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Sample records for recognition process mission

  1. Recurrent processing during object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall C. O'Reilly

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of of naturally-occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain's visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time.

  2. Physiological arousal in processing recognition information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hochman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 suggests that, when applicable, probabilistic inferences are based on a noncompensatory examination of whether an object is recognized or not. The overall findings on the processes that underlie this fast and frugal heuristic are somewhat mixed, and many studies have expressed the need for considering a more compensatory integration of recognition information. Regardless of the mechanism involved, it is clear that recognition has a strong influence on choices, and this finding might be explained by the fact that recognition cues arouse affect and thus receive more attention than cognitive cues. To test this assumption, we investigated whether recognition results in a direct affective signal by measuring physiological arousal (i.e., peripheral arterial tone in the established city-size task. We found that recognition of cities does not directly result in increased physiological arousal. Moreover, the results show that physiological arousal increased with increasing inconsistency between recognition information and additional cue information. These findings support predictions derived by a compensatory Parallel Constraint Satisfaction model rather than predictions of noncompensatory models. Additional results concerning confidence ratings, response times, and choice proportions further demonstrated that recognition information and other cognitive cues are integrated in a compensatory manner.

  3. Software engineering processes for Class D missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killough, Ronnie; Rose, Debi

    2013-09-01

    Software engineering processes are often seen as anathemas; thoughts of CMMI key process areas and NPR 7150.2A compliance matrices can motivate a software developer to consider other career fields. However, with adequate definition, common-sense application, and an appropriate level of built-in flexibility, software engineering processes provide a critical framework in which to conduct a successful software development project. One problem is that current models seem to be built around an underlying assumption of "bigness," and assume that all elements of the process are applicable to all software projects regardless of size and tolerance for risk. This is best illustrated in NASA's NPR 7150.2A in which, aside from some special provisions for manned missions, the software processes are to be applied based solely on the criticality of the software to the mission, completely agnostic of the mission class itself. That is, the processes applicable to a Class A mission (high priority, very low risk tolerance, very high national significance) are precisely the same as those applicable to a Class D mission (low priority, high risk tolerance, low national significance). This paper will propose changes to NPR 7150.2A, taking mission class into consideration, and discuss how some of these changes are being piloted for a current Class D mission—the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS).

  4. Mathematical SETI Statistics, Signal Processing, Space Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Maccone, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces the Statistical Drake Equation where, from a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake Equation is turned into the product of seven positive random variables. The mathematical consequences of this transformation are demonstrated and it is proven that the new random variable N for the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy must follow the lognormal probability distribution when the number of factors in the Drake equation is allowed to increase at will. Mathematical SETI also studies the proposed FOCAL (Fast Outgoing Cyclopean Astronomical Lens) space mission to the nearest Sun Focal Sphere at 550 AU and describes its consequences for future interstellar precursor missions and truly interstellar missions. In addition the author shows how SETI signal processing may be dramatically improved by use of the Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) rather than Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Finally, he describes the efforts made to persuade the United Nations to make the central part...

  5. Image processing and recognition for biological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Seiichi

    2013-05-01

    This paper reviews image processing and pattern recognition techniques, which will be useful to analyze bioimages. Although this paper does not provide their technical details, it will be possible to grasp their main tasks and typical tools to handle the tasks. Image processing is a large research area to improve the visibility of an input image and acquire some valuable information from it. As the main tasks of image processing, this paper introduces gray-level transformation, binarization, image filtering, image segmentation, visual object tracking, optical flow and image registration. Image pattern recognition is the technique to classify an input image into one of the predefined classes and also has a large research area. This paper overviews its two main modules, that is, feature extraction module and classification module. Throughout the paper, it will be emphasized that bioimage is a very difficult target for even state-of-the-art image processing and pattern recognition techniques due to noises, deformations, etc. This paper is expected to be one tutorial guide to bridge biology and image processing researchers for their further collaboration to tackle such a difficult target. © 2013 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  6. Combining high-speed SVM learning with CNN feature encoding for real-time target recognition in high-definition video for ISR missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Christine; von der Werth, Monika; Leuck, Holger; Stahl, Christoph; Schertler, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    For Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) missions of manned and unmanned air systems typical electrooptical payloads provide high-definition video data which has to be exploited with respect to relevant ground targets in real-time by automatic/assisted target recognition software. Airbus Defence and Space is developing required technologies for real-time sensor exploitation since years and has combined the latest advances of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) with a proprietary high-speed Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning method into a powerful object recognition system with impressive results on relevant high-definition video scenes compared to conventional target recognition approaches. This paper describes the principal requirements for real-time target recognition in high-definition video for ISR missions and the Airbus approach of combining an invariant feature extraction using pre-trained CNNs and the high-speed training and classification ability of a novel frequency-domain SVM training method. The frequency-domain approach allows for a highly optimized implementation for General Purpose Computation on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) and also an efficient training of large training samples. The selected CNN which is pre-trained only once on domain-extrinsic data reveals a highly invariant feature extraction. This allows for a significantly reduced adaptation and training of the target recognition method for new target classes and mission scenarios. A comprehensive training and test dataset was defined and prepared using relevant high-definition airborne video sequences. The assessment concept is explained and performance results are given using the established precision-recall diagrams, average precision and runtime figures on representative test data. A comparison to legacy target recognition approaches shows the impressive performance increase by the proposed CNN+SVM machine-learning approach and the capability of real-time high

  7. Two processes support visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderian, Sebastian; Brigham, Danielle; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2011-11-29

    A large body of evidence in humans suggests that recognition memory can be supported by both recollection and familiarity. Recollection-based recognition is characterized by the retrieval of contextual information about the episode in which an item was previously encountered, whereas familiarity-based recognition is characterized instead by knowledge only that the item had been encountered previously in the absence of any context. To date, it is unknown whether monkeys rely on similar mnemonic processes to perform recognition memory tasks. Here, we present evidence from the analysis of receiver operating characteristics, suggesting that visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys also can be supported by two separate processes and that these processes have features considered to be characteristic of recollection and familiarity. Thus, the present study provides converging evidence across species for a dual process model of recognition memory and opens up the possibility of studying the neural mechanisms of recognition memory in nonhuman primates on tasks that are highly similar to the ones used in humans.

  8. Applications of evolutionary computation in image processing and pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas, Erik; Perez-Cisneros, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the use of efficient Evolutionary Computation (EC) algorithms for solving diverse real-world image processing and pattern recognition problems. It provides an overview of the different aspects of evolutionary methods in order to enable the reader in reaching a global understanding of the field and, in conducting studies on specific evolutionary techniques that are related to applications in image processing and pattern recognition. It explains the basic ideas of the proposed applications in a way that can also be understood by readers outside of the field. Image processing and pattern recognition practitioners who are not evolutionary computation researchers will appreciate the discussed techniques beyond simple theoretical tools since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise on such areas. On the other hand, members of the evolutionary computation community can learn the way in which image processing and pattern recognition problems can be translated into an...

  9. Indian Issues: More Consistent and Timely Tribal Recognition Process Needed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Barry

    2002-01-01

    ...) regulatory process for federally recognizing Indian tribes. Federal recognition of an Indian tribe can have a tremendous effect on the tribe, surrounding communities, and the nation as a whole...

  10. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  11. Image recognition on raw and processed potato detection: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yan-nan; Lü, Cheng-xu; Zhang, Jun-ning; Li, Ya-shuo; Zeng, Zhen; Mao, Wen-hua; Jiang, Han-lu; Yang, Bing-nan

    2018-02-01

    Objective: Chinese potato staple food strategy clearly pointed out the need to improve potato processing, while the bottleneck of this strategy is technology and equipment of selection of appropriate raw and processed potato. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the advanced raw and processed potato detection methods. Method: According to consult research literatures in the field of image recognition based potato quality detection, including the shape, weight, mechanical damage, germination, greening, black heart, scab potato etc., the development and direction of this field were summarized in this paper. Result: In order to obtain whole potato surface information, the hardware was built by the synchronous of image sensor and conveyor belt to achieve multi-angle images of a single potato. Researches on image recognition of potato shape are popular and mature, including qualitative discrimination on abnormal and sound potato, and even round and oval potato, with the recognition accuracy of more than 83%. Weight is an important indicator for potato grading, and the image classification accuracy presents more than 93%. The image recognition of potato mechanical damage focuses on qualitative identification, with the main affecting factors of damage shape and damage time. The image recognition of potato germination usually uses potato surface image and edge germination point. Both of the qualitative and quantitative detection of green potato have been researched, currently scab and blackheart image recognition need to be operated using the stable detection environment or specific device. The image recognition of processed potato mainly focuses on potato chips, slices and fries, etc. Conclusion: image recognition as a food rapid detection tool have been widely researched on the area of raw and processed potato quality analyses, its technique and equipment have the potential for commercialization in short term, to meet to the strategy demand of development potato as

  12. Technical Reviews on Pattern Recognition in Process Analytical Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Yun; Choi, Yong Suk; Ji, Sun Kyung; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyu Seok; Jung, Sung Hee

    2008-12-01

    Pattern recognition is one of the first and the most widely adopted chemometric tools among many active research area in chemometrics such as design of experiment(DoE), pattern recognition, multivariate calibration, signal processing. Pattern recognition has been used to identify the origin of a wine and the time of year that the vine was grown by using chromatography, cause of fire by using GC/MS chromatography, detection of explosives and land mines, cargo and luggage inspection in seaports and airports by using a prompt gamma-ray activation analysis, and source apportionment of environmental pollutant by using a stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Recently, pattern recognition has been taken into account as a major chemometric tool in the so-called 'process analytical technology (PAT)', which is a newly-developed concept in the area of process analytics proposed by US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). For instance, identification of raw material by using a pattern recognition analysis plays an important role for the effective quality control of the production process. Recently, pattern recognition technique has been used to identify the spatial distribution and uniformity of the active ingredients present in the product such as tablet by transforming the chemical data into the visual information

  13. PROBABILISTIC APPROACH TO OBJECT DETECTION AND RECOGNITION FOR VIDEOSTREAM PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The represented research results are aimed to improve theoretical basics of computer vision and artificial intelligence of dynamical system. Proposed approach of object detection and recognition is based on probabilistic fundamentals to ensure the required level of correct object recognition. Methods: Presented approach is grounded at probabilistic methods, statistical methods of probability density estimation and computer-based simulation at verification stage of development. Results: Proposed approach for object detection and recognition for video stream data processing has shown several advantages in comparison with existing methods due to its simple realization and small time of data processing. Presented results of experimental verification look plausible for object detection and recognition in video stream. Discussion: The approach can be implemented in dynamical system within changeable environment such as remotely piloted aircraft systems and can be a part of artificial intelligence in navigation and control systems.

  14. Transfer-Appropriate Processing in Recognition Memory: Perceptual and Conceptual Effects on Recognition Memory Depend on Task Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Colleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Research examining the importance of surface-level information to familiarity in recognition memory tasks is mixed: Sometimes it affects recognition and sometimes it does not. One potential explanation of the inconsistent findings comes from the ideas of dual process theory of recognition and the transfer-appropriate processing framework, which…

  15. The esa earth explorer land surface processes and interactions mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandibar, Jean-Yves; Jubineau, Franck; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Del Bello, Umberto

    2017-11-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is defining candidate missions for Earth Observation. In the class of the Earth Explorer missions, dedicated to research and pre-operational demonstration, the Land Surface Processes and Interactions Mission (LSPIM) will acquire the accurate quantitative measurements needed to improve our understanding of the nature and evolution of biosphere-atmosphere interactions and to contribute significantly to a solution of the scaling problems for energy, water and carbon fluxes at the Earth's surface. The mission is intended to provide detailed observations of the surface of the Earth and to collect data related to ecosystem processes and radiation balance. It is also intended to address a range of issues important for environmental monitoring, renewable resources assessment and climate models. The mission involves a dedicated maneuvering satellite which provides multi-directional observations for systematic measurement of Land Surface BRDF (BiDirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) of selected sites on Earth. The satellite carries an optical payload : PRISM (Processes Research by an Imaging Space Mission), a multispectral imager providing reasonably high spatial resolution images (50 m over 50 km swath) in the whole optical spectral domain (from 450 nm to 2.35 μm with a resolution close to 10 nm, and two thermal bands from 8.1 to 9.1 μm). This paper presents the results of the Phase A study awarded by ESA, led by ALCATEL Space Industries and concerning the design of LSPIM.

  16. ADAPTIVE CONTEXT PROCESSING IN ON-LINE HANDWRITTEN CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwayama, N.; Ishigaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a new approach to context processing in on-line handwritten character recognition (OLCR). Based on the observation that writers often repeat the strings that they input, we take the approach of adaptive context processing. (ACP). In ACP, the strings input by a writer are automatically

  17. Perceptual effects on remembering: recollective processes in picture recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, S

    1996-03-01

    In 3 experiments, the effects of perceptual manipulations on recollective experience were tested. In Experiment 1, a picture-superiority effect was obtained for overall recognition and Remember judgements in a picture recognition task. In Experiment 2, size changes of pictorial stimuli across study and test reduced recognition memory and Remember judgements. In Experiment 3, deleterious effects of changes in left-right orientation of pictorial stimuli across study and test were obtained for Remember judgements. An alternate framework that emphasizes a distinctiveness-fluency processing distinction is proposed to account for these findings because they cannot easily be accommodated within the existing account of differences in conceptual and perceptual processing for the 2 categories of recollective experience: Remembering and Knowing, respectively (J. M. Gardiner, 1988; S. Rajaram, 1993).

  18. Arguments Against a Configural Processing Account of Familiar Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Jenkins, Rob; Kaufmann, Jürgen M

    2015-07-01

    Face recognition is a remarkable human ability, which underlies a great deal of people's social behavior. Individuals can recognize family members, friends, and acquaintances over a very large range of conditions, and yet the processes by which they do this remain poorly understood, despite decades of research. Although a detailed understanding remains elusive, face recognition is widely thought to rely on configural processing, specifically an analysis of spatial relations between facial features (so-called second-order configurations). In this article, we challenge this traditional view, raising four problems: (1) configural theories are underspecified; (2) large configural changes leave recognition unharmed; (3) recognition is harmed by nonconfigural changes; and (4) in separate analyses of face shape and face texture, identification tends to be dominated by texture. We review evidence from a variety of sources and suggest that failure to acknowledge the impact of familiarity on facial representations may have led to an overgeneralization of the configural account. We argue instead that second-order configural information is remarkably unimportant for familiar face recognition. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Neural Mechanisms and Information Processing in Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamiko Ozaki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nestmate recognition is a hallmark of social insects. It is based on the match/mismatch of an identity signal carried by members of the society with that of the perceiving individual. While the behavioral response, amicable or aggressive, is very clear, the neural systems underlying recognition are not fully understood. Here we contrast two alternative hypotheses for the neural mechanisms that are responsible for the perception and information processing in recognition. We focus on recognition via chemical signals, as the common modality in social insects. The first, classical, hypothesis states that upon perception of recognition cues by the sensory system the information is passed as is to the antennal lobes and to higher brain centers where the information is deciphered and compared to a neural template. Match or mismatch information is then transferred to some behavior-generating centers where the appropriate response is elicited. An alternative hypothesis, that of “pre-filter mechanism”, posits that the decision as to whether to pass on the information to the central nervous system takes place in the peripheral sensory system. We suggest that, through sensory adaptation, only alien signals are passed on to the brain, specifically to an “aggressive-behavior-switching center”, where the response is generated if the signal is above a certain threshold.

  20. Detection, information fusion, and temporal processing for intelligence in recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasent, D. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The use of intelligence in vision recognition uses many different techniques or tools. This presentation discusses several of these techniques for recognition. The recognition process is generally separated into several steps or stages when implemented in hardware, e.g. detection, segmentation and enhancement, and recognition. Several new distortion-invariant filters, biologically-inspired Gabor wavelet filter techniques, and morphological operations that have been found very useful for detection and clutter rejection are discussed. These are all shift-invariant operations that allow multiple object regions of interest in a scene to be located in parallel. We also discuss new algorithm fusion concepts by which the results from different detection algorithms are combined to reduce detection false alarms; these fusion methods utilize hierarchical processing and fuzzy logic concepts. We have found this to be most necessary, since no single detection algorithm is best for all cases. For the final recognition stage, we describe a new method of representing all distorted versions of different classes of objects and determining the object class and pose that most closely matches that of a given input. Besides being efficient in terms of storage and on-line computations required, it overcomes many of the problems that other classifiers have in terms of the required training set size, poor generalization with many hidden layer neurons, etc. It is also attractive in its ability to reject input regions as clutter (non-objects) and to learn new object descriptions. We also discuss its use in processing a temporal sequence of input images of the contents of each local region of interest. We note how this leads to robust results in which estimation efforts in individual frames can be overcome. This seems very practical, since in many scenarios a decision need not be made after only one frame of data, since subsequent frames of data enter immediately in sequence.

  1. The Impact of Early Bilingualism on Face Recognition Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Sonia; Burfin, Sabine; Méary, David; Ruiz-Tada, Elisa; Costa, Albert; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker's face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes). Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other-Race Effect (ORE) and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race), Chinese faces (other race), and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals' face processing abilities differ from monolinguals'. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation.

  2. The impact of early bilingualism on face recognition processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Kandel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Early linguistic experience has an impact on the way we decode audiovisual speech in face-to-face communication. The present study examined whether differences in visual speech decoding could be linked to a broader difference in face processing. To identify a phoneme we have to do an analysis of the speaker’s face to focus on the relevant cues for speech decoding (e.g., locating the mouth with respect to the eyes. Face recognition processes were investigated through two classic effects in face recognition studies: the Other Race Effect (ORE and the Inversion Effect. Bilingual and monolingual participants did a face recognition task with Caucasian faces (own race, Chinese faces (other race and cars that were presented in an Upright or Inverted position. The results revealed that monolinguals exhibited the classic ORE. Bilinguals did not. Overall, bilinguals were slower than monolinguals. These results suggest that bilinguals’ face processing abilities differ from monolinguals’. Early exposure to more than one language may lead to a perceptual organization that goes beyond language processing and could extend to face analysis. We hypothesize that these differences could be due to the fact that bilinguals focus on different parts of the face than monolinguals, making them more efficient in other race face processing but slower. However, more studies using eye-tracking techniques are necessary to confirm this explanation.

  3. The NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP) Mission Assurance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, NASA established the Commercial Crew Program in order to provide human access to the International Space Station and low earth orbit via the commercial (non-governmental) sector. A particular challenge to NASA has been how to determine the commercial providers transportation system complies with Programmatic safety requirements. The process used in this determination is the Safety Technical Review Board which reviews and approves provider submitted Hazard Reports. One significant product of the review is a set of hazard control verifications. In past NASA programs, 100 percent of these safety critical verifications were typically confirmed by NASA. The traditional Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) model does not support the nature of the Commercial Crew Program. To that end, NASA SMA is implementing a Risk Based Assurance (RBA) process to determine which hazard control verifications require NASA authentication. Additionally, a Shared Assurance Model is also being developed to efficiently use the available resources to execute the verifications. This paper will describe the evolution of the CCP Mission Assurance process from the beginning of the Program to its current incarnation. Topics to be covered include a short history of the CCP; the development of the Programmatic mission assurance requirements; the current safety review process; a description of the RBA process and its products and ending with a description of the Shared Assurance Model.

  4. Holistic face processing can inhibit recognition of forensic facial composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alex H; Hancock, Peter J B; Frowd, Charlie D; Langton, Stephen R H

    2016-04-01

    Facial composite systems help eyewitnesses to show the appearance of criminals. However, likenesses created by unfamiliar witnesses will not be completely accurate, and people familiar with the target can find them difficult to identify. Faces are processed holistically; we explore whether this impairs identification of inaccurate composite images and whether recognition can be improved. In Experiment 1 (n = 64) an imaging technique was used to make composites of celebrity faces more accurate and identification was contrasted with the original composite images. Corrected composites were better recognized, confirming that errors in production of the likenesses impair identification. The influence of holistic face processing was explored by misaligning the top and bottom parts of the composites (cf. Young, Hellawell, & Hay, 1987). Misalignment impaired recognition of corrected composites but identification of the original, inaccurate composites significantly improved. This effect was replicated with facial composites of noncelebrities in Experiment 2 (n = 57). We conclude that, like real faces, facial composites are processed holistically: recognition is impaired because unlike real faces, composites contain inaccuracies and holistic face processing makes it difficult to perceive identifiable features. This effect was consistent across composites of celebrities and composites of people who are personally familiar. Our findings suggest that identification of forensic facial composites can be enhanced by presenting composites in a misaligned format. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Speech and audio processing for coding, enhancement and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Togneri, Roberto; Narasimha, Madihally

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles underlying the generation, coding, transmission and enhancement of speech and audio signals, including advanced statistical and machine learning techniques for speech and speaker recognition with an overview of the key innovations in these areas. Key research undertaken in speech coding, speech enhancement, speech recognition, emotion recognition and speaker diarization are also presented, along with recent advances and new paradigms in these areas. ·         Offers readers a single-source reference on the significant applications of speech and audio processing to speech coding, speech enhancement and speech/speaker recognition. Enables readers involved in algorithm development and implementation issues for speech coding to understand the historical development and future challenges in speech coding research; ·         Discusses speech coding methods yielding bit-streams that are multi-rate and scalable for Voice-over-IP (VoIP) Networks; ·     �...

  6. Modeling of state recognition process of plant operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Naoki; Furuta, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    It is necessary to automate Machine systems because they have become larger and more complicated these years. Generally speaking, humans hardly grasp the overall state in the automated systems. In fact it is reported that the accident caused by this problem occurs. To avoid such accidents, there were many studies to give human the authority of final decision making. In general it depends on circumstances whether the authority of decision making is given humans or machine systems. It is supposed therefore that humans and machine systems exchange their information each other and efficiently share their tasks. It is necessary that machine systems infer human intention in these systems. There were not enough considerations on state recognition process which is important to infer human intention. In this paper we first reconstructed human knowledge into a hierarchy and incorporated these knowledge into a Bayesian network. Next we modeled the state recognition process by using the Bayesian network. (author)

  7. About-face on face recognition ability and holistic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Floyd, R Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically.

  8. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloe, Rebecca; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2013-12-14

    Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action.

  9. Motor cortical processing is causally involved in object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Motor activity during vicarious experience of actions is a widely reported and studied phenomenon, and motor system activity also accompanies observation of graspable objects in the absence of any actions. Such motor activity is thought to reflect simulation of the observed action, or preparation to interact with the object, respectively. Results Here, in an initial exploratory study, we ask whether motor activity during observation of object directed actions is involved in processes related to recognition of the object after initial exposure. Single pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) was applied over the thumb representation of the motor cortex, or over the vertex, during observation of a model thumb typing on a cell-phone, and performance on a phone recognition task at the end of the trial was assessed. Disrupting motor processing over the thumb representation 100 ms after the onset of the typing video impaired the ability to recognize the phone in the recognition test, whereas there was no such effect for TMS applied over the vertex and no TMS trials. Furthermore, this effect only manifested for videos observed from the first person perspective. In an additional control condition, there was no evidence for any effects of TMS to the thumb representation or vertex when observing and recognizing non-action related shape stimuli. Conclusion Overall, these data provide evidence that motor cortical processing during observation of object-directed actions from a first person perspective is causally linked to the formation of enduring representations of objects-of-action. PMID:24330638

  10. Road Sign Recognition with Fuzzy Adaptive Pre-Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Chuan; Wang, Ming-Shi

    2012-01-01

    A road sign recognition system based on adaptive image pre-processing models using two fuzzy inference schemes has been proposed. The first fuzzy inference scheme is to check the changes of the light illumination and rich red color of a frame image by the checking areas. The other is to check the variance of vehicle's speed and angle of steering wheel to select an adaptive size and position of the detection area. The Adaboost classifier was employed to detect the road sign candidates from an image and the support vector machine technique was employed to recognize the content of the road sign candidates. The prohibitory and warning road traffic signs are the processing targets in this research. The detection rate in the detection phase is 97.42%. In the recognition phase, the recognition rate is 93.04%. The total accuracy rate of the system is 92.47%. For video sequences, the best accuracy rate is 90.54%, and the average accuracy rate is 80.17%. The average computing time is 51.86 milliseconds per frame. The proposed system can not only overcome low illumination and rich red color around the road sign problems but also offer high detection rates and high computing performance. PMID:22778650

  11. [Representation of letter position in visual word recognition process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makioka, S

    1994-08-01

    Two experiments investigated the representation of letter position in visual word recognition process. In Experiment 1, subjects (12 undergraduates and graduates) were asked to detect a target word in a briefly-presented probe. Probes consisted of two kanji words. The latters which formed targets (critical letters) were always contained in probes. (e.g. target: [symbol: see text] probe: [symbol: see text]) High false alarm rate was observed when critical letters occupied the same within-word relative position (left or right within the word) in the probe words as in the target word. In Experiment 2 (subject were ten undergraduates and graduates), spaces adjacent to probe words were replaced by randomly chosen hiragana letters (e.g. [symbol: see text]), because spaces are not used to separate words in regular Japanese sentences. In addition to the effect of within-word relative position as in Experiment 1, the effect of between-word relative position (left or right across the probe words) was observed. These results suggest that information about within-word relative position of a letter is used in word recognition process. The effect of within-word relative position was explained by a connectionist model of word recognition.

  12. Sample Handling and Processing on Mars for Future Astrobiology Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Luther; Kirby, James P.; Fisher, Anita; Hodyss, Robert; Saltzman, Alison; Soto, Juancarlos; Lasnik, James; Roark, Shane

    2011-01-01

    In most analytical investigations, there is a need to process complex field samples for the unique detection of analytes especially when detecting low concentration organic molecules that may identify extraterrestrial life. Sample processing for analytical instruments is time, resource and manpower consuming in terrestrial laboratories. Every step in this laborious process will have to be automated for in situ life detection. We have developed, and are currently demonstrating, an automated wet chemistry preparation system that can operate autonomously on Earth and is designed to operate under Martian ambient conditions. This will enable a complete wet chemistry laboratory as part of future missions. Our system, namely the Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS) receives fines, extracts organics through solvent extraction, processes the extract by removing non-organic soluble species and delivers sample to multiple instruments for analysis (including for non-organic soluble species).

  13. Levels-of-processing effect on word recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, J Daniel; Moelter, Stephen T; McGrath, Claire; Hill, S Kristian; Gur, Raquel E; Bilker, Warren B; Siegel, Steven J; Gur, Ruben C

    2003-12-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have difficulty organizing words semantically to facilitate encoding. This is commonly attributed to organizational rather than semantic processing limitations. By requiring participants to classify and encode words on either a shallow (e.g., uppercase/lowercase) or deep level (e.g., concrete/abstract), the levels-of-processing paradigm eliminates the need to generate organizational strategies. This paradigm was administered to 30 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy comparison subjects to test whether providing a strategy would improve patient performance. Word classification during shallow and deep encoding was slower and less accurate in patients. Patients also responded slowly during recognition testing and maintained a more conservative response bias following deep encoding; however, both groups showed a robust levels-of-processing effect on recognition accuracy, with unimpaired patient performance following both shallow and deep encoding. This normal levels-of-processing effect in the patient sample suggests that semantic processing is sufficiently intact for patients to benefit from organizational cues. Memory remediation efforts may therefore be most successful if they focus on teaching patients to form organizational strategies during initial encoding.

  14. Pattern Recognition and Natural Language Processing: State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kocaleva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of information technologies is growing steadily. With the latest software technologies development and application of the methods of artificial intelligence and machine learning intelligence embededs in computers, the expectations are that in near future computers will be able to solve problems themselves like people do. Artificial intelligence emulates human behavior on computers. Rather than executing instructions one by one, as theyare programmed, machine learning employs prior experience/data that is used in the process of system’s training. In this state of the art paper, common methods in AI, such as machine learning, pattern recognition and the natural language processing (NLP are discussed. Also are given standard architecture of NLP processing system and the level thatisneeded for understanding NLP. Lastly the statistical NLP processing and multi-word expressions are described.

  15. Recognition of oral spelling is diagnostic of the central reading processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Teresa; McCloskey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The task of recognition of oral spelling (stimulus: "C-A-T", response: "cat") is often administered to individuals with acquired written language disorders, yet there is no consensus about the underlying cognitive processes. We adjudicate between two existing hypotheses: Recognition of oral spelling uses central reading processes, or recognition of oral spelling uses central spelling processes in reverse. We tested the recognition of oral spelling and spelling to dictation abilities of a single individual with acquired dyslexia and dysgraphia. She was impaired relative to matched controls in spelling to dictation but unimpaired in recognition of oral spelling. Recognition of oral spelling for exception words (e.g., colonel) and pronounceable nonwords (e.g., larth) was intact. Our results were predicted by the hypothesis that recognition of oral spelling involves the central reading processes. We conclude that recognition of oral spelling is a useful tool for probing the integrity of the central reading processes.

  16. Contextual System of Symbol Structural Recognition based on an Object-Process Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Delalandre, Mathieu

    2005-01-01

    We present in this paper a symbol recognition system for the graphic documents. This one is based on a contextual approach for symbol structural recognition exploiting an Object-Process Methodology. It uses a processing library composed of structural recognition processings and contextual evaluation processings. These processings allow our system to deal with the multi-representation of symbols. The different processings are controlled, in an automatic way, by an inference engine during the r...

  17. Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory mus...

  18. Using Face Recognition System in Ship Protection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Bača

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of security improvement is a huge problem especiallyin large ships. Terrorist attacks and everyday threatsagainst life and property destroy transport and tourist companies,especially large tourist ships. Every person on a ship can berecognized and identified using something that the personknows or by means of something the person possesses. The bestresults will be obtained by using a combination of the person'sknowledge with one biometric characteristic. Analyzing theproblem of biometrics in ITS security we can conclude that facerecognition process supported by one or two traditional biometriccharacteristics can give very good results regarding ship security.In this paper we will describe a biometric system basedon face recognition. Special focus will be given to crew member'sbiometric security in crisis situation like kidnapping, robbelyor illness.

  19. Recollection is a continuous process: implications for dual-process theories of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickes, Laura; Wais, Peter E; Wixted, John T

    2009-04-01

    Dual-process theory, which holds that recognition decisions can be based on recollection or familiarity, has long seemed incompatible with signal detection theory, which holds that recognition decisions are based on a singular, continuous memory-strength variable. Formal dual-process models typically regard familiarity as a continuous process (i.e., familiarity comes in degrees), but they construe recollection as a categorical process (i.e., recollection either occurs or does not occur). A continuous process is characterized by a graded relationship between confidence and accuracy, whereas a categorical process is characterized by a binary relationship such that high confidence is associated with high accuracy but all lower degrees of confidence are associated with chance accuracy. Using a source-memory procedure, we found that the relationship between confidence and source-recollection accuracy was graded. Because recollection, like familiarity, is a continuous process, dual-process theory is more compatible with signal detection theory than previously thought.

  20. Process Algebra Approach for Action Recognition in the Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The maritime environment poses a number of challenges for autonomous operation of surface boats. Among these challenges are the highly dynamic nature of the environment, the onboard sensing and reasoning requirements for obeying the navigational rules of the road, and the need for robust day/night hazard detection and avoidance. Development of full mission level autonomy entails addressing these challenges, coupled with inference of the tactical and strategic intent of possibly adversarial vehicles in the surrounding environment. This paper introduces PACIFIC (Process Algebra Capture of Intent From Information Content), an onboard system based on formal process algebras that is capable of extracting actions/activities from sensory inputs and reasoning within a mission context to ensure proper responses. PACIFIC is part of the Behavior Engine in CARACaS (Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing), a system that is currently running on a number of U.S. Navy unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. Results from a series of experimental studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system are also presented.

  1. MicroRNAs: Processing, Maturation, Target Recognition and Regulatory Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Girish C.; Singh, Jagjit; Barik, Sailen

    2012-01-01

    The remarkable discovery of small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) and their role in posttranscriptional gene regulation have revealed another fine-tuning step in the expression of genetic information. A large number of cellular pathways, which act in organismal development and are important in health and disease, appear to be modulated by miRNAs. At the molecular level, miRNAs restrain the production of proteins by affecting the stability of their target mRNA and/or by down-regulating their translation. This review attempts to offer a snapshot of aspects of miRNA coding, processing, target recognition and function in animals. Our goal here is to provide the readers with a thought-provoking and mechanistic introduction to the miRNA world rather than with a detailed encyclopedia. PMID:22468167

  2. Mission Concept to Connect Magnetospheric Physical Processes to Ionospheric Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dors, E. E.; MacDonald, E.; Kepko, L.; Borovsky, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Delzanno, G. L.; Thomsen, M. F.; Sanchez, E. R.; Henderson, M. G.; Nguyen, D. C.; Vaith, H.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Spanswick, E.; Marshall, R. A.; Donovan, E.; Neilson, J.; Carlsten, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    On the Earth's nightside the magnetic connections between the ionosphere and the dynamic magnetosphere have a great deal of uncertainty: this uncertainty prevents us from scientifically understanding what physical processes in the magnetosphere are driving the various phenomena in the ionosphere. Since the 1990s, the space plasma physics group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working on a concept to connect magnetospheric physical processes to auroral phenomena in the ionosphere by firing an electron beam from a magnetospheric spacecraft and optically imaging the beam spot in the ionosphere. The magnetospheric spacecraft will carry a steerable electron accelerator, a power-storage system, a plasma contactor, and instruments to measure magnetic and electric fields, plasma, and energetic particles. The spacecraft orbit will be coordinated with a ground-based network of cameras to (a) locate the electron beam spot in the upper atmosphere and (b) monitor the aurora. An overview of the mission concept will be presented, including recent enabling advancements based on (1) a new understanding of the dynamic spacecraft charging of the accelerator and plasma-contactor system in the tenuous magnetosphere based on ion emission rather than electron collection, (2) a new understanding of the propagation properties of pulsed MeV-class beams in the magnetosphere, and (3) the design of a compact high-power 1-MeV electron accelerator and power-storage system. This strategy to (a) determine the magnetosphere-to-ionosphere connections and (b) reduce accelerator- platform charging responds to one of the six emerging-technology needs called out in the most-recent National Academies Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics. [LA-UR-17-23614

  3. Impaired processing of self-face recognition in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirot, France; Lesage, Marine; Pedron, Lya; Meyer, Isabelle; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Guardia, Dewi

    2016-03-01

    Body image disturbances and massive weight loss are major clinical symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of body changes and eating attitudes on self-face recognition ability in AN. Twenty-seven subjects suffering from AN and 27 control participants performed a self-face recognition task (SFRT). During the task, digital morphs between their own face and a gender-matched unfamiliar face were presented in a random sequence. Participants' self-face recognition failures, cognitive flexibility, body concern and eating habits were assessed with the Self-Face Recognition Questionnaire (SFRQ), Trail Making Test (TMT), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), respectively. Subjects suffering from AN exhibited significantly greater difficulties than control participants in identifying their own face (p = 0.028). No significant difference was observed between the two groups for TMT (all p > 0.1, non-significant). Regarding predictors of self-face recognition skills, there was a negative correlation between SFRT and body mass index (p = 0.01) and a positive correlation between SFRQ and EDI-2 (p face recognition.

  4. Pattern Recognition in Optical Remote Sensing Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozoderov, Vladimir; Kondranin, Timofei; Dmitriev, Egor; Kamentsev, Vladimir

    Computational procedures of the land surface biophysical parameters retrieval imply that modeling techniques are available of the outgoing radiation description together with monitoring techniques of remote sensing data processing using registered radiances between the related optical sensors and the land surface objects called “patterns”. Pattern recognition techniques are a valuable approach to the processing of remote sensing data for images of the land surface - atmosphere system. Many simplified codes of the direct and inverse problems of atmospheric optics are considered applicable for the imagery processing of low and middle spatial resolution. Unless the authors are not interested in the accuracy of the final information products, they utilize these standard procedures. The emerging necessity of processing data of high spectral and spatial resolution given by imaging spectrometers puts forward the newly defined pattern recognition techniques. The proposed tools of using different types of classifiers combined with the parameter retrieval procedures for the forested environment are maintained to have much wider applications as compared with the image features and object shapes extraction, which relates to photometry and geometry in pixel-level reflectance representation of the forested land cover. The pixel fraction and reflectance of “end-members” (sunlit forest canopy, sunlit background and shaded background for a particular view and solar illumination angle) are only a part in the listed techniques. It is assumed that each pixel views collections of the individual forest trees and the pixel-level reflectance can thus be computed as a linear mixture of sunlit tree tops, sunlit background (or understory) and shadows. Instead of these photometry and geometry constraints, the improved models are developed of the functional description of outgoing spectral radiation, in which such parameters of the forest canopy like the vegetation biomass density for

  5. Opportunity recognition: delineating the process and motivators for serial entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Opportunity recognition is a fundamental research issue in entrepreneurship which this paper empirically investigates for serial entrepreneurs. Initially key definitions and boundary conditions of opportunity recognition are explored to elucidate the relevant motivators driving serial entrepreneurs. After operationalising the various concepts, data is collected by surveying serial entrepreneurs (n= 77 based on pre-determined selection criteria. Since the study’s objective is to build solid theory on these new phenomena, descriptive analysis on the empirical results is provided. To test the hypotheses inferential statistics employing parametric and non-parametric tests are used. The findings reveal that the opportunity recognition behaviours are manifest among serial entrepreneurs, with few significant differences on how many new, major businesses have been pursued, or whether they can be said to be successes.

  6. Role of syllable segmentation processes in peripheral word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Calabrèse, Aurélie; Castet, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies of foveal visual word recognition provide evidence for a low-level syllable decomposition mechanism occurring during the recognition of a word. We investigated if such a decomposition mechanism also exists in peripheral word recognition. Single words were visually presented to subjects in the peripheral field using a 6° square gaze-contingent simulated central scotoma. In the first experiment, words were either unicolor or had their adjacent syllables segmented with two different colors (color/syllable congruent condition). Reaction times for correct word identification were measured for the two different conditions and for two different print sizes. Results show a significant decrease in reaction time for the color/syllable congruent condition compared with the unicolor condition. A second experiment suggests that this effect is specific to syllable decomposition and results from strategic, presumably involving attentional factors, rather than stimulus-driven control.

  7. 2nd International Symposium on Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Krishnan, Sri; Li, Kuan-Ching; Mosin, Sergey; Ma, Maode

    2016-01-01

    This Edited Volume contains a selection of refereed and revised papers originally presented at the second International Symposium on Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems (SIRS-2015), December 16-19, 2015, Trivandrum, India. The program committee received 175 submissions. Each paper was peer reviewed by at least three or more independent referees of the program committee and the 59 papers were finally selected. The papers offer stimulating insights into biometrics, digital watermarking, recognition systems, image and video processing, signal and speech processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and knowledge-based systems. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various field of signal processing and related areas. .

  8. Stages of Processing in Associative Recognition : Evidence from Behavior, EEG, and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Jelmer P.; Schneider, Darryl W.; Walsh, Matthew M.; Anderson, John R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the stages of information processing in associative recognition. We recorded EEG data while participants performed an associative recognition task that involved manipulations of word length, associative fan, and probe type, which were hypothesized to affect the

  9. IMAGE PROCESSING BASED OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION USING MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Dalal*1 & Sumiran Daiya2

    2018-01-01

    Character recognition techniques associate a symbolic identity with the image of character. In a typical OCR systems input characters are digitized by an optical scanner. Each character is then located and segmented, and the resulting character image is fed into a pre-processor for noise reduction and normalization. Certain characteristics are the extracted from the character for classification. The feature extraction is critical and many different techniques exist, each having its strengths ...

  10. Relation between facial affect recognition and configural face processing in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Jouve, Elisabeth; Guillaume, Fabrice; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Blin, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Deficit in facial affect recognition is a well-documented impairment in schizophrenia, closely connected to social outcome. This deficit could be related to psychopathology, but also to a broader dysfunction in processing facial information. In addition, patients with schizophrenia inadequately use configural information-a type of processing that relies on spatial relationships between facial features. To date, no study has specifically examined the link between symptoms and misuse of configural information in the deficit in facial affect recognition. Unmedicated schizophrenia patients (n = 30) and matched healthy controls (n = 30) performed a facial affect recognition task and a face inversion task, which tests aptitude to rely on configural information. In patients, regressions were carried out between facial affect recognition, symptom dimensions and inversion effect. Patients, compared with controls, showed a deficit in facial affect recognition and a lower inversion effect. Negative symptoms and lower inversion effect could account for 41.2% of the variance in facial affect recognition. This study confirms the presence of a deficit in facial affect recognition, and also of dysfunctional manipulation in configural information in antipsychotic-free patients. Negative symptoms and poor processing of configural information explained a substantial part of the deficient recognition of facial affect. We speculate that this deficit may be caused by several factors, among which independently stand psychopathology and failure in correctly manipulating configural information. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Familiarity Breeds Attempts: A Critical Review of Dual-Process Theories of Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandler, George

    2008-09-01

    Recognition memory and recall/recollection are the major divisions of the psychology of human memory. Theories of recognition have shifted from a "strength" approach to a dual-process view, which distinguishes between knowing that one has experienced an object before and knowing what it was. In this article, I discuss the history of this approach and the two processes of familiarity and recollection and locate their origin in pattern matching and organization. I evaluate various theories in terms of their basic requirements and their defining research and propose the extension of the original two process theory to domains such as pictorial recognition. Finally, I present the main phenomena that a dual-process theory of recognition must account for and discuss future needs and directions of research and development. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  12. One process is not enough! A speed-accuracy tradeoff study of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldini, Angela; Russo, Riccardo; Avons, S E

    2004-04-01

    Speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) methods have been used to contrast single- and dual-process accounts of recognition memory. In these procedures, subjects are presented with individual test items and are required to make recognition decisions under various time constraints. In this experiment, we presented word lists under incidental learning conditions, varying the modality of presentation and level of processing. At test, we manipulated the interval between each visually presented test item and a response signal, thus controlling the amount of time available to retrieve target information. Study-test modality match had a beneficial effect on recognition accuracy at short response-signal delays (deep than from shallow processing at study only at relatively long response-signal delays (> or =300 msec). The results are congruent with views suggesting that both fast familiarity and slower recollection processes contribute to recognition memory.

  13. Multi-mission space science data processing systems - Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William H.

    1990-01-01

    Packetized telemetry that is consistent with the international Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) has been baselined for future NASA missions such as Space Station Freedom. Some experiences from past and present multimission systems are examined, including current experiences in implementing a CCSDS standard packetized data processing system, relative to the effectiveness of the multimission approach in lowering life cycle cost and the complexity of meeting new mission needs. It is shown that the continued effort toward standardization of telemetry and processing support will permit the development of multimission systems needed to meet the increased requirements of future NASA missions.

  14. Oxytocin Reduces Face Processing Time but Leaves Recognition Accuracy and Eye-Gaze Unaffected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Kelly; Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that oxytocin (OXT) can improve the recognition of emotional facial expressions; it has been proposed that this effect is mediated by an increase in attention to the eye-region of faces. Nevertheless, evidence in support of this claim is inconsistent, and few studies have directly tested the effect of oxytocin on emotion recognition via altered eye-gaze Methods: In a double-blind, within-subjects, randomized control experiment, 40 healthy male participants received 24 IU intranasal OXT and placebo in two identical experimental sessions separated by a 2-week interval. Visual attention to the eye-region was assessed on both occasions while participants completed a static facial emotion recognition task using medium intensity facial expressions. Although OXT had no effect on emotion recognition accuracy, recognition performance was improved because face processing was faster across emotions under the influence of OXT. This effect was marginally significant (pfaces and this was not related to recognition accuracy or face processing time. These findings suggest that OXT-induced enhanced facial emotion recognition is not necessarily mediated by an increase in attention to the eye-region of faces, as previously assumed. We discuss several methodological issues which may explain discrepant findings and suggest the effect of OXT on visual attention may differ depending on task requirements. (JINS, 2017, 23, 23-33).

  15. Stages of processing in associative recognition: evidence from behavior, EEG, and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Jelmer P; Schneider, Darryl W; Walsh, Matthew M; Anderson, John R

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the stages of information processing in associative recognition. We recorded EEG data while participants performed an associative recognition task that involved manipulations of word length, associative fan, and probe type, which were hypothesized to affect the perceptual encoding, retrieval, and decision stages of the recognition task, respectively. Analyses of the behavioral and EEG data, supplemented with classification of the EEG data using machine-learning techniques, provided evidence that generally supported the sequence of stages assumed by a computational model developed in the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational cognitive architecture. However, the results suggested a more complex relationship between memory retrieval and decision-making than assumed by the model. Implications of the results for modeling associative recognition are discussed. The study illustrates how a classifier approach, in combination with focused manipulations, can be used to investigate the timing of processing stages.

  16. From face processing to face recognition: Comparing three different processing levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, G; Barragan-Jason, G; Thorpe, S J; Fabre-Thorpe, M; Puma, S; Ceccaldi, M; Barbeau, E J

    2017-01-01

    Verifying that a face is from a target person (e.g. finding someone in the crowd) is a critical ability of the human face processing system. Yet how fast this can be performed is unknown. The 'entry-level shift due to expertise' hypothesis suggests that - since humans are face experts - processing faces should be as fast - or even faster - at the individual than at superordinate levels. In contrast, the 'superordinate advantage' hypothesis suggests that faces are processed from coarse to fine, so that the opposite pattern should be observed. To clarify this debate, three different face processing levels were compared: (1) a superordinate face categorization level (i.e. detecting human faces among animal faces), (2) a face familiarity level (i.e. recognizing famous faces among unfamiliar ones) and (3) verifying that a face is from a target person, our condition of interest. The minimal speed at which faces can be categorized (∼260ms) or recognized as familiar (∼360ms) has largely been documented in previous studies, and thus provides boundaries to compare our condition of interest to. Twenty-seven participants were included. The recent Speed and Accuracy Boosting procedure paradigm (SAB) was used since it constrains participants to use their fastest strategy. Stimuli were presented either upright or inverted. Results revealed that verifying that a face is from a target person (minimal RT at ∼260ms) was remarkably fast but longer than the face categorization level (∼240ms) and was more sensitive to face inversion. In contrast, it was much faster than recognizing a face as familiar (∼380ms), a level severely affected by face inversion. Face recognition corresponding to finding a specific person in a crowd thus appears achievable in only a quarter of a second. In favor of the 'superordinate advantage' hypothesis or coarse-to-fine account of the face visual hierarchy, these results suggest a graded engagement of the face processing system across processing

  17. Learning during processing Word learning doesn’t wait for word recognition to finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on associative learning has uncovered detailed aspects of the process, including what types of things are learned, how they are learned, and where in the brain such learning occurs. However, perceptual processes, such as stimulus recognition and identification, take time to unfold. Previous studies of learning have not addressed when, during the course of these dynamic recognition processes, learned representations are formed and updated. If learned representations are formed and updated while recognition is ongoing, the result of learning may incorporate spurious, partial information. For example, during word recognition, words take time to be identified, and competing words are often active in parallel. If learning proceeds before this competition resolves, representations may be influenced by the preliminary activations present at the time of learning. In three experiments using word learning as a model domain, we provide evidence that learning reflects the ongoing dynamics of auditory and visual processing during a learning event. These results show that learning can occur before stimulus recognition processes are complete; learning does not wait for ongoing perceptual processing to complete. PMID:27471082

  18. Embracing the Institutional Mission: Influences of Identity Processing Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Lauren A.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that different information processing styles influence how effectively students adapt to a college environment. During the college years, individuals shape and refine their values and principles while they also develop a life-long philosophy. The present study examined how student ego-identity development (n = 1,249) was…

  19. Pathways to Medical Home Recognition: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis of the PCMH Transformation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Peter; Chen, Emily K; Green, Harold D; Armstrong, Courtney; Timbie, Justin W; Kress, Amii M; Friedberg, Mark W; Kahn, Katherine L

    2017-12-15

    To understand the process of practice transformation by identifying pathways for attaining patient-centered medical home (PCMH) recognition. The CMS Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) Advanced Primary Care Practice Demonstration was designed to help FQHCs achieve NCQA Level 3 PCMH recognition and improve patient outcomes. We used a stratified random sample of 20 (out of 503) participating sites for this analysis. We developed a conceptual model of structural, cultural, and implementation factors affecting PCMH transformation based on literature and initial qualitative interview themes. We then used conventional cross-case analysis, followed by qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), a cross-case method based on Boolean logic algorithms, to systematically identify pathways (i.e., combinations of factors) associated with attaining-or not attaining-Level 3 recognition. Site-level indicators were derived from semistructured interviews with site leaders at two points in time (mid- and late-implementation) and administrative data collected prior to and during the demonstration period. The QCA results identified five distinct pathways to attaining PCMH recognition and four distinct pathways to not attaining recognition by the end of the demonstration. Across these pathways, one condition (change leader capacity) was common to all pathways for attaining recognition, and another (previous improvement or recognition experience) was absent in all pathways for not attaining recognition. In general, sites could compensate for deficiencies in one factor with capacity in others, but they needed a threshold of strengths in cultural and implementation factors to attain PCMH recognition. Future efforts at primary care transformation should take into account multiple pathways sites may pursue. Sites should be assessed on key cultural and implementation factors, in addition to structural components, in order to differentiate interventions and technical assistance. © Health

  20. SAR Wave Mode Processing- Improvements Towards Sentinel-1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Harald; Collard, Fabrice

    2013-03-01

    The Sentinel-1 level-2 (L2) ocean product (OCN) has been designed to deliver geophysical parameters related to the wind, waves and surface velocity to a large panel of end-users. Each L2 OCN product contains up to three geophysical components: the radial velocity (RVL), the ocean surface wind field (OWI) and the ocean swell wave spectra (OSW) components. The Sentinel-1 Level 2 OSW component is the two-dimensional ocean surface wave spectra estimated from a Sentinel-1 Level 1 Single-Look Complex (SLC) SAR image by inversion of the corresponding image cross-spectra. The cross spectra are computed by performing inter-looking in azimuth followed by co- and cross-spectra estimation among the detected individual look images. The image from which a single OSW is computed can be a SLC vignette from the WV mode, or a co-polarized subimage extracted from a SM SLC image. The experiences with ASAR have shown the need to improve the modulation transfer functions (MTF), especially the wind dependency in the RAR MTF. The OSW processing scheme is an upgraded version of the ASAR WM Level 2 processing accounting for these findings. The Sentinel-1 Level 2 OSW processing has been evaluated using ASAR WM and ASAR SM data, and preliminary key results are presented in this paper.

  1. Beyond the Memory Mechanism: Person-Selective and Nonselective Processes in Recognition of Personally Familiar Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Mano, Yoko; Sasaki, Akihiro; Sadato, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Special processes recruited during the recognition of personally familiar people have been assumed to reflect the rich episodic and semantic information that selectively represents each person. However, the processes may also include person nonselective ones, which may require interpretation in terms beyond the memory mechanism. To examine this…

  2. Morphological Processing during Visual Word Recognition in Hebrew as a First and a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether sublexical morphological processing takes place during visual word-recognition in Hebrew, and whether morphological decomposition of written words depends on lexical activation of the complete word. Furthermore, it examined whether morphological processing is similar when reading Hebrew as a first language (L1)…

  3. Learning during Processing: Word Learning Doesn't Wait for Word Recognition to Finish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on associative learning has uncovered detailed aspects of the process, including what types of things are learned, how they are learned, and where in the brain such learning occurs. However, perceptual processes, such as stimulus recognition and identification, take time to unfold. Previous studies of learning have not addressed…

  4. Association of impaired facial affect recognition with basic facial and visual processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Daniel; McBain, Ryan; Holt, Daphne J; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue

    2009-06-15

    Impaired emotion recognition has been reported in schizophrenia, yet the nature of this impairment is not completely understood. Recognition of facial emotion depends on processing affective and nonaffective facial signals, as well as basic visual attributes. We examined whether and how poor facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia is related to basic visual processing and nonaffective face recognition. Schizophrenia patients (n = 32) and healthy control subjects (n = 29) performed emotion discrimination, identity discrimination, and visual contrast detection tasks, where the emotionality, distinctiveness of identity, or visual contrast was systematically manipulated. Subjects determined which of two presentations in a trial contained the target: the emotional face for emotion discrimination, a specific individual for identity discrimination, and a sinusoidal grating for contrast detection. Patients had significantly higher thresholds (worse performance) than control subjects for discriminating both fearful and happy faces. Furthermore, patients' poor performance in fear discrimination was predicted by performance in visual detection and face identity discrimination. Schizophrenia patients require greater emotional signal strength to discriminate fearful or happy face images from neutral ones. Deficient emotion recognition in schizophrenia does not appear to be determined solely by affective processing but is also linked to the processing of basic visual and facial information.

  5. Aromatic-Mediated Carbohydrate Recognition in Processive Serratia marcescens Chitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Suvamay; Hamre, Anne Grethe; Wildberger, Patricia; Holen, Matilde Mengkrog; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Beckham, Gregg T; Sørlie, Morten; Payne, Christina M

    2016-02-25

    Microorganisms use a host of enzymes, including processive glycoside hydrolases, to deconstruct recalcitrant polysaccharides to sugars. Processive glycoside hydrolases closely associate with polymer chains and repeatedly cleave glycosidic linkages without dissociating from the crystalline surface after each hydrolytic step; they are typically the most abundant enzymes in both natural secretomes and industrial cocktails by virtue of their significant hydrolytic potential. The ubiquity of aromatic residues lining the enzyme catalytic tunnels and clefts is a notable feature of processive glycoside hydrolases. We hypothesized that these aromatic residues have uniquely defined roles, such as substrate chain acquisition and binding in the catalytic tunnel, that are defined by their local environment and position relative to the substrate and the catalytic center. Here, we investigated this hypothesis with variants of Serratia marcescens family 18 processive chitinases ChiA and ChiB. We applied molecular simulation and free energy calculations to assess active site dynamics and ligand binding free energies. Isothermal titration calorimetry provided further insight into enthalpic and entropic contributions to ligand binding free energy. Thus, the roles of six aromatic residues, Trp-167, Trp-275, and Phe-396 in ChiA, and Trp-97, Trp-220, and Phe-190 in ChiB, have been examined. We observed that point mutation of the tryptophan residues to alanine results in unfavorable changes in the free energy of binding relative to wild-type. The most drastic effects were observed for residues positioned at the "entrances" of the deep substrate-binding clefts and known to be important for processivity. Interestingly, phenylalanine mutations in ChiA and ChiB had little to no effect on chito-oligomer binding, in accordance with the limited effects of their removal on chitinase functionality.

  6. Bayesian network modeling of operator's state recognition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Naoki; Furuta, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays we are facing a difficult problem of establishing a good relation between humans and machines. To solve this problem, we suppose that machine system need to have a model of human behavior. In this study we model the state cognition process of a PWR plant operator as an example. We use a Bayesian network as an inference engine. We incorporate the knowledge hierarchy in the Bayesian network and confirm its validity using the example of PWR plant operator. (author)

  7. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform a......) that perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  8. From Prime to Extended Mission: Evolution of the MER Tactical Uplink Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew H.; Laubach, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    To support a 90-day surface mission for two robotic rovers, the Mars Exploration Rover mission designed and implemented an intensive tactical operations process, enabling daily commanding of each rover. Using a combination of new processes, custom software tools, a Mars-time staffing schedule, and seven-day-a-week operations, the MER team was able to compress the traditional weeks-long command-turnaround for a deep space robotic mission to about 18 hours. However, the pace of this process was never intended to be continued indefinitely. Even before the end of the three-month prime mission, MER operations began evolving towards greater sustainability. A combination of continued software tool development, increasing team experience, and availability of reusable sequences first reduced the mean process duration to approximately 11 hours. The number of workshifts required to perform the process dropped, and the team returned to a modified 'Earth-time' schedule. Additional process and tool adaptation eventually provided the option of planning multiple Martian days of activity within a single workshift, making 5-day-a-week operations possible. The vast majority of the science team returned to their home institutions, continuing to participate fully in the tactical operations process remotely. MER has continued to operate for over two Earth-years as many of its key personnel have moved on to other projects, the operations team and budget have shrunk, and the rovers have begun to exhibit symptoms of aging.

  9. Orbiter data reduction complex data processing requirements for the OFT mission evaluation team (level C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This document addresses requirements for post-test data reduction in support of the Orbital Flight Tests (OFT) mission evaluation team, specifically those which are planned to be implemented in the ODRC (Orbiter Data Reduction Complex). Only those requirements which have been previously baselined by the Data Systems and Analysis Directorate configuration control board are included. This document serves as the control document between Institutional Data Systems Division and the Integration Division for OFT mission evaluation data processing requirements, and shall be the basis for detailed design of ODRC data processing systems.

  10. The Importance of Recognition for Equal Representation in Participatory Processes: Lessons from Husby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Hansson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ambition to involve people on more equal terms, participation often still means that the audience is involved in clearly demarcated parts of the process and attempts to develop more deliberative democratic processes in urban planning often fail due to unequal representation in the participatory process.While sharing the general idea of the value of participatory processes, we will investigate some problematic features involved and suggest how some of these can be remedied. We employ the concept of recognition to analyse the conditions for public participation in a recent case of urban planning in the Stockholm suburb of Husby. This case is particularly interesting as it clearly demonstrates the impact of globalisation on local participatory processes.The results show the importance of broad recognition for equal representation in participatory processes, and the need for a plurality of public spheres to support long-term participation in the development of the common urban space.

  11. Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Godoy Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive model of reading comprehension posits that reading comprehension is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the reading comprehension model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8-13 years were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG, 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66 and Control Group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86. All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and reading comprehension, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and reading comprehension, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on reading comprehension test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear.

  12. Reading component skills in dyslexia: word recognition, comprehension and processing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Darlene G; da Silva, Patrícia B; Dias, Natália M; Seabra, Alessandra G; Macedo, Elizeu C

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive model of reading comprehension (RC) posits that RC is a result of the interaction between decoding and linguistic comprehension. Recently, the notion of decoding skill was expanded to include word recognition. In addition, some studies suggest that other skills could be integrated into this model, like processing speed, and have consistently indicated that this skill influences and is an important predictor of the main components of the model, such as vocabulary for comprehension and phonological awareness of word recognition. The following study evaluated the components of the RC model and predictive skills in children and adolescents with dyslexia. 40 children and adolescents (8-13 years) were divided in a Dyslexic Group (DG; 18 children, MA = 10.78, SD = 1.66) and control group (CG 22 children, MA = 10.59, SD = 1.86). All were students from the 2nd to 8th grade of elementary school and groups were equivalent in school grade, age, gender, and IQ. Oral and RC, word recognition, processing speed, picture naming, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were assessed. There were no group differences regarding the accuracy in oral and RC, phonological awareness, naming, and vocabulary scores. DG performed worse than the CG in word recognition (general score and orthographic confusion items) and were slower in naming. Results corroborated the literature regarding word recognition and processing speed deficits in dyslexia. However, dyslexics can achieve normal scores on RC test. Data supports the importance of delimitation of different reading strategies embedded in the word recognition component. The role of processing speed in reading problems remain unclear.

  13. Glutathione--hydroxyl radical interaction: a theoretical study on radical recognition process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Fiser

    Full Text Available Non-reactive, comparative (2 × 1.2 μs molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to characterize the interactions between glutathione (GSH, host molecule and hydroxyl radical (OH(•, guest molecule. From this analysis, two distinct steps were identified in the recognition process of hydroxyl radical by glutathione: catching and steering, based on the interactions between the host-guest molecules. Over 78% of all interactions are related to the catching mechanism via complex formation between anionic carboxyl groups and the OH radical, hence both terminal residues of GSH serve as recognition sites. The glycine residue has an additional role in the recognition of OH radical, namely the steering. The flexibility of the Gly residue enables the formation of further interactions of other parts of glutathione (e.g. thiol, α- and β-carbons with the lone electron pair of the hydroxyl radical. Moreover, quantum chemical calculations were carried out on selected GSH/OH(• complexes and on appropriate GSH conformers to describe the energy profile of the recognition process. The relative enthalpy and the free energy changes of the radical recognition of the strongest complexes varied from -42.4 to -27.8 kJ/mol and from -21.3 to 9.8 kJ/mol, respectively. These complexes, containing two or more intermolecular interactions, would be the starting configurations for the hydrogen atom migration to quench the hydroxyl radical via different reaction channels.

  14. Dual-Process Theory and Signal-Detection Theory of Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, John T.

    2007-01-01

    Two influential models of recognition memory, the unequal-variance signal-detection model and a dual-process threshold/detection model, accurately describe the receiver operating characteristic, but only the latter model can provide estimates of recollection and familiarity. Such estimates often accord with those provided by the remember-know…

  15. A Habermasian Analysis of a Process of Recognition of Prior Learning for Health Care Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a process of recognition of prior learning for accreditation of prior experiential learning to qualify for course credits used in an adult in-service education program for health care assistants at the upper-secondary level in Sweden. The data are based on interviews and observations drawn from a field study, and Habermas's…

  16. Face Processing and Facial Emotion Recognition in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisnikov, Koviljka; Hippolyte, Loyse; Van der Linden, Martial

    2008-01-01

    Face processing and facial expression recognition was investigated in 17 adults with Down syndrome, and results were compared with those of a child control group matched for receptive vocabulary. On the tasks involving faces without emotional content, the adults with Down syndrome performed significantly worse than did the controls. However, their…

  17. Lexical-Semantic Processing and Reading: Relations between Semantic Priming, Visual Word Recognition and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Alexandre de Pontes; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between lexical-semantic processing and two components of reading: visual word recognition and reading comprehension. Sixty-eight children from private schools in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from 7 to 12 years, were evaluated. Reading was assessed with a word/nonword reading task and a reading…

  18. Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

  19. An application of viola jones method for face recognition for absence process efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizki Damanik, Rudolfo; Sitanggang, Delima; Pasaribu, Hendra; Siagian, Hendrik; Gulo, Frisman

    2018-04-01

    Absence was a list of documents that the company used to record the attendance time of each employee. The most common problem in a fingerprint machine is the identification of a slow sensor or a sensor not recognizing a finger. The employees late to work because they get difficulties at fingerprint system, they need about 3 – 5 minutes to absence when the condition of finger is wet or not fit. To overcome this problem, this research tried to utilize facial recognition for attendance process. The method used for facial recognition was Viola Jones. Through the processing phase of the RGB face image was converted into a histogram equalization face image for the next stage of recognition. The result of this research was the absence process could be done less than 1 second with a maximum slope of ± 700 and a distance of 20-200 cm. After implement facial recognition the process of absence is more efficient, just take less 1 minute to absence.

  20. Using Regression to Measure Holistic Face Processing Reveals a Strong Link with Face Recognition Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Wilmer, Jeremy; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Cohan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Although holistic processing is thought to underlie normal face recognition ability, widely discrepant reports have recently emerged about this link in an individual differences context. Progress in this domain may have been impeded by the widespread use of subtraction scores, which lack validity due to their contamination with control condition…

  1. The processing of auditory and visual recognition of self-stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Susan M; Nicholson, Shevon E

    2010-12-01

    This study examined self-recognition processing in both the auditory and visual modalities by determining how comparable hearing a recording of one's own voice was to seeing photograph of one's own face. We also investigated whether the simultaneous presentation of auditory and visual self-stimuli would either facilitate or inhibit self-identification. Ninety-one participants completed reaction-time tasks of self-recognition when presented with their own faces, own voices, and combinations of the two. Reaction time and errors made when responding with both the right and left hand were recorded to determine if there were lateralization effects on these tasks. Our findings showed that visual self-recognition for facial photographs appears to be superior to auditory self-recognition for voice recordings. Furthermore, a combined presentation of one's own face and voice appeared to inhibit rather than facilitate self-recognition and there was a left-hand advantage for reaction time on the combined-presentation tasks. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Banknote recognition: investigating processing and cognition framework using competitive neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedotun, Oyebade K; Khashman, Adnan

    2017-02-01

    Humans are apt at recognizing patterns and discovering even abstract features which are sometimes embedded therein. Our ability to use the banknotes in circulation for business transactions lies in the effortlessness with which we can recognize the different banknote denominations after seeing them over a period of time. More significant is that we can usually recognize these banknote denominations irrespective of what parts of the banknotes are exposed to us visually. Furthermore, our recognition ability is largely unaffected even when these banknotes are partially occluded. In a similar analogy, the robustness of intelligent systems to perform the task of banknote recognition should not collapse under some minimum level of partial occlusion. Artificial neural networks are intelligent systems which from inception have taken many important cues related to structure and learning rules from the human nervous/cognition processing system. Likewise, it has been shown that advances in artificial neural network simulations can help us understand the human nervous/cognition system even furthermore. In this paper, we investigate three cognition hypothetical frameworks to vision-based recognition of banknote denominations using competitive neural networks. In order to make the task more challenging and stress-test the investigated hypotheses, we also consider the recognition of occluded banknotes. The implemented hypothetical systems are tasked to perform fast recognition of banknotes with up to 75 % occlusion. The investigated hypothetical systems are trained on Nigeria's Naira banknotes and several experiments are performed to demonstrate the findings presented within this work.

  3. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Precipitation Processing System (PPS) GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Provide Surface Precipitation Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, O.; Kummerow, C.; Huffman, G.; Olson, W.; Kwiatkowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMIDPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for researchers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations.This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments GMI, DPR, and combined GMIDPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner constellation

  4. Individual Differences in Holistic Processing Predict the Own-Race Advantage in Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    DeGutis, Joseph; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Wilmer, Jeremy; Rosenblatt, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE). One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing tha...

  5. Looking at My Own Face: Visual Processing Strategies in Self–Other Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Chakraborty

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We live in an age of ‘selfies.’ Yet, how we look at our own faces has seldom been systematically investigated. In this study we test if the visual processing of the highly familiar self-face is different from other faces, using psychophysics and eye-tracking. This paradigm also enabled us to test the association between the psychophysical properties of self-face representation and visual processing strategies involved in self-face recognition. Thirty-three adults performed a self-face recognition task from a series of self-other face morphs with simultaneous eye-tracking. Participants were found to look longer at the lower part of the face for self-face compared to other-face. Participants with a more distinct self-face representation, as indexed by a steeper slope of the psychometric response curve for self-face recognition, were found to look longer at upper part of the faces identified as ‘self’ vs. those identified as ‘other’. This result indicates that self-face representation can influence where we look when we process our own vs. others’ faces. We also investigated the association of autism-related traits with self-face processing metrics since autism has previously been associated with atypical self-processing. The study did not find any self-face specific association with autistic traits, suggesting that autism-related features may be related to self-processing in a domain specific manner.

  6. The effects of healthy aging, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease on recollection, familiarity and false recognition, estimated by an associative process-dissociation recognition procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarque, Alfonso; Meléndez, Juan C; Sales, Alicia; Mayordomo, Teresa; Satorres, Encar; Escudero, Joaquín; Algarabel, Salvador

    2016-10-01

    Given the uneven experimental results in the literature regarding whether or not familiarity declines with healthy aging and cognitive impairment, we compare four samples (healthy young people, healthy older people, older people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment - aMCI -, and older people with Alzheimer's disease - AD -) on an associative recognition task, which, following the logic of the process-dissociation procedure, allowed us to obtain corrected estimates of recollection, familiarity and false recognition. The results show that familiarity does not decline with healthy aging, but it does with cognitive impairment, whereas false recognition increases with healthy aging, but declines significantly with cognitive impairment. These results support the idea that the deficits detected in recollection, familiarity, or false recognition in older people could be used as early prodromal markers of cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Figure-ground organization and object recognition processes: an interactive account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, S P; O'Reilly, R C

    1998-04-01

    Traditional bottom-up models of visual processing assume that figure-ground organization precedes object recognition. This assumption seems logically necessary: How can object recognition occur before a region is labeled as figure? However, some behavioral studies find that familiar regions are more likely to be labeled figure than less familiar regions, a problematic finding for bottom-up models. An interactive account is proposed in which figure-ground processes receive top-down input from object representations in a hierarchical system. A graded, interactive computational model is presented that accounts for behavioral results in which familiarity effects are found. The interactive model offers an alternative conception of visual processing to bottom-up models.

  8. Separating recognition processes of declarative memory via anodal tDCS: boosting old item recognition by temporal and new item detection by parietal stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, Alberto; Turi, Zsolt; Raithel, Almuth; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Alekseichuk, Ivan; Schacht, Annekathrin; Paulus, Walter; Antal, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence from imaging studies that parietal and temporal cortices act together to achieve successful recognition of declarative information; nevertheless, the precise role of these regions remains elusive. To evaluate the role of these brain areas in declarative memory retrieval, we applied bilateral tDCS, with anode over the left and cathode over the right parietal or temporal cortices separately, during the recognition phase of a verbal learning paradigm using a balanced old-new decision task. In a parallel group design, we tested three different groups of healthy adults, matched for demographic and neurocognitive status: two groups received bilateral active stimulation of either the parietal or the temporal cortex, while a third group received sham stimulation. Accuracy, discriminability index (d') and reaction times of recognition memory performance were measurements of interest. The d' sensitivity index and accuracy percentage improved in both active stimulation groups, as compared with the sham one, while reaction times remained unaffected. Moreover, the analysis of accuracy revealed a different effect of tDCS for old and new item recognition. While the temporal group showed enhanced performance for old item recognition, the parietal group was better at correctly recognising new ones. Our results support an active role of both of these areas in memory retrieval, possibly underpinning different stages of the recognition process.

  9. Levels-of-processing effect on frontotemporal function in schizophrenia during word encoding and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, J Daniel; Gur, Ruben C; Valdez, Jeffrey N; Loughead, James; Elliott, Mark; Kohler, Christian; Kanes, Stephen; Siegel, Steven J; Moelter, Stephen T; Gur, Raquel E

    2005-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia improve episodic memory accuracy when given organizational strategies through levels-of-processing paradigms. This study tested if improvement is accompanied by normalized frontotemporal function. Event-related blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure activation during shallow (perceptual) and deep (semantic) word encoding and recognition in 14 patients with schizophrenia and 14 healthy comparison subjects. Despite slower and less accurate overall word classification, the patients showed normal levels-of-processing effects, with faster and more accurate recognition of deeply processed words. These effects were accompanied by left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during encoding in both groups, although the thalamus, hippocampus, and lingual gyrus were overactivated in the patients. During word recognition, the patients showed overactivation in the left frontal pole and had a less robust right prefrontal response. Evidence of normal levels-of-processing effects and left prefrontal activation suggests that patients with schizophrenia can form and maintain semantic representations when they are provided with organizational cues and can improve their word encoding and retrieval. Areas of overactivation suggest residual inefficiencies. Nevertheless, the effect of teaching organizational strategies on episodic memory and brain function is a worthwhile topic for future interventional studies.

  10. Subregion-Specific Proteomic Signature in the Hippocampus for Recognition Processes in Adult Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas M. von Ziegler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The hippocampal formation is a brain structure essential for higher-order cognitive functions. It has a complex anatomical organization and cellular composition, and hippocampal subregions have different properties and functional roles. In this study, we used SWATH-MS to determine whether the proteomes of hippocampus areas CA1 and CA3 can explain the commonalities or specificities of these subregions in basal conditions and after recognition memory. We show that the proteomes of areas CA1 and CA3 are largely different in basal conditions and that differential changes and dynamics in protein expression are induced in these areas after recognition of an object or object location. While changes are consistent across both recognition paradigms in area CA1, they are not in area CA3, suggesting distinct proteomic responses in areas CA1 and CA3 for memory formation. : How does the proteome differ in hippocampus areas CA1 and CA3? von Ziegler et al. identify the proteomes of areas CA1 and CA3 and characterize their dynamics during different recognition processes in adult mice. Keywords: hippocampus, areas CA1 and CA3, proteome, dynamics, object memory, object location memory, mass spectrometry, SWATH-MS, mice, bioinformatic tools

  11. Prestimulus default mode activity influences depth of processing and recognition in an emotional memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soravia, Leila M; Witmer, Joëlle S; Schwab, Simon; Nakataki, Masahito; Dierks, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Henke, Katharina; Federspiel, Andrea; Jann, Kay

    2016-03-01

    Low self-referential thoughts are associated with better concentration, which leads to deeper encoding and increases learning and subsequent retrieval. There is evidence that being engaged in externally rather than internally focused tasks is related to low neural activity in the default mode network (DMN) promoting open mind and the deep elaboration of new information. Thus, reduced DMN activity should lead to enhanced concentration, comprehensive stimulus evaluation including emotional categorization, deeper stimulus processing, and better long-term retention over one whole week. In this fMRI study, we investigated brain activation preceding and during incidental encoding of emotional pictures and on subsequent recognition performance. During fMRI, 24 subjects were exposed to 80 pictures of different emotional valence and subsequently asked to complete an online recognition task one week later. Results indicate that neural activity within the medial temporal lobes during encoding predicts subsequent memory performance. Moreover, a low activity of the default mode network preceding incidental encoding leads to slightly better recognition performance independent of the emotional perception of a picture. The findings indicate that the suppression of internally-oriented thoughts leads to a more comprehensive and thorough evaluation of a stimulus and its emotional valence. Reduced activation of the DMN prior to stimulus onset is associated with deeper encoding and enhanced consolidation and retrieval performance even one week later. Even small prestimulus lapses of attention influence consolidation and subsequent recognition performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A benefit of context reinstatement to recognition memory in aging: the role of familiarity processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Emma V; Maylor, Elizabeth A; Poirier, Marie; Korko, Malgorzata; Ruud, Jens C M

    2017-11-01

    Reinstatement of encoding context facilitates memory for targets in young and older individuals (e.g., a word studied on a particular background scene is more likely to be remembered later if it is presented on the same rather than a different scene or no scene), yet older adults are typically inferior at recalling and recognizing target-context pairings. This study examined the mechanisms of the context effect in normal aging. Age differences in word recognition by context condition (original, switched, none, new), and the ability to explicitly remember target-context pairings were investigated using word-scene pairs (Experiment 1) and word-word pairs (Experiment 2). Both age groups benefited from context reinstatement in item recognition, although older adults were significantly worse than young adults at identifying original pairings and at discriminating between original and switched pairings. In Experiment 3, participants were given a three-alternative forced-choice recognition task that allowed older individuals to draw upon intact familiarity processes in selecting original pairings. Performance was age equivalent. Findings suggest that heightened familiarity associated with context reinstatement is useful for boosting recognition memory in aging.

  13. Evaluating Cloud and Precipitation Processes in Numerical Models using Current and Potential Future Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, S. C.; Tao, W. K.; Skofronick Jackson, G.; Tanelli, S.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Petersen, W. A.; Kummerow, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud, aerosol and precipitation processes play a fundamental role in the water and energy cycle. It is critical to accurately represent these microphysical processes in numerical models if we are to better predict cloud and precipitation properties on weather through climate timescales. Much has been learned about cloud properties and precipitation characteristics from NASA satellite missions such as TRMM, CloudSat, and more recently GPM. Furthermore, data from these missions have been successfully utilized in evaluating the microphysical schemes in cloud-resolving models (CRMs) and global models. However, there are still many uncertainties associated with these microphysics schemes. These uncertainties can be attributed, at least in part, to the fact that microphysical processes cannot be directly observed or measured, but instead have to be inferred from those cloud properties that can be measured. Evaluation of microphysical parameterizations are becoming increasingly important as enhanced computational capabilities are facilitating the use of more sophisticated schemes in CRMs, and as future global models are being run on what has traditionally been regarded as cloud-resolving scales using CRM microphysical schemes. In this talk we will demonstrate how TRMM, CloudSat and GPM data have been used to evaluate different aspects of current CRM microphysical schemes, providing examples of where these approaches have been successful. We will also highlight CRM microphysical processes that have not been well evaluated and suggest approaches for addressing such issues. Finally, we will introduce a potential NASA satellite mission, the Cloud and Precipitation Processes Mission (CAPPM), which would facilitate the development and evaluation of different microphysical-dynamical feedbacks in numerical models.

  14. ADAPTIVE PARAMETER ESTIMATION OF PERSON RECOGNITION MODEL IN A STOCHASTIC HUMAN TRACKING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    W. Nakanishi; T. Fuse; T. Ishikawa

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at an estimation of parameters of person recognition models using a sequential Bayesian filtering method. In many human tracking method, any parameters of models used for recognize the same person in successive frames are usually set in advance of human tracking process. In real situation these parameters may change according to situation of observation and difficulty level of human position prediction. Thus in this paper we formulate an adaptive parameter estimation ...

  15. Effects of Early Neglect Experience on Recognition and Processing of Facial Expressions: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Doretto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Child neglect is highly prevalent and associated with a series of biological and social consequences. Early neglect may alter the recognition of emotional faces, but its precise impact remains unclear. We aim to review and analyze data from recent literature about recognition and processing of facial expressions in individuals with history of childhood neglect. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using PubMed, PsycINFO, ScIELO and EMBASE databases in the search of studies for the past 10 years. Results: In total, 14 studies were selected and critically reviewed. A heterogeneity was detected across methods and sample frames. Results were mixed across studies. Different forms of alterations to perception of facial expressions were found across 12 studies. There was alteration to the recognition and processing of both positive and negative emotions, but for emotional face processing there was predominance in alteration toward negative emotions. Conclusions: This is the first review to examine specifically the effects of early neglect experience as a prevalent condition of child maltreatment. The results of this review are inconclusive due to methodological diversity, implement of distinct instruments and differences in the composition of the samples. Despite these limitations, some studies support our hypothesis that individuals with history of early negligence may present alteration to the ability to perceive face expressions of emotions. The article brings relevant information that can help in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies to reduce the impact of neglect on the cognitive and emotional development of the child.

  16. Evaluating the feasibility of biological waste processing for long term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Alazraki, M. P.; Atkinson, C. F.; Finger, B. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Recycling waste products during orbital (e.g., International Space Station) and planetary missions (e.g., lunar base, Mars transit mission, Martian base) will reduce storage and resupply costs. Wastes streams on the space station will include human hygiene water, urine, faeces, and trash. Longer term missions will contain human waste and inedible plant material from plant growth systems used for atmospheric regeneration, food production, and water recycling. The feasibility of biological and physical-chemical waste recycling is being investigated as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. In-vessel composting has lower manpower requirements, lower water and volume requirements, and greater potential for sanitization of human waste compared to alternative bioreactor designs such as continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Residual solids from the process (i.e. compost) could be used a biological air filter, a plant nutrient source, and a carbon sink. Potential in-vessel composting designs for both near- and long-term space missions are presented and discussed with respect to the unique aspects of space-based systems.

  17. Technology Readiness Level Assessment Process as Applied to NASA Earth Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, Stephen J.; Romero, Raul A.; Dempsey, James A.; Carey, John P.; Cline, Helmut P.; Lively, Carey F.

    2015-01-01

    Technology assessments of fourteen science instruments were conducted within NASA using the NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metric. The instruments were part of three NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey missions in pre-formulation. The Earth Systematic Missions Program (ESMP) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG), composed of members of three NASA Centers, provided a newly modified electronic workbook to be completed, with instructions. Each instrument development team performed an internal assessment of its technology status, prepared an overview of its instrument, and completed the workbook with the results of its assessment. A team from the ESMP SEWG met with each instrument team and provided feedback. The instrument teams then reported through the Program Scientist for their respective missions to NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) on technology readiness, taking the SEWG input into account. The instruments were found to have a range of TRL from 4 to 7. Lessons Learned are presented; however, due to the competition-sensitive nature of the assessments, the results for specific missions are not presented. The assessments were generally successful, and produced useful results for the agency. The SEWG team identified a number of potential improvements to the process. Particular focus was on ensuring traceability to guiding NASA documents, including the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. The TRL Workbook has been substantially modified, and the revised workbook is described.

  18. Modeling Constellation Virtual Missions Using the Vdot(Trademark) Process Management Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Roger; ONeil, Daniel; Sturken, Ian; Nix, Michael; Yanez, Damian

    2011-01-01

    The authors have identified a software tool suite that will support NASA's Virtual Mission (VM) effort. This is accomplished by transforming a spreadsheet database of mission events, task inputs and outputs, timelines, and organizations into process visualization tools and a Vdot process management model that includes embedded analysis software as well as requirements and information related to data manipulation and transfer. This paper describes the progress to date, and the application of the Virtual Mission to not only Constellation but to other architectures, and the pertinence to other aerospace applications. Vdot s intuitive visual interface brings VMs to life by turning static, paper-based processes into active, electronic processes that can be deployed, executed, managed, verified, and continuously improved. A VM can be executed using a computer-based, human-in-the-loop, real-time format, under the direction and control of the NASA VM Manager. Engineers in the various disciplines will not have to be Vdot-proficient but rather can fill out on-line, Excel-type databases with the mission information discussed above. The author s tool suite converts this database into several process visualization tools for review and into Microsoft Project, which can be imported directly into Vdot. Many tools can be embedded directly into Vdot, and when the necessary data/information is received from a preceding task, the analysis can be initiated automatically. Other NASA analysis tools are too complex for this process but Vdot automatically notifies the tool user that the data has been received and analysis can begin. The VM can be simulated from end-to-end using the author s tool suite. The planned approach for the Vdot-based process simulation is to generate the process model from a database; other advantages of this semi-automated approach are the participants can be geographically remote and after refining the process models via the human-in-the-loop simulation, the

  19. Tracking cognitive processing stages with MEG : A spatio-temporal model of associative recognition in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Jelmer P; Ghuman, Avniel S; Anderson, John R

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the cognitive processing stages underlying associative recognition using MEG. Over the last four decades, a model of associative recognition has been developed in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. This model was first exclusively based on behavior, but was later

  20. A Spatial Frequency Account of the Detriment that Local Processing of Navon Letters Has on Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Peter J.; Lewis, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    Five minutes of processing the local features of a Navon letter causes a detriment in subsequent face-recognition performance (Macrae & Lewis, 2002). We hypothesize a perceptual after effect explanation of this effect in which face recognition is less accurate after adapting to high-spatial frequencies at high contrasts. Five experiments were…

  1. Individual differences in holistic processing predict the own-race advantage in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degutis, Joseph; Mercado, Rogelio J; Wilmer, Jeremy; Rosenblatt, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE). One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing that own-race faces are processed more holistically than other-race faces, studies have yet to link the holistic processing ORE and the recognition memory ORE. In the current study, we sought to use a more valid method of analyzing individual differences in holistic processing by using regression to statistically remove the influence of the control condition (part trials in the part-whole task) from the condition of interest (whole trials in the part-whole task). We also employed regression to separately examine the two components of the ORE: own-race advantage (regressing other-race from own-race performance) and other-race decrement (regressing own-race from other-race performance). First, we demonstrated that own-race faces were processed more holistically than other-race faces, particularly the eye region. Notably, using regression, we showed a significant association between the own-race advantage in recognition memory and the own-race advantage in holistic processing and that these associations were weaker when examining the other-race decrement. We also demonstrated that performance on own- and other-race faces across all of our tasks was highly correlated, suggesting that the differences we found between own- and other-race faces are quantitative rather than qualitative. Together, this suggests that own- and other-race faces recruit largely similar mechanisms, that own-race faces more thoroughly engage holistic processing, and that this greater engagement of holistic

  2. Individual Differences in Holistic Processing Predict the Own-Race Advantage in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Mercado, Rogelio J.; Wilmer, Jeremy; Rosenblatt, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are consistently better at recognizing own-race faces compared to other-race faces (other-race effect, ORE). One popular hypothesis is that this recognition memory ORE is caused by differential own- and other-race holistic processing, the simultaneous integration of part and configural face information into a coherent whole. Holistic processing may create a more rich, detailed memory representation of own-race faces compared to other-race faces. Despite several studies showing that own-race faces are processed more holistically than other-race faces, studies have yet to link the holistic processing ORE and the recognition memory ORE. In the current study, we sought to use a more valid method of analyzing individual differences in holistic processing by using regression to statistically remove the influence of the control condition (part trials in the part-whole task) from the condition of interest (whole trials in the part-whole task). We also employed regression to separately examine the two components of the ORE: own-race advantage (regressing other-race from own-race performance) and other-race decrement (regressing own-race from other-race performance). First, we demonstrated that own-race faces were processed more holistically than other-race faces, particularly the eye region. Notably, using regression, we showed a significant association between the own-race advantage in recognition memory and the own-race advantage in holistic processing and that these associations were weaker when examining the other-race decrement. We also demonstrated that performance on own- and other-race faces across all of our tasks was highly correlated, suggesting that the differences we found between own- and other-race faces are quantitative rather than qualitative. Together, this suggests that own- and other-race faces recruit largely similar mechanisms, that own-race faces more thoroughly engage holistic processing, and that this greater engagement of holistic

  3. Tolerance for distorted faces: challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Adam; Burton, A Mike

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition is widely held to rely on 'configural processing', an analysis of spatial relations between facial features. We present three experiments in which viewers were shown distorted faces, and asked to resize these to their correct shape. Based on configural theories appealing to metric distances between features, we reason that this should be an easier task for familiar than unfamiliar faces (whose subtle arrangements of features are unknown). In fact, participants were inaccurate at this task, making between 8% and 13% errors across experiments. Importantly, we observed no advantage for familiar faces: in one experiment participants were more accurate with unfamiliars, and in two experiments there was no difference. These findings were not due to general task difficulty - participants were able to resize blocks of colour to target shapes (squares) more accurately. We also found an advantage of familiarity for resizing other stimuli (brand logos). If configural processing does underlie face recognition, these results place constraints on the definition of 'configural'. Alternatively, familiar face recognition might rely on more complex criteria - based on tolerance to within-person variation rather than highly specific measurement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Early processing of orthographic language membership information in bilingual visual word recognition: Evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoversten, Liv J; Brothers, Trevor; Swaab, Tamara Y; Traxler, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    For successful language comprehension, bilinguals often must exert top-down control to access and select lexical representations within a single language. These control processes may critically depend on identification of the language to which a word belongs, but it is currently unclear when different sources of such language membership information become available during word recognition. In the present study, we used event-related potentials to investigate the time course of influence of orthographic language membership cues. Using an oddball detection paradigm, we observed early neural effects of orthographic bias (Spanish vs. English orthography) that preceded effects of lexicality (word vs. pseudoword). This early orthographic pop-out effect was observed for both words and pseudowords, suggesting that this cue is available prior to full lexical access. We discuss the role of orthographic bias for models of bilingual word recognition and its potential role in the suppression of nontarget lexical information. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Modeling the Process of Color Image Recognition Using ART2 Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Petkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper thoroughly describes the use of unsupervised adaptive resonance theory ART2 neural network for the purposes of image color recognition of x-ray images and images taken by nuclear magnetic resonance. In order to train the network, the pixel values of RGB colors are regarded as learning vectors with three values, one for red, one for green and one for blue were used. At the end the trained network was tested by the values of pictures and determines the design, or how to visualize the converted picture. As a result we had the same pictures with colors according to the network. Here we use the generalized net to prepare a model that describes the process of the color image recognition.

  6. Characterizing cognitive aging of recognition memory and related processes in animal models and in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A Barnes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of complex behaviors across the lifespan of animals can reveal the brain regions that are impacted by the normal aging process, thereby, elucidating potential therapeutic targets. Recent data from rats, monkeys and humans converge, all indicating that recognition memory and complex visual perception are impaired in advanced age. These cognitive processes are also disrupted in animals with lesions of the perirhinal cortex, indicating that the the functional integrity of this structure is disrupted in old age. This current review summarizes these data, and highlights current methodologies for assessing perirhinal cortex-dependent behaviors across the lifespan.

  7. Defining Constellation Suit Helmet Field of View Requirements Employing a Mission Segment Based Reduction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Shane

    2009-01-01

    Field of view has always been a design feature paramount to helmets, and in particular space suits, where the helmet must provide an adequate field of view for a large range of activities, environments, and body positions. For Project Constellation, a different approach to helmet requirement maturation was utilized; one that was less a direct function of body position and suit pressure and more a function of the mission segment in which the field of view will be required. Through taxonimization of various parameters that affect suited field of view, as well as consideration for possible nominal and contingency operations during that mission segment, a reduction process was employed to condense the large number of possible outcomes to only six unique field of view angle requirements that still captured all necessary variables while sacrificing minimal fidelity.

  8. Stress reaction process-based hierarchical recognition algorithm for continuous intrusion events in optical fiber prewarning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hongquan; Yuan, Shijiao; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Dan

    2018-04-01

    To improve the recognition performance of optical fiber prewarning system (OFPS), this study proposed a hierarchical recognition algorithm (HRA). Compared with traditional methods, which employ only a complex algorithm that includes multiple extracted features and complex classifiers to increase the recognition rate with a considerable decrease in recognition speed, HRA takes advantage of the continuity of intrusion events, thereby creating a staged recognition flow inspired by stress reaction. HRA is expected to achieve high-level recognition accuracy with less time consumption. First, this work analyzed the continuity of intrusion events and then presented the algorithm based on the mechanism of stress reaction. Finally, it verified the time consumption through theoretical analysis and experiments, and the recognition accuracy was obtained through experiments. Experiment results show that the processing speed of HRA is 3.3 times faster than that of a traditional complicated algorithm and has a similar recognition rate of 98%. The study is of great significance to fast intrusion event recognition in OFPS.

  9. A unique memory process modulated by emotion underpins successful odor recognition and episodic retrieval in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise eSaive

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We behaviorally explore the link between olfaction, emotion and memory by testing the hypothesis that the emotion carried by odors facilitates the memory of specific unique events. To investigate this idea, we used a novel behavioral approach inspired by a paradigm developed by our team to study episodic memory in a controlled and as ecological as possible way in humans. The participants freely explored three unique and rich laboratory episodes; each episode consisted of three unfamiliar odors (What positioned at three specific locations (Where within a visual context (Which context. During the retrieval test, which occurred 24 to 72 hours after the encoding, odors were used to trigger the retrieval of the complex episodes. The participants were proficient in recognizing the target odors among distractors and retrieving the visuospatial context in which they were encountered. The episodic nature of the task generated high and stable memory performances, which were accompanied by faster responses and slower and deeper breathing. Successful odor recognition and episodic memory were not related to differences in odor investigation at encoding. However, memory performances were influenced by the emotional content of the odors, regardless of odor valence, with both pleasant and unpleasant odors generating higher recognition and episodic retrieval than neutral odors. Finally, the present study also suggested that when the binding between the odors and the spatio-contextual features of the episode was successful, the odor recognition and the episodic retrieval collapsed into a unique memory process that began as soon as the participants smelled the odors.

  10. A unique memory process modulated by emotion underpins successful odor recognition and episodic retrieval in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saive, Anne-Lise; Royet, Jean-Pierre; Ravel, Nadine; Thévenet, Marc; Garcia, Samuel; Plailly, Jane

    2014-01-01

    We behaviorally explore the link between olfaction, emotion and memory by testing the hypothesis that the emotion carried by odors facilitates the memory of specific unique events. To investigate this idea, we used a novel behavioral approach inspired by a paradigm developed by our team to study episodic memory in a controlled and as ecological as possible way in humans. The participants freely explored three unique and rich laboratory episodes; each episode consisted of three unfamiliar odors (What) positioned at three specific locations (Where) within a visual context (Which context). During the retrieval test, which occurred 24–72 h after the encoding, odors were used to trigger the retrieval of the complex episodes. The participants were proficient in recognizing the target odors among distractors and retrieving the visuospatial context in which they were encountered. The episodic nature of the task generated high and stable memory performances, which were accompanied by faster responses and slower and deeper breathing. Successful odor recognition and episodic memory were not related to differences in odor investigation at encoding. However, memory performances were influenced by the emotional content of the odors, regardless of odor valence, with both pleasant and unpleasant odors generating higher recognition and episodic retrieval than neutral odors. Finally, the present study also suggested that when the binding between the odors and the spatio-contextual features of the episode was successful, the odor recognition and the episodic retrieval collapsed into a unique memory process that began as soon as the participants smelled the odors. PMID:24936176

  11. Facing the Problem: Impaired Emotion Recognition During Multimodal Social Information Processing in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedtfeld, Inga; Defiebre, Nadine; Regenbogen, Christina; Mier, Daniela; Fenske, Sabrina; Kirsch, Peter; Lis, Stefanie; Schmahl, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has revealed alterations and deficits in facial emotion recognition in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). During interpersonal communication in daily life, social signals such as speech content, variation in prosody, and facial expression need to be considered simultaneously. We hypothesized that deficits in higher level integration of social stimuli contribute to difficulties in emotion recognition in BPD, and heightened arousal might explain this effect. Thirty-one patients with BPD and thirty-one healthy controls were asked to identify emotions in short video clips, which were designed to represent different combinations of the three communication channels: facial expression, speech content, and prosody. Skin conductance was recorded as a measure of sympathetic arousal, while controlling for state dissociation. Patients with BPD showed lower mean accuracy scores than healthy control subjects in all conditions comprising emotional facial expressions. This was true for the condition with facial expression only, and for the combination of all three communication channels. Electrodermal responses were enhanced in BPD only in response to auditory stimuli. In line with the major body of facial emotion recognition studies, we conclude that deficits in the interpretation of facial expressions lead to the difficulties observed in multimodal emotion processing in BPD.

  12. Role of temporal processing stages by inferior temporal neurons in facial recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko eSugase-Miyamoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on the role of temporal stages of encoded facial information in the visual system, which might enable the efficient determination of species, identity, and expression. Facial recognition is an important function of our brain and is known to be processed in the ventral visual pathway, where visual signals are processed through areas V1, V2, V4, and the inferior temporal (IT cortex. In the IT cortex, neurons show selective responses to complex visual images such as faces, and at each stage along the pathway the stimulus selectivity of the neural responses becomes sharper, particularly in the later portion of the responses.In the IT cortex of the monkey, facial information is represented by different temporal stages of neural responses, as shown in our previous study: the initial transient response of face-responsive neurons represents information about global categories, i.e., human vs. monkey vs. simple shapes, whilst the later portion of these responses represents information about detailed facial categories, i.e., expression and/or identity. This suggests that the temporal stages of the neuronal firing pattern play an important role in the coding of visual stimuli, including faces. This type of coding may be a plausible mechanism underlying the temporal dynamics of recognition, including the process of detection/categorization followed by the identification of objects. Recent single-unit studies in monkeys have also provided evidence consistent with the important role of the temporal stages of encoded facial information. For example, view-invariant facial identity information is represented in the response at a later period within a region of face-selective neurons. Consistent with these findings, temporally modulated neural activity has also been observed in human studies. These results suggest a close correlation between the temporal processing stages of facial information by IT neurons and the temporal dynamics of

  13. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin eDuke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift towards a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.

  14. Parallel effects of processing fluency and positive affect on familiarity-based recognition decisions for faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Devin; Fiacconi, Chris M; Köhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know (RK) paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift toward a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.

  15. The Nasa-Isro SAR Mission Science Data Products and Processing Workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P. A.; Agram, P. S.; Lavalle, M.; Cohen, J.; Buckley, S.; Kumar, R.; Misra-Ray, A.; Ramanujam, V.; Agarwal, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA-ISRO SAR (NISAR) Mission is currently in the development phase and in the process of specifying its suite of data products and algorithmic workflows, responding to inputs from the NISAR Science and Applications Team. NISAR will provide raw data (Level 0), full-resolution complex imagery (Level 1), and interferometric and polarimetric image products (Level 2) for the entire data set, in both natural radar and geocoded coordinates. NASA and ISRO are coordinating the formats, meta-data layers, and algorithms for these products, for both the NASA-provided L-band radar and the ISRO-provided S-band radar. Higher level products will be also be generated for the purpose of calibration and validation, over large areas of Earth, including tectonic plate boundaries, ice sheets and sea-ice, and areas of ecosystem disturbance and change. This level of comprehensive product generation has been unprecedented for SAR missions in the past, and leads to storage processing challenges for the production system and the archive center. Further, recognizing the potential to support applications that require low latency product generation and delivery, the NISAR team is optimizing the entire end-to-end ground data system for such response, including exploring the advantages of cloud-based processing, algorithmic acceleration using GPUs, and on-demand processing schemes that minimize computational and transport costs, but allow rapid delivery to science and applications users. This paper will review the current products, workflows, and discuss the scientific and operational trade-space of mission capabilities.

  16. NOBLE - Flexible concept recognition for large-scale biomedical natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Eugene; Mitchell, Kevin; Legowski, Elizabeth; Corrigan, Julia; Chavan, Girish; Jacobson, Rebecca S

    2016-01-14

    Natural language processing (NLP) applications are increasingly important in biomedical data analysis, knowledge engineering, and decision support. Concept recognition is an important component task for NLP pipelines, and can be either general-purpose or domain-specific. We describe a novel, flexible, and general-purpose concept recognition component for NLP pipelines, and compare its speed and accuracy against five commonly used alternatives on both a biological and clinical corpus. NOBLE Coder implements a general algorithm for matching terms to concepts from an arbitrary vocabulary set. The system's matching options can be configured individually or in combination to yield specific system behavior for a variety of NLP tasks. The software is open source, freely available, and easily integrated into UIMA or GATE. We benchmarked speed and accuracy of the system against the CRAFT and ShARe corpora as reference standards and compared it to MMTx, MGrep, Concept Mapper, cTAKES Dictionary Lookup Annotator, and cTAKES Fast Dictionary Lookup Annotator. We describe key advantages of the NOBLE Coder system and associated tools, including its greedy algorithm, configurable matching strategies, and multiple terminology input formats. These features provide unique functionality when compared with existing alternatives, including state-of-the-art systems. On two benchmarking tasks, NOBLE's performance exceeded commonly used alternatives, performing almost as well as the most advanced systems. Error analysis revealed differences in error profiles among systems. NOBLE Coder is comparable to other widely used concept recognition systems in terms of accuracy and speed. Advantages of NOBLE Coder include its interactive terminology builder tool, ease of configuration, and adaptability to various domains and tasks. NOBLE provides a term-to-concept matching system suitable for general concept recognition in biomedical NLP pipelines.

  17. Parametric Cost Modeling of Space Missions Using the Develop New Projects (DMP) Implementation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Leigh; Hihn, Jairus; Roust, Kevin; Warfield, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a parametric cost model that has been built at JPL to estimate costs of future, deep space, robotic science missions. Due to the recent dramatic changes in JPL business practices brought about by an internal reengineering effort known as develop new products (DNP), high-level historic cost data is no longer considered analogous to future missions. Therefore, the historic data is of little value in forecasting costs for projects developed using the DNP process. This has lead to the development of an approach for obtaining expert opinion and also for combining actual data with expert opinion to provide a cost database for future missions. In addition, the DNP cost model has a maximum of objective cost drivers which reduces the likelihood of model input error. Version 2 is now under development which expands the model capabilities, links it more tightly with key design technical parameters, and is grounded in more rigorous statistical techniques. The challenges faced in building this model will be discussed, as well as it's background, development approach, status, validation, and future plans.

  18. IAEA Issues Report on Mission to Review Japan's Nuclear Power Plant Safety Assessment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts has delivered its report on a mission it conducted from 21-31 January 2012 to review Japan's process for assessing nuclear safety at the nation's nuclear power plants. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) officials delivered the IAEA Mission Report to Japanese officials yesterday and made it publicly available today. Following the 11 March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) announced the development of a revised safety assessment process for the nation's nuclear power reactors. At the request of the Government of Japan, the IAEA organized a team of five IAEA and three international nuclear safety experts and visited Japan to review NISA's approach to the Comprehensive Assessments for the Safety of Existing Power Reactor Facilities and how NISA examines the results submitted by nuclear operators. A Preliminary Summary Report was issued on 31 January. 'The mission report provides additional information regarding the team's recommendations and overall finding that NISA's instructions to power plants and its review process for the Comprehensive Safety Assessments are generally consistent with IAEA Safety Standards', said team leader James Lyons, Director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division. National safety assessments and their peer review by the IAEA are a key component of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was approved by the Agency's Member States following last year's nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The IAEA safety review mission held meetings in Tokyo with officials from NISA, the Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES), and the Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO), and the team visited the Ohi Nuclear Power Station to see an example of how Japan's Comprehensive Safety Assessment is being implemented by nuclear operators. In its report delivered today

  19. The Prototype of Indicators of a Responsive Partner Shapes Information Processing: A False Recognition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    When judging whether a relationship partner can be counted on to "be there" when needed, people may draw upon knowledge structures to process relevant information. We examined one such knowledge structure using the prototype methodology: indicators of a partner who is likely to be there when needed. In the first study (N = 91), the structure, content, and reliability of the prototype of indicators were examined. Then, using a false recognition study (N = 77), we demonstrated that once activated, the prototype of indicators of a partner who is likely to be there when needed affects information processing. Thus, the prototype of indicators may shape how people process support-relevant information in everyday life, affecting relationship outcomes. Using this knowledge structure may help a person process relevant information quickly and with cognitive economy. However, it may also lead to biases in judgments in certain situations.

  20. Neurocognition and symptoms identify links between facial recognition and emotion processing in schizophrenia: meta-analytic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Wood, Rachel C; Jimenez, Amy M; Hellemann, Gerhard S

    2013-12-01

    In schizophrenia patients, one of the most commonly studied deficits of social cognition is emotion processing (EP), which has documented links to facial recognition (FR). But, how are deficits in facial recognition linked to emotion processing deficits? Can neurocognitive and symptom correlates of FR and EP help differentiate the unique contribution of FR to the domain of social cognition? A meta-analysis of 102 studies (combined n=4826) in schizophrenia patients was conducted to determine the magnitude and pattern of relationships between facial recognition, emotion processing, neurocognition, and type of symptom. Meta-analytic results indicated that facial recognition and emotion processing are strongly interrelated (r=.51). In addition, the relationship between FR and EP through voice prosody (r=.58) is as strong as the relationship between FR and EP based on facial stimuli (r=.53). Further, the relationship between emotion recognition, neurocognition, and symptoms is independent of the emotion processing modality - facial stimuli and voice prosody. The association between FR and EP that occurs through voice prosody suggests that FR is a fundamental cognitive process. The observed links between FR and EP might be due to bottom-up associations between neurocognition and EP, and not simply because most emotion recognition tasks use visual facial stimuli. In addition, links with symptoms, especially negative symptoms and disorganization, suggest possible symptom mechanisms that contribute to FR and EP deficits. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Scenario-Based Process for Requirements Development: Application to Mission Operations Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Duane L.; Boyles, Carole A.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of using operational scenarios as part of requirements development during mission formulation (Phases A & B) is widely accepted as good system engineering practice. In the context of developing a Mission Operations System (MOS), there are numerous practical challenges to translating that notion into the cost-effective development of a useful set of requirements. These challenges can include such issues as a lack of Project-level focus on operations issues, insufficient or improper flowdown of requirements, flowdown of immature or poor-quality requirements from Project level, and MOS resource constraints (personnel expertise and/or dollars). System engineering theory must be translated into a practice that provides enough structure and standards to serve as guidance, but that retains sufficient flexibility to be tailored to the needs and constraints of a particular MOS or Project. We describe a detailed, scenario-based process for requirements development. Identifying a set of attributes for high quality requirements, we show how the portions of the process address many of those attributes. We also find that the basic process steps are robust, and can be effective even in challenging Project environments.

  2. Processing and Managing the Kepler Mission's Treasure Trove of Stellar and Exoplanet Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler telescope launched into orbit in March 2009, initiating NASAs first mission to discover Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars. Kepler simultaneously collected data for 160,000 target stars at a time over its four-year mission, identifying over 4700 planet candidates, 2300 confirmed or validated planets, and over 2100 eclipsing binaries. While Kepler was designed to discover exoplanets, the long term, ultra- high photometric precision measurements it achieved made it a premier observational facility for stellar astrophysics, especially in the field of asteroseismology, and for variable stars, such as RR Lyraes. The Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) was developed at NASA Ames Research Center to process the data acquired by Kepler from pixel-level calibrations all the way to identifying transiting planet signatures and subjecting them to a suite of diagnostic tests to establish or break confidence in their planetary nature. Detecting small, rocky planets transiting Sun-like stars presents a variety of daunting challenges, from achieving an unprecedented photometric precision of 20 parts per million (ppm) on 6.5-hour timescales, supporting the science operations, management, processing, and repeated reprocessing of the accumulating data stream. This paper describes how the design of the SOC meets these varied challenges, discusses the architecture of the SOC and how the SOC pipeline is operated and is run on the NAS Pleiades supercomputer, and summarizes the most important pipeline features addressing the multiple computational, image and signal processing challenges posed by Kepler.

  3. Implementation theory of distortion-invariant pattern recognition for optical and digital signal processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhamon, Michael Earl

    A pattern recognition system which uses complex correlation filter banks requires proportionally more computational effort than single-real valued filters. This introduces increased computation burden but also introduces a higher level of parallelism, that common computing platforms fail to identify. As a result, we consider algorithm mapping to both optical and digital processors. For digital implementation, we develop computationally efficient pattern recognition algorithms, referred to as, vector inner product operators that require less computational effort than traditional fast Fourier methods. These algorithms do not need correlation and they map readily onto parallel digital architectures, which imply new architectures for optical processors. These filters exploit circulant-symmetric matrix structures of the training set data representing a variety of distortions. By using the same mathematical basis as with the vector inner product operations, we are able to extend the capabilities of more traditional correlation filtering to what we refer to as "Super Images". These "Super Images" are used to morphologically transform a complicated input scene into a predetermined dot pattern. The orientation of the dot pattern is related to the rotational distortion of the object of interest. The optical implementation of "Super Images" yields feature reduction necessary for using other techniques, such as artificial neural networks. We propose a parallel digital signal processor architecture based on specific pattern recognition algorithms but general enough to be applicable to other similar problems. Such an architecture is classified as a data flow architecture. Instead of mapping an algorithm to an architecture, we propose mapping the DSP architecture to a class of pattern recognition algorithms. Today's optical processing systems have difficulties implementing full complex filter structures. Typically, optical systems (like the 4f correlators) are limited to phase

  4. Electrophysiological signals associated with fluency of different levels of processing reveal multiple contributions to recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Taylor, Jason R; Wang, Wei; Gao, Chuanji; Guo, Chunyan

    2017-08-01

    Processing fluency appears to influence recognition memory judgements, and the manipulation of fluency, if misattributed to an effect of prior exposure, can result in illusory memory. Although it is well established that fluency induced by masked repetition priming leads to increased familiarity, manipulations of conceptual fluency have produced conflicting results, variously affecting familiarity or recollection. Some recent studies have found that masked conceptual priming increases correct recollection (Taylor & Henson, 2012), and the magnitude of this behavioural effect correlates with analogous fMRI BOLD priming effects in brain regions associated with recollection (Taylor, Buratto, & Henson, 2013). However, the neural correlates and time-courses of masked repetition and conceptual priming were not compared directly in previous studies. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify and compare the electrophysiological correlates of masked repetition and conceptual priming and investigate how they contribute to recognition memory. Behavioural results were consistent with previous studies: Repetition primes increased familiarity, whereas conceptual primes increased correct recollection. Masked repetition and conceptual priming also decreased the latency of late parietal component (LPC). Masked repetition priming was associated with an early P200 effect and a later parietal maximum N400 effect, whereas masked conceptual priming was only associated with a central-parietal maximum N400 effect. In addition, the topographic distributions of the N400 repetition priming and conceptual priming effects were different. These results suggest that fluency at different levels of processing is associated with different ERP components, and contributes differentially to subjective recognition memory experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition technique for defect identification using an active sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhongqing; Ye, Lin

    2004-08-01

    The practical utilization of elastic waves, e.g. Rayleigh-Lamb waves, in high-performance structural health monitoring techniques is somewhat impeded due to the complicated wave dispersion phenomena, the existence of multiple wave modes, the high susceptibility to diverse interferences, the bulky sampled data and the difficulty in signal interpretation. An intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition (ISPPR) approach using the wavelet transform and artificial neural network algorithms was developed; this was actualized in a signal processing package (SPP). The ISPPR technique comprehensively functions as signal filtration, data compression, characteristic extraction, information mapping and pattern recognition, capable of extracting essential yet concise features from acquired raw wave signals and further assisting in structural health evaluation. For validation, the SPP was applied to the prediction of crack growth in an alloy structural beam and construction of a damage parameter database for defect identification in CF/EP composite structures. It was clearly apparent that the elastic wave propagation-based damage assessment could be dramatically streamlined by introduction of the ISPPR technique.

  6. The PDS-based Data Processing, Archiving and Management Procedures in Chang'e Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. B.; Li, C.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, P.; Chen, W.

    2017-12-01

    PDS is adopted as standard format of scientific data and foundation of all data-related procedures in Chang'e mission. Unlike the geographically distributed nature of the planetary data system, all procedures of data processing, archiving, management and distribution are proceeded in the headquarter of Ground Research and Application System of Chang'e mission in a centralized manner. The RAW data acquired by the ground stations is transmitted to and processed by data preprocessing subsystem (DPS) for the production of PDS-compliant Level 0 Level 2 data products using established algorithms, with each product file being well described using an attached label, then all products with the same orbit number are put together into a scheduled task for archiving along with a XML archive list file recoding all product files' properties such as file name, file size etc. After receiving the archive request from DPS, data management subsystem (DMS) is provoked to parse the XML list file to validate all the claimed files and their compliance to PDS using a prebuilt data dictionary, then to exact metadata of each data product file from its PDS label and the fields of its normalized filename. Various requirements of data management, retrieving, distribution and application can be well met using the flexible combination of the rich metadata empowered by the PDS. In the forthcoming CE-5 mission, all the design of data structure and procedures will be updated from PDS version 3 used in previous CE-1, CE-2 and CE-3 missions to the new version 4, the main changes would be: 1) a dedicated detached XML label will be used to describe the corresponding scientific data acquired by the 4 instruments carried, the XML parsing framework used in archive list validation will be reused for the label after some necessary adjustments; 2) all the image data acquired by the panorama camera, landing camera and lunar mineralogical spectrometer should use an Array_2D_Image/Array_3D_Image object to store

  7. Effects of level of processing but not of task enactment on recognition memory in a case of developmental amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, John M; Brandt, Karen R; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baddeley, Alan; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-09-01

    We report the performance in four recognition memory experiments of Jon, a young adult with early-onset developmental amnesia whose episodic memory is gravely impaired in tests of recall, but seems relatively preserved in tests of recognition, and who has developed normal levels of performance in tests of intelligence and general knowledge. Jon's recognition performance was enhanced by deeper levels of processing in comparing a more meaningful study task with a less meaningful one, but not by task enactment in comparing performance of an action with reading an action phrase. Both of these variables normally enhance episodic remembering, which Jon claimed to experience. But Jon was unable to support that claim by recollecting what it was that he remembered. Taken altogether, the findings strongly imply that Jon's recognition performance entailed little genuine episodic remembering and that the levels-of-processing effects in Jon reflected semantic, not episodic, memory.

  8. BGO front-end electronics and signal processing in the MXGS instrument for the ASIM mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogseide, Yngve; Cenkeramaddi, Linga Reddy; Genov, Georgi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Bismuth Germanate Oxide (BGO) front-end electronics design and signal processing in Modular X- and Gamma ray sensor (MXGS) instrument onboard the Atmosphere Space Interaction Monitor (ASIM) mission, funded by the European Space Agency. University of Bergen is responsible...... for the design and development of the detector layers and readout electronics for the MXGS instrument. The principal objective of the instrument is to detect Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs), which are related to thunderstorm activity. The digital pulse processing scheme used in the MXGS BGO detector gives...... it a significantly higher rate capability than what has been achieved in other instruments used in the study of terrestrial gamma flashes. The front-end electronics for the BGO detector layer in MXGS system also uses fewer components compared to conventional analog front-ends for BGO detectors, thereby increasing...

  9. Auto-recognition of surfaces and auto-generation of material removal volume for finishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataraki, Pramod S.; Salman Abu Mansor, Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Auto-recognition of a surface and auto-generation of material removal volumes for the so recognised surfaces has become a need to achieve successful downstream manufacturing activities like automated process planning and scheduling. Few researchers have contributed to generation of material removal volume for a product but resulted in material removal volume discontinuity between two adjacent material removal volumes generated from two adjacent faces that form convex geometry. The need for limitation free material removal volume generation was attempted and an algorithm that automatically recognises computer aided design (CAD) model’s surface and also auto-generate material removal volume for finishing process of the recognised surfaces was developed. The surfaces of CAD model are successfully recognised by the developed algorithm and required material removal volume is obtained. The material removal volume discontinuity limitation that occurred in fewer studies is eliminated.

  10. Application of Business Process Management to drive the deployment of a speech recognition system in a healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sánchez, María José; Framiñán Torres, José Manuel; Parra Calderón, Carlos Luis; Del Río Ortega, Juan Antonio; Vigil Martín, Eduardo; Nieto Cervera, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    We present a methodology based on Business Process Management to guide the development of a speech recognition system in a hospital in Spain. The methodology eases the deployment of the system by 1) involving the clinical staff in the process, 2) providing the IT professionals with a description of the process and its requirements, 3) assessing advantages and disadvantages of the speech recognition system, as well as its impact in the organisation, and 4) help reorganising the healthcare process before implementing the new technology in order to identify how it can better contribute to the overall objective of the organisation.

  11. Alpha and theta brain oscillations index dissociable processes in spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Antje; Kotz, Sonja A; Scharinger, Mathias; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-08-15

    Slow neural oscillations (~1-15 Hz) are thought to orchestrate the neural processes of spoken language comprehension. However, functional subdivisions within this broad range of frequencies are disputed, with most studies hypothesizing only about single frequency bands. The present study utilizes an established paradigm of spoken word recognition (lexical decision) to test the hypothesis that within the slow neural oscillatory frequency range, distinct functional signatures and cortical networks can be identified at least for theta- (~3-7 Hz) and alpha-frequencies (~8-12 Hz). Listeners performed an auditory lexical decision task on a set of items that formed a word-pseudoword continuum: ranging from (1) real words over (2) ambiguous pseudowords (deviating from real words only in one vowel; comparable to natural mispronunciations in speech) to (3) pseudowords (clearly deviating from real words by randomized syllables). By means of time-frequency analysis and spatial filtering, we observed a dissociation into distinct but simultaneous patterns of alpha power suppression and theta power enhancement. Alpha exhibited a parametric suppression as items increasingly matched real words, in line with lowered functional inhibition in a left-dominant lexical processing network for more word-like input. Simultaneously, theta power in a bilateral fronto-temporal network was selectively enhanced for ambiguous pseudowords only. Thus, enhanced alpha power can neurally 'gate' lexical integration, while enhanced theta power might index functionally more specific ambiguity-resolution processes. To this end, a joint analysis of both frequency bands provides neural evidence for parallel processes in achieving spoken word recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neural Dissociation of Number from Letter Recognition and Its Relationship to Parietal Numerical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Hebrank, Andrew; Polk, Thad A.; Park, Denise C.

    2012-01-01

    The visual recognition of letters dissociates from the recognition of numbers at both the behavioral and neural level. In this article, using fMRI, we investigate whether the visual recognition of numbers dissociates from letters, thereby establishing a double dissociation. In Experiment 1, participants viewed strings of consonants and Arabic…

  13. Mother Vocal Recognition in Antarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus gazella Pups: A Two-Step Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Aubin

    Full Text Available In otariids, mother's recognition by pups is essential to their survival since females nurse exclusively their own young and can be very aggressive towards non-kin. Antarctic fur seal, Arctocephalus gazella, come ashore to breed and form dense colonies. During the 4-month lactation period, females alternate foraging trips at sea with suckling period ashore. On each return to the colony, females and pups first use vocalizations to find each other among several hundred conspecifics and olfaction is used as a final check. Such vocal identification has to be highly efficient. In this present study, we investigated the components of the individual vocal signature used by pups to identify their mothers by performing playback experiments on pups with synthetic signals. We thus tested the efficiency of this individual vocal signature by performing propagation tests and by testing pups at different playback distances. Pups use both amplitude and frequency modulations to identify their mother's voice, as well as the energy spectrum. Propagation tests showed that frequency modulations propagated reliably up to 64m, whereas amplitude modulations and spectral content greatly were highly degraded for distances over 8m. Playback on pups at different distances suggested that the individual identification is a two-step process: at long range, pups identified first the frequency modulation pattern of their mother's calls, and other components of the vocal signature at closer range. The individual vocal recognition system developed by Antarctic fur seals is well adapted to face the main constraint of finding kin in a crowd.

  14. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E.; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., “point at the candle”). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  15. Further dissociating the processes involved in recognition memory: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Richard N A; Hornberger, Michael; Rugg, Michael D

    2005-07-01

    Based on an event-related potential study by Rugg et al. [Dissociation of the neural correlates of implicit and explicit memory. Nature, 392, 595-598, 1998], we attempted to isolate the hemodynamic correlates of recollection, familiarity, and implicit memory within a single verbal recognition memory task using event-related fMRI. Words were randomly cued for either deep or shallow processing, and then intermixed with new words for yes/no recognition. The number of studied words was such that, whereas most were recognized ("hits"), an appreciable number of shallow-studied words were not ("misses"). Comparison of deep hits versus shallow hits at test revealed activations in regions including the left inferior parietal gyrus. Comparison of shallow hits versus shallow misses revealed activations in regions including the bilateral intraparietal sulci, the left posterior middle frontal gyrus, and the left frontopolar cortex. Comparison of hits versus correct rejections revealed a relative deactivation in an anterior left medial-temporal region (most likely the perirhinal cortex). Comparison of shallow misses versus correct rejections did not reveal response decreases in any regions expected on the basis of previous imaging studies of priming. Given these and previous data, we associate the left inferior parietal activation with recollection, the left anterior medial-temporal deactivation with familiarity, and the intraparietal and prefrontal responses with target detection. The absence of differences between shallow misses and correct rejections means that the hemodynamic correlates of implicit memory remain unclear.

  16. Adaptive Parameter Estimation of Person Recognition Model in a Stochastic Human Tracking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, W.; Fuse, T.; Ishikawa, T.

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims at an estimation of parameters of person recognition models using a sequential Bayesian filtering method. In many human tracking method, any parameters of models used for recognize the same person in successive frames are usually set in advance of human tracking process. In real situation these parameters may change according to situation of observation and difficulty level of human position prediction. Thus in this paper we formulate an adaptive parameter estimation using general state space model. Firstly we explain the way to formulate human tracking in general state space model with their components. Then referring to previous researches, we use Bhattacharyya coefficient to formulate observation model of general state space model, which is corresponding to person recognition model. The observation model in this paper is a function of Bhattacharyya coefficient with one unknown parameter. At last we sequentially estimate this parameter in real dataset with some settings. Results showed that sequential parameter estimation was succeeded and were consistent with observation situations such as occlusions.

  17. Orange Recognition on Tree Using Image Processing Method Based on Lighting Density Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R Ahmadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the last few years, a new tendency has been created towards robotic harvesting of oranges and some of citrus fruits. The first step in robotic harvesting is accurate recognition and positioning of fruits. Detection through image processing by color cameras and computer is currently the most common method. Obviously, a harvesting robot faces with natural conditions and, therefore, detection must be done in various light conditions and environments. In this study, it was attempted to provide a suitable algorithm for recognizing the orange fruits on tree. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, 500 images were taken in different conditions of canopy, lighting and the distance to the tree. The algorithm included sub-routines for optimization, segmentation, size filtering, separation of fruits based on lighting density method and coordinates determination. In this study, MLP neural network (with 3 hidden layers was used for segmentation that was found to be successful with an accuracy of 88.2% in correct detection. As there exist a high percentage of the clustered oranges in images, any algorithm aiming to detect oranges on the trees successfully should offer a solution to separate these oranges first. A new method based on the light and shade density method was applied and evaluated in this research. Finally, the accuracies for differentiation and recognition were obtained to be 89.5% and 88.2%, respectively.

  18. Performance Recognition for Sulphur Flotation Process Based on Froth Texture Unit Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important indicator of flotation performance, froth texture is believed to be related to operational condition in sulphur flotation process. A novel fault detection method based on froth texture unit distribution (TUD is proposed to recognize the fault condition of sulphur flotation in real time. The froth texture unit number is calculated based on texture spectrum, and the probability density function (PDF of froth texture unit number is defined as texture unit distribution, which can describe the actual textual feature more accurately than the grey level dependence matrix approach. As the type of the froth TUD is unknown, a nonparametric kernel estimation method based on the fixed kernel basis is proposed, which can overcome the difficulty when comparing different TUDs under various conditions is impossible using the traditional varying kernel basis. Through transforming nonparametric description into dynamic kernel weight vectors, a principle component analysis (PCA model is established to reduce the dimensionality of the vectors. Then a threshold criterion determined by the TQ statistic based on the PCA model is proposed to realize the performance recognition. The industrial application results show that the accurate performance recognition of froth flotation can be achieved by using the proposed method.

  19. Encoding-related brain activity dissociates between the recollective processes underlying successful recall and recognition: a subsequent-memory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Talya; Maril, Anat; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2012-07-01

    The subsequent-memory (SM) paradigm uncovers brain mechanisms that are associated with mnemonic activity during encoding by measuring participants' neural activity during encoding and classifying the encoding trials according to performance in the subsequent retrieval phase. The majority of these studies have converged on the notion that the mechanism supporting recognition is mediated by familiarity and recollection. The process of recollection is often assumed to be a recall-like process, implying that the active search for the memory trace is similar, if not identical, for recall and recognition. Here we challenge this assumption and hypothesize - based on previous findings obtained in our lab - that the recollective processes underlying recall and recognition might show dissociative patterns of encoding-related brain activity. To this end, our design controlled for familiarity, thereby focusing on contextual, recollective processes. We found evidence for dissociative neurocognitive encoding mechanisms supporting subsequent-recall and subsequent-recognition. Specifically, the contrast of subsequent-recognition versus subsequent-recall revealed activation in the Parahippocampal cortex (PHc) and the posterior hippocampus--regions associated with contextual processing. Implications of our findings and their relation to current cognitive models of recollection are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain dynamics of upstream perceptual processes leading to visual object recognition: a high density ERP topographic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Delplanque, Sylvain; Pourtois, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that visual object recognition is a proactive process through which perceptual evidence accumulates over time before a decision can be made about the object. However, the exact electrophysiological correlates and time-course of this complex process remain unclear. In addition, the potential influence of emotion on this process has not been investigated yet. We recorded high density EEG in healthy adult participants performing a novel perceptual recognition task. For each trial, an initial blurred visual scene was first shown, before the actual content of the stimulus was gradually revealed by progressively adding diagnostic high spatial frequency information. Participants were asked to stop this stimulus sequence as soon as they could correctly perform an animacy judgment task. Behavioral results showed that participants reliably gathered perceptual evidence before recognition. Furthermore, prolonged exploration times were observed for pleasant, relative to either neutral or unpleasant scenes. ERP results showed distinct effects starting at 280 ms post-stimulus onset in distant brain regions during stimulus processing, mainly characterized by: (i) a monotonic accumulation of evidence, involving regions of the posterior cingulate cortex/parahippocampal gyrus, and (ii) true categorical recognition effects in medial frontal regions, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These findings provide evidence for the early involvement, following stimulus onset, of non-overlapping brain networks during proactive processes eventually leading to visual object recognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Advances in image processing and pattern recognition. Proceedings of the international conference, Pisa, Italy, December 10-12, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappellini, V [Florence Univ. (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence (Italy). Ist. di Ricerca sulle Onde Elettromagnetiche); Marconi, R [IBM Scientific Center, Pisa (Italy); eds.

    1986-01-01

    The conference papers reported provide an authorative and permanent record of the contributions. Some papers are more theoretical or of review nature, while others contain new implementations and applications. They are conveniently grouped into the following 7 fields (after a general overview): Acquisition and Presentation of 2-D and 3-D Images; Static and Dynamic Image Processing; Determination of Object's Position and Orientation; Objects and Characters Recognition; Semantic Models and Image Understanding; Robotics and Computer Vision in Manufacturing; Specialized Processing Techniques and Structures. In particular, new digital image processing and recognition methods, implementation architectures and special advanced applications (industrial automation, robotics, remote sensing, biomedicine, etc.) are presented. (Auth.).

  2. Dual-process models of associative recognition in young and older adults: evidence from receiver operating characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Michael R; Light, Leah L; Chung, Christie

    2005-07-01

    In 3 experiments, young and older adults studied lists of unrelated word pairs and were given confidence-rated item and associative recognition tests. Several different models of recognition were fit to the confidence-rating data using techniques described by S. Macho (2002, 2004). Concordant with previous findings, item recognition data were best fit by an unequal-variance signal detection theory model for both young and older adults. For both age groups, associative recognition performance was best explained by models incorporating both recollection and familiarity components. Examination of parameter estimates supported the conclusion that recollection is reduced in old age, but inferences about age differences in familiarity were highly model dependent. Implications for dual-process models of memory in old age are discussed. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Empirical Study on Sustainable Opportunities Recognition. A Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC Joinery Industry Analysis Using Augmented Sustainable Development Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard-Gabriel Ceptureanu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes factors influencing recognition of sustainable opportunities by using an augmented sustainability process model. The conceptual model used two main factors, Knowledge and Motivation, and one moderating variable, Social embeddedness. We investigated entrepreneurs from PVC joinery industry and concluded that while market orientation and sustainable entrepreneurial orientation definitely and positively influence sustainable opportunity recognition, others variables like knowledge of the natural/communal environment, awareness of sustainable development or focus on success have less support. Among all variables analyzed, perception of the threat of the natural/communal environment and altruism toward others have the poorest impact on opportunity recognition. Finally, we concluded that social embeddedness has a moderating effect on sustainable opportunity recognition, even though the results were mixed.

  4. The ENVISAT Atmospheric Chemistry mission (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) -Processing status and data availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, Angelika; Brizzi, G.; Barrot, G.; Bovensmann, H.; Canela, M.; Fehr, T.; Laur, H.; Lichtenberg, G.; Niro, F.; Perron, G.; Raspollini, P.; Saavedra de Miguel, L.; Scarpino, G.; Vogel, P.

    The atmospheric chemistry instruments on board the ENVISAT platform (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) provide a unique dataset of geophysical parameters (e.g.: trace gases, clouds, and aerosol) that allows a comprehensive characterization of the atmosphere's chemical and climatological processes [1]. These instruments started to provide significant science data shortly after the launch of the ENVISAT satellite (March 2002). At the time of writing this paper, these instruments and the whole payload modules are fully working and are well beyond the expected lifetime of 5 years. In addition the orbit control strategy of the platform will be modified starting from 2010, in order to extend the mission lifetime up to 2013 [2]. This means that if no instrument problems will appear, the ENVISAT atmospheric sensors will provide at the end of their life, three separated, but complementary datasets of the most important atmospheric state parameters, spanning a time interval of about 11 years. This represents an extraordinary source of information for the scientific user community, both for the completeness and quality of the data and for the extent of the dataset. The aim of this paper is to present the actual status of the ESA operational atmospheric chemistry dataset provided by the three ENVISAT atmospheric chemistry instruments and the future evolution. The processing and reprocessing status will be described in details for each instrument. The outcomes of the geophysical validation and the planned validation activities will be discussed. Finally the data availability and the source of information will be specified. [1] H. Nett, J. Frerick, T. Paulsen, and G. Levrini, "The atmospheric instruments and their applications: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY", ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), No. 106, p. 77 -87 (2001) [2] J. Frerick, B. Duesmann, and M. Canela, "2010 and beyond -The ENVISAT mission extension", Proc. `Envisat Symposium 2007', Montreux, Switzerland, 23-27 April 2007 (ESA SP

  5. False recognition depends on depth of prior word processing: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, P; Hufnagl, B; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L; Imhof, H; Lang, W

    2001-04-01

    Brain activity was measured with a whole head magnetoencephalograph (MEG) during the test phases of word recognition experiments. Healthy young subjects had to discriminate between previously presented and new words. During prior study phases two different levels of word processing were provided according to two different kinds of instructions (shallow and deep encoding). Event-related fields (ERFs) associated with falsely recognized words (false alarms) were found to depend on the depth of processing during the prior study phase. False alarms elicited higher brain activity (as reflected by dipole strength) in case of prior deep encoding as compared to shallow encoding between 300 and 500 ms after stimulus onset at temporal brain areas. Between 500 and 700 ms we found evidence for differences in the involvement of neural structures related to both conditions of false alarms. Furthermore, the number of false alarms was found to depend on depth of processing. Shallow encoding led to a higher number of false alarms than deep encoding. All data are discussed as strong support for the ideas that a certain level of word processing is performed by a distinct set of neural systems and that the same neural systems which encode information are reactivated during the retrieval.

  6. Qualifications of Bonding Process of Temperature Sensors to Deep-Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Kitiyakara, Amarit; Redick, Richard W., III; Sunada, Eric T.

    2011-01-01

    A process has been examined for bonding a platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) onto potential aerospace materials such as flat aluminum surfaces and a flexible copper tube to simulate coaxial cables for flight applications. Primarily, PRTs were inserted into a silver-plated copper braid to avoid stresses on the sensor while the sensor was attached with the braid to the base material for long-duration, deep-space missions. A1-1145/graphite composite (planar substrate) and copper tube have been used in this study to assess the reliability of PRT bonding materials. A flexible copper tube was chosen to simulate the coaxial cable to attach PRTs. The substrate materials were cleaned with acetone wipes to remove oils and contaminants. Later, the surface was also cleaned with ethyl alcohol and was air-dried. The materials were gently abraded and then were cleaned again the same way as previously mentioned. Initially, shielded (silver plated copper braid) PRT (type X) test articles were fabricated and cleaned. The base antenna material was pretreated and shielded, and CV-2566 NuSil silicone was used to attach the shielded PRT to the base material. The test articles were cured at room temperature and humidity for seven days. The resistance of the PRTs was continuously monitored during the thermal cycling, and the test articles were inspected prior to, at various intermediate steps during, and at the end of the thermal cycling as well. All of the PRTs survived three times the expected mission life for the JUNO project. No adhesion problems were observed in the PRT sensor area, or under the shielded PRT. Furthermore, the PRT resistance accurately tracked the thermal cycling of the chamber.

  7. Robust Speech Processing & Recognition: Speaker ID, Language ID, Speech Recognition/Keyword Spotting, Diarization/Co-Channel/Environmental Characterization, Speaker State Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering & Computer Science EC32 P.O. Box 830688 Richardson, Texas 75083-0688 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...87 4.3 Whisper Based Processing for ASR ………………………………………….…. 92 5.0 Task 5: SPEAKER STATE ASSESSMENT/ ENVIROMENTAL SNIFFING (SSA/ENVS...Dec. 7-10, 2014 [3] S. Amuda, H. Boril, A. Sangwan, J.H.L. Hansen, T.S. Ibiyemi, “ Engineering analysis and recognition of Nigerian English: An

  8. Recognition of malignant processes with neural nets from ESR spectra of serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, P. [Inst. of Medical Physics and Biophysics, Univ. Leipzig (Germany); Gurachevsky, A.; Muravsky, V.; Schnurr, K.; Seibt, G. [Medinnovation GmbH, Wildau (Germany); Matthes, G. [Inst. of Transfusion Medicine, Univ. Hospital Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Cancer diseases are the focus of intense research due to their frequent occurrence. It is known from the literature that serum proteins are changed in the case of malignant processes. Changes of albumin conformation, transport efficiency, and binding characteristics can be determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The present study analysed the binding/dissociation function of albumin with an ESR method using 16-doxyl stearate spin probe as reporter molecule and ethanol as modifier of hydrophobic interactions. Native and frozen plasma of healthy donors (608 samples), patients with malignant diseases (423 samples), and patients with benign conditions (221 samples) were analysed. The global specificity was 91% and the sensitivity 96%. In look-back samples of 27 donors, a malignant process could be detected up to 30 months before clinical diagnosis. To recognise different entities of malignant diseases from the ESR spectra, Artificial neural networks were implemented. For 48 female donors with breast cancer, the recognition specificity was 85%. Other carcinoma entities (22 colon, 18 prostate, 12 stomach) were recognised with specificities between 75% and 84%. Should these specificity values be reproduced in larger studies, the described method could be used as a new specific tumour marker for the early detection of malignant processes. Since transmission of cancer via blood transfusion cannot be excluded as yet, the described ESR method could also be used as a quality test for plasma products. (orig.)

  9. The time course of morphological processing during spoken word recognition in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Qu, Qingqing; Ni, Aiping; Zhou, Junyi; Li, Xingshan

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the time course of morphological processing during spoken word recognition using the printed-word paradigm. Chinese participants were asked to listen to a spoken disyllabic compound word while simultaneously viewing a printed-word display. Each visual display consisted of three printed words: a semantic associate of the first constituent of the compound word (morphemic competitor), a semantic associate of the whole compound word (whole-word competitor), and an unrelated word (distractor). Participants were directed to detect whether the spoken target word was on the visual display. Results indicated that both the morphemic and whole-word competitors attracted more fixations than the distractor. More importantly, the morphemic competitor began to diverge from the distractor immediately at the acoustic offset of the first constituent, which was earlier than the whole-word competitor. These results suggest that lexical access to the auditory word is incremental and morphological processing (i.e., semantic access to the first constituent) that occurs at an early processing stage before access to the representation of the whole word in Chinese.

  10. Recognition of malignant processes with neural nets from ESR spectra of serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, P.; Gurachevsky, A.; Muravsky, V.; Schnurr, K.; Seibt, G.; Matthes, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cancer diseases are the focus of intense research due to their frequent occurrence. It is known from the literature that serum proteins are changed in the case of malignant processes. Changes of albumin conformation, transport efficiency, and binding characteristics can be determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). The present study analysed the binding/dissociation function of albumin with an ESR method using 16-doxyl stearate spin probe as reporter molecule and ethanol as modifier of hydrophobic interactions. Native and frozen plasma of healthy donors (608 samples), patients with malignant diseases (423 samples), and patients with benign conditions (221 samples) were analysed. The global specificity was 91% and the sensitivity 96%. In look-back samples of 27 donors, a malignant process could be detected up to 30 months before clinical diagnosis. To recognise different entities of malignant diseases from the ESR spectra, Artificial neural networks were implemented. For 48 female donors with breast cancer, the recognition specificity was 85%. Other carcinoma entities (22 colon, 18 prostate, 12 stomach) were recognised with specificities between 75% and 84%. Should these specificity values be reproduced in larger studies, the described method could be used as a new specific tumour marker for the early detection of malignant processes. Since transmission of cancer via blood transfusion cannot be excluded as yet, the described ESR method could also be used as a quality test for plasma products. (orig.)

  11. An overview of the risk uncertainty assessment process for the Cassini space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft is a deep space probe whose mission is to explore the planet Saturn and its moons. Since the spacecraft's electrical requirements will be supplied by radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), the spacecraft designers and mission planners must assure that potential accidents involving the spacecraft do not pose significant human risk. The Cassini risk analysis team is seeking to perform a quantitative uncertainty analysis as a part of the overall mission risk assessment program. This paper describes the uncertainty analysis methodology to be used for the Cassini mission and compares it to the methods that were originally developed for evaluation of commercial nuclear power reactors

  12. The Evolution of the NASA Commercial Crew Program Mission Assurance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) established the Commercial Crew Program (CCP) in order to provide human access to the International Space Station and low Earth orbit via the commercial (non-governmental) sector. A particular challenge to NASA has been how to determine that the Commercial Provider's transportation system complies with programmatic safety requirements. The process used in this determination is the Safety Technical Review Board which reviews and approves provider submitted hazard reports. One significant product of the review is a set of hazard control verifications. In past NASA programs, 100% of these safety critical verifications were typically confirmed by NASA. The traditional Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) model does not support the nature of the CCP. To that end, NASA S&MA is implementing a Risk Based Assurance process to determine which hazard control verifications require NASA authentication. Additionally, a Shared Assurance Model is also being developed to efficiently use the available resources to execute the verifications.

  13. COGNITIVE ANALYSIS OF THE READING IN THE PROCESS RECOGNITION OF WORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Oliveira Araújo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The reading is a hard activity to being developed, demanding an extensive learning. On this perspective, the objective is describe and analyze the abilities of recognition of words through of Model of Recognition of the Words, proposed by Ellis (1995. The results could contribute to a more efficient pedagogical practice in the formation of reading competence.

  14. How love and sex can influence recognition of faces and words: a processing model account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.

    2010-01-01

    A link between romantic love and face recognition and sexual desire and verbal recognition is suggested. When in love, people typically focus on a long-term perspective which enhances global perception, whereas when experiencing sexual encounters they focus on the present which enhances a perception

  15. Real-Time Multiview Recognition of Human Gestures by Distributed Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Kosuke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since a gesture involves a dynamic and complex motion, multiview observation and recognition are desirable. For the better representation of gestures, one needs to know, in the first place, from which views a gesture should be observed. Furthermore, it becomes increasingly important how the recognition results are integrated when larger numbers of camera views are considered. To investigate these problems, we propose a framework under which multiview recognition is carried out, and an integration scheme by which the recognition results are integrated online and in realtime. For performance evaluation, we use the ViHASi (Virtual Human Action Silhouette public image database as a benchmark and our Japanese sign language (JSL image database that contains 18 kinds of hand signs. By examining the recognition rates of each gesture for each view, we found gestures that exhibit view dependency and the gestures that do not. Also, we found that the view dependency itself could vary depending on the target gesture sets. By integrating the recognition results of different views, our swarm-based integration provides more robust and better recognition performance than individual fixed-view recognition agents.

  16. A preliminary study of level 1A data processing of a low–low satellite to satellite tracking mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mission as the prime example, an overview is given on the management and processing of Level 1A data of a low–low satellite to satellite tracking mission. To illustrate the underlying principle and algorithm, a detailed study is made on the K-band ranging (KBR assembly, which includes the measurement principles, modeling of noises, the generation of Level 1A data from that of Level 0 as well as Level 1A to Level 1B data processing.

  17. A sensor-based wrist pulse signal processing and lung cancer recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Zhang, Yuan; Yao, Lina; Song, Houbing; Kos, Anton

    2018-03-01

    Pulse diagnosis is an efficient method in traditional Chinese medicine for detecting the health status of a person in a non-invasive and convenient way. Jin's pulse diagnosis (JPD) is a very efficient recent development that is gradually recognized and well validated by the medical community in recent years. However, no acceptable results have been achieved for lung cancer recognition in the field of biomedical signal processing using JPD. More so, there is no standard JPD pulse feature defined with respect to pulse signals. Our work is designed mainly for care giving service conveniently at home to the people having lung cancer by proposing a novel wrist pulse signal processing method, having an insight from JPD. We developed an iterative slide window (ISW) algorithm to segment the de-noised signal into single periods. We analyzed the characteristics of the segmented pulse waveform and for the first time summarized 26 features to classify the pulse waveforms of healthy individuals and lung cancer patients using a cubic support vector machine (CSVM). The result achieved by the proposed method is found to be 78.13% accurate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Man Versus Machine: Comparing Double Data Entry and Optical Mark Recognition for Processing CAHPS Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifolt, Matthew; Blackburn, Justin; Rhodes, David J; Gillespie, Shemeka; Bennett, Aleena; Wolff, Paul; Rucks, Andrew

    Historically, double data entry (DDE) has been considered the criterion standard for minimizing data entry errors. However, previous studies considered data entry alternatives through the limited lens of data accuracy. This study supplies information regarding data accuracy, operational efficiency, and cost for DDE and Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) for processing the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems 5.0 survey. To assess data accuracy, we compared error rates for DDE and OMR by dividing the number of surveys that were arbitrated by the total number of surveys processed for each method. To assess operational efficiency, we tallied the cost of data entry for DDE and OMR after survey receipt. Costs were calculated on the basis of personnel, depreciation for capital equipment, and costs of noncapital equipment. The cost savings attributed to this method were negated by the operational efficiency of OMR. There was a statistical significance between rates of arbitration between DDE and OMR; however, this statistical significance did not create a practical significance. The potential benefits of DDE in terms of data accuracy did not outweigh the operational efficiency and thereby financial savings of OMR.

  19. Activation and Binding in Verbal Working Memory: A Dual-Process Model for the Recognition of Nonwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klauss; Lange, Elke B.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of short-term recognition based on dual-process models and the three-component theory of working memory [Oberauer, K. (2002). Access to information in working memory: Exploring the focus of attention. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28", 411-421]. Familiarity arises…

  20. Semantic Memory Recognition Is Supported by Intrinsic Recollection-Like Processes: "The Butcher on the Bus" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidergoren, Shani; Segalowicz, Judith; Gilboa, Asaf

    2012-01-01

    Dual-process models suggest that recognition memory is independently supported by recollection and familiarity. Current theories attribute recollection solely to hippocampally mediated episodic memory (EM), and familiarity to both episodic and semantic memory (SM) supported by medial temporal lobe cortex (MTLC) and prefrontal cortex. We tested…

  1. Developmental prosopagnosia and super-recognition: no special role for surface reflectance processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard; Chatterjee, Garga; Nakayama, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Face recognition by normal subjects depends in roughly equal proportions on shape and surface reflectance cues, while object recognition depends predominantly on shape cues. It is possible that developmental prosopagnosics are deficient not in their ability to recognize faces per se, but rather in their ability to use reflectance cues. Similarly, super-recognizers' exceptional ability with face recognition may be a result of superior surface reflectance perception and memory. We tested this possibility by administering tests of face perception and face recognition in which only shape or reflectance cues are available to developmental prosopagnosics, super-recognizers, and control subjects. Face recognition ability and the relative use of shape and pigmentation were unrelated in all the tests. Subjects who were better at using shape or reflectance cues were also better at using the other type of cue. These results do not support the proposal that variation in surface reflectance perception ability is the underlying cause of variation in face recognition ability. Instead, these findings support the idea that face recognition ability is related to neural circuits using representations that integrate shape and pigmentation information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural Basis for Antigenic Peptide Recognition and Processing by Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Aminopeptidase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpakali, Anastasia; Giastas, Petros; Mathioudakis, Nikolas; Mavridis, Irene M; Saridakis, Emmanuel; Stratikos, Efstratios

    2015-10-23

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) aminopeptidases process antigenic peptide precursors to generate epitopes for presentation by MHC class I molecules and help shape the antigenic peptide repertoire and cytotoxic T-cell responses. To perform this function, ER aminopeptidases have to recognize and process a vast variety of peptide sequences. To understand how these enzymes recognize substrates, we determined crystal structures of ER aminopeptidase 2 (ERAP2) in complex with a substrate analogue and a peptidic product to 2.5 and 2.7 Å, respectively, and compared them to the apo-form structure determined to 3.0 Å. The peptides were found within the internal cavity of the enzyme with no direct access to the outside solvent. The substrate analogue extends away from the catalytic center toward the distal end of the internal cavity, making interactions with several shallow pockets along the path. A similar configuration was evident for the peptidic product, although decreasing electron density toward its C terminus indicated progressive disorder. Enzymatic analysis confirmed that visualized interactions can either positively or negatively impact in vitro trimming rates. Opportunistic side-chain interactions and lack of deep specificity pockets support a limited-selectivity model for antigenic peptide processing by ERAP2. In contrast to proposed models for the homologous ERAP1, no specific recognition of the peptide C terminus by ERAP2 was evident, consistent with functional differences in length selection and self-activation between these two enzymes. Our results suggest that ERAP2 selects substrates by sequestering them in its internal cavity and allowing opportunistic interactions to determine trimming rates, thus combining substrate permissiveness with sequence bias. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Signal processing, sensor fusion, and target recognition; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 20-22, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Vibeke; Kadar, Ivan

    Consideration is given to a multiordered mapping technique for target prioritization, a neural network approach to multiple-target-tracking problems, a multisensor fusion algorithm for multitarget multibackground classification, deconvolutiom of multiple images of the same object, neural networks and genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization of sensor data fusion, classification of atmospheric acoustic signals from fixed-wing aircraft, and an optics approach to sensor fusion for target recognition. Also treated are a zoom lens for automatic target recognition, a hybrid model for the analysis of radar sensors, an innovative test bed for developing and assessing air-to-air noncooperative target identification algorithms, SAR imagery scene segmentation using fractal processing, sonar feature-based bandwidth compression, laboratory experiments for a new sonar system, computational algorithms for discrete transform using fixed-size filter matrices, and pattern recognition for power systems.

  4. Effects of aging and divided attention on recognition memory processes for single and associative information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hikari

    2011-04-01

    In the divided attention paradigm to test age-related associative memory deficits, whether the effects of divided attention occur at encoding or retrieval has not been clarified, and the effect on retention has not been studied. This study explored whether and how much divided attention at either encoding, retention, or retrieval diminished accuracy in recognizing a single feature (object or location) and associated features (object+location) by 23 elderly people (13 women; M age = 70.6 yr., SD = 2.8) recruited from a neighborhood community circle, and 29 female college students (M age = 20.8 yr., SD = 1.1). The results showed a significant decline in memory performance for both age groups due to divided attention in location and associative memory at retention, suggesting that the retention process demands attentional resources. Overall, regardless of their relative deficiency in associative memory, older adults showed an effect of divided attention comparable to that of younger adults in a recognition task.

  5. Preventing Wine Counterfeiting by Individual Cork Stopper Recognition Using Image Processing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Costa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wine counterfeiting is a major problem worldwide. Within this context, an approach to the problem of discerning original wine bottles from forged ones is the use of natural features present in the product, object and/or material (using it “as is”. The proposed application uses the cork stopper as a unique fingerprint, combined with state of the art image processing techniques to achieve individual object recognition and smartphones as the authentication equipment. The anti-counterfeiting scheme is divided into two phases: an enrollment phase, where every bottle is registered in a database using a photo of its cork stopper inside the bottle; and a verification phase, where an end-user/retailer captures a photo of the cork stopper using a regular smartphone, compares the photo with the previously-stored one and retrieves it if the wine bottle was previously registered. To evaluate the performance of the proposed application, two datasets of natural/agglomerate cork stoppers were built, totaling 1000 photos. The worst case results show a 100% precision ratio, an accuracy of 99.94% and a recall of 94.00%, using different smartphones. The perfect score in precision is a promising result, proving that this system can be applied to the prevention of wine counterfeiting and consumer/retailer security when purchasing a wine bottle.

  6. Framework for Processing Citizens Science Data for Applications to NASA Earth Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, William; Albayrak, Arif

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science (or crowdsourcing) has drawn much high-level recent and ongoing interest and support. It is poised to be applied, beyond the by-now fairly familiar use of, e.g., Twitter for natural hazards monitoring, to science research, such as augmenting the validation of NASA earth science mission data. This interest and support is seen in the 2014 National Plan for Civil Earth Observations, the 2015 White House forum on citizen science and crowdsourcing, the ongoing Senate Bill 2013 (Crowdsourcing and Citizen Science Act of 2015), the recent (August 2016) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) call for public participation in its newly-established Citizen Science Domain Working Group, and NASA's initiation of a new Citizen Science for Earth Systems Program (along with its first citizen science-focused solicitation for proposals). Over the past several years, we have been exploring the feasibility of extracting from the Twitter data stream useful information for application to NASA precipitation research, with both "passive" and "active" participation by the twitterers. The Twitter database, which recently passed its tenth anniversary, is potentially a rich source of real-time and historical global information for science applications. The time-varying set of "precipitation" tweets can be thought of as an organic network of rain gauges, potentially providing a widespread view of precipitation occurrence. The validation of satellite precipitation estimates is challenging, because many regions lack data or access to data, especially outside of the U.S. and in remote and developing areas. Mining the Twitter stream could augment these validation programs and, potentially, help tune existing algorithms. Our ongoing work, though exploratory, has resulted in key components for processing and managing tweets, including the capabilities to filter the Twitter stream in real time, to extract location information, to filter for exact phrases, and to plot tweet distributions. The

  7. The impact of beliefs about face recognition ability on memory retrieval processes in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Joyce E; Flowe, Heather D; Hall, Louise C; Williams, Louise C; Ryder, Hannah L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether beliefs about face recognition ability differentially influence memory retrieval in older compared to young adults. Participants evaluated their ability to recognise faces and were also given information about their ability to perceive and recognise faces. The information was ostensibly based on an objective measure of their ability, but in actuality, participants had been randomly assigned the information they received (high ability, low ability or no information control). Following this information, face recognition accuracy for a set of previously studied faces was measured using a remember-know memory paradigm. Older adults rated their ability to recognise faces as poorer compared to young adults. Additionally, negative information about face recognition ability improved only older adults' ability to recognise a previously seen face. Older adults were also found to engage in more familiarity than item-specific processing than young adults, but information about their face recognition ability did not affect face processing style. The role that older adults' memory beliefs have in the meta-cognitive strategies they employ is discussed.

  8. Memory in pregnancy and post-partum: Item specific and relational encoding processes in recall and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, Pietro; Saraulli, Daniele; Oriolo, Debora; Costanzi, Marco; Zanetti, Humberto; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia

    2016-08-01

    It has been recently proposed that pregnant women would perform memory tasks by focusing more on item-specific processes and less on relational processing, compared to post-partum women (Mickes, Wixted, Shapiro & Scarff, ). The present cross-sectional study tested this hypothesis by directly manipulating the type of encoding employed in the study phase. Pregnant, post-partum and control women either rated the pleasantness of word meaning (which induced item-specific elaboration) or named the semantic category to which they belonged (which induced relational elaboration). Memory for the encoded words was later tested in free recall (which emphasizes relational processing) and in recognition (which emphasizes item-specific processing). In line with Mickes et al.'s () conclusions, pregnant women in the item-specific condition performed worse than post-partum women in the relational condition in free recall, but not in recognition. However, compared to the other two groups, pregnant women also exhibited lower recognition accuracy in the item-specific condition. Overall, these results confirm that pregnant women rely on relational encoding less than post-partum women, but additionally suggest that the former group might use item-specific processes less efficiently than post-partum and control women. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Model-Based Systems Engineering for Capturing Mission Architecture System Processes with an Application Case Study - Orion Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanne, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging methodology that can be leveraged to enhance many system development processes. MBSE allows for the centralization of an architecture description that would otherwise be stored in various locations and formats, thus simplifying communication among the project stakeholders, inducing commonality in representation, and expediting report generation. This paper outlines the MBSE approach taken to capture the processes of two different, but related, architectures by employing the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a standard for architecture description and the modeling tool MagicDraw. The overarching goal of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of MBSE as a means of capturing and designing a mission systems architecture. The first portion of the project focused on capturing the necessary system engineering activities that occur when designing, developing, and deploying a mission systems architecture for a space mission. The second part applies activities from the first to an application problem - the system engineering of the Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1) End-to-End Information System (EEIS). By modeling the activities required to create a space mission architecture and then implementing those activities in an application problem, the utility of MBSE as an approach to systems engineering can be demonstrated.

  10. Report of the peer review mission of national operational safety experience feedback process to the Ukraine 11-15 November 1996 Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    At the invitation of the Nuclear Regulatory Administration of Ukraine (NRA), the IAEA carried out a Peer review mission of national operational safety experience feedback process at Kiev from 11 to 15 November 1996. The objective of this mission was to provide the host country, represented by the regulatory body, with independent and comprehensive review of current status of operational safety experience feedback (OSEF) process with respect to the IAEA's recommendations and international practices. The mission concluded that principal arrangements of operational feedback process in Ukraine are, at present, in force and brought positive results since their introduction. The mission also noted several good practices in these activities. 1 tab

  11. Solar coronal non-thermal processes (Solar Maximum Mission). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, H.S.

    1983-02-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission was used to study solar coronal phenomena in hard X-radiation, since its instrument complement included the first solar hard X-ray telescope. Phenomena related to those discovered from OSO-5 and OSO-7 observations were emphasized

  12. Depth Value Pre-Processing for Accurate Transfer Learning Based RGB-D Object Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakerberg, Andreas; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Rasmussen, Christoffer Bøgelund

    2017-01-01

    of an existing deeplearning based RGB-D object recognition model, namely the FusionNet proposed by Eitel et al. First, we showthat encoding the depth values as colorized surface normals is beneficial, when the model is initialized withweights learned from training on ImageNet data. Additionally, we show...

  13. Shared Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model for Multi-view Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    Facial-expression data often appear in multiple views either due to head-movements or the camera position. Existing methods for multi-view facial expression recognition perform classification of the target expressions either by using classifiers learned separately for each view or by using a single

  14. Face Recognition in 4- to 7-Year-Olds: Processing of Configural, Featural, and Paraphernalia Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Alejo; Lee, Kang

    2001-01-01

    Tested in two studies 4- to 7-year-olds' face recognition by manipulating the faces' configural and featural information. Found that even with only a single 5-second exposure, most children could use configural and featural cues to make identity judgments. Repeated exposure and feedback improved others' performance. Even proficient memories were…

  15. Different neural processes accompany self-recognition in photographs across the lifespan: an ERP study using dizygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David L; Mattingley, Jason B; Cunnington, Ross; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Our appearance changes over time, yet we can recognize ourselves in photographs from across the lifespan. Researchers have extensively studied self-recognition in photographs and have proposed that specific neural correlates are involved, but few studies have examined self-recognition using images from different periods of life. Here we compared ERP responses to photographs of participants when they were 5-15, 16-25, and 26-45 years old. We found marked differences between the responses to photographs from these time periods in terms of the neural markers generally assumed to reflect (i) the configural processing of faces (i.e., the N170), (ii) the matching of the currently perceived face to a representation already stored in memory (i.e., the P250), and (iii) the retrieval of information about the person being recognized (i.e., the N400). There was no uniform neural signature of visual self-recognition. To test whether there was anything specific to self-recognition in these brain responses, we also asked participants to identify photographs of their dizygotic twins taken from the same time periods. Critically, this allowed us to minimize the confounding effects of exposure, for it is likely that participants have been similarly exposed to each other's faces over the lifespan. The same pattern of neural response emerged with only one exception: the neural marker reflecting the retrieval of mnemonic information (N400) differed across the lifespan for self but not for twin. These results, as well as our novel approach using twins and photographs from across the lifespan, have wide-ranging consequences for the study of self-recognition and the nature of our personal identity through time.

  16. Different neural processes accompany self-recognition in photographs across the lifespan: an ERP study using dizygotic twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Butler

    Full Text Available Our appearance changes over time, yet we can recognize ourselves in photographs from across the lifespan. Researchers have extensively studied self-recognition in photographs and have proposed that specific neural correlates are involved, but few studies have examined self-recognition using images from different periods of life. Here we compared ERP responses to photographs of participants when they were 5-15, 16-25, and 26-45 years old. We found marked differences between the responses to photographs from these time periods in terms of the neural markers generally assumed to reflect (i the configural processing of faces (i.e., the N170, (ii the matching of the currently perceived face to a representation already stored in memory (i.e., the P250, and (iii the retrieval of information about the person being recognized (i.e., the N400. There was no uniform neural signature of visual self-recognition. To test whether there was anything specific to self-recognition in these brain responses, we also asked participants to identify photographs of their dizygotic twins taken from the same time periods. Critically, this allowed us to minimize the confounding effects of exposure, for it is likely that participants have been similarly exposed to each other's faces over the lifespan. The same pattern of neural response emerged with only one exception: the neural marker reflecting the retrieval of mnemonic information (N400 differed across the lifespan for self but not for twin. These results, as well as our novel approach using twins and photographs from across the lifespan, have wide-ranging consequences for the study of self-recognition and the nature of our personal identity through time.

  17. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  18. Recognition Memory zROC Slopes for Items with Correct versus Incorrect Source Decisions Discriminate the Dual Process and Unequal Variance Signal Detection Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Hautus, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the dual process and unequal variance signal detection models by jointly modeling recognition and source confidence ratings. The 2 approaches make unique predictions for the slope of the recognition memory zROC function for items with correct versus incorrect source decisions. The standard bivariate Gaussian version of the unequal…

  19. Processing of recognition information and additional cues: A model-based analysis of choice, confidence, and response time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glockner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the processing of recognition information has focused on testing the recognition heuristic (RH. On the aggregate, the noncompensatory use of recognition information postulated by the RH was rejected in several studies, while RH could still account for a considerable proportion of choices. These results can be explained if either a a part of the subjects used RH or b nobody used it but its choice predictions were accidentally in line with predictions of the strategy used. In the current study, which exemplifies a new approach to model testing, we determined individuals' decision strategies based on a maximum-likelihood classification method, taking into account choices, response times and confidence ratings simultaneously. Unlike most previous studies of the RH, our study tested the RH under conditions in which we provided information about cue values of unrecognized objects (which we argue is fairly common and thus of some interest. For 77.5% of the subjects, overall behavior was best explained by a compensatory parallel constraint satisfaction (PCS strategy. The proportion of subjects using an enhanced RH heuristic (RHe was negligible (up to 7.5%; 15% of the subjects seemed to use a take the best strategy (TTB. A more-fine grained analysis of the supplemental behavioral parameters conditional on strategy use supports PCS but calls into question process assumptions for apparent users of RH, RHe, and TTB within our experimental context. Our results are consistent with previous literature highlighting the importance of individual strategy classification as compared to aggregated analyses.

  20. Autonomic nervous system dynamics for mood and emotional-state recognition significant advances in data acquisition, signal processing and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This monograph reports on advances in the measurement and study of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dynamics as a source of reliable and effective markers for mood state recognition and assessment of emotional responses. Its primary impact will be in affective computing and the application of emotion-recognition systems. Applicative studies of biosignals such as: electrocardiograms; electrodermal responses; respiration activity; gaze points; and pupil-size variation are covered in detail, and experimental results explain how to characterize the elicited affective levels and mood states pragmatically and accurately using the information thus extracted from the ANS. Nonlinear signal processing techniques play a crucial role in understanding the ANS physiology underlying superficially noticeable changes and provide important quantifiers of cardiovascular control dynamics. These have prognostic value in both healthy subjects and patients with mood disorders. Moreover, Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics for Mood and ...

  1. The MESSENGER mission to Mercury: new insights into geological processes and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James W., III; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Blewett, David T.; Chapman, Clark R.; Domingue, Deborah L.; Evans, Larry G.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Hawkins, S. Edward, III; Helbert, Jörn; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; Izenberg, Noam R.; McClintock, William E.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Merline, William J.; Murchie, Scott L.; Nittler, Larrz R.; Phillips, Roger J.; Prockter, Louise M.; Robinson, Mark S.; Sprague, Ann L.; Strom, Robert G.; Vilas, Faith; Watters, Thomas R.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2008-09-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, a part of NASA's Discovery Program, was designed to answer six questions [1]: (1) What planetary formational processes led to Mercury's high ratio of metal to silicate? (2) What is the geological history of Mercury? (3) What are the nature and origin of Mercury's magnetic field? (4) What are the structure and state of Mercury's core? (5) What are the radar-reflective materials at Mercury's poles? (6) What are the important volatile species and their sources and sinks near Mercury? MESSENGER is currently midway through a complex interplanetary cruise phase that involves three flybys of Mercury. The first of these, on 14 January 2008, provided important new information relating to several of the questions above [2-13]. Here we summarize observations made during the flyby that are most relevant to new insights about geological processes that have operated on Mercury and implications for the planet's history [3, 8-13]. The instruments that provided the most direct information on the geological history of Mercury during this first encounter were the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) [14], the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) [15], and the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) [16]. Among the many specific questions remaining following the Mariner 10 mission to Mercury (1974- 1975) were (1) the level of mineralogical and compositional diversity of the crust, which appeared relatively bland in Mariner 10 data, (2) the nature of the rest of the huge Caloris impact basin seen only partially in Mariner 10 images, (3) the origin of the extensive plains observed on the surface (ponded impact ejecta or extrusive lava flows?), (4) the diversity and global distribution of tectonic features that have deformed the crust and their implications for strain as a function of time, and (5) the bombardment chronology and geological history of Mercury [1, 17-19]. The viewing

  2. Get the gist? The effects of processing depth on false recognition in short-term and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, Kristin E; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2014-07-01

    Gist-based processing has been proposed to account for robust false memories in the converging-associates task. The deep-encoding processes known to enhance verbatim memory also strengthen gist memory and increase distortions of long-term memory (LTM). Recent research has demonstrated that compelling false memory illusions are relatively delay-invariant, also occurring under canonical short-term memory (STM) conditions. To investigate the contributions of gist to false memory at short and long delays, processing depth was manipulated as participants encoded lists of four semantically related words and were probed immediately, following a filled 3- to 4-s retention interval, or approximately 20 min later, in a surprise recognition test. In two experiments, the encoding manipulation dissociated STM and LTM on the frequency, but not the phenomenology, of false memory. Deep encoding at STM increases false recognition rates at LTM, but confidence ratings and remember/know judgments are similar across delays and do not differ as a function of processing depth. These results suggest that some shared and some unique processes underlie false memory illusions at short and long delays.

  3. A self-teaching image processing and voice-recognition-based, intelligent and interactive system to educate visually impaired children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asim; Farooq, Umar; Mahmood, Hassan; Asad, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Akrama; Atiq, Hafiz Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    A self teaching image processing and voice recognition based system is developed to educate visually impaired children, chiefly in their primary education. System comprises of a computer, a vision camera, an ear speaker and a microphone. Camera, attached with the computer system is mounted on the ceiling opposite (on the required angle) to the desk on which the book is placed. Sample images and voices in the form of instructions and commands of English, Urdu alphabets, Numeric Digits, Operators and Shapes are already stored in the database. A blind child first reads the embossed character (object) with the help of fingers than he speaks the answer, name of the character, shape etc into the microphone. With the voice command of a blind child received by the microphone, image is taken by the camera which is processed by MATLAB® program developed with the help of Image Acquisition and Image processing toolbox and generates a response or required set of instructions to child via ear speaker, resulting in self education of a visually impaired child. Speech recognition program is also developed in MATLAB® with the help of Data Acquisition and Signal Processing toolbox which records and process the command of the blind child.

  4. Cognitive diffusion model with user-oriented context-to-text recognition for learning to promote high level cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yuin Hwang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of studies on how to promote students’ cognitive processes and learning achievements through various learning activities supported by advanced learning technologies. However, not many of them focus on applying the knowledge that students learn in school to solve authentic daily life problems. This study aims to propose a cognitive diffusion model called User-oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL to facilitate and improve students’ learning and cognitive processes from lower levels (i.e., Remember and Understand to higher levels (i.e., Apply and above through an innovative approach, called User-Oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL. With U-CTRL, students participate in learning activities in which they capture the learning context that can be scanned and recognized by a computer application as text. Furthermore, this study proposes the use of an innovative model, called Cognitive Diffusion Model, to investigate the diffusion and transition of students’ cognitive processes in different learning stages including pre-schooling, after-schooling, crossing the chasm, and higher cognitive processing. Finally, two cases are presented to demonstrate how the U-CTRL approach can be used to facilitate student cognition in their learning of English and Natural science.

  5. Functional inactivation of dorsal medial striatum alters behavioral flexibility and recognition process in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yanhua; Wang, Xingyue; Ma, Lian; Li, Shengguang; Liang, Jing

    2017-10-01

    Deficits in behavioral flexibility and recognition memory are commonly observed in mental illnesses and neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormality of the striatum has been implicated in an association with the pathology of these diseases. However, the exact roles of striatal heterogeneous structures in these cognitive functions are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of suppressing neuronal activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMStr) and nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) on reversal learning and novelty recognition in mice. In addition, the locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior and social interaction were analyzed. Neuronal inactivation was performed by expressing lentivirus-mediated tetanus toxin (TeNT) in the target regions. The results showed that reversal learning was facilitated by neuronal inactivation in the DMStr but not the NAcC, which was attributable to accelerated extinction of acquired strategy but not to impaired memory retention. Furthermore, mice with NAcC inactivation spent more time exploring a novel object than a familiar one, comparable to control mice. In contrast, mice with DMStr inactivation exhibited no preference to a novel environment during the novel object or place recognition test. The DMStr mice also exhibited decreased anxiety level. No phenotypic effect was observed in the locomotion or social interaction in mice with either DMStr or NAcC inactivation. Altogether, these findings suggest that the DMStr but not the ventral area of the striatum plays a crucial role in learning and memory by coordinating spatial exploration as well as mediating information updating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [State Recognition of Solid Fermentation Process Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy with Adaboost and Spectral Regression Discriminant Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Liu, Guo-hai; Xia, Rong-sheng; Jiang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the rapid monitoring of process state of solid state fermentation (SSF), this study attempted to qualitative identification of process state of SSF of feed protein by use of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy analysis technique. Even more specifically, the FT-NIR spectroscopy combined with Adaboost-SRDA-NN integrated learning algorithm as an ideal analysis tool was used to accurately and rapidly monitor chemical and physical changes in SSF of feed protein without the need for chemical analysis. Firstly, the raw spectra of all the 140 fermentation samples obtained were collected by use of Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer (Antaris II), and the raw spectra obtained were preprocessed by use of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) spectral preprocessing algorithm. Thereafter, the characteristic information of the preprocessed spectra was extracted by use of spectral regression discriminant analysis (SRDA). Finally, nearest neighbors (NN) algorithm as a basic classifier was selected and building state recognition model to identify different fermentation samples in the validation set. Experimental results showed as follows: the SRDA-NN model revealed its superior performance by compared with other two different NN models, which were developed by use of the feature information form principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and the correct recognition rate of SRDA-NN model achieved 94.28% in the validation set. In this work, in order to further improve the recognition accuracy of the final model, Adaboost-SRDA-NN ensemble learning algorithm was proposed by integrated the Adaboost and SRDA-NN methods, and the presented algorithm was used to construct the online monitoring model of process state of SSF of feed protein. Experimental results showed as follows: the prediction performance of SRDA-NN model has been further enhanced by use of Adaboost lifting algorithm, and the correct

  7. Socializing processes in relation to the recognition of unskilled adults’ prior learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Vibe

    for the workplace-based training. However the study can contribute to the discussion of the value of practical experiences: are practical experiences creditable in educational programs? The study shows that the recognition and assessment of prior learning requires that the students can verbalize and preferably also......The ordinary Danish VET programs are organized as dual programs in which the students alternate between school-based education and training and workplace-based training. The adult students in the course “From unskilled worker to skilled worker in record time” are automatically credited...

  8. Intelligent Mission Controller Node

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, David

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...

  9. Scientific data products and the data pre-processing subsystem of the Chang'e-3 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Xu; Liu Jian-Jun; Li Chun-Lai; Feng Jian-Qing; Ren Xin; Wang Fen-Fei; Yan Wei; Zuo Wei; Wang Xiao-Qian; Zhang Zhou-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission is China's first exploration mission on the surface of the Moon that uses a lander and a rover. Eight instruments that form the scientific payloads have the following objectives: (1) investigate the morphological features and geological structures at the landing site; (2) integrated in-situ analysis of minerals and chemical compositions; (3) integrated exploration of the structure of the lunar interior; (4) exploration of the lunar-terrestrial space environment, lunar surface environment and acquire Moon-based ultraviolet astronomical observations. The Ground Research and Application System (GRAS) is in charge of data acquisition and pre-processing, management of the payload in orbit, and managing the data products and their applications. The Data Pre-processing Subsystem (DPS) is a part of GRAS. The task of DPS is the pre-processing of raw data from the eight instruments that are part of CE-3, including channel processing, unpacking, package sorting, calibration and correction, identification of geographical location, calculation of probe azimuth angle, probe zenith angle, solar azimuth angle, and solar zenith angle and so on, and conducting quality checks. These processes produce Level 0, Level 1 and Level 2 data. The computing platform of this subsystem is comprised of a high-performance computing cluster, including a real-time subsystem used for processing Level 0 data and a post-time subsystem for generating Level 1 and Level 2 data. This paper describes the CE-3 data pre-processing method, the data pre-processing subsystem, data classification, data validity and data products that are used for scientific studies

  10. Electrophysiological correlates of word recognition memory process in patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Fabio; Simoni, David; Gavazzi, Gioele; Giganti, Fiorenza; Olivotto, Iacopo; Cincotta, Massimo; Pratesi, Alessandra; Baldasseroni, Samuele; Viggiano, Maria Pia

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and cognitive performance in patients with coronary artery disease without overt heart failure is still under debate. In this study we combine behavioral measures and event-related potentials (ERPs) to verify whether electrophysiological correlates of recognition memory (old/new effect) are modulated differently as a function of LVEF. Twenty-three male patients (12 without [LVEF>55%] and 11 with [LVEF25 were enrolled. ERPs were recorded while participants performed an old/new visual word recognition task. A late positive ERP component between 350 and 550ms was differentially modulated in the two groups: a clear old/new effect (enhanced mean amplitude for old respect to new items) was observed in patients without LVEF dysfunction; whereas patients with overt LVEF dysfunction did not show such effect. In contrast, no significant differences emerged for behavioral performance and neuropsychological evaluations. These data suggest that ERPs may reveal functional brain abnormalities that are not observed at behavioral level. Detecting sub-clinical measures of cognitive decline may contribute to set appropriate treatments and to monitor asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients with LVEF dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary Assessment on a Mobile Phone Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Techniques: Algorithm Design and System Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Probst

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary assessment, while traditionally based on pen-and-paper, is rapidly moving towards automatic approaches. This study describes an Australian automatic food record method and its prototype for dietary assessment via the use of a mobile phone and techniques of image processing and pattern recognition. Common visual features including scale invariant feature transformation (SIFT, local binary patterns (LBP, and colour are used for describing food images. The popular bag-of-words (BoW model is employed for recognizing the images taken by a mobile phone for dietary assessment. Technical details are provided together with discussions on the issues and future work.

  12. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  13. Performance Comparison of Several Pre-Processing Methods in a Hand Gesture Recognition System based on Nearest Neighbor for Different Background Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Setyawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis and comparison of several pre-processing methods used in a hand gesture recognition system. The pre-processing methods are based on the combinations of several image processing operations, namely edge detection, low pass filtering, histogram equalization, thresholding and desaturation. The hand gesture recognition system is designed to classify an input image into one of six possible classes. The input images are taken with various background conditions. Our experiments showed that the best result is achieved when the pre-processing method consists of only a desaturation operation, achieving a classification accuracy of up to 83.15%.

  14. Business Process Re-Engineering: Application for Littoral Combat Ship Mission Module Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnum, Jr, Usher L

    2006-01-01

    ...) business process to function more efficiently. The Defense Acquisition system is designed to support the National Security Strategy by managing the technologies and programs that produce weapons system for the United States Armed Forces...

  15. Multiresolution, Geometric, and Learning Methods in Statistical Image Processing, Object Recognition, and Sensor Fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willsky, Alan

    2004-01-01

    .... Our research blends methods from several fields-statistics and probability, signal and image processing, mathematical physics, scientific computing, statistical learning theory, and differential...

  16. Examining speed of processing of facial emotion recognition in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Louise Birkedal; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Bak, Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Emotion recognition is an aspect of social cognition that may be a key predictor of functioning and transition to psychosis in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis ( Allott et al., 2014 ). UHR individuals exhibit deficits in accurately identifying facial emotions ( van Donkersgoed et...... al., 2015 ), but other potential anomalies in facial emotion recognition are largely unexplored. This study aimed to extend current knowledge on emotion recognition deficits in UHR individuals by examining: 1) whether UHR would display significantly slower facial emotion recognition than healthy...... controls, 2) whether an association between emotion recognition accuracy and emotion recognition latency is present in UHR, 3) the relationships between emotion recognition accuracy, neurocognition and psychopathology in UHR....

  17. Pattern recognition and expert image analysis systems in biomedical image processing (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterlinck, A.; Suetens, P.; Wu, Q.; Baird, M.; F. M., C.

    1987-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of pattern recoanition techniques (P.R.) used in biomedical image processing and problems related to the different P.R. solutions. Also the use of knowledge based systems to overcome P.R. difficulties, is described. This is illustrated by a common example ofabiomedical image processing application.

  18. Bilingual recognition memory: stronger performance but weaker levels-of-processing effects in the less fluent language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Gutiérrez, Marisela

    2012-04-01

    The effects of bilingual proficiency on recognition memory were examined in an experiment with Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants learned lists of words in English and Spanish under shallow- and deep-encoding conditions. Overall, hit rates were higher, discrimination greater, and response times shorter in the nondominant language, consistent with effects previously observed for lower frequency words. Levels-of-processing effects in hit rates, discrimination, and response time were stronger in the dominant language. Specifically, with shallow encoding, the advantage for the nondominant language was larger than with deep encoding. The results support the idea that memory performance in the nondominant language is impacted by both the greater demand for cognitive resources and the lower familiarity of the words.

  19. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition and Operator Functional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanson, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of human error in safety-critical occupations remains a major challenge to mission success despite increasing automation in control processes. Although various methods have been proposed to prevent incidences of human error, none of these have been developed to employ the detection and regulation of Operator Functional State (OFS), or the optimal condition of the operator while performing a task, in work environments due to drawbacks such as obtrusiveness and impracticality. A video-based system with the ability to infer an individual's emotional state from facial feature patterning mitigates some of the problems associated with other methods of detecting OFS, like obtrusiveness and impracticality in integration with the mission environment. This paper explores the utility of facial expression recognition as a technology for inferring OFS by first expounding on the intricacies of OFS and the scientific background behind emotion and its relationship with an individual's state. Then, descriptions of the feedback loop and the emotion protocols proposed for the facial recognition program are explained. A basic version of the facial expression recognition program uses Haar classifiers and OpenCV libraries to automatically locate key facial landmarks during a live video stream. Various methods of creating facial expression recognition software are reviewed to guide future extensions of the program. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary in the research of emotion and recommendations for the creation of an automatic facial expression recognition program for use in real-time, safety-critical missions

  20. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition and Operator Functional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanson, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of human error in safety-critical occupations remains a major challenge to mission success despite increasing automation in control processes. Although various methods have been proposed to prevent incidences of human error, none of these have been developed to employ the detection and regulation of Operator Functional State (OFS), or the optimal condition of the operator while performing a task, in work environments due to drawbacks such as obtrusiveness and impracticality. A video-based system with the ability to infer an individual's emotional state from facial feature patterning mitigates some of the problems associated with other methods of detecting OFS, like obtrusiveness and impracticality in integration with the mission environment. This paper explores the utility of facial expression recognition as a technology for inferring OFS by first expounding on the intricacies of OFS and the scientific background behind emotion and its relationship with an individual's state. Then, descriptions of the feedback loop and the emotion protocols proposed for the facial recognition program are explained. A basic version of the facial expression recognition program uses Haar classifiers and OpenCV libraries to automatically locate key facial landmarks during a live video stream. Various methods of creating facial expression recognition software are reviewed to guide future extensions of the program. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary in the research of emotion and recommendations for the creation of an automatic facial expression recognition program for use in real-time, safety-critical missions.

  1. Defect recognition in CFRP components using various NDT methods within a smart manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, David; Meyendorf, Norbert; Hakim, Issa; Ewert, Uwe

    2018-04-01

    The manufacturing process of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) components is gaining a more and more significant role when looking at the increasing amount of CFRPs used in industries today. The monitoring of the manufacturing process and hence the reliability of the manufactured products, is one of the major challenges we need to face in the near future. Common defects which arise during manufacturing process are e.g. porosity and voids which may lead to delaminations during operation and under load. To find irregularities and classify them as possible defects in an early stage of the manufacturing process is of high importance for the safety and reliability of the finished products, as well as of significant impact from an economical point of view. In this study we compare various NDT methods which were applied to similar CFRP laminate samples in order to detect and characterize regions of defective volume. Besides ultrasound, thermography and eddy current, different X-ray methods like radiography, laminography and computed tomography are used to investigate the samples. These methods are compared with the intention to evaluate their capability to reliably detect and characterize defective volume. Beyond the detection and evaluation of defects, we also investigate possibilities to combine various NDT methods within a smart manufacturing process in which the decision which method shall be applied is inherent within the process. Is it possible to design an in-line or at-line testing process which can recognize defects reliably and reduce testing time and costs? This study aims to show up opportunities of designing a smart NDT process synchronized to the production based on the concepts of smart production (Industry 4.0). A set of defective CFRP laminate samples and different NDT methods were used to demonstrate how effective defects are recognized and how communication between interconnected NDT sensors and the manufacturing process could be organized.

  2. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Advancement of the MSPI On-Board Processing Platform for the ACE Decadal Survey Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.; Wilson, Thor O.

    2011-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex-5QV is a new Single-event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF) device that is targeted as the spaceborne processor for the NASA Decadal Survey Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission's Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) instrument, currently under development at JPL. A key technology needed for MSPI is on-board processing (OBP) to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's ESTO1 AIST2 Program, JPL is demonstrating how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16 channels for each of the 9 multi-angle cameras can be reduced to 0.45 Mbytes/sec, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information. This is done via a least-squares fitting algorithm implemented on the Virtex-5 FPGA operating in real-time on the raw video data stream.

  3. The low-order wavefront control system for the PICTURE-C mission: high-speed image acquisition and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewawasam, Kuravi; Mendillo, Christopher B.; Howe, Glenn A.; Martel, Jason; Finn, Susanna C.; Cook, Timothy A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Recoverable Experiment - Coronagraph (PICTURE-C) mission will directly image debris disks and exozodiacal dust around nearby stars from a high-altitude balloon using a vector vortex coronagraph. The PICTURE-C low-order wavefront control (LOWC) system will be used to correct time-varying low-order aberrations due to pointing jitter, gravity sag, thermal deformation, and the gondola pendulum motion. We present the hardware and software implementation of the low-order ShackHartmann and reflective Lyot stop sensors. Development of the high-speed image acquisition and processing system is discussed with the emphasis on the reduction of hardware and computational latencies through the use of a real-time operating system and optimized data handling. By characterizing all of the LOWC latencies, we describe techniques to achieve a framerate of 200 Hz with a mean latency of ˜378 μs

  4. NMR and photo-CIDNP studies of human proinsulin and prohormone processing intermediates with application to endopeptidase recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.A.; Frank, B.H.; Heiney, R.; Pekar, A.; Khait, I.; Neuringer, L.J.; Shoelson, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    The proinsulin-insulin system provides a general model for the proteolytic processing of polypeptide hormones. Two proinsulin-specific endopeptidases have been defined, a type I activity that cleaves the B-chain/C-peptide junction (Arg 31 -Arg 32 ) and a type II activity that cleaves the C-peptide/A-chain junction (Lys 64 -Arg 65 ). These endopeptidases are specific for their respective dibasic target sites; not all such dibasic sites are cleaved, however, and studies of mutant proinsulins have demonstrated that additional sequence or structural features are involved in determining substrate specificity. To define structural elements required for endopeptidase recognition, the authors have undertaken comparative 1 H NMR and photochemical dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) studies of human proinsulin, insulin, and split proinsulin analogues as models or prohormone processing intermediates. The overall conformation of proinsulin is observed to be similar to that of insulin, and the connecting peptide is largely unstructured. In the 1 H NMR spectrum of proinsulin significant variation is observed in the line widths of insulin-specific amide resonances, reflecting exchange among conformational substrates; similar exchange is observed in insulin and is not damped by the connecting peptide. The aromatic 1 H NMR resonances of proinsulin are assigned by analogy to the spectrum of insulin, and assignments are verified by chemical modification. These results suggest that a stable local structure is formed at the CA junction, which influences insulin-specific packing interactions. They propose that this structure (designated the CA knuckle) provides a recognition element for type II proinsulin endopeptidase

  5. Image processing and pattern recognition with CVIPtools MATLAB toolbox: automatic creation of masks for veterinary thermographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Deependra K.; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Lama, Norsang; Dahal, Rohini; Marino, Dominic J.; Sackman, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    CVIPtools is a software package for the exploration of computer vision and image processing developed in the Computer Vision and Image Processing Laboratory at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. CVIPtools is available in three variants - a) CVIPtools Graphical User Interface, b) CVIPtools C library and c) CVIPtools MATLAB toolbox, which makes it accessible to a variety of different users. It offers students, faculty, researchers and any user a free and easy way to explore computer vision and image processing techniques. Many functions have been implemented and are updated on a regular basis, the library has reached a level of sophistication that makes it suitable for both educational and research purposes. In this paper, the detail list of the functions available in the CVIPtools MATLAB toolbox are presented and how these functions can be used in image analysis and computer vision applications. The CVIPtools MATLAB toolbox allows the user to gain practical experience to better understand underlying theoretical problems in image processing and pattern recognition. As an example application, the algorithm for the automatic creation of masks for veterinary thermographic images is presented.

  6. Process evaluation of community monitoring under national health mission at Chandigarh, union territory: Methodology and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community monitoring was introduced on a pilot mode in 36 selected districts of India in a phased manner. In Chandigarh, it was introduced in the year 2009-2010. A preliminary evaluation of the program was undertaken with special emphasis on the inputs and the processes. Methodology: Quantitative methods included verification against checklists and record reviews. Nonparticipant observation was used to evaluate the conduct of trainings, interviews, and group discussions. Health system had trained health system functionaries (nursing students and Village Health Sanitation Committee [VHSC] members to generate village-based scorecards for assessing community needs. Community needs were assessed independently for two villages under the study area to validate the scores generated by the health system. Results: VHSCs were formed in all 22 villages but without a chairperson or convener. The involvement of VHSC members in the community monitoring process was minimal. The conduct of group discussions was below par due to poor moderation and unequal responses from the group. The community monitoring committees at the state level had limited representation from the non-health sector, lower committees, and the nongovernmental organizations/civil societies. Agreement between the report cards generated by the investigator and the health system in the selected villages was found to be to be fair (0.369 whereas weighted kappa (0.504 was moderate. Conclusion: In spite of all these limitations and challenges, the government has taken a valiant step by trying to involve the community in the monitoring of health services. The dynamic nature of the community warrants incorporation of an evaluation framework into the planning of such programs.

  7. Word Recognition Processing Efficiency as a Component of Second Language Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the application of the speeded lexical decision task to L2 aural processing efficiency. One-hundred and twenty Japanese university students completed an aural word/nonword task. When the variation of lexical decision time (CV) was correlated with reaction time (RT), the results suggested that the single-word recognition…

  8. Sentence Recognition Prediction for Hearing-impaired Listeners in Stationary and Fluctuation Noise With FADE: Empowering the Attenuation and Distortion Concept by Plomp With a Quantitative Processing Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Birger; Schädler, Marc René; Warzybok, Anna; Meyer, Bernd T; Brand, Thomas

    2016-09-07

    To characterize the individual patient's hearing impairment as obtained with the matrix sentence recognition test, a simulation Framework for Auditory Discrimination Experiments (FADE) is extended here using the Attenuation and Distortion (A+D) approach by Plomp as a blueprint for setting the individual processing parameters. FADE has been shown to predict the outcome of both speech recognition tests and psychoacoustic experiments based on simulations using an automatic speech recognition system requiring only few assumptions. It builds on the closed-set matrix sentence recognition test which is advantageous for testing individual speech recognition in a way comparable across languages. Individual predictions of speech recognition thresholds in stationary and in fluctuating noise were derived using the audiogram and an estimate of the internal level uncertainty for modeling the individual Plomp curves fitted to the data with the Attenuation (A-) and Distortion (D-) parameters of the Plomp approach. The "typical" audiogram shapes from Bisgaard et al with or without a "typical" level uncertainty and the individual data were used for individual predictions. As a result, the individualization of the level uncertainty was found to be more important than the exact shape of the individual audiogram to accurately model the outcome of the German Matrix test in stationary or fluctuating noise for listeners with hearing impairment. The prediction accuracy of the individualized approach also outperforms the (modified) Speech Intelligibility Index approach which is based on the individual threshold data only. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Stages of functional processing and the bihemispheric recognition of Japanese Kana script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, K

    2000-04-01

    Two experiments were carried out in order to examine the effects of functional steps on the benefits of interhemispheric integration. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to investigate the validity of the Banich (1995a) model, where the benefits of interhemispheric processing increase as the task involves more functional steps. The 16 right-handed subjects were given two types of Hiragana-Katakana script matching tasks. One was the Name Identity (NI) task, and the other was the vowel matching (VM) task, which involved more functional steps compared to the NI task. The VM task required subjects to make a decision whether or not a pair of Katakana-Hiragana scripts had a common vowel. In both tasks, a pair of Kana scripts (Katakana-Hiragana scripts) was tachistoscopically presented in the unilateral visual fields or the bilateral visual fields, where each letter was presented in each visual field. A bilateral visual fields advantage (BFA) was found in both tasks, and the size of this did not differ between the tasks, suggesting that these findings did not support the Banich model. The purpose of Experiment 2 was to examine the effects of imbalanced processing load between the hemispheres on the benefits of interhemispheric integration. In order to manipulate the balance of processing load across the hemispheres, the revised vowel matching (r-VM) task was developed by amending the VM task. The r-VM task was the same as the VM task in Experiment 1, except that a script that has only vowel sound was presented as a counterpart of a pair of Kana scripts. The 24 right-handed subjects were given the r-VM and NI tasks. The results showed that although a BFA showed up in the NI task, it did not in the r-VM task. These results suggested that the balance of processing load between hemispheres would have an influence on the bilateral hemispheric processing.

  10. UHF Signal Processing and Pattern Recognition of Partial Discharge in Gas-Insulated Switchgear Using Chromatic Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Li, Xi; Rong, Mingzhe; Xie, Dingli; Ding, Dan; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-18

    The ultra-high frequency (UHF) method is widely used in insulation condition assessment. However, UHF signal processing algorithms are complicated and the size of the result is large, which hinders extracting features and recognizing partial discharge (PD) patterns. This article investigated the chromatic methodology that is novel in PD detection. The principle of chromatic methodologies in color science are introduced. The chromatic processing represents UHF signals sparsely. The UHF signals obtained from PD experiments were processed using chromatic methodology and characterized by three parameters in chromatic space ( H , L , and S representing dominant wavelength, signal strength, and saturation, respectively). The features of the UHF signals were studied hierarchically. The results showed that the chromatic parameters were consistent with conventional frequency domain parameters. The global chromatic parameters can be used to distinguish UHF signals acquired by different sensors, and they reveal the propagation properties of the UHF signal in the L-shaped gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). Finally, typical PD defect patterns had been recognized by using novel chromatic parameters in an actual GIS tank and good performance of recognition was achieved.

  11. IAEA Expert Team Completes Mission to Review Japan's Nuclear Power Plant Safety Assessment Process, 31 January 2012, Tokyo, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a review of Japan's two-stage process for assessing nuclear safety at the nation's nuclear power plants. The team began its work on 23 January and delivered a Preliminary Summary Report to Japanese officials today and plans to finish the final report by the end of February. National safety assessments and their peer review by the IAEA are a key component of the IAEA's Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was approved by the Agency's 152 Member States following last year's nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. At the request of the Government of Japan, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a 10-person team to review the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency's (NISA) approach to the Comprehensive Assessments for the Safety of Existing Power Reactor Facilities and how NISA examines the results submitted by nuclear operators. The IAEA safety review mission consisted of five IAEA and three international nuclear safety experts. To help its review, the team held meetings in Tokyo with officials from NISA, the Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety (JNES) Organization, and the Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO), and the team visited the Ohi Nuclear Power Station to see an example of how Japan's Comprehensive Safety Assessment is being implemented by nuclear operators. 'We concluded that NISA's instructions to power plants and its review process for the Comprehensive Safety Assessments are generally consistent with IAEA Safety Standards', said team leader James Lyons, director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division. In its Preliminary Summary Report delivered today, the team highlighted a number of good practices and identified some improvements that would enhance the overall effectiveness of the Comprehensive Safety Assessment process. Good practices identified by the mission team include: Based on NISA instructions and commitments of the

  12. Differences in holistic processing do not explain cultural differences in the recognition of facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoqian; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of the own-race advantage in facial expression perception. In Experiment 1, we investigated Western Caucasian and Chinese participants' perception and categorization of facial expressions of six basic emotions that included two pairs of confusable expressions (fear and surprise; anger and disgust). People were slightly better at identifying facial expressions posed by own-race members (mainly in anger and disgust). In Experiment 2, we asked whether the own-race advantage was due to differences in the holistic processing of facial expressions. Participants viewed composite faces in which the upper part of one expression was combined with the lower part of a different expression. The upper and lower parts of the composite faces were either aligned or misaligned. Both Chinese and Caucasian participants were better at identifying the facial expressions from the misaligned images, showing interference on recognizing the parts of the expressions created by holistic perception of the aligned composite images. However, this interference from holistic processing was equivalent across expressions of own-race and other-race faces in both groups of participants. Whilst the own-race advantage in recognizing facial expressions does seem to reflect the confusability of certain emotions, it cannot be explained by differences in holistic processing.

  13. RECOGNITION OF MAIN PROCESSES FORMING CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE SUPRAŚL RIVER WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Skorbiłowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify and define the processes that affect the variability of the chemical composition of Supraśl river water at selected measuring points. One of the recognized multivariate statistical methods was used for identification. The research area covered the Suprasl river. Four measuring points were selected on the river – Michałowo, Gródek, Nowodworce, Dzikie. The measuring points were selected in such a way to take into account the impact of the most intense interaction located along the river. Changes in concentration were determined on the basis of monthly analyzes of water samples collected from the Supraśl river in 2003–2012 by the Regional Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (RIEP in Białystok. The analyses were performed in the RIEP laboratory in Bialystok, which has implemented and maintained a management system that meets the requirements of the norm PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025 + Ap.1:2007 approved by the certificate AB 165. The water samples were subject to determinations of dissolved oxygen concentration, BOD5, CODMn, CODCr, NH3, N-NH4+, NKieldahl, NO3-, N-NO3-, NO2-, N-NO2-, Ntot., PO43-, Ptot and electrical conductivity value. The monthly sum of precipitation was read based on data from the Weather Service “IMGW-PIB Monitor”. The research and analysis results allowed to identify the self-cleaning, nitrification, and de-nitrification processes, as well as enrichment affecting the variability of the chemical composition of the Supraśl river water. The results from the factor analysis showed some prevailing of enrichment processes over internal changes in the aquatic environment of the Supraśl river.

  14. Image processing-based framework for continuous lane recognition in mountainous roads for driver assistance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Kodeeswari; Daniel, Philemon

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a robust lane detection technique for roads on hilly terrain. The target of this paper is to utilize image processing strategies to recognize lane lines on structured mountain roads with the help of improved Hough transform. Vision-based approach is used as it performs well in a wide assortment of circumstances by abstracting valuable information contrasted with other sensors. The proposed strategy processes the live video stream, which is a progression of pictures, and concentrates on the position of lane markings in the wake of sending the edges through different channels and legitimate thresholding. The algorithm is tuned for Indian mountainous curved and paved roads. A technique of computation is utilized to discard the disturbing lines other than the credible lane lines and show just the required prevailing lane lines. This technique will consequently discover two lane lines that are nearest to the vehicle in a picture as right on time as could reasonably be expected. Various video sequences on hilly terrain are tested to verify the effectiveness of our method, and it has shown good performance with a detection accuracy of 91.89%.

  15. Face shape and face identity processing in behavioral variant fronto-temporal dementia: A specific deficit for familiarity and name recognition of famous faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Timmers, Dorien; de Gelder, Beatrice; Van Orshoven, Marc; Vieren, Marleen; Bouckaert, Miriam; Cypers, Gert; Caekebeke, Jo; Van de Vliet, Laura; Goffin, Karolien; Van Laere, Koen; Sunaert, Stefan; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Van den Stock, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in face processing have been described in the behavioral variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD), primarily regarding the recognition of facial expressions. Less is known about face shape and face identity processing. Here we used a hierarchical strategy targeting face shape and face identity recognition in bvFTD and matched healthy controls. Participants performed 3 psychophysical experiments targeting face shape detection (Experiment 1), unfamiliar face identity matching (Experiment 2), familiarity categorization and famous face-name matching (Experiment 3). The results revealed group differences only in Experiment 3, with a deficit in the bvFTD group for both familiarity categorization and famous face-name matching. Voxel-based morphometry regression analyses in the bvFTD group revealed an association between grey matter volume of the left ventral anterior temporal lobe and familiarity recognition, while face-name matching correlated with grey matter volume of the bilateral ventral anterior temporal lobes. Subsequently, we quantified familiarity-specific and name-specific recognition deficits as the sum of the celebrities of which respectively only the name or only the familiarity was accurately recognized. Both indices were associated with grey matter volume of the bilateral anterior temporal cortices. These findings extent previous results by documenting the involvement of the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in familiarity detection and the right ATL in name recognition deficits in fronto-temporal lobar degeneration.

  16. A Rapid Turn-around, Scalable Big Data Processing Capability for the JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The JPL Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO) is an integrated LIDAR and Spectrometer measuring snow depth and rate of snow melt in the Sierra Nevadas, specifically, the Tuolumne River Basin, Sierra Nevada, California above the O'Shaughnessy Dam of the Hetch Hetchy reservoir, and the Uncompahgre Basin, Colorado, amongst other sites. The ASO data was delivered to water resource managers from the California Department of Water Resources in under 24 hours from the time that the Twin Otter aircraft landed in Mammoth Lakes, CA to the time disks were plugged in to the ASO Mobile Compute System (MCS) deployed at the Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory (SNARL) near the airport. ASO performed weekly flights and each flight took between 500GB to 1 Terabyte of raw data, which was then processed from level 0 data products all the way to full level 4 maps of Snow Water Equivalent, albedo mosaics, and snow depth from LIDAR. These data were produced by Interactive Data analysis Language (IDL) algorithms which were then unobtrusively and automatically integrated into an Apache OODT and Apache Tika based Big Data processing system. Data movement was both electronic and physical including novel uses of LaCie 1 and 2 TeraByte (TB) data bricks and deployment in rugged terrain. The MCS was controlled remotely from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) in Pasadena, California on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Communication was aided through the use of novel Internet Relay Chat (IRC) command and control mechanisms and through the use of the Notifico open source communication tools. This talk will describe the high powered, and light-weight Big Data processing system that we developed for ASO and its implications more broadly for airborne missions at NASA and throughout the government. The lessons learned from ASO show the potential to have a large impact in the development of Big Data processing systems in the years

  17. Serial and parallel processing in reading: investigating the effects of parafoveal orthographic information on nonisolated word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Natasha; Shillcock, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel lexical decision task and three boundary paradigm eye-tracking experiments that clarify the picture of parallel processing in word recognition in context. First, we show that lexical decision is facilitated by associated letter information to the left and right of the word, with no apparent hemispheric specificity. Second, we show that parafoveal preview of a repeat of word n at word n + 1 facilitates reading of word n relative to a control condition with an unrelated word at word n + 1. Third, using a version of the boundary paradigm that allowed for a regressive eye movement, we show no parafoveal "postview" effect on reading word n of repeating word n at word n - 1. Fourth, we repeat the second experiment but compare the effects of parafoveal previews consisting of a repeated word n with a transposed central bigram (e.g., caot for coat) and a substituted central bigram (e.g., ceit for coat), showing the latter to have a deleterious effect on processing word n, thereby demonstrating that the parafoveal preview effect is at least orthographic and not purely visual.

  18. A New Contactless Fault Diagnosis Approach for Pantograph-Catenary System Using Pattern Recognition and Image Processing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYDIN, I.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Comfort and safety of railway transport has become more important as train speeds continue to increase. In electrified railways, the electrical current of the train is produced by the sliding contact between the pantograph and catenary. The quality of the current depends on the reliability of contact between the pantograph and catenary. So, pantograph inspection is very important task in electrified railways and it is periodically made for preventing dangerous situations. This inspection is operated manually by taking the pantograph to the service for visual anomalies. However, this monitoring is impractical because of time consuming and slowness, as locomotive remains disabled. An innovative method based on image processing and pattern recognition is proposed in this paper for online monitoring of the catenary-pantograph interaction. The images are acquired from a digital line-scan camera. Data are simultaneously processed according to edge detection and Hough transform, and then the obtained features are provided to a D-Markov based state machine, and the pantograph related faults, such as overheating of the pantograph strip, bursts of arcing, and irregular positioning of the contact line are diagnosed. The proposed method is verified by real faulty and healthy pantograph videos.

  19. The Importance of Locally Embedded Personal Relationships for SME Internationalisation Processes – from Opportunity Recognition to Company Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Ratajczak-Mrozek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the importance of locally embedded personal relationships and individuals’ networks for the rise of small and medium enterprises (SMEs’ opportunities in the internationalisation process (especially the market entry phase as well as their international operations and growth. Above all, the aim of the article is to answer the question what is influencing the actual impact of these resulting opportunities on internationalisation and growth. This paper adopts both a conceptual and empirical approach to the problem based upon a critical review of pertinent literature. Two case studies of companies from industries representing different levels of technological advancement, that is the furniture industry and IT industry, are presented. The theoretical and empirical analysis presented in the article points to the fact that relationships simultaneously facilitate opportunity recognition and themselves constitute such an opportunity. The analysis carried out as part of the case study proves that main factors determining the rise of the opportunity based on locally embedded personal relationships are trust and mutual understanding, in this way emphasising the importance of relational embeddedness. At the same time the realisation of these opportunities and therefore their impact on the internationalisation process and a company’s growth requires additional social factors (an entrepreneurial attitude as well as economic factors (such as quality and competitive prices.

  20. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  1. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  2. The Roles of recognition processes and look-ahead search in time-constrained expert problem solving: Evidence from grandmaster level chess.

    OpenAIRE

    Gobet, F; Simon, H A

    1996-01-01

    Chess has long served as an important standard task environment for research on human memory and problem-solving abilities and processes. In this paper, we report evidence on the relative importance of recognition processes and planning (look-ahead) processes in very high level expert performance in chess. The data show that the rated skill of a top-level grandmaster is only slightly lower when he is playing simultaneously against a half dozen grandmaster opponents than under tournament con...

  3. Glycine-rich loop of mitochondrial processing peptidase α-subunit is responsible for substrate recognition by a mechanism analogous to mitochondrial receptor Tom20

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková-Holá, Klára; Matušková, Anna; Kubala, M.; Otyepka, M.; Kučera, Tomáš; Večeř, J.; Heřman, P.; Parkhomenko, Natalia; Kutejová, E.; Janata, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 396, č. 5 (2010), s. 1197-1210 ISSN 0022-2836 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA501110631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : mitochondrial processing peptidase * presequence * substrate recognition Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.008, year: 2010

  4. The Mission Operations Planning Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetzle, James G.

    1987-01-01

    The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA) is a knowledge-based system developed to support the planning and scheduling of instrument activities on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). The MOPA system represents and maintains instrument plans at two levels of abstraction in order to keep plans comprehensible to both UARS Principal Investigators and Command Management personnel. The hierarchical representation of plans also allows MOPA to automatically create detailed instrument activity plans from which spacecraft command loads may be generated. The MOPA system was developed on a Symbolics 3640 computer using the ZetaLisp and ART languages. MOPA's features include a textual and graphical interface for plan inspection and modification, recognition of instrument operational constraint violations during the planning process, and consistency maintenance between the different planning levels. This paper describes the current MOPA system.

  5. Study of test-mass charging process in the LISA missions due to diffuse γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finetti, N; Scrimaglio, R; Grimani, C; Fabi, M

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational inertial sensors will be placed on board the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and aboard its precursor mission LISA Pathfinder (LISA-PF) in order to detect low frequency gravitational waves in space. Free-floating test-masses (Au 7 Pt 3 cubes) will be housed in inertial sensors for detecting possible laser signal variations induced by gravitational waves. Charging of the LISA test-masses due to exposure of the spacecraft to cosmic radiation and energetic solar particles will affect operation of gravitational inertial sensors. In this paper we report on the role of diffuse γ-rays in charging the LISA and LISA-PF test-masses with respect to protons and helium nuclei. The diffuse γ-ray flux in the Galaxy has been interpolated taking into account the outcomes of recent calculations. A comparison with γ-ray observations gathered by different experiments (COMPTEL and EGRET, Milagro, Whipple, HEGRA, TIBET) has been carried out. Simulations of the test-mass charging process have been performed by means of the FLUKA2006.3b package. Monte Carlo simulations of the interaction of cosmic particles with the LISA spacecraft indicate that the diffuse γ-ray contribution to the average steady-state test-mass charging rate and to the single-sided power spectrum of the charge rate noise is marginal with respect to that due to galactic cosmic-rays.

  6. Report on the preliminary fact finding mission following the accident at the nuclear fuel processing facility in Tokaimura, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Following the accident on 30 September 1999 at the nuclear fuel processing facility at Tokaimura, Japan, the IAEA Emergency Response Centre received numerous requests for information about the event's causes and consequences from Contact Points under the Conventions on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Although the lack of transboundary consequences of the accident meant that action under the Early Notification Convention was not triggered, the Emergency Response Centre issued several advisories to Member States which drew on official reports received from Japan. After discussions with the Government of Japan, the IAEA dispatched a team of three experts from the Secretariat on a fact finding mission to Tokaimura from 13 to 17 October 1999. The present preliminary report by that team documents key technical information obtained during the mission. At this stage, the report can in no way provide conclusive judgements on the causes and consequences of the accident. Investigations are proceeding in Japan and more information is expected to be made available after access has been gained to the building where the accident occurred. Moreover, much of the information already made available will be revised as more accurate assessments are made, for example of the radiation doses to the three individuals who received the highest exposures. Notwithstanding the preliminary nature of this report, it is clear that the accident was not one involving widespread contamination of the environment as in the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Although there was little risk off the site once the accident had been brought under control, the authorities evacuated the population living within a few hundred metres and advised people within about 10 km of the facility to take shelter for a period of about one day. The event at Tokaimura was nevertheless a serious industrial accident. The results of the detailed

  7. Reevaluating split-fovea processing in word recognition: hemispheric dominance, retinal location, and the word-nonword effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Timothy R; Paterson, Kevin B; Kurtev, Stoyan

    2009-03-01

    Many studies have claimed that hemispheric projections are split precisely at the foveal midline and so hemispheric asymmetry affects word recognition right up to the point of fixation. To investigate this claim, four-letter words and nonwords were presented to the left or right of fixation, either close to fixation in foveal vision or farther from fixation in extrafoveal vision. Presentation accuracy was controlled using an eyetracker linked to a fixation-contingent display. Words presented foveally produced identical performance on each side of fixation, but words presented extrafoveally showed a clear left-hemisphere (LH) advantage. Nonwords produced no evidence of hemispheric asymmetry in any location. Foveal stimuli also produced an identical word-nonword effect on each side of fixation, whereas extrafoveal stimuli produced a word-nonword effect only for LH (not right-hemisphere) displays. These findings indicate that functional unilateral projections to contralateral hemispheres exist in extrafoveal locations but provide no evidence of a functional division in hemispheric processing at fixation.

  8. The Impact of Processing Instruction on the Recognition and Production of English Derivational Affixes Among EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Baleghizadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of processing instruction (PI as opposed to traditional deductive exercise-based intervention (TI in teaching English derivational affixes. There was also a comparison non-intervention (NI group, and the groups were posttested. To teach the target affixes via PI, new structured input tasks were developed. In all, 101 adult male and female lower-intermediate participants initially took part in the study, but this was later reduced to 71 as a result of the pretest, and so on. The results were analyzed through MANOVA and paired t test. In recognition, PI and TI outperformed non-intervention, while PI and TI did not outperform one another. In production, TI outperformed the other groups, while the other groups did not outperform one another. More studies must be carried out before drawing any conclusions about the transferability of PI to output activities for teaching derivational affixes. The students were also interviewed to survey their attitudes. Affectively, PI created self-confidence and an enjoyable atmosphere among the learners. Also cognitively, PI was the only group that satisfied the participants in their ability to recognize and produce derivational affixes. We found PI a highly effective and positive approach for teaching recognizing derivational affixes. We also believe it to possess a high potential for teaching their production, as it gave the participants a good sense of self-confidence for the production of the affixes.

  9. Can color changes alter the neural correlates of recognition memory? Manipulation of processing affects an electrophysiological indicator of conceptual implicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyu; Gao, Chuanji; Zhou, Jianshe; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-09-28

    It has been widely shown that recognition memory includes two distinct retrieval processes: familiarity and recollection. Many studies have shown that recognition memory can be facilitated when there is a perceptual match between the studied and the tested items. Most event-related potential studies have explored the perceptual match effect on familiarity on the basis of the hypothesis that the specific event-related potential component associated with familiarity is the FN400 (300-500 ms mid-frontal effect). However, it is currently unclear whether the FN400 indexes familiarity or conceptual implicit memory. In addition, on the basis of the findings of a previous study, the so-called perceptual manipulations in previous studies may also involve some conceptual alterations. Therefore, we sought to determine the influence of perceptual manipulation by color changes on recognition memory when the perceptual or the conceptual processes were emphasized. Specifically, different instructions (perceptually or conceptually oriented) were provided to the participants. The results showed that color changes may significantly affect overall recognition memory behaviorally and that congruent items were recognized with a higher accuracy rate than incongruent items in both tasks, but no corresponding neural changes were found. Despite the evident familiarity shown in the two tasks (the behavioral performance of recognition memory was much higher than at the chance level), the FN400 effect was found in conceptually oriented tasks, but not perceptually oriented tasks. It is thus highly interesting that the FN400 effect was not induced, although color manipulation of recognition memory was behaviorally shown, as seen in previous studies. Our findings of the FN400 effect for the conceptual but not perceptual condition support the explanation that the FN400 effect indexes conceptual implicit memory.

  10. What and Where in auditory sensory processing: A high-density electrical mapping study of distinct neural processes underlying sound object recognition and sound localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Leavitt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functionally distinct dorsal and ventral auditory pathways for sound localization (where and sound object recognition (what have been described in non-human primates. A handful of studies have explored differential processing within these streams in humans, with highly inconsistent findings. Stimuli employed have included simple tones, noise bursts and speech sounds, with simulated left-right spatial manipulations, and in some cases participants were not required to actively discriminate the stimuli. Our contention is that these paradigms were not well suited to dissociating processing within the two streams. Our aim here was to determine how early in processing we could find evidence for dissociable pathways using better titrated what and where task conditions. The use of more compelling tasks should allow us to amplify differential processing within the dorsal and ventral pathways. We employed high-density electrical mapping using a relatively large and environmentally realistic stimulus set (seven animal calls delivered from seven free-field spatial locations; with stimulus configuration identical across the where and what tasks. Topographic analysis revealed distinct dorsal and ventral auditory processing networks during the where and what tasks with the earliest point of divergence seen during the N1 component of the auditory evoked response, beginning at approximately 100 ms. While this difference occurred during the N1 timeframe, it was not a simple modulation of N1 amplitude as it displayed a wholly different topographic distribution to that of the N1. Global dissimilarity measures using topographic modulation analysis confirmed that this difference between tasks was driven by a shift in the underlying generator configuration. Minimum norm source reconstruction revealed distinct activations that corresponded well with activity within putative dorsal and ventral auditory structures.

  11. Tolerance to spatial-relational transformations in unfamiliar faces: A further challenge to a configural processing account of identity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzino, Martina; Caminati, Martina; Caudek, Corrado

    2018-05-25

    One of the most important questions in face perception research is to understand what information is extracted from a face in order to recognize its identity. Recognition of facial identity has been attributed to a special sensitivity to "configural" information. However, recent studies have challenged the configural account by showing that participants are poor in discriminating variations of metric distances among facial features, especially for familiar as opposed to unfamiliar faces, whereas a configural account predicts the opposite. We aimed to extend these previous results by examining classes of unfamiliar faces with which we have different levels of expertise. We hypothesized an inverse relation between sensitivity to configural information and expertise with a given class of faces, but only for neutral expressions. By first matching perceptual discriminability, we measured tolerance to subtle configural transformations with same-race (SR) versus other-race (OR) faces, and with upright versus upside-down faces. Consistently with our predictions, we found a lower sensitivity to at-threshold configural changes for SR compared to OR faces. We also found that, for our stimuli, the face inversion effect disappeared for neutral but not for emotional faces - a result that can also be attributed to a lower sensitivity to configural transformations for faces presented in a more familiar orientation. The present findings question a purely configural account of face processing and suggest that the role of spatial-relational information in face processing varies according to the functional demands of the task and to the characteristics of the stimuli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [The mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Moreno, J; Blanch Mon, A

    2000-01-01

    After having made a historical review of the concept of mission statement, of evaluating its importance (See Part I), of describing the bases to create a mission statement from a strategic perspective and of analyzing the advantages of this concept, probably more important as a business policy (See Parts I and II), the authors proceed to analyze the mission statement in health organizations. Due to the fact that a mission statement is lacking in the majority of health organizations, the strategy of health organizations are not exactly favored; as a consequence, neither are its competitive advantage nor the development of its essential competencies. After presenting a series of mission statements corresponding to Anglo-Saxon health organizations, the authors highlight two mission statements corresponding to our social context. The article finishes by suggesting an adequate sequence for developing a mission statement in those health organizations having a strategic sense.

  13. Evaluation of Speech Recognition of Cochlear Implant Recipients Using Adaptive, Digital Remote Microphone Technology and a Speech Enhancement Sound Processing Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jace; Morais, Mila; Schafer, Erin; Agrawal, Smita; Koch, Dawn

    2015-05-01

    Cochlear implant recipients often experience difficulty with understanding speech in the presence of noise. Cochlear implant manufacturers have developed sound processing algorithms designed to improve speech recognition in noise, and research has shown these technologies to be effective. Remote microphone technology utilizing adaptive, digital wireless radio transmission has also been shown to provide significant improvement in speech recognition in noise. There are no studies examining the potential improvement in speech recognition in noise when these two technologies are used simultaneously. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits and limitations associated with the simultaneous use of a sound processing algorithm designed to improve performance in noise (Advanced Bionics ClearVoice) and a remote microphone system that incorporates adaptive, digital wireless radio transmission (Phonak Roger). A two-by-two way repeated measures design was used to examine performance differences obtained without these technologies compared to the use of each technology separately as well as the simultaneous use of both technologies. Eleven Advanced Bionics (AB) cochlear implant recipients, ages 11 to 68 yr. AzBio sentence recognition was measured in quiet and in the presence of classroom noise ranging in level from 50 to 80 dBA in 5-dB steps. Performance was evaluated in four conditions: (1) No ClearVoice and no Roger, (2) ClearVoice enabled without the use of Roger, (3) ClearVoice disabled with Roger enabled, and (4) simultaneous use of ClearVoice and Roger. Speech recognition in quiet was better than speech recognition in noise for all conditions. Use of ClearVoice and Roger each provided significant improvement in speech recognition in noise. The best performance in noise was obtained with the simultaneous use of ClearVoice and Roger. ClearVoice and Roger technology each improves speech recognition in noise, particularly when used at the same time

  14. Performance Comparison of Several Pre-Processing Methods in a Hand Gesture Recognition System based on Nearest Neighbor for Different Background Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lionnie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis and comparison of several pre-processing  methods  used  in  a  hand  gesture  recognition  system.  The  preprocessing methods are based on the combinations ofseveral image processing operations,  namely  edge  detection,  low  pass  filtering,  histogram  equalization, thresholding and desaturation. The hand gesture recognition system is designed to classify an input image into one of six possibleclasses. The input images are taken with various background conditions. Our experiments showed that the best result is achieved when the pre-processing method consists of only a desaturation operation, achieving a classification accuracy of up to 83.15%.

  15. Mission informed needed information: discoverable, available sensing sources (MINI-DASS): the operators and process flows the magic rabbits must negotiate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Today's battlefield space is extremely complex, dealing with an enemy that is neither well-defined nor well-understood. Adversaries are comprised of widely-distributed, loosely-networked groups engaging in nefarious activities. Situational understanding is needed by decision makers; understanding of adversarial capabilities and intent is essential. Information needed at any time is dependent on the mission/task at hand. Information sources potentially providing mission-relevant information are disparate and numerous; they include sensors, social networks, fusion engines, internet, etc. Management of these multi-dimensional informational sources is critical. This paper will present a new approach being undertaken to answer the challenge of enhancing battlefield understanding by optimizing the utilization of available informational sources (means) to required missions/tasks as well as determining the "goodness'" of the information acquired in meeting the capabilities needed. Requirements are usually expressed in terms of a presumed technology solution (e.g., imagery). A metaphor of the "magic rabbits" was conceived to remove presumed technology solutions from requirements by claiming the "required" technology is obsolete. Instead, intelligent "magic rabbits" are used to provide needed information. The question then becomes: "WHAT INFORMATION DO YOU NEED THE RABBITS TO PROVIDE YOU?" This paper will describe a new approach called Mission-Informed Needed Information - Discoverable, Available Sensing Sources (MINI-DASS) that designs a process that builds information acquisition missions and determines what the "magic rabbits" need to provide in a manner that is machine understandable. Also described is the Missions and Means Framework (MMF) model used, the process flow utilized, the approach to developing an ontology of information source means and the approach for determining the value of the information acquired.

  16. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  17. The Electrophysiological Signature of Remember-Know Is Confounded with Memory Strength and Cannot Be Interpreted as Evidence for Dual-process Theory of Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezis, Noam; Bronfman, Zohar Z; Yovel, Galit; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2017-02-01

    The quantity and nature of the processes underlying recognition memory remains an open question. A majority of behavioral, neuropsychological, and brain studies have suggested that recognition memory is supported by two dissociable processes: recollection and familiarity. It has been conversely argued, however, that recollection and familiarity map onto a single continuum of mnemonic strength and hence that recognition memory is mediated by a single process. Previous electrophysiological studies found marked dissociations between recollection and familiarity, which have been widely held as corroborating the dual-process account. However, it remains unknown whether a strength interpretation can likewise apply for these findings. Here we describe an ERP study, using a modified remember-know (RK) procedure, which allowed us to control for mnemonic strength. We find that ERPs of high and low mnemonic strength mimicked the electrophysiological distinction between R and K responses, in a lateral positive component (LPC), 500-1000 msec poststimulus onset. Critically, when contrasting strength with RK experience, by comparing weak R to strong K responses, the electrophysiological signal mapped onto strength, not onto subjective RK experience. Invoking the LPC as support for dual-process accounts may, therefore, be amiss.

  18. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  19. A REVIEW: OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Tomar*1 & Amit Kishore2

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents detailed review in the field of Optical Character Recognition. Various techniques are determine that have been proposed to realize the center of character recognition in an optical character recognition system. Even though, sufficient studies and papers are describes the techniques for converting textual content from a paper document into machine readable form. Optical character recognition is a process where the computer understands automatically the image of handwritten ...

  20. [Myanmar mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfandari, B; Persichetti, P; Pelissier, P; Martin, D; Baudet, J

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the accomplishment of humanitarian missions in plastic surgery performed by a small team in town practice in Yangon, about their 3 years experience in Myanmar with 300 consultations and 120 surgery cases. They underline the interest of this type of mission and provide us their reflexion about team training, the type of relation with the country where the mission is conducted and the type of right team.

  1. On the Application of Image Processing Methods for Bubble Recognition to the Study of Subcooled Flow Boiling of Water in Rectangular Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Paz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces the use of machine vision in the massive bubble recognition process, which supports the validation of boiling models involving bubble dynamics, as well as nucleation frequency, active site density and size of the bubbles. The two algorithms presented are meant to be run employing quite standard images of the bubbling process, recorded in general-purpose boiling facilities. The recognition routines are easily adaptable to other facilities if a minimum number of precautions are taken in the setup and in the treatment of the information. Both the side and front projections of subcooled flow-boiling phenomenon over a plain plate are covered. Once all of the intended bubbles have been located in space and time, the proper post-process of the recorded data become capable of tracking each of the recognized bubbles, sketching their trajectories and size evolution, locating the nucleation sites, computing their diameters, and so on. After validating the algorithm’s output against the human eye and data from other researchers, machine vision systems have been demonstrated to be a very valuable option to successfully perform the recognition process, even though the optical analysis of bubbles has not been set as the main goal of the experimental facility.

  2. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  3. Humanitarian Assistance: Adapting the Process to Meet the Military’s Evolving Role in Non-Traditional Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    action to support humanitarian relief and democratic movements " (Towell, 1992, p. 3761). The U.S. 2 led coalition, from December 1992 through May...similar to planning and executing the movement phase of wartime contingencies. Therefore, these activities in humanitarian relief missions also serve...DISASTZR _ CATUGORIZS ORIGINS ZXARPLUS NATURAL METEOROLOGICAL STORMS, DROUGHTS TOPOLOGICAL FLOODS, LANDSLIDES TELLURIC /TECTONIC EARTHQUAKES BIOLOGICAL

  4. How to Say No: Single- and Dual-Process Theories of Short-Term Recognition Tested on Negative Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments with short-term recognition tasks are reported. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants decided whether a probe matched a list item specified by its spatial location. Items presented at study in a different location (intrusion probes) had to be rejected. Serial position curves of positive, new, and intrusion probes over the probed…

  5. Financial and workflow analysis of radiology reporting processes in the planning phase of implementation of a speech recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Tom; Ratib, Osman M.; Umamoto, Kathleen; Grant, Edward G.; McCoy, Michael J.

    2002-05-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the financial value and workflow improvements achievable by replacing traditional transcription services with a speech recognition system in a large, university hospital setting. Workflow metrics were measured at two hospitals, one of which exclusively uses a transcription service (UCLA Medical Center), and the other which exclusively uses speech recognition (West Los Angeles VA Hospital). Workflow metrics include time spent per report (the sum of time spent interpreting, dictating, reviewing, and editing), transcription turnaround, and total report turnaround. Compared to traditional transcription, speech recognition resulted in radiologists spending 13-32% more time per report, but it also resulted in reduction of report turnaround time by 22-62% and reduction of marginal cost per report by 94%. The model developed here helps justify the introduction of a speech recognition system by showing that the benefits of reduced operating costs and decreased turnaround time outweigh the cost of increased time spent per report. Whether the ultimate goal is to achieve a financial objective or to improve operational efficiency, it is important to conduct a thorough analysis of workflow before implementation.

  6. Computer-Assisted Face Processing Instruction Improves Emotion Recognition, Mentalizing, and Social Skills in Students with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Linda Marie; Wall, Carla Anne; Fogel, Adam; Shic, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a computer-based social skills intervention called "FaceSay"™ was associated with improvements in affect recognition, mentalizing, and social skills of school-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). "FaceSay"™ offers students simulated practice with eye gaze, joint attention,…

  7. Two Processes for Recognition Memory in Children of Early School Age: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklinger, Axel; Brunnemann, Nicole; Kipp, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    We examined the ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection and their development in 8- to 10-year-old children and a control group of young adults. Capitalizing on the different temporal dynamics of familiarity and recollection, we tested recognition memory in both groups with a speeded and nonspeeded response condition. Consistent with the…

  8. B plant mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ''System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.'' The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline

  9. Maturational changes in ear advantage for monaural word recognition in noise among listeners with central auditory processing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Ahmed Shaikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate differences between ears in performance on a monaural word recognition in noise test among individuals across a broad range of ages assessed for (CAPD. Word recognition scores in quiet and in speech noise were collected retrospectively from the medical files of 107 individuals between the ages of 7 and 30 years who were diagnosed with (CAPD. No ear advantage was found on the word recognition in noise task in groups less than ten years. Performance in both ears was equally poor. Right ear performance improved across age groups, with scores of individuals above age 10 years falling within the normal range. In contrast, left ear performance remained essentially stable and in the impaired range across all age groups. Findings indicate poor left hemispheric dominance for speech perception in noise in children below the age of 10 years with (CAPD. However, a right ear advantage on this monaural speech in noise task was observed for individuals 10 years and older.

  10. Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal signal analysis based on sophisticated sensors, efficient communicationsystems and fast parallel processing methods has a rapidly increasing range of multidisciplinaryapplications. The present paper is devoted to pattern recognition, machine learning, and the analysisof sleep stages in the detection of sleep disorders using polysomnography (PSG data, includingelectroencephalography (EEG, breathing (Flow, and electro-oculogram (EOG signals. The proposedmethod is based on the classification of selected features by a neural network system with sigmoidaland softmax transfer functions using Bayesian methods for the evaluation of the probabilities of theseparate classes. The application is devoted to the analysis of the sleep stages of 184 individualswith different diagnoses, using EEG and further PSG signals. Data analysis points to an averageincrease of the length of the Wake stage by 2.7% per 10 years and a decrease of the length of theRapid Eye Movement (REM stages by 0.8% per 10 years. The mean classification accuracy for givensets of records and single EEG and multimodal features is 88.7% ( standard deviation, STD: 2.1 and89.6% (STD:1.9, respectively. The proposed methods enable the use of adaptive learning processesfor the detection and classification of health disorders based on prior specialist experience andman–machine interaction.

  11. 308 Building deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 308 Building (Fuels Development Laboratory) Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process. The functions and requirements to successfully accomplish this mission, the selected alternatives and products will later be defined using the SE process

  12. 309 Building deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 309 Building (Plutonium Fuels Utilization Program) Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process. The functions and requirements to successfully accomplish this mission, the selected alternatives and products will later be defined using the SE process

  13. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM) as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility. PMID:25276860

  14. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility.

  15. Toward a multipoint optical fibre sensor system for use in process water systems based on artificial neural network pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D; Lyons, W B; Flanagan, C; Lewis, E

    2005-01-01

    An optical fibre sensor capable of detecting various concentrations of ethanol in water supplies is reported. The sensor is based on a U-bend sensor configuration and is incorporated into a 170-metre length of silica cladding silica core optical fibre. The sensor is interrogated using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) and it is proposed to apply artificial neural network (ANN) pattern recognition techniques to the resulting OTDR signals to accurately classify the sensor test conditions. It is also proposed that additional U-bend configuration sensors will be added to the fibre measurement length, in order to implement a multipoint optical fibre sensor system

  16. Recognition and processing of a new repertoire of DNA substrates by human 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Yue I; Delaney, James C; Kartalou, Maria; Lingaraju, Gondichatnahalli M; Maor-Shoshani, Ayelet; Essigmann, John M; Samson, Leona D

    2009-03-10

    The human 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) recognizes and excises a broad range of purines damaged by alkylation and oxidative damage, including 3-methyladenine, 7-methylguanine, hypoxanthine (Hx), and 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (epsilonA). The crystal structures of AAG bound to epsilonA have provided insights into the structural basis for substrate recognition, base excision, and exclusion of normal purines and pyrimidines from its substrate recognition pocket. In this study, we explore the substrate specificity of full-length and truncated Delta80AAG on a library of oligonucleotides containing structurally diverse base modifications. Substrate binding and base excision kinetics of AAG with 13 damaged oligonucleotides were examined. We found that AAG bound to a wide variety of purine and pyrimidine lesions but excised only a few of them. Single-turnover excision kinetics showed that in addition to the well-known epsilonA and Hx substrates, 1-methylguanine (m1G) was also excised efficiently by AAG. Thus, along with epsilonA and ethanoadenine (EA), m1G is another substrate that is shared between AAG and the direct repair protein AlkB. In addition, we found that both the full-length and truncated AAG excised 1,N(2)-ethenoguanine (1,N(2)-epsilonG), albeit weakly, from duplex DNA. Uracil was excised from both single- and double-stranded DNA, but only by full-length AAG, indicating that the N-terminus of AAG may influence glycosylase activity for some substrates. Although AAG has been primarily shown to act on double-stranded DNA, AAG excised both epsilonA and Hx from single-stranded DNA, suggesting the possible significance of repair of these frequent lesions in single-stranded DNA transiently generated during replication and transcription.

  17. High level and long life radioactive wastes. Todays situation and future evolutions. Framework and process of the Granite collegial mission of dialogue. FAQ about the Granite collegial mission of dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    On December 9, 1998, the French government decided the construction of two underground laboratories for the study of the disposal of radioactive wastes in the deep underground. One site will be located in a granitic massif which remains to be determined. This document presents the framework and the different steps of the 'Granite' mission: the situation of radioactive wastes in France, some data about the conditioning, storage and reprocessing of high activity and long life radioactive wastes, the legal framework of the management of radioactive wastes and the related warranties, the disposal in deep underground and the realization of underground research laboratories, the government decision of December 9, 1998, the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue and the different steps of the geological surveys about granites. A second part answers some frequently asked questions about the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue: decision procedure, planning of the mission, consultation of the geologic survey, role of the mission, public information etc.. (J.S.)

  18. Moral processing deficit in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia is associated with facial emotion recognition and brain changes in default mode and salience network areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Stam, Daphne; De Winter, François-Laurent; Mantini, Dante; Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt; Van Laere, Koen; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is associated with abnormal emotion recognition and moral processing. We assessed emotion detection, discrimination, matching, selection, and categorization as well as judgments of nonmoral, moral impersonal, moral personal low- and high-conflict scenarios. bvFTD patients gave more utilitarian responses on low-conflict personal moral dilemmas. There was a significant correlation between a facial emotion processing measure derived through principal component analysis and utilitarian responses on low-conflict personal scenarios in the bvFTD group (controlling for MMSE-score and syntactic abilities). Voxel-based morphometric multiple regression analysis in the bvFTD group revealed a significant association between the proportion of utilitarian responses on personal low-conflict dilemmas and gray matter volume in ventromedial prefrontal areas ( p height  emotions in moral cognition and suggest a common basis for deficits in both abilities, possibly related to reduced experience of emotional sensations. At the neural level abnormal moral cognition in bvFTD is related to structural integrity of the medial prefrontal cortex and functional characteristics of the anterior insula. The present findings provide a common basis for emotion recognition and moral reasoning and link them with areas in the default mode and salience network.

  19. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...

  20. Human exploration mission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  1. Mission to the comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.

    1980-01-01

    The plans of space agencies in the United States and Europe for an exploratory comet mission including a one year rendezvous with comet Temple-2 and a fast fly-by of comet Halley are discussed. The mission provides an opportunity to make comparative measurements on the two different types of comets and also satisfies the three major scientific objectives of cometary missions namely: (1) To determine the chemical nature and the physical structure of cometary nuclei, and the changes that occur with time and orbital position. (2) To study the chemical and physical nature of the atmospheres and ionospheres of comets, the processes that occur in them, and their development with time and orbital position. (3) To determine the nature of the tails of comets and the processes by which they are formed, and to characterise the interaction of comets with solar wind. (UK)

  2. Glucose enhancement of recognition memory: differential effects on effortful processing but not aspects of 'remember-know' responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Sünram-Lea, Sandra; Elliott, Jade; Stough, Con; Kennedy, David

    2013-01-01

    The administration of a glucose drink has been shown to enhance cognitive performance with effect sizes comparable with those from pharmaceutical interventions in human trials. In the memory domain, it is currently debated whether glucose facilitation of performance is due to differential targeting of hippocampal memory or whether task effort is a more important determinant. Using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover 2(Drink: glucose/placebo) × 2(Effort: ± secondary task) design, 20 healthy young adults' recognition memory performance was measured using the 'remember-know' procedure. Two high effort conditions (one for each drink) included secondary hand movements during word presentation. A 25 g glucose or 30 mg saccharine (placebo) drink was consumed 10 min prior to the task. The presence of a secondary task resulted in a global impairment of memory function. There were significant Drink × Effort interactions for overall memory accuracy but no differential effects for 'remember' or 'know' responses. These data suggest that, in some circumstances, task effort may be a more important determinant of the glucose facilitation of memory effect than hippocampal mediation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  4. Waste management advisory missions to developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA's Waste Management Advisory Programme (WAMAP) was initiated in 1987 as an interregional technical co-operation project to complement other activities in radioactive waste management. Its creation gave greater recognition to the importance of the safe management of radioactive wastes and promotion of long-term waste management technical assistance strategies for developing countries. Over the past 4 years, international experts have reviewed the radioactive waste management programmes of 29 developing countries. Missions have been conducted within the framework of the IAEA's Waste Management Advisory Programme (WAMAP). Ten of these countries have nuclear power plants in operation or under construction or have nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Altogether, 23 have research reactors or centres, eight have uranium or thorium processing programmes or wastes, and nine essentially have only isotope applications involving the use of radiation sources

  5. Operating the EOSDIS at the land processes DAAC managing expectations, requirements, and performance across agencies, missions, instruments, systems, and user communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, T.A.; ,

    2002-01-01

    NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.

  6. A legacy endures. A Maine system emphasizes its sponsor's mission in all aspects of its work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Marguerite

    2005-01-01

    The Sisters of Charity Health System, Lewiston, ME, a member of Covenant Health Systems, Lexington, MA, remains deeply committed to the mission of service begun by its foundress, St. Marguerite d'Youville. Although St. Marguerite experienced a hard life, her resilience and her commitment to the poor and disadvantaged serve as an inspiration to those who continue her legacy of compassionate care. The founding work of St. Marguerite and the sisters has helped to foster a culture in which the mission of service thrives among the system's 2,000 employees. This culture can be attributed to two things: the system's organizational values of compassion, stewardship, respect, and excellence; and the recognition of those employees whose work embodies these values. From the boardroom to the patient room, mission is integrated into each decision and action. Every two years, each of Covenant Health System's member facilities engages in a mission assessment process that examines various aspects of mission, including Catholic identity, holistic care, care for the poor, mission values integration, ethics and employee relations. In addition, the Sisters of Charity Health System's board has its own standing Mission and Community Committee, which looks strategically at how creatively and faithfully the system is continuing to live its mission.

  7. The processing of semantic relatedness in the brain: Evidence from associative and categorical false recognition effects following transcranial direct current stimulation of the left anterior temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Emiliano; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Díez-Álamo, Antonio M; Alonso, María A; Fernandez, Angel

    2017-08-01

    A dominant view of the role of the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic memory is that it serves as an integration hub, specialized in the processing of semantic relatedness by way of mechanisms that bind together information from different brain areas to form coherent amodal representations of concepts. Two recent experiments, using brain stimulation techniques along with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, have found a consistent false memory reduction effect following stimulation of the ATL, pointing to the importance of the ATL in semantic/conceptual processing. To more precisely identify the specific process being involved, we conducted a DRM experiment in which transcranial direct current stimulation (anode/cathode/sham) was applied over the participants' left ATL during the study of lists of words that were associatively related to their non-presented critical words (e.g., rotten, worm, red, tree, liqueur, unripe, cake, food, eden, peel, for the critical item apple) or categorically related (e.g., pear, banana, peach, orange, cantaloupe, watermelon, strawberry, cherry, kiwi, plum, for the same critical item apple). The results showed that correct recognition was not affected by stimulation. However, an interaction between stimulation condition and type of relation for false memories was found, explained by a significant false recognition reduction effect in the anodal condition for associative lists that was not observed for categorical lists. Results are congruent with previous findings and, more importantly, they help to clarify the nature and locus of false memory reduction effects, suggesting a differential role of the left ATL, and providing critical evidence for understanding the creation of semantic relatedness-based memory illusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Public Interaction with the Juno Mission: Documentation, Discussion, Selection and Processing of JunoCam Images of Jovian Cloud Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Hansen, Candice; Momary, Thomas; Bolton, Scott

    2017-04-01

    additional comments on features from their various points of view, but Juno's science team has no greater weighting in the voting process than the public at large, short of an extraordinary event, such as an impact event or a sudden atmospheric outburst. Public voting was tested for the first time on three regions for PJ3 and has continued for PJ4 and PJ5 with voting on nearly all non-polar images. One of the big challenges in this process was the accurate prediction of which features would be in the field of view at the time of the perijove some 10 days following the end of voting, due to Jupiter's differential rotation. The results of public processing and re-posting of JunoCam images have ranged all the way from artistic renditions up to professional-equivalent analysis that is equivalent to anything JunoCam team members could have produced. All aspects of this effort are available on the Mission Juno web site, linked to the JunoCam instrument (https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/junocam/).

  9. In-Situ Resource Utilization for Space Exploration: Resource Processing, Mission-Enabling Technologies, and Lessons for Sustainability on Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Palaszewski, B. A.; Landis, G. A.; Jaworske, D. A.; Colozza, A. J.; Kulis, M. J.; Heller, R. S.

    2015-01-01

    As humanity begins to reach out into the solar system, it has become apparent that supporting a human or robotic presence in transit andor on station requires significant expendable resources including consumables (to support people), fuel, and convenient reliable power. Transporting all necessary expendables is inefficient, inconvenient, costly, and, in the final analysis, a complicating factor for mission planners and a significant source of potential failure modes. Over the past twenty-five years, beginning with the Space Exploration Initiative, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), academic collaborators, and industrial partners have analyzed, researched, and developed successful solutions for the challenges posed by surviving and even thriving in the resource limited environment(s) presented by near-Earth space and non-terrestrial surface operations. In this retrospective paper, we highlight the efforts of the co-authors in resource simulation and utilization, materials processing and consumable(s) production, power systems and analysis, fuel storage and handling, propulsion systems, and mission operations. As we move forward in our quest to explore space using a resource-optimized approach, it is worthwhile to consider lessons learned relative to efficient utilization of the (comparatively) abundant natural resources and improving the sustainability (and environment) for life on Earth. We reconsider Lunar (and briefly Martian) resource utilization for potential colonization, and discuss next steps moving away from Earth.

  10. Study of individual and group affective processes in the crew of a simulated mission to Mars: Positive affectivity as a valuable indicator of changes in the crew affectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek; Šolcová, Iva

    2014-07-01

    The success of a long-duration space mission depends on various technical demands as well as on the psychological (cognitive, affective, and motivational) adaptation of crewmembers and the quality of interactions within the crew. We examined the ways crewmembers of a 520-day simulated spaceflight to Mars (held in the Institute for Biomedical Problems, in Moscow) experienced and regulated their moods and emotions. Results show that crewmembers experienced predominantly positive emotions throughout their 520-day isolation and the changes in mood of the crewmembers were asynchronous and balanced. The study suggests that during the simulation, crewmembers experienced and regulated their emotions differently than they usually do in their everyday life. In isolation, crewmembers preferred to suppress and neutralize their negative emotions and express overtly only emotions with positive valence. Although the affective processes were almost invariable throughout the simulation, two periods of time when the level of positive emotions declined were identified. Regarding the findings, the paper suggests that changes in positive affectivity could be a more valuable indicator of human experience in demanding but professional environments than changes in negative affectivity. Finally, the paper discusses the phenomenology of emotions during a real space mission.

  11. Striatal and Hippocampal Entropy and Recognition Signals in Category Learning: Simultaneous Processes Revealed by Model-Based fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C.; Preston, Alison R.

    2012-01-01

    Category learning is a complex phenomenon that engages multiple cognitive processes, many of which occur simultaneously and unfold dynamically over time. For example, as people encounter objects in the world, they simultaneously engage processes to determine their fit with current knowledge structures, gather new information about the objects, and…

  12. From Perception to Recognition Memory: Time Course and Lateralization of Neural Substrates of Word and Abstract Picture Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Louis; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.; Baumann, Cedric; Koessler, Laurent; Benar, Christian; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Through study of clinical cases with brain lesions as well as neuroimaging studies of cognitive processing of words and pictures, it has been established that material-specific hemispheric specialization exists. It remains however unclear whether such specialization holds true for all processes involved in complex tasks, such as recognition…

  13. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1 the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2 frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3 the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4 various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition.

  14. Interpreting complex data by methods of recognition and classification in an automated system of aerogeophysical material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval' , L.A.; Dolgov, S.V.; Liokumovich, G.B.; Ovcharenko, A.V.; Priyezzhev, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    The system of automated processing of aerogeophysical data, ASOM-AGS/YeS, is equipped with complex interpretation of multichannel measurements. Algorithms of factor analysis, automatic classification and apparatus of a priori specified (selected) decisive rules are used. The areas of effect of these procedures can be initially limited to the specified geological information. The possibilities of the method are demonstrated by the results of automated processing of the aerogram-spectrometric measurements in the region of the known copper-porphyr manifestation in Kazakhstan. This ore deposit was clearly noted after processing by the method of main components by complex aureole of independent factors U (severe increase), Th (noticeable increase), K (decrease).

  15. Thinking About CAS without Thinking about CAS Doctrine: Selected Interactions of Institutional Processes within the Close Air Support Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    situation; (2) the valuation actors assign to states of the world and to actions; (3) the way actors acquire, process, retain, and use knowledge...situation based on previous experiences or training, or even personal views about the conflict. The valuation actors assign to states of the world and...include one hour on a dedicated air-to-ground training range, such as the Superior Valley range complex near Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, 42

  16. Mission operations technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsi, Giulio

    In the last decade, the operation of a spacecraft after launch has emerged as a major component of the total cost of the mission. This trend is sustained by the increasing complexity, flexibility, and data gathering capability of the space assets and by their greater reliability and consequent longevity. The trend can, however, be moderated by the progressive transfer of selected functions from the ground to the spacecraft and by application, on the ground, of new technology. Advances in ground operations derive from the introduction in the mission operations environment of advanced microprocessor-based workstations in the class of a few million instructions per second and from the selective application of artificial intelligence technology. In the last few years a number of these applications have been developed, tested in operational settings and successfully demonstrated to users. Some are now being integrated in mission operations facilities. An analysis of mission operations indicates that the key areas are: concurrent control of multiple missions; automated/interactive production of command sequences of high integrity at low cost; automated monitoring of spacecraft health and automated aides for fault diagnosis; automated allocation of resources; automated processing of science data; and high-fidelity, high-speed spacecraft simulation. Examples of major advances in selected areas are described.

  17. Get the gist? The effects of processing depth on false recognition in short-term and long-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Flegal, Kristin E.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Gist-based processing has been proposed to account for robust false memories in the converging-associates task. The deep-encoding processes known to enhance verbatim memory also strengthen gist memory and increase distortions of long-term memory (LTM). Recent research has demonstrated that compelling false memory illusions are relatively delay-invariant, also occurring under canonical short-term memory (STM) conditions. To investigate the contributions of gist to false memory at short and lon...

  18. The Gaia mission

    OpenAIRE

    Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia wa...

  19. Targeted and untargeted-metabolite profiling to track the compositional integrity of ginger during processing using digitally-enhanced HPTLC pattern recognition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Reham S; Fathy, Hoda

    2018-03-30

    Tracking the impact of commonly applied post-harvesting and industrial processing practices on the compositional integrity of ginger rhizome was implemented in this work. Untargeted metabolite profiling was performed using digitally-enhanced HPTLC method where the chromatographic fingerprints were extracted using ImageJ software then analysed with multivariate Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for pattern recognition. A targeted approach was applied using a new, validated, simple and fast HPTLC image analysis method for simultaneous quantification of the officially recognized markers 6-, 8-, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol in conjunction with chemometric Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA). The results of both targeted and untargeted metabolite profiling revealed that peeling, drying in addition to storage employed during processing have a great influence on ginger chemo-profile, the different forms of processed ginger shouldn't be used interchangeably. Moreover, it deemed necessary to consider the holistic metabolic profile for comprehensive evaluation of ginger during processing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A regional composite-face effect for species-specific recognition: Upper and lower halves play different roles in holistic processing of monkey faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Quinn, Paul C; Jin, Haiyang; Sun, Yu-Hao P; Tanaka, James W; Pascalis, Olivier; Lee, Kang

    2018-04-25

    Using a composite-face paradigm, we examined the holistic processing induced by Asian faces, Caucasian faces, and monkey faces with human Asian participants in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the upper halves of two faces successively presented were the same or different. A composite-face effect was found for Asian faces and Caucasian faces, but not for monkey faces. In Experiment 2, participants were asked to judge whether the lower halves of the two faces successively presented were the same or different. A composite-face effect was found for monkey faces as well as for Asian faces and Caucasian faces. Collectively, these results reveal that own-species (i.e., own-race and other-race) faces engage holistic processing in both upper and lower halves of the face, but other-species (i.e., monkey) faces engage holistic processing only when participants are asked to match the lower halves of the face. The findings are discussed in the context of a region-based holistic processing account for the species-specific effect in face recognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adapting the SpaceCube v2.0 Data Processing System for Mission-Unique Application Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, David; Gill, Nat; Hasouneh, Munther; Stone, Robert; Winternitz, Luke; Thomas, Luke; Davis, Milton; Sparacino, Pietro; Flatley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The SpaceCube (sup TM) v2.0 system is a superior high performance, reconfigurable, hybrid data processing system that can be used in a multitude of applications including those that require a radiation hardened and reliable solution. This paper provides an overview of the design architecture, flexibility, and the advantages of the modular SpaceCube v2.0 high performance data processing system for space applications. The current state of the proven SpaceCube technology is based on nine years of engineering and operations. Five systems have been successfully operated in space starting in 2008 with four more to be delivered for launch vehicle integration in 2015. The SpaceCube v2.0 system is also baselined as the avionics solution for five additional flight projects and is always a top consideration as the core avionics for new instruments or spacecraft control. This paper will highlight how this multipurpose system is currently being used to solve design challenges of three independent applications. The SpaceCube hardware adapts to new system requirements by allowing for application-unique interface cards that are utilized by reconfiguring the underlying programmable elements on the core processor card. We will show how this system is being used to improve on a heritage NASA GPS technology, enable a cutting-edge LiDAR instrument, and serve as a typical command and data handling (C&DH) computer for a space robotics technology demonstration.

  2. Face Recognition using Approximate Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marso, Karol

    Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various different fields for example in security. Throughout the years this field evolved and there are many approaches and many different algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as effective...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....

  3. Tycho Brahe in China: the Jesuit mission to Peking and the iconography of European instrument-making processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Allan

    In the late 1660s, Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish Jesuit missionary in Peking, was instructed to re-equip the Imperial Observatory. The new instruments which he caused to be built were modelled neither upon contemporary European prototypes, nor those of traditional Chinese astronomy, but on the pieces in Tycho Brahe's Mechanica, of eighty years before. The Chinese instruments were lavishly illustrated, moreover, in 105 woodcuts that contained detailed representations of their processes of construction. It is argued that these illustrations not only give us valuable insights into what the technical Jesuits did in Peking, but show how sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European craftsmen constructed their instruments, for while the location was Oriental, the technology was Western. They can also give important insights into how Tycho's prototypes had been built, and provide us with useful information regarding European instrument-making technology.

  4. Image processing and pattern recognition algorithms for evaluation of crossed immunoelectrophoretic patterns (crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis analysis manager; CREAM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, I; Poulsen, L K; Hagerup, M

    1987-01-01

    points along the precipitation curve in the curve-fitting process. The system has been tested on crossed immunoelectrophoretic patterns as well as crossed radioimmunoelectrophoretic patterns and it has been shown that the system can recognize the same precipitation curves on different immunoplates...

  5. Governance processes and change within organizational participants of multi-sectoral community health care alliances: the mediating role of vision, mission, strategy agreement and perceived alliance value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearld, Larry R; Alexander, Jeffrey A

    2014-03-01

    Multi-sectoral community health care alliances are organizations that bring together individuals and organizations from different industry sectors to work collaboratively on improving the health and health care in local communities. Long-term success and sustainability of alliances are dependent on their ability to galvanize participants to take action within their 'home' organizations and institutionalize the vision, goals, and programs within participating organizations and the broader community. The purpose of this study was to investigate two mechanisms by which alliance leadership and management processes may promote such changes within organizations participating in alliances. The findings of the study suggest that, despite modest levels of change undertaken by participating organizations, more positive perceptions of alliance leadership, decision making, and conflict management were associated with a greater likelihood of participating organizations making changes as a result of their participation in the alliance, in part by promoting greater vision, mission, and strategy agreement and higher levels of perceived value. Leadership processes had a stronger relationship with change within participating organizations than decision-making style and conflict management processes. Open-ended responses by participants indicated that participating organizations most often incorporated new measures or goals into their existing portfolio of strategic plans and activities in response to alliance participation.

  6. From knowledge to recognition: Evaluation of the process of a supervision group through lexical and textual statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Di Falco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The following article shows the process analysis of group supervision within a Therapeutic Community for adolescents with psychiatric problems. The main aim is to explore the influence of the group supervision on the quality of the patients care and, at the same time, the relationship between the therapists. The evaluation was made recording the group meetings and analyzing the transcriptions (representation of therapists’ speeches in written form through the use of statistical text analysis. Data analysis describes the frame of an institution – the TC – where it seems possible to “think” and “rethink” the clinical work and the relationship with patients bearing in mind – at the same time – institutional aspects; patients’ family role; social context; emotional and relational aspects of the therapists.Keywords: Process, Supervision, Therapeutic community

  7. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in the Philippines. Food irradiation process control, regulation and acceptance RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of the Philippines, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission between 3 and 9 May 1991, to the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). This mission included the following: The expert advised and assisted on matters related to food irradiation relevant to the Philippines and its on-going programmes. A meeting was held with the Chairman and several members of the National Committee on Food Irradiation, at which the expert briefed the group on regulatory and implementation developments in other countries of the region, and the globe, and advised on near-term steps to be taken in the Philippines. A related visit and tour of the Food Development Center of Food Terminal Inc., which is pursuing an FAO/IAEA food irradiation research project was also made. Regarding radiation disinfestation of agricultural commodities for quarantine control purposes, visits and discussions were held at the facilities of Philippine - Far East Agro Products Inc., a major exporter, plus to the offices of the Government, Plant Quarantine Service, and the Post Harvest Technology Research Center at the University of the Philippines, Los Banos. In connection with fishery product applications, the expert toured the processing plant of Mindanao Food Corporation and met with its key executives. The firm has a growing export business in frozen raw and processed seafoods, and has been cooperating in an FAO/IAEA supported study of the irradiation of same to improve hygiene and post-defrosting market life. In connection with the promulgation of a first Philippine irradiated foods law and/or regulation, the expert had a meeting with key staff of the Government Bureau of Food and Drugs, again in the company of PNRI staff counterparts. The experts also provided a seminar to PNRI staff and invited guests before leaving for Indonesia, followed by Vietnam for similar UNDP-supported FAO/IAEA missions. (author)

  8. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Indonesia. Food irradiation process control, market testing and economic feasibility RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission to Indonesia between 9 and 16 March 1991, to the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation (CAIR) of BATAN at Jakarta. This mission included the following: The expert advised and assisted on matters related to radiation processing and food irradiation relevant to Indonesia and its on-going programmes, including meetings with CAIR Director, Mrs. Nazly Hilmy, and NAEA Deputy Director General, Dr. H. Nazir Abdullah. Consultations were also held with the various groups within the CAIR regarding their research and development programmes, and in particular the group involved specifically with food irradiation. In the company of CAIR staff members, a meeting was held at the Ministry of Health's Directorate for Food and Drug Control regarding legislative, regulatory and industrial food irradiation actions and activities in other countries, prospects for international trade, and the status of these aspects in Indonesia. A visit and tour was made at the Jakarta facilities of New York City - New Jersey (USA) - based International Flavours and Fragances (IFF) which has certain of its raw materials irradiated for hygienic purposes at the (CAIR). A separate meeting was held at the offices of P.T. Perkasa Rubberindo, whose Sterilindo subsidiary is having an industrial gamma irradiator installed at its rubber products manufacturing site East of Jakarta. The expert provided a seminar on radiation processing in general, followed by a question and - answer session. The expert plus CAIR counterparts visited the Jakarta headquarters of the Indonesian Consumer Organization, an International Organization of Consumer Unions affiliate, that has been the most active in the opposition to food irradiation in Indonesia. Following debriefings the expert moved on the Vietnam leg of the three nation mission trip. (author)

  9. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ''capstone'' team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan

  10. Potentiometric analytical microsystem based on the integration of a gas-diffusion step for on-line ammonium determination in water recycling processes in manned space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-López, Antonio; Ymbern, Oriol; Puyol, Mar; Casalta, Joan Manel; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián

    2015-05-18

    The design, construction and evaluation of a versatile cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-based continuous flow potentiometric microanalyzer to monitor the presence of ammonium ion in recycling water processes for future manned space missions is presented. The microsystem integrates microfluidics, a gas-diffusion module and a detection system in a single substrate. The gas-diffusion module was integrated by a hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The potentiometric detection system is based on an all-solid state ammonium selective electrode and a screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The analytical features provided by the analytical microsystem after the optimization process were a linear range from 0.15 to 500 mg L(-1) and a detection limit of 0.07 ± 0.01 mg L(-1). Nevertheless, the operational features can be easily adapted to other applications through the modification of the hydrodynamic variables of the microfluidic platform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome of the univer......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...... on a shared mission aiming at value creation (in the broadest interpretation). One important aspect of choosing value as the cornerstone of the mission of universities is to stress that the outcome is measured by external stakeholders and by their standards. Most of the paper is devoted to discussing value...... it possible to lead through processes that engage and excite while creating transparency and accountability. The paper will be illustrated with examples from Denmark and the Helios initiative taken by the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV) under the headline “The value creating university – courage...

  12. Imagery encoding and false recognition errors: Examining the role of imagery process and imagery content on source misattributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Mary Ann; Foy, Jeffrey; Schlemmer, Emily; Belser-Ehrlich, Janna

    2010-11-01

    Imagery encoding effects on source-monitoring errors were explored using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm in two experiments. While viewing thematically related lists embedded in mixed picture/word presentations, participants were asked to generate images of objects or words (Experiment 1) or to simply name the items (Experiment 2). An encoding task intended to induce spontaneous images served as a control for the explicit imagery instruction conditions (Experiment 1). On the picture/word source-monitoring tests, participants were much more likely to report "seeing" a picture of an item presented as a word than the converse particularly when images were induced spontaneously. However, this picture misattribution error was reversed after generating images of words (Experiment 1) and was eliminated after simply labelling the items (Experiment 2). Thus source misattributions were sensitive to the processes giving rise to imagery experiences (spontaneous vs deliberate), the kinds of images generated (object vs word images), and the ways in which materials were presented (as pictures vs words).

  13. Hydrogen Detection With a Gas Sensor Array – Processing and Recognition of Dynamic Responses Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwiżdż Patryk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An array consisting of four commercial gas sensors with target specifications for hydrocarbons, ammonia, alcohol, explosive gases has been constructed and tested. The sensors in the array operate in the dynamic mode upon the temperature modulation from 350°C to 500°C. Changes in the sensor operating temperature lead to distinct resistance responses affected by the gas type, its concentration and the humidity level. The measurements are performed upon various hydrogen (17-3000 ppm, methane (167-3000 ppm and propane (167-3000 ppm concentrations at relative humidity levels of 0-75%RH. The measured dynamic response signals are further processed with the Discrete Fourier Transform. Absolute values of the dc component and the first five harmonics of each sensor are analysed by a feed-forward back-propagation neural network. The ultimate aim of this research is to achieve a reliable hydrogen detection despite an interference of the humidity and residual gases.

  14. Iris recognition via plenoptic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J.; Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Bolme, David S.

    2017-11-07

    Iris recognition can be accomplished for a wide variety of eye images by using plenoptic imaging. Using plenoptic technology, it is possible to correct focus after image acquisition. One example technology reconstructs images having different focus depths and stitches them together, resulting in a fully focused image, even in an off-angle gaze scenario. Another example technology determines three-dimensional data for an eye and incorporates it into an eye model used for iris recognition processing. Another example technology detects contact lenses. Application of the technologies can result in improved iris recognition under a wide variety of scenarios.

  15. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  16. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  17. Mission impossible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the holistic approach to the environment within environmental impact assessment (EIA). Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the EIA regulations in Denmark, an important observation is that the environmental concept, from being broad in the initial stages, is narrowed...... considerably in subsequent phases of the EIA process. Although the EIA process starts out as very holistic, ultimately we find that mitigation measures and the regulatory efforts largely mirror traditional regulations, such as the law of environmental protection and other sectoral legislation. The article...

  18. Dawn Mission Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, M. V.; Russell, C. T.; Coradini, A.; Christensen, U.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Jaumann, R.; Keller, U.; Konopliv, A. S.; McCord, T. B.; McFadden, L. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Mottola, S.; Neukum, G.; Pieters, C. M.; Prettyman, T. H.; Raymond, C. A.; Smith, D. E.; Williams, B. G.; Wise, J.; Zuber, M. T.

    2004-11-01

    Dawn, the ninth Discovery mission, will be the first spacecraft to rendezvous with two solar system bodies, the main belt asteroids Vesta and Ceres. This is made possible by utilizing ion propulsion to reach its targets and to maneuver into (and depart) orbits about these bodies. Vesta and Ceres are two terrestrial protoplanets that have survived since the earliest epoch of the solar system and will provide important insights into planet building processes and their evolution under very different circumstances, with and without water. Dawn carries a double framing camera, a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer, and a gamma ray and neutron detector. At Vesta our studies will include the volcanic emplacement of basalts, its differentiation, the possible exposure of its interior near the south pole. At Ceres our studies will include the role of water in its evolution, hydration processes on its surface, and the possible existence of a subsurface ocean. The mission has passed its critical design review and is scheduled to be launched in June 2006 with arrival at Vesta in 2011 and Ceres in 2015. Operation strategies will be presented. Groundbased observations of Vesta, Ceres, and Vesta family members over broad wavelengths, periods and phases will play an important role in detailed mission planning.

  19. The THEMIS Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, J. L

    2009-01-01

    The THEMIS mission aims to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms by employing five identical micro-satellites which line up along the Earth's magnetotail to track the motion of particles, plasma, and waves from one point to another and for the first time, resolve space-time ambiguities in key regions of the magnetosphere on a global scale. The primary goal of THEMIS is to elucidate which magnetotail process is responsible for substorm onset at the region where substorm auroras map: (i) local disruption of the plasma sheet current (current disruption) or (ii) the interaction of the current sheet with the rapid influx of plasma emanating from reconnection. The probes also traverse the radiation belts and the dayside magnetosphere, allowing THEMIS to address additional baseline objectives. This volume describes the mission, the instrumentation, and the data derived from them.

  20. A new selective developmental deficit: Impaired object recognition with normal face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germine, Laura; Cashdollar, Nathan; Düzel, Emrah; Duchaine, Bradley

    2011-05-01

    Studies of developmental deficits in face recognition, or developmental prosopagnosia, have shown that individuals who have not suffered brain damage can show face recognition impairments coupled with normal object recognition (Duchaine and Nakayama, 2005; Duchaine et al., 2006; Nunn et al., 2001). However, no developmental cases with the opposite dissociation - normal face recognition with impaired object recognition - have been reported. The existence of a case of non-face developmental visual agnosia would indicate that the development of normal face recognition mechanisms does not rely on the development of normal object recognition mechanisms. To see whether a developmental variant of non-face visual object agnosia exists, we conducted a series of web-based object and face recognition tests to screen for individuals showing object recognition memory impairments but not face recognition impairments. Through this screening process, we identified AW, an otherwise normal 19-year-old female, who was then tested in the lab on face and object recognition tests. AW's performance was impaired in within-class visual recognition memory across six different visual categories (guns, horses, scenes, tools, doors, and cars). In contrast, she scored normally on seven tests of face recognition, tests of memory for two other object categories (houses and glasses), and tests of recall memory for visual shapes. Testing confirmed that her impairment was not related to a general deficit in lower-level perception, object perception, basic-level recognition, or memory. AW's results provide the first neuropsychological evidence that recognition memory for non-face visual object categories can be selectively impaired in individuals without brain damage or other memory impairment. These results indicate that the development of recognition memory for faces does not depend on intact object recognition memory and provide further evidence for category-specific dissociations in visual

  1. GRACE Status at Mission End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapley, B. D.; Flechtner, F. M.; Watkins, M. M.; Bettadpur, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    The twin satellites of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were launched on March 17, 2002 and have operated for nearly 16 years. The mission objectives are to observe the spatial and temporal variations of the Earth's mass through its effects on the gravity field at the GRACE satellite altitude. The mass changes observed are related to both the changes within the solid earth and the change within and between the Erath system components. A significant cause of the time varying mass is water motion and the GRACE mission has provided a continuous decade long measurement sequence which characterizes the seasonal cycle of mass transport between the oceans, land, cryosphere and atmosphere; its inter-annual variability; and the climate driven secular, or long period, mass transport signals. The fifth reanalysis on the mission data set, the RL05 data, were released in mid-2013. With the planned launch of GRACE Follow-On in early 2018, plans are underway for a reanalysis that will be consistent with the GRACE FO processing standards. The mission is entering the final phases of its operation life with mission end expected to occur in early 2018. The current mission operations strategy emphasizes extending the mission lifetime to obtain an overlap with the GRACE FO. This presentation will review the mission status and the projections for mission lifetime, describe the current operations philosophy and its impact on the science data, discuss the issues related to achieving the GRACE and GRACE FO connection and discuss issues related to science data products during this phase of the mission period.

  2. Indoor navigation by image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Io Teng; Leong, Chi Chong; Hong, Ka Wo; Pun, Chi-Man

    2017-07-01

    With the progress of smartphones hardware, it is simple on smartphone using image recognition technique such as face detection. In addition, indoor navigation system development is much slower than outdoor navigation system. Hence, this research proves a usage of image recognition technique for navigation in indoor environment. In this paper, we introduced an indoor navigation application that uses the indoor environment features to locate user's location and a route calculating algorithm to generate an appropriate path for user. The application is implemented on Android smartphone rather than iPhone. Yet, the application design can also be applied on iOS because the design is implemented without using special features only for Android. We found that digital navigation system provides better and clearer location information than paper map. Also, the indoor environment is ideal for Image recognition processing. Hence, the results motivate us to design an indoor navigation system using image recognition.

  3. Sleep Enhances Explicit Recollection in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Recognition memory is considered to be supported by two different memory processes, i.e., the explicit recollection of information about a previous event and an implicit process of recognition based on a contextual sense of familiarity. Both types of memory supposedly rely on distinct memory systems. Sleep is known to enhance the consolidation of…

  4. Human Factor Investigation of Waste Processing System During the HI-SEAS 4-month Mars Analog Mission in Support of NASA's Logistic Reduction and Repurposing Project: Trash to Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne; Hintze, Paul E.; Miles, John D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is tasked with reducing total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. Trash to Gas (TtG) is a sub task to LRR with efforts focused on development of a technology that converts wastes generated during long duration space missions into high-value products such as methane, water for life support, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. The reuse of discarded materials is a critical component to reducing overall mission mass. The 120 day Hawaii Space Exploration and Analog Simulation provides a unique opportunity to answer questions regarding crew interface and system analysis for designing and developing future flight-like versions of a TtG system. This paper will discuss the human factors that would affect the design of a TtG or other waste processing systems. An overview of the habitat, utility usage, and waste storage and generation is given. Crew time spent preparing trash for TtG processing was recorded. Gas concentrations were measured near the waste storage locations and at other locations in the habitat. In parallel with the analog mission, experimental processing of waste materials in a TtG reactor was performed in order to evaluate performance with realistic waste materials.

  5. Human Factor Investigation of Waste Processing System During the HI-SEAS 4 Month Mars Analog Mission in Support of NASA's Logistic Reduction and Repurposing Project: Trash to Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne; Hintze, Paul; Miles, John D.

    2014-01-01

    NASAs Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is tasked with reducing total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. Trash to Gas (TtG) is a sub task to LRR with efforts focused on development of a technology that converts wastes generated during long duration space missions into high-value products such as methane, water for life support, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. The reuse of discarded materials is a critical component to reducing overall mission mass. The 120 day Hawaii Space Exploration and Analog Simulation provides a unique opportunity to answer questions regarding crew interface and system analysis for designing and developing future flight-like versions of a TtG system. This paper will discuss the human factors that would affect the design of a TtG or other waste processing systems. An overview of the habitat, utility usage, and waste storage and generation is given. Crew time spent preparing trash for TtG processing was recorded. Gas concentrations were measured near the waste storage locations and at other locations in the habitat. In parallel with the analog mission, experimental processing of waste materials in a TtG reactor was performed in order to evaluate performance with realistic waste materials.

  6. License plate recognition using DTCNNs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Brugge, M.H; Stevens, J.H; Nijhuis, J.A G; Spaanenburg, L; Tavsanonoglu, V

    1998-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition requires a series of complex image processing steps. For practical use, the amount of data to he processed must be minimized early on. This paper shows that the computationally most intensive steps can be realized by DTCNNs. Moreover; high-level operations like

  7. Nanosatellite missions - the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Kuschnig, R.; Wenger, M.; Romano, P.

    2017-09-01

    In the beginning, nanosatellite projects were focused on educational aspects. In the meantime, the technology matured and now allows to test, demonstrate and validate new systems, operational procedures and services in space at low cost and within much shorter timescales than traditional space endeavors. The number of spacecraft developed and launched has been increasing exponentially in the last years. The constellation of BRITE nanosatellites is demonstrating impressively that demanding scientific requirements can be met with small, low-cost satellites. Industry and space agencies are now embracing small satellite technology. Particularly in the USA, companies have been established to provide commercial services based on CubeSats. The approach is in general different from traditional space projects with their strict product/quality assurance and documentation requirements. The paper gives an overview of nanosatellite missions in different areas of application. Based on lessons learnt from the BRITE mission and recent developments at TU Graz (in particular the implementation of the OPS-SAT nanosatellite for ESA), enhanced technical possibilities for a future astronomy mission after BRITE will be discussed. Powerful on-board computers will allow on-board data pre-processing. A state-of-the-art telemetry system with high data rates would facilitate interference-free operations and increase science data return.

  8. Mixed deep learning and natural language processing method for fake-food image recognition and standardization to help automated dietary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgec, Simon; Eftimov, Tome; Bucher, Tamara; Koroušić Seljak, Barbara

    2018-04-06

    The present study tested the combination of an established and a validated food-choice research method (the 'fake food buffet') with a new food-matching technology to automate the data collection and analysis. The methodology combines fake-food image recognition using deep learning and food matching and standardization based on natural language processing. The former is specific because it uses a single deep learning network to perform both the segmentation and the classification at the pixel level of the image. To assess its performance, measures based on the standard pixel accuracy and Intersection over Union were applied. Food matching firstly describes each of the recognized food items in the image and then matches the food items with their compositional data, considering both their food names and their descriptors. The final accuracy of the deep learning model trained on fake-food images acquired by 124 study participants and providing fifty-five food classes was 92·18 %, while the food matching was performed with a classification accuracy of 93 %. The present findings are a step towards automating dietary assessment and food-choice research. The methodology outperforms other approaches in pixel accuracy, and since it is the first automatic solution for recognizing the images of fake foods, the results could be used as a baseline for possible future studies. As the approach enables a semi-automatic description of recognized food items (e.g. with respect to FoodEx2), these can be linked to any food composition database that applies the same classification and description system.

  9. The recognition heuristic : A review of theory and tests

    OpenAIRE

    Pachur, T.; Todd, P.; Gigerenzer, G.; Schooler, L.; Goldstein, D.

    2011-01-01

    The recognition heuristic is a prime example of how, by exploiting a match between mind and environment, a simple mental strategy can lead to efficient decision making. The proposal of the heuristic initiated a debate about the processes underlying the use of recognition in decision making. We review research addressing four key aspects of the recognition heuristic: (a) that recognition is often an ecologically valid cue; (b) that people often follow recognition when making inferences; (c) th...

  10. Mission to Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  11. Mission to Planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs

  12. Chiral recognition in separation science: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriba, Gerhard K E

    2013-01-01

    Chiral recognition phenomena play an important role in nature as well as analytical separation sciences. In separation sciences such as chromatography and capillary electrophoresis, enantiospecific interactions between the enantiomers of an analyte and the chiral selector are required in order to observe enantioseparations. Due to the large structural variety of chiral selectors applied, different mechanisms and structural features contribute to the chiral recognition process. This chapter briefly illustrates the current models of the enantiospecific recognition on the structural basics of various chiral selectors.

  13. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bartsch; F. Fitzek; R. H. Rasshofer

    2012-01-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insight...

  14. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  15. Spacelab Mission Implementation Cost Assessment (SMICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynes, B. V.

    1984-01-01

    A total savings of approximately 20 percent is attainable if: (1) mission management and ground processing schedules are compressed; (2) the equipping, staffing, and operating of the Payload Operations Control Center is revised, and (3) methods of working with experiment developers are changed. The development of a new mission implementation technique, which includes mission definition, experiment development, and mission integration/operations, is examined. The Payload Operations Control Center is to relocate and utilize new computer equipment to produce cost savings. Methods of reducing costs by minimizing the Spacelab and payload processing time during pre- and post-mission operation at KSC are analyzed. The changes required to reduce costs in the analytical integration process are studied. The influence of time, requirements accountability, and risk on costs is discussed. Recommendation for cost reductions developed by the Spacelab Mission Implementation Cost Assessment study are listed.

  16. Impact of SNR, masker type and noise reduction processing on sentence recognition performance and listening effort as indicated by the pupil dilation response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; Wendt, Dorothea; Kramer, Sophia E

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that activating the noise reduction scheme in hearing aids results in a smaller peak pupil dilation (PPD), indicating reduced listening effort, at 50% and 95% correct sentence recognition with a 4-talker masker. The objective of this study was to measure the effect...... of the noise reduction scheme (on or off) on PPD and sentence recognition across a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) from +16 dB to -12 dB and two masker types (4-talker and stationary noise). Relatively low PPDs were observed at very low (-12 dB) and very high (+16 dB to +8 dB) SNRs presumably due...... to 'giving up' and 'easy listening', respectively. The maximum PPD was observed with SNRs at approximately 50% correct sentence recognition. Sentence recognition with both masker types was significantly improved by the noise reduction scheme, which corresponds to the shift in performance from SNR function...

  17. The Euclid mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Giuseppe D.; Laureijs, René; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Lorenzo Alvarez, José; Saavedra Criado, Gonzalo; Gaspar Venancio, Luis; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Bönke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jérôme; Berthé, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the scientific objectives. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. All sensor data are downlinked using K-band transmission and processed by a dedicated ground segment for science data processing. The Euclid data and catalogues will be made available to the public at the ESA Science Data Centre.

  18. Repetition and lag effects in movement recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C R; Buckolz, E

    1982-03-01

    Whether repetition and lag improve the recognition of movement patterns was investigated. Recognition memory was tested for one repetition, two-repetitions massed, and two-repetitions distributed with movement patterns at lags of 3, 5, 7, and 13. Recognition performance was examined both immediately afterwards and following a 48 hour delay. Both repetition and lag effects failed to be demonstrated, providing some support for the claim that memory is unaffected by repetition at a constant level of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). There was, as expected, a significant decrease in recognition memory following the retention interval, but this appeared unrelated to repetition or lag.

  19. Man machine interface based on speech recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Carlos A.F.; Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.

    2007-01-01

    This work reports the development of a Man Machine Interface based on speech recognition. The system must recognize spoken commands, and execute the desired tasks, without manual interventions of operators. The range of applications goes from the execution of commands in an industrial plant's control room, to navigation and interaction in virtual environments. Results are reported for isolated word recognition, the isolated words corresponding to the spoken commands. For the pre-processing stage, relevant parameters are extracted from the speech signals, using the cepstral analysis technique, that are used for isolated word recognition, and corresponds to the inputs of an artificial neural network, that performs recognition tasks. (author)

  20. Face Recognition and Tracking in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Vitthal Tathe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Advancement in computer vision technology and availability of video capturing devices such as surveillance cameras has evoked new video processing applications. The research in video face recognition is mostly biased towards law enforcement applications. Applications involves human recognition based on face and iris, human computer interaction, behavior analysis, video surveillance etc. This paper presents face tracking framework that is capable of face detection using Haar features, recognition using Gabor feature extraction, matching using correlation score and tracking using Kalman filter. The method has good recognition rate for real-life videos and robust performance to changes due to illumination, environmental factors, scale, pose and orientations.

  1. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Thailand. Food irradiation programme planning facility operations and pilot scale studies RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    During the week of 21 through 25 May 1991, a mission was completed at the Thailand Office of Atomic Energy for Peace's ''Thai Irradiation Centre''. Meetings and discussions were held with Center staff on all aspects of commercial/industrial multipurpose (food and non-food) processing, handling and marketing. Separate meetings and discussions were held regarding the overall food irradiation programme including FAO/IAEA supported projects. (author)

  2. 77 FR 9590 - Recognition and Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ..., or social service purpose? 5. Discussion of withdrawal of recognition. Are the current procedures for withdrawal of recognition for an organization effective? See 8 CFR 1292.2(c). If not, how can the process be... services in order to ensure that they are serving a non-profit, religious, charitable, or social service...

  3. Effects of Instructions on False Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, John H.; And Others

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various processing instructions on the rate of false recognition. The continuous single-item procedure was used, and false recognitions of four types were examined: synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages…

  4. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  5. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next, the frequency ...

  6. The Netted Humanitarian: Improving the Information and Communications Technology Assessment Process for Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    mode or with multiple hops. Wi-Fi clouds can create temporary Internet “ cafes ” in hospitals or field clinics, boat or helicopter landing zones, and key... preferred route to developing trust in an HA/DR mission, due to the need to quickly establish trusting inter- personal relationships in a very short...describes the situation in real-time. Therefore, the first responders must attempt the tedious and time- consuming task of compiling a COP from a

  7. Critical Robotic Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    2018-04-01

    Perhaps the most critical missions to understanding lunar history are in situ dating and network missions. These would constrain the volcanic and thermal history and interior structure. These data would better constrain lunar evolution models.

  8. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouklik, I [NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future.

  9. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouklik, I.

    1996-01-01

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future

  10. Differential cortical c-Fos and Zif-268 expression after object and spatial memory processing in a standard or episodic-like object recognition task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio F Barbosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory reflects the capacity to recollect what, where and when a specific event happened in an integrative manner. Animal studies have suggested that the medial temporal lobe and the medial pre-frontal cortex are important for episodic-like memory formation. The goal of present study was to evaluate whether there are different patterns of expression of the immediate early genes c-Fos and Zif-268 in these cortical areas after rats are exposed to object recognition tasks with different cognitive demands. Male rats were randomly assigned to five groups: home cage control (CTR-HC, empty open field (CTR-OF, open field with one object (CTR-OF + Obj, novel object recognition task (OR and episodic-like memory task (ELM and were killed one hour after the last behavioral procedure. Rats were able to discriminate the objects in the OR task. In the ELM task, rats showed spatial (but not temporal discrimination of the objects. We found an increase in the c-Fos expression in the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG and in the perirhinal cortex (PRh in the OR and ELM groups. The OR group also presented an increase of c-Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Additionally, the OR and ELM groups had increased expression of Zif-268 in the mPFC. Moreover, Zif-268 was increased in the dorsal CA1 and perirhinal cortex only in the ELM group. In conclusion, the pattern of activation was different in tasks with different cognitive demands. Accordingly, correlation tests suggest the engagement of different neural networks in the object recognition tasks used. Specifically, perirhinal-dentate gyrus co-activation was detected after the what-where memory retrieval, but not after the novel object recognition task. Both regions correlated with the respective behavioral outcome. These findings can be helpful in the understanding of the neural networks underlying memory tasks with different cognitive demands.

  11. Mission operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  12. The DEMETER Science Mission Centre

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lagoutte, D.; Brochot, J.; Y.; de Carvalho, D.; Elie, F.; Harivelo, F.; Hobara, Y.; Madrias, L.; Parrot, M.; Pincon, J. L.; Berthelier, J. J.; Peschard, D.; Seran, E.; Gangloff, M.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Lebreton, J. P.; Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Slominski, J.; Wronowski, R.; Barbier, S.; Bernard, P.; Gaboriaud, A.; Wallut, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2006), s. 428-440 ISSN 0032-0633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Mission Centre * Data processing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006

  13. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  14. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  15. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization...

  16. Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    The mission for Independent Engineering Review of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Systems (IERICS) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has been established with the aim of conducting peer reviews of I and C design documents, implementation processes, prototype I and C systems, and actual systems already deployed in operating NPPs. Organizations in IAEA Member States, such as nuclear utilities, regulators, and technical support organizations can benefit from I and C technical reviews through requesting IERICS missions that provide a detailed technical assessment on I and C systems, as well as recommendations for improvement. The IERICS mission is conducted by a team of international subject matter experts from various complementing technical areas. The review is based on appropriate IAEA documents, such as Safety Guides and Nuclear Energy Series, and the mission's findings are summarized in a mission report, including a list of recommendations, suggestions, and identified good practices. The review is not intended to be a regulatory inspection or an audit against international codes and standards. Rather, it is a peer review aimed at improving design and implementation procedures through an exchange of technical experiences and practices at the working level. The IERICS mission is applicable at any stages of the life cycle of I and C systems in NPPs and it is initiated based on a formal request through official IAEA channels from an organization of a Member State. The formation of the IERICS mission is based on the recommendation of the IAEA Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control (TWG-NPPIC). The recommendation came from the recognition that the IAEA can play an important role in the independent assessment and review of NPP I and C systems in terms of their compliance with IAEA safety guides and technical documents.

  17. The Waste Negotiator's mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Christian

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the Waste Negotiator is to seek out sites for deep underground laboratories to study their potential for disposal of high level radioactive waste. Although appointed by the government, he acts independently. In 1990, faced by severe public criticism at the way that the waste disposal was being handled, and under increasing pressure to find an acceptable solution, the government stopped the work being carried out by ANDRA (Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs) and initiated a full review of the issues involved. At the same time, parliament also started its own extensive investigation to find a way forward. These efforts finally led to the provision of a detailed framework for the management of long lived radioactive waste, including the construction of two laboratories to investigate possible repository sites. The Waste Negotiator was appointed to carry out a full consultative process in the communities which are considering accepting an underground laboratory. (Author)

  18. Resumes of the Bird mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, E.; Borwald, W.; Briess, K.; Kayal, H.; Schneller, M.; Wuensten, Herbert

    2004-11-01

    The DLR micro satellite BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra Red Detection) was piggy- back launched with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C3 into a 570 km circular sun-synchronous orbit on 22 October 2001. The BIRD mission, fully funded by the DLR, answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra- red push-broom sensor system on board of a micro satellite and demonstrates new spacecraft bus technologies. BIRD mission control is conducted by DLR / GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen. Commanding, data reception and data processing is performed via ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany). The BIRD mission is a demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring. In the year 2003 BIRD has been used in the ESA project FUEGOSAT to demonstrate the utilisation of innovative space technologies for fire risk management.

  19. The recognition heuristic: A decade of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Gigerenzer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic exploits the basic psychological capacity for recognition in order to make inferences about unknown quantities in the world. In this article, we review and clarify issues that emerged from our initial work (Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 1999, 2002, including the distinction between a recognition and an evaluation process. There is now considerable evidence that (i the recognition heuristic predicts the inferences of a substantial proportion of individuals consistently, even in the presence of one or more contradicting cues, (ii people are adaptive decision makers in that accordance increases with larger recognition validity and decreases in situations when the validity is low or wholly indeterminable, and (iii in the presence of contradicting cues, some individuals appear to select different strategies. Little is known about these individual differences, or how to precisely model the alternative strategies. Although some researchers have attributed judgments inconsistent with the use of the recognition heuristic to compensatory processing, little research on such compensatory models has been reported. We discuss extensions of the recognition model, open questions, unanticipated results, and the surprising predictive power of recognition in forecasting.

  20. Recognition and Accountability: Sole Parent Postgraduates in University Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Genine A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of ways sole parents sought recognition as postgraduate students in Australian universities. Judith Butler's theory of recognition notes that recognition is always partial and any account we give of ourselves must be given to another. Participants articulated that supervisors were critical in the process of…

  1. Growing fresh food on future space missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinen, Esther; Dueck, Tom; Kempkes, Frank; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with vegetable cultivation that could be faced in a space mission. This paper focusses on optimization, light, temperature and the harvesting process, while other factors concerning cultivation in space missions, i.e. gravity, radiation, were not addressed. It describes the work

  2. Learned image representations for visual recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    This thesis addresses the problem of extracting image structures for representing images effectively in order to solve visual recognition tasks. Problems from diverse research areas (medical imaging, material science and food processing) have motivated large parts of the methodological development...

  3. An Application for Descriptive Nearness: Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Kadirhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Near Set Theory has various applications in the literature. In this paper, using the concept descriptive nearness, we show how to perform iris recognition. This process has a few algorithms given via Mathematica Script Language.

  4. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  5. STS-78 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 patch links past with present to tell the story of its mission and science through a design imbued with the strength and vitality of the 2-dimensional art of North America's northwest coast Indians. Central to the design is the space Shuttle whose bold lines and curves evoke the Indian image for the eagle, a native American symbol of power and prestige as well as the national symbol of the United States. The wings of the Shuttle suggest the wings of the eagle whose feathers, indicative of peace and friendship in Indian tradition, are captured by the U forms, a characteristic feature of Northwest coast Indian art. The nose of the Shuttle is the strong downward curve of the eagle's beak, and the Shuttle's forward windows, the eagle's eyes, represented through the tapered S forms again typical of this Indian art form. The basic black and red atoms orbiting the mission number recall the original NASA emblem while beneath, utilizing Indian ovoid forms, the major mission scientific experiment package LMS (Life and Materials Sciences) housed in the Shuttle's cargo bay is depicted in a manner reminiscent of totem-pole art. This image of a bird poised for flight, so common to Indian art, is counterpointed by an equally familiar Tsimshian Indian symbol, a pulsating sun with long hyperbolic rays, the symbol of life. Within each of these rays are now encased crystals, the products of this mission's 3 major, high-temperature materials processing furnaces. And as the sky in Indian lore is a lovely open country, home of the Sun Chief and accessible to travelers through a hole in the western horizon, so too, space is a vast and beckoning landscape for explorers launched beyond the horizon. Beneath the Tsimshian sun, the colors of the earth limb are appropriately enclosed by a red border representing life to the Northwest coast Indians. The Indian colors of red, navy blue, white, and black pervade the STS-78 path. To the right of the Shuttle-eagle, the constellation

  6. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  7. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    ARM concept would leverage several key ongoing activities in human exploration, space technology, and planetary defense. The ARRM is planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026. Mission Objectives: The Asteroid Redirect Mission is designed to address the need for flight experience in cis-lunar space and provide opportunities for testing the systems, technologies, and capabilities that will be required for future human operations in deep space. A principle objective of the ARM is the development of a high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) vehicle, and the demonstration that it can operate for many years in interplanetary space, which is critical for deep-space exploration missions. A second prime objective of ARM is to conduct a human spaceflight mission involving in-space inter-action with a natural object, in order to provide the systems and operational experience that will be required for eventual human exploration of the Mars system, including the moons Phobos and Deimos. The ARCM provides a focus for the early flights of the Orion program. Astronauts will participate in the scientific in-space investigation of nearly pristine asteroid material, at most only minimally altered by the capture process. The ARCM will provide the opportunity for human explorers to work in space with asteroid material, testing the activities that would be performed and tools that would be needed for later exploration of primitive body surfaces in deep space. The operational experience would be gained close to our home planet, making it a significantly more affordable approach to obtaining this experience. Target Asteroid Candidates: NASA has identified the NEA (341843) 2008 EV5 as the reference target for the ARRM, but is also carrying three other NEAs as potential options [(25143) Itokawa, (162173) Ryugu, and (101955) Bennu]. NASA is continuing to search for additional candidate asteroid targets for ARM. The final target selection for the ARRM will

  8. Recall, Recognition, and the Measurement of Memory for Print Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Richard P. Bagozzi; Alvin J. Silk

    1983-01-01

    The recall and recognition of people for 95 print ads were examined with an aim toward investigating memory structure and decay processes. It was found that recall and recognition do not, by themselves, measure a single underlying memory state. Rather, memory is multidimensional, and recall and recognition capture only a portion of memory, while at the same time reflecting other mental states. When interest in the ads was held constant, however, recall and recognition did measure memory as a ...

  9. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on-site and on-time. At this point, the use of smart cameras – of which the popularity has been increasing – is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image-processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high-bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general-purpose processors. In smart cameras – which are real-life applications of such methods – the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola-Jones face detection method – which was reported to run faster on PCs – was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub-region and mask-based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed-point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub-regions and from each sub-region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements – like face expression, illumination, etc. – were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for recognition. Thanks to its

  10. Multiple Levels of Recognition in Ants: A Feature of Complex Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    diverse. In ants, social interactions are regulated by at least three levels of recognition. Nestmate recognition occurs between colonies, is very effective, and involves fast processing. Within a colony, division of labor is enhanced by recognition of different classes of individuals. Ultimately......, in particular circumstances, such as cooperative colony founding with stable dominance hierarchies, ants are capable of individual recognition. The underlying recognition cues and mechanisms appear to be specific to each recognition level, and their integrated understanding could contribute...

  11. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  12. A new siting process in France for a URL in granite: lessons learnt from the recent consultation mission (January-June 2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merceron, Th.

    2000-01-01

    In December 1998, the French government decided to authorize the construction of an underground research laboratory in a clay formation at Bure near the borders of the Meuse and the Haute-Marne departments, but rejected the selection by ANDRA of a granite site located in the Vienne department to build another laboratory. The government announced then that a new granite site had to be selected as the law of December 1991 requires that more than one underground rock characterisation laboratory has to be built and operated before a decision can be made whether or not to transform one of them into a real HLW deep repository. This paper presents the historical aspects of this new granitic site prospecting and the associated consultation Mission. (author)

  13. The STEREO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The STEREO mission uses twin heliospheric orbiters to track solar disturbances from their initiation to 1 AU. This book documents the mission, its objectives, the spacecraft that execute it and the instruments that provide the measurements, both remote sensing and in situ. This mission promises to unlock many of the mysteries of how the Sun produces what has become to be known as space weather.

  14. VEGA Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    VEGA (mission) is a combined spacecraft mission to VENUS and COMET HALLEY. It was launched in the USSR at the end of 1984. The mission consisted of two identical spacecraft VEGA 1 and VEGA 2. VEGA is an acronym built from the words `Venus' and `Halley' (`Galley' in Russian spelling). The basic design of the spacecraft was the same as has been used many times to deliver Soviet landers and orbiter...

  15. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  16. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The inner magnetosphere imager mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.

    1993-01-01

    After 30 years of in situ measurements of the Earth's magnetosphere, scientists have assembled an incomplete picture of its global composition and dynamics. Imaging the magnetosphere from space will enable scientists to better understand the global shape of the inner magnetosphere, its components and processes. The proposed inner magnetosphere imager (IMI) mission will obtain the first simultaneous images of the component regions of the inner magnetosphere and will enable scientists to relate these global images to internal and external influences as well as local observations. To obtain simultaneous images of component regions of the inner magnetosphere, measurements will comprise: the ring current and inner plasma sheet using energetic neutral atoms; the plasmasphere using extreme ultraviolet; the electron and proton auroras using far ultraviolet (FUV) and x rays; and the geocorona using FUV. The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is performing a concept definition study of the proposed mission. NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has placed the IMI third in its queue of intermediate-class missions for launch in the 1990's. An instrument complement of approximately seven imagers will fly in an elliptical Earth orbit with a seven Earth Radii (R E ) altitude apogee and approximately 4,800-kin altitude perigee. Several spacecraft concepts were examined for the mission. The first concept utilizes a spinning spacecraft with a despun platform. The second concept splits the instruments onto a spin-stabilized spacecraft and a complementary three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Launch options being assessed for the spacecraft range from a Delta 11 for the single and dual spacecraft concepts to dual Taurus launches for the two smaller spacecraft. This paper will address the mission objectives, the spacecraft design considerations, the results of the MSFC concept definition study, and future mission plans

  18. Invariant Face recognition Using Infrared Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, face recognition has become a rapidly growing research topic due to the increasing demands in many applications of our daily life such as airport surveillance, personal identification in law enforcement, surveillance systems, information safety, securing financial transactions, and computer security. The objective of this thesis is to develop a face recognition system capable of recognizing persons with a high recognition capability, low processing time, and under different illumination conditions, and different facial expressions. The thesis presents a study for the performance of the face recognition system using two techniques; the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and the Zernike Moments (ZM). The performance of the recognition system is evaluated according to several aspects including the recognition rate, and the processing time. Face recognition systems that use visual images are sensitive to variations in the lighting conditions and facial expressions. The performance of these systems may be degraded under poor illumination conditions or for subjects of various skin colors. Several solutions have been proposed to overcome these limitations. One of these solutions is to work in the Infrared (IR) spectrum. IR images have been suggested as an alternative source of information for detection and recognition of faces, when there is little or no control over lighting conditions. This arises from the fact that these images are formed due to thermal emissions from skin, which is an intrinsic property because these emissions depend on the distribution of blood vessels under the skin. On the other hand IR face recognition systems still have limitations with temperature variations and recognition of persons wearing eye glasses. In this thesis we will fuse IR images with visible images to enhance the performance of face recognition systems. Images are fused using the wavelet transform. Simulation results show that the fusion of visible and

  19. The Facial Expression Action Stimulus Test. A test battery for the assessment of face memory, face and object perception, configuration processing and facial expression recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice eDe Gelder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to assess face perception skills. In this study, we describe a novel task battery FEAST (Facial Expression Action Stimulus Test developed to test recognition of identity and expressions of human faces as well as stimulus control categories. The FEAST consists of a neutral and emotional face memory task, a face and object identity matching task, a face and house part-to-whole matching task, and a human and animal facial expression matching task. The identity and part-to-whole matching tasks contain both upright and inverted conditions. The results provide reference data of a healthy sample of controls in two age groups for future users of the FEAST.

  20. Covert face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia: a group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Palermo, Romina; Schmalzl, Laura; Coltheart, Max

    2012-03-01

    Even though people with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) never develop a normal ability to "overtly" recognize faces, some individuals show indices of "covert" (or implicit) face recognition. The aim of this study was to demonstrate covert face recognition in CP when participants could not overtly recognize the faces. Eleven people with CP completed three tasks assessing their overt face recognition ability, and three tasks assessing their "covert" face recognition: a Forced choice familiarity task, a Forced choice cued task, and a Priming task. Evidence of covert recognition was observed with the Forced choice familiarity task, but not the Priming task. In addition, we propose that the Forced choice cued task does not measure covert processing as such, but instead "provoked-overt" recognition. Our study clearly shows that people with CP demonstrate covert recognition for faces that they cannot overtly recognize, and that behavioural tasks vary in their sensitivity to detect covert recognition in CP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  1. Window Size Impact in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oresti Banos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Signal segmentation is a crucial stage in the activity recognition process; however, this has been rarely and vaguely characterized so far. Windowing approaches are normally used for segmentation, but no clear consensus exists on which window size should be preferably employed. In fact, most designs normally rely on figures used in previous works, but with no strict studies that support them. Intuitively, decreasing the window size allows for a faster activity detection, as well as reduced resources and energy needs. On the contrary, large data windows are normally considered for the recognition of complex activities. In this work, we present an extensive study to fairly characterize the windowing procedure, to determine its impact within the activity recognition process and to help clarify some of the habitual assumptions made during the recognition system design. To that end, some of the most widely used activity recognition procedures are evaluated for a wide range of window sizes and activities. From the evaluation, the interval 1–2 s proves to provide the best trade-off between recognition speed and accuracy. The study, specifically intended for on-body activity recognition systems, further provides designers with a set of guidelines devised to facilitate the system definition and configuration according to the particular application requirements and target activities.

  2. The role of the hippocampus in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Chris M

    2017-08-01

    Many theories of declarative memory propose that it is supported by partially separable processes underpinned by different brain structures. The hippocampus plays a critical role in binding together item and contextual information together and processing the relationships between individual items. By contrast, the processing of individual items and their later recognition can be supported by extrahippocampal regions of the medial temporal lobes (MTL), particularly when recognition is based on feelings of familiarity without the retrieval of any associated information. These theories are domain-general in that "items" might be words, faces, objects, scenes, etc. However, there is mixed evidence that item recognition does not require the hippocampus, or that familiarity-based recognition can be supported by extrahippocampal regions. By contrast, there is compelling evidence that in humans, hippocampal damage does not affect recognition memory for unfamiliar faces, whilst recognition memory for several other stimulus classes is impaired. I propose that regions outside of the hippocampus can support recognition of unfamiliar faces because they are perceived as discrete items and have no prior conceptual associations. Conversely, extrahippocampal processes are inadequate for recognition of items which (a) have been previously experienced, (b) are conceptually meaningful, or (c) are perceived as being comprised of individual elements. This account reconciles findings from primate and human studies of recognition memory. Furthermore, it suggests that while the hippocampus is critical for binding and relational processing, these processes are required for item recognition memory in most situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  4. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  5. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms or inter...

  6. Mission of Mercy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Some dentists prefer solo charity work, but there is much to be said for collaboration within the profession in reaching out to those who are dentally underserved. Mission of Mercy (MOM) programs are regularly organized across the country for this purpose. This article describes the structure, reach, and personal satisfaction to be gained from such missions.

  7. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in the Republic of Korea. Food irradiation process control and acceptance RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    During the week of 7-12 September 1991, a mission to the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Seoul, was completed. Included in the weeks' activities were a visit at the new KAERI site at Taedock Science Town outside Taejon city; a visit at the Greenpia Tech. Inc. commercial/industrial cobalt-60 gamma irradiator southeast of Seoul plus consultation with Greenpia management; visits at Agriculture and Fisheries Marketing Corporation Headquarters plus its commercial food storage facilities, Seoul, for consultations on food irradiation as it relates to their activities; meetings with the Ministry of Health's Food Advisory Group regarding food irradiation regulations. A half-day seminar on industrial applications of food irradiation technology was presented. Greenpia Technology currently operates its irradiator at well below capacity (about 25%). The company is seeking additional Government approvals for irradiated foods, especially additional spices and dry vegetables seasonings now that the Government has banned ethylene oxide treatment of such products effective July 1st, 1991. (author)

  8. Pattern recognition and classification an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    The use of pattern recognition and classification is fundamental to many of the automated electronic systems in use today. However, despite the existence of a number of notable books in the field, the subject remains very challenging, especially for the beginner. Pattern Recognition and Classification presents a comprehensive introduction to the core concepts involved in automated pattern recognition. It is designed to be accessible to newcomers from varied backgrounds, but it will also be useful to researchers and professionals in image and signal processing and analysis, and in computer visi

  9. Acoustic Pattern Recognition on Android Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Maiken Bjerg; Gaarsdal, Jesper; Steen, Kim Arild

    2013-01-01

    an Android application developed for acoustic pattern recognition of bird species. The acoustic data is recorded using a built-in microphone, and pattern recognition is performed on the device, requiring no network connection. The algorithm is implemented in C++ as a native Android module and the Open......CV library is used for signal processing. We conclude that the approach presented here is a viable solution to pattern recognition problems. Since it requires no network connection, it shows promise in fields such as wildlife research....

  10. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  11. The hierarchical brain network for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.

  12. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Vietnam. Food irradiation programme planning facility operation and pilot scale studies RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Vietnam, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission to Vietnam between 16 and 23 March 1991, to the Hanoi Irradiation Center of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission. This mission included the following: The expert inspected the new Soviet automated, dry storage pilot plant gamma irradiator in the final stages of construction on the outskirts of Hanoi, and met with senior staff of the Hanoi Irradiation Center plus the Center specialized groups to hear and take note of their progress, problems and materials and manpower training expectations, etc. A tour of a large rice and vegetable growing cooperative outside Hanoi was made, followed by a meeting with members of the Cooperative's governing body. This cooperative will participate in pilot scale food irradiation feasibility studies once the new irradiator is operational. The expert provided a technical seminar to the Hanoi Irradiation Center staff, plus a general seminar to members of the Consumers Union of Vietnam plus invited guests, on radiation processing in general and food irradiation in particular, during the week. The expert accompanied Irradiation Center staff to Haiphong to visit the National Institute for Marine Products Research plus two Government-run fishery products processing plants in connection with the marine products side of the national food irradiation programme. He was accompanied to a meeting at the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry to meet with the Vice-Minister and staff plus food and allied industry representatives. (author)

  13. Testing Theories of Recognition Memory by Predicting Performance Across Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David G.; Duncan, Matthew J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Signal-detection theory (SDT) accounts of recognition judgments depend on the assumption that recognition decisions result from a single familiarity-based process. However, fits of a hybrid SDT model, called dual-process theory (DPT), have provided evidence for the existence of a second, recollection-based process. In 2 experiments, the authors…

  14. Infant Visual Recognition Memory: Independent Contributions of Speed and Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined contributions of cognitive processing speed, short-term memory capacity, and attention to infant visual recognition memory. Found that infants who showed better attention and faster processing had better recognition memory. Contributions of attention and processing speed were independent of one another and similar at all ages studied--5,…

  15. New technique for number-plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Shi, Peng-Fei

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents an alternative algorithm for number plate recognition. The algorithm consists of three modules. Respectively, they are number plate location module, character segmentation module and character recognition module. Number plate location module extracts the number plate from the detected car image by analyzing the color and the texture properties. Different from most license plate location methods, the algorithm has fewer limits to the car size, the car position in the image and the image background. Character segmentation module applies connected region algorithm both to eliminate noise points and to segment characters. Touching characters and broken characters can be processed correctly. Character recognition module recognizes characters with HHIC (Hierarchical Hybrid Integrated Classifier). The system has been tested with 100 images obtained from crossroad and parking lot, etc, where the cars have different size, position, background and illumination. Successful recognition rate is about 92%. The average processing time is 1.2 second.

  16. Impaired recognition of happy facial expressions in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Sponheim, Scott R; Goghari, Vina M

    2014-08-01

    The ability to accurately judge facial expressions is important in social interactions. Individuals with bipolar disorder have been found to be impaired in emotion recognition; however, the specifics of the impairment are unclear. This study investigated whether facial emotion recognition difficulties in bipolar disorder reflect general cognitive, or emotion-specific, impairments. Impairment in the recognition of particular emotions and the role of processing speed in facial emotion recognition were also investigated. Clinically stable bipolar patients (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 50) judged five facial expressions in two presentation types, time-limited and self-paced. An age recognition condition was used as an experimental control. Bipolar patients' overall facial recognition ability was unimpaired. However, patients' specific ability to judge happy expressions under time constraints was impaired. Findings suggest a deficit in happy emotion recognition impacted by processing speed. Given the limited sample size, further investigation with a larger patient sample is warranted.

  17. Simulation of Mission Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury

    2016-01-01

    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  18. On-device mobile speech recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, MK

    2016-01-01

    Despite many years of research, Speech Recognition remains an active area of research in Artificial Intelligence. Currently, the most common commercial application of this technology on mobile devices uses a wireless client – server approach to meet the computational and memory demands of the speech recognition process. Unfortunately, such an approach is unlikely to remain viable when fully applied over the approximately 7.22 Billion mobile phones currently in circulation. In this thesis we p...

  19. Material recognition based on thermal cues: Mechanisms and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Ni

    2018-01-01

    Some materials feel colder to the touch than others, and we can use this difference in perceived coldness for material recognition. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying material recognition based on thermal cues. It provides an overview of the physical, perceptual, and cognitive processes involved in material recognition. It also describes engineering domains in which material recognition based on thermal cues have been applied. This includes haptic interfaces that seek to reproduce the sensations associated with contact in virtual environments and tactile sensors aim for automatic material recognition. The review concludes by considering the contributions of this line of research in both science and engineering.

  20. 300 Area fuel supply facilities deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 300 Area fuel supply facilities (formerly call ''N reactor fuel fabrication facilities'') Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process

  1. Designing Mission Operations for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Glen G.; Beerer, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, to understand the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, offered unique challenges to mission operations. From launch through end of mission, the twin GRAIL orbiters had to be operated in parallel. The journey to the Moon and into the low science orbit involved numerous maneuvers, planned on tight timelines, to ultimately place the orbiters into the required formation-flying configuration necessary. The baseline GRAIL mission is short, only 9 months in duration, but progressed quickly through seven very unique mission phases. Compressed into this short mission timeline, operations activities and maneuvers for both orbiters had to be planned and coordinated carefully. To prepare for these challenges, development of the GRAIL Mission Operations System began in 2008. Based on high heritage multi-mission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin, the GRAIL mission operations system was adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper describes GRAIL's system engineering development process for defining GRAIL's operations scenarios and generating requirements, tracing the evolution from operations concept through final design, implementation, and validation.

  2. Proper Names and Named Entities Recognition in the Automatic Text Processing. Review of the book: Nouvel, D., Ehrmann, M., & Rosset, S. (2016. Named Entities for Computational Linguistics. London; Hoboken: ISTE Ltd; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria M. Golikova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The reviewed book by Damien Nouvel, Maud Ehrmann, and Sophie Rosset Named Entities for Computational Linguistics deals with automatic processing of texts, written in a natural language, and with named entities recognition, aimed at extracting most important information in these texts. The notion of named entities here extends to the entire set of linguistic units referring to an object. The researchers minutely consider the concept of named entities, juxtaposing this category to that of proper names and comparing their definitions, and describe all the stages of creation and implementation of automatic text annotation algorithms, as well as different ways of evaluating their performance quality. Proper names, in this context, are seen as a particular instance of named entities, one of the typical sources of reference to real objects to be electronically recognized in the text. The book provides a detailed overview and analysis of previous studies in the same field, based mainly on the English language data. It presents instruments and resources required to create and implement the algorithms in question, these may include typologies, knowledge or databases, and various types of corpora. Theoretical considerations, proposed by the authors, are supported by a significant number of exemplary cases, with algorithms operation principles presented in charts. The reviewed book gives quite a comprehensive picture of modern computational linguistic studies focused on named entities recognition and indicates some problems which are unresolved as yet.

  3. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    satellite. These catalogues will be of enormous value in astronomers' attempts to understand and describe the properties and evolution of stars, and the dynamical motion of these stars within our Galaxy. In the process, HIPPARCOS has discovered many thousands of new binary star systems, measured the precise light variations of many hundreds of thousands of stars over its operational lifetime, and has provided an accurate and independent validation of the predictions of General Relativity. Scientists working with ESA on the HIPPARCOS programme, were at ESOC on 13-14 July to review the progress of the data processing, and to examine whether any further efforts might allow the satellite to continue operating. "All of us are sorry to see the end of this remarkable satellite" said Dr. Michael Perryman, ESA scientist responsible for HIPPARCOS, "On the other end, we are delighted that it has delivered substantially more than it had been originally designed for. When our final results are published, some very interesting new insights into the nature of our Galaxy, its structure and its evolution, will emerge" he added. A large team of scientists from the various ESA member states are responsible for the analysis and interpretation of the vast amount of data that has been generated by the HIPPARCOS satellite, in what is considered to be the largest single data processing challenge ever undertaken in astronomy. Working with ESA since the time of the mission acceptance in 1980, their immediate work will only end with the publication of the HIPPARCOS and Tycho Star Catalogues later this decade. Only then will an astrophysical exploitation of the results commence. Proposals have already been submitted to ESA to follow up its successful breakthrough into space astrometry with new missions proposed for launch early in the next millennium. Note for Editors : The Hipparcos mission was accepted within the ESA mandatory scientific programme in 1980. With overall management by ESA, the system

  4. IntroductionThe Cluster mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fehringer

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission, ESA’s first cornerstone project, together with the SOHO mission, dating back to the first proposals in 1982, was finally launched in the summer of 2000. On 16 July and 9 August, respectively, two Russian Soyuz rockets blasted off from the Russian cosmodrome in Baikonour to deliver two Cluster spacecraft, each into their proper orbit. By the end of August 2000, the four Cluster satellites had reached their final tetrahedral constellation. The commissioning of 44 instruments, both individually and as an ensemble of complementary tools, was completed five months later to ensure the optimal use of their combined observational potential. On 1 February 2001, the mission was declared operational. The main goal of the Cluster mission is to study the small-scale plasma structures in three dimensions in key plasma regions, such as the solar wind, bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail and the auroral zones. With its unique capabilities of three-dimensional spatial resolution, Cluster plays a major role in the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP, where Cluster and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO are the European contributions. Cluster’s payload consists of state-of-the-art plasma instrumentation to measure electric and magnetic fields from the quasi-static up to high frequencies, and electron and ion distribution functions from energies of nearly 0 eV to a few MeV. The science operations are coordinated by the Joint Science Operations Centre (JSOC, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK, and implemented by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC, in Darmstadt, Germany. A network of eight national data centres has been set up for raw data processing, for the production of physical parameters, and their distribution to end users all over the world. The latest information on the Cluster mission can be found at http://sci.esa.int/cluster/.

  5. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, G.; Floberghagen, R.; Menard, Y.; Haagmans, R.

    2013-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in fall 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of three identical satellites. The mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. In case the Swarm satellites are already in orbit, a summary of the on-going mission operations activities will be given. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

  6. IntroductionThe Cluster mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Escoubet

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission, ESA’s first cornerstone project, together with the SOHO mission, dating back to the first proposals in 1982, was finally launched in the summer of 2000. On 16 July and 9 August, respectively, two Russian Soyuz rockets blasted off from the Russian cosmodrome in Baikonour to deliver two Cluster spacecraft, each into their proper orbit. By the end of August 2000, the four Cluster satellites had reached their final tetrahedral constellation. The commissioning of 44 instruments, both individually and as an ensemble of complementary tools, was completed five months later to ensure the optimal use of their combined observational potential. On 1 February 2001, the mission was declared operational. The main goal of the Cluster mission is to study the small-scale plasma structures in three dimensions in key plasma regions, such as the solar wind, bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail and the auroral zones. With its unique capabilities of three-dimensional spatial resolution, Cluster plays a major role in the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP, where Cluster and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO are the European contributions. Cluster’s payload consists of state-of-the-art plasma instrumentation to measure electric and magnetic fields from the quasi-static up to high frequencies, and electron and ion distribution functions from energies of nearly 0 eV to a few MeV. The science operations are coordinated by the Joint Science Operations Centre (JSOC, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK, and implemented by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC, in Darmstadt, Germany. A network of eight national data centres has been set up for raw data processing, for the production of physical parameters, and their distribution to end users all over the world. The latest information on the Cluster mission can be found at http://sci.esa.int/cluster/.

  7. The automaticity of emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jessica L; Robins, Richard W

    2008-02-01

    Evolutionary accounts of emotion typically assume that humans evolved to quickly and efficiently recognize emotion expressions because these expressions convey fitness-enhancing messages. The present research tested this assumption in 2 studies. Specifically, the authors examined (a) how quickly perceivers could recognize expressions of anger, contempt, disgust, embarrassment, fear, happiness, pride, sadness, shame, and surprise; (b) whether accuracy is improved when perceivers deliberate about each expression's meaning (vs. respond as quickly as possible); and (c) whether accurate recognition can occur under cognitive load. Across both studies, perceivers quickly and efficiently (i.e., under cognitive load) recognized most emotion expressions, including the self-conscious emotions of pride, embarrassment, and shame. Deliberation improved accuracy in some cases, but these improvements were relatively small. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for the cognitive processes underlying emotion recognition.

  8. Interest and attention in facial recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Melinda C R; Weaver, George E

    2003-04-01

    When applied to facial recognition, the levels of processing paradigm has yielded consistent results: faces processed in deep conditions are recognized better than faces processed under shallow conditions. However, there are multiple explanations for this occurrence. The own-race advantage in facial recognition, the tendency to recognize faces from one's own race better than faces from another race, is also consistently shown but not clearly explained. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the levels of processing findings in facial recognition are a result of interest and attention, not differences in processing. This hypothesis was tested for both own and other faces with 105 Caucasian general psychology students. Levels of processing was manipulated as a between-subjects variable; students were asked to answer one of four types of study questions, e.g., "deep" or "shallow" processing questions, while viewing the study faces. Students' recognition of a subset of previously presented Caucasian and African-American faces from a test-set with an equal number of distractor faces was tested. They indicated their interest in and attention to the task. The typical levels of processing effect was observed with better recognition performance in the deep conditions than in the shallow conditions for both own- and other-race faces. The typical own-race advantage was also observed regardless of level of processing condition. For both own- and other-race faces, level of processing explained a significant portion of the recognition variance above and beyond what was explained by interest in and attention to the task.

  9. The recognition heuristic: a review of theory and tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Todd, Peter M; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Schooler, Lael J; Goldstein, Daniel G

    2011-01-01

    The recognition heuristic is a prime example of how, by exploiting a match between mind and environment, a simple mental strategy can lead to efficient decision making. The proposal of the heuristic initiated a debate about the processes underlying the use of recognition in decision making. We review research addressing four key aspects of the recognition heuristic: (a) that recognition is often an ecologically valid cue; (b) that people often follow recognition when making inferences; (c) that recognition supersedes further cue knowledge; (d) that its use can produce the less-is-more effect - the phenomenon that lesser states of recognition knowledge can lead to more accurate inferences than more complete states. After we contrast the recognition heuristic to other related concepts, including availability and fluency, we carve out, from the existing findings, some boundary conditions of the use of the recognition heuristic as well as key questions for future research. Moreover, we summarize developments concerning the connection of the recognition heuristic with memory models. We suggest that the recognition heuristic is used adaptively and that, compared to other cues, recognition seems to have a special status in decision making. Finally, we discuss how systematic ignorance is exploited in other cognitive mechanisms (e.g., estimation and preference).

  10. The Recognition Heuristic: A Review of Theory and Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten ePachur

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic is a prime example of how, by exploiting a match between mind and environment, a simple mental strategy can lead to efficient decision making. The proposal of the heuristic initiated a debate about the processes underlying the use of recognition in decision making. We review research addressing four key aspects of the recognition heuristic: (a that recognition is often an ecologically valid cue; (b that people often follow recognition when making inferences; (c that recognition supersedes further cue knowledge; (d that its use can produce the less-is-more effect—the phenomenon that lesser states of recognition knowledge can lead to more accurate inferences than more complete states. After we contrast the recognition heuristic to other related concepts, including availability and fluency, we carve out, from the existing findings, some boundary conditions of the use of the recognition heuristic as well as key questions for future research. Moreover, we summarize developments concerning the connection of the recognition heuristic with memory models. We suggest that the recognition heuristic is used adaptively and that, compared to other cues, recognition seems to have a special status in decision making. Finally, we discuss how systematic ignorance is exploited in other cognitive mechanisms (e.g., estimation and preference.

  11. The Recognition Heuristic: A Review of Theory and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Todd, Peter M.; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Schooler, Lael J.; Goldstein, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    The recognition heuristic is a prime example of how, by exploiting a match between mind and environment, a simple mental strategy can lead to efficient decision making. The proposal of the heuristic initiated a debate about the processes underlying the use of recognition in decision making. We review research addressing four key aspects of the recognition heuristic: (a) that recognition is often an ecologically valid cue; (b) that people often follow recognition when making inferences; (c) that recognition supersedes further cue knowledge; (d) that its use can produce the less-is-more effect – the phenomenon that lesser states of recognition knowledge can lead to more accurate inferences than more complete states. After we contrast the recognition heuristic to other related concepts, including availability and fluency, we carve out, from the existing findings, some boundary conditions of the use of the recognition heuristic as well as key questions for future research. Moreover, we summarize developments concerning the connection of the recognition heuristic with memory models. We suggest that the recognition heuristic is used adaptively and that, compared to other cues, recognition seems to have a special status in decision making. Finally, we discuss how systematic ignorance is exploited in other cognitive mechanisms (e.g., estimation and preference). PMID:21779266

  12. EUCLID mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Oswald; Ergenzinger, Klaus; Tuttle, Sean; Vaillon, L.; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-11-01

    EUCLID, a medium-class mission candidate of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Program, currently in Definition Phase (Phase A/B1), shall map the geometry of the Dark Universe by investigating dark matter distributions, the distance-redshift relationship, and the evolution of cosmic structures. EUCLID consists of a 1.2 m telescope and two scientific instruments for ellipticity and redshift measurements in the visible and nearinfrared wavelength regime. We present a design concept of the EUCLID mission which is fully compliant with the mission requirements. Preliminary concepts of the spacecraft and of the payload including the scientific instruments are discussed.

  13. [Face recognition in patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hirokazu; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that patients with schizophrenia show severe deficiencies in social communication skills. These deficiencies are believed to be partly derived from abnormalities in face recognition. However, the exact nature of these abnormalities exhibited by schizophrenic patients with respect to face recognition has yet to be clarified. In the present paper, we review the main findings on face recognition deficiencies in patients with schizophrenia, particularly focusing on abnormalities in the recognition of facial expression and gaze direction, which are the primary sources of information of others' mental states. The existing studies reveal that the abnormal recognition of facial expression and gaze direction in schizophrenic patients is attributable to impairments in both perceptual processing of visual stimuli, and cognitive-emotional responses to social information. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients show malfunctions in distributed neural regions, ranging from the fusiform gyrus recruited in the structural encoding of facial stimuli, to the amygdala which plays a primary role in the detection of the emotional significance of stimuli. These findings were obtained from research in patient groups with heterogeneous characteristics. Because previous studies have indicated that impairments in face recognition in schizophrenic patients might vary according to the types of symptoms, it is of primary importance to compare the nature of face recognition deficiencies and the impairments of underlying neural functions across sub-groups of patients.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF HOLE RECOGNITION SYSTEM FROM STEP FILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of Hole Recognition System (HRS for Computer-Aided Process Planning (CAPP using a neutral data format produced by CAD system. The geometrical data of holes is retrieved from STandard for the Exchange of Product model data (STEP. Rule-based algorithm is used during recognising process. Current implementation of feature recognition is limited to simple hole feat ures. Test results are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the feature recognition algorithm.

  15. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2...; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization established in the United...

  16. Data processing for the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer and initial scientific results from Chang'e-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Chun-Lai; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Zou, Yong-Liao; Liu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Xin; Tan, Xu; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Zuo, Wei; Wen, Wei-Bin; Peng, Wen-Xi; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is an important payload mounted on the Yutu rover, which is part of the Chang'e-3 mission. The scientific objective of APXS is to perform in-situ analysis of the chemical composition of lunar soil and rock samples. The radioactive sources, 55Fe and 109Cd, decay and produce α-particles and X-rays. When X-rays and α-particles interact with atoms in the surface material, they knock electrons out of their orbits, which release energy by emitting X-rays that can be measured by a silicon drift detector (SDD). The elements and their concentrations can be determined by analyzing their peak energies and intensities. APXS has analyzed both the calibration target and lunar soil once during the first lunar day and again during the second lunar day. The total detection time lasted about 266 min and more than 2000 frames of data records have been acquired. APXS has three operating modes: calibration mode, distance sensing mode and detection mode. In detection mode, work distance can be calculated from the X-ray counting rate collected by SDD. Correction for the effect of temperature has been performed to convert the channel number for each spectrum to X-ray energy. Dead time correction is used to eliminate the systematic error in quantifying the activity of an X-ray pulse in a sample and derive the real count rate. We report APXS data and initial results during the first and second lunar days for the Yutu rover. In this study, we analyze the data from the calibration target and lunar soil on the first lunar day. Seven major elements, including Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti and Fe, have been identified. Comparing the peak areas and ratios of calibration basalt and lunar soil the landing site was found to be depleted in K, and have lower Mg and Al but higher Ca, Ti, and Fe. In the future, we will obtain the elemental concentrations of lunar soil at the Chang'e-3 landing site using APXS data.

  17. Bilingual Language Switching: Production vs. Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Michela; de Bot, Kees

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at assessing how bilinguals select words in the appropriate language in production and recognition while minimizing interference from the non-appropriate language. Two prominent models are considered which assume that when one language is in use, the other is suppressed. The Inhibitory Control (IC) model suggests that, in both production and recognition, the amount of inhibition on the non-target language is greater for the stronger compared to the weaker language. In contrast, the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA) model proposes that, in language recognition, the amount of inhibition on the weaker language is stronger than otherwise. To investigate whether bilingual language production and recognition can be accounted for by a single model of bilingual processing, we tested a group of native speakers of Dutch (L1), advanced speakers of English (L2) in a bilingual recognition and production task. Specifically, language switching costs were measured while participants performed a lexical decision (recognition) and a picture naming (production) task involving language switching. Results suggest that while in language recognition the amount of inhibition applied to the non-appropriate language increases along with its dominance as predicted by the IC model, in production the amount of inhibition applied to the non-relevant language is not related to language dominance, but rather it may be modulated by speakers' unconscious strategies to foster the weaker language. This difference indicates that bilingual language recognition and production might rely on different processing mechanisms and cannot be accounted within one of the existing models of bilingual language processing. PMID:28638361

  18. The SCOPE Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, M.; Tsuda, Y.; Saito, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Takashima, T.; Matsuoka, A.; Kojima, H.; Kasaba, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In order to reach the new horizon of the space physics research, the Plasma Universe, via in-situ measurements in the Earth's magnetosphere, SCOPE will perform formation flying observations combined with high-time resolution electron measurements. The simultaneous multi-scale observations by SCOPE of various plasma dynamical phenomena will enable data-based study of the key space plasma processes from the cross-scale coupling point of view. Key physical processes to be studied are magnetic reconnection under various boundary conditions, shocks in space plasma, collisionless plasma mixing at the boundaries, and physics of current sheets embedded in complex magnetic geometries. The SCOPE formation is made up of 5 spacecraft and is put into the equatorial orbit with the apogee at 30 Re (Re: earth radius). One of the spacecraft is a large mother ship which is equipped with a full suite of particle detectors including ultra-high time resolution electron detector. Among other 4 small spacecraft, one remains near (∼10 km) the mother ship and the spacecraft-pair will focus on the electron-scale physics. Others at the distance of 100∼3000 km(electron∼ion spatial scales) from the mother ship will monitor plasma dynamics surrounding the mother-daughter pair. There is lively on-going discussion on Japan-Europe international collaboration (ESA's Cross-Scale), which would certainly make better the coverage over the scales of interest and thus make the success of the mission, i.e., clarifying the multi-scale nature of the Plasma Universe, to be attained at an even higher level.

  19. Hierarchical Recognition Scheme for Human Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hameed Siddiqi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, human facial expressions recognition (FER has emerged as an important research area. Several factors make FER a challenging research problem. These include varying light conditions in training and test images; need for automatic and accurate face detection before feature extraction; and high similarity among different expressions that makes it difficult to distinguish these expressions with a high accuracy. This work implements a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis-based facial expressions recognition (HL-FER system to tackle these problems. Unlike the previous systems, the HL-FER uses a pre-processing step to eliminate light effects, incorporates a new automatic face detection scheme, employs methods to extract both global and local features, and utilizes a HL-FER to overcome the problem of high similarity among different expressions. Unlike most of the previous works that were evaluated using a single dataset, the performance of the HL-FER is assessed using three publicly available datasets under three different experimental settings: n-fold cross validation based on subjects for each dataset separately; n-fold cross validation rule based on datasets; and, finally, a last set of experiments to assess the effectiveness of each module of the HL-FER separately. Weighted average recognition accuracy of 98.7% across three different datasets, using three classifiers, indicates the success of employing the HL-FER for human FER.

  20. Hierarchical Recognition Scheme for Human Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Truc, Phan Tran Ho

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, human facial expressions recognition (FER) has emerged as an important research area. Several factors make FER a challenging research problem. These include varying light conditions in training and test images; need for automatic and accurate face detection before feature extraction; and high similarity among different expressions that makes it difficult to distinguish these expressions with a high accuracy. This work implements a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis-based facial expressions recognition (HL-FER) system to tackle these problems. Unlike the previous systems, the HL-FER uses a pre-processing step to eliminate light effects, incorporates a new automatic face detection scheme, employs methods to extract both global and local features, and utilizes a HL-FER to overcome the problem of high similarity among different expressions. Unlike most of the previous works that were evaluated using a single dataset, the performance of the HL-FER is assessed using three publicly available datasets under three different experimental settings: n-fold cross validation based on subjects for each dataset separately; n-fold cross validation rule based on datasets; and, finally, a last set of experiments to assess the effectiveness of each module of the HL-FER separately. Weighted average recognition accuracy of 98.7% across three different datasets, using three classifiers, indicates the success of employing the HL-FER for human FER. PMID:24316568

  1. PLA Missions Beyond Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Marc

    2008-01-01

    KEY INSIGHTS: *The PLA is being assigned and training for an increasing variety of missions, including nontraditional battlefields such as outer space and cyber space, as well as nontraditional functions...

  2. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor......The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired...... countries and three firms, where firms first lobby for the policy coordination regime (harmonization versus mutual recognition), and subsequently, in case of harmonization, the global standard is auctioned among the firms. We discuss welfare effects and conclude with policy implications. In particular......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  3. CASE Recognition Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currents, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A total of 294 schools, colleges, and universities received prizes in this year's CASE Recognition program. Awards were given in: public relations programs, student recruitment, marketing, program pulications, news writing, fund raising, radio programming, school periodicals, etc. (MLW)

  4. Pupil dilation during recognition memory: Isolating unexpected recognition from judgment uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Ravi D; O'Connor, Akira R; Dobbins, Ian G

    2016-09-01

    Optimally discriminating familiar from novel stimuli demands a decision-making process informed by prior expectations. Here we demonstrate that pupillary dilation (PD) responses during recognition memory decisions are modulated by expectations, and more specifically, that pupil dilation increases for unexpected compared to expected recognition. Furthermore, multi-level modeling demonstrated that the time course of the dilation during each individual trial contains separable early and late dilation components, with the early amplitude capturing unexpected recognition, and the later trailing slope reflecting general judgment uncertainty or effort. This is the first demonstration that the early dilation response during recognition is dependent upon observer expectations and that separate recognition expectation and judgment uncertainty components are present in the dilation time course of every trial. The findings provide novel insights into adaptive memory-linked orienting mechanisms as well as the general cognitive underpinnings of the pupillary index of autonomic nervous system activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Missions to Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, D. V.; Baines, K. H.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Chassefiere, E.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Esposito, L. W.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Lellouch, E.; Moroz, V. I.; Nagy, A. F.; Owen, T. C.; Oyama, K.-I.; Russell, C. T.; Taylor, F. W.; Young, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    Venus has always been a fascinating objective for planetary studies. At the beginning of the space era Venus became one of the first targets for spacecraft missions. Our neighbour in the solar system and, in size, the twin sister of Earth, Venus was expected to be very similar to our planet. However, the first phase of Venus spacecraft exploration in 1962-1992 by the family of Soviet Venera and Vega spacecraft and US Mariner, Pioneer Venus, and Magellan missions discovered an entirely different, exotic world hidden behind a curtain of dense clouds. These studies gave us a basic knowledge of the conditions on the planet, but generated many more questions concerning the atmospheric composition, chemistry, structure, dynamics, surface-atmosphere interactions, atmospheric and geological evolution, and the plasma environment. Despite all of this exploration by more than 20 spacecraft, the "morning star" still remains a mysterious world. But for more than a decade Venus has been a "forgotten" planet with no new missions featuring in the plans of the world space agencies. Now we are witnessing the revival of interest in this planet: the Venus Orbiter mission is approved in Japan, Venus Express - a European orbiter mission - has successfully passed the selection procedure in ESA, and several Venus Discovery proposals are knocking at the doors of NASA. The paper presents an exciting story of Venus spacecraft exploration, summarizes open scientific problems, and builds a bridge to the future missions.

  6. Hemispheric lateralization of linguistic prosody recognition in comparison to speech and speaker recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitewolf, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-11-15

    Hemispheric specialization for linguistic prosody is a controversial issue. While it is commonly assumed that linguistic prosody and emotional prosody are preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, neuropsychological work directly comparing processes of linguistic prosody and emotional prosody suggests a predominant role of the left hemisphere for linguistic prosody processing. Here, we used two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to clarify the role of left and right hemispheres in the neural processing of linguistic prosody. In the first experiment, we sought to confirm previous findings showing that linguistic prosody processing compared to other speech-related processes predominantly involves the right hemisphere. Unlike previous studies, we controlled for stimulus influences by employing a prosody and speech task using the same speech material. The second experiment was designed to investigate whether a left-hemispheric involvement in linguistic prosody processing is specific to contrasts between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody or whether it also occurs when linguistic prosody is contrasted against other non-linguistic processes (i.e., speaker recognition). Prosody and speaker tasks were performed on the same stimulus material. In both experiments, linguistic prosody processing was associated with activity in temporal, frontal, parietal and cerebellar regions. Activation in temporo-frontal regions showed differential lateralization depending on whether the control task required recognition of speech or speaker: recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved right temporo-frontal areas when it was contrasted against speech recognition; when contrasted against speaker recognition, recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved left temporo-frontal areas. The results show that linguistic prosody processing involves functions of both hemispheres and suggest that recognition of linguistic prosody is based on

  7. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  8. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  9. Social entrepreneurship based on unmet personal needs : a closer investigation of how lead user chracteristics influence the business development process and social mission of latent social entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koers-Stuiver, Dieke Marlies; Groen, Arend J.; Englis-Englis, Paula Danskin

    2017-01-01

    Social entrepreneurs are said to be innovative change agents that create social impact in various industries. Little is known about the specific knowledge endowments they use in starting their business. To provide more insight into the entrepreneurial process of social entrepreneurs, we used

  10. VASIR: An Open-Source Research Platform for Advanced Iris Recognition Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yooyoung; Micheals, Ross J; Filliben, James J; Phillips, P Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    The performance of iris recognition systems is frequently affected by input image quality, which in turn is vulnerable to less-than-optimal conditions due to illuminations, environments, and subject characteristics (e.g., distance, movement, face/body visibility, blinking, etc.). VASIR (Video-based Automatic System for Iris Recognition) is a state-of-the-art NIST-developed iris recognition software platform designed to systematically address these vulnerabilities. We developed VASIR as a research tool that will not only provide a reference (to assess the relative performance of alternative algorithms) for the biometrics community, but will also advance (via this new emerging iris recognition paradigm) NIST's measurement mission. VASIR is designed to accommodate both ideal (e.g., classical still images) and less-than-ideal images (e.g., face-visible videos). VASIR has three primary modules: 1) Image Acquisition 2) Video Processing, and 3) Iris Recognition. Each module consists of several sub-components that have been optimized by use of rigorous orthogonal experiment design and analysis techniques. We evaluated VASIR performance using the MBGC (Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge) NIR (Near-Infrared) face-visible video dataset and the ICE (Iris Challenge Evaluation) 2005 still-based dataset. The results showed that even though VASIR was primarily developed and optimized for the less-constrained video case, it still achieved high verification rates for the traditional still-image case. For this reason, VASIR may be used as an effective baseline for the biometrics community to evaluate their algorithm performance, and thus serves as a valuable research platform.

  11. Image-based automatic recognition of larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ru; Yu, Guiying; Fan, Weijun; Guo, Tiantai

    2010-08-01

    As the main objects, imagoes have been researched in quarantine pest recognition in these days. However, pests in their larval stage are latent, and the larvae spread abroad much easily with the circulation of agricultural and forest products. It is presented in this paper that, as the new research objects, larvae are recognized by means of machine vision, image processing and pattern recognition. More visional information is reserved and the recognition rate is improved as color image segmentation is applied to images of larvae. Along with the characteristics of affine invariance, perspective invariance and brightness invariance, scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted for the feature extraction. The neural network algorithm is utilized for pattern recognition, and the automatic identification of larvae images is successfully achieved with satisfactory results.

  12. Modulation of pathogen recognition by autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun eOh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an ancient biological process for maintaining cellular homeostasis by degradation of long-lived cytosolic proteins and organelles. Recent studies demonstrated that autophagy is availed by immune cells to regulate innate immunity. On the one hand, cells exert direct effector function by degrading intracellular pathogens; on the other hand, autophagy modulates pathogen recognition and downstream signaling for innate immune responses. Pathogen recognition via pattern recognition receptors induces autophagy. The function of phagocytic cells is enhanced by recruitment of autophagy-related proteins. Moreover, autophagy acts as a delivery system for viral replication complexes to migrate to the endosomal compartments where virus sensing occurs. In another case, key molecules of the autophagic pathway have been found to negatively regulate immune signaling, thus preventing aberrant activation of cytokine production and consequent immune responses. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the role of autophagy in pathogen recognition and modulation of innate immune responses.

  13. Automatic modulation recognition of communication signals

    CERN Document Server

    Azzouz, Elsayed Elsayed

    1996-01-01

    Automatic modulation recognition is a rapidly evolving area of signal analysis. In recent years, interest from the academic and military research institutes has focused around the research and development of modulation recognition algorithms. Any communication intelligence (COMINT) system comprises three main blocks: receiver front-end, modulation recogniser and output stage. Considerable work has been done in the area of receiver front-ends. The work at the output stage is concerned with information extraction, recording and exploitation and begins with signal demodulation, that requires accurate knowledge about the signal modulation type. There are, however, two main reasons for knowing the current modulation type of a signal; to preserve the signal information content and to decide upon the suitable counter action, such as jamming. Automatic Modulation Recognition of Communications Signals describes in depth this modulation recognition process. Drawing on several years of research, the authors provide a cr...

  14. Face Recognition in Humans and Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Alice; Tistarelli, Massimo

    The study of human face recognition by psychologists and neuroscientists has run parallel to the development of automatic face recognition technologies by computer scientists and engineers. In both cases, there are analogous steps of data acquisition, image processing, and the formation of representations that can support the complex and diverse tasks we accomplish with faces. These processes can be understood and compared in the context of their neural and computational implementations. In this chapter, we present the essential elements of face recognition by humans and machines, taking a perspective that spans psychological, neural, and computational approaches. From the human side, we overview the methods and techniques used in the neurobiology of face recognition, the underlying neural architecture of the system, the role of visual attention, and the nature of the representations that emerges. From the computational side, we discuss face recognition technologies and the strategies they use to overcome challenges to robust operation over viewing parameters. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a look at some recent studies that compare human and machine performances at face recognition.

  15. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  16. Research on Face Recognition Based on Embedded System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because a number of image feature data to store, complex calculation to execute during the face recognition, therefore the face recognition process was realized only by PCs with high performance. In this paper, the OpenCV facial Haar-like features were used to identify face region; the Principal Component Analysis (PCA was employed in quick extraction of face features and the Euclidean Distance was also adopted in face recognition; as thus, data amount and computational complexity would be reduced effectively in face recognition, and the face recognition could be carried out on embedded platform. Finally, based on Tiny6410 embedded platform, a set of embedded face recognition systems was constructed. The test results showed that the system has stable operation and high recognition rate can be used in portable and mobile identification and authentication.

  17. Face recognition based on improved BP neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gaili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the recognition rate of face recognition, face recognition algorithm based on histogram equalization, PCA and BP neural network is proposed. First, the face image is preprocessed by histogram equalization. Then, the classical PCA algorithm is used to extract the features of the histogram equalization image, and extract the principal component of the image. And then train the BP neural network using the trained training samples. This improved BP neural network weight adjustment method is used to train the network because the conventional BP algorithm has the disadvantages of slow convergence, easy to fall into local minima and training process. Finally, the BP neural network with the test sample input is trained to classify and identify the face images, and the recognition rate is obtained. Through the use of ORL database face image simulation experiment, the analysis results show that the improved BP neural network face recognition method can effectively improve the recognition rate of face recognition.

  18. Parametric cost estimation for space science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Thompson, Bruce E.

    2008-07-01

    Cost estimation for space science missions is critically important in budgeting for successful missions. The process requires consideration of a number of parameters, where many of the values are only known to a limited accuracy. The results of cost estimation are not perfect, but must be calculated and compared with the estimates that the government uses for budgeting purposes. Uncertainties in the input parameters result from evolving requirements for missions that are typically the "first of a kind" with "state-of-the-art" instruments and new spacecraft and payload technologies that make it difficult to base estimates on the cost histories of previous missions. Even the cost of heritage avionics is uncertain due to parts obsolescence and the resulting redesign work. Through experience and use of industry best practices developed in participation with the Aerospace Industries Association (AIA), Northrop Grumman has developed a parametric modeling approach that can provide a reasonably accurate cost range and most probable cost for future space missions. During the initial mission phases, the approach uses mass- and powerbased cost estimating relationships (CER)'s developed with historical data from previous missions. In later mission phases, when the mission requirements are better defined, these estimates are updated with vendor's bids and "bottoms- up", "grass-roots" material and labor cost estimates based on detailed schedules and assigned tasks. In this paper we describe how we develop our CER's for parametric cost estimation and how they can be applied to estimate the costs for future space science missions like those presented to the Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey Study Committees.

  19. Trajectory Design Considerations for Exploration Mission 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn, Timothy F.; Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Batcha, Amelia L.; Williams, Jacob; Pedrotty, Samuel M.

    2018-01-01

    Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will be the first mission to send an uncrewed Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) to cislunar space in the fall of 2019. EM-1 was originally conceived as a lunar free-return mission, but was later changed to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO) mission as a precursor to the Asteroid Redirect Mission. To understand the required mission performance (i.e., propellant requirement), a series of trajectory optimization runs was conducted using JSC's Copernicus spacecraft trajectory optimization tool. In order for the runs to be done in a timely manner, it was necessary to employ a parallelization approach on a computing cluster using a new trajectory scan tool written in Python. Details of the scan tool are provided and how it is used to perform the scans and post-process the results. Initially, a scan of daily due east launched EM-1 DRO missions in 2018 was made. Valid mission opportunities are ones that do not exceed the useable propellant available to perform the required burns. The initial scan data showed the propellant and delta-V performance patterns for each launch period. As questions were raised from different subsystems (e.g., power, thermal, communications, flight operations, etc.), the mission parameters or data that were of interest to them were added to the scan output data file. The additional data includes: (1) local launch and landing times in relation to sunrise and sunset, (2) length of eclipse periods during the in-space portion of the mission, (3) Earth line of sight from cislunar space, (4) Deep Space Network field of view looking towards cislunar space, and (5) variation of the downrange distance from Earth entry interface to splashdown. Mission design trades can also be performed based on the information that the additional data shows. For example, if the landing is in darkness, but the recovery operations team desires a landing in daylight, then an analysis is performed to determine how to change the mission design

  20. A motivational determinant of facial emotion recognition: regulatory focus affects recognition of emotions in faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassenrath, Claudia; Sassenberg, Kai; Ray, Devin G; Scheiter, Katharina; Jarodzka, Halszka

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined an unexplored motivational determinant of facial emotion recognition: observer regulatory focus. It was predicted that a promotion focus would enhance facial emotion recognition relative to a prevention focus because the attentional strategies associated with promotion focus enhance performance on well-learned or innate tasks - such as facial emotion recognition. In Study 1, a promotion or a prevention focus was experimentally induced and better facial emotion recognition was observed in a promotion focus compared to a prevention focus. In Study 2, individual differences in chronic regulatory focus were assessed and attention allocation was measured using eye tracking during the facial emotion recognition task. Results indicated that the positive relation between a promotion focus and facial emotion recognition is mediated by shorter fixation duration on the face which reflects a pattern of attention allocation matched to the eager strategy in a promotion focus (i.e., striving to make hits). A prevention focus did not have an impact neither on perceptual processing nor on facial emotion recognition. Taken together, these findings demonstrate important mechanisms and consequences of observer motivational orientation for facial emotion recognition.

  1. Visual recognition of permuted words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.

  2. DNA recognition by synthetic constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Mosquera, Jesús; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2011-09-05

    The interaction of transcription factors with specific DNA sites is key for the regulation of gene expression. Despite the availability of a large body of structural data on protein-DNA complexes, we are still far from fully understanding the molecular and biophysical bases underlying such interactions. Therefore, the development of non-natural agents that can reproduce the DNA-recognition properties of natural transcription factors remains a major and challenging goal in chemical biology. In this review we summarize the basics of double-stranded DNA recognition by transcription factors, and describe recent developments in the design and preparation of synthetic DNA binders. We mainly focus on synthetic peptides that have been designed by following the DNA interaction of natural proteins, and we discuss how the tools of organic synthesis can be used to make artificial constructs equipped with functionalities that introduce additional properties to the recognition process, such as sensing and controllability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Quadcopter Control Using Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, H.; Darma, S.; Soekirno, S.

    2018-04-01

    This research reported a comparison from a success rate of speech recognition systems that used two types of databases they were existing databases and new databases, that were implemented into quadcopter as motion control. Speech recognition system was using Mel frequency cepstral coefficient method (MFCC) as feature extraction that was trained using recursive neural network method (RNN). MFCC method was one of the feature extraction methods that most used for speech recognition. This method has a success rate of 80% - 95%. Existing database was used to measure the success rate of RNN method. The new database was created using Indonesian language and then the success rate was compared with results from an existing database. Sound input from the microphone was processed on a DSP module with MFCC method to get the characteristic values. Then, the characteristic values were trained using the RNN which result was a command. The command became a control input to the single board computer (SBC) which result was the movement of the quadcopter. On SBC, we used robot operating system (ROS) as the kernel (Operating System).

  4. Multithread Face Recognition in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina Ranjan Kisku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.

  5. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors' facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission

  6. Proactive interference and concurrent inhibitory processes do not differentially affect item and associative recognition: Implication for the age-related associative memory deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jonathan; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested an associative deficit hypothesis [Naveh-Benjamin, M. ( 2000 ). Adult age differences in memory performance: Tests of an associative deficit hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 1170-1187] to explain age-related episodic memory declines. The hypothesis attributes part of the deficient episodic memory performance in older adults to a difficulty in creating and retrieving cohesive episodes. In this article, we further evaluate this hypothesis by testing two alternative processes that potentially mediate associative memory deficits in older adults. Four experiments are presented that assess whether failure of inhibitory processes (proactive interference in Experiments 1 and 2), and concurrent inhibition (in Experiments 3 and 4) are mediating factors in age-related associative deficits. The results suggest that creating conditions that require the operation of inhibitory processes, or that interfere with such processes, cannot simulate associative memory deficit in older adults. Instead, such results support the idea that associative memory deficits reflect a unique binding failure in older adults. This failure seems to be independent of other cognitive processes, including inhibitory and other resource-demanding processes.

  7. Evaluation of atmospheric profiles derived from single- and zero-difference excess phase processing of BeiDou radio occultation data from the FY-3C GNOS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Weihua; Liu, Congliang; Meng, Xiangguang; Sun, Yueqiang; Kirchengast, Gottfried; Du, Qifei; Wang, Xianyi; Yang, Guanglin; Liao, Mi; Yang, Zhongdong; Zhao, Danyang; Xia, Junming; Cai, Yuerong; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Dongwei

    2018-02-01

    The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Occultation Sounder (GNOS) is one of the new-generation payloads onboard the Chinese FengYun 3 (FY-3) series of operational meteorological satellites for sounding the Earth's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. The GNOS was designed for acquiring setting and rising radio occultation (RO) data by using GNSS signals from both the Chinese BeiDou System (BDS) and the US Global Positioning System (GPS). An ultra-stable oscillator with 1 s stability (Allan deviation) at the level of 10-12 was installed on the FY-3C GNOS, and thus both zero-difference and single-difference excess phase processing methods should be feasible for FY-3C GNOS observations. In this study we focus on evaluating zero-difference processing of BDS RO data vs. single-difference processing, in order to investigate the zero-difference feasibility for this new instrument, which after its launch in September 2013 started to use BDS signals from five geostationary orbit (GEO) satellites, five inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites and four medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. We used a 3-month set of GNOS BDS RO data (October to December 2013) for the evaluation and compared atmospheric bending angle and refractivity profiles, derived from single- and zero-difference excess phase data, against co-located profiles from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses. We also compared against co-located refractivity profiles from radiosondes. The statistical evaluation against these reference data shows that the results from single- and zero-difference processing are reasonably consistent in both bias and standard deviation, clearly demonstrating the feasibility of zero differencing for GNOS BDS RO observations. The average bias (and standard deviation) of the bending angle and refractivity profiles were found to be about 0.05 to 0.2 % (and 0.7 to 1.6 %) over the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Zero differencing was found

  8. Evaluation of atmospheric profiles derived from single- and zero-difference excess phase processing of BeiDou radio occultation data from the FY-3C GNOS mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS Occultation Sounder (GNOS is one of the new-generation payloads onboard the Chinese FengYun 3 (FY-3 series of operational meteorological satellites for sounding the Earth's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. The GNOS was designed for acquiring setting and rising radio occultation (RO data by using GNSS signals from both the Chinese BeiDou System (BDS and the US Global Positioning System (GPS. An ultra-stable oscillator with 1 s stability (Allan deviation at the level of 10−12 was installed on the FY-3C GNOS, and thus both zero-difference and single-difference excess phase processing methods should be feasible for FY-3C GNOS observations. In this study we focus on evaluating zero-difference processing of BDS RO data vs. single-difference processing, in order to investigate the zero-difference feasibility for this new instrument, which after its launch in September 2013 started to use BDS signals from five geostationary orbit (GEO satellites, five inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO satellites and four medium Earth orbit (MEO satellites. We used a 3-month set of GNOS BDS RO data (October to December 2013 for the evaluation and compared atmospheric bending angle and refractivity profiles, derived from single- and zero-difference excess phase data, against co-located profiles from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analyses. We also compared against co-located refractivity profiles from radiosondes. The statistical evaluation against these reference data shows that the results from single- and zero-difference processing are reasonably consistent in both bias and standard deviation, clearly demonstrating the feasibility of zero differencing for GNOS BDS RO observations. The average bias (and standard deviation of the bending angle and refractivity profiles were found to be about 0.05 to 0.2 % (and 0.7 to 1.6 % over the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Zero

  9. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, James

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), a NASA four-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in November 2014, will investigate magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of the Earth’s magnetosphere, particularly along its dayside boundary with the solar wind and the neutral sheet in the magnetic tail. Among the important questions about reconnection that will be addressed are the following: Under what conditions can magnetic-field energy be converted to plasma energy by the annihilation of magnetic field through reconnection? How does reconnection vary with time, and what factors influence its temporal behavior? What microscale processes are responsible for reconnection? What determines the rate of reconnection? In order to accomplish its goals the MMS spacecraft must probe both those regions in which the magnetic fields are very nearly antiparallel and regions where a significant guide field exists. From previous missions we know the approximate speeds with which reconnection layers move through space to be from tens to hundreds of km/s. For electron skin depths of 5 to 10 km, the full 3D electron population (10 eV to above 20 keV) has to be sampled at rates greater than 10/s. The MMS Fast-Plasma Instrument (FPI) will sample electrons at greater than 30/s. Because the ion skin depth is larger, FPI will make full ion measurements at rates of greater than 6/s. 3D E-field measurements will be made by MMS once every ms. MMS will use an Active Spacecraft Potential Control device (ASPOC), which emits indium ions to neutralize the photoelectron current and keep the spacecraft from charging to more than +4 V. Because ion dynamics in Hall reconnection depend sensitively on ion mass, MMS includes a new-generation Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) that corrects problems with high proton fluxes that have prevented accurate ion-composition measurements near the dayside magnetospheric boundary. Finally, Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) measurements of electrons and

  10. Post-editing through Speech Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    (i.e. typing, handwriting and speaking) to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the translation process. However, further studies need to be conducted to build up new knowledge about the way in which state-of-the-art speech recognition software can be applied to the post-editing process...

  11. The SOLAR-C Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Solar-C is a Japan-led international solar mission planned to be launched in mid2020. It is designed to investigate the magnetic activities of the Sun, focusing on the study in heating and dynamical phenomena of the chromosphere and corona, and also to develop an algorithm for predicting short and long term solar evolution. Since it has been revealed that the different parts of the magnetized solar atmosphere are essentially coupled, the SOLAR-C should tackle the spatial scales and temperature regimes that need to be observed in order to achieve a comprehensive physical understanding of this coupling. The science of Solar-C will greatly advance our understanding of the Sun, of basic physical processes operating throughout the universe. To dramatically improve the situation, SOLAR-C will carry three dedicated instruments; the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope (SUVIT), the EUV Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVST) and the High Resolution Coronal Imager (HCI), to jointly observe the entire visible solar atmosphere with essentially the same high spatial resolution (0.1-0.3 arcsec), performing high resolution spectroscopic measurements over all atmospheric regions and spectro-polarimetric measurements from the photosphere through the upper chromosphere. In addition, Solar-C will contribute to our understanding on the influence of the Sun-Earth environments with synergetic wide-field observations from ground-based and other space missions. Some leading science objectives and the mission concept, including designs of the three instruments aboard SOLAR-C will be presented.

  12. Page Recognition: Quantum Leap In Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    1989-07-01

    No milestone has proven as elusive as the always-approaching "year of the LAN," but the "year of the scanner" might claim the silver medal. Desktop scanners have been around almost as long as personal computers. And everyone thinks they are used for obvious desktop-publishing and business tasks like scanning business documents, magazine articles and other pages, and translating those words into files your computer understands. But, until now, the reality fell far short of the promise. Because it's true that scanners deliver an accurate image of the page to your computer, but the software to recognize this text has been woefully disappointing. Old optical-character recognition (OCR) software recognized such a limited range of pages as to be virtually useless to real users. (For example, one OCR vendor specified 12-point Courier font from an IBM Selectric typewriter: the same font in 10-point, or from a Diablo printer, was unrecognizable!) Computer dealers have told me the chasm between OCR expectations and reality is so broad and deep that nine out of ten prospects leave their stores in disgust when they learn the limitations. And this is a very important, very unfortunate gap. Because the promise of recognition -- what people want it to do -- carries with it tremendous improvements in our productivity and ability to get tons of written documents into our computers where we can do real work with it. The good news is that a revolutionary new development effort has led to the new technology of "page recognition," which actually does deliver the promise we've always wanted from OCR. I'm sure every reader appreciates the breakthrough represented by the laser printer and page-makeup software, a combination so powerful it created new reasons for buying a computer. A similar breakthrough is happening right now in page recognition: the Macintosh (and, I must admit, other personal computers) equipped with a moderately priced scanner and OmniPage software (from Caere

  13. Recognition of Face and Emotional Facial Expressions in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Tayyib Kadak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a genetically transferred neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe and permanent deficits in many interpersonal relation areas like communication, social interaction and emotional responsiveness. Patients with autism have deficits in face recognition, eye contact and recognition of emotional expression. Both recognition of face and expression of facial emotion carried on face processing. Structural and functional impairment in fusiform gyrus, amygdala, superior temporal sulcus and other brain regions lead to deficits in recognition of face and facial emotion. Therefore studies suggest that face processing deficits resulted in problems in areas of social interaction and emotion in autism. Studies revealed that children with autism had problems in recognition of facial expression and used mouth region more than eye region. It was also shown that autistic patients interpreted ambiguous expressions as negative emotion. In autism, deficits related in various stages of face processing like detection of gaze, face identity, recognition of emotional expression were determined, so far. Social interaction impairments in autistic spectrum disorders originated from face processing deficits during the periods of infancy, childhood and adolescence. Recognition of face and expression of facial emotion could be affected either automatically by orienting towards faces after birth, or by “learning” processes in developmental periods such as identity and emotion processing. This article aimed to review neurobiological basis of face processing and recognition of emotional facial expressions during normal development and in autism.

  14. Super-recognition in development: A case study of an adolescent with extraordinary face recognition skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Rachel J; Mole, Joseph; Bate, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Face recognition abilities vary widely. While face recognition deficits have been reported in children, it is unclear whether superior face recognition skills can be encountered during development. This paper presents O.B., a 14-year-old female with extraordinary face recognition skills: a "super-recognizer" (SR). O.B. demonstrated exceptional face-processing skills across multiple tasks, with a level of performance that is comparable to adult SRs. Her superior abilities appear to be specific to face identity: She showed an exaggerated face inversion effect and her superior abilities did not extend to object processing or non-identity aspects of face recognition. Finally, an eye-movement task demonstrated that O.B. spent more time than controls examining the nose - a pattern previously reported in adult SRs. O.B. is therefore particularly skilled at extracting and using identity-specific facial cues, indicating that face and object recognition are dissociable during development, and that super recognition can be detected in adolescence.

  15. Stakeholder Orientation in Cruise Lines’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Penco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with the extant management literature, mission statements are crucial for the sustainability and growth of any firms and have been considered to be a tool for the strategic management process. Despite the considerable attention awarded to this theme, the role of the mission statement in the strategic management of tourism firms has not been sufficiently highlighted. The present paper tries to bridge this literature gap and aims to (i analyze the content of mission statements; and (ii investigate the stakeholder orientation of cruise line mission statements. We apply a content analysis method to analyze the mission statements of 44 cruise lines, employing three different perspectives: (1 the inclusion of stakeholder groups; (2 mentions of specific “mission” components; (3 reference to four goals usually assigned to mission statements. The analysis was performed using the software package QDA-Miner. The results suggest that it is possible to identify four clusters of firms that present similar content in their mission statements, and that cruise companies tend to reserve a major attention to customers. This contribution presents some valuable research implications mainly useful for researchers and academics, but also maybe of benefit to professionals and investors.

  16. ACADEMIC MISSION - FROM AUTOCRACY TO BUREAUCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mission is generic expression of reason for the existence of an organization. Organizational mission ensure continuity of existence beyond the objectives and targets of activities. It is the expression of an organization's responsibilities towards the environment in which it belongs. As the organization grows and its activities or environmental conditions change, managers adapt their strategies, but stated mission will remain valid for a period of time or unchanged throughout the life of the organization. All managerial elements of the organization are aligned with stated mission, starting from the organization structure, management behavior or specific business processes. The focus of the mission of an higher education institution on a need or several integrated needs, on customers who manifest this need and on how they can be met, that really means defining of its strategic domanin, as a sphere of influence of the organization in their environment. In this sphere of influence, three components integrate on three levels of the mission: to establish needs; identify the customer type to which an organization adress and key competencies that differentiate it from the rest competitors. To that context identifies four specific forms of academic institutions starting from their mission and strategic area: autocratic academic institutions, meritocrate academic institutions, democratic academic institutions, bureaucrats academic institutions.

  17. Neural Correlates of Confidence during Item Recognition and Source Memory Retrieval: Evidence for Both Dual-Process and Strength Memory Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M.; Buchler, Norbou; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James; Cabeza, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Although the medial-temporal lobes (MTL), PFC, and parietal cortex are considered primary nodes in the episodic memory network, there is much debate regarding the contributions of MTL, PFC, and parietal subregions to recollection versus familiarity (dual-process theory) and the feasibility of accounts on the basis of a single memory strength…

  18. Food irradiation process control and acceptance. Regional UNDP project for Asia and the Pacific, mission undertaken in Sri Lanka. Food irradiation process control, regulation and acceptance RPFI-Phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Sri Lanka, the FAO/IAEA expert undertook a one-week mission, between November 10th and 17th 1990, to the Sri Lankan Atomic Energy Authority at Colombo. This included the following: The expert advised and assisted on matters related to food irradiation relevant to Sri Lanka and its on-going programmes. He engaged in a question and answer discussion meeting with representatives of the spice, and ornamental plants exporting trade in the presence of the Atomic Energy Authority Chairman, its chief food technologist, and a food science professor who serves on the Government's Food Advisory Group. The expert assisted with the drafting of what should be the first national food irradiation regulation, and presented and discussed the draft at seminars presented separately to the National Food Advisory Group, and to the National food inspectors who would ultimately be responsible for implementing any such regulation. (author)

  19. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  20. Comparing word and face recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Ro Julia; Starrfelt, Randi

    2017-01-01

    included, as a control, which makes designing experiments all the more challenging. Three main strategies have been used to overcome this problem, each of which has limitations: 1) Compare performances on typical tests of the three stimulus types (e.g., a Face Memory Test, an Object recognition test...... this framework to classify tests and experiments aiming to compare processing across these categories, it becomes apparent that core differences in characteristics (visual and semantic) between the stimuli make the problem of designing comparable tests an insoluble conundrum. By analyzing the experimental...

  1. Psychophysiological indices of recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Heaver, Becky

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been found that during recognition memory tests participants’ pupils dilate more when they view old items compared to novel items. This thesis sought to replicate this novel ‘‘Pupil Old/New Effect’’ (PONE) and to determine its relationship to implicit and explicit mnemonic processes, the veracity of participants’ responses, and the analogous Event-Related Potential (ERP) old/new effect. Across 9 experiments, pupil-size was measured with a video-based eye-tracker during a varie...

  2. Country programming mission. Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Government of Namibia conveyed in a letter dated 29 November 1990 IAEA provided a multi-disciplinary Programming Mission which visited Namibia from 15 - 19 July 1991. The terms of reference of the Mission were: 1. To assess the possibilities and benefits of nuclear energy applications in Namibia's development; 2. To advise on the infrastructure required for nuclear energy projects; 3. To assist in the formulation of project proposals which could be submitted for Agency assistance. This report is based on the findings of the Mission and falls into 3 sections with 8 appendices. The first section is a country profile providing background information, the second section deals with sectorial needs and institutional review of the sectors of agriculture including animal production, life sciences (nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and radiation protection. The third section includes possible future technical co-operation activities

  3. An Introduction to Face Recognition Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Hung Lin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently face recognition is attracting much attention in the society of network multimedia information access.  Areas such as network security, content indexing and retrieval, and video compression benefits from face recognition technology because "people" are the center of attention in a lot of video.  Network access control via face recognition not only makes hackers virtually impossible to steal one's "password", but also increases the user-friendliness in human-computer interaction.  Indexing and/or retrieving video data based on the appearances of particular persons will be useful for users such as news reporters, political scientists, and moviegoers.  For the applications of videophone and teleconferencing, the assistance of face recognition also provides a more efficient coding scheme.  In this paper, we give an introductory course of this new information processing technology.  The paper shows the readers the generic framework for the face recognition system, and the variants that are frequently encountered by the face recognizer.  Several famous face recognition algorithms, such as eigenfaces and neural networks, will also be explained.

  4. Emotion recognition in Chinese people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wong, Raymond; Wang, Kai; Lee, Tatia M C

    2008-01-15

    This study examined whether people with paranoid or nonparanoid schizophrenia would show emotion-recognition deficits, both facial and prosodic. Furthermore, this study examined the neuropsychological predictors of emotion-recognition ability in people with schizophrenia. Participants comprised 86 people, of whom: 43 were people diagnosed with schizophrenia and 43 were controls. The 43 clinical participants were placed in either the paranoid group (n=19) or the nonparanoid group (n=24). Each participant was administered the Facial Emotion Recognition task and the Prosodic Recognition task, together with other neuropsychological measures of attention and visual perception. People suffering from nonparanoid schizophrenia were found to have deficits in both facial and prosodic emotion recognition, after correction for the differences in the intelligence and depression scores between the two groups. Furthermore, spatial perception was observed to be the best predictor of facial emotion identification in individuals with nonparanoid schizophrenia, whereas attentional processing control predicted both prosodic emotion identification and discrimination in nonparanoid schizophrenia patients. Our findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia in remission may still suffer from impairment of certain aspects of emotion recognition.

  5. Oxytocin improves emotion recognition for older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna; Ruffman, Ted; Murray, Janice E; Glue, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Older adults (≥60 years) perform worse than young adults (18-30 years) when recognizing facial expressions of emotion. The hypothesized cause of these changes might be declines in neurotransmitters that could affect information processing within the brain. In the present study, we examined the neuropeptide oxytocin that functions to increase neurotransmission. Research suggests that oxytocin benefits the emotion recognition of less socially able individuals. Men tend to have lower levels of oxytocin and older men tend to have worse emotion recognition than older women; therefore, there is reason to think that older men will be particularly likely to benefit from oxytocin. We examined this idea using a double-blind design, testing 68 older and 68 young adults randomly allocated to receive oxytocin nasal spray (20 international units) or placebo. Forty-five minutes afterward they completed an emotion recognition task assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, neutral, and sad faces. Older males receiving oxytocin showed improved emotion recognition relative to those taking placebo. No differences were found for older females or young adults. We hypothesize that oxytocin facilitates emotion recognition by improving neurotransmission in the group with the worst emotion recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  7. Mars Stratigraphy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  8. The OICETS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jono, Takashi; Arai, Katsuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    The Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS) was successfully launched on 23th August 2005 and thrown into a circular orbit at the altitude of 610 km. The main mission is to demonstrate the free-space inter satellite laser communications with the cooperation of the Advanced Relay and Technology Mission (ARTEMIS) geostationary satellite developed by the European Space Agency. This paper presents the overview of the OICETS and laser terminal, a history of international cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and ESA and typical results of the inter-orbit laser communication experiment carried out with ARTEMIS.

  9. Development of a System for Automatic Recognition of Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Jarina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a review of a research on processing and automatic recognition of speech signals (ARR at the Department of Telecommunications of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of iilina. On-going research is oriented to speech parametrization using 2-dimensional cepstral analysis, and to an application of HMMs and neural networks for speech recognition in Slovak language. The article summarizes achieved results and outlines future orientation of our research in automatic speech recognition.

  10. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  11. Mission statements: selling corporate values to employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, M; Sanderson, S; Luffman, G

    1991-06-01

    This article investigates the reasons for the increasing use of the Company Mission Statement. Using information from a survey of U.K. companies in 1989 it looks at the types of statements issued by companies, their content, usage, and value to managers. Of particular interest is whether the mission is primarily used for the motivation of staff, or for external image building. Related issues are the value of the mission drafting process in bringing managers together to agree common objectives and the use of a hierarchy of statements to reconcile internal and external stakeholders' interests. The conclusion is that the Mission, which includes a statement of company values, is an important tool for managers to assert their leadership within the organization.

  12. PUREX Plant deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the PUREX Deactivation Project mission analysis is to define the problem to be addressed by the PUREX mission, and to lay the ground work for further system definition. The mission analysis is an important first step in the System Engineering (SE) process. This report presents the results of the PUREX Deactivation Project mission analysis. The purpose of the PUREX Deactivation Project is to prepare PUREX for Decontamination and Decommissioning within a five year time frame. This will be accomplished by establishing a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration of the PUREX Plant, that can be preserved for a 10-year horizon. During deactivation, appropriate portions of the safety envelop will be maintained to ensure deactivation takes place in a safe and regulatory compliant manner

  13. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  14. Success with voice recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2003-01-01

    You need a compelling reason to implement voice recognition technology. At my institution, the compelling reason was a turnaround time for Radiology results of more than two days. Only 41 percent of our reports were transcribed and signed within 24 hours. In November 1998, a team from Lehigh Valley Hospital went to RSNA and reviewed every voice system on the market. The evaluation was done with the radiologist workflow in mind, and we came back from the meeting with the vendor selection completed. The next steps included developing a business plan, approval of funds, reference calls to more than 15 sites and contract negotiation, all of which took about six months. The department of Radiology at Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network (LVHHN) is a multi-site center that performs over 360,000 procedures annually. The department handles all modalities of radiology: general diagnosis, neuroradiology, ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI, interventional radiology, arthography, myelography, bone densitometry, nuclear medicine, PET imaging, vascular lab and other advanced procedures. The department consists of 200 FTEs and a medical staff of more than 40 radiologists. The budget is in the $10.3 million range. There are three hospital sites and four outpatient imaging center sites where services are provided. At Lehigh Valley Hospital, radiologists are not dedicated to one subspecialty, so implementing a voice system by modality was not an option. Because transcription was so far behind, we needed to eliminate that part of the process. As a result, we decided to deploy the system all at once and with the radiologists as editors. The planning and testing phase took about four months, and the implementation took two weeks. We deployed over 40 workstations and trained close to 50 physicians. The radiologists brought in an extra radiologist from our group for the two weeks of training. That allowed us to train without taking a radiologist out of the department. We trained three to six

  15. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const

  16. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  17. Investigations into the involvement of NMDA mechanisms in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, E Clea; Barker, Gareth R I; Brown, Malcom W

    2013-11-01

    This review will focus on evidence showing that NMDA receptor neurotransmission is critical for synaptic plasticity processes within brain regions known to be necessary for the formation of object recognition memories. The aim will be to provide evidence concerning NMDA mechanisms related to recognition memory processes and show that recognition memory for objects, places or associations between objects and places depends on NMDA neurotransmission within the perirhinal cortex, temporal association cortex medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Administration of the NMDA antagonist AP5, selectively into each of these brain regions has revealed that the extent of the involvement NMDA receptors appears dependent on the type of information required to solve the recognition memory task; thus NMDA receptors in the perirhinal cortex are crucial for the encoding of long-term recognition memory for objects, and object-in-place associations, but not for short-term recognition memory or for retrieval. In contrast the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex are required for both long-term and short-term recognition memory for places or associations between objects and places, or for recognition memory tasks that have a temporal component. Such studies have therefore confirmed that the multiple brain regions make distinct contributions to recognition memory but in addition that more than one synaptic plasticity process must be involved. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity'. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural circuitry for rat recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, E.C.; Brown, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the roles of different brain regions in recognition memory processes is reviewed. The review concentrates on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rats, including memory for single objects, locations, object–location associations and temporal order. Particular emphasis is given to the potential roles of different regions in the circuit of interacting structures involving the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and medial dorsal thalamus in recognition memory for the association of objects and places. It is concluded that while all structures in this circuit play roles critical to such memory, these roles can potentially be differentiated and differences in the underlying synaptic and biochemical processes involved in each region are beginning to be uncovered. PMID:25315129

  19. Accessing Specific Peptide Recognition by Combinatorial Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming

    Molecular recognition is at the basis of all processes for life, and plays a central role in many biological processes, such as protein folding, the structural organization of cells and organelles, signal transduction, and the immune response. Hence, my PhD project is entitled “Accessing Specific...... Peptide Recognition by Combinatorial Chemistry”. Molecular recognition is a specific interaction between two or more molecules through noncovalent bonding, such as hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, van der Waals forces, π−π, hydrophobic, or electrostatic interactions. The association involves kinetic....... Combinatorial chemistry was invented in 1980s based on observation of functional aspects of the adaptive immune system. It was employed for drug development and optimization in conjunction with high-throughput synthesis and screening. (chapter 2) Combinatorial chemistry is able to rapidly produce many thousands...

  20. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  1. Robust UAV mission planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  2. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  3. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Evers (Lanah); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); A.I. Barros (Ana); H. Monsuur (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUnmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  4. The Lobster Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  5. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Fitzsimons, E; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter.The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper (paper)

  7. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by

  8. The Influence of Emotion on Recognition Memory for Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Pryde, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    According to dual-process models, recognition memory is supported by two distinct processes: familiarity, a relatively automatic process that involves the retrieval of a previously encountered item, and recollection, a more effortful process that involves the retrieval of information associated with the context in which an item was encoded (Mickes, Wais & Wixted, 2009). There is a wealth of research suggesting that recognition memory performance is affected by the emotional content of stimul...

  9. Automatic system for localization and recognition of vehicle plate numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez, N.; Nakano, M.; Pérez-Meana, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a vehicle numbers plate identification system, which extracts the characters features of a plate from a captured image by a digital camera. Then identify the symbols of the number plate using a multilayer neural network. The proposed recognition system consists of two processes: The training process and the recognition process. During the training process, a database is created using 310 vehicular plate images. Then using this database a multilayer neural network is traine...

  10. The NASA X-Ray Mission Concepts Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Robert; Ptak, A.; Bookbinder, J.; Garcia, M.; Smith, R.; Bautz, M.; Bregman, J.; Burrows, D.; Cash, W.; Jones-Forman, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Astrophysics Decadal Survey recommended a significant technology development program towards realizing the scientific goals of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). NASA has undertaken an X-ray mission concepts study to determine alternative approaches to accomplishing IXO's high ranking scientific objectives over the next decade given the budget realities, which make a flagship mission challenging to implement. The goal of the study is to determine the degree to which missions in various cost ranges from $300M to $2B could fulfill these objectives. The study process involved several steps. NASA released a Request for Information in October 2011, seeking mission concepts and enabling technology ideas from the community. The responses included a total of 14 mission concepts and 13 enabling technologies. NASA also solicited membership for and selected a Community Science Team (CST) to guide the process. A workshop was held in December 2011 in which the mission concepts and technology were presented and discussed. Based on the RFI responses and the workshop, the CST then chose a small group of notional mission concepts, representing a range of cost points, for further study. These notional missions concepts were developed through mission design laboratory activities in early 2012. The results of all these activities were captured in the final X-ray mission concepts study report, submitted to NASA in July 2012. In this presentation, we summarize the outcome of the study. We discuss background, methodology, the notional missions, and the conclusions of the study report.

  11. O papel das pistas do contexto verbal no reconhecimento de palavras The role of verbal-context clues in the word-recognition process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Kirchner Guimarães

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O processo de leitura é estudado principalmente com base em dois modelos teóricos: o ascendente (bottom-up, baseado na concepção que considera o desempenho em leitura dependente do processo de decodificação, e o descendente (top-down, fundamentado na concepção que defende que a leitura se apóia especialmente na utilização de informações sintático-semânticas do texto. O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar a contribuição do uso de informações do contexto verbal no reconhecimento de palavras. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os sujeitos com dificuldades na leitura apoiaram-se no contexto verbal para compensar suas dificuldades, lendo corretamente 75,24% das palavras apresentadas.The reading process is studied mainly with basis on two theoretical models: the bottom-up model - based on the conception that considers the reading performance as being dependent on a decoding process, and the top-down model - based on the conception that the reading ability relies mainly on the use of syntactic-semantic information present in the text. This study was targeted at determining the importance of using information provided by the verbal context in recognizing words. Pursuant to the results attained, the subjects with reading problems found support in verbal context to compensate their difficulties, being able to read correctly about 75.24% of the words presented.

  12. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Shultz, Eric; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce

    2015-01-01

    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is currently being explored as the next step towards deep space human exploration, with the ultimate goal of reaching Mars. NASA is currently investigating a number of potential human exploration missions, which will progressively increase the distance and duration that humans spend away from Earth. Missions include extended human exploration in cis-lunar space which, as conceived, would involve durations of around 60 days, and human missions to Mars, which are anticipated to be as long as 1000 days. The amount of logistics required to keep the crew alive and healthy for these missions is significant. It is therefore important that the design and planning for these missions include accurate estimates of logistics requirements. This paper provides a description of a process and calculations used to estimate mass and volume requirements for crew logistics, including consumables, such as food, personal items, gasses, and liquids. Determination of logistics requirements is based on crew size, mission duration, and the degree of closure of the environmental control life support system (ECLSS). Details are provided on the consumption rates for different types of logistics and how those rates were established. Results for potential mission scenarios are presented, including a breakdown of mass and volume drivers. Opportunities for mass and volume reduction are identified, along with potential threats that could possibly increase requirements.

  13. An Investigation of the Role of Grapheme Units in Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupker, Stephen J.; Acha, Joana; Davis, Colin J.; Perea, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    In most current models of word recognition, the word recognition process is assumed to be driven by the activation of letter units (i.e., that letters are the perceptual units in reading). An alternative possibility is that the word recognition process is driven by the activation of grapheme units, that is, that graphemes, rather than letters, are…

  14. Context recognition and situation assessment in autonomous mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavnai, Arie

    1993-05-01

    The capability to recognize the operating context and to assess the situation in real-time is needed, if a high functionality autonomous mobile robot has to react properly and effectively to continuously changing situations and events, either external or internal, while the robot is performing its assigned tasks. A new approach and architecture for context recognition and situation assessment module (CORSA) is presented in this paper. CORSA is a multi-level information processing module which consists of adaptive decision and classification algorithms. It performs dynamic mapping from the data space to the context space, and dynamically decides on the context class. Learning mechanism is employed to update the decision variables so as to minimize the probability of misclassification. CORSA is embedded within the Mission Manager module of the intelligent autonomous hyper-controller (IAHC) of the mobile robot. The information regarding operating context, events and situation is then communicated to other modules of the IAHC where it is used to: (a) select the appropriate action strategy; (b) support the processes to arbitration and conflict resolution between reflexive behaviors and reasoning-driven behaviors; (c) predict future events and situations; and (d) determine criteria and priorities for planning, replanning, and decision making.

  15. Can corrective feedback improve recognition memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, Justin; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2010-06-01

    An understanding of the effects of corrective feedback on recognition memory can inform both recognition theory and memory training programs, but few published studies have investigated the issue. Although the evidence to date suggests that feedback does not improve recognition accuracy, few studies have directly examined its effect on sensitivity, and fewer have created conditions that facilitate a feedback advantage by encouraging controlled processing at test. In Experiment 1, null effects of feedback were observed following both deep and shallow encoding of categorized study lists. In Experiment 2, feedback robustly influenced response bias by allowing participants to discern highly uneven base rates of old and new items, but sensitivity remained unaffected. In Experiment 3, a false-memory procedure, feedback failed to attenuate false recognition of critical lures. In Experiment 4, participants were unable to use feedback to learn a simple category rule separating old items from new items, despite the fact that feedback was of substantial benefit in a nearly identical categorization task. The recognition system, despite a documented ability to utilize controlled strategic or inferential decision-making processes, appears largely impenetrable to a benefit of corrective feedback.

  16. Visual word recognition across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Balota, David A

    2016-08-01

    The current study examines visual word recognition in a large sample (N = 148) across the adult life span and across a large set of stimuli (N = 1,187) in three different lexical processing tasks (pronunciation, lexical decision, and animacy judgment). Although the focus of the present study is on the influence of word frequency, a diverse set of other variables are examined as the word recognition system ages and acquires more experience with language. Computational models and conceptual theories of visual word recognition and aging make differing predictions for age-related changes in the system. However, these have been difficult to assess because prior studies have produced inconsistent results, possibly because of sample differences, analytic procedures, and/or task-specific processes. The current study confronts these potential differences by using 3 different tasks, treating age and word variables as continuous, and exploring the influence of individual differences such as vocabulary, vision, and working memory. The primary finding is remarkable stability in the influence of a diverse set of variables on visual word recognition across the adult age spectrum. This pattern is discussed in reference to previous inconsistent findings in the literature and implications for current models of visual word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. How fast is famous face recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys eBarragan-Jason

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid recognition of familiar faces is crucial for social interactions. However the actual speed with which recognition can be achieved remains largely unknown as most studies have been carried out without any speed constraints. Different paradigms have been used, leading to conflicting results, and although many authors suggest that face recognition is fast, the speed of face recognition has not been directly compared to fast visual tasks. In this study, we sought to overcome these limitations. Subjects performed three tasks, a familiarity categorization task (famous faces among unknown faces, a superordinate categorization task (human faces among animal ones and a gender categorization task. All tasks were performed under speed constraints. The results show that, despite the use of speed constraints, subjects were slow when they had to categorize famous faces: minimum reaction time was 467 ms, which is 180 ms more than during superordinate categorization and 160 ms more than in the gender condition. Our results are compatible with a hierarchy of face processing from the superordinate level to the familiarity level. The processes taking place between detection and recognition need to be investigated in detail.

  18. The optimal viewing position in face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet H; Liu, Tina T

    2012-02-28

    In English word recognition, the best recognition performance is usually obtained when the initial fixation is directed to the left of the center (optimal viewing position, OVP). This effect has been argued to involve an interplay of left hemisphere lateralization for language processing and the perceptual experience of fixating at word beginnings most often. While both factors predict a left-biased OVP in visual word recognition, in face recognition they predict contrasting biases: People prefer to fixate the left half-face, suggesting that the OVP should be to the left of the center; nevertheless, the right hemisphere lateralization in face processing suggests that the OVP should be to the right of the center in order to project most of the face to the right hemisphere. Here, we show that the OVP in face recognition was to the left of the center, suggesting greater influence from the perceptual experience than hemispheric asymmetry in central vision. In contrast, hemispheric lateralization effects emerged when faces were presented away from the center; there was an interaction between presented visual field and location (center vs. periphery), suggesting differential influence from perceptual experience and hemispheric asymmetry in central and peripheral vision.

  19. Three-dimensional fingerprint recognition by using convolution neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qianyu; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-01-01

    With the development of science and technology and the improvement of social information, fingerprint recognition technology has become a hot research direction and been widely applied in many actual fields because of its feasibility and reliability. The traditional two-dimensional (2D) fingerprint recognition method relies on matching feature points. This method is not only time-consuming, but also lost three-dimensional (3D) information of fingerprint, with the fingerprint rotation, scaling, damage and other issues, a serious decline in robustness. To solve these problems, 3D fingerprint has been used to recognize human being. Because it is a new research field, there are still lots of challenging problems in 3D fingerprint recognition. This paper presents a new 3D fingerprint recognition method by using a convolution neural network (CNN). By combining 2D fingerprint and fingerprint depth map into CNN, and then through another CNN feature fusion, the characteristics of the fusion complete 3D fingerprint recognition after classification. This method not only can preserve 3D information of fingerprints, but also solves the problem of CNN input. Moreover, the recognition process is simpler than traditional feature point matching algorithm. 3D fingerprint recognition rate by using CNN is compared with other fingerprint recognition algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed 3D fingerprint recognition method has good recognition rate and robustness.

  20. [Face recognition in patients with autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Inagaki, Masumi

    2012-07-01

    The present study aimed to review previous research conducted on face recognition in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Face recognition is a key question in the ASD research field because it can provide clues for elucidating the neural substrates responsible for the social impairment of these patients. Historically, behavioral studies have reported low performance and/or unique strategies of face recognition among ASD patients. However, the performance and strategy of ASD patients is comparable to those of the control group, depending on the experimental situation or developmental stage, suggesting that face recognition of ASD patients is not entirely impaired. Recent brain function studies, including event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, have investigated the cognitive process of face recognition in ASD patients, and revealed impaired function in the brain's neural network comprising the fusiform gyrus and amygdala. This impaired function is potentially involved in the diminished preference for faces, and in the atypical development of face recognition, eliciting symptoms of unstable behavioral characteristics in these patients. Additionally, face recognition in ASD patients is examined from a different perspective, namely self-face recognition, and facial emotion recognition. While the former topic is intimately linked to basic social abilities such as self-other discrimination, the latter is closely associated with mentalizing. Further research on face recognition in ASD patients should investigate the connection between behavioral and neurological specifics in these patients, by considering developmental changes and the spectrum clinical condition of ASD.

  1. Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  2. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

    1999-01-01

    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems

  3. Risk based decision tool for space exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Cornford, Steve; Moran, Terrence

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an approach and corresponding tool to assess and analyze the risks involved in a mission during the pre-phase A design process. This approach is based on creating a risk template for each subsystem expert involved in the mission design process and defining appropriate interactions between the templates.

  4. Specifying theories of developmental dyslexia: a diffusion model analysis of word recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeguers, M.H.T.; Snellings, P.; Tijms, J.; Weeda, W.D.; Tamboer, P.; Bexkens, A.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of word recognition difficulties in developmental dyslexia is still a topic of controversy. We investigated the contribution of phonological processing deficits and uncertainty to the word recognition difficulties of dyslexic children by mathematical diffusion modeling of visual and

  5. Stereotypes and prejudice affect the recognition of emotional body postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J

    2018-03-26

    Most research on emotion recognition focuses on facial expressions. However, people communicate emotional information through bodily cues as well. Prior research on facial expressions has demonstrated that emotion recognition is modulated by top-down processes. Here, we tested whether this top-down modulation generalizes to the recognition of emotions from body postures. We report three studies demonstrating that stereotypes and prejudice about men and women may affect how fast people classify various emotional body postures. Our results suggest that gender cues activate gender associations, which affect the recognition of emotions from body postures in a top-down fashion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Very deep recurrent convolutional neural network for object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimi, Sourour; Ben Aoun, Najib; Ben Amar, Chokri

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, Computer vision has become a very active field. This field includes methods for processing, analyzing, and understanding images. The most challenging problems in computer vision are image classification and object recognition. This paper presents a new approach for object recognition task. This approach exploits the success of the Very Deep Convolutional Neural Network for object recognition. In fact, it improves the convolutional layers by adding recurrent connections. This proposed approach was evaluated on two object recognition benchmarks: Pascal VOC 2007 and CIFAR-10. The experimental results prove the efficiency of our method in comparison with the state of the art methods.

  7. Description and recognition of patterns in stochastic signals. [Electroencephalograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flik, T [Technische Univ. Berlin (F.R. Germany). Informatik-Forschungsgruppe Rechnerorganisation und Schaltwerke

    1975-10-01

    A method is shown for the description and recognition of patterns in stochastic signals such as electroencephalograms. For pattern extraction the signal is segmented at times of minimum amplitudes. The describing features consist of geometric values of the so defined patterns. The classification algorithm is based on the regression analysis, which is well known in the field of character recognition. For an economic classification a method is proposed which reduces the number of features. The quality of this pattern recognition method is demonstrated by the detection of spike wave complexes in electroencephalograms. The pattern description and recognition are provided for processing on a digital computer. (DE)

  8. Can Mission Predict School Performance? The Case of Basic Education in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Ismail, Omer Hashim

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the relationship between the mission statements and performance of Basic Education Schools in Oman. The process of mission statement framing was also investigated. A sample of 161 school mission statements was randomly collected from the Ministry of Education school mission portal database representing…

  9. The Medial Dorsal Thalamic Nucleus and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of the Rat Function Together to Support Associative Recognition and Recency but Not Item Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Laura; Brown, Malcolm W.; Aggleton, John P.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2013-01-01

    In humans recognition memory deficits, a typical feature of diencephalic amnesia, have been tentatively linked to mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) damage. Animal studies have occasionally investigated the role of the MD in single-item recognition, but have not systematically analyzed its involvement in other recognition memory processes. In…

  10. Hybrid methodological approach to context-dependent speech recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragiša Mišković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of contextual information in speech recognition has been acknowledged for a long time now, it has remained clearly underutilized even in state-of-the-art speech recognition systems. This article introduces a novel, methodologically hybrid approach to the research question of context-dependent speech recognition in human–machine interaction. To the extent that it is hybrid, the approach integrates aspects of both statistical and representational paradigms. We extend the standard statistical pattern-matching approach with a cognitively inspired and analytically tractable model with explanatory power. This methodological extension allows for accounting for contextual information which is otherwise unavailable in speech recognition systems, and using it to improve post-processing of recognition hypotheses. The article introduces an algorithm for evaluation of recognition hypotheses, illustrates it for concrete interaction domains, and discusses its implementation within two prototype conversational agents.

  11. A Review on Video-Based Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-Ru Ke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article surveys extensively the current progresses made toward video-based human activity recognition. Three aspects for human activity recognition are addressed including core technology, human activity recognition systems, and applications from low-level to high-level representation. In the core technology, three critical processing stages are thoroughly discussed mainly: human object segmentation, feature extraction and representation, activity detection and classification algorithms. In the human activity recognition systems, three main types are mentioned, including single person activity recognition, multiple people interaction and crowd behavior, and abnormal activity recognition. Finally the domains of applications are discussed in detail, specifically, on surveillance environments, entertainment environments and healthcare systems. Our survey, which aims to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the field, also addresses several challenges associated with these systems and applications. Moreover, in this survey, various applications are discussed in great detail, specifically, a survey on the applications in healthcare monitoring systems.

  12. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  13. Exploration Mission Benefits From Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Schlesinger, Thilini; Ewert, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Technologies that reduce logistical mass, volume, and the crew time dedicated to logistics management become more important as exploration missions extend further from the Earth. Even modest reductions in logical mass can have a significant impact because it also reduces the packing burden. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems' Logistics Reduction Project is developing technologies that can directly reduce the mass and volume of crew clothing and metabolic waste collection. Also, cargo bags have been developed that can be reconfigured for crew outfitting and trash processing technologies to increase habitable volume and improve protection against solar storm events are under development. Additionally, Mars class missions are sufficiently distant that even logistics management without resupply can be problematic due to the communication time delay with Earth. Although exploration vehicles are launched with all consumables and logistics in a defined configuration, the configuration continually changes as the mission progresses. Traditionally significant ground and crew time has been required to understand the evolving configuration and locate misplaced items. For key mission events and unplanned contingencies, the crew will not be able to rely on the ground for logistics localization assistance. NASA has been developing a radio frequency identification autonomous logistics management system to reduce crew time for general inventory and enable greater crew self-response to unplanned events when a wide range of items may need to be located in a very short time period. This paper provides a status of the technologies being developed and there mission benefits for exploration missions.

  14. Image preprocessing study on KPCA-based face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Li, Dehua

    2015-12-01

    Face recognition as an important biometric identification method, with its friendly, natural, convenient advantages, has obtained more and more attention. This paper intends to research a face recognition system including face detection, feature extraction and face recognition, mainly through researching on related theory and the key technology of various preprocessing methods in face detection process, using KPCA method, focuses on the different recognition results in different preprocessing methods. In this paper, we choose YCbCr color space for skin segmentation and choose integral projection for face location. We use erosion and dilation of the opening and closing operation and illumination compensation method to preprocess face images, and then use the face recognition method based on kernel principal component analysis method for analysis and research, and the experiments were carried out using the typical face database. The algorithms experiment on MATLAB platform. Experimental results show that integration of the kernel method based on PCA algorithm under certain conditions make the extracted features represent the original image information better for using nonlinear feature extraction method, which can obtain higher recognition rate. In the image preprocessing stage, we found that images under various operations may appear different results, so as to obtain different recognition rate in recognition stage. At the same time, in the process of the kernel principal component analysis, the value of the power of the polynomial function can affect the recognition result.

  15. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Gader, P.

    2004-01-01

    Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical

  16. Effects of Pre-Experimental Knowledge on Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Chris M.; Davies, Rachel A.; Ward, Jamie; Burgess, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The influence of pre-experimental autobiographical knowledge on recognition memory was investigated using as memoranda faces that were either personally known or unknown to the participant. Under a dual process theory, such knowledge boosted both recollection- and familiarity-based recognition judgements. Under an unequal variance signal detection…

  17. Recollection and Familiarity in Recognition Memory: Evidence from ROC Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Andrew; Raymond, Frances; Dunn, John

    2006-01-01

    Does recognition memory rely on discrete recollection, continuous evidence, or both? Is continuous evidence sensitive to only the recency and duration of study (familiarity), or is it also sensitive to details of the study episode? Dual process theories assume recognition is based on recollection and familiarity, with only recollection providing…

  18. Recognition of Knowledge and Skills at Work: In Whose Interests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Leif; Andersson, Per

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Work-place learning takes place in many settings and in different ways, resulting in knowledge and skills of different kinds. The recognition process in the work place is however often implicit and seldom discussed in terms of recognition of prior learning (RPL). The aim of this paper is to give examples of how the knowledge/skills of…

  19. Recognition-by-Components: A Theory of Human Image Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Irving

    1987-01-01

    The theory proposed (recognition-by-components) hypothesizes the perceptual recognition of objects to be a process in which the image of the input is segmented at regions of deep concavity into an arrangement of simple geometric components. Experiments on the perception of briefly presented pictures support the theory. (Author/LMO)

  20. Social Approach and Emotion Recognition in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tracey A.; Porter, Melanie A.; Langdon, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) display emotion recognition deficits, which may contribute to their significant social difficulties. The current study investigated the emotion recognition abilities, and social approachability judgments, of FXS individuals when processing emotional stimuli. Relative to…