as a novel virus species. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An MHC-restricted antibody-based chimeric antigen receptor requires TCR-like affinity to maintain antigen specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela V Maus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs are synthetic receptors that usually redirect T cells to surface antigens independent of human leukocyte antigen (HLA. Here, we investigated a T cell receptor-like CAR based on an antibody that recognizes HLA-A*0201 presenting a peptide epitope derived from the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1. We hypothesized that this CAR would efficiently redirect transduced T cells in an HLA-restricted, antigen-specific manner. However, we found that despite the specificity of the soluble Fab, the same antibody in the form of a CAR caused moderate lysis of HLA-A2 expressing targets independent of antigen owing to T cell avidity. We hypothesized that lowering the affinity of the CAR for HLA-A2 would improve its specificity. We undertook a rational approach of mutating residues that, in the crystal structure, were predicted to stabilize binding to HLA-A2. We found that one mutation (DN lowered the affinity of the Fab to T cell receptor-range and restored the epitope specificity of the CAR. DN CAR T cells lysed native tumor targets in vitro, and, in a xenogeneic mouse model implanted with two human melanoma lines (A2+/NYESO+ and A2+/NYESO−, DN CAR T cells specifically migrated to, and delayed progression of, only the HLA-A2+/NY-ESO-1+ melanoma. Thus, although maintaining MHC-restricted antigen specificity required T cell receptor-like affinity that decreased potency, there is exciting potential for CARs to expand their repertoire to include a broad range of intracellular antigens.

  10. FOREIGN CURRENCY RISK HEDGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela SUDACEVSCHI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the traditional types of exchange rate risk faced by firms and some of principal methods of exchange risk management that a company which make foreign currency operations can use. Foreign currency risk management involves both assessing the risk faced by the companies and adopting measures for the risk hedging or reduce the damage it may cause. The damages result from the company’s unfavorable difference between the exchange rates of the currencies in which the transactions are made.

  11. Foreign Security Force Advisor Training, Doctrine, and Manning for 2015 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    physical and metaphysical environment, and ways to mitigate stressors.  Social Perspective Taking 2 hour class—Gain an understanding of how a foreign...Recognize Cultural Stress 1 hour class—Recognizing stressors in a physical and metaphysical environment, and ways to mitigate stressors. Don’t Recall N

  12. Proctalgia fugax: would you recognize it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, R R

    1996-04-01

    Proctalgia fugax is characterized by sudden and sometimes severe rectal pain that occurs by day or night at irregular intervals. The pain results from dysfunction of the internal anal sphincter. Proctalgia fugax has a uniform clinical picture, and it can be easily diagnosed when recognized. The patient can be assured that nothing serious is wrong. Expensive tests, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis, are not required. Treatment may be difficult, but if the attacks of pain are numerous and severe,, a calcium channel blocker such as nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia) should be tried.

  13. Expression of antigen tf and galectin-3 in fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Itandehui Belem; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Martinez, Margarito; Mayoral, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Laura; Aguilar, Sergio; Zenteno, Edgar; Pina, Maria del Socorro; Hernández, Pedro

    2012-12-24

    Fibroadenomas are benign human breast tumors, characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stromal components of the terminal ductal unit. They may grow, regress or remain unchanged, as the hormonal environment of the patient changes. Expression of antigen TF in mucin or mucin-type glycoproteins and of galectin-3 seems to contribute to proliferation and transformations events; their expression has been reported in ductal breast cancer and in aggressive tumors. Lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to examine the expression and distribution of antigen TF and galectin-3. We used lectins from Arachis hypogaea, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Amaranthus lecuocarpus to evaluate TF expression and a monoclonal antibody to evaluate galectin-3 expression. We used paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 breast tissues diagnosed with fibroadenoma and as control 10 healthy tissue samples. Histochemical and immunofluorescence analysis showed positive expression of galectin-3 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in stroma, weak interaction in ducts was observed; whereas, in healthy tissue samples the staining was also weak in ducts. Lectins from A. leucocarpus and A. integrifolia specificaly recognized ducts in healthy breast samples, whereas the lectin from A. hypogaea recognized ducts and stroma. In fibroadenoma tissue, the lectins from A. integrifolia, A. Hypogaea, and A. leucocarpus recognized mainly ducts. Our results suggest that expression of antigen TF and galectin-3 seems to participate in fibroadenoma development.

  14. Expression of antigen tf and galectin-3 in fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallegos Itandehui Belem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroadenomas are benign human breast tumors, characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stromal components of the terminal ductal unit. They may grow, regress or remain unchanged, as the hormonal environment of the patient changes. Expression of antigen TF in mucin or mucin-type glycoproteins and of galectin-3 seems to contribute to proliferation and transformations events; their expression has been reported in ductal breast cancer and in aggressive tumors. Findings Lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to examine the expression and distribution of antigen TF and galectin-3. We used lectins from Arachis hypogaea, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Amaranthus lecuocarpus to evaluate TF expression and a monoclonal antibody to evaluate galectin-3 expression. We used paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 breast tissues diagnosed with fibroadenoma and as control 10 healthy tissue samples. Histochemical and immunofluorescence analysis showed positive expression of galectin-3 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in stroma, weak interaction in ducts was observed; whereas, in healthy tissue samples the staining was also weak in ducts. Lectins from A. leucocarpus and A. integrifolia specificaly recognized ducts in healthy breast samples, whereas the lectin from A. hypogaea recognized ducts and stroma. In fibroadenoma tissue, the lectins from A. integrifolia, A. Hypogaea, and A. leucocarpus recognized mainly ducts. Conclusions Our results suggest that expression of antigen TF and galectin-3 seems to participate in fibroadenoma development.

  15. Ants recognize foes and not friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Fernando J.; Nehring, Volker; Jørgensen, Charlotte G.; Nielsen, John; Galizia, C. Giovanni; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Discriminating among individuals and rejecting non-group members is essential for the evolution and stability of animal societies. Ants are good models for studying recognition mechanisms, because they are typically very efficient in discriminating ‘friends’ (nest-mates) from ‘foes’ (non-nest-mates). Recognition in ants involves multicomponent cues encoded in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Here, we tested whether workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus use the presence and/or absence of cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate between nest-mates and non-nest-mates. We supplemented the cuticular profile with synthetic hydrocarbons mixed to liquid food and then assessed behavioural responses using two different bioassays. Our results show that (i) the presence, but not the absence, of an additional hydrocarbon elicited aggression and that (ii) among the three classes of hydrocarbons tested (unbranched, mono-methylated and dimethylated alkanes; for mono-methylated alkanes, we present a new synthetic pathway), only the dimethylated alkane was effective in eliciting aggression. Our results suggest that carpenter ants use a fundamentally different mechanism for nest-mate recognition than previously thought. They do not specifically recognize nest-mates, but rather recognize and reject non-nest-mates bearing odour cues that are novel to their own colony cuticular hydrocarbon profile. This begs for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying recognition systems in social insects. PMID:19364750

  16. Radioimmunoassays of hidden viral antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.; Baker, L.; Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Antigens corresponding to infectious agents may be present in biological specimens only in a cryptic form bound to antibodies and, thus, may elude detection. We describe a solid-phase technique for separation of antigens from antibodies. Immune complexes are precipitated from serum by polyethylene glycol, dissociated with NaSCN, and adsorbed onto nitrocellulose or polystyrene supports. Antigens remain topographically separated from antibodies after removal of NaSCN and can be detected with radiolabeled antibodies. Genomes from viruses immobilized on nitrocellulose can be identified by nucleic acid hybridization. Nanogram quantities of sequestered hepatitis B surface and core antigens and picogram amounts of hepatitis B virus DNA were detected. Antibody-bound adenovirus, herpesvirus, and measles virus antigens were discerned by the procedure

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects by probing the wound. Additional tests ... prevent a potentially deadly infection of the nervous system. In some ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding ...

  18. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; R. Markusen, James

    2013-01-01

    Three types of theories have been used to explain the wage premium in foreign firms: the theories of heterogeneous workers, heterogeneous learning, and heterogeneous firms. We set up a model that explicitly encompasses two of these theories, and that can illustrate the third. This unifying...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... levels of sedative and anesthetic. Ultrasound may be used to guide the foreign body removal procedure. After you are positioned on the examination table, the radiologist or sonographer will apply some warm water-based gel on your skin and then place ...

  20. Danish foreign fighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Chris Holmsted

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is, through a comparative historical perspective, to analyse the particular phenomenon of foreign fighters, which in recent years, as a consequence of the proliferation of conflicts in Syria, Iraq and Ukraine, have emerged in Danish society as a major security concern...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... endoscopic or surgical intervention is required only 10 to 20 percent of the time. Evaluation and treatment will depend on the type ... to view the surgical instrument as it advances to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects ...

  2. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... advances to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects ... perform surgery using ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding removal procedures. In some cases, it is potentially more harmful to ...

  3. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and push the object farther down. In some cases, prompt removal of the foreign body is necessary. Common procedures include: Flexible esophagoscopy Flexible esophagoscopy is a common diagnostic examination that enables a safe and detailed visual study of the esophagus while the patient is under ...

  4. Foreign language interactive didactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Moisés Gómez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Language Interactive Didactics is intended for foreign language teachers and would-be teachers since it is an interpretation of the foreign language teaching-learning process is conceived from a reflexive social interaction. This interpretation declares learning based on interactive tasks that provide learners with opportunities to interact meaningfully among them, as a way to develop interactional competence as objective in itself and as a means to obtain communicative competence. Foreign language interactive didactics claims for the unity of reflection and action while learning the language system and using it to communicate, by means of solving problems presented in interactive tasks. It proposes a kind of teaching that is interactive, developmental, collaborative, holist, cognitive, problematizing, reflexive, student centered, humanist, and with a strong affective component that empower the influencing psychological factors in learning. This conception appears in the book: DIDÁCTICA INTERACTIVA DE LENGUAS (2007 y 2010. The book is used as a textbook for the subject of Didactics that is part of the curriculum in language teachers’ formation of all the pedagogical sciences universities, in Spanish teachers’ formation who are not Spanish speaking people at Havana University, and also as a reference book for postgraduate courses, master’s and doctorate’ s degrees.

  5. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sound waves), as well as the type of body structure and composition of body tissue through which the sound travels. A small ... complications. There is always a slight chance of cancer from excessive exposure ... limitations of foreign body detection and removal? The primary limitation of an ...

  6. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Foreign Body Retrieval Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ... links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo.org , ACR ...

  7. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... so as not to expose the fetus to radiation. If an x-ray is necessary, precautions will be taken to minimize ... Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. If the foreign body is lodged in a ...

  8. Parliaments and Foreign Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.M.; Haney, Patrick; Harnisch, Sebastian; Kaarbo, Juliet; Oppermann, Kai; Tago, Atsushi

    Parliaments differ enormously in their foreign policy competences. This is best documented in the area of “war powers,” understood as decision-making on the use of force. In other issue areas, such as treaty-making, defense budgets, sanctions, or arms exports, differences across countries are far

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the type of foreign body and how it was introduced. If it was swallowed, you may undergo a direct examination ... and esophagus or an x-ray examination. If it is lodged in a soft tissue, such as ...

  10. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of it. Esophageal bougienage For this procedure, you will sit upright while the physician passes a device from the mouth to the stomach that helps dilate, or widen, the esophagus. This helps advance the foreign body into the stomach, from where ...

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding removal procedures. In some cases, it is potentially more harmful to remove the ... provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding foreign body removal ... rare cases, the general anesthesia used during rigid esophagoscopy can ...

  12. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by a computer, which in turn creates a real-time picture on the monitor. One or more frames ... to the location of the foreign object in real-time. Your physician also may locate soft-tissue objects ...

  13. Antigen Availability Shapes T Cell Differentiation and Function during Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguche, Albanus O; Musvosvi, Munyaradzi; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Plumlee, Courtney R; Mearns, Helen; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Smit, Erica; Abrahams, Deborah; Rozot, Virginie; Dintwe, One; Hoff, Søren T; Kromann, Ingrid; Ruhwald, Morten; Bang, Peter; Larson, Ryan P; Shafiani, Shahin; Ma, Shuyi; Sherman, David R; Sette, Alessandro; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S; McKinney, Denise M; Maecker, Holden; Hanekom, Willem A; Hatherill, Mark; Andersen, Peter; Scriba, Thomas J; Urdahl, Kevin B

    2017-06-14

    CD4 T cells are critical for protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the cause of tuberculosis (TB). Yet to date, TB vaccine candidates that boost antigen-specific CD4 T cells have conferred little or no protection. Here we examined CD4 T cell responses to two leading TB vaccine antigens, ESAT-6 and Ag85B, in Mtb-infected mice and in vaccinated humans with and without underlying Mtb infection. In both species, Mtb infection drove ESAT-6-specific T cells to be more differentiated than Ag85B-specific T cells. The ability of each T cell population to control Mtb in the lungs of mice was restricted for opposite reasons: Ag85B-specific T cells were limited by reduced antigen expression during persistent infection, whereas ESAT-6-specific T cells became functionally exhausted due to chronic antigenic stimulation. Our findings suggest that different vaccination strategies will be required to optimize protection mediated by T cells recognizing antigens expressed at distinct stages of Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Foreign Objects in the Rectum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse (See ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse NOTE: ...

  15. Phase variable O antigen biosynthetic genes control expression of the major protective antigen and bacteriophage receptor in Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley D Seed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide O1 antigen is a major target of bacteriophages and the human immune system and is of critical importance for vaccine design. We used an O1-specific lytic bacteriophage as a tool to probe the capacity of V. cholerae to alter its O1 antigen and identified a novel mechanism by which this organism can modulate O antigen expression and exhibit intra-strain heterogeneity. We identified two phase variable genes required for O1 antigen biosynthesis, manA and wbeL. manA resides outside of the previously recognized O1 antigen biosynthetic locus, and encodes for a phosphomannose isomerase critical for the initial step in O1 antigen biosynthesis. We determined that manA and wbeL phase variants are attenuated for virulence, providing functional evidence to further support the critical role of the O1 antigen for infectivity. We provide the first report of phase variation modulating O1 antigen expression in V. cholerae, and show that the maintenance of these phase variable loci is an important means by which this facultative pathogen can generate the diverse subpopulations of cells needed for infecting the host intestinal tract and for escaping predation by an O1-specific phage.

  16. Recognizing limitations in eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Drunen, G.; Cecco, V.S.

    1981-11-01

    This paper addresses known limitations and constraints in eddy current nondestructive testing. Incomplete appreciation for eddy current limitations is believed to have contributed to both under-utilization and misapplication of the technique. Neither situation need arise if known limitations are recognized. Some, such as the skin depth effect, are inherent to electromagnetic test methods and define the role of eddy current testing. Others can be overcome with available technology such as surface probes to find circumferential cracks in tubes and magnetic saturation of ferromagnetic alloys to eliminate permeability effects. The variables responsible for limitations in eddy current testing are discussed and where alternative approaches exist, these are presented. Areas with potential for further research and development are also identified

  17. Foreign Investment Boosts Rural Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasmeier, Amy; Glickman, Norman

    1990-01-01

    Through 1987, 10 percent of foreign investment was in nonmetro counties; 44 percent of this was in the South; and 38 percent of nonmetro foreign investment created new jobs (versus 17 percent in metro areas). Foreign investors chose nonmetro areas with low wages, lack of unionization history, good transportation access, and government incentives.…

  18. How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Lisa; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Hempel, Susanne; Danz, Margie; Salem-Schatz, Susanne; Foy, Robbie; O'Neill, Sean; Dalal, Siddhartha; Shekelle, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods are foundational approaches to improving healthcare delivery. Publications using the term CQI, however, are methodologically heterogeneous, and labels other than CQI are used to signify relevant approaches. Standards for identifying the use of CQI based on its key methodological features could enable more effective learning across quality improvement (QI) efforts. The objective was to identify essential methodological features for recognizing CQI. Previous work with a 12-member international expert panel identified reliably abstracted CQI methodological features. We tested which features met rigorous a priori standards as essential features of CQI using a three-phase online modified-Delphi process. Primarily United States and Canada. 119 QI experts randomly assigned into four on-line panels. Participants rated CQI features and discussed their answers using online, anonymous and asynchronous discussion boards. We analyzed ratings quantitatively and discussion threads qualitatively. Main outcome measure(s) Panel consensus on definitional CQI features. /st> Seventy-nine (66%) panelists completed the process. Thirty-three completers self-identified as QI researchers, 18 as QI practitioners and 28 as both equally. The features 'systematic data guided activities,' 'designing with local conditions in mind' and 'iterative development and testing' met a priori standards as essential CQI features. Qualitative analyses showed cross-cutting themes focused on differences between QI and CQI. We found consensus among a broad group of CQI researchers and practitioners on three features as essential for identifying QI work more specifically as 'CQI.' All three features are needed as a minimum standard for recognizing CQI methods.

  19. Glycosylation of the self-recognizing Escherichia coli Ag43 autotransporter protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherlock, O.; Dobrindt, U.; Jensen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    a novel member to this exclusive group, namely, antigen 43 (Ag43), a self-recognizing autotransporter protein. By mass spectrometry Ag43 was demonstrated to be glycosylated by addition of heptose residues at several positions in the passenger domain. Glycosylation of Ag43 by the action of the Aah and Tib......C glycosyltransferases was observed in laboratory strains. Importantly, Ag43 was also found to be glycosylated in a wild-type strain, suggesting that Ag43-glycosylation may be a widespread phenomenon. Glycosylation of Ag43 does not seem to interfere with its self-associating properties. However, the glycosylated form...

  20. Foreign bodies in the lactant airway, Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango L, Magnolia

    1999-01-01

    We report the case of a lactant who aspired (popcorn) fragments of popcorn into his airway. Immediately the patient developed respiratory difficulty, he was remitted to a specialized hospital until 72 hours after. In this hospital the fragments of popcorn were removed by bronchoscopic procedure with posterior improvement. The aspiration of foreign bodies into the airway is a frequent accident in the early childhood. The clinical picture may be confounded specially with asthma attacks or simple acute respiratory infections. It is very important to recognize this condition because of the foreign bodies can cause severe complications and sequels, and occasionally the death

  1. COLONOSCOPY AND CARCINOEMBRYONIC ANTIGEN VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita G SOUSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  2. Foreign Remittances, Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Imports and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This empirical research paper focuses on establishing a relationship between external determinants and economic growth of Pakistan economy. Empirical analyses are carried out with time series econometric techniques using data over the period of 1977-2013. The main finding is that external determinants such as foreign remittances, foreign direct investment, and foreign imports matter from a growth perspective. Foreign remittances and foreign direct investment have a significant positive role in the growth process of Pakistan economy. Furthermore, it is found that foreign imports have adversely influenced the economic growth of Pakistan. The study recommends that policy makers shall take appropriate steps to increase the inflow of both foreign remittances and foreign direct investment in order to achieve the long run economic growth.

  3. Antigenic profile and localization of Clonorchis sinensis proteins in the course of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Yun; Song, Kye-Yong; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kang, Shin-Yong

    2001-01-01

    In the course of Clonorchis sinensis infection, antigens presented to the hosts may be in a close relation to growth of the fluke. The antigenic proteins stimulating IgG antibody production were chronologically identified by immunoblot and localized by immunohistochemical staining. In the early stage of infection until 12 weeks post-infection (PI), antigens were proteins with molecular mass larger than 34 kDa which were derived from the tegument, testes and intrauterine eggs. After 20 weeks PI, antigens recognized were 29, 27 and 26 kDa proteins from the intestine, excretory bladder and reproductive organs. It is suggested that the tegumental proteins are the most potent antigens and the excretory-secretory proteins with middle molecular mass of 26-45 kDa contribute to the high level production of antibodies after 20 weeks of the C. sinensis infection. PMID:11775331

  4. The antibody response to well-defined malaria antigens after acute malaria in individuals living under continuous malaria transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E; Høgh, B; Dziegiel, M

    1992-01-01

    , and a synthetic peptide (EENV)6 representing the C-terminal repeats from Pf155/RESA, were investigated longitudinally in 13 children and 7 adults living under conditions of continuous, intense malaria transmission. Some subjects did not recognize the antigens after malaria infection, and in subjects recognizing...... elicited by natural malaria infection in previously primed donors....

  5. Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify Japanese attitudes towards foreign languages based on the kinds and changes of TV and radio programs that aired on the Japanese national broadcasting station (NHK) between 1955 and 2000. Foreign language programs are classified into three groups according to their content: 1) cultivation, 2) education, or 3) communication. For Japanese people, foreign languages are the measures of intelligence and intellect. Studying a foreign language is considered a sign of intelligence whether or not it is used for actual communication. The number of foreign language programs has increased tremendously since 1965 in part because the global economy has brought many countries in such close contact. Since 1990, programs for the purpose of communication have increased because of the necessity to communicate with foreign people. Japanese attitudes towards studying foreign languages have been changing gradually from an intellectual purpose to a communication purpose.

  6. Acanthocheilonema viteae: Vaccination of jirds with irradiation-attenuated stage-3 larvae and with exported larval antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucius, R.; Textor, G.; Kern, A.; Kirsten, C.

    1991-01-01

    Jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) were immunized with irradiated (35 krad) stage-3 larvae (L3) of Acanthocheilonema viteae. The induced resistance against homologous challenge infection and the antibody response of the animals were studied. Immunization with 3, 2, or 1 dose of 50 irradiated L3 induced approximately 90% resistance. Immunization with a single dose of only 5 irradiated L3 resulted in 60.8% protection while immunization with a single dose of 25 L3 induced 94.1% protection. The protection induced with 3 doses of 50 irradiated L3 did not decrease significantly during a period of 6 months. Sera of a proportion, but not all resistant jirds, contained antibodies against the surface of vector derived L3 as defined by IFAT. No surface antigens of microfilariae or adult worms were recognized by the sera. Vaccinated animals had antibody responses against antigens in the inner organs of L3 and in the cuticle and reproductive organs of adult worms as shown by IFAT. Immunoblotting with SDS-PAGE-separated L3 antigens and L3-CSN revealed that all sera contained antibodies against two exported antigens of 205 and 68 kDa, and against a nonexported antigen of 18 kDa. The 205-kDa antigen easily degraded into fragments of 165, 140, 125, and 105 kDa which were recognized by resistant jird sera. Various antigens of adult worms, but relatively few antigens of microfilariae, were also recognized. To test the relevance of exported antigens of L3 to resistance, jirds were immunized with L3-CSN together with a mild adjuvant. This immunization induced 67.7% resistance against challenge infection and sera of the immunized animals recognized the 205- and 68-kDa antigens of L3

  7. A human cytochrome P-450 is recognized by anti-liver/kidney microsome antibodies in autoimmune chronic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffel, L; Loeper, J; Homberg, J C; Leroux, J P

    1989-02-28

    1- Anti-liver/kidney microsome autoantibodies type 1 (anti-LKM1), observed in some children with chronic active hepatitis, were used to isolate their antigen in human liver microsomes. A protein, called P-LKM1 was thus purified. This protein was recognized by a rabbit antiserum directed against the related human cytochromes P-450 bufI and P-450 bufII. 2- A human liver microsomal protein immunoprecipitated with anti-LKM1 sera was also recognized by anti cytochromes P-450 bufI/II antibodies. 3- Anti-LKM1 antibodies potently inhibited microsomal bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation. These results displayed the possible identity between cytochrome P-450 bufI/II and LKM1 antigen.

  8. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  9. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  10. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Development of NATO's recognized environmental picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad

    2006-05-01

    An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.

  12. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  13. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  14. Recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Tuan Hue; Wang, Li; Ye, Ning; Zhang, Jian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-12

    Vision-based surveillance and monitoring is a potential alternative for early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks in urban areas complementing molecular diagnostics and hospital and doctor visit-based alert systems. Visible actions representing typical flu-like symptoms include sneeze and cough that are associated with changing patterns of hand to head distances, among others. The technical difficulties lie in the high complexity and large variation of those actions as well as numerous similar background actions such as scratching head, cell phone use, eating, drinking and so on. In this paper, we make a first attempt at the challenging problem of recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos. Since there was no related dataset available, we created a new public health dataset for action recognition that includes two major flu-like symptom related actions (sneeze and cough) and a number of background actions. We also developed a suitable novel algorithm by introducing two types of Action Matching Kernels, where both types aim to integrate two aspects of local features, namely the space-time layout and the Bag-of-Words representations. In particular, we show that the Pyramid Match Kernel and Spatial Pyramid Matching are both special cases of our proposed kernels. Besides experimenting on standard testbed, the proposed algorithm is evaluated also on the new sneeze and cough set. Empirically, we observe that our approach achieves competitive performance compared to the state-of-the-arts, while recognition on the new public health dataset is shown to be a non-trivial task even with simple single person unobstructed view. Our sneeze and cough video dataset and newly developed action recognition algorithm is the first of its kind and aims to kick-start the field of action recognition of flu-like symptoms from videos. It will be challenging but necessary in future developments to consider more complex real-life scenario of detecting these actions simultaneously from

  15. Can a CNN recognize Catalan diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, P.; Bolaños, M.; Radeva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, we can find several diseases related to the unhealthy diet habits of the population, such as diabetes, obesity, anemia, bulimia and anorexia. In many cases, these diseases are related to the food consumption of people. Mediterranean diet is scientifically known as a healthy diet that helps to prevent many metabolic diseases. In particular, our work focuses on the recognition of Mediterranean food and dishes. The development of this methodology would allow to analise the daily habits of users with wearable cameras, within the topic of lifelogging. By using automatic mechanisms we could build an objective tool for the analysis of the patient's behavior, allowing specialists to discover unhealthy food patterns and understand the user's lifestyle. With the aim to automatically recognize a complete diet, we introduce a challenging multi-labeled dataset related to Mediter-ranean diet called FoodCAT. The first type of label provided consists of 115 food classes with an average of 400 images per dish, and the second one consists of 12 food categories with an average of 3800 pictures per class. This dataset will serve as a basis for the development of automatic diet recognition. In this context, deep learning and more specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), currently are state-of-the-art methods for automatic food recognition. In our work, we compare several architectures for image classification, with the purpose of diet recognition. Applying the best model for recognising food categories, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 72.29%, and top-5 of 97.07%. In a complete diet recognition of dishes from Mediterranean diet, enlarged with the Food-101 dataset for international dishes recognition, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 68.07%, and top-5 of 89.53%, for a total of 115+101 food classes.

  16. Anvendelse af prostataspecifikt antigen. En oversigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Skaarup, P; Roosen, Jens Ulrik

    1998-01-01

    Since it was first introduced, measurement of prostate specific antigen has gained increasing interest, and prostate specific antigen is regarded as being the best tumour marker available. The antigen lacks cancer specificity, limiting the usefulness in early diagnosis, The use of prostate specific...... antigen in early diagnosis, staging, and in monitoring patients with prostate cancer is reviewed....

  17. North American Foreign Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Noonan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  18. Family involvement and firms’ establishment mode choice in foreign markets

    OpenAIRE

    Boellis, Andrea; Mariotti, Sergio; Minichilli, Alessandro; Piscitello, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Extant literature on foreign entry increasingly recognizes firms’ heterogeneity as a potential reason for inconsistency in results on the establishment mode choice, that is, whether and under which conditions firms should choose to enter a new country through a greenfield investment or an acquisition. Our study contributes to this debate by identifying family ownership and family involvement in management as potential powerful sources of such heterogeneity. Integrating international business ...

  19. Lexical retrieval stages of momentarily inaccessible foreign language words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ecke

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of foreign language (FL vocabulary involves two aspects: (1 learning to recognize a word’s meaning, and (2 becoming able to retrieve or produce the word’s form in speech production. The second aspect usually takes more time and practice to be developed. While learners may have no problem understanding a FL word’s meaning, they frequently are unable to recall the word when necessary.

  20. The Role of Multiscale Protein Dynamics in Antigen Presentation and T Lymphocyte Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Charlotte Eccleston

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes are stimulated when they recognize short peptides bound to class I proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC protein, as peptide–MHC complexes. Due to the diversity in T-cell receptor (TCR molecules together with both the peptides and MHC proteins they bind to, it has been difficult to design vaccines and treatments based on these interactions. Machine learning has made some progress in trying to predict the immunogenicity of peptide sequences in the context of specific MHC class I alleles but, as such approaches cannot integrate temporal information and lack explanatory power, their scope will always be limited. Here, we advocate a mechanistic description of antigen presentation and TCR activation which is explanatory, predictive, and quantitative, drawing on modeling approaches that collectively span several length and time scales, being capable of furnishing reliable biological descriptions that are difficult for experimentalists to provide. It is a form of multiscale systems biology. We propose the use of chemical rate equations to describe the time evolution of the foreign and host proteins to explain how the original proteins end up being presented on the cell surface as peptide fragments, while we invoke molecular dynamics to describe the key binding processes on the molecular level, including those of peptide–MHC complexes with TCRs which lie at the heart of the immune response. On each level, complementary methods based on machine learning are available, and we discuss the relationship between these divergent approaches. The pursuit of predictive mechanistic modeling approaches requires experimentalists to adapt their work so as to acquire, store, and expose data that can be used to verify and validate such models.

  1. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  2. Antigen recognition by cloned cytotoxic T lymphocytes follows rules predicted by the altered-self hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huenig, T.R.; Bevan, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation chimeras prepared by injecting H-2 heterozygous F1 stem cells into lethally irradiated parental hosts show a marked, but not absolute, preference for host-type H-2 antigens in the H-2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to minor histocompatibility (minor H) antigens. We have selected for the anti-minor HCTL that are restricted to the parental H-2 type absent from the chimeric host and found that in two out of eight cases, such CTL lysed target cells of either parental H-2 type. From one of these CTL populations that lysed H-2d and H-2k target cells expressing BALB minor H antigens, clones were derived and further analyzed. The results showed that: (a) lysis of both H-2d and H-2k target cells was H-2 restricted; (b) H-2d restriction mapped to Dd, and H-2k restriction mapped to Kk; (c) testing against various H-2d and H-2k strains of different and partially overlapping minor H backgrounds as well as against the appropriate F1 crosses revealed that in Dd- and Kk-restricted killing, different minor H antigens were recognized. In a second system, a CTL population was selected from normal (H-2d x H-2k)F1 mice that was specific for H-2d plus minor H antigens and for H-2k plus trinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin. We interpret these findings in terms of the altered-self hypothesis: The association of one H-2 antigen with one conventional antigen X may be recognized by the same T cell receptor specific for the complex formed by a different H-2 antigen in association with a second conventional antigen Y. The implications of these observations for the influence of self H-2 on the generation of the T cell receptor repertoire are discussed

  3. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  4. Why foreign firms forsake franchises

    OpenAIRE

    Blajina, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article is devoted to the problem of franchising in Russia. The article informs about difficulties, which face foreign companies developing their business in our country. Doing business in franchising foreign companies have to overcome some challenges such as: obtain a credit, unpredictability of the economy and so on. But in spite of all these difficulties many foreign companies and Russian ones set up franchising in Russia and promote themselves at the Russian market, but never the les...

  5. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition of HLA-A/B antigens introduced into EL4 cells by cell-liposome fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, V H; Powers, G A; Moore, L C; Holterman, M J; Correa-Freire, M C

    1984-01-01

    HLA-A2 and -B7 antigens were introduced into EL4 (H-2b) cells by cell-liposome fusion and were used as targets or stimulators for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) generated in C57B1/6 (H-2b) mice. It was found that such EL4-HLA cells were not recognized by CTL that had been raised against either a human cell line bearing these HLA antigens or the purified HLA-A2 and -B7 antigens reconstituted into liposomes. In addition, EL4-HLA cells were not capable of inducing CTL that could recognize a human cell line bearing HLA-A2 and -B7 antigens. Instead, EL4-HLA cells induced CTL that specifically lysed EL4-HLA cells and not human cells expressing HLA-A2 and -B7. CTL recognition required the presence of HLA antigens on the EL4 cell surface and was inhibited by antibodies against either H-2b or HLA-A/B. Monoclonal antibody binding studies showed that the expected polymorphic determinants of the HLA-A2 and -B7 antigens were still present on EL4-HLA cells. However, the specificity of CTL or their precursors that are capable of recognizing HLA-A2 or -B7 was altered after these antigens became associated with the EL4 surface. Possible explanations for these results are discussed.

  6. Chemoselective ligation and antigen vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-01-01

    The interest in cocktail-lipopeptide vaccines has now been confirmed by phase I clinical trials: highly diversified B-, T-helper or cytotoxic T-cell epitopes can be combined with a lipophilic vector for the induction of B- and T-cell responses of predetermined specificity. With the goal of producing an improved vaccine that should ideally induce a multispecific response in non-selected populations, increasing the diversity of the immunizing mixture represents one of the most obvious strategies.The selective delivery of antigens to professional antigen-presenting cells represents another promising approach for the improvement of vaccine efficacy. In this context, the mannose-receptor represents an attractive entry point for the targeting to dendritic cells of antigens linked to clustered glycosides or glycomimetics. In all cases, highly complex but fully characterized molecules must be produced. To develop a modular and flexible strategy which could be generally applicable to a large set of peptide antigens, we elected to explore the potentialities of chemoselective ligation methods. The hydrazone bond was found particularly reliable and fully compatible with sulphide ligation. Hydrazone/thioether orthogonal ligation systems could be developed to account for the nature of the antigens and the solubility of the vector systems. Copyright 2001 The International Association for Biologicals.

  7. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  8. Global health and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health.

  9. 19-DEJ-1, a hemidesmosome-anchoring filament complex-associated monoclonal antibody. Definition of a new skin basement membrane antigenic defect in junctional and dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fine, J D; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (19-DEJ-1) was recently produced that recognizes a unique antigenic epitope of human skin basement membrane localized to the midlamina lucida exclusively in those areas bordered by overlying hemidesmosomes. To determine whether the antigen defined by 19-DEJ-1 is norma...

  10. Vector Development for the Expression of Foreign Proteins in the Vaccine Strain Brucella abortus S19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerci, Diego J.; Pollevick, Guido D.; Vigliocco, Ana M.; Frasch, Alberto C. C.; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    1998-01-01

    A vector for the expression of foreign antigens in the vaccine strain Brucella abortus S19 was developed by using a DNA fragment containing the regulatory sequences and the signal peptide of the Brucella bcsp31 gene. This fragment was cloned in broad-host-range plasmid pBBR4MCS, resulting in plasmid pBEV. As a reporter protein, a repetitive antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi was used. The recombinant fusion protein is stably expressed and secreted into the Brucella periplasmic space, inducing a good antibody response against the T. cruzi antigen. The expression of the repetitive antigen in Brucella neither altered its growth pattern nor generated a toxic or lethal effect during experimental infection. The application of this strategy for the generation of live recombinant vaccines and the tagging of B. abortus S19 vaccine is discussed. This is the first time that a recombinant protein has been expressed in the periplasm of brucellae. PMID:9673273

  11. Antigen presentation by resting B cells. Radiosensitivity of the antigen-presentation function and two distinct pathways of T cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwell, J.D.; DeFranco, A.L.; Paul, W.E.; Schwartz, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    In this report we have examined the ability of small resting B cells to act as antigen-presenting cells (APC) to antigen-specific MHC-restricted T cells as assessed by either T cell proliferation or T cell-dependent B cell stimulation. We found that 10 of 14 in vitro antigen-specific MHC-restricted T cell clones and lines and three of four T cell hybridomas could be induced to either proliferate or secrete IL-2 in the presence of lightly irradiated (1,000 rads) purified B cells and the appropriate foreign antigen. All T cell lines and hybridomas were stimulated to proliferate or make IL-2 by macrophage- and dendritic cell-enriched populations and all T cells tested except one hybridoma caused B cell activation when stimulated with B cells as APC. Furthermore, lightly irradiated, highly purified syngeneic B cells were as potent a source of APC for inducing B cell activation as were low density dendritic and macrophage-enriched cells. Lymph node T cells freshly taken from antigen-primed animals were also found to proliferate when cultured with purified B cells and the appropriate antigen. This APC function was easily measured when the cells were irradiated with 1,000 rads, but was greatly diminished or absent when they were irradiated with 3,300 rads. In addition, this radiosensitivity allowed us to easily distinguish B cell antigen presentation from presentation by the dendritic cell and macrophage, as the latter was resistant to 3,300 rads. Finally, one T cell clone that failed to proliferate when B cells were used as APC was able to recruit allogeneic B cells to proliferate in the presence of syngeneic B cells and the appropriate antigen. This result suggests that there are at least two distinct pathways of activation in T cells, one that leads to T cell proliferation and one that leads to the secretion of B cell recruitment factor(s)

  12. Glycan bioengineering in immunogen design for tumor T antigen immunotargeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sendra, Victor G; Zlocowski, Natacha; Ditamo, Yanina

    2009-01-01

    MM2 energy function showed that pentalysine (Lys5) linker and benzyl (Bzl) residue enhance TFD rigidity of the glycosidic bond. Antibodies raised against BzlalphaTFD-Lys5 immunogen recognize tumor T antigen. Competitive assays confirm that TFD-related structures are the main glycan epitope...... to the bioengineered glycoconjugate inhibited CT26 tumor cell proliferation and reduced tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model. These results show that TFD bioengineering is a useful immunogenic strategy with potential application in cancer therapy. The same approach can be extended to other glycan immunogens......Bioengineering of Galbeta3GalNAcalpha, known as Thomsen-Friedenreich disaccharide (TFD), is studied to promote glycan immunogenicity and immunotargeting to tumor T antigen (Galbeta3GalNAcalpha-O-Ser/Thr). Theoretical studies on disaccharide conformations by energy minimization of structures using...

  13. Rabies virus glycoprotein as a carrier for anthrax protective antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Mary Ellen; Koser, Martin; Xiao Sa; Siler, Catherine; McGettigan, James P.; Calkins, Catherine; Pomerantz, Roger J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2006-01-01

    Live viral vectors expressing foreign antigens have shown great promise as vaccines against viral diseases. However, safety concerns remain a major problem regarding the use of even highly attenuated viral vectors. Using the rabies virus (RV) envelope protein as a carrier molecule, we show here that inactivated RV particles can be utilized to present Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) domain-4 in the viral membrane. In addition to the RV glycoprotein (G) transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, a portion of the RV G ectodomain was required to express the chimeric RV G anthrax PA on the cell surface. The novel antigen was also efficiently incorporated into RV virions. Mice immunized with the inactivated recombinant RV virions exhibited seroconversion against both RV G and anthrax PA, and a second inoculation greatly increased these responses. These data demonstrate that a viral envelope protein can carry a bacterial protein and that a viral carrier can display whole polypeptides compared to the limited epitope presentation of previous viral systems

  14. Monoclonal antibody against a serotype antigen of Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) endodontalis and characteristics of the antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazawa, S; Sagiya, T; Amano, S; Nishikawa, H; Kitano, S

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of three serotypes (O1K1, O1K2, and O1K-) of Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) endodontalis. In the present study, a hybridoma cell line producing monoclonal antibody (BEE11) specific for serotype O1K1 of P. endodontalis was established. The specificity of the antibody was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoslot blot analysis. BEE11 antibody reacted with strains ATCC 35406, HG 400, and HG 421 of the bacterium. However, it did not react with HG 422 or HG 948. Also, the antibody did not react with any of the black-pigmented Bacteroides strains tested. Although the antibody reacted with total cell envelope and capsule materials, it did not do so with lipopolysaccharide. The antibody reacted with antigen material having a molecular mass of 110 kilodaltons (kDa), as judged from fractionation by Superose 12 prep gel chromatography. When the peak fraction from the Superose 12 column was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis, the reactivity was detected as a single band at an apparent molecular mass of about 52 kDa. The antigen material purified partially by high-performance liquid chromatography was sensitive to trypsin, V8 protease, and heating to 80 degrees C but not to neuraminidase. Therefore, the present study shows that BEE11 antibody recognizes a serotype antigen of P. endodontalis which may be a dimer consisting of monomers having molecular masses of approximately 52 kDa and sensitivity to proteases and heat. Images PMID:2370106

  15. Virtual Foreign Correspondence: Experimental Instructions in Digital Foreign News Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Oliver; Stalph, Florian; Steller, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Within a series of six qualitative studies over seven years, this research in instructing journalism students investigates whether or not covering foreign news from home via Internet technology can substitute foreign correspondents on-site to reduce costs. Co-orientation and decontextualization can be described as characteristic for virtual…

  16. 46 CFR 90.10-35 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 90.10-35 Section 90... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-35 Recognized classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other...

  17. Antigenic profile of human recombinant PrP: generation and chracterization of a versatile polyclonal antiserum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachsamanoglou, M.; Paspaltzis, I.; Petrakis, S.; Verghese-Nikolakaki, S.; Panagiotidis, C.H.; Voitlander, T.; Budka, H.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Sklaviadis, T.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the quality of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (Sal1) that was raised against mature human recombinant prion protein (rhuPrP). Epitope mapping demonstrated that the Sal1 antiserum recognized six to eight linear antigenic sites, depending on the animal species. The versatility of the

  18. Studies on antigenic and genomic properties of Brazilian rabies virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, R.; Batista, H.B.; Franco, A.C.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Roehe, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the recognized stability of rabies virus, differences among isolates from different species have been found. This work was carried out with the aim to identify antigenic and genomic differences in Brazilian rabies virus isolates and to verify whether such alterations would bear any

  19. Diagnosis of tuberculosis based on the two specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Pinxteren, L A; Ravn, P; Agger, E M

    2000-01-01

    (ESAT-6 and CFP10) in experimental animals as well as during natural infection in humans and cattle. Both antigens were frequently recognized in vivo and in vitro based on the induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and the ability to induce gamma interferon production by lymphocytes...

  20. Thyroid Autoantibodies Display both “Original Antigenic Sin” and Epitope Spreading

    OpenAIRE

    McLachlan, Sandra M.; Rapoport, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Evidence for original antigenic sin in spontaneous thyroid autoimmunity is revealed by autoantibody interactions with immunodominant regions on thyroid autoantigens, thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) A-subunit. In contrast, antibodies induced by immunization of rabbits or mice recognize diverse epitopes. Recognition of immunodominant regions persists despite fluctuations in autoantibody levels following treatment or over time. The enhancement of...

  1. The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Sánchez, Alicia; Jiménez, Lucía; Landa, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm) and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs) and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag) obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24 kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis. PMID:22253530

  2. The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Ochoa-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24 kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis.

  3. Glass Foreign Body Hand Radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ehsani-Nia, DO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 27-year-old female sustained an injury to her left hand after she tripped and fell on a vase. She presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of pain over the laceration. Upon examination, patient presented with multiple small abrasions of the medial aspect of the left 5thdigit that are minimally tender. Additionally, she has one 0.5cm linear laceration of the medial aspect of the 5thmetacarpal with severe tenderness in the area and palpable underlying foreign body. Significant findings: Left hand plain radiography demonstrated a subcutaneous foreign body medial to the 5thmetacarpal that is radiopaque, trapezoidal in shape, and measures approximately 11mm x 3mm. Discussion: Laceration repairs are amongst the most common procedures in the emergency department; however, consideration for foreign body is often underdiagnosed. Imaging is performed in only about 11% of all traumatic wounds in the ED.1 Of those injuries relating to the hand that are subsequently imaged, about 15% are found to have a foreign body.2,3 Additionally, it is estimated that foreign bodies are present in 7% to 8.7% of all wounds caused by glass objects.4,5 Glass is among the most common foreign bodies in lacerations, and fortunately they are radiopaque and relatively well visualized radiographically. It has been demonstrated that 2mm glass foreign bodies have a 99% detection rate with radiography, and 1mm glass foreign bodies an 83% detection rate.6 Patient perception of foreign body has a positive predictive value of 31%, making it a poor source in influencing clinical decision-making to obtain wound radiographs.3 Clinicians should have a high suspicion for foreign body in lacerations, particularly those caused by glass, and utilize close physical examination and imaging for evaluation. Topics: Radiography, glass, foreign body, trauma

  4. BRACEROS, MEXICO, AND FOREIGN TRADE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966

    CRITICISM OF GOVERNMENTAL POLICY RESTRICTING USE OF FOREIGN CONTRACT WORKERS ON AMERICAN FARMS IN 1965 EXPRESSES THREE POSSIBILITIES -- (1) A SEVERE DISRUPTION OF DOMESTIC FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTION, (2) AN INCREASE OF AMERICAN INVESTMENT IN FOREIGN, PARTICULARLY MEXICAN, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION, AND (3) A LOSS OF UNITED STATES EXPORT MARKET…

  5. Foreign Language Study in Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Lilian O.; Tarjan, Jeno

    1968-01-01

    Foreign language study at the Karl Marx University of Economic Sciences in Budapest aims to develop the ability to use the language as a native would in a particular business or profession, and to help the student become fully aware of the political, historical, sociological, and geographical background of the foreign country and the…

  6. Foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kefeli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ingested foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract are a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For this reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threatening complications. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of the patients with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies that were treated in our department. Methods: Patients diagnosed with upper gastrointestinal foreign bodies who were admitted to our hospital between February 2010 and August2013 were evaluated retrospectively. The data regarding their age, gender, clinical profile, type and localization of the esophageal foreign body, performed endoscopic procedure and initial symptoms of the patients were noted and analyzed statistically. Results: Thirty-eight patients with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal foreign body were included in this study. Of these patients, 21 were male and 17 were female. The youngest patient was 17 years old and the oldest patient was 79 years old. Most of the foreign bodies (%55.3 detected in the stomach. Food waste and metallic objects in 21 and 16 patients respectively. The most common complaint was dysphagia (%50. After endoscopic intervention three of the patients were directed to surgery. Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal foreign bodies is important as their complications are life threatening. The best method of removal of foreign bodies is controversial. Early management with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the most efficient and safe treatment method in current conditions.

  7. Uncommon, undeclared oesophageal foreign bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-11

    May 11, 2011 ... presented with a sudden onset of total dysphagia and history of ingestion of foreign bodies was not volunteered by any despite direct questioning. Plain radiograph of the neck and chest in either case did not reveal presence of foreign body. Both were successfully removed through rigid oesophagoscopy.

  8. Evaluating of foreign trade security

    OpenAIRE

    Vasyliev Andriy

    2015-01-01

    A method of evaluating foreign trade security is considered based on horizontally integrated approach to research security issues, taking into account the conditions of management, factors, components and levels of external security. The work was based theories of security, economics, management theory, practice of state regulation of foreign trade.

  9. Foreign uranium supply. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, N.B.; Steyn, J.J.

    1978-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the extent to which foreign uranium may be available to United States utilities in the short term (through 1980), the intermediate term (1981--1985), and the long term (1986--95). All free world foreign uranium producers and prospects are included, with particular emphasis on Australia, Canada, southern Africa, France, and French-speaking Africa. The assessment includes reserves, resources, exploration and prospects; firm and potential production capacity and prospects; national policies and relevant political and economic conditions; foreign uranium demand; etc. Conclusions are: Foreign supply capability is greater than foreign demand in the near term. The current availability of uncommitted future Australian production presents an unusual opportunity for establishing commercial relations with very substantial producers. Foreign uranium contracts represent an increase in diversity of supply and access to resources but have less assurance of supply than do domestic contracts. However, uncertainties can frequently be accommodated within an overall procurement program, thereby retaining the diversity and price advantages of foreign procurement. The practice of market pricing of contracts reduces the incentives for foreign contracting

  10. Foreign workers in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jin Lim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global age many people cross national borders in search of better work and more wages. According to IOM, more than 100 000 000 workers leave their homeland and migrate to another country for this reason. Europe and North America have already experienced increase in foreign labor for many decades but nowadays, it is very common to see foreign laborers in Asian countries. As the number of foreign laborers rapidly increased, however, so did many social problems in relation to these workers. No country is safe from or immune to such social problems in regards to the foreign workers especially with a much easier and more efficient transportation system. In case of South Korea, the history of foreign labor may not be as long as other nations but as of 2007, it boasts of more than 250 000 foreign laborers and is thus facing just as many social problems as well. In order to investigate such social issues, this article explores the history of foreign laborers and their current situation in South Korea. Furthermore, this artticle examines both internal and external factors which may have caused exponential growth of foreign labor market in South Korea in the past decade.

  11. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for the exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as the instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role...

  12. Inactivation and purification of cowpea mosaic virus-like particles displaying peptide antigens from Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, Jamie P.; Dang, Nghiep; Rasochova, Lada

    2007-01-01

    Chimeric cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles displaying foreign peptide antigens on the particle surface are suitable for development of peptide-based vaccines. However, commonly used PEG precipitation-based purification methods are not sufficient for production of high quality vaccine candidates because they do not allow for separation of chimeric particles from cleaved contaminating species. Moreover, the purified particles remain infectious to plants. To advance the CPMV technology furthe...

  13. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    Many papers have documented a wage premium in foreign-owned and large firms. However, there is very little formal theory in the literature and empirical analyses are typically not based on hypotheses which are rigorously derived from theory. This paper contributes to the theory-empirics gap...... by developing a model that allows for two "pure" explanations for the wage premium. The first is a heterogenous-worker explanation along the lines of Yeaple (2005), where firms that select more scaleintensive technologies select ex-ante more productive workers. In this case, the wage premium is a pure selection...... phenomenon. The second explanation builds on the heterogeneous-firm model of Melitz (2003) combined with on-the-job learning as in Markusen (2001). Productivity differences between firms are internalized by ex-ante homogeneous workers, so the wage premium is a pure learning phenomenon due to ex-post higher...

  14. Effects of radiation on the expression of antigens on the membranes of human adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hareyama, Masato; Imai, Kozo; Oouchi, Atsushi; Shidou, Mitsuo; Takahashi, Hiroki; Koshiba, Hirohumi; Yachi, Akira; Morita, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of irradiation on the membranes of tumor cells. X-ray irradiation caused remarkable increases in the expression of tumor-associated antigens (YH206, CEA) and c-erbB-2 protein by flow cytometry, whereas IFN had no obvious effect on the expression of tumor-associated antigens and c-erbB-2 protein. On the other hand, the expression of MHC Class I and ICAM-1 antigen on the membrane by flow cytometry was enhanced by both irradiation and IFN. In addition, the irradiated cells, when analyzed using a CEA specific probe, showed remarkable increases in the CEA mRNA compared to IFN-treated cells. It is possible that enhancement of the expression of tumor-associated antigens and c-erbB-2 protein, together with the enhancement of that of MHC-Class I and ICAM-1, would help cytotoxic killer cells recognize the tumor cells. (author)

  15. The association of heavy and light chain variable domains in antibodies: implications for antigen specificity.

    KAUST Repository

    Chailyan, Anna

    2011-06-28

    The antigen-binding site of immunoglobulins is formed by six regions, three from the light and three from the heavy chain variable domains, which, on association of the two chains, form the conventional antigen-binding site of the antibody. The mode of interaction between the heavy and light chain variable domains affects the relative position of the antigen-binding loops and therefore has an effect on the overall conformation of the binding site. In this article, we analyze the structure of the interface between the heavy and light chain variable domains and show that there are essentially two different modes for their interaction that can be identified by the presence of key amino acids in specific positions of the antibody sequences. We also show that the different packing modes are related to the type of recognized antigen.

  16. Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Engineered T Cells in Tumor Immunotherapy: From Bench to Beside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng WANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T cells (CAR-T cells, a classification of cultured T cells after modification of gene engineering technology, can recognize specific tumor antigens in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC-independent manner, consequently leading to the activation of antitumor function. The recent studies have confirmed that a variety of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs can act as target antigens for CAR-T cells. Nowadays, CAR T-cell therapy, one of the most potential tumor immunotherapies, has made great breakthroughs in hematological malignancies and promising outcomes in solid tumors. In this article, the biological characteristics and antitumor mechanism of CAR-T cells, and their application in tumor treatment were mainly reviewed.

  17. Definition of a virulence-related antigen of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with monoclonal antibodies and lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco de Hormaeche, R; Bundell, C; Chong, H; Taylor, D W; Wildy, P

    1986-03-01

    Variants of one strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, grown in vivo or in vitro, that have been previously shown to differ in infectivity, serum resistance, and capsule production were compared with use of monoclonal antibodies and lectins. Monoclonal antibodies to virulent gonococci recognized an antigenic site of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced in large amounts by gonococci grown in vivo but present only in a small proportion of in vitro-grown gonococci. This antigen (C-LPS) was found in all 85 different gonococcal isolates studied but not among nonpathogenic neisseriae. It was shared by group B and C meningococci but not by groups A and D. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis showed that N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine form part of the epitope. The C-LPS antigen was shown by immunofluorescence to be present on the surface of the gonococci and also free as slime. This antigen appears to confer resistance to killing by normal sera.

  18. Neurology of foreign language aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Biedroń

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This state-of-the art paper focuses on the poorly explored issue of foreign language aptitude, attempting to present the latest developments in this field and reconceptualizations of the construct from the perspective of neuroscience. In accordance with this goal, it first discusses general directions in neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude, starting with the earliest attempts to define the neurological substrate for talent, sources of difficulties in the neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude and modern research methods. This is followed by the discussion of the research on the phonology of foreign language aptitude with emphasis on functional and structural studies as well as their consequences for the knowledge of the concept. The subsequent section presents the studies which focus on lexical and morphosyntactic aspects of foreign language aptitude. The paper ends with a discussion of the limitations of contemporary research, the future directions of such research and selec ed methodological issues.

  19. Sharing organs with foreign nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Rebecca; Wright, Linda

    2011-03-01

    Organs for transplantation are an absolute scarcity throughout the world, and many countries do not offer transplantation. Developed countries with transplant programs receive requests to list foreign nationals for transplantation. Any national standard deserves justification by a thorough exploration of the issues. In this article, the issues regarding organ transplantation for foreign nationals in Canada are explored. Currently Canada has no policy on listing foreign nationals for transplantation. Three topics are reviewed: (1) arguments for and against the transplantation of organs from deceased donors to foreign nationals, (2) relevant legislation and position statements, and (3) relevant practices in other countries. Finally, practical policy options are suggested. This article's analysis of the issues will provide guidance for health care professionals and policy makers in Canada and developed countries exploring listing foreign nationals for transplantation.

  20. Determining the binding affinity of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies towards their native unpurified antigens in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bee

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are a growing segment of therapeutics, yet their in vitro characterization remains challenging. While it is essential that a therapeutic mAb recognizes the native, physiologically occurring epitope, the generation and selection of mAbs often rely on the use of purified recombinant versions of the antigen that may display non-native epitopes. Here, we present a method to measure both, the binding affinity of a therapeutic mAb towards its native unpurified antigen in human serum, and the antigen's endogenous concentration, by combining the kinetic exclusion assay and Biacore's calibration free concentration analysis. To illustrate the broad utility of our method, we studied a panel of mAbs raised against three disparate soluble antigens that are abundant in the serum of healthy donors: proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, progranulin (PGRN, and fatty acid binding protein (FABP4. We also determined the affinity of each mAb towards its purified recombinant antigen and assessed whether the interactions were pH-dependent. Of the six mAbs studied, three did not appear to discriminate between the serum and recombinant forms of the antigen; one mAb bound serum antigen with a higher affinity than recombinant antigen; and two mAbs displayed a different affinity for serum antigen that could be explained by a pH-dependent interaction. Our results highlight the importance of taking pH into account when measuring the affinities of mAbs towards their serum antigens, since the pH of serum samples becomes increasingly alkaline upon aerobic handling.

  1. The antibody response to well-defined malaria antigens after acute malaria in individuals living under continuous malaria transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E; Høgh, B; Dziegiel, M

    1992-01-01

    The IgG and IgM antibody responses to the C-terminal 783 amino acids of the P. falciparum glutamate-rich protein, GLURP489-1271, expressed as an E. coli fusion protein, the IgG response to a 18-mer synthetic peptide EDKNEKGQHEIVEVEEIL (GLURP899-916) representing the C-terminal repeats of GLURP......, and a synthetic peptide (EENV)6 representing the C-terminal repeats from Pf155/RESA, were investigated longitudinally in 13 children and 7 adults living under conditions of continuous, intense malaria transmission. Some subjects did not recognize the antigens after malaria infection, and in subjects recognizing...... the antigens, the responses were often short-lived. In adults, the antibody responses to the GLURP489-1271 fusion protein and the (EENV)6 peptide peaked after 2 weeks, and not all individuals responded to all antigens. The antibody response, even against large fragments of conserved antigens, is not uniformly...

  2. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  3. Large Scale Immune Profiling of Infected Humans and Goats Reveals Differential Recognition of Brucella melitensis Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li; Leng, Diana; Burk, Chad; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Kayala, Matthew A.; Atluri, Vidya L.; Pablo, Jozelyn; Unal, Berkay; Ficht, Thomas A.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Saito, Mayuko; Morrow, W. John W.; Liang, Xiaowu; Baldi, Pierre; Gilman, Robert H.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Tsolis, Renée M.; Felgner, Philip L.

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease that is also a potential agent of bioterrorism. Current serological assays to diagnose human brucellosis in clinical settings are based on detection of agglutinating anti-LPS antibodies. To better understand the universe of antibody responses that develop after B. melitensis infection, a protein microarray was fabricated containing 1,406 predicted B. melitensis proteins. The array was probed with sera from experimentally infected goats and naturally infected humans from an endemic region in Peru. The assay identified 18 antigens differentially recognized by infected and non-infected goats, and 13 serodiagnostic antigens that differentiate human patients proven to have acute brucellosis from syndromically similar patients. There were 31 cross-reactive antigens in healthy goats and 20 cross-reactive antigens in healthy humans. Only two of the serodiagnostic antigens and eight of the cross-reactive antigens overlap between humans and goats. Based on these results, a nitrocellulose line blot containing the human serodiagnostic antigens was fabricated and applied in a simple assay that validated the accuracy of the protein microarray results in the diagnosis of humans. These data demonstrate that an experimentally infected natural reservoir host produces a fundamentally different immune response than a naturally infected accidental human host. PMID:20454614

  4. Effects of Co60 gamma radiation on the immunogenic and antigenic properties of Bothrops jararacussu venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do; Rogero, Jose R.

    1997-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully employed to attenuate animals toxins and venoms for immunizing antisera producing animals. However, the radiation effects on antigenicity and immunogenecity have not yet been elucidated. In the present work, we investigated the effects of gamma rays on the antigenic and immunogenicity have not yet been elucidated. In the present work, we investigated the effects of gamma rays on the antigenic and immunogenic behaviour of Bothrops jararacussu venon. Venom samples (2mg/ml in 150 mM NaCl) were irradiated with 500, 1000 and 2000 Gy of 60 Co gamma rays. These samples were submitted to antigen capture ELISA on plates coated with commercial bothropic antiserum. Results suggest a loss of reactivity of the 1000 and 2000 Gy irradiated samples. Antibodies against native and 2000 Gy irradiated venoms were produced in rabbits. Both sera able to bind native venom with a slightly higher titer for anti-irradiated serum. These data suggest that radiation promoted structural modification on the antigen molecules. However since the antibodies produced against irradiated antivenom were able to recognize native venom, there must have been preservation of some antigenic determinants. It has already been demosntrated that irradiation of proteins leads to structural modifications and unfolding of the molecules. Our data suggest that irradiation led to conformational epitopes destruction with preservation of linear epitopes and that the response against irradiated venom may be attributed to these linear antigenic determinants. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  5. Characterization of a 14,000 dalton antigen of Dirofilaria immitis infective third stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, S.A.; Cachia, P.J.; Wong, M.M.; Hurrell, J.G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Immunogenic proteins of Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm) were identified by probing extracts of adult worms or their excretory-secretory proteins (ESP) blotted to nitrocellulose following SDS-PAGE with control or infected dog sera. A 14,000 dalton antigen (a prominent component of ESP by protein staining) was consistently recognized both in extracts and ESP by dog sera as early as three months post infection. This indicates a larval origin for the antigen since no adult worms are present until approximately five months post infection. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) prepared against the 14,000 dalton antigen confirmed by immunoblotting that this antigen is expressed by infective third stage larvae, adults and microfilariae and is present intact in the sera of infected dogs. Surface-labelling of whole adult D. immitis with Na 125 I produced radiolabelled antigens closely corresponding to those of ESP. An anti-14,000 dalton MAb was able to immunoprecipitate radiolabelled antigen which strongly suggest a surface or membrane location in the intact organism. Gel filtration data suggests that the protein is a native monomer. A MAb-affinity column has been used to purify the 14,000 dalton antigen to at least 98% homogeneity in one step from crude worm extracts. Further fractionation by HPLC yields a homogeneous preparation. Amino acid analysis and the N-terminal amino acid sequence data will be presented

  6. Cancer vaccines: an update with special focus on ganglioside antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton, Roberto J; Guthmann, Marcel D; Gabri, Mariano R; Carnero, Ariel J L; Alonso, Daniel F; Fainboim, Leonardo; Gomez, Daniel E

    2002-01-01

    Vaccine development is one of the most promising and exciting fields in cancer research; numerous approaches are being studied to developed effective cancer vaccines. The aim of this form of therapy is to teach the patient's immune system to recognize the antigens expressed in tumor cells, but not in normal tissue, to be able to destroy these abnormal cells leaving the normal cells intact. In other words, is an attempt to teach the immune system to recognize antigens that escaped the immunologic surveillance and are by it, therefore able to survive and, in time, disseminate. However each research group developing a cancer vaccine, uses a different technology, targeting different antigens, combining different carriers and adjuvants, and using different immunization schedules. Most of the vaccines are still experimental and not approved by the US or European Regulatory Agencies. In this work, we will offer an update in the knowledge in cancer immunology and all the anticancer vaccine approaches, with special emphasis in ganglioside based vaccines. It has been demonstrated that quantitative and qualitative changes occur in ganglioside expression during the oncogenic transformation. Malignant transformation appears to activate enzymes associated with ganglioside glycosylation, resulting in altered patterns of ganglioside expression in tumors. Direct evidence of the importance of gangliosides as potential targets for active immunotherapy has been suggested by the observation that human monoclonal antibodies against these glycolipids induce shrinkage of human cutaneous melanoma metastasis. Thus, the cellular over-expression and shedding of gangliosides into the interstitial space may play a central role in cell growth regulation, immune tolerance and tumor-angiogenesis, therefore representing a new target for anticancer therapy. Since 1993 researchers at the University of Buenos Aires and the University of Quilmes (Argentina), have taken part in a project carried out by

  7. Tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells continuously patrol skin epithelia to quickly recognize local antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariotti, S.; Beltman, J.B.; Chodaczek, G.; Hoekstra, M.E.; van Beek, A.E.; Gomez-Eerland, R.; Ritsma, L.; van Rheenen, J.; Maree, A.F.; Zal, T.; de Boer, R.J.; Haanen, J.B.; Schumacher, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that following the clearance of infection a stable population of memory T cells remains present in peripheral organs and contributes to the control of secondary infections. However, little is known about how tissue-resident memory T cells behave in situ and how they

  8. Protein array profiling of tic patient sera reveals a broad range and enhanced immune response against Group A Streptococcus antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Bombaci

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes, GAS is widely recognized as a major cause of common pharyngitis as well as of severe invasive diseases and non-suppurative sequelae associated with the existence of GAS antigens eliciting host autoantibodies. It has been proposed that a subset of paediatric disorders characterized by tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms would exacerbate in association with relapses of GAS-associated pharyngitis. This hypothesis is however still controversial. In the attempt to shed light on the contribution of GAS infections to the onset of neuropsychiatric or behavioral disorders affecting as many as 3% of children and adolescents, we tested the antibody response of tic patient sera to a representative panel of GAS antigens. In particular, 102 recombinant proteins were spotted on nitrocellulose-coated glass slides and probed against 61 sera collected from young patients with typical tic neuropsychiatric symptoms but with no overt GAS infection. Sera from 35 children with neither tic disorder nor overt GAS infection were also analyzed. The protein recognition patterns of these two sera groups were compared with those obtained using 239 sera from children with GAS-associated pharyngitis. This comparative analysis identified 25 antigens recognized by sera of the three patient groups and 21 antigens recognized by tic and pharyngitis sera, but poorly or not recognized by sera from children without tic. Interestingly, these antigens appeared to be, in quantitative terms, more immunogenic in tic than in pharyngitis patients. Additionally, a third group of antigens appeared to be preferentially and specifically recognized by tic sera. These findings provide the first evidence that tic patient sera exhibit immunological profiles typical of individuals who elicited a broad, specific and strong immune response against GAS. This may be relevant in the context of one of the hypothesis proposing that GAS

  9. Concepts and applications for influenza antigenic cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Influenza antigenic cartography projects influenza antigens into a two or three dimensional map based on immunological datasets, such as hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization assays. A robust antigenic cartography can facilitate influenza vaccine strain selection since the antigenic map can simplify data interpretation through intuitive antigenic map. However, antigenic cartography construction is not trivial due to the challenging features embedded in the immunological data, such as data incompleteness, high noises, and low reactors. To overcome these challenges, we developed a computational method, temporal Matrix Completion-Multidimensional Scaling (MC-MDS), by adapting the low rank MC concept from the movie recommendation system in Netflix and the MDS method from geographic cartography construction. The application on H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A viruses demonstrates that temporal MC-MDS is effective and efficient in constructing influenza antigenic cartography. The web sever is available at http://sysbio.cvm.msstate.edu/AntigenMap. PMID:21761589

  10. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre R Ducken

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to

  11. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salfeld, J.; Pfaff, E.; Noah, M.; Schaller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid

  12. Recognizing Bedside Events Using Thermal and Ultrasonic Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielsen Asbjørn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Falls in homes of the elderly, in residential care facilities and in hospitals commonly occur in close proximity to the bed. Most approaches for recognizing falls use cameras, which challenge privacy, or sensor devices attached to the bed or the body to recognize bedside events and bedside falls. We use data collected from a ceiling mounted 80 × 60 thermal array combined with an ultrasonic sensor device. This approach makes it possible to monitor activity while preserving privacy in a non-intrusive manner. We evaluate three different approaches towards recognizing location and posture of an individual. Bedside events are recognized using a 10-second floating image rule/filter-based approach, recognizing bedside falls with 98.62% accuracy. Bed-entry and exit events are recognized with 98.66% and 96.73% accuracy, respectively.

  13. Summary of foreign HTGR programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This report contains pertinent information on the status, objectives, budgets, major projects and facilities, as well as user, industrial and governmental organizations involved in major foreign gas-cooled thermal reactor programs. This is the second issue of this document (the first was issued in March 1979). The format has been revised to consolidate material according to country. These sections are followed by the foreign HTGR program index which serves as a quick reference to some of the many acronyms associated with the foreign HTGR programs

  14. Italians and Foreign Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Bonifazi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Opinion surveys on attitudes towards immigration are becoming more and more important, owing to the increasing role of political debate on migration issues in Western European countries. CNR has conducted four surveys on this topic, collecting data on the evolution of Italians attitudes towards migration issues. In fact, the ? rst survey was conducted in the second half of the eighties, when foreign immigration was in its early stages. The last survey took place in 2002, when immigration was already well established in Italy. The article focuses on three main issues: the global impact of immigration on Italian society, the immigrants role in the labour market, and immigration policy. In general, the results of the last survey con? rm a trend that appeared already in 1997, of more balanced and realistic opinion that were less of a response to circumstances perceived as special emergencies. Highly educated people, teachers and students continue to be the most open and receptive groups, whereas the less favourably inclined and more worried continue to be old people, those with less education, the unemployed, housewives, and retirees.

  15. Timing Foreign Exchange Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel W. Malone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve short-horizon exchange rate forecasts, we employ foreign exchange market risk factors as fundamentals, and Bayesian treed Gaussian process (BTGP models to handle non-linear, time-varying relationships between these fundamentals and exchange rates. Forecasts from the BTGP model conditional on the carry and dollar factors dominate random walk forecasts on accuracy and economic criteria in the Meese-Rogoff setting. Superior market timing ability for large moves, more than directional accuracy, drives the BTGP’s success. We explain how, through a model averaging Monte Carlo scheme, the BTGP is able to simultaneously exploit smoothness and rough breaks in between-variable dynamics. Either feature in isolation is unable to consistently outperform benchmarks throughout the full span of time in our forecasting exercises. Trading strategies based on ex ante BTGP forecasts deliver the highest out-of-sample risk-adjusted returns for the median currency, as well as for both predictable, traded risk factors.

  16. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  17. An unusual foreign body as cause of chronic sinusitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinerman Harry

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The presence of a foreign body in the nose is a relatively uncommon occurrence. Many unusual foreign bodies in the nose have been reported in the literature, but no case of a nasal packing occurring as a foreign body in the nasal cavity for a prolonged time has been found. Case presentation We describe a unique case of the largest foreign body left in situ in the nasal cavity for over 10 years. Our patient was a 71-year-old Caucasian man with diabetes. Because of this, he was at high risk of developing complications from the foreign body and the chronic sinusitis. Amazingly, though, the foreign body had not caused any symptoms on our patient for many years, except for nasal discharge during the last few years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of such a large intra-nasal foreign body described in an adult without mental illness and without trauma that remained in situ for such a long time. Conclusion Undoubtedly, even illnesses with no complications could prove difficult for clinicians to diagnose. Clinicians should recognize the underlying causes that are responsible for the symptoms of chronic sinusitis and a unilateral nasal discharge should be assumed to be caused by an intra-nasal foreign body until proven otherwise.

  18. Critical epitopes in the nucleocapsid protein of SFTS virus recognized by a panel of SFTS patients derived human monoclonal antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SFTS virus (SFTSV is a newly discovered pathogen to cause severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS in human. Successful control of SFTSV epidemic requires better understanding of the antigen target in humoral immune responses to the new bunyavirus infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have generated a combinatorial Fab antibody phage library from two SFTS patients recovered from SFTSV infection. To date, 94 unique human antibodies have been generated and characterized from over 1200 Fab antibody clones obtained by screening the library with SFTS purified virions. All those monoclonal antibodies (MAbs recognized the nucleocapsid (N protein of SFTSV while none of them were reactive to the viral glycoproteins Gn or Gc. Furthermore, over screening 1000 mouse monoclonal antibody clones derived from SFTSV virions immunization, 462 clones reacted with N protein, while only 16 clones were reactive to glycoprotein. Furthermore, epitope mapping of SFTSV N protein was performed through molecular simulation, site mutation and competitive ELISA, and we found that at least 4 distinct antigenic epitopes within N protein were recognized by those human and mouse MAbs, in particular mutation of Glu10 to Ala10 abolished or significantly reduced the binding activity of nearly most SFTS patients derived MAbs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large number of human recombinant MAbs derived from SFTS patients recognized the viral N protein indicated the important role of the N protein in humoral responses to SFTSV infection, and the critical epitopes we defined in this study provided molecular basis for detection and diagnosis of SFTSV infection.

  19. Public Opinion and Foreign Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2009-02-26

    Feb 26, 2009 ... person of Charles Taylor, given his antecedents. Regardless ..... influence of the reactions of the public on the foreign policy actions of governments. ... tion reacted vehemently to this move, which was viewed as tantamount.

  20. Foreign body in the nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000037.htm Foreign body in the nose To use the sharing features ... in a normal attempt to explore their own bodies. Objects placed in the nose may include food, ...

  1. Foreign direct investment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bredero, Q.S.

    2007-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment in China is one of the most comprehensive studies of FDI in China and provides a remarkable background of information on the evolution of China’s FDI policies over the last 30 years.

  2. Radioprotective activity of shigella antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemparskaya, N.N.; Gorbunova, E.S.; Dobronravova, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using experimental microbe antigenous preparation out of Flexner and Zonne shigellas as a protector and a remedy in the case of gamma irradiation, is investigated. The experiments are carried out on mice of both sexes immunized before or after irradiation by two methods: subcutaneously and enerally. It is found that in most cases investigated, the introduction of the experimental preparation 3, 5, 7 and 10 days before irradiation increases the survivability of animals [ru

  3. Identification and characterization of a 29-kilodalton protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate recognized by mouse memory effector cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrands, I; Rasmussen, P.B.; Carnio, M

    1998-01-01

    Culture filtrate proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis induce protective immunity in various animal models of tuberculosis. Two molecular mass regions (6 to 10 kDa and 24 to 36 kDa) of short-term culture filtrate are preferentially recognized by Th1 cells in animal models as well as by patients...... the antigen 85 complex was selected. The 29-kDa antigen (CFP29) was purified from M. tuberculosis short-term culture filtrate by thiophilic adsorption chromatography, anion-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration, In its native form, CFP29 forms a polymer with a high molecular mass. CFP29 was mapped......, and they both elicited the release of high levels of gamma interferon from mouse memory effector cells isolated during the recall of protective immunity to tuberculosis. Interspecies analysis by immunoblotting and PCR demonstrated that CFP29 is widely distributed in mycobacterial species....

  4. Identification of a peptide binding protein that plays a role in antigen presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, E.K.; Margoliash, E.; Pierce, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The helper T-cell response to globular proteins appears, in general, to require intracellular processing of the antigen, such that a peptide fragment containing the T-cell antigenic determinant is released and transported to and held on the surface of an Ia-expressing, antigen-presenting cell. However, the molecular details underlying these phenomena are largely unknown. The means by which antigenic peptides are anchored on the antigen-presenting cell surface was investigated. A cell surface protein is identified that was isolated by it ability to bind to a 24-amino acid peptide fragment of pigeon cytochrome c, residues 81-104, containing the major antigenic determinant for B10.A mouse T cells. This peptide binding protein, purified from [ 35 S]methionine-labeled cells, appears as two discrete bands of ≅72 and 74 kDa after NaDodSO 4 /PAGE. The protein can be eluted from the peptide affinity column with equivalent concentrations of either the antigenic pigeon cytochrome c peptide or the corresponding nonantigenic peptide of mouse cytochrome c. However, it does not bind to the native cytochromes c, either of pigeon or mouse, and thus the protein appears to recognize some structure available only in the free peptides. This protein plays a role in antigen presentation. Its expression is not major histocompatibility complex-restricted in that the blocking activity of the antisera can be absorbed on spleen cells from mice of different haplotypes. This peptide binding protein can be isolated from a variety of cell types, including B cells, T cells, and fibroblasts. The anchoring of processed peptides on the cell surface by such a protein may play a role in antigen presentation

  5. Expression cloning of camelid nanobodies specific for Xenopus embryonic antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Itoh

    Full Text Available Developmental biology relies heavily on the use of conventional antibodies, but their production and maintenance involves significant effort. Here we use an expression cloning approach to identify variable regions of llama single domain antibodies (known as nanobodies, which recognize specific embryonic antigens. A nanobody cDNA library was prepared from lymphocytes of a llama immunized with Xenopus embryo lysates. Pools of bacterially expressed cDNAs were sib-selected for the ability to produce specific staining patterns in gastrula embryos. Three different nanobodies were isolated: NbP1 and NbP3 stained yolk granules, while the reactivity of NbP7 was predominantly restricted to the cytoplasm and the cortex. The isolated nanobodies recognized specific protein bands in immunoblot analysis. A reverse proteomic approach identified NbP1 target antigen as EP45/Seryp, a serine protease inhibitor. Given the unique stability of nanobodies and the ease of their expression in diverse systems, we propose that nanobody cDNA libraries represent a promising resource for molecular markers for developmental biology.

  6. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Rio, Ana Cristina Dal; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive proced...

  7. Information Support of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Melnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Informatization and modern information technologies cover the most various areas of social, spiritual and material human life and have become the dominating globalization factor with major impact on world events. Modern international relations present new challenges and threats ofcross-border nature, which fall within the area of information security. This brings issues of informational influence on international policy to the fore. In this context the question of improvement and modernization of policy instruments for more effective use of modern means of implementation of foreign policy priorities, including information support of international activities, achieves fundamental importance. Given the complexity of modern international relations and tasks facing foreign affairs departments, diplomatic success in many cases depends onthe efficiency of information support. The article analyses current objectives and methods of information support of foreign policy in the context of modern Russian legislation. The author examines the approach of the Information and Press Department of the Russian Ministryof Foreign Affairs,a subdivision responsible for information support and international cooperation in the media sphere. The article specifies the key role of new information technologies for informing the audience expeditiously and to the full extent in regard to Russian approaches to the solution of international problems, foreign policy initiatives and actions of the Russian Federation, and for counteracting attempts to discredit Russian foreign policy.

  8. Chlorphenesin: an antigen-associated immunosuppressant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, H Y; Neter, E

    1970-07-01

    Chlorphenesin (3-p-chlorophenoxy-1,2-propanediol), when injected intravenously together with either of two common bacterial antigens, inhibits the antibody response of the rabbit. The antigens studied are those common to Enterobacteriaceae and to gram-positive bacteria. The immunosuppression is contingent upon incubation of chlorphenesin and antigen in vitro prior to administration, since separate injection of antigen and inhibitor or of mixtures without prior incubation yields undiminished antibody response. Chlorphenesin, as shown by hemagglutination-inhibition tests, does not alter the antigenic determinants, because antibody neutralization occurs in the presence or absence of the drug. The immunosuppressive effect is reversible, since precipitation of chlorphenesin at 4 C substantially restores immunogenicity. Animals immunized with antigen-drug mixtures, which fail to respond with significant antibody production, nonetheless are immunologically primed. It is concluded that chlorphenesin represents another example of antigen-associated immunosuppressants.

  9. 76 FR 33419 - Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... 232, 240, 249, et al. Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-11] RIN 3235-AL15 Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations AGENCY: Securities and... rating organizations (``NRSROs''). In addition, in accordance with the Dodd-Frank Act, the Commission is...

  10. 46 CFR 188.10-59 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 188.10-59 Section 188... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-59 Recognized classification society. This term means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society...

  11. 31 CFR 595.304 - Foreign person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.304 Foreign person. The term foreign person means any citizen or national of a foreign state (including any such individual who is also a citizen or national of the United States), or any entity not...

  12. 31 CFR 594.304 - Foreign person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.304 Foreign person. The term foreign person means any citizen or national of a foreign state (including any such individual who is also a citizen or national of the United States), or any entity not...

  13. Enzyme-labeled Antigen Method: Development and Application of the Novel Approach for Identifying Plasma Cells Locally Producing Disease-specific Antibodies in Inflammatory Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Yasuyoshi; Shiogama, Kazuya; Onouchi, Takanori; Sakurai, Kouhei; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    In chronic inflammatory lesions of autoimmune and infectious diseases, plasma cells are frequently observed. Antigens recognized by antibodies produced by the plasma cells mostly remain unclear. A new technique identifying these corresponding antigens may give us a breakthrough for understanding the disease from a pathophysiological viewpoint, simply because the immunocytes are seen within the lesion. We have developed an enzyme-labeled antigen method for microscopic identification of the antigen recognized by specific antibodies locally produced in plasma cells in inflammatory lesions. Firstly, target biotinylated antigens were constructed by the wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system or through chemical biotinylation. Next, proteins reactive to antibodies in tissue extracts were screened and antibody titers were evaluated by the AlphaScreen method. Finally, with the enzyme-labeled antigen method using the biotinylated antigens as probes, plasma cells producing specific antibodies were microscopically localized in fixed frozen sections. Our novel approach visualized tissue plasma cells that produced 1) autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, 2) antibodies against major antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis or radicular cyst, and 3) antibodies against a carbohydrate antigen, Strep A, of Streptococcus pyogenes in recurrent tonsillitis. Evaluation of local specific antibody responses expectedly contributes to clarifying previously unknown processes in inflammatory disorders

  14. 17 CFR 240.3b-4 - Definition of “foreign government,” “foreign issuer” and “foreign private issuer”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... government,â âforeign issuerâ and âforeign private issuerâ. 240.3b-4 Section 240.3b-4 Commodity and... Definition of “foreign government,” “foreign issuer” and “foreign private issuer”. (a) The term foreign... country. (c) The term foreign private issuer means any foreign issuer other than a foreign government...

  15. Healthy human T-Cell Responses to Aspergillus fumigatus antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelkamal Chaudhary

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is associated with both invasive and allergic pulmonary diseases, in different hosts. The organism is inhaled as a spore, which, if not cleared from the airway, germinates into hyphal morphotypes that are responsible for tissue invasion and resultant inflammation. Hyphae secrete multiple products that function as antigens, evoking both a protective (T(H1-T(H17 and destructive allergic (T(H2 immunity. How Aspergillus allergens (Asp f proteins participate in the development of allergic sensitization is unknown.To determine whether Asp f proteins are strictly associated with T(H2 responses, or represent soluble hyphal products recognized by healthy hosts, human T cell responses to crude and recombinant products were characterized by ELISPOT. While responses (number of spots producing IFN-gamma, IL-4 or IL-17 to crude hyphal antigen preparations were weak, responses to recombinant Asp f proteins were higher. Recombinant allergens stimulated cells to produce IFN-gamma more so than IL-4 or IL-17. Volunteers exhibited a diverse CD4+ and CD8+ T cell antigen recognition profile, with prominent CD4 T(H1-responses to Asp f3 (a putative peroxismal membrane protein, Asp f9/16 (cell wall glucanase, Asp f11 (cyclophilin type peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and Asp f22 (enolase. Strong IFN-gamma responses were reproduced in most subjects tested over 6 month intervals.Products secreted after conidial germination into hyphae are differentially recognized by protective T cells in healthy, non-atopic individuals. Defining the specificity of the human T cell repertoire, and identifying factors that govern early responses may allow for development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics for both invasive and allergic Aspergillus diseases.

  16. Antigen-specific T cell activation independently of the MHC: chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-redirected T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrich eAbken

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive T cell therapy has recently shown powerful in initiating a lasting anti-tumor response with spectacular therapeutic success in some cases. Specific T cell therapy, however, is limited since a number of cancer cells are not recognized by T cells due to various mechanisms including the limited availability of tumor-specific T cells and deficiencies in antigen processing or major histocompatibility complex (MHC expression of cancer cells. To make adoptive cell therapy applicable for the broad variety of cancer entities, patient's T cells are engineered ex vivo with pre-defined specificity by a recombinant chimeric antigen receptor (CAR which consists in the extracellular part of an antibody-derived domain for binding with a tumor-associated antigen and in the intracellular part of a TCR-derived signaling moiety for T cell activation. The specificity of CAR mediated T cell recognition is defined by the antibody domain, is independent of MHC presentation and can be extended to any target for which an antibody is available. We discuss the advantages and limitations of MHC-independent T cell targeting by an engineered CAR and review most significant progress recently made in early stage clinical trials to treat cancer.

  17. Recognizing speech in a novel accent: the motor theory of speech perception reframed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin-Frier, Clément; Arbib, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    The motor theory of speech perception holds that we perceive the speech of another in terms of a motor representation of that speech. However, when we have learned to recognize a foreign accent, it seems plausible that recognition of a word rarely involves reconstruction of the speech gestures of the speaker rather than the listener. To better assess the motor theory and this observation, we proceed in three stages. Part 1 places the motor theory of speech perception in a larger framework based on our earlier models of the adaptive formation of mirror neurons for grasping, and for viewing extensions of that mirror system as part of a larger system for neuro-linguistic processing, augmented by the present consideration of recognizing speech in a novel accent. Part 2 then offers a novel computational model of how a listener comes to understand the speech of someone speaking the listener's native language with a foreign accent. The core tenet of the model is that the listener uses hypotheses about the word the speaker is currently uttering to update probabilities linking the sound produced by the speaker to phonemes in the native language repertoire of the listener. This, on average, improves the recognition of later words. This model is neutral regarding the nature of the representations it uses (motor vs. auditory). It serve as a reference point for the discussion in Part 3, which proposes a dual-stream neuro-linguistic architecture to revisits claims for and against the motor theory of speech perception and the relevance of mirror neurons, and extracts some implications for the reframing of the motor theory.

  18. The Treatment of Culture in the Foreign Language Curriculum: An Analysis of National Curriculum Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenteva, Evgenia; Orland-Barak, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Teaching culture in the foreign language classroom has been widely debated ever since its importance was recognized. Current research suggests that centralized "top down" curricular policies can become potential constraints to teaching culture and points to the need for adapting curricula for culture-integrated language learning. This…

  19. 76 FR 6509 - Notice of Certification; Foreign Military Financing, and International Military Education and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7312] Notice of Certification; Foreign Military Financing, and International Military Education and Training; Guatemala AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. The... internationally recognized human rights; (B) the Guatemalan Air Force, Navy, and Army Corps of Engineers are...

  20. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the West Nile virus nonstructural protein 1 recognized by avian antibody responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encheng Sun

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24 were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Duck Plague Virus (DPV and Goose Parvovirus (GPV antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and

  1. Detection in chick embryo of fetoproteins not recognized by the dam's immune system and of soluble alloantigens. Presumptive teratogenic and abortogenic capacity of their specific IgY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Burgos Antonio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to detect antigens, non-self to the dam, potentially present in chick embryo prior to organogenesis with a view to establishing the consequences of their neutralization on chick development. To this end, hens were immunized with the extract from embryos incubated for 53 h. Their eggs were either used to isolate immunoglobulins for dot and blot tests or incubated for variable lengths of time. Results Immunoblot tests, using adsorbed primary and secondary antibodies against paternal serum, revealed the presence of at least four antigens of 32, 34, 70 and 200 kDa that can be classified as soluble alloantigens. The same antibodies against chick embryo extracts (between 53 h and 9 showed at least five aged antigens of 34, 52, 90, 200 and 250 kDa, not detected in cock serum, that can thus be considered as soluble, foreign to the immunized hens and transitory antigens. The abnormalities observed included arrested development and fetal death, as well as minor functional damage in the few chicks that were born alive. The ratio of abnormal to normal embryos was 2.85 in the experimental group and 0.43 in the control group. With regard to congenital anomalies it must be said that of the 81 eggs incubated only four chicks were born alive, and of these, only one had a healthy birth and subsequent growth. The other three showed a transitory ataxia and one of them presented adult lumbar scoliosis and asymmetric pelvis. Conclusions The problem of recurrent spontaneous abortions is revisited in the light of these results. Some recent data suggest that soluble alloantigens may be candidates for a new etiological entity in recurrent spontaneous abortions. They can also be the cause of some congenital anomalies. The soluble, foreign, transitory antigens may have a similar effect although there is no supportive data in the literature.

  2. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE TO FOREIGNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Claudia Horea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English as a foreign language requires very different approaches if we consider the recipients of the didactic process. Concerning the practical aspects of the primary task of a language instructor, namely teaching, skills of all sorts are required in order to be able to use best methods and most appropriate resources and up to date materials and devices. Moreover, to teach students of your own mother tongue is one very distinct thing from teaching foreigners. These two categories, namely students of the same mother tongue as their teacher and foreigners, have two things in common, namely: first, they are the subjects on whom the activity of teaching English is to be applied and second, this language is not their native tongue. These facts can thus be reduced to one idea: addressing to recipients of EFL teaching. Still, there is a big difference between teaching the first category mentioned, those who have the same mother tongue as the teacher and teaching the second category, foreigners, to whom not even the vaguest hints can be provided in other language than English. There comes a new challenge, an extra endeavour for an even more special approach. This study undertakes to present some of the distinctions entailed at the level of teaching methods and to parallel the diverse methodological approaches for the two situations presented. Are the four skills that language acquisition assumes to be taught distinctly and shall the approaches in each particular situation differ from one case to the other or not too much? It takes some distinct features to be or, better saying, to become a teacher of languages; and to teach English as foreign language to foreigners is a new development within this typology, a diverse dimension. New levels of character traits are instinctively reached by instructors in order to better cope, unconsciously, psychologically and emotionally, with the upgraded’ challenges.

  3. ABO and rhesus antigens in a cosmopolitan Nigeria population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwauche, C A; Ejele, O A

    2004-01-01

    Port Harcourt is a cosmopolitan city consisting of several ethnic groupings such as Ikwerre, Ijaw, Igbo, Ogonis, Efik-Ibibio, Edo, Yoruba, Hausa and foreign nationals. ABO and Rhesus D antigens were screened in this cross-sectional study with the aim of generating data that would assist in the running of an efficient blood transfusion service for a cosmopolitan city as Port Harcourt. Blood donors were sampled and screened for ABO and Rhesus D antigens at three Health facilities within Port Harcourt: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Braithwaite Memorial Hospital and Orogbum Health centre. A total of 936 blood donors were tested in this study. The results of the ABO screening shows that blood group O was the highest with 527 (56.30%) followed by blood group A, B and lastly AB with 212 (22.65%), 178 (19.02%) and 18(2.10%) respectively. The highest contribution to blood group O was from the Ibos with 220 (23.50%) while the Ijaws gave the highest contribution of Rhesus "D" antigen with 370 (39.53%), closely followed by the Igbos with 334 (0.43%). Rhesus negativity values in this study was 7.26% of which the highest contributors were also the Ijaws with 33 (3.53%) and Igbos with 27(2.89%). The increased demand for safe blood calls for an efficient Blood, Transfusion Service at the local, state and national levels. It is hoped that the data generated in this study would assist in the planning and establishment of a functional Blood service that would not only meet the ever increasing demand for blood products, but also play a vital role in the control of HIV/AIDS and . Hepatitis B global scourge.

  4. Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in the Law of Iran and England: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasat Pour Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the Law of Iran and England: A Comparative Study. There are a lot of similarities and commonalities between the legal system of Iran and England in the field of recognition and enforcement of the foreign judgments including public discipline and conflicting judgments. Public discipline in England Law is more specific than that of Iran. Being a civil case of the judgment, impossibility of recognition, enforcement of tax and criminal judgments are among the similarities of the two systems. On the other hand, reciprocity, precise of the foreign court, and the jurisdiction governing the nature of the claim are among instances which are different in Iran and England legal systems on the recognizing of the enforcement of foreign judgments.

  5. Purchase Intention of Foreign Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahasanul Haque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to investigate various factors that influence consumers’ intention of buying foreign products. The data were collected by means of self-structured questionnaires from a total of 260 Bangladeshi consumers residing in the two major cities of the country, Dhaka and Chittagong. At the initial stage, statistical analyses, particularly descriptive analysis as well as exploratory factor analysis, were conducted using SPSS, after which structural equation modeling was run by using AMOS. The findings have established that brand image and quality of foreign products carry significant positive influence on purchase intention of foreign products. However, religiosity leaves a significant negative effect on the purchase intention of foreign products. Furthermore, findings have also revealed that the image of the country of origin carries a significant positive effect on brand image but ethnocentrism carries a significant negative effect on perceptions about the quality of foreign products in their purchase intention. The major contribution of the current study is that it focuses on Bangladesh, as there is a vacuum in contemporary literature on this topic in the context of Bangladeshi consumers. The findings derived from the study could facilitate marketers in the creation of effective marketing strategies and at the same time are also valuable for academicians as well as consumers at large.

  6. Th1-like human T-cell clones recognizing Leishmania gp63 inhibit Leishmania major in human macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Hey, A S; Bendtzen, K

    1994-01-01

    The major surface protease of Leishmania major, gp63, has been suggested as a vaccine candidate for cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study gp63 was purified from L. major promastigotes. A panel of human T-cell clones recognizing this protein were generated from individuals who had previously had...... resembling Th1 cells. Autologous mononuclear cells and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell lines were equally efficient in presenting the antigen to the T cells. The gp63 reactive T cells induced resistance to infection in cultured human macrophages by L. major. The data confirm that human CD4+ T cells...... recognizing gp63 can take part in the host defence against L. major infections....

  7. The extended family of CD1d-restricted T cells: sifting through a mixed bag of TCRs, antigens and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eMacho-Fernandez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer T (NKT cells comprise a family of specialized T cells that recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d. Based on their T cell receptor (TCR usage and antigen-specificities, CD1d-restricted NKT cells have been divided into two main subsets: type I NKT cells that use a canonical invariant TCR α-chain and recognize α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer, and type II NKT cells that use a more diverse αβ TCR repertoire and do not recognize α-GalCer. In addition, α-GalCer-reactive NKT cells that use non-canonical αβ TCRs and CD1d-restricted T cells that use γδ or δ/αβ TCRs have recently been identified, revealing further diversity among CD1d-restricted T cells. Importantly, in addition to their distinct antigen specificities, functional differences are beginning to emerge between the different members of the CD1d-restricted T cell family. In this review, while using type I NKT cells as comparison, we will focus on type II NKT cells and the other non-invariant CD1d-restricted T cell subsets, and discuss our current understanding of the antigens they recognize, the formation of stimulatory CD1d/antigen complexes, the modes of TCR-mediated antigen recognition, and the mechanisms and consequences of their activation that underlie their function in antimicrobial responses, antitumor immunity, and autoimmunity.

  8. The Extended Family of CD1d-Restricted NKT Cells: Sifting through a Mixed Bag of TCRs, Antigens, and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Fernandez, Elodie; Brigl, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells comprise a family of specialized T cells that recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d. Based on their T cell receptor (TCR) usage and antigen specificities, CD1d-restricted NKT cells have been divided into two main subsets: type I NKT cells that use a canonical invariant TCR α-chain and recognize α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), and type II NKT cells that use a more diverse αβ TCR repertoire and do not recognize α-GalCer. In addition, α-GalCer-reactive NKT cells that use non-canonical αβ TCRs and CD1d-restricted T cells that use γδ or δ/αβ TCRs have recently been identified, revealing further diversity among CD1d-restricted T cells. Importantly, in addition to their distinct antigen specificities, functional differences are beginning to emerge between the different members of the CD1d-restricted T cell family. In this review, while using type I NKT cells as comparison, we will focus on type II NKT cells and the other non-invariant CD1d-restricted T cell subsets, and discuss our current understanding of the antigens they recognize, the formation of stimulatory CD1d/antigen complexes, the modes of TCR-mediated antigen recognition, and the mechanisms and consequences of their activation that underlie their function in antimicrobial responses, anti-tumor immunity, and autoimmunity.

  9. A novel approach in recognizing magnetic material with simplified algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Sultana, Mahbuba Q.; Useinov, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    . This signal was further analyzed (recognized) in frequency domain creating the Fourier frequency spectrum which is easily used to detect the response of magnetic sample. The novel algorithm in detecting magnetic field is presented here with both simulation

  10. Recognizing the Stranger: Recognition Scenes in the Gospel of John

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Bro

    Recognizing the Stranger is the first monographic study of recognition scenes and motifs in the Gospel of John. The recognition type-scene (anagnōrisis) was a common feature in ancient drama and narrative, highly valued by Aristotle as a touching moment of truth, e.g., in Oedipus’ tragic self...... structures of the type-scene in order to show how Jesus’ true identity can be recognized behind the half-mask of his human appearance....

  11. A novel approach in recognizing magnetic material with simplified algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2011-04-01

    In this article a cost-effective and simple system (circuit and algorithm) which allows recognizing different kinds of films by their magneto-field conductive properties is demonstrated. The studied signals are generated by a proposed circuit. This signal was further analyzed (recognized) in frequency domain creating the Fourier frequency spectrum which is easily used to detect the response of magnetic sample. The novel algorithm in detecting magnetic field is presented here with both simulation and experimental results. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Estimating Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating foreign exchange reserves, despite their cost and their impacts on other macroeconomics variables, provides some benefits. This paper models such foreign exchange reserves. To measure the adequacy of foreign exchange reserves for import, it uses total reserves-to-import ratio (TRM. The chosen independent variables are gross domestic product growth, exchange rates, opportunity cost, and a dummy variable separating the pre and post 1997 Asian financial crisis. To estimate the risky TRM value, this paper uses conditional Value-at-Risk (VaR, with the help of Glosten-Jagannathan-Runkle (GJR model to estimate the conditional volatility. The results suggest that all independent variables significantly influence TRM. They also suggest that the short and long run volatilities are evident, with the additional evidence of asymmetric effects of negative and positive past shocks. The VaR, which are calculated assuming both normal and t distributions, provide similar results, namely violations in 2005 and 2008.

  13. 15 CFR 30.52 - Foreign Trade Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign Trade Zones. 30.52 Section 30.52 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Import Requirements § 30.52 Foreign Trade Zones. Foreign...

  14. Characterization of Leishmania Soluble Exo-Antigen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Liwang

    2003-01-01

    .... Vaccine development is the ultimate solution for this problem. Our previous research indicates that Leishmania parasites secrete, excrete, or shed antigens into the medium during in vitro culture...

  15. Binding of hydrophobic antigens to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A first aspect of the present invention is a method of detecting antibodies comprising the steps of: i) providing a first group of beads comprising a surface modified with C1-C10 alkyl groups comprising amine, ammonium, ether and/or hydroxyl groups, ii) contacting said first group of beads......-antigen-antibody conjugates, and v) detecting said bead-antigen-antibody conjugates. Further aspects include an antibody detection kit, a bead-antigen conjugate and a composition comprising at least two different groups of bead-antigen-conjugates....

  16. Human recombinant Fab fragment from combinatorial libraries of a B-cell lymphoma patient recognizes core protein of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Yoko; Narushima, Yuta; Ohshima, Motohiro; Yoshida, Akira; Yoneta, Naruki; Masaki, Yasufumi; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2018-01-01

    CD antigens are well known as therapeutic targets of B-cell lymphoma. To isolate therapeutic antibodies that recognize novel targets other than CD antigens, we constructed a phage display combinatorial antibody Fab library from bone marrow lymphocytes of B-cell lymphoma patient. To eliminate antibodies reactive with known B-cell lymphoma antigen, non-hematopoietic and patient's sera reactive HeLaS3 cells was selected as a target of whole cell panning. Five rounds of panning against live HeLaS3 cells retrieved single Fab clone, termed AHSA (Antibody to HeLa Surface Antigen). Using phage display random peptide library, LSYLEP was identified as an epitope sequence of AHSA. LC-MS/MS analysis of AHSA-precipitated HeLaS3 cell lysates detected several fragments corresponding to the sequence of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) core protein. Since LSYLEP sequence was at the position of 313-318 of CSPG4, we considered that CSPG4 was AHSA-associated antigen. Double staining of CSPG4-postive MDA-MB-435S cells with AHSA and anti-CSPG4 rabbit antibody showed identical staining position, and reduced AHSA reactivity was observed in CSPG4-siRNA treated MDA-MB-435S cells. In conclusion, we retrieved a human Fab from antibody library of B-cell lymphoma patient, and identified CSPG4 as a recognizing antigen. AHSA may have potential benefits for development of CSPG4-targeting theranostics for B-cell lymphoma. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Creativity in foreign language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ševečková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing creativity in foreign language teaching provides students with the opportunity to effectively build language skills as well as increasing their motivation for learning. Practical examples are given using folklore materials (songs, tales, etc. in learning Russian, as well as contemporary materials reflecting the culture of Russian speaking countries (films, poems, etc.. As well as increasing their ability in the target foreign language students also acquire factual information (realia through creative language games. In this paper we describe recent findings in the field and propose possible directions for future research.

  18. Juvenile technologies in foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpagina E.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the review of foreign publications, concerning the juvenile technologies used in France, Canada, Germany and Switzerland. The paper presents legal, social and psychotherapeutic aspects of juvenile judiciary in foreign countries. The authors paid special attention to the complexity of approaches to young children and teenagers who found themselves in complicated life circumstances or got into trouble with the law. The article gives examples of using the following techniques: cognitive-behavioral intervention, mediation, family therapy (including family background and family history, relations theory, narrative practices, utilization of «emotional intelligence» resources.

  19. Employment effects of foreign acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger; Karpaty, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the employment effects of foreign acquisitions in acquired firms in Swedish manufacturing during the 1990s; a period characterized by a dramatic increase in foreign ownership. We find some evidence of positive employment effects in acquired firms and it seems...... that the employment of skilled labor increasesmore than that of less-skilled labor. Our results indicate that the positive employment effects are more pronounced in acquired non-MNEs than in Swedish MNEs. Furthermore, we observe shifts in skill intensities toward higher shares of skilled labor in non-MNEs taken over...

  20. Foreign Body Aspiration in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Atkinson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old morbidly obese African American gravida 1, with a history of severe asthma complicated by multiple inpatient admissions, presents at 30 weeks gestation with a foreign body in her left main stem bronchus. After a failed bronchoscopy postpartum, the patient slipped into respiratory failure and was subsequently intubated, spending two weeks in the intensive care unit. After two more attempts of trying to retrieve the foreign object from her lung via bronchoscopy, she eventually contracted a postobstructive pneumonia and underwent a left lower lung lobectomy for curative treatment.

  1. The Mycoplasma hominis P120 membrane protein contains a 216 amino acid hypervariable domain that is recognized by the human humoral immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1997-01-01

    In the antigenically heterogeneous species Mycoplasma hominis a monoclonal antibody, mAb 26.7D, was previously found to recognize a 120 kDa polypeptide from M. hominis 7488. This antibody did not react with the type strain PG21. The homologous gene from M. hominis PG21 was cloned and sequenced an...... response. Such a variable domain may be important in evasion of the host's immune response, and thus aid survival of the micro-organism....

  2. Predictive Value of Carcinoembryonic and Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Related to Some Clinical, Endoscopic and Histological Colorectal Cancer Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Ratko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is an important oncological and public health problem worldwide, including Serbia. Unfortunately, half of the patients are recognized in an advanced stage of the disease, therefore, early detection through specific tumor biomarkers, such as carcinoembryonic (CEA and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9, is the only way to cope with CRC expansion.

  3. Arginine (Di)methylated Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Peptides Are Favorably Presented by HLA-B*07

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, Fabio; Mommen, Geert P M; Jeko, Anita; Meiring, Hugo D; van Gaans-van den Brink, Jacqueline A M; Scheltema, Richard A; van Els, Cécile A C M; Heck, Albert J R

    Alterations in protein post-translational modification (PTM) are recognized hallmarks of diseases. These modifications potentially provide a unique source of disease-related human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-presented peptides that can elicit specific immune responses. While phosphorylated HLA

  4. CD19-Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells for Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, C L; thor Straten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) for cancer represents a promising new treatment modality. ACT based on the administration of cytotoxic T cells genetically engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) recognizing CD19 expressed by B cell malignancies has been shown to induce complete lasting...

  5. Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells: New Insights into Antigen Recognition and Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells, a novel subpopulation of innate-like T cells that express an invariant T cell receptor (TCRα chain and a diverse TCRβ chain, can recognize a distinct set of small molecules, vitamin B metabolites, derived from some bacteria, fungi but not viruses, in the context of an evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex-related molecule 1 (MR1. This implies that MAIT cells may play unique and important roles in host immunity. Although viral antigens are not recognized by this limited TCR repertoire, MAIT cells are known to be activated in a TCR-independent mechanism during some viral infections, such as hepatitis C virus and influenza virus. In this article, we will review recent works in MAIT cell antigen recognition, activation and the role MAIT cells may play in the process of bacterial and viral infections and pathogenesis of non-infectious diseases.

  6. Design and synthesis of an antigenic mimic of the Ebola glycoprotein

    OpenAIRE

    Rutledge, Ryan D.; Huffman, Brian J.; Cliffel, David E.; Wright, David W.

    2008-01-01

    An antigenic mimic of the Ebola glycoprotein was synthesized and tested for its ability to be recognized by an anti-Ebola glycoprotein antibody. Epitope-mapping procedures yielded a suitable epitope that, when presented on the surface of a nanoparticle, forms a structure that is recognized by an antibody specific for the native protein. This mimic-antibody interaction has been quantitated through ELISA and QCM-based methods and yielded an affinity (Kd = 12 × 10−6 M) within two orders of magni...

  7. Antigen recognition by IgG4 antibodies in human trichinellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelli E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibody isotype response to Trichinella spiralis excretory/secretory (ES products of muscle larva was examined using sera from patients with confirmed trichinellosis. Using Western blots we identify components of the ES antigen that are recognized by IgM and IgG antibodies. A 45 kDa component was strongly recognized by different antibody classes and subclasses. We observed a 45 kDa-specific lgG4 response that was detected exclusively using sera of patients with trichinellosis and not of patients with echinococcosis, filariasis, cysticercosis, ascariasis, strongyloidiasis or toxocariasis. These results are relevant for the diagnosis of human trichinellosis.

  8. "RecognizeCane" : The new concept of a cane which recognizes the most common objects and safety clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Dumas, Jean Claude; Guedj, Benjamin; Vignot, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the new concept of an electronic cane for blind people. While some systems inform the subject only of the presence of the object and its relative distance, RecognizeCane is also able to recognize most common objects and environment clues to increase the safety and confidence of the navigation process. The originality of RecognizeCane is the use of simple sensors, such as infrared, brilliance or water sensors to inform the subject of the presence, for example, of a stairway, a water puddle, a zebra crossing or a trash can. This cane does not use an embedded vision system. RecognizeCane is equipped with several sensors and microprocessors to collect sensor data and extract the desired information about the close environment by means of a dynamic analysis of output signals.

  9. Screening of random peptide library of hemagglutinin from pandemic 2009 A(H1N1 influenza virus reveals unexpected antigenically important regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanghui Xu

    Full Text Available The antigenic structure of the membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA from the 2009 A(H1N1 influenza virus was dissected with a high-throughput screening method using complex antisera. The approach involves generating yeast cell libraries displaying a pool of random peptides of controllable lengths on the cell surface, followed by one round of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS against antisera from mouse, goat and human, respectively. The amino acid residue frequency appearing in the antigenic peptides at both the primary sequence and structural level was determined and used to identify "hot spots" or antigenically important regions. Unexpectedly, different antigenic structures were seen for different antisera. Moreover, five antigenic regions were identified, of which all but one are located in the conserved HA stem region that is responsible for membrane fusion. Our findings are corroborated by several recent studies on cross-neutralizing H1 subtype antibodies that recognize the HA stem region. The antigenic peptides identified may provide clues for creating peptide vaccines with better accessibility to memory B cells and better induction of cross-neutralizing antibodies than the whole HA protein. The scheme used in this study enables a direct mapping of the antigenic regions of viral proteins recognized by antisera, and may be useful for dissecting the antigenic structures of other viral proteins.

  10. Bordetella bronchiseptica antigen enhances the production of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigen-specific immunoglobulin G in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Seol-Hwa; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Joo, Hong-Gu

    2017-09-30

    We previously demonstrated that Bordetella ( B .) bronchiseptica antigen (Ag) showed high immunostimulatory effects on mouse bone marrow cells (BMs) while Mycoplasma ( M .) hyopneumoniae Ag showed low effects. The focus of this study was to determine if B. bronchiseptica Ag can enhance the M. hyopneumoniae Ag-specific immune response and whether the host's immune system can recognize both Ags. MTT assay results revealed that each or both Ags did not significantly change BM metabolic activity. Flow cytometry analysis using carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester showed that B. bronchiseptica Ag can promote the division of BMs. In cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) assays, B. bronchiseptica Ag boosted production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in M. hyopneumoniae Ag-treated BMs, and combined treatment with both Ags elevated the level of NO in BMs compared to that from treatment of M. hyopneumoniae Ag alone. Immunoglobulin (Ig)G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the sera of Ag-injected mice clearly indicated that B. bronchiseptica Ag can increase the production of M. hyopneumoniae Ag-specific IgG. This study provided information valuable in the development of M. hyopneumoniae vaccines and showed that B. bronchiseptica Ag can be used both as a vaccine adjuvant and as a vaccine Ag.

  11. Identification of antigenic Sarcoptes scabiei proteins for use in a diagnostic test and of non-antigenic proteins that may be immunomodulatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marjorie S.; Rider, S. Dean; Arlian, Larry G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Scabies, caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, infects millions of humans, and many wild and domestic mammals. Scabies mites burrow in the lower stratum corneum of the epidermis of the skin and are the source of substances that are antigenic or modulate aspects of the protective response of the host. Ordinary scabies is a difficult disease to diagnose. Objective The goal of this project was to identify S. scabiei proteins that may be candidate antigens for use in a diagnostic test or may be used by the mite to modulate the host’s protective response. Methods An aqueous extract of S. scabiei was separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. A parallel immunoblot was probed with serum from patients with ordinary scabies to identify IgM and/or IgG-binding antigens. The genes coding for 23 selected proteins were cloned into E. coli and the expressed recombinant proteins were screened with serum from patients with confirmed ordinary scabies. Results We identified 50 different proteins produced by S. scabiei, 34 of which were not previously identified, and determined that 66% were recognized by patient IgM and/or IgG. Fourteen proteins were screened for use in a diagnostic test but none possessed enough sensitivity and specificity to be useful. Six of the 9 proteins selected for the possibility that they may be immunomodulatory were not recognized by antibodies in patient serum. Conclusions Thirty-three proteins that bound IgM and/or IgG from the serum of patients with ordinary scabies were identified. None of the 14 tested were useful for inclusion in a diagnostic test. The identities of 16 proteins that are not recognized as antigens by infected patients were also determined. These could be among the molecules that are responsible for this mite’s ability to modulate its host’s innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:28604804

  12. Identification of antigenic Sarcoptes scabiei proteins for use in a diagnostic test and of non-antigenic proteins that may be immunomodulatory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie S Morgan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Scabies, caused by the mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, infects millions of humans, and many wild and domestic mammals. Scabies mites burrow in the lower stratum corneum of the epidermis of the skin and are the source of substances that are antigenic or modulate aspects of the protective response of the host. Ordinary scabies is a difficult disease to diagnose.The goal of this project was to identify S. scabiei proteins that may be candidate antigens for use in a diagnostic test or may be used by the mite to modulate the host's protective response.An aqueous extract of S. scabiei was separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. A parallel immunoblot was probed with serum from patients with ordinary scabies to identify IgM and/or IgG-binding antigens. The genes coding for 23 selected proteins were cloned into E. coli and the expressed recombinant proteins were screened with serum from patients with confirmed ordinary scabies.We identified 50 different proteins produced by S. scabiei, 34 of which were not previously identified, and determined that 66% were recognized by patient IgM and/or IgG. Fourteen proteins were screened for use in a diagnostic test but none possessed enough sensitivity and specificity to be useful. Six of the 9 proteins selected for the possibility that they may be immunomodulatory were not recognized by antibodies in patient serum.Thirty-three proteins that bound IgM and/or IgG from the serum of patients with ordinary scabies were identified. None of the 14 tested were useful for inclusion in a diagnostic test. The identities of 16 proteins that are not recognized as antigens by infected patients were also determined. These could be among the molecules that are responsible for this mite's ability to modulate its host's innate and adaptive immune responses.

  13. The Behavioral Bias of Foreign Debt Usage in Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    We investigate the behavioral bias in the use of debt denominated in foreign currency (foreign debt) in managing foreign exchange risks. From a strictly financial (rational) point of view foreign debt and derivates are close substitutes. Whether e.g. a European firm sells forward US dollars against...... foreign exchange risk management in medium-sized, non-financial firms in Denmark and find a behavioral bias in the use of foreign debt. Among the firms that are internationally involved (operating revenues, costs and/or assets in foreign currency), on average a quarter of the financial debt is denominated...... in foreign currency. The use / non-use of foreign debt is positively related to a number of internationality measures but most significantly to the existence of subsidiaries abroad whereas the degree of usage is particularly related to the magnitude of foreign operating assets. The use of foreign debt...

  14. Structural characteristics of an antigen required for its interaction with Ia and recognition by T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sette, A; Buus, S; Colon, S

    1987-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the residues within an immunogenic peptide that endow it with the capacity to interact with Ia and to be recognized by T cells is presented. Ia interacts with only a few of the peptide residues and overall exhibits a very broad specificity. Some residues appear to interact...... both with Ia and with T cells, leading to a model in which a peptide antigen is 'sandwiched' between Ia and the T-cell receptor....

  15. Neurology of Foreign Language Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    This state-of-the art paper focuses on the poorly explored issue of foreign language aptitude, attempting to present the latest developments in this field and reconceptualizations of the construct from the perspective of neuroscience. In accordance with this goal, it first discusses general directions in neurolinguistic research on foreign…

  16. Culture in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire

    2013-01-01

    In foreign language education, the teaching of culture remains a hotly debated issue. What is culture? What is its relation to language? Which and whose culture should be taught? What role should the learners' culture play in the acquisition of knowledge of the target culture? How can we avoid essentializing cultures and teaching stereotypes? And…

  17. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger; Pauna, Henrique Furlan; Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Dal Rio, Ana Cristina; Correa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; Nicola, Ester Maria Danielli

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  18. Foreign Body in Jugal Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano, Thiago Luís Infanger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Foreign body in the oral cavity may be asymptomatic for long time and only sometimes it can lead to a typical granulomatous foreign body reaction. Some patients may complain of oral pain and present signs of inflammation with purulent discharge. A granuloma is a distinct, compact microscopic structure composed of epithelioid-shaped macrophages typically surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and filled with fibroblasts and collagen. Nowadays, the increase of cosmetic invasive procedures such as injection of prosthetic materials in lips and cheeks may lead to unusual forms of inflammatory granulomas. Objectives Describe an unusual presentation of a foreign body reaction in the buccal mucosa due to previous injection of cosmetic agent. Resumed Report A 74-year-old woman was referred to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery to investigate the presence of multiple painless, bilateral nodules in the buccal mucosa, with progressive growth observed during the previous 2 months. The histologic results showed a foreign body inflammatory reaction. Conclusion Oral granulomatosis lesions represent a challenging diagnosis for clinicians and a biopsy may be necessary. Patients may feel ashamed to report previous aesthetic procedures, and the clinicians must have a proactive approach.

  19. Foreign Language Learning in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpet, Brian R.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a visit made to Sweden to ascertain why Swedish citizens speak such excellent English. Motivation was a key factor. Describes observations of the methods of teaching English as a second language in Swedish schools. Makes recommendations for foreign language teaching in Great Britain based on these observations. (SED)

  20. Authorizing the Foreign Language Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, Hiram H.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews current practices in foreign-language teaching in light of Bourdieu's theories of language and power to show how failing to assess discursive intent prevents students from understanding strategic use of language. Bordieu's model is then proposed as the basis for pedagogy that authorizes students to use their existing cognitive skills in…

  1. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  2. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  3. Strengthening Foreign Language Professional Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Lowell

    1971-01-01

    The leitmotif of this address, inspired by lines found in William B. Yeats'"The Second Coming", underscores the need for a greater display of solidarity of language teachers through increased participation in professional associations. The work of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) is discussed and noted to be vital…

  4. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  5. Molecular insight into human platelet antigens: structural and evolutionary conservation analyses offer new perspective to immunogenic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Meytal; Rosenberg, Nurit

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human platelet antigens (HPAs) are polymorphisms in platelet membrane glycoproteins (GPs) that can stimulate production of alloantibodies once exposed to foreign platelets (PLTs) with different HPAs. These antibodies can cause neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, and PLT transfusion refractoriness. Most HPAs are localized on the main PLT receptors: 1) integrin αIIbβ3, known as the fibrinogen receptor; 2) the GPIb-IX-V complex that functions as the recepto...

  6. Drawing and Recognizing Chinese Characters with Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Yao; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Lin; Bengio, Yoshua

    2018-04-01

    Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters. To recognize Chinese characters, previous methods usually adopt the convolutional neural network (CNN) models which require transforming the online handwriting trajectory into image-like representations. Instead, our RNN based approach is an end-to-end system which directly deals with the sequential structure and does not require any domain-specific knowledge. With the RNN system (combining an LSTM and GRU), state-of-the-art performance can be achieved on the ICDAR-2013 competition database. Furthermore, under the RNN framework, a conditional generative model with character embedding is proposed for automatically drawing recognizable Chinese characters. The generated characters (in vector format) are human-readable and also can be recognized by the discriminative RNN model with high accuracy. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of using RNNs as both generative and discriminative models for the tasks of drawing and recognizing Chinese characters.

  7. A critical examination of the numerology of antigen-binding cells: evidence for multiple receptor specificities on single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A

    1977-01-01

    The data available from other laboratories as well as our own on the frequency of cells recognizing major histocompatibility antigens or conventional protein and hapten antigens is critically evaluated. The frequency of specific binding for a large number of antigens is sufficiently high to support the idea that at least part of the antigen-binding cell population must have multiple specificities. Our results suggest that these multiple specific cells result from single cells synthesizing and displaying as many as 50-100 species of receptor, each at a frequency of 10(4) per cell. A model involving gene expansion of constant-region genes is suggested and some auxilliary evidence consistent with such C-gene expansion is presented.

  8. Foreign Banks Set Sights on Housing Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Having cleared all the hurdles to enter the market, locally incorporated foreign banks declare their intentions to dive into the personal housing loan business in China A battle is brewing between domestic and locally incorporated foreign banks over the

  9. Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct Investment In Nigerian Agriculture (1970 -2009): An Econometric Analysis. ... The study showed that foreign exchange and the economic deregulation policy of Nigerian government ...

  10. Enlightenment From Motivation In Foreign Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2015-01-01

    This paper selects one of classifications of motivation in foreign language learning,that is,instrumental and integrative motivation.By analyzing such a distinction,it hopes to direct foreign language teaching in China.

  11. Urethral Foreign Body Management: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Andy Y.; Koh, Chester J.; Stein, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The management of urethral foreign bodies may require the use of various surgical techniques in a urologist's armamentarium. We report a unique case of a urethral foreign body requiring percutaneous and endoscopic techniques for removal.

  12. OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION POLICY AND CHILD FOREIGN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign language education, particularly in French, has taken root in Kenyan ... interest and potential in foreign language education at this young stage of life. ... Since independence, the Kenyan government has set up several education ...

  13. Unleash innovation in foreign subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkinshaw, J; Hood, N

    2001-03-01

    In multinational corporations, growth-triggering innovation often emerges in foreign subsidiaries from employees closest to customers and least attached to the procedures and politeness of the home office. But too often, heavy-handed responses from headquarters squelch local enthusiasm and drive out good ideas--and good people. The authors' research into more than 50 multinationals suggests that encouraging innovation in foreign subsidiaries requires a change in attitude. Companies should start to think of foreign subsidiaries as peninsulas rather than as islands--as extensions of the company's strategic domain rather than as isolated outposts. If they do, innovative ideas will flow more freely from the periphery to the corporate center. Basing their arguments on a rich array of examples, the authors say that encouraging such "innovation at the edges" also requires a new set of practices, with two aims: to improve the formal and informal channels of communication between headquarters and subsidiaries and to give foreign subsidiaries more authority to see their ideas through. The challenge for executives of multinationals is to find ways to liberalize, not tighten, internal systems and to delegate more authority to local subsidiaries. It isn't enough to ask subsidiary managers to be innovative; corporate managers need to give them incentives and support systems to facilitate their efforts. The authors suggest four approaches: give seed money to subsidiaries; use formal requests for proposals as a way of increasing the demand for seed money; encourage subsidiaries to be incubators for fledgling businesses; and build international networks. As part of the last approach, multinationals also need to create roles for idea brokers who can link entrepreneurs in foreign subsidiaries with other parts of the company.

  14. Virosomes for antigen and DNA delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; de Mare, A; Bungener, L; de Jonge, J; Huckriede, A; Wilschut, J

    2005-01-01

    Specific targeting and delivery as well as the display of antigens on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are key issues in the design and development of new-generation vaccines aimed at the induction of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Prophylactic vaccination

  15. Radioimmunoassay for a human prostate specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, T.; Miki, M.; Ohishi, Y.; Kido, A.; Morikawa, J.; Ogawa, Y.

    1983-01-01

    As a marker for prostatic cancer, a prostate-specific antigen was purified from human prostatic tissues. Double antibody radioimmunoassay utilizing immune reaction was developed on the basis of the purified prostatic antigen (PA). Measurement results have revealed that PA radioimmunoassay is much better than prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) radioimmunoassay in the diagnosis of prostatic cancer

  16. Antimelanoma CTL recognizes peptides derived from an ORF transcribed from the antisense strand of the 3′ untranslated region of TRIT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf K Swoboda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncoding regions of the genome play an important role in tumorigenesis of cancer. Using expression cloning, we have identified a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL–defined antigen that recognizes a protein sequence derived from an open reading frame transcribed from the reverse strand in the 3′ untranslated region of tRNA isopentenyltransferase 1 (TRIT1. A peptide derived from this open reading frame (ORF sequence and predicted to bind to HLA-B57, sensitized HLA-B57+ tumor cells to lysis by CTL793. The peptide also induced a CTL response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of patient 793 and in two other melanoma patients. The CTL lysed peptide-pulsed HLA-B57+ target cells and melanoma cells with endogenous antigen expression. The recognition of this antigen is not limited to HLA-B57-restricted CTLs. An HLA-A2 peptide derived from the ORF was able to induce CTLs in PBMC of 2 HLA-A2+ patients. This study describes for the first time a CTL-defined melanoma antigen that is derived from an ORF on the reverse strand of the putative tumor suppressor gene TRIT1. This antigen has potential use as a vaccine or its ability to induce CTLs in vitro could be used as a predictive biomarker.

  17. Foreign Investments in Russia in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Iliukhina

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, a decline in foreign investors’ activities in the Russian Federation was observed. The inflow of foreign investments as a share of GDP decreased by 2.3 p.p. as compared to 2011. Foreign investments concentrated mainly in the industry and the fi nancial sector. In the industry, the leaders were manufacturing industries. As the geographic pattern of foreign investments is concerned, the largest volume of investments into the Russian Federation came from Switzerland, the Netherlands and...

  18. Foreign Policy: Approaches, Levels Of Analysis, Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Šoljan

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of key issues related to foreign policy and foreign policy theories in the wider context of political science. Discussing the origins and development of foreign policy analysis (FPA), as well as scholarly work produced over time, it argues that today FPA encompasses a variety of theoretical approaches, models and tools. These share the understanding that foreign policy outputs cannot be fully explained if analysis is confined to the systemic level. Furthermore,...

  19. Recognizing Variable Environments The Theory of Cognitive Prism

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Tiansi

    2012-01-01

    Normal adults do not have any difficulty in recognizing their homes. But can artificial systems do in the same way as humans? This book collects interdisciplinary evidences and presents an answer from the perspective of computing, namely, the theory of cognitive prism. To recognize an environment, an intelligent system only needs to classify objects, structures them based on the connection relation (not through measuring!), subjectively orders the objects, and compares with the target environment, whose knowledge is similarly structured. The intelligent system works, therefore, like a prism: when a beam of light (a scene) reaches (is perceived) to an optical prism (by an intelligent system), some light (objects) is reflected (are neglected), those passed through (the recognized objects) are distorted (are ordered differently). So comes the term 'cognitive prism'! Two fundamental propositions used in the theory can be informally stated as follow: an orientation relation is a kind of distance comparison relatio...

  20. Recognizing Multi-user Activities using Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2011-01-01

    The advances of wireless networking and sensor technology open up an interesting opportunity to infer human activities in a smart home environment. Existing work in this paradigm focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user. In this work, we address the fundamental problem...... activity classes of data—for building activity models and design a scalable, noise-resistant, Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single- and multi-user activities. We develop a multi-modal, wireless body sensor network for collecting real-world traces in a smart...... home environment, and conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate our system. Results show that epMAR outperforms existing schemes in terms of accuracy, scalability and robustness....

  1. Production of antibodies which recognize opiate receptors on murine leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.J.J.; Bost, K.L.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An antibody has been developed which recognizes opiate receptors on cells of the immune system. This antibody blocks specific binding of the radiolabeled opiate receptor ligand, /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine, to receptors on murine splenocytes. Additionally, the anti-receptor antibody competes with ..beta..-endorphin, meta-enkephalin, and naloxone for the same binding site on the leukocytes. Moreover, the anti-receptor antibody possesses agonist activity similar to ..beta..-endorphin in suppressing cAMP production by lymphocytes. These results suggest the development of an antibody which recognizes classical opiate receptors on cells of the immune system.

  2. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival...

  3. Revisiting Problems with Foreign Language Aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Anna; Kormos, Judit

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated three of the issues recently raised in connection with the traditional concept of foreign language aptitude: the relationship between foreign language aptitude and working memory and phonological short-term memory capacity, the role of foreign language aptitude in predicting success in the framework of focus-on-form foreign…

  4. 31 CFR 500.301 - Foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign country. 500.301 Section 500.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 500.301 Foreign country. The term foreign country also includes, but not by way of limitation: (a) The...

  5. 31 CFR 515.301 - Foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign country. 515.301 Section 515.301 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 515.301 Foreign country. The term foreign country also includes, but not by way of limitation: (a) The...

  6. 34 CFR 682.611 - Foreign schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign schools. 682.611 Section 682.611 Education... for Participating Schools § 682.611 Foreign schools. A foreign school is required to comply with the... publications or documents that those schools need not comply with those provisions. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1077...

  7. Mode of foreign entry, technology transfer, and foreign direct investment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mattoo, Aaditya; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Saggi, Kamal

    2001-01-01

    Foreign direct investment can take place through the direct entry of foreign firms or the acquisition of existing domestic firms. Mattoo, Olarreaga, and Saggi examine the preferences of a foreign firm and the host country government with respect to these two modes of foreign direct investment in the presence of costly technology transfer. The tradeoff between technology transfer and market...

  8. Generation and characterization of antigenic variants induced by exposure of tumor cells to UV radiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostetler, L.L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Antigenic changes present in nonantigenic tumor cells exposed to UV radiation (UV) in vitro were investigated by addressing the following questions: (1) Are antigenic variants (AV) produced that are rejected in normal but not immunosuppressed mice? (2) Does generation of AV depend upon intrinsic properties of the cells exposed or result from the action of UV? (3) Is antigenic modification induced by UV due to increased histocompatibility antigen expression? (4) Do AV crossreact immunologically with parental tumor or with other AV? and (5) Is the UV-associated common antigen expressed on UV-induced tumors present on UV-irradiated tumor cells? AV were generated at different frequencies following in vitro UV irradiation of a spontaneous murine fibrosarcoma, a murine melanoma, and two melanoma clones. Immunological experiments demonstrated that the AV and parental cells shared a determinant that was susceptible to immune recognition, but incapable of inducing immunity. In contrast, the AV were noncrossreactive, suggesting that variant-specific antigens were also expressed. Finally, the AV were recognized by UV-induced suppressor cells, indicating that the UV-associated common antigen expressed by UV-induced tumors was also present

  9. Identification of Eimeria acervulina conoid antigen using chicken monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Minoura, Chisa; Kimura, Shintaro; Tani, Hiroyuki; Furuya, Masaru; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Matsuda, Haruo; Takenaka, Shigeo; Hatta, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Sasai, Kazumi

    2016-11-01

    In the poultry industry, Eimeria spp. is one of the important pathogens which cause significant economic losses. We have previously generated a chicken monoclonal antibody (mAb), 6D-12-G10, with specificity for an antigen located in the apical cytoskeleton of Eimeria acervulina and with cross-reactive among Apicomplexan parasites, including other Eimeria spp., Toxoplasma, Neospora, and Cryptosporidium spp. Furthermore, the protein of Cryptosporidium parvum recognized by the 6D-12-G10 has been identified as elongation factor-1α (EF-1α). In the present study, to identify the target molecule of E. acervulina by the mAb, we performed two-dimensional Western blotting analysis. Finally, we found two positive molecules which are identified as EF-1α and a related protein. Our previous finding using C. parvum and the results in this study suggest that EF-1α could be associated with the invasion facilitated by the cytoskeleton at the apical region of zoites.

  10. Foreign direct investments in Romania in EU28 framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Postoiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments flows are perceived by economic policymakers and by economic researchers as one of the key - determinants of the process of adjustment and structural modernization of emerging economies. They are also recognized in the economic literature as an important source of economic growth. This research aims to identify whether FDI can contribute to the economic growth of a country and to estimate whether the foreign investors are attracted to investin economies that recorded successive growth rates. This approach involves the use of econometric tools and descriptive statistics to empirically support the assumptions made. Thus, for the quantitative analysis Eviews 7 and ArcGIS software tools were used. For the case study we analysed the Romanian economic situation in the current European context. First we take a look at the main evolution of foreign direct investment flows in the European Union. Subsequently we focus on the FDI flows into the Romanian economy and we test the links between these FDI flows and the economic growth process.

  11. Studies on antigenic cross-reactivity of Trichuris ovis with host mucosal antigens in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Patra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain whether immunodominant antigens of Trichuris ovis might share and cross react with host molecule. Methods: Two crude protein preparations from anterior and posterior parts of Trichuris ovis were characterized along with host mucosal antigen by double immunodiffusion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting technique. Conventional scanning electron microscopy was performed as per standard procedure. Results: Sharp and distinct bands of three antigens have been found in double immunodiffusion using hyperimmune serum raised in rabbit indicating the presence of specific antibody against each antigen. All three antigens have shown major and minor bands with molecular weight ranging from 15 to 110 kDa during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Conclusions: The antigenic cross-reactivity was thought to result from shared antigens. The existence of paracloacal papillae found in the anterior part of the male was not a unique feature for species differentiation.

  12. Carbohydrates as T-cell antigens with implications in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lina; Middleton, Dustin R; Wantuch, Paeton L; Ozdilek, Ahmet; Avci, Fikri Y

    2016-10-01

    Glycosylation is arguably the most ubiquitous post-translational modification on proteins in microbial and mammalian cells. During the past few years, there has been intensive research demonstrating that carbohydrates, either in pure forms or in conjunction with proteins or lipids, evoke and modulate adaptive immune responses. We now know that carbohydrates can be directly recognized by T cells or participate in T-cell stimulation as components of T-cell epitopes. T-cell recognition of carbohydrate antigens takes place via their presentation by major histocompatibility complex pathways on antigen-presenting cells. In this review, we summarize studies on carbohydrates as T-cell antigens modulating adaptive immune responses. Through discussion of glycan-containing antigens, such as glycoproteins, glycolipids, zwitterionic polysaccharides and carbohydrate-based glycoconjugate vaccines, we will illustrate the key molecular and cellular interactions between carbohydrate antigens and T cells and the implications of these interactions in health and disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Significance of radioimmunological analysis of tumor-associated antigens in the differential diagnosis of tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putseva, N.M.; Chebotareva, Eh.D.; Chernyj, V.A.; Tashchiev, V.K.; Evtushenko, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Radioimmunologic investigations are conducted in 329 patients and 118 healthy people. The content of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), ferritin (FER) and β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -mg) is determined in the blood serum according to instructions, proposed by domestic and foreign firms. It is ascertained that in the majority of patients suffering from pancreatitis normal CA 19-9 and CEA levels are observed, and β 2 -mg indices allow one to differentiate acute pancreatitis and chronic one. Increased CA 19-9 level points out to the presence of pancreas cancer in 90% of patients, CEA - to its frequency, β 2 -mg- to the criticality of the patient condition (the presence of renal-hepatic insufficiency). Involvement of liver (hepatitis, primary cancer or metastatic injury) into the pathologic process is accompanied by a sufficient TPA and FER increase

  14. Classical dendritic cells are required for dietary antigen-mediated peripheral regulatory T cell and tolerance induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterházy, Daria; Loschko, Jakob; London, Mariya; Jove, Veronica; Oliveira, Thiago Y.; Mucida, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Oral tolerance prevents pathological inflammatory responses towards innocuous foreign antigens via peripheral regulatory T cells (pTreg cells). However, whether a particular subset of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is required during dietary antigen exposure to instruct naïve CD4+ T cells to differentiate into pTreg cells has not been defined. Using myeloid lineage-specific APC depletion in mice, we found that monocyte-derived APCs are dispensable, while classical dendritic cells (cDCs) are critical for pTreg cell induction and oral tolerance. CD11b− cDCs from the gut-draining lymph nodes efficiently induced pTreg cells, and conversely, loss of IRF8-dependent CD11b− cDCs impaired their polarization, although oral tolerance remained intact. These data reveal the hierarchy of cDC subsets in pTreg cell induction and their redundancy during oral tolerance development. PMID:27019226

  15. Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the cytosol to induce T cell immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yichen; Friedman, Rachel; Kushner, Nicholas; Doling, Amy; Thomas, Lawrence; Touzjian, Neal; Starnbach, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2000-07-01

    Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliver foreign proteins to the cytosol for antigen presentation to CD8 T cells. Vaccination with modified toxins carrying 8-9 amino acid peptide epitopes induces protective immunity in mice. To evaluate whether large protein antigens can be used with this system, recombinant constructs encoding several HIV antigens up to 500 amino acids were produced. These candidate HIV vaccines are safe in animals and induce CD8 T cells in mice. Constructs encoding gag p24 and nef stimulate gag-specific CD4 proliferation and a secondary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in HIV-infected donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. These results lay the foundation for future clinical vaccine studies.

  16. The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of serum Hepatitis B surface antigen quantification in determining viralactivity in chronic Hepatitis B virus infection. ... ofCHB andalso higher in hepatitis e antigen positive patients compared to hepatitis e antigen negative patients.

  17. Allergens/Antigens, toxins and polyketides of important Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhetariya, Preetida J; Madan, Taruna; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Varma, Anupam; Usha, Sarma P

    2011-04-01

    The medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance of the primitive eukaryotic microorganisms, the Fungi was recognized way back in 1920. Among various groups of fungi, the Aspergillus species are studied in great detail using advances in genomics and proteomics to unravel biological and molecular mechanisms in these fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus terreus are some of the important species relevant to human, agricultural and biotechnological applications. The potential of Aspergillus species to produce highly diversified complex biomolecules such as multifunctional proteins (allergens, antigens, enzymes) and polyketides is fascinating and demands greater insight into the understanding of these fungal species for application to human health. Recently a regulator gene for secondary metabolites, LaeA has been identified. Gene mining based on LaeA has facilitated new metabolites with antimicrobial activity such as emericellamides and antitumor activity such as terrequinone A from A. nidulans. Immunoproteomic approach was reported for identification of few novel allergens for A. fumigatus. In this context, the review is focused on recent developments in allergens, antigens, structural and functional diversity of the polyketide synthases that produce polyketides of pharmaceutical and biological importance. Possible antifungal drug targets for development of effective antifungal drugs and new strategies for development of molecular diagnostics are considered.

  18. Tumor-Associated Antigens for Specific Immunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiessling, Andrea [Biologics Safety and Disposition, Preclinical Safety, Translational Sciences, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Werk Klybeck, Klybeckstraße 141, Basel CH-4057 (Switzerland); Wehner, Rebekka [Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Füssel, Susanne [Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Bachmann, Michael [Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Wirth, Manfred P. [Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Schmitz, Marc, E-mail: marc.schmitz@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Technology Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, Dresden 01307 (Germany)

    2012-02-22

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common noncutaneous cancer diagnosis and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Effective treatment modalities for advanced metastatic PCa are limited. Immunotherapeutic strategies based on T cells and antibodies represent interesting approaches to prevent progression from localized to advanced PCa and to improve survival outcomes for patients with advanced disease. CD8{sup +} cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) efficiently recognize and destroy tumor cells. CD4{sup +} T cells augment the antigen-presenting capacity of dendritic cells and promote the expansion of tumor-reactive CTLs. Antibodies mediate their antitumor effects via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, activation of the complement system, improving the uptake of coated tumor cells by phagocytes, and the functional interference of biological pathways essential for tumor growth. Consequently, several tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) have been identified that represent promising targets for T cell- or antibody-based immunotherapy. These TAAs comprise proteins preferentially expressed in normal and malignant prostate tissues and molecules which are not predominantly restricted to the prostate, but are overexpressed in various tumor entities including PCa. Clinical trials provide evidence that specific immunotherapeutic strategies using such TAAs represent safe and feasible concepts for the induction of immunological and clinical responses in PCa patients. However, further improvement of the current approaches is required which may be achieved by combining T cell- and/or antibody-based strategies with radio-, hormone-, chemo- or antiangiogenic therapy.

  19. Peripheral neuropathies associated with antibodies directed to intracellular neural antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, J-C

    2014-10-01

    Antibodies directed to intracellular neural antigens have been mainly described in paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathies and mostly includes anti-Hu and anti-CV2/CRMP5 antibodies. These antibodies occur with different patterns of neuropathy. With anti-Hu antibody, the most frequent manifestation is sensory neuronopathy with frequent autonomic involvement. With anti-CV2/CRMP5 the neuropathy is more frequently sensory and motor with an axonal or mixed demyelinating and axonal electrophysiological pattern. The clinical pattern of these neuropathies is in keeping with the cellular distribution of HuD and CRMP5 in the peripheral nervous system. Although present in high titer, these antibodies are probably not directly responsible for the neuropathy. Pathological and experimental studies indicate that cytotoxic T-cells are probably the main effectors of the immune response. These disorders contrast with those in which antibodies recognize a cell surface antigen and are probably responsible for the disease. The neuronal cell death and axonal degeneration which result from T-cell mediated immunity explains why treating these disorders remains challenging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Recognizing, explaining and countering norm transgressive behaviour on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padje, E.D.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, it is researched how norm transgressive behaviour exhibited on the Dutch domains of social media can be recognized, explained and countered. An analysis of four comment threads is conducted, of which the comments can be found on the Facebook pages of three Dutch news sites and on a

  1. Lessons from Tiananmen Square: Recognizing Bias in News Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Recommends teaching students to recognize bias in news reports and how personal preferences infringe on objective judgment. Provides two class activities designed to help students understand this concept. Uses the Cinderella story from three cultures and group discussion to illustrate this technique. (NL)

  2. Framework for benchmarking FA-based string recognizers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngassam, EK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available of suggested algorithms by domain-specific FA-implementers requires prior knowledge of the behaviour (performance-wise) of each algorithm in order to make an informed choice. The authors propose a based string recognizers such that FA-implementers could capture...

  3. Recognizing Family Dynamics in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2012-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an increasingly common chronic medical condition that affects not only patients but also their families. Because family dynamics, particularly the family life cycle, can and does influence the disease process, those providing counseling to CFS patients and their families would do well to recognize these dynamics.…

  4. Recognizing and Treating Malaria in U.S. Residents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: It's a Small World After All: Dengue and Malaria in U.S. Residents - Recognizing and Treating These Mosquito-borne Diseases. CDC's David Townes discusses clinical presentation, transmission, prevention strategies, new treatments, and malaria resources available to health care providers.

  5. Recognizing Risk-of-Failure in Communication Design Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Joyce; Lievesley, Matthew; Taylor, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The pace of commercial graphic design practice presents very few opportunities to conduct user research after a project's launch. This makes the design team's ability to anticipate and address risks during the design development phase even more important, recognized in the astute observation from Tim Brown, CEO of leading international design…

  6. Recognizing and managing sapstreak disease of sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Houston; David R. Houston

    1993-01-01

    Sapstreak disease, a potentially serious problem of sugarbushes and forest stands, occurs when the causal fungus, Ceratocystis virescens, invades the sapwood of roots and bases of stems through wounds inflicted during logging, saphauling, or other activities. Describes how to recognize the disease, the factors that affect its occurrence and development, and management...

  7. NREL: News - Students Recognized for Creativity during Energy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Event Recognized for Creativity during Energy Education Event Golden, Colo., May 13, 2002 Tapping the power of the sun was the theme of the May 11 Solarbrate Education event at the U.S. Department Assistance Foundation, Oakwood Homes, Home Depot, E-Star Colorado, Governor's Office of Energy Management

  8. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramon, M.; Miellet, S.; Dzieciol, A.M.; Konrad, B.N; Dresler, M.; Caldara, R.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships,

  9. Recognizing Job Health Hazards. Module SH-08. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on recognizing job health hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents the four general categories of environmental conditions or stresses: chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is…

  10. Shady strategic behavior : Recognizing strategic behavior of Dark Triad followers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Birgit; Wisse, Barbara; Sanders, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    The importance of strategic behavior in organizations has long been recognized. However, so far the literature has primarily focused on leaders’ strategic behavior, largely ignoring followers’ strategic behavior. In the present paper, we take a follower trait perspective to strategic follower

  11. Professional Development Recognizing Technology Integration Modeled after the TPACK Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Public school teachers within a Pennsylvania intermediate unit are receiving inadequate job-embedded professional development that recognizes knowledge of content, pedagogy, and technology integration, as outlined by Mishra and Koehler's Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework (2006). A school environment where teachers are…

  12. Structural elements recognized by abacavir-induced T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yerly, Daniel; Pompeu, Yuri Andreiw; Schutte, Ryan J.

    2017-01-01

    of autoimmune destruction. The structural elements recognized by drug-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) in vivo are poorly defined. Drug-stimulated T cells express TCRs specific for peptide/HLA complexes, but the characteristics of peptides (sequence, or endogenous or exogenous origin) presented in the context...

  13. Cultural characters of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, M P; John, M; Parker, M T

    1966-07-01

    Members of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci, which are believed to have arisen from 83A staphylococci by lysogenization, differ from them in several cultural characters. Some but not all of these characters appear to be determined by the carriage of phage.

  14. QMODULE: CAMAC modules recognized by the QAL compiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Minor, M.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.; Thomas, R.F. Jr.; van der Beken, H.

    1977-10-01

    The compiler for the Q Analyzer Language, QAL, recognizes a certain set of CAMAC modules as having known characteristics. The conventions and procedures used to describe these modules are discussed as well as the tools available to the user for extending this set as required

  15. The monoclonal antibody SM5-1 recognizes a fibronectin variant which is widely expressed in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yajun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we have generated the monoclonal antibody SM5-1 by using a subtractive immunization protocol of human melanoma. This antibody exhibits a high sensitivity for primary melanomas of 99% (248/250 tested and for metastatic melanoma of 96% (146/151 tested in paraffin embedded sections. This reactivity is superior to the one obtained by HMB-45, anti-MelanA or anti-Tyrosinase and is comparable to anti-S100. However, as compared to anti-S100, the antibody SM5-1 is highly specific for melanocytic lesions since 40 different neoplasms were found to be negative for SM5-1 by immunohistochemistry. The antigen recognized by SM5-1 is unknown. Methods In order to characterize the antigen recognized by mAb SM5-1, a cDNA library was constructed from the metastatic human melanoma cell line SMMUpos in the Uni-ZAP lambda phage and screened by mAb SM5-1. The cDNA clones identified by this approach were then sequenced and subsequently analyzed. Results Sequence analysis of nine independent overlapping clones (length 3100–5600 bp represent fibronectin cDNA including the ED-A, but not the ED-B region which are produced by alternative splicing. The 89aa splicing variant of the IIICS region was found in 8/9 clones and the 120aa splicing variant in 1/9 clones, both of which are included in the CS1 region of fibronectin being involved in melanoma cell adhesion and spreading. Conclusion The molecule recognized by SM5-1 is a melanoma associated FN variant expressed by virtually all primary and metastatic melanomas and may play an important role in melanoma formation and progression. This antibody is therefore not only of value in immunohistochemistry, but potentially also for diagnostic imaging and immunotherapy.

  16. Recognizing Textual Entailment: Challenges in the Portuguese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing textual entailment comprises the task of determining semantic entailment relations between text fragments. A text fragment entails another text fragment if, from the meaning of the former, one can infer the meaning of the latter. If such relation is bidirectional, then we are in the presence of a paraphrase. Automatically recognizing textual entailment relations captures major semantic inference needs in several natural language processing (NLP applications. As in many NLP tasks, textual entailment corpora for English abound, while the same is not true for more resource-scarce languages such as Portuguese. Exploiting what seems to be the only Portuguese corpus for textual entailment and paraphrases (the ASSIN corpus, in this paper, we address the task of automatically recognizing textual entailment (RTE and paraphrases from text written in the Portuguese language, by employing supervised machine learning techniques. We employ lexical, syntactic and semantic features, and analyze the impact of using semantic-based approaches in the performance of the system. We then try to take advantage of the bi-dialect nature of ASSIN to compensate its limited size. With the same aim, we explore modeling the task of recognizing textual entailment and paraphrases as a binary classification problem by considering the bidirectional nature of paraphrases as entailment relationships. Addressing the task as a multi-class classification problem, we achieve results in line with the winner of the ASSIN Challenge. In addition, we conclude that semantic-based approaches are promising in this task, and that combining data from European and Brazilian Portuguese is less straightforward than it may initially seem. The binary classification modeling of the problem does not seem to bring advantages to the original multi-class model, despite the outstanding results obtained by the binary classifier for recognizing textual entailments.

  17. 17 CFR 30.12 - Direct foreign order transmittal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct foreign order... FOREIGN FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.12 Direct foreign order transmittal. (a) Authorized... investment decisions with respect to foreign futures and foreign option transactions are made by a commodity...

  18. Accommodation training in foreign workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masumi; Miyao, Masaru; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    By relaxing the contracted focus-adjustment muscles around the eyeball, known as the ciliary and extraocular muscles, the degree of pseudomyopia can be reduced. This understanding has led to accommodation training in which a visual target is presented in stereoscopic video clips. However, it has been pointed out that motion sickness can be induced by viewing stereoscopic video clips. In Measurement 1 of the present study, we verified whether the new 3D technology reduced the severity of motion sickness in accordance with stabilometry. We then evaluated the short-term effects of accommodation training using new stereoscopic video clips on foreign workers (11 females) suffering from eye fatigue in Measurement 2. The foreign workers were trained for three days. As a result, visual acuity was statistically improved by continuous accommodation training, which will help promote ciliary muscle stretching.

  19. Leukemia-associated antigens in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G; Capellaro, D; Greaves, M

    1975-12-01

    Rabbit antisera raised against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells were used to distinguish ALL from other leukemias, to identify rare leukemia cells in the bone marrow of patients in remission, and to define human leukemia-associated antigens. Antibody binding was studied with the use of immunofluorescence reagents and the analytic capacity of the Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter-1 (FACS-1). The results indicated that most non-T-cell ALL have three leukemia-associated antigens on their surface which are absent from normal lymphoid cells: 1) an antigen shared with myelocytes, myeloblastic leukemia cells, and fetal liver (hematopoietic) cells; 2) an antigen shared with a subset of intermediate normoblasts in normal bone marrow and fetal liver; and 3) an antigen found thus far only on non-T-cell ALL and in some acute undifferentiated leukemias, which we therefore regard as a strong candidate for a leukemia-specific antigen. These antigens are absent from a subgroup of ALL patients in which the lymphoblasta express T-cell surface markers. Preliminary studies on the bone marrow samples of patients in remission indicated that rare leukemia cells were present in some samples. The implications of these findings with respect to the heterogeneity and cell origin(s) of ALL, its diagnosis, and its potential monitoring during treatment were discussed.

  20. Button battery intake as foreign body in Chinese children: review of case reports and the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenjing; Wen, Guangyi; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-06-01

    Button batteries have been recognized as one of the dangerous foreign bodies to children for more than 30 years, but few related studies have been published to give more concern in China. We reported 6 cases of button battery intake as foreign body in children. The Chinese literature on button battery as foreign body in children was reviewed. The interval between the accidental ingestion and battery removal ranged from 6 hours to 3 days. Two patients had no sequela, 3 patients had tracheoesophageal fistulas, and 1 patient had nasal septal perforation. Twenty-eight articles about button battery as foreign body in children were obtained by Chinese-language literature searches including 25 case reports, 2 health education articles, and 1 imaging article. In total, 172 cases of button battery intake as foreign body in children were identified, 23 and 10 of the 159 cases involving nasal button battery lodgment developed nasal septal perforation and nasal adhesion, respectively. Tracheoesophageal fistula was identified in 4 of the 12 ingestion cases. One case of button battery intake was in external auditory canal. A small number of children with button battery as foreign body were reported in China, which is 1 of the biggest countries with large population of children.

  1. CARbodies: Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Alonso-Camino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A human single-chain variable fragment (scFv antibody library was expressed on the surface of human T cells after transduction with lentiviral vectors (LVs. The repertoire was fused to a first-generation T cell receptor ζ (TCRζ-based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR. We used this library to isolate antibodies termed CARbodies that recognize antigens expressed on the tumor cell surface in a proof-of-principle system. After three rounds of activation-selection there was a clear repertoire restriction, with the emergence dominant clones. The CARbodies were purified from bacterial cultures as soluble and active proteins. Furthermore, to validate its potential application for adoptive cell therapy, human T cells were transduced with a LV encoding a second-generation costimulatory CAR (CARv2 bearing the selected CARbodies. Transduced human primary T cells expressed significant levels of the CARbodies-based CARv2 fusion protein on the cell surface, and importantly could be specifically activated, after stimulation with tumor cells. This approach is a promising tool for the generation of antibodies fully adapted to the display format (CAR and the selection context (cell synapse, which could extend the scope of current adoptive cell therapy strategies with CAR-redirected T cells.

  2. Molecular cloning, characterization and antigenicity of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (Babesia cf. motasi) apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Guan, Guiquan; Pan, Yuping; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) has been described as a potential vaccine candidate in apicomplexan parasites. Here we characterize the ama-1 gene. The full-length ama-1 gene of Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) (BLTAMA-1) is 1785 bp, which contains an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 65-kDa protein of 594 amino acid residues; by definition, the 5' UTR precedes the first methionine of the ORF. Phylogenetic analysis based on AMA-1 amino acid sequences clearly separated Piroplasmida from other Apicomplexa parasites. The Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) AMA-1 sequence is most closely associated with that of B. ovata and B. bigemina, with high bootstrap value. A recombinant protein encoding a conserved region and containing ectodomains I and II of BLTAMA-1 was constructed. BLTrAMA-1-DI/DII proteins were tested for reactivity with sera from sheep infected by Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan). In Western-blot analysis, native Babesia sp. BQ1 (Lintan) AMA-1 proteins were recognized by antibodies raised in rabbits against BLTrAMA-1 in vitro. The results of this study are discussed in terms of gene characterization, taxonomy and antigenicity.

  3. Foreign body in children?s airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassol Vitor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and the results of bronchoscopic treatment of children due to foreign body aspiration in a university hospital. METHOD: Time series of children who underwent bronchoscopies for foreign bodies aspirated into the airway between March 1993 and July 2002. Each patient was analyzed for age, sex, initial clinical diagnosis, nature and location of the foreign body, duration of symptoms between aspiration and bronchoscopy, radiological findings, results of bronchoscopic removal, complications of bronchoscopy and presence of foreign bodies in the airways. RESULTS: Thirty-four children, 20 (59% boys, ages ranging from nine months to nine years (median = 23 months. In 32 (94% children the foreign body was removed by rigid bronchoscope, and two resulted in thoracotomy. Foreign bodies were more frequent in children under three years of age (66%. A clinical history of foreign body inhalation was obtained in 27 (80% cases. Most of the foreign bodies removed were organic (65% and more frequently found in the right bronchial tree (59%. Foreign bodies were removed within 24 hours in 18 (53% cases. The most frequent radiographic findings were: unilateral air trapping, atelectasis and radiopac foreign body. Major bronchoscopy complications occurred in seven children (22%, and there were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: More attention is necessary to the respiratory symptoms of aspirations, mainly in boys at early ages, with clinical history and compatible radiological findings. Most foreign bodies removed were of organic nature. In this case series, therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy was effective with few complications.

  4. Components of foreign object management as

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Yu. Gordopolov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the components of foreign economic activity as objects of accounting and management, and analysis of current legislation and scientific literature that allowed classification form shapes and types of foreign economic activities that contribute to the planning process in the enterprise, as well as building an effective system of management and accounting, economic analysis and internal control. As part of the classification described basic forms, types of foreign trade, especially their implementation and legal regulation. On the basis of basic forms and types of foreign trade, set a number of problems conceptual-categorical apparatus applicable law. A nine treatments categories–operations of foreign economic activity of fixing specific legal acts. Operations of foreign economic activity (import transactions, export transactions, international transactions, securities, credit and foreign payment transactions, foreign rental operations, international leasing, foreign exchange transactions, foreign investments and operations associated with the joint activity identified as about objects accounting in foreign trade and is divided according to types of business entities (operating, financial and investment.

  5. Intraorbital wooden and bamboo foreign bodies: CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, A.; Kato, A.; Takase, Y.; Kudo, S.

    1997-01-01

    We describe the CT findings of intraorbital wooden and bamboo foreign bodies in the acute, subacute, and chronic stages. We examined four patients using CT a total of seven times. The CT findings were reviewed. There were three dry wooden foreign bodies. CT within a day of the accident demonstrated wooden foreign bodies as low density relative to surrounding orbital fat, while CT 8-29 days after the accident showed them as denser than the extraocular muscles. In the acute stage, dry wooden foreign bodies mimic air bubbles. Wooden foreign bodies in the subacute and chronic stages should be included in the differential diagnosis of intraorbital lesions of soft tissue density or above on CT of traumatised orbits. There was one dry bamboo foreign body. Within a day of the accident it was recognised as linear lesion isodense with fat. Therefore, such foreign bodies may be missed on CT when located in the orbital fat. (orig.)

  6. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technologic...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms.......We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...... distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...

  7. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  8. Multilateral negotiations in foreign investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Orlando Ruiz Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct foreign investment is one of the most important economic variables in the world. Aspects related to international investment agreements are reaching an outstanding place in economic international diplomacy. Nowadays, in the multilateral level there is not an agreement regarding investment and therefore this study is focused on this particular type of agreement. In order to reach this objective this study shows, first of all, how different attempts have been developed to get a multicultural a agreement regarding investment, and to refuse the general opinion that says that exponential growth of foreign investment flows in recent years has given impulse to launch a multilateral investment agreement. Secondly, this study discusses about regulations related to foreign investment under current WTO regulations, such as investment, measure agreements, and service agreement. Then, it analyzes what has happened inside the WTO from the creation of the investment team at the Singapore Conference to the failed Conference in Cancun. Finally, it analyzes the main arguments against the multilateral agreement and the effects of future possible multilateral negotiations in investment and it ends with some recommendations and conclusions.

  9. Posttransplant chimeric antigen receptor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melody; Zakrzewski, Johannes; James, Scott; Sadelain, Michel

    2018-03-08

    Therapeutic T-cell engineering is emerging as a powerful approach to treat refractory hematological malignancies. Its most successful embodiment to date is based on the use of second-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting CD19, a cell surface molecule found in most B-cell leukemias and lymphomas. Remarkable complete remissions have been obtained with autologous T cells expressing CD19 CARs in patients with relapsed, chemo-refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Allogeneic CAR T cells may also be harnessed to treat relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, the use of donor T cells poses unique challenges owing to potential alloreactivity. We review different approaches to mitigate the risk of causing or aggravating graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), including CAR therapies based on donor leukocyte infusion, virus-specific T cells, T-cell receptor-deficient T cells, lymphoid progenitor cells, and regulatory T cells. Advances in CAR design, T-cell selection and gene editing are poised to enable the safe use of allogeneic CAR T cells without incurring GVHD. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. Airway foreign body in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina GONZÁLEZ-HERRERO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: The aspiration of a foreign body in children is a frequent emergency in pediatrics, being potentially lethal. Method: Narrative review. Results: This pathology mainly affects children under 5 years of age with a peak of incidence between the first and third years of life. The clinic will depend on the type of foreign body (size, shape, possibility of breaking, organic or not, the age of the child and the location of the object. In our environment, the most frequent is the aspiration of nuts (peanuts and sunflower seeds. After the initial picture, an asymptomatic period tends to occur, which favors delayed diagnosis and leads to possible errors in the diagnosis. Discussion: An adequate clinical history and a high diagnostic suspicion are fundamental to favor an early treatment. The presence of a normal chest X-ray does not exclude the presence of a foreign body in the airway, so a bronchoscopy is indicated if the diagnostic suspicion is high. The treatment of choice is extraction by rigid bronchoscopy, being controversial the use of flexible fibrobronchoscope. Conclusions: Conclusions: The aspiration of a foreign body is a pediatric emergency that requires a diagnosis and early treatment. The highest incidence occurs in children under 3 years and more frequently in men. The most commonly aspirated material in our environment are nuts, mainly located in the bronchial tree. The initial episode may go unnoticed, delaying the diagnosis and may lead to progressive respiratory distress in the child. A detailed clinical history and suspicion of this pathology are essential in children at risk age who present with cough and dyspnea of sudden onset. The existence of a normal chest radiograph should not postpone bronchoscopy when there is high clinical suspicion. The treatment of choice for the extraction of foreign bodies in airways in children is rigid bronchoscopy, being controversial the use of the flexible fibrobronchoscope

  11. The Distinctive Role of Foreign Debt in Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Hansen, Marianna Andryeyeva; Muradoglu, Yaz Gulnur

    Finance theory suggests that a positive (long) foreign exchange exposure can be offset by debt denominated in foreign currency (“foreign debt”) and empirical studies confirm that foreign debt is used for hedging purposes. We use detailed exposure information on a sample of medium-sized nonfinancial...... firms and show that in its practical hedging application, foreign debt is used distinctively different from derivatives (e.g. forward contracts). While the use of derivatives is associated with flow measures (foreign sales revenue), the use of foreign debt is solely associated with stock measures...... level which makes it possible to go deeper than previous studies in detecting the drivers behind foreign debt usage. The empirical results are important in order to understand the factors driving the use of foreign debt in non-financial firms....

  12. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  13. T cells recognizing a peptide contaminant undetectable by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brezar, Vedran; Culina, Slobodan; Østerbye, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are widely used in immunological research as epitopes to stimulate their cognate T cells. These preparations are never completely pure, but trace contaminants are commonly revealed by mass spectrometry quality controls. In an effort to characterize novel major histocompatibility...... complex (MHC) Class I-restricted ß-cell epitopes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, we identified islet-infiltrating CD8+ T cells recognizing a contaminating peptide. The amount of this contaminant was so small to be undetectable by direct mass spectrometry. Only after concentration by liquid...... chromatography, we observed a mass peak corresponding to an immunodominant islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)(206-214) epitope described in the literature. Generation of CD8+ T-cell clones recognizing IGRP(206-214) using a novel method confirmed the identity...

  14. Discovering Activities to Recognize and Track in a Smart Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Parisa; Cook, Diane J; Holder, Lawrence B; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    The machine learning and pervasive sensing technologies found in smart homes offer unprecedented opportunities for providing health monitoring and assistance to individuals experiencing difficulties living independently at home. In order to monitor the functional health of smart home residents, we need to design technologies that recognize and track activities that people normally perform as part of their daily routines. Although approaches do exist for recognizing activities, the approaches are applied to activities that have been pre-selected and for which labeled training data is available. In contrast, we introduce an automated approach to activity tracking that identifies frequent activities that naturally occur in an individual's routine. With this capability we can then track the occurrence of regular activities to monitor functional health and to detect changes in an individual's patterns and lifestyle. In this paper we describe our activity mining and tracking approach and validate our algorithms on data collected in physical smart environments.

  15. Slice&Dice: Recognizing Food Preparation Activities Using Embedded Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Olivier, Patrick

    Within the context of an endeavor to provide situated support for people with cognitive impairments in the kitchen, we developed and evaluated classifiers for recognizing 11 actions involved in food preparation. Data was collected from 20 lay subjects using four specially designed kitchen utensils incorporating embedded 3-axis accelerometers. Subjects were asked to prepare a mixed salad in our laboratory-based instrumented kitchen environment. Video of each subject's food preparation activities were independently annotated by three different coders. Several classifiers were trained and tested using these features. With an overall accuracy of 82.9% our investigation demonstrated that a broad set of food preparation actions can be reliably recognized using sensors embedded in kitchen utensils.

  16. Action of the city of Schweinfurt against Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld recognized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    In the appeal proceedings, the Bavarian Administrative Court with its interim decision of April 9, 1979 - No. 167 VI 74 - has recognized the action of the city of Schweinfurt against the state of Bavaria to set aside the 1st part license for the construction of Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld, although the right for action was limited to the city's legal position concerning planning authority, drinking water supply, and a city-owned lake used for swimming. Appeal was allowed. The city has lodged an appeal. The decision of the Administrative Court of Wuerzburg of March 25, 1977, which was contested by the appeal, had also recognized the city's rights but dismissed the action as being unfounded. Guidelines and reasons for the decision of the Bavarian Administrative Court are given in full wording. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 HIS [de

  17. Recognizing intentions in infant-directed speech: evidence for universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A; Barrett, H Clark

    2007-08-01

    In all languages studied to date, distinct prosodic contours characterize different intention categories of infant-directed (ID) speech. This vocal behavior likely exists universally as a species-typical trait, but little research has examined whether listeners can accurately recognize intentions in ID speech using only vocal cues, without access to semantic information. We recorded native-English-speaking mothers producing four intention categories of utterances (prohibition, approval, comfort, and attention) as both ID and adult-directed (AD) speech, and we then presented the utterances to Shuar adults (South American hunter-horticulturalists). Shuar subjects were able to reliably distinguish ID from AD speech and were able to reliably recognize the intention categories in both types of speech, although performance was significantly better with ID speech. This is the first demonstration that adult listeners in an indigenous, nonindustrialized, and nonliterate culture can accurately infer intentions from both ID speech and AD speech in a language they do not speak.

  18. Federally-Recognized Tribes of the Columbia-Snake Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1997-11-01

    This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.

  19. 26 CFR 1.1249-1 - Gain from certain sales or exchanges of patents, etc., to foreign corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gain from certain sales or exchanges of patents... Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1249-1 Gain from certain sales or exchanges of patents, etc., to foreign corporations. (a) General rule. Section 1249 provides that if gain is recognized from the sale or exchange...

  20. Recommendations for recognizing video events by concept vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    represents a video in terms of low-level audiovisual features [16,38,50,35,15,19,37]. In general, these methods first extract from the video various types of...interpretable, but is also reported to outperform the state-of-the-art low-level audiovisual features in recognizing events [31,33]. Rather than training...concept detector accuracy. As a consequence, the vocabulary concepts do not necessarily have a semantic interpreta- tion needed to explain the video content

  1. Craig Reynolds: Recognized for Excellence in Medicine | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Distinguished Alumni Award is one of the most prestigious awards at the University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine. This award recognizes influential alumni who have achieved excellence in the art and science of medicine. One of this year’s recipients is Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., associate director, NCI. When asked how he felt about receiving this

  2. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon, M.; Miellet, S.; Dzieciol, A.M.; Konrad, B.N; Dresler, M.; Caldara, R.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perce...

  3. Tumor Associated Antigenic Peptides in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tiwari, Raj

    1999-01-01

    .... We proposed to identify these novel antigens in an experimental rat model using purified preparations of the heat shock protein gp96 and a library of synthetic distinct antibodies that were available...

  4. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test On This Page What is the PSA ... parts of the body before being detected. The PSA test may give false-positive or false-negative ...

  5. Comprehensive Context Recognizer Based on Multimodal Sensors in a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in smartphones have increased the processing capabilities and equipped these devices with a number of built-in multimodal sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS interfaces, Wi-Fi access, and proximity sensors. Despite the fact that numerous studies have investigated the development of user-context aware applications using smartphones, these applications are currently only able to recognize simple contexts using a single type of sensor. Therefore, in this work, we introduce a comprehensive approach for context aware applications that utilizes the multimodal sensors in smartphones. The proposed system is not only able to recognize different kinds of contexts with high accuracy, but it is also able to optimize the power consumption since power-hungry sensors can be activated or deactivated at appropriate times. Additionally, the system is able to recognize activities wherever the smartphone is on a human’s body, even when the user is using the phone to make a phone call, manipulate applications, play games, or listen to music. Furthermore, we also present a novel feature selection algorithm for the accelerometer classification module. The proposed feature selection algorithm helps select good features and eliminates bad features, thereby improving the overall accuracy of the accelerometer classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed system can classify eight activities with an accuracy of 92.43%.

  6. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  8. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  9. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F S; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  10. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  11. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  12. Foreigner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    Having lived in Oakland's Chinatown all her life, the author is proud to say that she loves her language--Cantonese. She is grateful that she can speak such a language, that she can use this skill to converse with her elders or peers, and that she is able to connect with others so lovingly, like her mother did on the streets of Chinatown. She has…

  13. Allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Mineeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article literature review of the causes of allosensibilisation to erythrocyte antigens are presented. It is shown that the ability to produce antierythrocyte antibodies is affected by many factors, principal of whom it is difficult to identify. For the allosensibilisation development requires genetically determined differences in erythrocyte antigens phenotypes of donor and recipient, mother and fetus, which can lead to immune response and antibodies production. The biochemical nature of erythrocyte antigens, antigen dose (the amount of transfused doses, the number of antigens determinants on donor and fetus erythrocytes, the number of pregnancies are important. Individual patient characteristics: age, gender, diseases, the use of immunosuppressive therapy and the presence of inflammatory processes, are also relevant. Note that antibody to one erythrocyte antigens have clinical value, and to the other – have no. The actual data about frequency of clinically significant antibodies contribute to the development of post-transfusion hemolytic complications prophylaxis as well as the improvement of laboratory diagnosis of hemolytic disease of the newborn in the presence of maternal antierythrocyte antibodies.

  14. Computational identification of epitopes in the glycoproteins of novel bunyavirus (SFTS virus) recognized by a human monoclonal antibody (MAb 4-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenshuai; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Peng, Haiyan; Jiao, Yongjun; Zeng, Jun; Treutlein, Herbert R.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, we have developed a new approach to predict the epitopes of antigens that are recognized by a specific antibody. Our method is based on the "multiple copy simultaneous search" (MCSS) approach which identifies optimal locations of small chemical functional groups on the surfaces of the antibody, and identifying sequence patterns of peptides that can bind to the surface of the antibody. The identified sequence patterns are then used to search the amino-acid sequence of the antigen protein. The approach was validated by reproducing the binding epitope of HIV gp120 envelop glycoprotein for the human neutralizing antibody as revealed in the available crystal structure. Our method was then applied to predict the epitopes of two glycoproteins of a newly discovered bunyavirus recognized by an antibody named MAb 4-5. These predicted epitopes can be verified by experimental methods. We also discuss the involvement of different amino acids in the antigen-antibody recognition based on the distributions of MCSS minima of different functional groups.

  15. Training process for foreign women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Malfone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses some strategies for the training process of foreign women. Several establishments must cooperate in this process (universities, unions, industrial associations, local councils not only to support job seeking initiatives but also to help these women move up towards more qualified work. The projects aimed at this are sporadic and marginal, lacking in finances because they are entirely focussed on job seeking schemes, and do not aim at helping women overcome their initial disadvantage. The result is not a qualifying training experience but merely a basic duty. Foreign women do not aspire just to dignified work but above all they wish to reach social recognition in order to benefit from all citizen rights yet maintain their personal identity through and through. We find basic fault already in the fact that the receiving country does not take into consideration the education of these women acquired in their countries. Actually, we do not find attempt to check, evaluate and improve the women’s starting qualifications. In the Italian job market, it is still impossible to ratify the qualifications of each new foreign woman. It is therefore necessary to act in many different ways in order to take care of the cultural needs of each ethnic group, so that these women could have options between different ways of life in order to get a positive introduction into the “new” country. It is necessary to create careful flexible courses for each need. Since women immigrants come from different nations, have different levels of instruction, have had different jobs, homes and relations with justice, our model of professional training must be reorganised in order to meet the real needs of these women. To this end, the education and re-training strategies must follow a careful analysis of the women’s living and working conditions, not only in consideration of their bureaucratic needs, but above all in consideration of the addressee

  16. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Bangladesh Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahangir Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is about foreign exchangereserves of Bangladesh. The mainpurpose of this study is to the influence of exchange rates on foreign exchangereserves to the Bangladesh context.  Both the primary and secondary data has been used inthis study. The primary data has been collected through a structuredquestionnaire from 50 respondents. The secondary data, namely Bangladeshforeign exchange reserves (FER, Bangladesh current account balance (CAB,Bangladesh capital andfinancial account balance (CFAB, and BDT/USD exchange rates (ER.  This study covers yearly data from July 01,1996 to June 30, 2005 and quarterly data from July 01, 2005 to June 30, 2012. Findingsof this study shows that out of the selected 16 factors affecting foreignexchange reserves, exchange rates occupy the first position, weighted averagescore (WAS being 4.56. Foreign exchange reserves (FER and current accountbalance (CAB have increased by 502.9087% and 1451.218%,whereas capital and financial account (CFAB has decreased by -649.024% on June30, 2012 compared to June 30, 1997. The influence of other factors heldconstant, as ER changes by 285.6894 units due to one unit change in FER, onaverage in the same direction which represents that ER has positive effect on theFER and this relationship is statistically significant.  62.1526 percentof the variation in FER is explained by ER. The outcomes of Breusch-Godfrey test (LM test, ARCHtest, and the Normality test are that there is a serial correlation among residuals, the variance of residuals is notconstant, and the residuals are not normally distributed.

  17. Factors associated with utilization of traditional Chinese medicine by white collar foreign workers living in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Deng Chung-Yeh; Tai Chen-Jei; Daly Maria; Chien Li-Yin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors l...

  18. Central banks should communicate their interventions in the foreign exchange market

    OpenAIRE

    Menkhoff, Lukas; Stöhr, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Central banks frequently intervene in foreign exchange markets. Using recognized criteria this report analyzes the probability of success in a data set of 4,500 intervention episodes in 33 countries. It is important to differentiate among exchange rate regimes because each focuses on a different goal. While flexible exchange rate regimes intervene less frequently and seek to influence trends, other regimes target exchange rate stabilization by establishing a band within which the exchange rat...

  19. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression in plant cell culture: Kinetics of antigen accumulation in batch culture and its intracellular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark L; Mason, Hugh S; Shuler, Michael L

    2002-12-30

    The production of edible vaccines in transgenic plants and plant cell culture may be improved through a better understanding of antigen processing and assembly. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was chosen for study because it undergoes substantial and complex post-translational modifications, which are necessary for its immunogenicity. This antigen was expressed in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Williams 82) and tobacco NT1 (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell suspension cultures, and HBsAg production in batch culture was characterized. The plant-derived antigen consisted predominantly of disulfide cross-linked HBsAg protein (p24(s)) dimers, which were all membrane associated. Similar to yeast, the plant-expressed HBsAg was retained intracellularly. The maximal HBsAg titers were obtained with soybean suspension cultures (20-22 mg/L) with titers in tobacco cultures being approximately 10-fold lower. For soybean cells, electron microscopy and immunolocalization demonstrated that all the HBsAg was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and provoked dilation and proliferation of the ER network. Sucrose gradient analysis of crude extracts showed that HBsAg had a complex size distribution uncharacteristic of the antigen's normal structure of uniform 22-nm virus-like particles. The extent of authentic epitope formation was assessed by comparing total p24(s) synthesized to that reactive by polyclonal and monoclonal immunoassays. Depending on culture age, between 40% and 100% of total p24(s) was polyclonal antibody reactive whereas between 6% and 37% was recognized by a commercial monoclonal antibody assay. Possible strategies to increase HBsAg production and improve post-translational processing are discussed. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  1. In vivo xenogeneic scaffold fate is determined by residual antigenicity and extracellular matrix preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Maelene L; Wong, Janelle L; Vapniarsky, Natalia; Griffiths, Leigh G

    2016-06-01

    The immunological potential of animal-derived tissues and organs is the critical hurdle to increasing their clinical implementation. Glutaraldehyde-fixation cross-links proteins in xenogeneic tissues (e.g., bovine pericardium) to delay immune rejection, but also compromises the regenerative potential of the resultant biomaterial. Unfixed xenogeneic biomaterials in which xenoantigenicity has been ameliorated and native extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture has been maintained have the potential to overcome limitations of current clinically utilized glutaraldehyde-fixed biomaterials. The objective of this work was to determine how residual antigenicity and ECM architecture preservation modulate recipient immune and regenerative responses towards unfixed bovine pericardium (BP) ECM scaffolds. Disruption of ECM architecture during scaffold generation, with either SDS-decellularization or glutaraldehyde-fixation, stimulated recipient foreign body response and resultant fibrotic encapsulation following leporine subpannicular implantation. Conversely, BP scaffolds subjected to stepwise removal of hydrophilic and lipophilic antigens using amidosulfobetaine-14 (ASB-14) maintained native ECM architecture and thereby avoided fibrotic encapsulation. Removal of hydrophilic and lipophilic antigens significantly decreased local and systemic graft-specific, adaptive immune responses and subsequent calcification of BP scaffolds compared to scaffolds undergoing hydrophile removal only. Critically, removal of antigenic components and preservation of ECM architecture with ASB-14 promoted full-thickness recipient non-immune cellular repopulation of the BP scaffold. Further, unlike clinically utilized fixed BP, ASB-14-treated scaffolds fostered rapid intimal and medial vessel wall regeneration in a porcine carotid patch angioplasty model. This work highlights the importance of residual antigenicity and ECM architecture preservation in modulating recipient immune and regenerative

  2. Thyroid Autoantibodies Display both “Original Antigenic Sin” and Epitope Spreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. McLachlan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for original antigenic sin in spontaneous thyroid autoimmunity is revealed by autoantibody interactions with immunodominant regions on thyroid autoantigens, thyroglobulin (Tg, thyroid peroxidase (TPO, and the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR A-subunit. In contrast, antibodies induced by immunization of rabbits or mice recognize diverse epitopes. Recognition of immunodominant regions persists despite fluctuations in autoantibody levels following treatment or over time. The enhancement of spontaneously arising pathogenic TSHR antibodies in transgenic human thyrotropin receptor/NOD.H2h4 mice by injecting a non-pathogenic form of TSHR A-subunit protein also provides evidence for original antigenic sin. From other studies, antigen presentation by B cells, not dendritic cells, is likely responsible for original antigenic sin. Recognition of restricted epitopes on the large glycosylated thyroid autoantigens (60-kDa A-subunit, 100-kDa TPO, and 600-kDa Tg facilitates exploring the amino acid locations in the immunodominant regions. Epitope spreading has also been revealed by autoantibodies in thyroid autoimmunity. In humans, and in mice that spontaneously develop autoimmunity to all three thyroid autoantigens, autoantibodies develop first to Tg and later to TPO and the TSHR A-subunit. The pattern of intermolecular epitope spreading is related in part to the thyroidal content of Tg, TPO and TSHR A-subunit and to the molecular sizes of these proteins. Importantly, the epitope spreading pattern provides a rationale for future antigen-specific manipulation to block the development of all thyroid autoantibodies by inducing tolerance to Tg, first in the autoantigen cascade. Because of its abundance, Tg may be the autoantigen of choice to explore antigen-specific treatment, preventing the development of pathogenic TSHR antibodies.

  3. Viral Escape Mutant Epitope Maintains TCR Affinity for Antigen yet Curtails CD8 T Cell Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayla K Shorter

    Full Text Available T cells have the remarkable ability to recognize antigen with great specificity and in turn mount an appropriate and robust immune response. Critical to this process is the initial T cell antigen recognition and subsequent signal transduction events. This antigen recognition can be modulated at the site of TCR interaction with peptide:major histocompatibility (pMHC or peptide interaction with the MHC molecule. Both events could have a range of effects on T cell fate. Though responses to antigens that bind sub-optimally to TCR, known as altered peptide ligands (APL, have been studied extensively, the impact of disrupting antigen binding to MHC has been highlighted to a lesser extent and is usually considered to result in complete loss of epitope recognition. Here we present a model of viral evasion from CD8 T cell immuno-surveillance by a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV escape mutant with an epitope for which TCR affinity for pMHC remains high but where the antigenic peptide binds sub optimally to MHC. Despite high TCR affinity for variant epitope, levels of interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4 are not sustained in response to the variant indicating differences in perceived TCR signal strength. The CD8+ T cell response to the variant epitope is characterized by early proliferation and up-regulation of activation markers. Interestingly, this response is not maintained and is characterized by a lack in IL-2 and IFNγ production, increased apoptosis and an abrogated glycolytic response. We show that disrupting the stability of peptide in MHC can effectively disrupt TCR signal strength despite unchanged affinity for TCR and can significantly impact the CD8+ T cell response to a viral escape mutant.

  4. 26 CFR 1.1374-2 - Net recognized built-in gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Net recognized built-in gain. 1.1374-2 Section 1...-in gain. (a) In general. An S corporation's net recognized built-in gain for any taxable year is the... considering only its recognized built-in gain, recognized built-in loss, and recognized built-in gain...

  5. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins: a new approach to mimic complex antigens for diagnostic purposes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hausammann

    Full Text Available Inhibitory antibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII can be found in patients with acquired and congenital hemophilia A. Such FVIII-inhibiting antibodies are routinely detected by the functional Bethesda Assay. However, this assay has a low sensitivity and shows a high inter-laboratory variability. Another method to detect antibodies recognizing FVIII is ELISA, but this test does not allow the distinction between inhibitory and non-inhibitory antibodies. Therefore, we aimed at replacing the intricate antigen FVIII by Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins mimicking the epitopes of FVIII inhibitors. As a model we used the well-described inhibitory human monoclonal anti-FVIII antibody, Bo2C11, for the selection on DARPin libraries. Two DARPins were selected binding to the antigen-binding site of Bo2C11, which mimic thus a functional epitope on FVIII. These DARPins inhibited the binding of the antibody to its antigen and restored FVIII activity as determined in the Bethesda assay. Furthermore, the specific DARPins were able to recognize the target antibody in human plasma and could therefore be used to test for the presence of Bo2C11-like antibodies in a large set of hemophilia A patients. These data suggest, that our approach might be used to isolate epitopes from different sets of anti-FVIII antibodies in order to develop an ELISA-based screening assay allowing the distinction of inhibitory and non-inhibitory anti-FVIII antibodies according to their antibody signatures.

  6. Dimensions of foreign policy change in Turkey:

    OpenAIRE

    Kesler, Ayşe; Kesler, Ayse

    2005-01-01

    This thesis assumes a substantial change in the Turkish foreign policy, specifically in the traditionally 'sensitive' policy areas such as the Armenian issue, Cyprus conflict, Turkish- Greek relations and those with the EU. Therefore, the study aims to analyze the dynamics of foreign policy restructuring. For this purpose, foreign policy actions of the ruling AKP government and its predecessor DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition are compared and contrasted for illustrating the causes and dynamics of polic...

  7. Business performance and participation of foreign capital

    OpenAIRE

    Merková, Martina; Rajnoha, Rastislav; Dobrovič, Ján

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes business performance based on the return on equity indicator, and reveals certain common aspects for companies with better business performance. The results of statistical testing proved positive dependences between turnover, performance and foreign ownership as well as the importance of foreign capital origin for companies. Certain signs typical for companies with participation of foreign capital against local firms are identified. © Martina Merkova, Rastislav Rajnoha, Ja...

  8. Latin American foreign exchange intervention - Updated

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Sergio; Nunes, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    We examine Latin American foreign exchange intervention in a framework where the exchange rate regime is endogenous and there exists an inefficient, equilibrium foreign exchange intervention bias. The model suggests that greater central bank independence is associated with lesser intervention in the foreign exchange market, and also with leaning-against-the-wind intervention. Both results are confirmed by data from 13 Latin American countries.

  9. Mistake management in a foreign language classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to design general recomendations on mistake management in a foreign language classroom which would meet both teachers' and learners' requirements and methods of mistake management in a foreign language classroom which would contribute to development of learners' communicative competence. The following methods were used in the research: analysis of literature on pedagogy, psychology and methodology of foreign language teaching, interview, questionnaire and observation....

  10. Stock returns and foreign investment in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Luciana; Meurer, Roberto; Da Silva, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    We examine the relationship between stock returns and foreign investment in Brazil, and find that the inflows of foreign investment boosted the returns from 1995 to 2005. There was a strong contemporaneous correlation, although not Granger-causality. Foreign investment along with the exchange rate, the influence of the world stock markets, and country risk can explain 73 percent of the changes that occurred in the stock returns over the period. We also find that positive feedback trading play...

  11. The Economics of Foreign Direct Investment Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus Blomstrom; Ari Kokko

    2003-01-01

    This Paper suggests that the use of investment incentives focusing exclusively on foreign firms - although motivated in some cases from a theoretical point of view - is generally not an efficient way to raise national welfare. The main reason is that the strongest theoretical motive for financial subsidies to inward FDI – spillovers of foreign technology and skills to local industry – is not an automatic consequence of foreign investment. The potential spillover benefits are realized only if ...

  12. How T lymphocytes see antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup K.

    2009-03-01

    Complex organisms, like humans, have an adaptive immune system that enables us to do battle with diverse pathogens. This flexible system can also go awry, and many diseases are the direct consequence of the adaptive immune system failing to discriminate between markers of self and non-self. The orchestrators of adaptive immunity are a class of cells called T lymphocytes (T cells). T cells recognize minute numbers of molecular signatures of pathogens, and T cell recognition of these molecular markers of non-self is both specific and degenerate. The specific (yet, cross-reactive), diverse, and self-tolerant T cell repertoire is designed in the thymus. I will describe how an approach that brings together theoretical and computational studies (rooted in statistical physics) with experiments (carried out by key collaborators) has allowed us to shed light on the mechanistic principles underlying how T cells respond to pathogens in a digital fashion (``on'' or ``off''), and how this molecular machinery coupled with frustration (a la spin glasses) plays a key role in designing the special properties of the T cell repertoire during development in the thymus.

  13. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement

  14. How did China's foreign exchange reform affect the efficiency of foreign exchange market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Ye; Wang, Yiming; Su, Chi-wei

    2017-10-01

    This study compares the market efficiency of China's onshore and offshore foreign exchange markets before and after the foreign exchange reform on August 11, 2015. We use the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of the onshore and offshore RMB/USD spot exchange rate series as basis. We then find that the onshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the lowest market efficiency, which increased after the reform. The offshore foreign exchange market before the reform has the highest market efficiency, which dropped after the reform. This finding implies the increased efficiency of the onshore foreign exchange market and the loss of efficiency in the offshore foreign exchange market. We also find that the offshore foreign exchange market is more efficient than the onshore market and that the gap shrank after the reform. Changes in intervention of the People's Bank of China since the reform is a possible explanation for the changes in the efficiency of the foreign exchange market.

  15. Passive wireless sensor systems can recognize activites of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Prabitha; Stucki, Reto; Muri, Rene; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The ability to determine what activity of daily living a person performs is of interest in many application domains. It is possible to determine the physical and cognitive capabilities of the elderly by inferring what activities they perform in their houses. Our primary aim was to establish a proof of concept that a wireless sensor system can monitor and record physical activity and these data can be modeled to predict activities of daily living. The secondary aim was to determine the optimal placement of the sensor boxes for detecting activities in a room. A wireless sensor system was set up in a laboratory kitchen. The ten healthy participants were requested to make tea following a defined sequence of tasks. Data were collected from the eight wireless sensor boxes placed in specific places in the test kitchen and analyzed to detect the sequences of tasks performed by the participants. These sequence of tasks were trained and tested using the Markov Model. Data analysis focused on the reliability of the system and the integrity of the collected data. The sequence of tasks were successfully recognized for all subjects and the averaged data pattern of tasks sequences between the subjects had a high correlation. Analysis of the data collected indicates that sensors placed in different locations are capable of recognizing activities, with the movement detection sensor contributing the most to detection of tasks. The central top of the room with no obstruction of view was considered to be the best location to record data for activity detection. Wireless sensor systems show much promise as easily deployable to monitor and recognize activities of daily living.

  16. Antigen Cross-Presentation of Immune Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Barbara; Stout, Madeleine; Fiebiger, Edda

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to cross-present tumor antigens has long been a focus of interest to physicians, as well as basic scientists, that aim to establish efficient cell-based cancer immune therapy. A prerequisite for exploiting this pathway for therapeutic purposes is a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses when initiated by DCs via cross-presentation. The ability of humans DC to perform cross-presentation is of utmost interest, as this cell type is a main target for cell-based immunotherapy in humans. The outcome of a cross-presentation event is guided by the nature of the antigen, the form of antigen uptake, and the subpopulation of DCs that performs presentation. Generally, CD8α+ DCs are considered to be the most potent cross-presenting DCs. This paradigm, however, only applies to soluble antigens. During adaptive immune responses, immune complexes form when antibodies interact with their specific epitopes on soluble antigens. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) immune complexes target Fc-gamma receptors on DCs to shuttle exogenous antigens efficiently into the cross-presentation pathway. This receptor-mediated cross-presentation pathway is a well-described route for the induction of strong CD8+ T cell responses. IgG-mediated cross-presentation is intriguing because it permits the CD8− DCs, which are commonly considered to be weak cross-presenters, to efficiently cross-present. Engaging multiple DC subtypes for cross-presentation might be a superior strategy to boost CTL responses in vivo. We here summarize our current understanding of how DCs use IgG-complexed antigens for the efficient induction of CTL responses. Because of its importance for human cell therapy, we also review the recent advances in the characterization of cross-presentation properties of human DC subsets. PMID:24744762

  17. Male tawny dragons use throat patterns to recognize rivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Louise; Umbers, Kate D L; Backwell, Patricia R Y; Keogh, J Scott

    2012-10-01

    The ability to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is important for many animals, especially territorial species since it allows them to avoid unnecessary interactions with individuals that pose little threat. There are very few studies, however, that identify the proximate cues that facilitate such recognition in visual systems. Here, we show that in tawny dragons (Ctenophorus decresii), males can recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific males based on morphological features alone, without the aid of chemical or behavioural cues. We further show that it is the colour pattern of the throat patches (gular) that facilitates this recognition.

  18. Recognizing and Treating Malaria in U.S. Residents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-09

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: It's a Small World After All: Dengue and Malaria in U.S. Residents - Recognizing and Treating These Mosquito-borne Diseases. CDC's David Townes discusses clinical presentation, transmission, prevention strategies, new treatments, and malaria resources available to health care providers.  Created: 6/9/2010 by Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Emergency Communication System (ECS)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/15/2010.

  19. Nuclear energy and foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, T.

    1981-01-01

    The intention of this book lies in demonstrating why the Swiss industry and the Bund had begun to show interest for nuclear energy and in how far the framework conditions of this enterprise had been changed by the plans and constraints of foreign policy. Thus the topic of the study is located in the overlapping sector of different aspects of Swiss policy: foreign safety, economic, energy, and research policy had played an important role when the Swiss nculear programme had been developed. It is understood that there had frequently been conflicts of interest between the national sectors of politics, on one hand, and, on the other, between Swiss targets and international policy. The following study is trying to explain how these conflicts of interest had originated and had been solved after all. Emphasis is laid on the years 1967-1977. During that period the Swiss Confederation had decided to sign and to ratify the non-proliferation treaty at the end of a long and complicated process. (orig./HP) [de

  20. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  1. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  2. Nuclear lamins and peripheral nuclear antigens during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, G.; Schatten, H.; Simerly, C.; Maul, G. G.; Chaly, N.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear structural changes during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins are traced using four antibodies. The oocytes from virgin female mice, morulae and blastocytes from mated females, and gametes from the sea urchin Lytechnius variegatis are studied using mouse monoclonal antibodies to nuclear lamin A/C, monoclonal antibody to P1, human autoimmune antibodies to lamin A/C, and to lamin B. The mouse fertilization data reveal no lamins on the oocyte; however, lamins are present on the pronuclei, and chromosomes are found on the oocytes and pronuclei. It is detected that on the sea urchin sperm the lamins are reduced to acrosomal and centriolar fossae and peripheral antigens are around the sperm nucleus. The mouse sperm bind lamin antibodies regionally and do not contain antigens. Lamins and antigens are observed on both pronuclei and chromosomes during sea urchin fertilization. Mouse embryogenesis reveals that lamin A/C is not recognized at morula and blastocyst stages; however, lamin B stains are retained. In sea urchin embryogenesis lamin recognition is lost at the blastrula, gastrula, and plutei stages. It is noted that nuclear lamins lost during spermatogenesis are restored at fertilization and peripheral antigens are associated with the surface of chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis and with the periphery of the pronuclei and nuclei during interphase.

  3. Isolation and purification of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B from hydatid cyst fluid using three different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazi, S.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst, the larval stage of cestodes Echinococcus spp., is recognized as a zoonotic infection in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently classified echinococcosis in a group of neglected tropical diseases. The prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus infection is high in Iran due to the presence of various intermediate hosts in this country. Considering the rising trend of this zoonotic parasitic disease based on national epidemiological studies, diagnosis is of great significance. WHO has suggested the use of specific antigens, especially antigen B (AgB for serological diagnostic tests. In general, AgB is a polymeric lipoprotein, which disintegrates into 8.12, 16, and 20.24 kDa subunits. In the present study, we applied three different methods for AgB isolation from hydatid cyst fluid (HCF and compared their efficacy in AgB isolation. Finally, the protein concentration of this antigen was measured by Bradford assay and confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the application of polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000 as a thickener agent beside purification of HCF in dialysis bag and filtering and also dialysis against acetate buffer leading to the best quantity in purified antigen B.

  4. Strategic evaluation of vaccine candidate antigens for the prevention of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Malcolm S; Favila, Michelle; Hofmeyer, Kimberley A; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Reed, Steven J; Laurance, John D; Picone, Alessandro; Guderian, Jeffrey; Bailor, H Remy; Vallur, Aarthy C; Liang, Hong; Mohamath, Raodoh; Vergara, Julie; Howard, Randall F; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2016-05-27

    Infection with Leishmania parasites results in a range of clinical manifestations and outcomes, the most severe of which is visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Vaccination will likely provide the most effective long-term control strategy, as the large number of vectors and potential infectious reservoirs renders sustained interruption of Leishmania parasite transmission extremely difficult. Selection of the best vaccine is complicated because, although several vaccine antigen candidates have been proposed, they have emerged following production in different platforms. To consolidate the information that has been generated into a single vaccine platform, we expressed seven candidates as recombinant proteins in E. coli. After verifying that each recombinant protein could be recognized by VL patients, we evaluated their protective efficacy against experimental L. donovani infection of mice. Administration in formulation with the Th1-potentiating adjuvant GLA-SE indicated that each antigen could elicit antigen-specific Th1 responses that were protective. Considering the ability to reduce parasite burden along with additional factors such as sequence identity across Leishmania species, we then generated a chimeric fusion protein comprising a combination of the 8E, p21 and SMT proteins. This E. coli -expressed fusion protein was also demonstrated to protect against L. donovani infection. These data indicate a novel recombinant vaccine antigen with the potential for use in VL control programs. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. IgG Responses to Tissue-Associated Antigens as Biomarkers of Immunological Treatment Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath A. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that IgG responses to a panel of 126 prostate tissue-associated antigens are common in patients with prostate cancer. In the current report we questioned whether changes in IgG responses to this panel might be used as a measure of immune response, and potentially antigen spread, following prostate cancer-directed immune-active therapies. Sera were obtained from prostate cancer patients prior to and three months following treatment with androgen deprivation therapy (=34, a poxviral vaccine (=31, and a DNA vaccine (=21. Changes in IgG responses to individual antigens were identified by phage immunoblot. Patterns of IgG recognition following three months of treatment were evaluated using a machine-learned Bayesian Belief Network (ML-BBN. We found that different antigens were recognized following androgen deprivation compared with vaccine therapies. While the number of clinical responders was low in the vaccine-treated populations, we demonstrate that ML-BBN can be used to develop potentially predictive models.

  6. Detection of urinary excreted fungal galactomannan-like antigens for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon F Dufresne

    Full Text Available Mortality associated with invasive aspergillosis (IA remains high, partly because of delayed diagnosis. Detection of microbial exoantigens, released in serum and other body fluids during infection, may help timely diagnosis. In course of IA, Aspergillus galactomannan (GM, a well established polysaccharide biomarker, is released in body fluids including urine. Urine is an abundant, safely collected specimen, well-suited for point-of-care (POC testing, which could play an increasing role in screening for early disease. Our main objective was to demonstrate GM antigenuria as a clinically relevant biological phenomenon in IA and establish proof-of-concept that it could be translated to POC diagnosis. Utilizing a novel IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb476 that recognizes GM-like antigens from Aspergillus and other molds, we demonstrated antigenuria in an experimental animal IA model (guinea pig, as well as in human patients. In addition, we investigated the chemical nature of the urinary excreted antigen in human samples, characterized antigen detection in urine by immunoassays, described a putative assay inhibitor in urine, and indicated means of alleviation of the inhibition. We also designed and used a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay to detect urinary excreted antigen in a limited number of IA patient urine samples. In this study, we establish that POC diagnosis of IA based on urinary GM detection is feasible. Prospective studies will be necessary to establish the performance characteristics of an optimized device and define its optimal clinical use.

  7. A nonself sugar mimic of the HIV glycan shield shows enhanced antigenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doores, Katie J.; Fulton, Zara; Hong, Vu; Patel, Mitul K.; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Wormald, Mark R.; Finn, M.G.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Davis, Benjamin G. (Scripps); (Oxford)

    2011-08-24

    Antibody 2G12 uniquely neutralizes a broad range of HIV-1 isolates by binding the high-mannose glycans on the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein, gp120. Antigens that resemble these natural epitopes of 2G12 would be highly desirable components for an HIV-1 vaccine. However, host-produced (self)-carbohydrate motifs have been unsuccessful so far at eliciting 2G12-like antibodies that cross-react with gp120. Based on the surprising observation that 2G12 binds nonproteinaceous monosaccharide D-fructose with higher affinity than D-mannose, we show here that a designed set of nonself, synthetic monosaccharides are potent antigens. When introduced to the terminus of the D1 arm of protein glycans recognized by 2G12, their antigenicity is significantly enhanced. Logical variation of these unnatural sugars pinpointed key modifications, and the molecular basis of this increased antigenicity was elucidated using high-resolution crystallographic analyses. Virus-like particle protein conjugates containing such nonself glycans are bound more tightly by 2G12. As immunogens they elicit higher titers of antibodies than those immunogenic conjugates containing the self D1 glycan motif. These antibodies generated from nonself immunogens also cross-react with this self motif, which is found in the glycan shield, when it is presented in a range of different conjugates and glycans. However, these antibodies did not bind this glycan motif when present on gp120.

  8. Advances in alfalfa mosaic virus-mediated expression of anthrax antigen in planta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzik, R.; Bandurska, K.; Deka, D.; Golovkin, M.; Koprowski, H.

    2005-01-01

    Plant viruses show great potential for production of pharmaceuticals in plants. Such viruses can harbor a small antigenic peptide(s) as a part of their coat proteins (CP) and elicit an antigen-specific immune response. Here, we report the high yield and consistency in production of recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) particles for specific presentation of the small loop 15 amino acid epitope from domain-4 of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA-D4s). The epitope was inserted immediately after the first 25 N-terminal amino acids of AlMV CP to retain genome activation and binding of CP to viral RNAs. Recombinant AlMV particles were efficiently produced in tobacco, easily purified for immunological analysis, and exhibited extended stability and systemic proliferation in planta. Intraperitional injections of mice with recombinant plant virus particles harboring the PA-D4s epitope elicited a distinct immune response. Western blotting and ELISA analysis showed that sera from immunized mice recognized both native PA antigen and the AlMV CP

  9. Outer membrane proteins analysis of Shigella sonnei and evaluation of their antigenicity in Shigella infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemavathy Harikrishnan

    Full Text Available Bacillary dysentery caused by infection with Shigella spp. remains as serious and common health problem throughout the world. It is a highly multi drug resistant organism and rarely identified from the patient at the early stage of infection. S. sonnei is the most frequently isolated species causing shigellosis in industrialized countries. The antigenicity of outer membrane protein of this pathogen expressed during human infection has not been identified to date. We have studied the antigenic outer membrane proteins expressed by S. sonnei, with the aim of identifying presence of specific IgA and IgG in human serum against the candidate protein biomarkers. Three antigenic OMPs sized 33.3, 43.8 and 100.3 kDa were uniquely recognized by IgA and IgG from patients with S. sonnei infection, and did not cross-react with sera from patients with other types of infection. The antigenic proteome data generated in this study are a first for OMPs of S. sonnei, and they provide important insights of human immune responses. Furthermore, numerous prime candidate proteins were identified which will aid the development of new diagnostic tools for the detection of S. sonnei.

  10. Studies on antigenic cross-reactivity of Trichuris ovis with host mucosal antigens in goat

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam Patra; Seikh Sahanawaz Alam; Sonjoy Kumar Borthakur; Hridayesh Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether immunodominant antigens of Trichuris ovis might share and cross react with host molecule. Methods: Two crude protein preparations from anterior and posterior parts of Trichuris ovis were characterized along with host mucosal antigen by double immunodiffusion, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting technique. Conventional scanning electron microscopy was performed as per standard procedure. Results: Sharp...

  11. Relationship among Iranian EFL Students' Foreign Language Anxiety, Foreign Language Listening Anxiety and Their Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraj, Samaneh; Noordin, Noreen Bt.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is an influential factor in a foreign language learning domain and plays a crucial role in language learners' performance. The following study was conducted to explore the possible impact of Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety on language learners' listening skill. The researcher was interested to know the…

  12. Effects of Facial Expressions on Recognizing Emotions in Dance Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Shikanai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of facial expressions on recognizing emotions expressed in dance movements were investigated. Dancers expressed three emotions: joy, sadness, and anger through dance movements. We used digital video cameras and a 3D motion capturing system to record and capture the movements. We then created full-video displays with an expressive face, full-video displays with an unexpressive face, stick figure displays (no face, or point-light displays (no face from these data using 3D animation software. To make point-light displays, 13 markers were attached to the body of each dancer. We examined how accurately observers were able to identify the expression that the dancers intended to create through their dance movements. Dance experienced and inexperienced observers participated in the experiment. They watched the movements and rated the compatibility of each emotion with each movement on a 5-point Likert scale. The results indicated that both experienced and inexperienced observers could identify all the emotions that dancers intended to express. Identification scores for dance movements with an expressive face were higher than for other expressions. This finding indicates that facial expressions affect the identification of emotions in dance movements, whereas only bodily expressions provide sufficient information to recognize emotions.

  13. Comparison of concept recognizers for building the Open Biomedical Annotator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO is developing a system for automated, ontology-based access to online biomedical resources (Shah NH, et al.: Ontology-driven indexing of public datasets for translational bioinformatics. BMC Bioinformatics 2009, 10(Suppl 2:S1. The system's indexing workflow processes the text metadata of diverse resources such as datasets from GEO and ArrayExpress to annotate and index them with concepts from appropriate ontologies. This indexing requires the use of a concept-recognition tool to identify ontology concepts in the resource's textual metadata. In this paper, we present a comparison of two concept recognizers – NLM's MetaMap and the University of Michigan's Mgrep. We utilize a number of data sources and dictionaries to evaluate the concept recognizers in terms of precision, recall, speed of execution, scalability and customizability. Our evaluations demonstrate that Mgrep has a clear edge over MetaMap for large-scale service oriented applications. Based on our analysis we also suggest areas of potential improvements for Mgrep. We have subsequently used Mgrep to build the Open Biomedical Annotator service. The Annotator service has access to a large dictionary of biomedical terms derived from the United Medical Language System (UMLS and NCBO ontologies. The Annotator also leverages the hierarchical structure of the ontologies and their mappings to expand annotations. The Annotator service is available to the community as a REST Web service for creating ontology-based annotations of their data.

  14. Recognizing Induced Emotions of Happiness and Sadness from Dance Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Edith; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Lesaffre, Micheline; Leman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that emotional content can be successfully decoded from human dance movement. Most previous studies made use of videos of actors or dancers portraying emotions through choreography. The current study applies emotion induction techniques and free movement in order to examine the recognition of emotional content from dance. Observers (N = 30) watched a set of silent videos showing depersonalized avatars of dancers moving to an emotionally neutral musical stimulus after emotions of either sadness or happiness had been induced. Each of the video clips consisted of two dance performances which were presented side-by-side and were played simultaneously; one of a dancer in the happy condition and one of the same individual in the sad condition. After every film clip, the observers were asked to make forced-choices concerning the emotional state of the dancer. Results revealed that observers were able to identify the emotional state of the dancers with a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, emotions were more often recognized for female dancers than for their male counterparts. In addition, the results of eye tracking measurements unveiled that observers primarily focus on movements of the chest when decoding emotional information from dance movement. The findings of our study show that not merely portrayed emotions, but also induced emotions can be successfully recognized from free dance movement. PMID:24587026

  15. Discriminative latent models for recognizing contextual group activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Yang; Yang, Weilong; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mori, Greg

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we go beyond recognizing the actions of individuals and focus on group activities. This is motivated from the observation that human actions are rarely performed in isolation; the contextual information of what other people in the scene are doing provides a useful cue for understanding high-level activities. We propose a novel framework for recognizing group activities which jointly captures the group activity, the individual person actions, and the interactions among them. Two types of contextual information, group-person interaction and person-person interaction, are explored in a latent variable framework. In particular, we propose three different approaches to model the person-person interaction. One approach is to explore the structures of person-person interaction. Differently from most of the previous latent structured models, which assume a predefined structure for the hidden layer, e.g., a tree structure, we treat the structure of the hidden layer as a latent variable and implicitly infer it during learning and inference. The second approach explores person-person interaction in the feature level. We introduce a new feature representation called the action context (AC) descriptor. The AC descriptor encodes information about not only the action of an individual person in the video, but also the behavior of other people nearby. The third approach combines the above two. Our experimental results demonstrate the benefit of using contextual information for disambiguating group activities.

  16. Patient Selection in Plastic Surgery: Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Sahin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic surgery is a branch of medicine that provides significant improvements to the people with positive changes. But first of all, this branch has a characteristic which requires analysing patients' psychological situation very carefully. Plastic surgeons are often confronted by patients with mental disorders seeking aesthetic surgery. It is imperative for surgeons to recognize possible underlying psychiatric illnesses. Common psychiatric conditions seen in cosmetic surgery patients include body dysmorphic disorder (BDD, narcissistic personality disorder and histrionic personality disorders. BDD is of particular importance to plastic surgeons. Because outrageous dissatisfaction with one's appearance may conceal psychopathologic traits that are not always easily recognizable, and which, if neglected, may result in serious iatrogenic and medicolegal consequences, we hope that this paper will help plastic surgeons in ultimately preventing patient and surgeon dissatisfaction within the population of patients with psychiatric disorders, and should recognize the diagnostic features of body dysmorphic disorder and screen psychologically unstable patients who may never be satisfied with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 109-115

  17. 22 CFR 92.40 - Authentication of foreign extradition papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication of foreign extradition papers. 92.40 Section 92.40 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.40 Authentication of foreign extradition papers. Foreign...

  18. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level in Liver Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyoo Ok; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-09-15

    Carcinoembryonic antigen was initially known as tumor specific antigen and had a potential diagnostic value in the detection of digestive tract malignancies. However, subsequent studies showed CEA and CEA-like antigen present in benign disease, particularly in liver. We had collected sera from 58 patients who had liver scan and later were diagnosed clinically and histologically as liver disease. We estimated CEA values and correlations were made with liver function tests in liver cirrhosis cases. The results: 1) The raised plasma carcinoembryonic antigen level were found in 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients cirrhosis, 5 (27.8%) of 18 patients in hepatoma, 5 (71%) of 7 patients in chronic active hepatitis, all 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in obstructive biliary disease and none in each one patient of traumatic liver hematoma, subphrenic abscess and clonorchiasis. 2) There is no linear correlation between carcinoembryonic antigen level and liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and prothrombin time in liver patients.

  19. Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level in Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyoo Ok; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chang Yun

    1978-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen was initially known as tumor specific antigen and had a potential diagnostic value in the detection of digestive tract malignancies. However, subsequent studies showed CEA and CEA-like antigen present in benign disease, particularly in liver. We had collected sera from 58 patients who had liver scan and later were diagnosed clinically and histologically as liver disease. We estimated CEA values and correlations were made with liver function tests in liver cirrhosis cases. The results: 1) The raised plasma carcinoembryonic antigen level were found in 13 (68.4%) of 19 patients cirrhosis, 5 (27.8%) of 18 patients in hepatoma, 5 (71%) of 7 patients in chronic active hepatitis, all 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in liver abscesses, 2 (66.7%) of 3 patients in obstructive biliary disease and none in each one patient of traumatic liver hematoma, subphrenic abscess and clonorchiasis. 2) There is no linear correlation between carcinoembryonic antigen level and liver function tests including serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and prothrombin time in liver patients.

  20. Original antigenic sin responses to influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Skountzou, Ioanna; Compans, Richard; Jacob, Joshy

    2009-09-01

    Most immune responses follow Burnet's rule in that Ag recruits specific lymphocytes from a large repertoire and induces them to proliferate and differentiate into effector cells. However, the phenomenon of "original antigenic sin" stands out as a paradox to Burnet's rule of B cell engagement. Humans, upon infection with a novel influenza strain, produce Abs against older viral strains at the expense of responses to novel, protective antigenic determinants. This exacerbates the severity of the current infection. This blind spot of the immune system and the redirection of responses to the "original Ag" rather than to novel epitopes were described fifty years ago. Recent reports have questioned the existence of this phenomenon. Hence, we revisited this issue to determine the extent to which original antigenic sin is induced by variant influenza viruses. Using two related strains of influenza A virus, we show that original antigenic sin leads to a significant decrease in development of protective immunity and recall responses to the second virus. In addition, we show that sequential infection of mice with two live influenza virus strains leads to almost exclusive Ab responses to the first viral strain, suggesting that original antigenic sin could be a potential strategy by which variant influenza viruses subvert the immune system.