Sample records for reclaimed surface mined

  1. Nest success of grassland sparrows on reclaimed surface mines (United States)

    Stauffer, G.E.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Marshall, M.R.; Brauning, D.W.


    Grasslands resulting from surface mine reclamation support grassland songbird populations in several midwestern and eastern states in the United States, especially where reclaimed mines are large (>1,000ha). However, most reclaimed surface mines in Pennsylvania are small (success is unknown. We evaluated nest success of grasshopper (Ammodramus savannarum), Henslow's (A. henslowii), and Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) on 4 reclaimed surface mines (50-180ha) in western Pennsylvania, USA from 2006 to 2007. Overall nest success based on mean covariate values was 0.435 (95% CI = 0.376-0.504) for grasshopper sparrows, 0.396 (95% CI = 0.295-0.533) for Henslow's sparrows, and 0.158 (95% CI = 0.063-0.392) for Savannah sparrows. These estimates of nest success are comparable to those on larger reclaimed mines and other habitats. Grasshopper and Henslow's sparrow nests that were well concealed were less likely to fail than highly visible nests (??visible = -0.028, CI = -0.051 to -0.005 for grasshopper sparrows; ??visible = -0.063, CI = -0.112 to -0.014 for Henslow's sparrows), and nests in areas with surrounding deep litter were more likely to fail than nests in areas with shallow litter (??litterD = -0.145, CI = -0.335 to 0.045 for grasshopper sparrows; ??litterD = -0.676, CI = -1.187 to -0.116 for Henslow's sparrows). Savannah sparrow nests in areas with high visual obstruction by vegetation were less likely to fail than nests in areas with sparse and short vegetation (??VisOb = 0.048, CI = 0.006-0.091). Daily probability of survival for grasshopper sparrow nests was greatest early and late in the breeding season, and Savannah sparrow nest survival followed a decreasing linear trend. Nest survival of Henslow's sparrows was greater on warm days (??temp = 0.197, CI = 0.014-0.379), whereas for Savannah sparrows nest survival decreased on warm days and on days with rain, but for Savannah sparrows confidence intervals of weather effects included zero (??temp = -0

  2. Northern bobwhite breeding season ecology on a reclaimed surface mine (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Peters, David C.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.


    Surface coal mining and subsequent reclamation of surface mines have converted large forest areas into early successional vegetative communities in the eastern United States. This reclamation can provide a novel opportunity to conserve northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). We evaluated the influence of habitat management activities on nest survival, nest-site selection, and brood resource selection on managed and unmanaged units of a reclaimed surface mine, Peabody Wildlife Management Area (Peabody), in west-central Kentucky, USA, from 2010 to 2013. We compared resource selection, using discrete-choice analysis, and nest survival, using the nest survival model in Program MARK, between managed and unmanaged units of Peabody at 2 spatial scales: the composition and configuration of vegetation types (i.e., macrohabitat) and vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood locations (i.e., microhabitat). On managed sites, we also investigated resource selection relative to a number of different treatments (e.g., herbicide, disking, prescribed fire). We found no evidence that nest-site selection was influenced by macrohabitat variables, but bobwhite selected nest sites in areas with greater litter depth than was available at random sites. On managed units, bobwhite were more likely to nest where herbicide was applied to reduce sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) compared with areas untreated with herbicide. Daily nest survival was not influenced by habitat characteristics or by habitat management but was influenced by nest age and the interaction of nest initiation date and nest age. Daily nest survival was greater for older nests occurring early in the breeding season (0.99, SE nutritional deficiencies caused by the abundance of sericea lespedeza. On reclaimed mine lands dominated by sericea lespedeza, we suggest continuing practices such as disking and herbicide application that are targeted at reducing sericea lespedeza to improve the vegetation for nesting

  3. Response of transplanted aspen to irrigation and weeding on a Colorado reclaimed surface coal mine (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Wayne D. Shepperd; Frederick W. Smith; Lance A. Asherin; Brian W. Gee


    Successful re-establishment of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) on surface-mined lands in the western United States is problematic because the species generally regenerates vegetatively by sprouting from parent roots in the soil; however, topsoil is removed in the mining process. Previous attempts to plant aspen on reclaimed mine sites have failed because...

  4. Long-Term Vegetation Recovery on Reclaimed Coal Surface Mines in the Eastern USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karen D. Holl


    .... The goals of this study were to determine whether vegetation communities on reclaimed mines approximate those of the surrounding forest, and to evaluate how intensive reclamation practices used...

  5. Switchgrass potential on reclaimed surface mines for biofuel production in West Virginia (United States)

    Marra, Michael A.

    The high cost and environmental risks associated with non-renewable energy sources has caused an increased interest in, and development of renewable biofuels. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm season perennial grass, has been investigated as a source of biofuel feedstock due to its high biomass production on marginal soils, its tolerance of harsh growing conditions, and its ability to provide habitat for wildlife and soil conservation cover. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands and could potentially benefit from the production of switchgrass as a biofuel feedstock. Furthermore, switchgrass production could satisfy Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act of 1977 (SMCRA) requirements for reclamation bond release to mine operators. Three separate studies will be discussed in this thesis to determine if switchgrass grown on reclaimed surface mines can produce yields similar to yields from stands grown under normal agronomic conditions and what common surface mining reclamation practices may be most appropriate for growing switchgrass. The first study examined yield production of three commercially-available, upland switchgrass varieties grown on two reclaimed surface mines in production years two, three and four. The Hampshire Hill mine site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using top soil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5,800 kg (ha-yr)-1 of switchgrass compared to 803 kg (ha-yr)-1 at the Hobet 21 site which was reclaimed with crushed, unweathered rock over compacted overburden. Site and variety interacted with Cave-in-Rock as the top performer at the more fertile Hampshire Hill site and Shawnee produced the highest yields at Hobet 21 (7,853 kg ha-1 and 1,086 kg ha-1 averaged across years, respectively). Switchgrass yields increased from 2009 to 2010, but declined from 2010 to 2011. Switchgrass yields from farmlands in this region averaged about 15000 kg (ha-yr)-1 in the research literature, so switchgrass grown

  6. Habitat manipulation influences northern bobwhite resource selection on a reclaimed surface mine (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Peters, David C.; Unger, Ashley M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.


    More than 600,000 ha of mine land have been reclaimed in the eastern United States, providing large contiguous tracts of early successional vegetation that can be managed for northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). However, habitat quality on reclaimed mine land can be limited by extensive coverage of non-native invasive species, which are commonly planted during reclamation. We used discrete-choice analysis to investigate bobwhite resource selection throughout the year on Peabody Wildlife Management Area, a 3,330-ha reclaimed surface mine in western Kentucky. We used a treatment-control design to study resource selection at 2 spatial scales to identify important aspects of mine land vegetation and whether resource selection differed between areas with habitat management (i.e., burning, disking, herbicide; treatment) and unmanaged units (control). Our objectives were to estimate bobwhite resource selection on reclaimed mine land and to estimate the influence of habitat management practices on resource selection. We used locations from 283 individuals during the breeding season (1 Apr–30 Sep) and 136 coveys during the non-breeding season (1 Oct–Mar 31) from August 2009 to March 2014. Individuals were located closer to shrub cover than would be expected at random throughout the year. During the breeding season, individuals on treatment units used areas with smaller contagion index values (i.e., greater interspersion) compared with individuals on control units. During the non-breeding season, birds selected areas with greater shrub-open edge density compared with random. At the microhabitat scale, individuals selected areas with increased visual obstruction >1 m aboveground. During the breeding season, birds were closer to disked areas (linear and non-linear) than would be expected at random. Individuals selected non-linear disked areas during winter but did not select linear disked areas (firebreaks) because they were planted to winter wheat each fall and

  7. Nesting success of grassland and savanna birds on reclaimed surface coal mines of the midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galligan, E.W.; DeVault, T.L.; Lima, S.L. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States)


    Reclaimed surface coal mines in southwestern Indiana support many grassland and shrub/savanna bird species of conservation concern. We examined the nesting success of birds on these reclaimed mines to assess whether such 'unnatural' places represent productive breeding habitats for such species. We established eight study sites on two large, grassland-dominated mines in southwestern Indiana and classified them into three categories (open grassland, shrub/savanna, and a mixture of grassland and shrub/savanna) based on broad vegetation and landscape characteristics. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons, we found and monitored 911 nests of 31 species. Daily nest survival for the most commonly monitored grassland species ranged from 0.903 (Dickcissel, Spiza americana) to 0.961 (Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum). Daily survival estimates for the dominant shrub/savanna nesting species ranged from 0.932 (Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum) to 0.982 (Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii). Vegetation and landscape effects on nesting success were minimal, and only Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) showed a clear time-of-season effect, with greater nesting success in the first half of the breeding season. Rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were only 2.1% for grassland species and 12.0% for shrub/savanna species. The nesting success of birds on reclaimed mine sites was comparable to that in other habitats, indicating that reclaimed habitats on surface mines do not necessarily represent reproductive traps for birds.

  8. Preferential flow characteristics of reclaimed mine soils in a surface coal mine dump. (United States)

    Gang, Lv; Jun, Li; Yexin, Li; Ting, Wang; Yazhuo, Liu; Xinyang, Fu


    There are a large number of macropores/tubular channels of a few centimeters and plant roots in reclaimed dump soils, which are the main reasons for the formation of soil macropores and soil preferential flow. To systematically study the morphological characteristics and variation of soil preferential flow for different reclaimed vegetations in a dump, a dye-staining experiment and physical and chemical analysis were carried out to investigate the formation mechanism and influencing factors of soil preferential flow in the vegetation restoration process. The results indicate that there were differences in the soil water breakthrough curves for different plots. The macropore effluent rate generally increased at first and then tended to stabilize. The soil steady effluent rate decreased with increasing soil depth, which reached the maximum and minimum values at the depths of 0∼5 cm (0.0193∼0.0315 mm s(-1)) and 50∼60 cm (0.0028∼0.0035 mm s(-1)), respectively. Furthermore, the radius of soil macropores under different types of reclaimed vegetation ranged from 0.03 to 4.71 mm, most of which ranged from 0.11 to 2.36 mm. The soil macroporosity of different reclaimed vegetation types ranged from 0.03 to 16.58%, which was significantly greater than 5%. The soil macroporosity determined 65% of the variation in the steady effluent rate and 42% of the variation in the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Furthermore, the dye coverage ratio decreased as the soil layer depth increased in different plots, and there were some differences in each plot. The maximum dye coverage ratio occurred in the 0∼5 cm soil layer, which reached 90.37%. The dye coverage ratio at a depth of 0∼60 cm in six plots followed the order of Robinia pseudoacacia (26.48%) > Ulmus pumila (20.12%) > mixed forest (17.32%) > farmland (15.06%) > shrub (13.97%) > weeds (10.07%). The soil preferential flow mostly occurred in the 0∼40 cm soil depth layer, which occupied more than 93

  9. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.


    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  10. Control and evaluation methodology of reclaimed surfaces in coal mines; Metodologia para el Seguimiento y Evaluacion de Superficies Restauradas en Minas de Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of the project has been to establish a control and evaluation methodology of reclaimed surfaces in coal mines, ash dumps,... etc. to be applied especially in locations with limited availability of ton soil, and to be used by mining companies to establish an internal quality control of the reclamation carried out. This methodology has been developed based on the evaluation of the results obtained from the reclamation that Endesa carries out at the Puentes mine. An operating and simplified method which may be adopted by smaller sites has been developed. This project has been carried out during the period 1994-1996 and includes a study about the physicochemical conditions of reclaimed surfaces, soil organisms study and about vegetation productivity associated to micorrizae. The conclusions and recommendations obtained include reclamation techniques (study and management of the deposit dumped, top soil management, addition of basic correctors, fertilization, top soil and maintenance works) and reclaimed surface control techniques (physicochemical soil conditions, soil organisms and vegetation). (Author)

  11. Fine and Coarse-Scale Patterns of Vegetation Diversity on Reclaimed Surface Mine-land Over a 40-Year Chronosequence (United States)

    Bohrer, Stefanie L.; Limb, Ryan F.; Daigh, Aaron L.; Volk, Jay M.; Wick, Abbey F.


    Rangelands are described as heterogeneous, due to patterning in species assemblages and productivity that arise from species dispersal and interactions with environmental gradients and disturbances across multiple scales. The objectives of rangeland reclamation are typically vegetation establishment, plant community productivity, and soil stability. However, while fine-scale diversity is often promoted through species-rich seed mixes, landscape heterogeneity and coarse-scale diversity are largely overlooked. Our objectives were to evaluate fine and coarse-scale vegetation patterns across a 40-year reclamation chronosequence on reclaimed surface coalmine lands. We hypothesized that both α-diversity and β-diversity would increase and community patch size and species dissimilarity to reference sites would decrease on independent sites over 40 years. Plant communities were surveyed on 19 post-coalmine reclaimed sites and four intact native reference sites in central North Dakota mixed-grass prairie. Our results showed no differences in α or β-diversity and plant community patch size over the 40-year chronosequence. However, both α-diversity and β-diversity on reclaimed sites was similar to reference sites. Native species establishment was limited due to the presence of non-native species such as Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis) on both the reclaimed and reference sites. Species composition was different between reclaimed and reference sites and community dissimilarity increased on reclaimed sites over the 40-year chronosequence. Plant communities resulting from reclamation followed non-equilibrium succession, even with consistent seeds mixes established across all reclaimed years. This suggests post-reclamation management strategies influence species composition outcomes and land management strategies applied uniformly may not increase landscape-level diversity.

  12. Yield and nutritive quality of forage legumes on reclaimed surface mined land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditsch, D.C.; Collins, M. [University of Kentucky, Quicksand, KY (United States). Robinson Experiment Station


    Legumes are important in the long-term nitrogen economy of surface mined lands and for establishing and maintaining quality livestock forage. Little information is available to reclamation specialists for use in selection of forage legume species based on productivity potential, persistence and nutritive quality for livestock. A study was initiated at two sites in the Appalachian coal fields of Kentucky to evaluate monocultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) under management regimes suitable for livestock production. Legumes were harvested at the early bloom stage throughout the growing season for dry matter (DM) yield determination. Forage quality was determined by measuring crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose (CEL) and acid detergent lignin (ADL). High DM yields were produced by all species during the first production season (range 6.2-9.2 Mg ha{sup -1}) but yields of all species declined rapidly by year three. Birdsfoot trefoil demonstrated slightly greater drought tolerance during mid-season (July/August) than alfalfa and red clover. With the exception of site {number_sign}1 in 1992 (4 harvests), no more than 3 harvests were made during a single growing season. Crude protein concentration of these forage legumes was found to be within the range commonly measured on undisturbed lands. However, high NDF and ADF values were observed above those reported by others for the same species. These results indicate that it may be difficult to maintain a high level of productivity throughout the five-year bonding period under hay management. Management practices such as summer stockpiling may be necessary to compensate for the rapid and wide fluctuations in DM yield and quality due to low water-holding capacity of mine spoils. 15 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu


    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  14. Establishing Pine Monocultures and Mixed Pine-Hardwood Stands on Reclaimed Surface Mined Land in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Forest Resilience in a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Bell


    Full Text Available Surface mining and mine reclamation practices have caused significant forest loss and forest fragmentation in Appalachia. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata is threatened by a variety of stresses, including diseases, pests, poor management, altered fire regimes, and climate change, and the species is the subject of a widescale restoration effort. Surface mines may present opportunity for shortleaf pine restoration; however, the survival and growth of shortleaf pine on these harsh sites has not been critically evaluated. This paper presents first-year survival and growth of native shortleaf pine planted on a reclaimed surface mine, compared to non-native loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, which has been highly successful in previous mined land reclamation plantings. Pine monoculture plots are also compared to pine-hardwood polyculture plots to evaluate effects of planting mix on tree growth and survival, as well as soil health. Initial survival of shortleaf pine is low (42%, but height growth is similar to that of loblolly pine. No differences in survival or growth were observed between monoculture and polyculture treatments. Additional surveys in coming years will address longer-term growth and survival patterns of these species, as well as changes to relevant soil health endpoints, such as soil carbon.

  15. Carbon Dynamics of Reclaimed Coal Mine Soil under Agricultural Use: A Chronosequence Study in the Dongtan Mining Area, Shandong Province, China


    Jun-Feng Qu; Yu-Le Hou; Meng-Yu Ge; Kun Wang; Shu Liu; Shao-Liang Zhang; Gang Li; Fu Chen


    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays an essential role in the early stages of pedogenisis and ecological restoration in reclaimed mine soils. Dynamic changes in the SOC content are essential for assessing the quality of reclaimed mine soils and the effect of ecological restoration. To objectively assess the carbon dynamics of reclaimed soils, we selected the surface (0–20 cm) soil of farmland under agricultural use (soybean–wheat rotation) from a reclamation chronosequence (R4: 4 years of reclamat...

  16. Terrestrial salamander abundance on reclaimed mountaintop removal mines (United States)

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Williams, Jennifer M.


    Mountaintop removal mining, a large-scale disturbance affecting vegetation, soil structure, and topography, converts landscapes from mature forests to extensive grassland and shrubland habitats. We sampled salamanders using drift-fence arrays and coverboard transects on and near mountaintop removal mines in southern West Virginia, USA, during 2000–2002. We compared terrestrial salamander relative abundance and species richness of un-mined, intact forest with habitats on reclaimed mountaintop removal mines (reclaimed grassland, reclaimed shrubland, and fragmented forest). Salamanders within forests increased in relative abundance with increasing distance from reclaimed mine edge. Reclaimed grassland and shrubland habitats had lower relative abundance and species richness than forests. Characteristics of reclaimed habitats that likely contributed to lower salamander abundance included poor soils (dry, compacted, little organic matter, high rock content), reduced vertical structure of vegetation and little tree cover, and low litter and woody debris cover. Past research has shown that salamander populations reduced by clearcutting may rebound in 15–24 years. Time since disturbance was 7–28 years in reclaimed habitats on our study areas and salamander populations had not reached levels found in adjacent mature forests.

  17. Some aspects of the implementation of the Regulation on Reclaiming Mining Areas of 4th November 1985 - Reclaiming Regulation. [GDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, C.; Hildmann, E.; Waltemate, G.


    The Regulation on Reclaiming Mining Areas concerns the revegetation of areas used for prospecting, mining and storage. Quality parameters are stated which are to ensure productive use by the next users.

  18. Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) use of rock drainage channels on reclaimed mines in southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamblin, H.D.; Wood, P.B.; Edwards, J.W. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)


    Allegheny woodrats (Neotoma magister) currently receive protected status throughout their range due to population declines. Threats associated with habitat fragmentation (e.g., introduced predators, disease, and habitat loss) may explain why Allegheny woodrats are no longer found in many areas where they existed just 25 y ago. In southern West Virginia, surface coal mining is a major cause of forest fragmentation. Furthermore, mountaintop mining, the prevalent method in the region, results in a loss of rock outcrops and cliffs within forested areas, typical habitat of the Allegheny woodrat. To determine the extent that Allegheny woodrats make use of reclaimed mine land, particularly rock drainages built during reclamation, we sampled 24 drainage channels on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia, collected habitat data at each site and used logistic regression to identify habitat variables related to Allegheny woodrat presence. During 187 trap nights, 13 adult, 2 subadult and 8 juvenile Allegheny woodrats were captured at 13 of the 24 sites. Percent of rock as a groundcover and density of stems {gt} 15 cm diameter-at-breast-height (DBH) were related to Allegheny woodrat presence and were significantly greater at sites where Allegheny woodrats were present than absent. Sites where Allegheny woodrats were present differed substantially from other described habitats in West Virginia, though they may simulate boulder piles that occur naturally. Our findings suggest the need for additional research to examine the dynamics between Allegheny woodrat populations inhabiting rock outcrops in forests adjacent to mines and populations inhabiting constructed drainage channels on reclaimed mines. However, if Allegheny woodrats can use human-created habitat, our results will be useful to surface mine reclamation and to other mitigation efforts where rocky habitats are lost or disturbed.

  19. Livestock impacts for management of reclaimed land at Navajo Mine: The decision-making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, O.J. [BHP World Minerals Navajo Mine, Fruitland, NM (United States); Grogan, S. [Resource Planning & Management Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadzia, K.L. [Resource Management Services, Bernalillo, NM (United States)


    Livestock grazing is the post-mining use for reclaimed land at Navajo Mine, a large surface coal mine on the Navajo Nation in northwest New Mexico. The Navajo Mine Grazing Management Program (GMP) uses holistic management on approximately 2,083 ha of reclaimed land to plan for final liability release and return of the land to the Navajo Nation, and to minimize the potential for post-release liability. The GMP began in 1991 to establish that livestock grazing on the reclaimed land is sustainable. Assuming that sustainability requires alternatives to conventional land management practices, the GMP created a Management Team consisting of company staff, local, Navajo Nation, and Federal government officials, and technical advisors. Community members contributed to the formation of a holistic goal for the GMP that articulates their values and their desire for sustainable grazing. Major decisions (e.g., artificial insemination, water supply, supplemental feed) are tested against the goal. Biological changes in the land and the grazing animals are monitored daily to provide early feedback to managers, and annually to document the results of grazing. To date, the land has shown resilience to grazing and the animals have generally prospered. Community participation in the GMP and public statements of support by local officials indicate that the GMP`s strategy is likely to succeed.

  20. Giant pumps reclaim Chinese coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramp, S.


    Briefly describes the Fangezhuang Mine disaster in 1984, when miners pierced a wall into a flooded underground cavern, releasing tonnes of water into the pit. The German manufacturer KSB was asked to supply 18 submersible pumps to dewater the flooded workings. The pumps were specially built to handle the aggressive, solid-laden floodwater. The pump design is described. 1 fig.

  1. Assessing Fossil and New Carbon in Reclaimed Mined Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattan Lal; David Ussiri


    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in the reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is the mixture of coal C originating from mining and reclamation activities and recent plant-derived organic carbon (OC). Accurate estimates of OC pools and sequestration rates in the RMS are limited by lack of standard and cost-effective method for determination of coal-C concentration. The main objective of this project was to develop and test analytical procedures for quantifying pool sizes of coal-derived C in RMS and to partition organic C in RMS into coal-derived and newly deposited SOC fractions. Analysis of soil and coal artificial mixtures indicated that the {Delta}{sup 13}C method developed was very effective in estimating coal C added in the mixtures, especially soils under C4 plants. However, most of the reclaimed sites in Ohio are under C3 plants with range of {Delta}{sup 13}C signal falling within ranges of coal. The wide range of {Delta}{sup 13}C signal observed in minesoils, (i.e. -26 to -30 for plants and -23 to -26 for coal) limits the ability of this approach to be used for southeast Ohio minesoils. This method is applicable for reclaimed prime farm land under long term corn or corn soybean rotation. Chemi-thermal method was very effective in quantifying coal-C fraction in both soil-coal artificial mixtures and minesoils. The recovery of coal-C from the mixture ranged from 93 to 100% of coal. Cross-validation of chemi-thermal method with radiocarbon analysis revealed that chemi-thermal method was as effective as radiocarbon analysis in quantifying coal-C in RMS. Coal C determined after chemi-thermal treatment of samples was highly correlated with coal C concentration calculated by radiocarbon activity (r{sup 2} = 0.95, P < 0.01). Therefore, both radiocarbon activity and chemi-thermal method were effective in estimating coal carbon concentration in reclaimed minesoils of southeast Ohio. Overall, both coal-C and recent OC fraction exhibited high spatial and depth variation, suggesting

  2. Effects of selective handling of pyritic, acid-forming materials on the chemistry of pore gas and ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Clarion County, PA, USA (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Dugas, Diana L.; Brady, Keith; Kovalchuck, Thomas E.


    A change from dragline to “selective handling” mining methods at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania did not significantly affect concentrations of metals in ground water because oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of siderite were not abated. Throughout the mine, placement of pyritic material near the land surface facilitated the oxidation of pyrite, causing the consumption of oxygen (O2) and release of acid, iron, and sulfate ions. Locally in the unsaturated zone, water sampled within or near pyritic zones was acidic, with concentrations of sulfate exceeding 3,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L). However, acidic conditions generally did not persist below the water table because of neutralization by carbonate minerals. Dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and siderite in unsaturated and saturated zones produced elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese. Alkalinity concentrations of 600 to 800 mg/L as CaCO3 were common in water samples from the unsaturated zone in spoil, and alkalinities of 100 to 400 mg/L as CaCO3 were common in ground-water samples from the underlying saturated zone in spoil and bedrock. Saturation indices indicated that siderite could dissolve in water throughout the spoil, but that calcite dissolution or precipitation could occur locally. Calcite dissolution could be promoted as a result of pyrite oxidation, gypsum precipitation, and calcium ion exchange for sodium. Calcite precipitation could be promoted by evapotranspiration and siderite dissolution, and corresponding increases in concentrations of alkalinity and other solutes. Partial pressures of O2 (Po2) and CO2 (Pco2) in spoil pore gas indicated that oxidation of pyrite and precipitation of ferric hydroxide, coupled with dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and siderite were the primary reactions affecting water quality. Highest vertical gradients in Po2, particularly in the near-surface zone (0-1 m), did not correlate

  3. Effects of mushroom waste on improvement of reclaimed soil quality in coal mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Li GUO; Qian LI; Xin-Ju LI; Yao-Lun ZHAO; Xin-Gang WANG


    Restoring soil quality is the main evaluation norm of the reclamation.In order to reveal the effects of mushroom waste on the quality improvement of reclaimed soil in coal mining areas,the physical,chemical and microbial characteristics of soil are studied.The results show clear improvement in the soil after using mushroom waste.Because of human cultivation and fertilization,cultivated soil after reclamation exhibits high comprehensive quality and the index of quality of surface soil reaches 0.64 and 0.73.The average index of surface soil quality is as high as 0.52 and 0.54.In comparison,the quality of reclaimed soil of forest land is low,with average index of 0.40.The effects of mushroom waste are mainly on the surface soil in the first 2 years after the application.After that period,with the decomposition of mushroom waste,soil quality index tends to be the same as the original soil.The quality of surface soil is higher than that of subsoil,especially after the application of mushroom waste,at which point the soil quality reaches a peak at about 15 cm.Cultivated soil after reclamation has great variance in quality,after the coefficient of 24.74%.Mushroom waste can reduce such variation,particularly with long-term use.The variance efficient falls to 3.59% after 3-year application.

  4. Carbon Dynamics of Reclaimed Coal Mine Soil under Agricultural Use: A Chronosequence Study in the Dongtan Mining Area, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Qu


    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC plays an essential role in the early stages of pedogenisis and ecological restoration in reclaimed mine soils. Dynamic changes in the SOC content are essential for assessing the quality of reclaimed mine soils and the effect of ecological restoration. To objectively assess the carbon dynamics of reclaimed soils, we selected the surface (0–20 cm soil of farmland under agricultural use (soybean–wheat rotation from a reclamation chronosequence (R4: 4 years of reclamation, R7: 7 years of reclamation, R10: 10 years of reclamation and R13: 13 years of reclamation in the Dongtan Mining Area, Shandong Province, China. The adjacent normal, unaffected farmland was used as a control (CK. The results showed that the SOC content gradually increased with the reclamation age until it reached 7.98 g·kg−1 for R13, which accounted for 76% of that of the CK. However, the total carbon contents of the reclaimed soils did not significantly differ from and even appeared higher than that of the CK. This is mainly because the inorganic carbon contents of the reclaimed soils ranged from 2.98 to 12.61 g·kg−1, all of which were significantly higher than the 0.87 g·kg−1 obtained for the CK. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC content and the microbial quotient significantly increased with the reclamation age of the soil, and both parameters were markedly higher for R13 than for the CK. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC content and its ratio to the SOC were significantly higher for R4–R13 than for the CK and DOC/SOC gradually decreased with the reclamation age. Both the reclamation age and the temperature had positive effects on the soil basal respiration (SBR. The SBR rate constantly increased with the reclamation age and was markedly higher at 25 °C than at 15 °C. The temperature sensitivity (Q10 of the SBR showed a clearly decreasing trend for the reclamation chronosequence, but its value remained higher for R13 than for the CK (2

  5. Condition of forest crops and soil cover at reclaimed dump of coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Androkhanov


    Full Text Available The investigation of processes of recovery of disturbed land at the urban areas is a new, urgent problem for indus-trialized centers. Currently disturbed areas where recovery operations are conducted by various reclamation tech-nologies are within the city of Novokuznetsk area in Kuznetsk Basin. Monitoring investigations to determine their environmental condition and the level of natural ingredients recovery have not been conducted at these areas until recently. The lack of such information does not allow efficient analysis of the conducted reclamation activities and determination of the prospects for recovery and further use of such land. The paper presents the results of an inves-tigation of forest plantations and areas with natural revegetation of disturbed areas, and the complex of soil studies to determine the basic physical and agrochemical characteristics of young soils formed on the disturbed surface is conducted. Based on these studies the vegetation and soil cover were characterized and the soil-ecological condition of the reclaimed areas from the 1970’ stailings pile of «Baidaevskij» coal mine was assessed. As a result of reclama-tion activities, the sites with different plant communities are formed at the tailings pile surface. Botanic composition at the reclaimed areas represented species able to operate successfully in a technogenic landscapes. Because the grand dump territory is reclaimed by the forest approach the statement of forest is characterized by the special aspects, such as high density of planting with little crown density, high opacity and low level of stable forest recovery. The tailings pile sites reclaimed by different methods are characterized by specific soil-ecological condition, which can be used to assess the efficiency of reclamation. Soil-ecological assessment of the conducted reclamation efficiency is carried out on the basis of assessment of the soil, formed on the surface of the disturbed area. The more


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal


    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. During this quarter, water infiltration tests were performed on the soil surface in the experimental sites. Soil samples were analyzed for the soil carbon and nitrogen contents, texture, water stable aggregation, and mean weight and geometric mean diameter of aggregates. This report presents the results from two sites reclaimed during 1978 and managed under grass (Wilds) and forest (Cumberland) cover, respectively. The trees were planted in 1982 in the Cumberland site. The analyses of data on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were presented in the third quarter report. This report presents the data on infiltration rates, volume of transport and storage pores, available water capacity (AWC) of soil, particle size distribution, and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and coal carbon contents. The SIC content ranged from 0.04 to 1.68% in Cumberland tree site and 0.01 to 0.65% in the Wilds. The coal content assumed to be the carbon content after oven drying the sample at 350 C varied between 0.04 and 3.18% for Cumberland and 0.06 and 3.49% for Wilds. The sand, silt and clay contents showed moderate to low variability (CV < 0.16) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. The volume of transmission (VTP) and storage pores (VSP) also showed moderate to high variability (CV ranged from 0.22 to 0.39 for Wilds and 0.17 to 0.36 for Cumberland). The CV for SIC was high (0.7) in Cumberland whereas that for coal content was high (0.4) in the Wilds. The steady state infiltration rates (i{sub c}) also showed high variability

  7. Profile constructing and elevation design of soil reclaimed by hydraulic dredge pump in mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longqian, C.; Aiqin, S.; Tianjian, Z. [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China). School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics; Mei, L. [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China)


    Underground coal mining is the main method of coal mining in China. The hydraulic dredge pump reclamation method is the basic method used for repairing hydraulic erosion. This paper reviewed land reclamation by hydraulic dredge pump in the Yi'an coal mine of Xuzhou mining area in the east of China, and analyzed the constructing theory of soil profiling. It examined factors such as the height of the ground-water table; the thickness of plough horizon; the length of crops root and the state of soil erosion; and the methods of profile construction and elevation design of soil reclaimed by hydraulic dredge pump. A relevant mathematical model was also developed. The paper discussed the general situation of the study site as well as the basic theory of profile constructing and the profile constructing method. The paper also discussed the elevation design of the reclaimed land. It was concluded that the practice has proved that the methods can make the reclaimed soil keep a similar characteristics to that of original cropped soil, and meet the requirements for elevation of reclaimed land. 8 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. Effects of AMF on soil enzyme activity and carbon sequestration capacity in reclaimed mine soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Kuimei; Wang Liping; Yin Ningning


    A series of pot experiments and field trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on activities of soil enzymes and carbon sequestration capacity in reclaimed mine soil.A complex substrate of coal gangue,fly ash and sludge was used as reclaimed mine soil,and ryegrass was planted with AMF inoculation to construct a plant-complex substrate-microbe ecological restoration system.The changes to the soil organic carbon (SOC),activities of soil enzymes and glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) were measured and the effects of AMF on activities of soil enzymes and carbon sequestration capacity in reclaimed mine soil were analyzed.The results show that the contents of GRSP (total glomalin (TG) and easily extractable glomalin (EEG)),SOC and activities of enzymes increased,and the increments were higher in the AMF inoculation treated plant-complex substrate-microbe ecological restoration systems than those with no AMF inoculated treatments after 12 months of ryegrass growth.TG,EEG and soil enzyme activity have a significant positive correlation,and the correlative coefficient was 0.427-0.573; SOC and TG,EEG have a significant positive correlation (p < 0.01 ),indicating that AMF plays an important role in carbon sequestration of reclaimed mine soils.

  9. Effect of sewage sludge on formation of acidic ground water at a reclaimed coal mine (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.


    Data on rock, ground water, vadose water, and vadose gas chemistry were collected for two years after sewage sludge was applied at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Pennsylvania to determine if surface-applied sludge is an effective barrier to oxygen influx, contributes metals and nutrients to ground water, and promotes the acidification of ground water. Acidity, sulfate, and metals concentrations were elevated in the ground water (6- to 21-m depth) from spoil relative to unmined rock because of active oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of aluminosilicate, carbonate, and Mn-Fe-oxide minerals in the spoil. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals (Fe, Mn, Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn), and nitrate, and abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria were elevated in the ground water from sludge-treated spoil relative to untreated spoil having a similar mineral composition; however, gaseous and dissolved oxygen concentrations did not differ between the treatments. Abundances of iron-oxidizing bacteria in the ground water samples were positively correlated with concentrations of ammonia, nitrate, acidity, metals, and sulfate. Concentrations of metals in vadose water samples (iron-oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation of pyrite, and the acidification of ground water. Nevertheless, the overall effects on ground water chemistry from the sludge were small and probably short-lived relative to the effects from mining only.

  10. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J. R.


    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  11. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Lorenz; R. Lal


    This research project was aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of RMS and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. Restoration of disturbed land is followed by the application of nutrients to the soil to promote the vegetation development. Reclamation is important both for preserving the environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. Since reclamation treatments have significant influence on the rate of soil development, a study on subplots was designed with the objectives of assessing the potential of different biosolids on soil organic C (SOC) sequestration rate, soil development, and changes in soil physical and water transmission properties. All sites are owned and maintained by American Electric Power (AEP). These sites were reclaimed by two techniques: (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover.

  12. Breeding bird communities of reclaimed coal-mine grasslands in the American midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVault, T.L.; Scott, P.E.; Bajema, R.A.; Lima, S.L.


    The breeding bird communities of 19 reclaimed surface coal-mine grasslands in southwestern Indiana in 1997-1998, using roadside point counts and off-road transects were investigated. The mine grasslands in this study were large, ranging from 110 to 3180 ha in area (median, 590 ha). Although dominated by a few Eurasian grass species, they supported diverse bird communities in which grassland-dependent species were prominent along with grassland-associated and successional scrub species. The mean abundances of species (relative to one another) on roadside and off-road counts were positively correlated. Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna), and Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) were present at {gt} 90% of piza americana), Eastern point count locations. Other common species, in descending order, included Dickcissels (S mon Yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas), Killdeers (Charadrius vociferus), Indigo Buntings (Passerina cyanea), Henslow's Sparrows (Ammodramus henslowii), Field Sparrows (Spizella pusilla), and Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were rare, as were seven grassland-dependent species that were near the edges of their geographic distributions.

  13. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal


    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  14. Switchgrass and Miscanthus Biomass and Theoretical Ethanol Production from Reclaimed Mine Lands in West Virginia (United States)

    Scagline, Steffany M.

    Awareness of environmental issues surrounding current energy practices has opened doors for new possibilities for energy solutions. The 2003 Energy Independence and Security Act mandates that by the year 2022, 16 billion gallons per year of fuel in the United States (U.S.) will be coming from cellulosic bioenergy sources. Herbaceous crop species like switchgrass have been proposed as potential cellulosic crops to meet future energy needs. Switchgrass is a native warm season grass to North America and has been studied on marginal lands and reclaimed mine lands for biomass production capabilities in the U.S. Another species which has been considered for bioenergy production capabilities in Europe, Miscanthus, is also a warm season perennial grass that has high biomass production capabilities. Currently, there are no studies done on the cellulosic bioenergy production capabilities of Miscanthus on reclaimed mine lands in the U.S. This study looks at Miscanthus and switchgrass as two potential cellulosic energy crops on reclaimed mine lands as a post-mining land use option for bioenergy production. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  15. Assessing metal pollution in ponds constructed for controlling runoff from reclaimed coal mines. (United States)

    Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; González, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A


    Constructing ponds to protect downstream ecosystems is a common practice in opencast coal mine reclamation. As these ponds remain integrated in the landscape, it is important to evaluate the extent of the effect of mine pollution on these ecosystems. However, this point has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. The main objective of this work was to explore the metal pollution in man-made ponds constructed for runoff control in reclaimed opencast coal mines over time. To do so, we evaluated the concentration of ten heavy metals in the water, sediment, and Typha sp. in 16 runoff ponds ranging from 1 to 19 years old that were constructed in reclaimed opencast coal mines of northeastern Spain. To evaluate degree of mining pollution, we compared these data to those from a pit lake created in a local unreclaimed mine and to local streams as an unpolluted reference, as well as comparing toxicity levels in aquatic organisms. The runoff ponds showed toxic concentrations of Al, Cu, and Ni in the water and As and Ni in the sediment, which were maintained over time. Metal concentrations in runoff ponds were higher than in local streams, and macrophytes showed high metal concentrations. Nevertheless, metal concentrations in water and sediment in runoff ponds were lower than those in the pit lake. This study highlights the importance of mining reclamation to preserve the health of aquatic ecosystems and suggests the existence of chronic metal toxicity in the ponds, potentially jeopardizing pond ecological functions and services.

  16. Development of Soil Characteristics and Plant Communities On Reclaimed and Unreclaimed Spoil Heaps After Coal Mining (United States)

    Cudlín, Ondřej; Řehák, Zdeněk; Cudlín, Pavel


    The aim of this study was to compare soil characteristics, plant communities and the rate of selected ecosystem function performance on reclaimed and unreclaimed plots (left for spontaneous succession) of different age on spoil heaps. Twelve spoil heaps (three circle plots of radius 12.5 m) near the town Kladno in north-west direction from Prague, created after deep coal mining, were compared. Five mixed soil samples from organo-mineral horizons in each plot were analysed for total content of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, active soil pH (pHH2O) was determined. Plant diversity was determined by vegetation releves. The biodiversity value of the habitat according to the Habitat Valuation Method was assessed and the rate of evapotranspiration function by the Method of Valuation Functions and Services of Ecosystems in the Czech Republic were determined. The higher organo-mineral layers and higher amount of total nitrogen content were found on the older reclaimed and unreclaimed plots than in younger plots. The number of plant species and the total contents of carbon and nitrogen were significantly higher at the unreclaimed plots compared to reclaimed plots. The biodiversity values and evapotranspiration function rate were also higher on unreclaimed plots. From this perspective, it is possible to recommend using of spontaneous succession, together with routine reclamation methods to restore habitats after coal mining. Despite the relatively high age of vegetation in some of selected plots (90 years), both the reclaimed and unreclaimed plots have not reached the stage of potential vegetation near to natural climax. Slow development of vegetation was probably due to unsuitable substrate of spoil heaps and a lack of plant and tree species of natural forest habitats in this area. However, it is probable that vegetation communities on observed spoil heaps in both type of management (reclaimed and unreclaimed) will achieve the stage of natural climax and they

  17. Soil Organic Carbon and Nutrient Dynamics in Reclaimed Appalachian Mine Soil (United States)

    Acton, P.; Fox, J.; Campbell, J. E.; Rowe, H. D.; Jones, A.


    Past research has shown that drastically disturbed and degraded soils can offer a high potential for soil organic carbon and aboveground carbon sequestration. Little work has been done on both the functioning of soil carbon accumulation and turnover in reclaimed surface mining soils. Reclamation practices of surface coal mine soils in the Southern Appalachian forest region of the United States emphasizes heavy compaction of surface material to provide slope stability and reduce surface erosion, and topsoil is not typically added. An analysis of the previously collected data has provided a 14 year chronosequence of SOC uptake and development in the soil column and revealed that these soils are sequestering carbon at a rate of 1.3 MgC ha-1 yr-1, which is 1.6 to 3 times less than mining soils reported for other regions. Results of bulk density analysis indicate a contrast between 0 - 10 cm (1.51 g cm-3) and 10 - 50 cm (2.04 g cm-3) depth intervals. Aggregate stability was also quantified as well as dynamic soil texture measurements. With this analysis, it has been established that these soils are well below their potential in terms of the ability to store and cycle carbon and other nutrients as well their ability to sustain a fully-functioning forested ecosystem typical for the region. We are taking an integrated approach that relies on ecological observations for present conditions combined with computational modeling to understand long-term soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and turnover in regards to SOC sequestration potential and quantification of specific processes by which these soils develop. A dual-isotope end-member model, utilizing the carbon 13 and nitrogen 15 stable isotopes, is being developed to provide greater input into the mathematical separation of organic carbon derived from new soil inputs and existing coal carbon. Soils from the study sites have been isolated into three distinct size pools, and elemental and isotopic analysis of these samples


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal


    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. During this quarter, bulk and core soil samples were collected from all 13 experimental sites for 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-50 cm depths. In addition, 54 experimental plots (4 x 4 m) were established at three separate locations on reclaimed minesites to assess the influence of compost application on SOC during project period 2. This report presents the results from two sites reclaimed during 1978. The first site is under grass and the other under forest cover. The soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC, total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were determined for these two sites on a 20 x 20 m grid. The preliminary analysis showed that the {rho}{sub b} ranged from 0.88 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.16 Mg m{sup -3} for 0-15 cm, 0.91 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.32 Mg m{sup -3} for 15-30 cm, and 1.37 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.93 Mg m{sup -3} for 30-50 cm depths in Cumberland tree site, and it's statistical variability was low. The variability in {rho}{sub b} was also low in Wilds grass site and ranged from 0.82 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.18 Mg m{sup -3} for 0-15 cm, 1.04 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.37 Mg m{sup -3} for 15-30 cm, and 1.18 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.83 Mg m{sup -3} for 30-50 cm depths. The {rho}{sub b} showed strong spatial dependence for 0-15 cm depth only in the Cumberland tree site. The SOC concentrations and stocks were highly variable with CV > 0.36 from all depths in both Wilds grass site and Cumberland tree site. The SOC stocks showed strong spatial dependence for 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths and moderate to strong for 20-50 cm depth in the Cumberland tree site. In contrast

  19. The Structure of Reclaiming Warehouse of Minerals at Open-Cut Mines with the Use Combined Transport (United States)

    Ikonnikov, D. A.; Kovshov, S. V.


    In the article performed an analysis of ore reclaiming and overloading point characteristics at modern opencast mines. Ore reclaiming represents the most effective way of stability support of power-intensive and expensive technological dressing process, and, consequently, of maintenance of the optimal production and set-up parameters of extraction and quality of finished product. The paper proposed the construction of the warehouse describing the technology of its creation. Equipment used for the warehouse described in detail. All stages of development and operation was shown. Advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical shovel excavator and hydraulic excavator “backdigger” as a reloading and reclaiming equipment was compared. Ore reclaiming and overloading point construction at cyclical and continuous method of mining using a hydraulic excavator “backdigger” was proposed.

  20. Humification processes in reclaimed open-cast lignite mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiros, M.C.; Gil-Sotres, F.; Ceccanti, B.; Trasar-Cepeda, M.C.; Gonzales-Sangregorio, M.V. (Facultad de Farmacia de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Departamento de Edafologia y Quimica Agraria)


    To identify the principal humification pathways which occur during the initial stages of pedogenesis, organic matter from mine soils of different ages from the Meirama lignite mine in NW Spain was subjected to a series of physicochemical and chemical fractionations. Although humic molecules of molecular weight lower than 10,000 Da were always predominant, the percentage of C associated with molecules of between 50,000 and 200,000 Da increased with soil age, as did the percentage of chemically stabilized humus and the percentage of C associated with immobile complexes. In general, these results suggest that the principal humification pathway in these soils involves abiotic condensation reactions, as in the case of natural soils of this region. The low complexed metal content of the mine soils in comparison with natural soils indicates the low degree of weathering of inorganic fraction which has occurred in the former.

  1. Effect of Land Reclamtion on Nutrient Distribution in Reclaimed Farmlands Overlying Xuzhou Underground Coal Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of the reclamation procedure with respect to soil fertility and nutrient distribution pattern in the reprecipitated recalimed soil .Although there was an obvious indication of low levels of essential unturents in the reclaimed farmalnds (organic matter=0.32 g kg-1 ,total N=380.8 mg kg-1 ,available P=4.7mg kg-1),compared to the undisturbed farmlands (organic matter=2.5g kg-1 ,total N=1220 g kg-1 ,available P=20.8mg kg-1),the uneven pattern of nutrient distribution was also shwon to have been the major limitaion to successful reclamation Further improvement can be achieved through the integration of intensive eco-farming systems using proper fertiizer field correction (PFFC),and organic manure for successful reestablishment and managenent of newly reclaimed farmlands overlying the Xuzhou coal mine subsidence.

  2. Growth responses of Scots pine to climatic factors on reclaimed oil shale mined land. (United States)

    Metslaid, Sandra; Stanturf, John A; Hordo, Maris; Korjus, Henn; Laarmann, Diana; Kiviste, Andres


    Afforestation on reclaimed mining areas has high ecological and economic importance. However, ecosystems established on post-mining substrate can become vulnerable due to climate variability. We used tree-ring data and dendrochronological techniques to study the relationship between climate variables and annual growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on reclaimed open cast oil shale mining areas in Northeast Estonia. Chronologies for trees of different age classes (50, 40, 30) were developed. Pearson's correlation analysis between radial growth indices and monthly climate variables revealed that precipitation in June-July and higher mean temperatures in spring season enhanced radial growth of pine plantations, while higher than average temperatures in summer months inhibited wood production. Sensitivity of radial increment to climatic factors on post-mining soils was not homogenous among the studied populations. Older trees growing on more developed soils were more sensitive to precipitation deficit in summer, while growth indices of two other stand groups (young and middle-aged) were highly correlated to temperature. High mean temperatures in August were negatively related to annual wood production in all trees, while trees in the youngest stands benefited from warmer temperatures in January. As a response to thinning, mean annual basal area increment increased up to 50 %. By managing tree competition in the closed-canopy stands, through the thinning activities, tree sensitivity and response to climate could be manipulated.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, David; Shankle, Brandon; Oswalt, Ernest; Duckworth, Jeremy; Sanborn, Judd; Buell, Rebecca; Roberson, Bill


    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native warm season perennial grass that has productive potential of up to 20 Mg ha-1 of biomass and it persists for decades when harvested once per year. Switchgrass provides excellent ground cover and soil stabilization once established and contributes to soil sequestration of new carbon. Slow establishment on newly reclaimed soil, however, provides for significant erosive opportunities thereby requiring initial soil stabilization with a cover crop. Several planting options were evaluated on two topsoil substitute soils. The planting options included: 1) an existing stand of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) that was killed with glyphosate followed by disking in red oxidized topsoil substitute and prime farmland topsoil respread in 2007, 2) red oxidized topsoil substitute was seeded directly with switchgrass, 3) browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) was established with switchgrass, 4) or switchgrass was established in senescing browntop millet or wheat without tillage. Switchgrass was successfully established into a bermudagrass sod that had been killed with herbicides and disked as well as into a senescing stand of browntop millet or wheat. Significant soil erosion occurred on the disked area in 2008 leading to considerable repair work followed by planting wheat. Disked areas that did not erode had an excellent stand of switchgrass with 23.3 plants m-2 in November, 2008. Eroded areas replanted in April, 2009 into senescing wheat had 46 plants m-2 by July, 2009. The area planted directly into newly respread soil in May, 2009 was eroded severely by a 75 mm thunderstorm and was repaired, disked and replanted to switchgrass and browntop millet. Switchgrass seeded with browntop millet had a sparse switchgrass stand and was replanted to switchgrass in August, 2009. Rainfall volumes from August, 2009 to October, 2009 totaled 750 mm, but new erosion damage in areas successfully planted to switchgrass has been minimal.

  4. The assembly of local communities: Plants and birds in non-reclaimed mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandle, M.; Durka, W.; Krug, H.; Brandl, R. [University of Marburg, Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Animal Ecology


    We correlated percentage of occurrence (local occupancy) of 1069 plant species and 155 bird species across 16 non-reclaimed mining sites in a brown coal district of eastern Germany to regional range size and life history traits. To control for possible confounding effects of phylogeny we used a cross-species as well as a phylogenetically controlled approach. Although life history traits showed significant correlations to local occupancy in univariate analyses, hierarchical partitioning suggested that these variables were only of minor importance to explain local occupancy across non-reclaimed mining sites. The most robust and consistent relationship, however, was found between local occupancy and regional range size. A greater proportion of bird species than plant species from the available species pool colonized the mining sites, possibly due to the active search for suitable habitats by birds. Thus, although the two groups have different ways of colonizing a habitat, the general importance of regional distribution is the same. Overall, the results of our study underline the importance of regional patterns to understand local community composition.

  5. Native grasses for reclaiming mine sites in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darroch, B.A.; Woosaree, J.; James, B.T. [Alberta Environmental Centre, Vegreville, AB (Canada)


    A research project to select, test, and develop varieties of four native grass species for revegetating mine sites at high elevations in the Rocky Mountains and foothills is described. Multi-location trials show that lines of alpine bluegrass and slender wheatgrass perform much better than check varieties at mountain sites, and in some cases are better at lower elevations. Three varieties of these grasses have been developed for reclamation uses, and more will be released later. Several more years of research are needed to develop varieties of Rocky Mountain fescue and spike trisetum. 6 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Development of a Rapid Assessment Method for Quantifying Carbon Sequestration on Reclaimed Coal Mine Sites (United States)

    Maharaj, S.; Barton, C. D.; Karathanasis, A. D.


    Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies designed to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed coal mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. However, quantifying new carbon (carbon that has been added to soil through recent biological processes) on reclaimed mine soils have proven to be difficult due to carbonates and coal particles present in the reclaimed coal mine spoils. Visible coal particles can be removed, but the microscopic coal dust particles remain. Additionally, with the advent of carbon trading on the stock market, rapid quantification of newly sequestered carbon has proven to be elusive. The focus of this project is to assess the potential of thermogravimetric analysis as a rapid, simple and direct method for differentiating and quantifying new carbon from old carbon (carbon of geologic origin) on reclaimed coal mine sites and provide a standard procedure for determining carbon sequestered in soil sinks. Thermogravimetry is a physico-chemical technique where the weight change is measured and recorded during the incremental heating of the soil sample over a temperature range of 25 to 1000 ° C. Grass litter and limestone were used as representative organic and inorganic carbon fractions, while coal was used to differentiate the old and new carbon within the organic fraction. Recoveries of mixtures at the 95 % confidence interval were found to be 94.49 ± 4.23 % (coal) , 93.67 ± 2.11 % (litter) , and 108.88 ± 2.88 % (limestone) respectively. Each of the above components appeared as distinct separate peaks on the thermograph, with litter appearing between 260 to 390 ° C, coal 425 to 480 ° C, and limestone 640 to 740 ° C. Overlapping peaks for the organic carbon represented by the grass litter may be indicative of cellulose and lignin fractions. Ongoing work in this area is

  7. Reclaimed spoil heap from an open-cast mine: analysis of meadow communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, J.; Hakl, J.; Steklova, J.; Ceska, J.; Dvorakova, E. [Czech University for Life Science Prague, Prague (Czech Republic)


    An evaluation of the vegetation on the reclaimed spoil heap of material deposited from the overlaying rock of an open-cast brown coal mine. The application of standard geobotanical research methods with statistical data analysis. Under the present management conditions desirable meadow taxa keep their constancy: the reduction of ruderal and weed species is evident, though statistically insignificant. For the variability of species composition over time, and in particular by the location of releves taken, the strong influence of substrate heterogeneity i.e. (in addition to exposure, humidity etc.) is inferred.

  8. Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) abundance and habitat in a reclaimed mine landscape (United States)

    Balcerzak, M.J.; Wood, P.B.


    Fragmentation of the landscape by large-scale mining may affect Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus) populations by reducing the amount of forested habitat available in a landscape and by creating fragmented forest parches surrounded by reclaimed mine lands. We examined habitat characteristics and relative abundance of Red-shouldered Hawks in reclaimed mine landscapes within four treatments: early-successional grassland habitat, mid-successional shrub/pole habitat, late-successional fragmented forest habitat, and late-successional intact forest habitat. We quantified microhabitat characteristics within an 11.3-m-radius plot centered on 156 vegetation plots throughout the four treatments. We surveyed 48 stations on and adjacent to three mines for Red-shouldered Hawks using standardized broadcast call techniques during February 2000-January 2001 and measured landscape characteristics within 1000-m buffer zones centered on each station from digitized aerial photographs. Mean abundance of Red-shouldered Hawks was significantly higher in the intact forest (x?? = 0.07 detections/ point, SE = 0.03) than the grassland (x?? = 0.01, SE = 0.01) treatment, but did not differ from the fragmented forest (x?? = 0.03, SE = 0.01) or shrub/pole (x?? = 0.03, SE = 0.01) treatments. Most microhabitat characteristics in both fragmented and intact forest differed from shrub/pole and grasslands. Amount of wetland was the most important characteristic determining presence of Red-shouldered Hawks in a forest-dominated landscape. More wetlands in the landscape may provide abundant amphibians and reptiles, which are important in the diet of Red-shouldered Hawks. ?? 2003 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  9. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land-use planning. Volume 3C. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: Georgia Kaolin Company Clay Mines, Washington County, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guernsey, J L; Brown, L A; Perry, A O


    This case study examines the reclamation practices of the Georgia Kaolin's American Industrial Clay Company Division, a kaolin producer centered in Twiggs, Washington, and Wilkinson Counties, Georgia. The State of Georgia accounts for more than one-fourth of the world's kaolin production and about three-fourths of U.S. kaolin output. The mining of kaolin in Georgia illustrates the effects of mining and reclaiming lands disturbed by area surface mining. The disturbed areas are reclaimed under the rules and regulations of the Georgia Surface Mining Act of 1968. The natural conditions influencing the reclamation methodologies and techniques are markedly unique from those of other mining operations. The environmental disturbances and procedures used in reclaiming the kaolin mined lands are reviewed and implications for planners are noted.

  10. Carbon sequestration in a chronosequence of Scots pine stands in a reclaimed opencast oil shale mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karu, H. [Tartu Univ., Tartu (Estonia). Inst. of Ecology and Earth Sciences; Tallinn Univ., Tallinn (Estonia). Inst. of Ecology; Szava-Kovats, R.; Kull, O. [Tartu Univ., Tartu (Estonia). Inst. of Ecology and Earth Sciences; Pensa, M. [Tallinn Univ., Tallinn (Estonia). Inst. of Ecology


    The carbon balance of ecosystems emerging on former opencast mining areas was discussed. Since the carbon content of mine spoils is usually very low, soils developing on mine spoils can act as important sinks for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) through accumulation of biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC). This study estimated the rate of carbon accumulation and its distribution along forest ecosystem partitions in young Scots pine plantations in the Narva opencast oil shale mine in Estonia. Although plantations established on mine spoils are useful sites to study carbon sequestration in forests, mine soils often contain large amounts of fossil carbon, which complicates the estimation of carbon sequestration. Measurement of radiocarbon activity has been used to differentiate between plant-derived recent carbon and fossil carbon. The objectives of this study were to estimate the rate of carbon accumulation in young Scots pine plantations growing on severely degraded land; to determine the distribution of sequestered carbon along forest ecosystem partitions; and to develop a simple and robust method for finding the recent carbon contribution to total SOC. The plantations of Scots pine showed remarkably good growth on calcareous and stony oil shale mining spoils, having the potential to accumulate over 130 t C per ha less than 40 years after establishment. Most of the sequestered carbon was allocated to tree stems, with their portion increasing with age from 28 to 51 per cent. The portion of recent SOC increased from 5 to 23 per cent, indicating that soils contribute significantly to carbon accumulation during early forest succession on degraded land. According to our results, soils contribute a significant part to total stand carbon sequestration. However, large uncertainties remain concerning the average rate of SOC accumulation in reclaimed oil shale opencast mines because of the high variability of the parent substrate. 50 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Survey for the presence of Phytophthora cinnamomi on reclaimed mined lands in Ohio chosen for restoration of the American chestnut (United States)

    Shiv Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Jenise M. Bauman


    We have been planting blight resistant American chestnut seedlings on reclaimed coal mined areas in Southeastern Ohio, which was once within the natural range of the American chestnut. Towards the goal of restoring the American chestnut, we are testing suitable sites that can aid survival, growth and establishment of planted seedlings pre-inoculated with...

  12. Long-Term Impacts on Macroinvertebrates Downstream of Reclaimed Mountaintop Mining Valley Fills in Central Appalachia (United States)

    Pond, Gregory J.; Passmore, Margaret E.; Pointon, Nancy D.; Felbinger, John K.; Walker, Craig A.; Krock, Kelly J. G.; Fulton, Jennifer B.; Nash, Whitney L.


    Recent studies have documented adverse effects to biological communities downstream of mountaintop coal mining and valley fills (VF), but few data exist on the longevity of these impacts. We sampled 15 headwater streams with VFs reclaimed 11-33 years prior to 2011 and sampled seven local reference sites that had no VFs. We collected chemical, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrate data in April 2011; additional chemical samples were collected in September 2011. To assess ecological condition, we compared VF and reference abiotic and biotic data using: (1) ordination to detect multivariate differences, (2) benthic indices (a multimetric index and an observed/expected predictive model) calibrated to state reference conditions to detect impairment, and (3) correlation and regression analysis to detect relationships between biotic and abiotic data. Although VF sites had good instream habitat, nearly 90 % of these streams exhibited biological impairment. VF sites with higher index scores were co-located near unaffected tributaries; we suggest that these tributaries were sources of sensitive taxa as drifting colonists. There were clear losses of expected taxa across most VF sites and two functional feeding groups (% scrapers and %shredders) were significantly altered. Percent VF and forested area were related to biological quality but varied more than individual ions and specific conductance. Within the subset of VF sites, other descriptors (e.g., VF age, site distance from VF, the presence of impoundments, % forest) had no detectable relationships with biological condition. Although these VFs were constructed pursuant to permits and regulatory programs that have as their stated goals that (1) mined land be reclaimed and restored to its original use or a use of higher value, and (2) mining does not cause or contribute to violations of water quality standards, we found sustained ecological damage in headwaters streams draining VFs long after reclamation was completed.

  13. In Situ Generated Colloid Transport of Cu and Zn in Reclaimed Mine Soil Profiles Associated with Biosolids Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod O. Miller


    Full Text Available Areas reclaimed for agricultural uses following coal mining often receive biosolids applications to increase organic matter and fertility. Transport of heavy metals within these soils may be enhanced by the additional presence of biosolids colloids. Intact monoliths from reclaimed and undisturbed soils in Virginia and Kentucky were leached to observe Cu and Zn mobility with and without biosolids application. Transport of Cu and Zn was observed in both solution and colloid associated phases in reclaimed and undisturbed forest soils, where the presence of unweathered spoil material and biosolids amendments contributed to higher metal release in solution fractions. Up to 81% of mobile Cu was associated with the colloid fraction, particularly when gibbsite was present, while only up to 18% of mobile Zn was associated with the colloid fraction. The colloid bound Cu was exchangeable by ammonium acetate, suggesting that it will release into groundwater resources.

  14. Changes in the Extent of Surface Mining and Reclamation in the Central Appalachians Detected Using a 1976-2006 Landsat Time Series (United States)

    Townsend, Philip A.; Helmers, David P.; Kingdon, Clayton C.; McNeil, Brenden E.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Eshleman, Keith N.


    Surface mining and reclamation is the dominant driver of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in the Central Appalachian Mountain region of the Eastern U.S. Accurate quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how this LCLUC affects ecosystem services such as aesthetics, biodiversity, and mitigation of flooding.We used Landsat imagery from 1976, 1987, 1999 and 2006 to map the extent of surface mines and mine reclamation for eight large watersheds in the Central Appalachian region of West Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. We employed standard image processing techniques in conjunction with a temporal decision tree and GIS maps of mine permits and wetlands to map active and reclaimed mines and track changes through time. For the entire study area, active surface mine extent was highest in 1976, prior to implementation of the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act in 1977, with 1.76% of the study area in active mines, declining to 0.44% in 2006. The most extensively mined watershed, Georges Creek in Maryland, was 5.45% active mines in 1976, declining to 1.83% in 2006. For the entire study area, the area of reclaimed mines increased from 1.35% to 4.99% from 1976 to 2006, and from 4.71% to 15.42% in Georges Creek. Land cover conversion to mines and then reclaimed mines after 1976 was almost exclusively from forest. Accuracy levels for mined and reclaimed cover was above 85% for all time periods, and was generally above 80% for mapping active and reclaimed mines separately, especially for the later time periods in which good accuracy assessment data were available. Among other implications, the mapped patterns of LCLUC are likely to significantly affect watershed hydrology, as mined and reclaimed areas have lower infiltration capacity and thus more rapid runoff than unmined forest watersheds, leading to greater potential for extreme flooding during heavy rainfall events.

  15. Changes in the Extent of Surface Mining and Reclamation in the Central Appalachians Detected Using a 1976-2006 Landsat Time Series (United States)

    Townsend, Philip A.; Helmers, David P.; Kingdon, Clayton C.; McNeil, Brenden E.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Eshleman, Keith N.


    Surface mining and reclamation is the dominant driver of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in the Central Appalachian Mountain region of the Eastern U.S. Accurate quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how this LCLUC affects ecosystem services such as aesthetics, biodiversity, and mitigation of flooding.We used Landsat imagery from 1976, 1987, 1999 and 2006 to map the extent of surface mines and mine reclamation for eight large watersheds in the Central Appalachian region of West Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. We employed standard image processing techniques in conjunction with a temporal decision tree and GIS maps of mine permits and wetlands to map active and reclaimed mines and track changes through time. For the entire study area, active surface mine extent was highest in 1976, prior to implementation of the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act in 1977, with 1.76% of the study area in active mines, declining to 0.44% in 2006. The most extensively mined watershed, Georges Creek in Maryland, was 5.45% active mines in 1976, declining to 1.83% in 2006. For the entire study area, the area of reclaimed mines increased from 1.35% to 4.99% from 1976 to 2006, and from 4.71% to 15.42% in Georges Creek. Land cover conversion to mines and then reclaimed mines after 1976 was almost exclusively from forest. Accuracy levels for mined and reclaimed cover was above 85% for all time periods, and was generally above 80% for mapping active and reclaimed mines separately, especially for the later time periods in which good accuracy assessment data were available. Among other implications, the mapped patterns of LCLUC are likely to significantly affect watershed hydrology, as mined and reclaimed areas have lower infiltration capacity and thus more rapid runoff than unmined forest watersheds, leading to greater potential for extreme flooding during heavy rainfall events.

  16. Geomorphic, hydrologic, and erosion data for selected reclaimed hillslopes, the Seneca II Mine, Routt County, Colorado, October 1988 - July 1990 (United States)

    Elliott, J.G.


    Geomorphic, hydrologic, and erosion data were collected from five reclaimed hillslopes at the Seneca II mine near Hayden, Colorado. Hillslope surveys were used to determine hillslope lengths, which range from 670 to 1,280 ft, and hillslope gradients, which range from 0.17 to 0.23 ft/ft (17 to 23 percent). Elevations in the study area range from 6,890 to 7,140 feet and hillslope aspect generally is west or south. Mean total vegetation cover ranges from 74 to 91 percent. Total monthly precipitation for December 1988 through May 1990 was computed from daily measurements made with weighing-bucket precipitation gages. Several snowpack measurements were made during 2 winters. Volumetric soil-water content was determined at incremental depths using a neutron probe and in the upper 11.8 in of soil using a time-domain reflectometer. Active and recent soil erosion was indicated by the presence of rills. Rill density (the sum of rill lengths/unit area) was computed at 50-feet intervals along each hillslope study area. Differences in soil-surface elevations between September or October 1989 and June 1990 were determined with an erosion frame and replicate soil-surface surveys at 16 erosion-study plots.

  17. Occurrence and attempted mitigation of carbon dioxide in a home constructed on reclaimed coal-mine spoil, Pike County, Indiana (United States)

    Robinson, Bret A.


    In recent years carbon dioxide intrusion has become recognized as a potentially serious health threat where homes are constructed on or near reclaimed surface coal mines. When carbon dioxide invades the living space of a home, it can collect near the floor, displace the oxygen there, and produce an oxygen-deficient environment. In this investigation, several lines of inquiry were pursued to determine the environmental factors that most influence carbon dioxide intrusion at a Pike County, Ind., home where this phenomenon is known to occur. It was found that carbon dioxide intrusion events at the home are most closely tied to rapid drops in barometric pressure and rainfall. Other researchers have shown that windy conditions and periods of cold weather also can contribute to soil-gas intrusion to structures. From this, a conceptual model was developed to illustrate the influence of these four meteorological conditions. Additionally, three mitigation methods-block-wall depressurization, block-wall and sub-slab depressurization, and block-wall and sub-slab pressurization-were applied successively to the study-site home, and environmental data were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of each mitigation method. In each case, it was found that these methods did not ensure a safe environment when meteorological conditions were favorable for carbon dioxide intrusion.

  18. Safety assessment of greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes irrigated with reclaimed and surface water. (United States)

    Lopez-Galvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Pedrero-Salcedo, Francisco; Alarcon, Juan Jose; Gil, Maria Isabel


    The impact of reclaimed and surface water on the microbiological safety of hydroponic tomatoes was assessed. Greenhouse tomatoes were irrigated with reclaimed and surface water and grown on two hydroponic substrates (coconut fiber and rock wool). Water samples (n=208) were taken from irrigation water, with and without the addition of fertilizers and drainage water, and hydroponic tomatoes (n=72). Samples were analyzed for indicator microorganisms, generic Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., and pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), using multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) after enrichment. The correlation between climatological parameters such as temperature and the levels of microorganisms in water samples was also determined. In irrigation water, generic E. coli counts were higher in reclaimed than in surface water whereas Listeria spp. numbers increased after adding the fertilizers in both water sources. In drainage water, no clear differences in E. coli and Listeria numbers were observed between reclaimed and surface water. No positive samples for STEC were found in irrigation water. Presumptive positives for Salmonella spp. were found in 7.7% of the water samples and 62.5% of these samples were reclaimed water. Salmonella-positive samples by RT-PCR could not be confirmed by conventional methods. Higher concentrations of E. coli were associated with Salmonella-presumptive positive samples. Climatological parameters, such as temperature, were not correlated with the E. coli and Listeria spp. counts. Tomato samples were negative for bacterial pathogens, while generic E. coli and Listeria spp. counts were below the detection limit. The prevalence of presumptive Salmonella spp. found in irrigation water (reclaimed and surface water) was high, which might present a risk of contamination. The absence of pathogens on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes indicates that good agricultural practices (GAP) were in place, avoiding the

  19. Time-dependent phosphate dynamics in reclaimed lignite-mine soils under Robinia pseudoacacia L. (United States)

    Freese, Dirk; Slazak, Anna


    . With increasing age of trees the ratio of available P to total P decreased in tendency for all soil layers. The total P content increased slightly over time in all soil layers. But the amount of Fe and Al oxides increased also over time and therefore the overall P sorption capacity increased, too. Hence, the ratio between available P and total P shifted more to the less available forms of P in soil. Within a period of 20 years, R. pseudoacacia L. cultivation on post mining sites increased the contents of available P and total P, repectively. The P sorption increased with time of soil development showing the maximum at the oldest site. Nevertheless, P sorption of these initial post mining soils is still rather low. The results suggest, that the SRC of R. pseudoacacia L. on post mining sites have a positive influence on the P dynamics. References Freese, D., Van Riemsdijk, W.H., Van Der Zee, S.E.A.T.M., 1995. Modelling phosphate-sorption kinetics in acid soils. European Journal of Soil Science 46(2), 239-245. Matos, E.S., Freese, D., Böhm, C., Quinkenstein, A., Hüttl, R.F., 2012. Organic Matter Dynamics in Reclaimed Lignite Mine Soils under Robinia pseudoacacia L. Plantations of Different Ages in Germany. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 43(5), 745-755.

  20. Chemical speciation and bioavailability of selenium in the rhizosphere of Symphyotrichum eatonii from reclaimed mine soils. (United States)

    Oram, Libbie L; Strawn, Daniel G; Möller, Gregory


    Knowledge of rhizosphere influences on Se speciation and bioavailability is required to predict Se bioavailability to plants. In the present study, plant-availability of Se to aster (Symphyotrichum eatonii (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom) was compared in rhizosphere soils and nonrhizosphere (bulk) soils collected from a reclaimed mine site in southeastern Idaho, U.S. X-ray spectroscopy was used to characterize the oxidation state and elemental distribution of Se in aster roots, rhizosphere soils, and bulk soils. Percent extractable Se in aster rhizosphere soil was greater than extractable Se in corresponding bulk soils in all samples (n = 4, p = 0.042, 0.051, and 0.052 for three extractions). Selenium oxidation state mapping of 28 regions within the samples and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra from 26 points within the samples indicated that the rhizosphere and bulk soil Se species was predominantly reduced Se(-II,0), while in the aster roots, high concentrations of Se(VI) were present. Results show that within the rhizosphere, enhanced Se bioavailability is occurring via oxidation of reduced soil Se to more soluble Se(VI) species.

  1. Using NASA Earth Observing Satellites and Statistical Model Analysis to Monitor Vegetation and Habitat Rehabilitation in Southwest Virginia's Reclaimed Mine Lands (United States)

    Tate, Z.; Dusenge, D.; Elliot, T. S.; Hafashimana, P.; Medley, S.; Porter, R. P.; Rajappan, R.; Rodriguez, P.; Spangler, J.; Swaminathan, R. S.; VanGundy, R. D.


    The majority of the population in southwest Virginia depends economically on coal mining. In 2011, coal mining generated $2,000,000 in tax revenue to Wise County alone. However, surface mining completely removes land cover and leaves the land exposed to erosion. The destruction of the forest cover directly impacts local species, as some are displaced and others perish in the mining process. Even though surface mining has a negative impact on the environment, land reclamation efforts are in place to either restore mined areas to their natural vegetated state or to transform these areas for economic purposes. This project aimed to monitor the progress of land reclamation and the effect on the return of local species. By incorporating NASA Earth observations, such as Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM), re-vegetation process in reclamation sites was estimated through a Time series analysis using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). A continuous source of cloud free images was accomplished by utilizing the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STAR-FM). This model developed synthetic Landsat imagery by integrating the high-frequency temporal information from Terra/Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and high-resolution spatial information from Landsat sensors In addition, the Maximum Entropy Modeling (MaxENT), an eco-niche model was used to estimate the adaptation of animal species to the newly formed habitats. By combining factors such as land type, precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and slope from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the MaxENT model produced a statistical analysis on the probability of species habitat. Altogether, the project compiled the ecological information which can be used to identify suitable habitats for local species in reclaimed mined areas.

  2. Ecosystem carbon budgeting and soil carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil. (United States)

    Shrestha, Raj K; Lal, Rattan


    Global warming risks from emissions of green house gases (GHGs) by anthropogenic activities, and possible mitigation strategies of terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration have increased the need for the identification of ecosystems with high C sink capacity. Depleted soil organic C (SOC) pools of reclaimed mine soil (RMS) ecosystems can be restored through conversion to an appropriate land use and adoption of recommended management practices (RMPs). The objectives of this paper are to (1) synthesize available information on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from coal mining and combustion activities, (2) understand mechanisms of SOC sequestration and its protection, (3) identify factors affecting C sequestration potential in RMSs, (4) review available methods for the estimation of ecosystem C budget (ECB), and (5) identify knowledge gaps to enhance C sink capacity of RMS ecosystems and prioritize research issues. The drastic perturbations of soil by mining activities can accentuate CO2 emission through mineralization, erosion, leaching, changes in soil moisture and temperature regimes, and reduction in biomass returned to the soil. The reclamation of drastically disturbed soils leads to improvement in soil quality and development of soil pedogenic processes accruing the benefit of SOC sequestration and additional income from trading SOC credits. The SOC sequestration potential in RMS depends on amount of biomass production and return to soil, and mechanisms of C protection. The rate of SOC sequestration ranges from 0.1 to 3.1 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) and 0.7 to 4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) in grass and forest RMS ecosystem, respectively. Proper land restoration alone could off-set 16 Tg CO2 in the U.S. annually. However, the factors affecting C sequestration and protection in RMS leading to increase in microbial activity, nutrient availability, soil aggregation, C build up, and soil profile development must be better understood in order to formulate guidelines for development of an

  3. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner


    During this quarter a general forest monitoring program was conducted to measure treatment effects on above ground and below ground carbon C and Nitrogen (N) pools for the tree planting areas. Detailed studies to address specific questions pertaining to Carbon cycling was initiated with the development of plots to examine the influence of mycorrhizae, spoil chemical and mineralogical properties, and use of amendment on forest establishment and carbon sequestration. Efforts continued during this period to examine decomposition and heterotrophic respiration on C cycling in the reforestation plots. Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed surface mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. New plantings required the modification and design and installation on monitoring equipment. Maintenance and data monitoring on past and present installations are a continuing operation. The Department of Mining Engineering continued the collection of penetration resistance, penetration depth, and bulk density on both old and new treatment areas. Data processing and analysis is in process for these variables. Project scientists and graduate students continue to present results at scientific meetings, tours and field days presentations of the research areas are being conducted on a request basis.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner


    The 2002-2003 Department of Energy plantings amounted to 164 acres containing 111,520 tree seedlings in eastern and western Kentucky. Data gathered on these trees included an inventory to determine survival of all planted species. A sub-sample of seedlings was selected to assess the height and diameter of individual species of seedlings established. Additional efforts involved collection of soil sample and litter samples, analysis of herbaceous ground cover from vegetation clip plots and leaf area on each tree species, and development of tissue collections. All areas were sampled for penetration resistance, penetration depth (or depth to refusal), and bulk density at various depths. Rain fall events and flow rates were recorded. The water quality of runoff samples involved the determination of total and settleable solids and particle size distribution. A study was initiated that will focus on the colonization of small mammals from forest edges to various areas located on reclaimed surface mines. This effort will provide a better understanding of the role small mammals and birds have in the establishment of plant communities on mine lands that will be useful in developing and improving reclamation techniques.

  5. Thyroid pathology in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculata) from a reclaimed mine site on the athabasca oil sands. (United States)

    Movasseghi, Ahmad; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Smits, Judit E G


    Information on naturally occurring thyroid disease in wild animals in general and in small mammals specifically is extremely limited. In the present field-based work, we investigated the structure and function of thyroid glands of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculata) studied as sentinels of ecosystem sustainability on reclaimed areas post-mining on the oil sands of northeastern Alberta, because of their greater sensitivity to contaminants relative to meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) on the same sites. Extraction of bitumen in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta, results in the release of contaminants including polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), metals, and metalloids to the environment that have a measurable biological cost to wildlife living in the affected areas. In previous investigations, deer mice exposed to pollution at reclaimed areas showed compromised ability to regenerate glutathione indicating oxidative stress, together with decreased testicular mass and body condition during the breeding season. In the present study, thyroid glands from those deer mice from the reclaimed site had markedly increased follicular cell proliferation and decreased colloid compared to animals from the reference site. This pathology was positively associated with the greater oxidative stress in the deer mice. Thyroid hormones, both thyroxine and triiodothyronine, were also higher in animals with greater oxidative stress indicating increased metabolic demands from contaminant related subclinical toxicity. This work emphasizes the value of using a combination of endocrinological, histological and oxidative stress biomarkers to provide sensitive measures of contaminant exposure in small mammals on the oil sands.

  6. Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.


    In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In

  7. Surface Mines, Other - Longwall Mining Panels (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  8. Soil quality index as a tool for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) monoculture conversion planning on afforested, reclaimed mine land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski


    In Central Europe, a large portion of post-mining sites were afforested with Scots pine, which is characterized by good adaptability and a tolerance for poor habitat at the beginning of forest ecosystem development. Conversion of monoculture on mine sites into more biodi-verse mixed hardwood forests, especially on more fertile deposits, can be an emerging need in this part of Europe in next decades. The ability to classify the forests at these post-mining sites will facilitate proper species selection as well as the management and formation of the developed ecosystem’s stability. This work describes the guidelines that can be followed to assess reclaimed mine soil (RMS) quality, using the mine soil quality index (MSQI) and a classification of developed forest sites as a basis of tree-stand species selection and conversion of pine monocul-tures. The research was conducted on four post-mining facilities (lignite, hard coal, sulphur, and sand pit mining areas) on different RMS sub-strates dominant in Central Europe. Soil quality assessment takes into account the following features of the soil: texture soil nutrients (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P); acidity (pH KCl); and Corg-to-Nt ratio in the initial organic horizon. An analysis was conducted of classification systems using the MSQI validation correlation (atp =0.05) with vegetation features af-fected by succession: aboveground biomass of forest floor and ecological indicators of vascular plants (calculated on the basis of Ellenberg’s (2009) system). Eventually, in the analysed data set, the MSQI ranged from 0.270 for soils on quaternary sands to 0.720 for a mix of quaternary loamy sands with neogene clays. Potential forest habitat types and the role of the pine in the next generation of tree stands on different RMS parent rock substrate were proposed.

  9. Improving soil enzyme activities and related quality properties of reclaimed soil by applying weathered coal in opencast-mining areas of the Chinese loess plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hua [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China); CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Shao, Hongbo [CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Institute for Life Sciences, Qingdao University of Science and Technology (QUST), Qingdao (China); Li, Weixiang; Bi, Rutian [Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu (China); Bai, Zhongke [Department of Land Science Technology, University of Geosciences, Beijing (China)


    There are many problems for the reclaimed soil in opencast-mining areas of the Loess Plateau of China such as poor soil structure and extreme poverty in soil nutrients and so on. For the sake of finding a better way to improve soil quality, the current study was to apply the weathered coal for repairing soil media and investigate the physicochemical properties of the reclaimed soil and the changes in enzyme activities after planting Robinia pseucdoacacia. The results showed that the application of the weathered coal significantly improved the quality of soil aggregates, increased the content of water stable aggregates, and the organic matter, humus, and the cation exchange capacity of topsoil were significantly improved, but it did not have a significant effect on soil pH. Planting R. pseucdoacacia significantly enhanced the activities of soil catalase, urease, and invertase, but the application of the weathered coal inhibited the activity of catalase. Although the application of appropriate weathered coal was able to significantly increase urease activity, the activities of catalase, urease, or invertase had a close link with the soil profile levels and time. This study suggests that applying weathered coals could improve the physicochemical properties and soil enzyme activities of the reclaimed soil in opencast-mining areas of the Loess Plateau of China and the optimum applied amount of the weathered coal for reclaimed soil remediation is about 27 000 kg hm{sup -2}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant. (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si


    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  11. Short rotation coppice with Robinia pseudoacacia L. : a land use option for carbon sequestration on reclaimed mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinkenstein, A.; Bohm, C.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)


    A study in northeast Germany has shown that the establishment of short rotation coppices (SRC) of Robinia pseudoacacia L. may be a viable option for improving farmers income on marginal soils. The plantations produce woody biomass at a fast rate for energy use. Carbon is accumulated in the harvestable biomass, as well as in the stump and the roots. These plant compartments form a long-term carbon storage pool because they can survive a harvest, stay vital at the site and continue to grow as the plant ages. As organic litter decomposes, additional carbon is sequestered under SRC as soil organic carbon. The carbon sequestration in SRC of R. pseudoacacia on mining sites within the Lower Lusatian region in northeast Germany was studied and the results were complemented with findings of current field studies conducted on reclaimed mine sites. The average above ground dry matter productivity of R. pseudoacacia was found to be 3 to 10 Mg per hectare per year, depending on the plantation age and rotation period. It has been estimated that the carbon storage within the soil accounts to a carbon sequestration of up to 6 Mg per hectare per year for a soil depth of 60 cm.

  12. Impact of surface coal mining and reclamation on the hydrogeology at Iowa Coal Project Demonstration Mine No. 1, Mahaska County, Iowa. [MS thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stangl, D.W.


    The groundwater effects of surface mining at ICP No. 1 can be classified primarily as water quality and water quantity effects. The water quantity effects are: the loss of groundwater saturation in spoil materials that were initially removed from over the coal and later replaced; the dewatering of high permeability geologic strata up gradient of mining area; the increase in porosity and possibly permeability in refilled spoil materials; and the change in groundwater gradients in mined areas and near the sediment pond. The water quality effects are: the generation of slightly mineralized enclaves near the sediment pond and spoil accumulations; the generation of thin zones of highly mineralized water near the base of reclaimed spoil probably due mostly to remnant acid mine water; and reduction of water quality in coal seams as a result of dewatering at the time of mining and subsequent oxidation of their pyrite content. Most effects of water quantity loss in and around the mine are not permanent. Water quality disturbances of the fringe areas of reclaimed mine areas will be very slow in attenuating because of the slow groundwater flow through these materials. Adulterated groundwaters in high permeability areas such as the flood plain alluvium will be more quickly attenuated than those in the mine spoil areas, but these enclaves also have the potential to effect much larger areas due to more rapid groundwater movement. Reduced pH and alkalinity were observed in very restricted areas near the east side of the sediment pond.

  13. Fuzzy logic for large mining bucket wheel reclaimer motion control——from an engineer's perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Tienfu


    The bucket wheel reclaimer(BWR)is a key piece of equipment which has been widely used for stacking and reclaiming bulk materials(i. e. iron ore and coal)in places such as ports, iron-steel plants, coal storage areas, and power stations from stockpiles. BWRs are very large in size, heavy in weight, expensive in price, and slow in motion. There are many challenges in attempting to automatically control their motion to accurately follow the required trajectories involving uncertain parameters from factors such as friction, turbulent wind, its own dynamics, and encoder limitations. As BWRs are always heavily engaged in production and cannot be spared very long for motion control studies and associated developments, a BWR model and simulation environment closely resembling real life conditions would be beneficial. The following research focused mainly on the implementation of fuzzy logic to a BWR motion control from an engineer's perspective. First, the modeling of a BWR including partially known parameters such as friction force and turbulence to the system was presented. This was then followed by the design of a fuzzy logic-based control built on a model-based control loop. The investigation provides engineers with an example of applying fuzzy logic in a model based approach to properly control the motion of a large BWR following defined trajectories, as well as to show possible ways of further improving the controller performance. The result indicates that fuzzy logic can be applied easily by engineers to overcome most motion control issues involving a large BWR.

  14. Geotechnical aspects of development over reclaimed former alluvial mining land and ponds in Malaysia (United States)

    Yeap, E. B.; Tan, B. K.; Chow, W. S.

    Mining of tin placers in Quaternary alluvium is the main type of mining activity in Peninsular Malaysia over the past hundred years. Worked out mines have left behind a landscape consisting of highly inhomogeneous tailing fill and numerous large and medium size ponds often underlain by thick slurries of fine clay and silt on limestone bedrock. Rapid urbanization around the two main tin mining areas in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, has led to the use of this previously mined land for residential, commercial and industrial purposes. Highly irregular karstic limestone bedrock poses major problems for the construction of high-rise buildings requiring piling to bedrock. Soft slime trapped during tailing deposition or during reclamation has caused numerous and often irreparable damage to houses built on former mining land. Characterization studies were undertaken on two ponds for their chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties with the aim of finding a solution to the reclamation of slime filled mine ponds. Environmental considerations favour the slime material to be used as foundation material or as raw material for ceramic or bricks. Increase of the solid content by dewatering constitutes the best option to increase the strength of the slime material so as to make it acceptable as foundation material after further treatment. Studies indicate that a few reagents can be used to successfully dewater the slime. Development of a reclamation technique along this line is being carried out.

  15. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.


    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  16. Influence of soft bitumens on the chemical and rheological properties of reclaimed polymer-modified binders from the "old" surface-layer asphalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Nielsen, E.; Komacka, J.; Leegwater, G.; Ven, M. van de


    Reclaimed asphalt (RA) that contains polymer-modified bitumen (PMB) offers a potential premium material contribution for recycling. This study investigated the influence of soft virgin bitumens on the chemical and rheological properties of three reclaimed PMBs from different "old" surface-layer

  17. Forecast salt regime unwatered mine reclaimed dump in unstable conditions in Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhrashkina H.P.


    Full Text Available On the based theory of physical-chemical hydrodynamic of porous media was executed prognosis salt rate no suppying with water mine dumps of minimum sense transhiration in conditions no established rate.

  18. Microscopically focused synchrotron X-ray investigation of selenium speciation in soils developing on reclaimed mine lands. (United States)

    Ryser, Amy L; Strawn, Daniel G; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine; Johnson-Maynard, Jodi L; Möller, Gregory


    Chemical speciation determines Se solubility and therefore its bioavailability and potential for transport in the environment. In this study we investigated the speciation of Se in soil developed on reclaimed mine sites in the U.S. Western Phosphate Resource Area (WPRA) using micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy and micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) mapping. Selenium was nonuniformly distributed in the soils and positively correlated with Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Ni. Sixteen points of interest (POI) from three soil samples were analyzed with micro-XANES spectroscopy. The XANES data indicated that Se is present in the soils in at least three oxidation states, Se(-II, 0), Se(IV), and Se(VI). Selenides or elemental Se dominated 7 of the 16 POI. Selenate was the dominant species at only one of the POI. The remaining eight POI were composed of both Se(IV) and Se(VI), with minor Se(-II, 0) contributions. The results of this research suggest that the reduced Se species in the soil parent material are oxidizing to Se(VI), one of the more mobile species of Se in the environment. This information can be used to better predict and manage Se availability in soils.

  19. Plant Species Richness After Revegetation on The Reclaimed Coal Mine Land of PT Adaro Indonesia, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Arief Soendjoto


    Full Text Available The focus of monitoring was the plant purposely cultivated because after re-vegetation, there were a very few of other plants growing naturally on reclimed coal mining area which were recorded, whereas these plants had important values. The research aimed to record all plants and to identify predominant plants over the reclaimed land of PT Adaro Indonesia. There were four sampling locations with 13 squares of 50 × 20 m2 on each location established and on each square there were 5 plots of 2 × 2 m2 plotse made. Both plant species and its individual number of woodyplantsaplings were recorded on each square, so in each plot, there were small species and its individual number of either woody-plant seedlings or non-woody plants (herbs/shrubs, grasses, ferns. The relative density and the relative frequency of woody or non-woody plants were summed to obtain the important value index (IVI of each successional stage. There were 107 plant species consisting of 32, 43, 27, and 5 species of saplings,seedlings/herbs/shrubs, grasses, and ferns respectively. From those species, 16 species of woody plants and 2 species of herbs were planted purposely,other species grew naturally and even some of them were dominants. Either the number of plants or the dominating plant is varied according to the sampling location and the growing stage.Keywords: plant, revegetation, richness, sapling, seedling

  20. Ecophysiology of Trembling Aspen in Response to Root-Zone Conditions and Competition on Reclaimed Mine Soil. (United States)

    Bockstette, S.; Landhäusser, S.; Pinno, B.; Dyck, M. F.


    Reclaimed soils are typically characterized by increased bulk densities, penetration resistances and poor soil structure as well as associated problems with hydrology and aeration. As a result, available rooting space for planted tree seedlings is often restricted to a shallow layer of topsoil, which is usually of higher quality and is cultivated prior to planting. This may hinder the development of healthy root systems, thus drastically increasing the risk for plant stress by limiting access to soil resources such as water, nutrients and oxygen. These problems are exacerbated when herbaceous plants compete for the same resources within this limited root-zone. To understand how limited rooting space affects the physiology of young trees, we experimentally manipulated soil conditions and levels of competition at a reclaimed mine site in central Alberta, Canada. The site was characterized by heavily compacted, fine textured subsoil (~2.0 Mg ha-1), capped with 15 cm of topsoil (~1.5 Mg ha-1). In a replicated study (n=6) half the plots were treated with a subsoil plow to a depth of about 60 cm to increase available rooting spece. Subsequently, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and smooth brome (Bromus inermis L.) were planted to create four vegetation covers: aspen (a), brome (b), aspen + brome (ab) and control (c) (no vegetation). Various soil properties, including texture, bulk density, penetration resistance and water availability, in conjunction with plant parameters such as root and shoot growth, leaf area development, sap flow, and stomatal conductance have since been monitored, both in-situ and through destructive sampling. Our results indicate that the soil treatment was effective in lowering bulk densities and penetration resistance, while improving moisture retention characteristics. Tree seedling growth and leaf area development were significantly greater without competition, but did not differ between soil treatments. The soil treatment generally

  1. Evaluation of afforestation development and natural colonization on a reclaimed mine site (United States)

    Diana Laarmann; Henn Korjus; Allan Sims; Ahto Kangur; Andres Kiviste; John Stanturf


    Post-mining restoration sites often develop novel ecosystems as soil conditions are completely new and ecosystem assemblage can be spontaneous even on afforested sites. This study presents results from long-term monitoring and evaluation of an afforested oil-shale quarry in Estonia. The study is based on chronosequence data of soil and vegetation and comparisons are...

  2. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region (United States)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.


    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  3. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. (United States)


    ... underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.27 Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. For surface mining activities within the proposed permit area to be conducted within 500 feet of an underground mine...

  4. Bacterial community composition in reclaimed and unreclaimed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    and reclaimed mine tailings of Dexing copper mine, Jiangxi province, China. Sample T1 was .... Nucleotide sequence accession numbers ... EXC, Exchangeable; CAR, bound to carbonates; OXI, amorphous iron-manganese oxides; ORG,.

  5. Scots pine needles macronutrient (N, P, K, CA, MG, and S) supply at different reclaimed mine soil substrates?as an indicator of the stability of developed forest ecosystems


    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Wo?, Bart?omiej; Haus, Nicholas


    A main objective of restoration and afforestation at post-mining sites is establishing a long-term sustainable ecosystem which depends on adaptations of tree species and which in turn depends on the soil nutrient flux. The nutrient concentration (nitrogen (N), P, K, Ca, Mg, and sulfur (S)) of Scots pine needles was investigated in reclaimed mine soils (RMS) located at the following post-mining sites: a sand mine pit, spoil heap from a lignite mine, spoil heap from a S mine, and a carbonaceous...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈意平; 张幼蒂


    This paper introduced an approach to surface mine planning optimization-Goal Programming.The multiobjective[0-1] model has been built and the software has been developed.The method has been applied to a huge surface coal mine,the result of which shows that it is effective and feasible.

  7. Assessment of Robinia pseudoacacia cultivations as a restoration strategy for reclaimed mine spoil heaps. (United States)

    Vlachodimos, Kostas; Papatheodorou, Efimia M; Diamantopoulos, John; Monokrousos, Nikolaos


    Reforestation with black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is considered a successful technique that is often used for the reclamation of open-cast mine areas. An alternative reclamation technique could be the natural regeneration of vegetation with spontaneous grass species. In this study, we compared the concentrations of chemical and biochemical variables in soil samples taken under black locust canopy to those from sites covered by spontaneous grass vegetation (control samples) in a time sequence of spoil deposition (0-10 years), in order to assess which of the two reclamation techniques yields higher soil quality. Soil quality refers here to the ability of soils to function ecologically. This has a special interest since the main question for the restored soils is their capacity to perform a range of ecological functions under stress or disturbance. Furthermore, we aimed at identifying the effect of vegetation type on soil ecological succession. The effect of vegetation type on primary succession becomes apparent after 2 years of reclamation. R. pseudoacacia as a nitrogen-fixing plant enriched soil with organic and inorganic nitrogen and organic matter to a greater extent than the natural grasses. It also increased the amount of soil microbial biomass and the activity of alkaline phosphatase. However, the fact that black locust failed to enhance dehydrogenase activity and actually decreased the activity of urease, activities that represent specialized niche functions and therefore, are more vulnerable to stress or disturbance, suggests that the development of an indigenous grass community in combination with organic supplements might often be more appropriate for the reclamation of similar kinds of mine areas.

  8. Surface mining of the uranium deposit of Roussay (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begeot, M.; Marvy, A.


    Surface mining of this COGEMA mine started in October 1983. Mine, personnel, deposit geology, prospecting, mining method and equipment, environmental problems (dusts, noise, water treatment, revegetation) are described. 158000 kg of uranium were produced in 1985.

  9. Surface water quality management using an integrated discharge permit and the reclaimed water market. (United States)

    Jamshidi, Shervin; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Ardestani, Mojtaba


    Water quality trading is a sustainable framework for surface water quality management. It uses discharge permits to reduce the total treatment costs. For example, the case of Gharesoo River in Iran shows that the nitrogen permit market between point and non-point sources is 37% more economical than the command and control framework. Nevertheless, the cost saving may be reduced to 6% by the end of the study period (2050). This depression may be due to the limited technical support for wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, an integrated market is recommended in which the discharge permits and the reclaimed water are traded simultaneously. In this framework, the allocation of secondary treated domestic wastewater for irrigation can provide capacity for other pollutants to discharge into the surface water. This innovative approach may decrease the total treatment costs by 63% at present, while 65%, may be achieved by the end of the study period. Furthermore, this market is able to determine the environmental penalty, trading permits, and reuse prices. For example, the maximum ratio of the average reuse price to the penalty cost is determined as 1 to 10. It is introduced as an incentive indicator for stakeholders to consider the integrated market. Consequently, the applicability and the efficiency of using this approach are verified long term.

  10. Classification of stream basins in southeastern Ohio according to extent of surface coal mining (United States)

    Childress, C.J.


    Water-quality data were collected from streams grenadine 35 basins in the southeaster-Ohio coal region to evaluate and categorize the effect of surface coal mining on stream quality. The study area is underlain by rocks of Pennsylvanian age, the most important coal-producing formations of which are the Allegheny and Monogahela Formations. The study area contains 276 data-collection sites, each of which was sampled four times over a 3-year period. Water and bed-material samples were collected. Each site was classified as 'abandoned,' reclaimed,' unmined,' or mixed,' depending on the proportion of the drainage basin disturbed by mining, and if mined, on the present condition of the mine. Of the 130 sites in the Monogahela Formation, 18 percent were classified as abandoned, 2 percent as reclaimed, 10 percent as unmined, and 70 percent as mixed. Of the 146 sites in the Allegheny Formation, 14 percent were classified as abandoned, 11 percent as unmined, and 75 percent as mixed. Streams draining the carbonate-bearing Monogahela Formation have a significantly greater buffering capacity than streams draining the Allegheny Formation. THere are significant differences in specific conductance; pH; alkalinity; acidity; hardness; total and dissolve manganese, and aluminum; dissolved nickel, zinc, and sulfate; and dissolved solids among mining-disturbance types in the Allegheny Formation. However, in stream draining the Monogahela Formation, only hardness, sulfur, dissolved solids, and dissolved manganese are significantly different among mining-disturbance types. Discriminant-function analysis of water-quality data was used to classify each 'mixed' site into one of four categories: Abandoned, reclaimed, unmined, or uncertain. In addition, observations in each of the first three categories were classified as strongly, moderately, or weakly characteristic of that category. The discriminant function was based on specific conductance, pH, acidity, dissolved sulfate, dissolved

  11. Influence of biochar and plant growth on organic matter dynamics in a reclaimed mine residue (United States)

    Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Díaz, Vicente; Alberto, Jose; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl


    This study aims at assessing the impact of biochar and marble waste amendment and the development of vegetation in acidic mine wastes on organic matter dynamics. For this purpose, a mine residue was collected in a tailing pond from the Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Unión (SE Spain), and a greenhouse experiment was established for 120 days. Marble waste (MW) was added in a rate of 200 g kg-1 as a source of calcium carbonate to increase the pH from 3 to 7.5-8 (average pH in the native soils of the area). We added biochar as a source of organic carbon and nutrients, in two different rates, 50 g kg-1 (BC1) and 100 g kg-1 (BC2). To assess the influence of vegetation growth on the creation of a technosoil from mine residues and its impact on organic matter dynamics, the plant species Piptatherum miliaceum (PM) was planted in half the pots with the different amendments. Thus, five treatments were established: unamended and unplanted control (CT), BC1, BC2, BC1+PM and BC2+PM. Results showed that the different treatments had no significant effect on aggregates stability, microbial biomass carbon and the emission of N2O and CH4. So, it seems that longer periods are needed to increase the stability of aggregates and microbial populations, since even the combined use of biochar, marble waste and vegetation was not enough to increase these properties in 120 days. Nonetheless, it was positive that the addition of biochar and the release of root exudates did not trigger the emission of greenhouse gases. Organic carbon significantly increased with the addition of biochar, with values similar to the dose applied, indicating high stability and low mineralization of the amendment. The addition of amendments significantly increased arylesterase activity, while the growth of the plant was needed to significantly increase β-glucosidase activity. The soluble carbon significantly decreased in BC1 and BC2 with regards to CT, while no significant differences were observed among CT and

  12. Surface-water quality of coal-mine lands in Raccoon Creek Basin, Ohio (United States)

    Wilson, K.S.


    The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, plans to reclaim abandoned surface mines in the Raccoon Creek watershed in southern Ohio. Historic water-quality data collected between 1975 and 1983 were complied and analyzed in terms of eight selected mine-drainage characteristics to develop a data base for individual subbasin reclamation projects. Areas of mine drainage affecting Raccoon Creek basin, the study Sandy Run basin, the Hewett Fork basin, and the Little raccoon Creek basin. Surface-water-quality samples were collected from a 41-site network from November 1 through November 3, 1983, Results of the sampling reaffirmed that the major sources of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek are in the Little Raccoon Creek basin, and the Hewett Fork basin. However, water quality at the mouth of Sandy Run indicated that it is not a source of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek. Buffer Run, Goose Run, an unnamed tributary to Little Raccoon Creek, Mulga Run, and Sugar Run were the main sources of mine drainage sampled in the Little Raccoon Creek basin. All sites sampled in the East Branch Raccoon Creek basin were affected by mine drainage. This information was used to prepare a work plan for additional data collection before, during, and after reclamation. The data will be used to define the effectiveness of reclamation effects in the basin.

  13. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. (United States)

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K


    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters.

  14. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan


    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  15. 12th International Symposium Continuous Surface Mining

    CERN Document Server


    This edited volume contains research results presented at the 12th International Symposium Continuous Surface Mining, ISCSM Aachen 2014. The target audience primarily comprises researchers in the lignite mining industry and practitioners in this field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. Radionuclides in milk of dairy heifers raised on forages harvested from phosphatic clay soils on reclaimed mined land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staples, C.R.; Umana, R.; Hayen, M.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others


    Alfalfa (AR; Medicago sativa L.) and corn (CSR; Zea mays L.) were grown in phosphatic clay soils on phosphate-mined reclaimed land in central Florida. Corn (CSC) also was grown on unmined land and served as a control forage. Upon harvesting, plants were chopped and ensiled. Concentrations of {sup 226}Ra averaged 2.44, 0.26 and 0.15; {sup 210}Pb averaged 1.04, 0.63, and 0.52; and {sup 210}Po averaged 1.59, 0.59, and 1.26 Bq kg{sup -1} DM for AR, CSR, and CSC, respectively. These forages were fed separately to Holstein dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus) (n=15 per forage) from approximately 9 to 25 mo of age. Heifers gave birth to calves at approximately 24 mo of age. Samples of milk were collected on d 1, 15, and 30 of lactation and analyzed for radionuclides. Averaged across sampling days, heifers fed AR had greater milk concentrations of {sup 226}Ra compared with those fed CSR (0.27 vs. 0.22 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.10), which, in turn, had greater milk concentrations compared with heifers fed CSC (0.22 vs. 0.13 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.05). Heifers fed AR also had greater milk concentrations of {sup 210}Po compared with heifers fed CSR (0.58 vs. 0.30 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.10), but values of CSR-fed heifers were not different from CSC-fed heifers (0.45 Bq kg{sup -1} DM). Lead-210 was greater in milk from heifers fed CSR compared with those fed AR or CSC (1.38 vs. 0.94 and 0.92 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.13), respectively. Plasma S and Cu concentrations suggested subclinical molybdenosis in heifers fed AR. However, all heifers grew at an acceptable rate, conceived normally, had normal gestation periods, gave high quality colostrum at calving, and produced similar amounts of milk. 17 refs., 9 tabs.

  17. Ecological rebuilding and land reclamation in surface mines inShanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It is well known that the mining industry produces a large amount of derelict land, and muses pollution of water loss and soil erosion as well as other environmental damage in China. As land is under pressure in China, it is now policy to restore or reclaim land despoiled by mining, the aim being to develop sustainable and healthy arable land ecosystems. This paper outlines the principles and approaches of ecological restoration, which have been adopted in Shanxi Province with reference to three typical surface mines. In the research, the principles of ecological engineering and ecological succession are considered as the critical theories of ecological restoration in mine degraded land. Meanwhile, the paper made a comparative research on main links of ecological rebuilding in three surface mines in Shanxi Province, which include new land construction, treatment of toxic substances, control of soil erosion, fertility management, irrigation, ecological planning and the establishment of legislation systems. As the research demonstrated, for successful restoration, new land construction is the fundamental framework, but it must be integrated with ecological engineering including ecological planning, the control of soil erosion and vegetation establishment and ecosystem creation in order to optimiee land productivity and soil fertility. In addition, the establishment of the legislation systems and organization of administration are also indispensable aspects of ecological rebuilding in mined land.

  18. Scots pine needles macronutrient (N, P, K, CA, MG, and S) supply at different reclaimed mine soil substrates--as an indicator of the stability of developed forest ecosystems. (United States)

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Woś, Bartłomiej; Haus, Nicholas


    A main objective of restoration and afforestation at post-mining sites is establishing a long-term sustainable ecosystem which depends on adaptations of tree species and which in turn depends on the soil nutrient flux. The nutrient concentration (nitrogen (N), P, K, Ca, Mg, and sulfur (S)) of Scots pine needles was investigated in reclaimed mine soils (RMS) located at the following post-mining sites: a sand mine pit, spoil heap from a lignite mine, spoil heap from a S mine, and a carbonaceous spoil heap from an underground coal mine. The control plots were arranged on natural forest sites adjacent to the post-mining sites. A higher level of foliar nutrients was noted in the carbonaceous RMS, while lower levels were found in RMS on the spoil heap following lignite mining. The characteristics of the substrate were found to exert greater effect than mineral fertilization (performed at the onset of reclamation) on the tree stand characteristics, needle length and foliar nutrient concentration. While the soils and trees were most deficient in N, negative symptoms have not been noted to this date in tree stands at reclaimed mine sites. Trophic ratings were recommended based on statistical correlations and groupings between N and P contents in needles and needles length (mean length of 300 needles) while nutrient ratings were recommended from statistical differences and groupings of the RMS substrates.

  19. Range of drainage effect of surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sozanski, J.


    This paper discusses methods of calculating the range of effects of water drainage from surface coal mines and other surface mines. It is suggested that methods based on test pumping (water drainage) are time consuming, and the results can be distorted by atmospheric factors such as rain fall or dry period. So-called empirical formulae produce results which are often incorrect. The size of a cone shaped depression calculated on the basis of empirical formulae can be ten times smaller than the size of the real depression. It is suggested that using a formula based on the Dupuit formula is superior to other methods of depression calculation. According to the derived formulae the radius of the depresion cone is a function of parameters of the water bearing horizons, size of surface mine working and of water depression. The proposed formula also takes into account the influence of atmospheric factors (water influx caused by precipitation, etc.). (1 ref.) (In Polish)

  20. Role of soil health in maintaining environmental sustainability of surface coal mining. (United States)

    Acton, Peter M; Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott; Jones, Alice L; Rowe, Harold; Martin, Darren; Bryson, Sebastian


    Mountaintop coal mining (MCM) in the Southern Appalachian forest region greatly impacts both soil and aquatic ecosystems. Policy and practice currently in place emphasize water quality and soil stability but do not consider upland soil health. Here we report soil organic carbon (SOC) measurements and other soil quality indicators for reclaimed soils in the Southern Appalachian forest region to quantify the health of the soil ecosystem. The SOC sequestration rate of the MCM soils was 1.3 MgC ha(-1) yr(-1) and stocks ranged from 1.3 ± 0.9 to 20.9 ± 5.9 Mg ha(-1) and contained only 11% of the SOC of surrounding forest soils. Comparable reclaimed mining soils reported in the literature that are supportive of soil ecosystem health had SOC stocks 2.5-5 times greater than the MCM soils and sequestration rates were also 1.6-3 times greater. The high compaction associated with reclamation in this region greatly reduces both the vegetative rooting depth and infiltration of the soil and increases surface runoff, thus bypassing the ability of soil to naturally filter groundwater. In the context of environmental sustainability of MCM, it is proposed that the entire watershed ecosystem be assessed and that a revision of current policy be conducted to reflect the health of both water and soil.

  1. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) presence and proliferation on former surface coal mines in Eastern USA (United States)

    Oliphant, Adam J.; Wynne, R.H.; Zipper, Carl E.; Ford, William; Donovan, P. F.; Li, Jing


    Invasive plants threaten native plant communities. Surface coal mines in the Appalachian Mountains are among the most disturbed landscapes in North America, but information about land cover characteristics of Appalachian mined lands is lacking. The invasive shrub autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) occurs on these sites and interferes with ecosystem recovery by outcompeting native trees, thus inhibiting re-establishment of the native woody-plant community. We analyzed Landsat 8 satellite imagery to describe autumn olive’s distribution on post-mined lands in southwestern Virginia within the Appalachian coalfield. Eight images from April 2013 through January 2015 served as input data. Calibration and validation data obtained from high-resolution aerial imagery were used to develop a land cover classification model that identified areas where autumn olive was a primary component of land cover. Results indicate that autumn olive cover was sufficiently dense to enable detection on approximately 12.6 % of post-mined lands within the study area. The classified map had user’s and producer’s accuracies of 85.3 and 78.6 %, respectively, for the autumn olive coverage class. Overall accuracy was assessed in reference to an independent validation dataset at 96.8 %. Autumn olive was detected more frequently on mines disturbed prior to 2003, the last year of known plantings, than on lands disturbed by more recent mining. These results indicate that autumn olive growing on reclaimed coal mines in Virginia and elsewhere in eastern USA can be mapped using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager imagery; and that autumn olive occurrence is a significant landscape vegetation feature on former surface coal mines in the southwestern Virginia segment of the Appalachian coalfield.

  2. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis


    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and

  3. Large Omnivore Movements in Response to Surface Mining and Mine Reclamation (United States)

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Boyce, Mark S.


    Increasing global demands have resulted in widespread proliferation of resource extraction. Scientists are challenged to develop environmental mitigation strategies that meet societal expectations of resource supply, while achieving minimal disruption to sensitive “wilderness” species. We used GPS collar data from a 9-year study on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) (n = 18) in Alberta, Canada to assess movements and associated space use during versus after mining. Grizzly bear home range overlap with mined areas was lower during active mining except for females with cubs, that also had shortest movements on active mines. However, both females with cubs and males made shorter steps when on/close to mines following mine closure and reclamation. Our results show differences in bear movement and space-use strategies, with individuals from a key population segment (females with cubs) appearing most adaptable to mining disturbance. Preserving patches of original habitat, reclaiming the landscape and minimizing the risk of direct human-induced mortality during and after development can help conserve bears and other wildlife on industrially modified landscapes. PMID:26750094

  4. Guide for surface coal mine reclamation plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of the guide is to provide a framework for Nova Scotia's coal mining community to consult during reclamation planning and environmental assessment. The guide describe the best management practices for application to surface mine reclamation. Principles of reclamation, standard submission requirements for a reclamation plan, planning for reclamation, landscape design, and revegetation, and methods for site preparation, monitoring, and maintenance are discussed. Backfilling, flooded excavation management, and other options are outlined. The reclamation plan must consider decommissioning of equipment and infrastructure, water retention and treatment ponds, acid rock drainage control and monitoring, site monitoring, watercourse management, and public safety. A glossary is included.

  5. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.


    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  6. The Reclaim Screw in Mammoth Silos Operating on a Free Surface: Comparison Between Horizontal and Inclined Operation on Free Flowing Bulk Solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, Ekke; Schott, Dingena; Wijk, van Arjen


    Although the screw conveyor, operating on a free surface, has been used for years as reclaim and storage equipment in mammoth silos, there is no documented knowledge about its spill characteristics. Research at Delft University of Technology together with ESI Eurosilo B.V. on the inclined use of the

  7. Evaluating the Use of Tree Shelters for Direct Seeding of Castanea on a Surface Mine in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barton


    Full Text Available American chestnut (Castanea dentata, once a primary constituent of the eastern hardwood forest ecosystem, was nearly extirpated from the forest canopy by the accidental introduction of chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica. An intensive breeding program has sought to breed blight resistance from Chinese chestnut into American chestnuts, while maintaining as much of the desirable American chestnut phenotypes as possible. Previous studies suggest that these blight resistant American chestnuts, termed “restoration chestnuts”, are capable of thriving on reclaimed surface mines. We direct seeded pure Chinese, pure American, and three backcross lines into brown sandstone minesoil on a mine site in Pike County, KY. To investigate the effects of tree sheltering on survival and growth, we installed tree shelters on half the plots, and left the rest of the plots unsheltered. Results indicated that shelters were highly effective at reducing initial mortality. In addition, while pure Chinese chestnut survival was highest, the three backcross lines have also survived well on this site. Our study demonstrates that American, Chinese, and backcrossed chestnuts can survive through five growing seasons on reclaimed surface mines with the use of tree shelters.

  8. Study on different thickness topsoil quality of reclaimed land filling with coal gangue in coal mine area begin{center} —-A case study of xinzhuangzi coal mine, china (United States)

    Xu, Liangji; Yan, Jiaping; Gao, Yongmei


    for land reclamation of coal mine area, coal gangue is used to fill in the subsided area, then native topsoil is covered on the top of coal gangue and phytoremediation method is adopted to enhance the topsoil quality. But different topsoil thickness and topsoil quality will lead different crop production, for choose the best thickness of topsoil, three reclaimed land with different topsoil thickness of 30cm, 50cm, 60cm are selected as experiment field, pH, EC, organic matte, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium are surveyed as detected indexes, correlation analysis method is adopted to calculate the weight of different index, then the comprehensive index value of topsoil will be calculated combined with membership grade of different index. The result shows the topsoil comprehensive index values are 0.5111, 0.6205, 0.4872 respectively and the topsoil quality of reclaimed land with topsoil thickness 50cm is the best. Keywords: topsoil thickness, soil quality, weight, comprehensive index value

  9. 77 FR 50165 - Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of... (United States)


    ... Administration. Title: Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities ] and Surface Work... Safety and Health Administration Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration,...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才庆祥; 彭世济; 张达贤


    Subjected to various stochastic factors, surface mining engineering reliability is difficult to solve by using general reliability mathematical method. The concept of reliability measurement is introduced; And the authors have combined system simulation method with CAD technique and developed an interactive color character graphic design system for evaluating and solving the mining engineering reliability in surface mines under the given constraints.

  11. Effects of different regeneration scenarios and fertilizer treatments on soil microbial ecology in reclaimed opencast mining areas on the Loess Plateau, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjian Li

    Full Text Available The soil microbial community in reclaimed mining areas is fundamental to vegetative establishment. However, how this community responds to different regeneration scenarios and fertilizer treatments is poorly understood. This research evaluated plant and soil microbial communities from different regeneration scenarios and different fertilizer treatments. Regeneration scenarios significantly influenced soil bacterial, archaeal, and fungal rDNA abundance. The ratios of fungi to bacteria or archaea were increased with fertilizer application. The diversity of both plants and microbes was lowest in Lotus corniculatus grasslands. Regeneration scenario, fertilizer treatment, and their interaction influenced soil microbial richness, diversity and evenness indices. Labile carbon pool 2 was a significant factor affected plant and microbe communities in July, suggesting that plants and microbes may be competing for nutrients. The higher ratios of positive to negative association were found in soil bacteria and total microbe than in archaea and fungi. Stronger clustering of microbial communities from the same regeneration scenario indicated that the vegetative composition of regeneration site may have a greater influence on soil microbial communities than fertilizer treatment.

  12. Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial activity and diversity in a reclaimed mining wasteland of red soil area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Min; CHEN Cheng-li; HUANG Chang-yong


    The microbial biomass, basal respiration and substrate utilization pattern in copper mining wasteland of red soil area, southern China, were investigated. The results indicated that soil microflora were obviously different compared with that of the non-mine soil.Microbial biomass and basal respiration were negatively affected by the elevated heavy metal levels. Two important microbial ecophysiological parameters, namely, the ratio of microbial biomass C( Cmic )/organic C( Corg ) and metabolic quotient(qCO2 ) were closely correlated to heavy metal stress. There was a significant decrease in the Cmic/Corg ratio and an increase in the metabolic quotient with increasing metal concentration. Multivariate analysis of Biolog data for sole carbon source utilization pattern demonstrated that heavy metal pollution had a significant impact on microbial community structure and functional diversity. All the results showed that soil microbiological parameters had great potential to become the early sensitive, effective and liable indicators of the stresses or perturbations in soils of mining ecosystems.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Invasive Plants in Response to Mineral Toxicity of Reclaimed Coal-Mine Soil in the Appalachian Region. (United States)

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Patel, Dharmesh; Taylor, Kaitlyn; Hass, Amir; Nimmakayala, Padma; Huber, David H; Reddy, Umesh K


    Efficient postmining reclamation requires successful revegetation. By using RNA sequencing, we evaluated the growth response of two invasive plants, goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), grown in two Appalachian acid-mine soils (MS-I and -II, pH ∼ 4.6). Although deficient in macronutrients, both soils contained high levels of plant-available Al, Fe and Mn. Both plant types showed toxicity tolerance, but metal accumulation differed by plant and site. With MS-I, Al accumulation was greater for mugwort than goutweed (385 ± 47 vs 2151 ± 251 μg g-1). Al concentration was similar between mine sites, but its accumulation in mugwort was greater with MS-I than MS-II, with no difference in accumulation by site for goutweed. An in situ approach revealed deregulation of multiple factors such as transporters, transcription factors, and metal chelators for metal uptake or exclusion. The two plant systems showed common gene expression patterns for different pathways. Both plant systems appeared to have few common heavy-metal pathway regulators addressing mineral toxicity/deficiency in both mine sites, which implies adaptability of invasive plants for efficient growth at mine sites with toxic waste. Functional genomics can be used to screen for plant adaptability, especially for reclamation and phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  14. Native mycorrhizal fungi replace introduced fungal species on Virginia pine and American chestnut planted on reclaimed mine sites of Ohio (United States)

    Shivanand Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Jenise M. Bauman


    Plant-microbe community dynamics influence the natural succession of plant species where pioneer vegetation facilitates the establishment of a distantly related, later successional plant species. This has been observed in the case of restoration of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) on abandoned mine land where Virginia pine (Pinus...

  15. Feasibility study of highwall mining in north surface mine of Yima Coal Corporation,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoming Cheng; Sijing Wang; Meifeng Cai


    Yima Coal Corporation is considering to adopt highwall mining method with auger machine to recover coal from north surface pit that has reached final highwall position. The major geomechanical issues associated with auger mining are highwall and pillar stability. Based on the field investigation and laboratory test results of mechanical parameters, numerical modeling is carried out to assess the stability of highwall and pillar. Field measurements of highwall deformation have been used to validate and ensure the confidence for the development of realistic models. The results of numerical modeling show that the mining method is feasible for mining the seam of 10 m thickness in north surface coal mine.

  16. Optimizing Sustainable Integrated Use of Groundwater, Surface Water and Reclaimed Water for the Competing Demands of Agricultural Net Return and Urban Population


    Landa, Silvia Anastasia


    Rapid population growth increases the competing water demand for agriculture and municipalities. This situation urges the necessity of using integrated water management to increase water supply and find possible symbiotic urban-agriculture relationships. Many studies have been done to simulate the integrated use of surface water, groundwater and reclaimed water for different water users. However, few studies use simulation/optimization (S-O) models for water resources to explicitly represent ...

  17. Process analysis and optimization models defining recultivation surface mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Bojan V.


    Full Text Available Surface mines are generally open and very dynamic systems influenced by a large number of technical, economic, environmental and safety factors and limitations in all stages of the life cycle. In this paper the dynamic compliance period surface mining phases and of the reclamation. Also, an analysis of the reclamation of surface mines, and process flow management project recultivation is determined by the principled management model reclamation. The analysis of the planning process is defined by the model optimization recultivation surface mine.

  18. Landscape transformation of surface-mined areas in North Bohemian coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorencova, H.; Kaspar, J. [MUS Coal Mining Company j.s.c., Most (Czech Republic)


    Northern Bohemia is the area worst affected by opencast brown coal mining but also the area with good reclamation of damaged land. MUS Coal Mining Company focuses reclaiming activity on restoration of forests, parks or water landscapes to agricultural use. This paper presents two case studies of post-mining activities. First, at the Most opencast mine after early closure, where a lake of 325 ha will be created. Secondly, reclamation of Velebudice overburden waste dump where the main reclamation objective was to establish a hippodrome (82 ha). 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Leaching heavy metals from the surface soil of reclaimed tidal flat by alternating seawater inundation and air drying. (United States)

    Guo, Shi-Hong; Liu, Zhen-Ling; Li, Qu-Sheng; Yang, Ping; Wang, Li-Li; He, Bao-Yan; Xu, Zhi-Min; Ye, Jin-Shao; Zeng, Eddy Y


    Leaching experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to simulate seawater leaching combined with alternating seawater inundation and air drying. We investigated the heavy metal release of soils caused by changes associated with seawater inundation/air drying cycles in the reclaimed soils. After the treatment, the contents of all heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu), except Zn, in surface soil significantly decreased (P removal rates ranging from 10% to 51%. The amounts of the exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, and oxidizable fractions also significantly decreased (P heavy metals. Measurement of diffusive gradients in thin films indicated that seawater inundation significantly increased the re-mobility of heavy metals. During seawater inundation, iron oxide reduction induced the release of heavy metals in the reducible fraction. Decomposition of organic matter, and complexation with dissolved organic carbon decreased the amount of heavy metals in the oxidizable fraction. Furthermore, complexation of chloride ions and competition of cations during seawater inundation and/or leaching decreased the levels of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction. By contrast, air drying significantly enhanced the concentration of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction. Therefore, the removal of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction can be enhanced during subsequent leaching with seawater.

  20. First-year survival and growth of three species assemblages planted on reclaimed mine land as affected by three levels of silvicultural intensity (United States)

    Chad N. Casselman; Thomas R. Fox; James A. Burger


    Surface mined land in the Appalachian coal-producing region have been found to exhibit growing conditions that are unfavorable for the establishment of productive forests including dense ground covers, compacted soil materials, and unfavorable soil chemical properties. To address these concerns, a 3 x 3 x 3 factor random complete block experiment was used to...

  1. [Comparison of soil fertility among open-pit mine reclaimed lands in Antaibao regenerated with different vegetation types]. (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Jin-chuan; Yue, Jian-ying; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Guo, Chun-yan; Lu, Ning; Wang, Yu-hong; Yang, Sheng-quan


    Re-vegetation is mainly applied into regeneration in opencast mine to improve the soil quality. It is very important to choose feasible vegetation types for soil restoration. In this study, three typical forest restoration types were studied at Antaibao mine, namely, Medicago sativa, mixed forests Pinus taebelaefolius-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii and Elaeagnus angustifolia-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii-Hipophae rhamnoides, to determine the nutrient contents and enzyme activities in different soil layers. The results showed that re-vegetation markedly increased soil nutrient contents and the enzyme activities during the restoration process. The nutrient content of soil in the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest field was significantly higher than those in other plots. It was found that the soil of the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest had the highest integrated fertility index values. In conclusion, the restoration effects of the P. zaebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. Korshinskii mixed forest was better than that of E. angustifolia-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii-H. rhamnoides, while M. sativa grassland had the least effect.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner


    The April-June 2004 quarter was dedicated to the establishment of monitoring systems for all the new research areas. Hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas as does weather data pertinent to the research. Studies assessing specific questions pertaining to carbon flux has been established and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals is being quantified. The approval of two experimental practices associated with this research by the United States Office of Surface Mining was a major accomplishment during this period of time. These experimental practices will eventually allow for tree planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and for the use of loose dumped spoil on mountain top removal areas with no grading in the final layer of rooting material for tree establishment.

  3. Reforesting unused surface mined lands by replanting with native trees (United States)

    Patrick N. Angel; James A. Burger; Carl E. Zipper; Scott Eggerud


    More than 600,000 ha (1.5 million ac) of mostly forested land in the Appalachian region were surface mined for coal under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Today, these lands are largely unmanaged and covered with persistent herbaceous species, such as fescue (Festuca spp.) and sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata [Dum. Cours.] G. Don,) and a mix of...

  4. Safety standards of electrical equipment in surface mines. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, V.O.; Il' in, Yu.N.; Neyaskin, D.V.


    Modified safety regulations developed by the VostNII Institute are discussed. The safety regulations for electrical equipment used in surface coal mines are modifications of general safety regulations in coal surface mining. The modified regulations cover: improved protection from short circuits and grounds in electrical systems with voltage higher than 1000 V, protection systems for heavy-duty electric motors and motors with thyristor control, operation of power shovels on benches with contact systems (hazards of damage to electric cables caused by moving mining equipment), operation of electrical equipment and contact systems on benches at which trucks are used for mine haulage (hazards of damage to electric cables by moving trucks).

  5. On 3D Geo-visualization of a Mine Surface Plant and Mine Roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunjia; FU Yongming; FU Erjiang


    Constructing the 3D virtual scene of a coal mine is the objective requirement for modernizing and processing information on coal mining production. It is also the key technology to establish a "digital mine". By exploring current worldwide research, software and hardware tools and application demands, combined with the case study site (the Dazhuang mine of Pingdingshan coal group), an approach for 3D geo-visualization of a mine surface plant and mine roadway is deeply discussed. In this study, the rapid modeling method for a large range virtual scene based on Arc/Info and SiteBuilder3D is studied, and automatic generation of a 3D scene from a 2D scene is realized. Such an automatic method which can convert mine roadway systems from 2D to 3D is realized for the Dazhuang mine. Some relevant application questions are studied, including attribute query, coordinate query, distance measure, collision detection and the dynamic interaction between 2D and 3D virtual scenes in the virtual scene of a mine surface plant and mine roadway. A prototype system is designed and developed.

  6. The market for large rigid haul trucks in surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilewicz, P.


    Originally published in 2001 this updated report provides a definition of the market for large rigid haulers in surface mining. The analysis covers changes to the mining market segments buying these machines including the gains made by coal producers, retrenchment in copper mining, the consolidation taking place among gold mining companies, and the expansion of iron ore producers in Australia and Brazil. It includes a detailed accounting of 2001 truck shipments, and an analysis of trends in the Ultra-truck segment. It concludes with a revised forecast for shipments through 2006. 12 charts, 56 tabs., 2 apps.

  7. Genetic Programming Approach for Predicting Surface Subsidence Induced by Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The surface subsidence induced by mining is a complex problem, which is related with many complex and uncertain factors.Genetic programming (GP) has a good ability to deal with complex and nonlinear problems, therefore genetic programming approach is proposed to predict mining induced surface subsidence in this article.First genetic programming technique is introduced, second, surface subsidence genetic programming model is set up by selecting its main affective factors and training relating to practical engineering data, and finally, predictions are made by the testing of data, whose results show that the relative error is approximately less than 10%, which can meet the engineering needs, and therefore, this proposed approach is valid and applicable in predicting mining induced surface subsidence.The model offers a novel method to predict surface subsidence in mining.

  8. Investigation to determine the vulnerability of reclaimed land to building collapse using near surface geophysical method (United States)

    Adewoyin, O. O.; Joshua, E. O.; Akinyemi, M. L.; Omeje, M.; Joel, E. S.


    Adequate knowledge of the geology and the structures of the subsurface would assist engineers in the best way to carry out constructions to avoid building collapse. In this study, near surface seismic refraction method was used to determine the geotechnical parameters of the subsurface, the results obtained were correlated with the result of borehole data drilled in the study area. The results of seismic refraction method delineated mostly two distinct layers with the first layer having the lower geotechnical parameters. It was observed that in the first layer, the Young’s modulus ranged from 0.168 to 0.458 GPa, shear modulus ranged between 0.068 and 0.185 GPa, the bulk modulus ranged between 0.106 and 0.287 GPa while the bearing capacity ranged from 0.083 to 0.139 MPa. On the other hand, in the second layer, the Young’s modulus ranged between 3.717 and 7.018 GPa, shear modulus ranged from 1.500 to 2.830 GPa while the bulk modulus ranged from 2.383 to 4.449 GPa. Significantly, the formation of the second layer appeared to be more competent than the first layer, therefore engineering construction in this geological setting is recommended to be founded on the second layer at depth ranging between 7 and 16 m.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩金炎; 孙小彦; 彭世济


    The optimal decision theory and exploitation reliability of large scale mining area have heen studied in China since the late 1980′s. Researches have been carried out under the thought of mannature-machine system, and encouraging results have been obtained. The reliability evaluation of mining engineering includes the reliability evaluation of natural resources, mining technology and mine economics etc. And the geological reliability of deposit, as a natural condition, is the basis of all other evaluation works. The paper summarizes the method for evaluating the geological reliability of deposit, discusses the reliability of estimating methods for coal reserves and coal quality, evaluates the natural resources reliability of the Pit 1 of Antaibao, Surface Coal Mine, Pingsuo, Shanxi Province. which was taken as a case study.

  10. Aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen in reclaimed sandy loam soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, A.F.; Stahl, P.D.; Ingram, L.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)


    Minimal research has been conducted on aggregate, C, and N in coarse-textured soils used to reclaim surface coal mine lands. Furthermore, little is known about the contribution different plant communities make to the recovery of aggregation in these soils. Two chronosequences of semiarid reclaimed sites with sandy loam soils were sampled under shrub- and grass-dominated communities. Aggregation, aggregate fractions, and associated C and N were measured. No definitive trends of increasing macroaggregates between sites were observed undershrubs; however, macro- and microaggregation was greater in the 16-yr-old (0.20 and 0.23 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) than in the 5-yr-old soils (0.02 and 0.08 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) under grasses. Although C and N concentrations were drastically reduced (50-75%) with mining activity between the <1-yr-old and native soils, aggregate C and N concentrations tinder shrubs and grasses were similar to each other and to the native soils in the 5-yr-old site. Sods under grass in the 16-yr-old site had lower available and aggregate-occluded C and N concentrations than the 5-yr-old site, while C and N concentrations did not change between 5- and 16-yr-old soils under shrubs. Conversely, aggregate C and N pool sizes under shrubs and grasses both increased with site age to conditions similar to those observed in the native soil. Reclaimed shrub site soils had consistently higher C concentrations in the older reclaimed sites (10 and 16 yr old) than the soils under grasses, indicating greater accumulation and retention of C and N in organic material under shrub than grass communities in semiarid reclaimed sites.

  11. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  12. Possibilities of using soil microarthropods, with emphasis on mites (Arachnida, Acari, Mesostigmata, in assessment of successional stages in a reclaimed coal mine dump (Pszów, S Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The usefulness of 2 methods for biomonitoring of the effects of land rehabilitation were compared in Pszów (Upper Silesian Coal Basin, south of Poland. Thirty-one species of mesostigmatid mites were collected from 3 study plots representing different stages of restoration of the mine dump Wrzosy in Pszów and community structure of the mites was analysed. There was a general trend for mesostigmatid species richness, diversity, and density to increase with the development of vegetation. The dominant early successional mesostigmatid species was the phoretic Hypoapis claviger. During this study, 4616 specimens of soil microarthropods were extracted in total. They were classified according to the Biological Soil Quality Index (QBS. We tested the sensitivity and usefulness of this index for monitoring of soil quality and found its good relationship with successional stages in the reclaimed mine dump. Thus the QBS index seems to be an efficient index for monitoring the effects of restoration in mine dumps. It is a simpler, quicker, and cheaper bioindicator method than the earlier method based on community structure analysis of mesostigmatid mites.

  13. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3B. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: international minerals and chemical corporation, phosphate operations, Polk County, Florida. [Land reclamation and use planning for phosphate operations in Polk County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J R; Brown, L A; Fountain, R C


    The reports in this series are designed primarily to familiarize professional land use and resource planners with the range of possibilities and effective procedures for achieving integrated mining, reclamation, and land use planning. These reports are based on a research program which included an extensive literature review, the compilation and analysis of case study data, and close coordination and interaction with related government programs. In Volume 3, A Guide to Mined Area Reclamation Technology for Reclamation and Land Use Planners, the method used to reclaim land in each of several mineral industries are discussed in relation to the physical and cultural constraints that must be considered in planning a reclamation program. Much of the information for this document was obtained from case studies conducted in several mining districts. Volume 3B presents data from a case study of surface mining and reclamation planning, International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Phosphate Operations, Polk County, Florida.

  14. 30 CFR 57.22602 - Blasting from the surface (I-C mines). (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (I-C mines). 57.22602... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22602 Blasting from the surface (I-C mines). (a) All blasting shall be initiated from the surface after all persons are out of the mine and...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner


    The January-March 2004 Quarter was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During year one of this project there was no available mine land to plant in the Hazard area so 107 acres were planted in the Martin county mine location. This year 120 acres was planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres was planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. An additional set of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for special carbon sequestration determinations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on two newly established areas as well as confirmed measurements on the first years plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 tree seedlings.

  16. Coal mine spoil-water interaction: Ⅱ. Weathering concentrated metals in surface coal mine spoils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党志; 万国江; 李德忍


    Concentrations of metals are lower in coal shales collected from recently exposed surface mine wastes than in shales collected from spoils exposed to surface weathering for 45 a. In this period, the character of the spoils changes dramatically as a result of the accelerated breakdown of the freshly exposed minestones. Since the metals are held as unstable sulfides, it is suggested that enrichment may be caused by absorption of metals by colloid of iron or formation of organic complex compound with organic carbon existing in the remnant structure of coal mine spoil. This process may contribute to the triggering of soil contamination thresholds on coal-lands already heavily loaded with metals.

  17. Hydrologic data collected in and around a surface coal mine, Clay and Vigo counties, Indiana, 1977-80 (United States)

    Bobo, Linda L.; Eikenberry, Stephen E.


    Few data are available for evaluating water-quality and other hydrologic properties in and around surface coal mines, particularly in areas where material having a high potential for acid-production is selectively buried. This report contains hydrologic data collected in an active coal mining area in Clay and Vigo Counties, Indiana, from September 1977 through February 1980. Methods of sampling and analysis used in collecting the data also are summarized. The data include field and laboratory measurements of water at 41 wells and 24 stream sites. Variables measured in the field include water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen, ground-water levels, and streamflow; and in the laboratory, concentrations of major ions, alkalinity, hardness, trace elementsl, organic carbon, phosphorus, and dissolved solids. Other variables measured in the laboratory include ferrous iron concentration of water samples from selected wells, percent sulfur by weight and the potential acidity of core samples of reclaimed cast overburden, concentrations of elements absorbed on streambed materials, concentrations and particle size of suspended sediment in water, and populations and Shannon diversity indices of phytoplankton in water. Dissolved-solids concentrations and pH of ground water ranged from 173 to 5,130 milligrams per liter and from 6.1 to 8.9, respectively, and of surface water, from 120 to 4,100 milligrams per liter and from 6.1 to 8.8 respectively. 

  18. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Bon Jun Koo; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner


    The first quarter of 2004 was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During the first year of this project there was not available mine land to plant in the Hazard area, so 107 acres were planted in the Martin County mine location. This year 120 acres were planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres were planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. Additional sets of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for carbon sequestration demonstrations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on the newly established areas as well as continual measurements of the first year's plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 seedlings. During the second quarter of this year monitoring systems were established for all the new research areas. Weather data pertinent to the research as well as hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas. Studies established to assess specific questions pertaining to carbon flux and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals are being quantified. Experimental practices initiated with this research project will eventually allow for the planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and allow mountain top removal areas to be constructed with loose spoil with no grading of the final layers of rooting material when establishing trees for the final land use designation. Monitoring systems have been installed to measure treatment effects on both above and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools in the planting areas. Soil and tissue samples were collected from both years planting and analyses were conducted in the laboratory. Examination of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots continued during the reporting period. Entire planted trees were

  19. Research Advances in the Ecosystem Services of the Reclaimed Mining Areas%复垦后矿区生态系统服务功能研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 魏忠义


    Ecosystem service functions and its valuation around the world were reviewed in this paper. The conception and the characteristics of the ecosystem services in the reclaimed mining areas were proposed,and it classified service functions as product supplying,ecological regulating and cultural educating. Meanwhile, the research analyzed the problems in current research. For example,the research on formation mechanism of this ecosystem services,the evaluation theory and methods need to be improved, but the valuation is inaccurate. So the future research on this valuation should be focused on the theory exploration and method improvement,commencing with the microcosmic formation mechanism to carry out valuation research on different scales and types of ecosystem services in the reclaimed mining areas. By considering sufficiently the factors influencing its value,the means,method and technique of evaluation were improved,which make the results more comparative and practicable. It provides the theoretical basis and technical support for developing and utilizing mineral resources , and achieving the sustainable development of eco-mining.%综述了国内外有关生态系统服务功能及其价值评估的研究进展,提出了复垦后矿区生态系统服务功能的概念、特性,归纳其类型为生产功能、生态功能和文化功能.同时简要分析了当前研究中存在的问题,如服务功能形成的微观机制及其参数研究欠缺、评价理论和方法有待完善、评价结果准确度低等,从而明确了今后的研究应着重于理论探索与方法完善,以复垦后矿区生态系统的微观形成机制为切入点,开展不同尺度和类型的服务功能价值评估,充分考虑影响其功能价值的因素,改进评估的手段、方法和技术,使评估结果更具可比性和实用性,为合理开发和利用矿产资源,实现矿区生态的可持续发展提供理论依据和技术支持.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner


    A monitoring program to measure treatment effects on above ground, and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools for the planting areas is being conducted. The collection of soil and tissue samples from both the 2003 and 2004 plantings is complete and are currently being processed in the laboratory. Detailed studies have been initiated to address specific questions pertaining to carbon cycling. Examinations of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots were continued during this reporting period. A whole-tree harvesting method was employed to evaluate carbon accumulation as a function of time on the mined site. The trees were extracted from the sites and separated into the following components: foliage, stems, branches, and roots.

  1. Chapter 10: Establishing native trees on legacy surface mines (United States)

    J.A. Burger; C.E. Zipper; P.N. Angel; N. Hall; J.G. Skousen; C.D. Barton; S. Eggerud


    More than 1 million acres have been surface mined for coal in the Appalachian region. Today, much of this land is unmanaged, unproductive, and covered with nonnative plants. Establishing productive forests on such lands will aid restoration of ecosystem services provided by forests—services such as watershed protection, water quality enhancement, carbon storage, and...

  2. Enhanced Surface Mine Reclamation Using Geomorphic Landform Principles (United States)

    Sears, A.; Hopkinson, L. C.; Bise, C.; Quaranta, J.


    Approximately 40% of operating mines in West Virginia are surface mines, producing approximately 50 million tons of coal annually. Traditional surface mine techniques include end-dumping burden material removed from the surface into nearby valleys, resulting in valley fills with uniform slopes, terraces, and drainage ditches. These techniques provide the opportunity for improvement in the areas of stream loss, surface water infiltration and runoff, and downstream water quality. The objective of this research was to create alternative surface mine reclamation designs for a permitted valley fill. Four designs were created: i) dendritic drainage; ii) retrofit; iii) dendritic drainage with bench ponds; and iv) dendritic drainage with valley ponds. All designs were based on a permitted surface mine site (1.4 km2) in southern West Virginia. Characteristics such as stream length and cut/fill volume were compared among the four created designs, the traditional design, and the original pre-mined surface. Geomorphic landform principles including creating landforms with overall hydrologic balance were applied to the design permit area. The geomorphic landform design (GLD) resulted in approximately 5.3 km of created channel length, 5.7 x 107 m3 of fill material (same volume cut during mining), and was comprised of ridges, valleys, and channels. The same design principles were applied to the top surface of the traditional valley fill to create the retrofit design. The traditional valley fill (6.9 x 107 m3 volume) consisted of a level top surface with drainage ditches around the perimeter. Features of the retrofit GLD included complex slope profiles and a dendritic drainage pattern. The design resulted in 6.7 x 107 m3 of cut volume and 5.7 x 107 m3 of fill volume and approximately 8.4 km of stream length. The GLD design surface was used as the base for the surface water retention designs, which included a design with three bench ponds and one with three valley ponds. The bench

  3. Surface movement above an underground coal longwall mine after closure (United States)

    Vervoort, André


    The surface movement in an area of about 22 km2 above the underground coal mine of Houthalen was analyzed based on Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. After its closure in 1992, a residual subsidence was observed over a period of several years, followed by an uplift of the surface above and around the past longwall panels, whereby the rate of movement was, in absolute terms, of the same order for the two types of movements. The processes behind these movements are different. The process of subsidence is caused by the caving of the roof above the mined-out area and is mainly a mechanical stress-deformation process, including time-dependent aspects. However, the process of uplift is most probably caused by the swelling of the clay minerals in the argillaceous rocks in the coal strata after the flooding of the underground workings. Hence, the areas in which there is the greatest risk of damage to the surface infrastructure are not the same for the hazards linked to subsidence and uplift. For example, the zone in which the maximum uplift occurs clearly is at a different location from that of the zone with the maximum residual subsidence. There is no clear sign that the amount of mining underneath affects the residual subsidence, and there is no indication that the process of uplift is linked directly to the mining characteristics. It is more likely that uplift as the result of flooding is initiated at, or close to, the vertical shafts.

  4. Food web structure in oil sands reclaimed wetlands. (United States)

    Kovalenko, K E; Ciborowski, J J H; Daly, C; Dixon, D G; Farwell, A J; Foote, A L; Frederick, K R; Costa, J M Gardner; Kennedy, K; Liber, K; Roy, M C; Slama, C A; Smits, J E G


    Boreal wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance. However, their ecosystem function is threatened by direct anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Oil sands surface mining in the boreal regions of Western Canada denudes tracts of land of organic materials, leaves large areas in need of reclamation, and generates considerable quantities of extraction process-affected materials. Knowledge and validation of reclamation techniques that lead to self-sustaining wetlands has lagged behind development of protocols for reclaiming terrestrial systems. It is important to know whether wetlands reclaimed with oil sands process materials can be restored to levels equivalent to their original ecosystem function. We approached this question by assessing carbon flows and food web structure in naturally formed and oil sands-affected wetlands constructed in 1970-2004 in the postmining landscape. We evaluated whether a prescribed reclamation strategy, involving organic matter amendment, accelerated reclaimed wetland development, leading to wetlands that were more similar to their natural marsh counterparts than wetlands that were not supplemented with organic matter. We measured compartment standing stocks for bacterioplankton, microbial biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, and zoobenthos; concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and residual naphthenic acids; and microbial production, gas fluxes, and aquatic-terrestrial exports (i.e., aquatic insect emergence). The total biomass of several biotic compartments differed significantly between oil sands and reference wetlands. Submerged macrophyte biomass, macroinvertebrate trophic diversity, and predator biomass and richness were lower in oil sands-affected wetlands than in reference wetlands. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that wetland age and wetland amendment with peat-mineral mix mitigate effects of oil sands waste materials on the fully aquatic biota. Although high variability was observed within

  5. 30 CFR 57.22605 - Blasting from the surface (V-A mines). (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (V-A mines). 57.22605... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22605 Blasting from the surface (V-A mines). (a) All development and production blasting shall be initiated from the surface after all persons...

  6. 露天煤矿复垦区人工刺槐林土壤呼吸组分分析%Component Analysis of Soil Respiration of Robinia Pseudoacacia Plantation in Opencast Coal Mine Reclaimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春燕; 李晋川; 岳建英; 卢宁; 杨生权; 王翔; 张峰


    Quantifying soil respiration components and their relations to environmental controls are essential to estimates carbon bugets of plantation ecosystems. Trenching-plot and infrared gas exchange analyzer approaches were used to determine heterotrophic respiration (RH) and autotrophic respiration (RA) in soil surface CO2 flux for Robinia pseudoacacia plantation in the reclaimation of Antaibao Opencast Coal Mine, Shanxi. The results showed that there was a significant seasonal variation in R0. 05) and the variant law of Rc just was converse to the law of R and RA. Both R and RH in relationship with single of soil temperature and moisture all can be described as a power function(R2 =0. 115,0. 174; P<0. 05) and liner function (r =0. 314,0. 430 ; P <0. 01) and with both of them can be described as a power function (R2 = 0. 296,0. 404;P <0. 05). Furthermore, the relationship of RH higher than R. The Q10 value, representing the sensitivity of RH to soil temperature was higher than those of R. In order to quantifying soil respiration components of Robinia pseudoacacia plantation, we should make long-term dynamic research.%采用挖壕法和红外气体分析法测定平朔煤矿安太堡露天煤矿复垦区人工刺槐林无根和有根土壤的表面CO2通量(R),确定R中异养呼吸(RH)和根系自养呼吸(RA)的贡献量及其影响因子.结果表明:R与RH具有显著的季节变化(P<0.01),RA随季节变化差异不明显(P>0.05),根呼吸贡献率(RC)呈现明显的季节变化(P<0.01),但变化趋势与R、RH相反.R和RH与温度的回归模型中,均为幂函数相关指数最高(R2=0.115,0.174;P<0.05),与水分均为线性函数相关系数最高(r=0.314,0.430;P<0.01),与温度和水分双因子均为幂函数相关指数最高(R2 =0.296,0.404;P<0.05),且RH与温度、水分单因子和双因子的相关性均高于R.RH的Q10值>R的Q10值.

  7. 30 CFR 57.22604 - Blasting from the surface (II-B mines). (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (II-B mines). 57.22604 Section 57.22604 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22604 Blasting from...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22603 - Blasting from the surface (II-A mines). (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (II-A mines). 57.22603 Section 57.22603 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22603 Blasting from...

  9. Private and Social Costs of Surface Mine Reforestation Performance Criteria (United States)

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S.


    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than 700/ha and a social cost ranging from 428/ha to 710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately 200/ha, and a social cost in the range of 120 to 208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  10. A comparison of the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in a reclaimed oil shale post-mining area and in a Calluna site in Estonia. (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Mandre, Malle; Klõseiko, Jaan; Pärn, Henn


    The growth of Scots pine and its suitability for afforestation of post-mining landscapes in Northeast Estonia were assessed in comparative analytical studies by using morphological parameters and mineral nutrition characteristics. The growth and nutrient uptake of Scots pine growing on post-mining substrate were compared with the characteristics of pines of the same age (22-23 years) in a Calluna forest site type predominant in North Estonia in similar climatic zone. Results of the analyses of soil upper layers showed that the concentration of N and P in soil did not differ between the opencast spoil and Calluna site, but significantly higher pH of soil and concentrations of K, Ca, and Mg were found in mine spoil. The concentrations of K and Mg in needles were significantly higher in the post-mining area, but the concentrations of N, P, and Ca did not differ significantly. Comparison of the needle nutrient concentration with the standard for optimum concentrations revealed P deficit in the post-mining area and P and K deficit in the Calluna site. Scots pine formed longer and thinner needles and shoots in the post-mining substrate than in the Calluna site. It was assumed that in the post-mining area the growth of pines is predominantly dependent on K and Ca concentrations in their tissues as the biomass of needles was strongly correlated with the K/Ca ratio, whereas the biomass in the Calluna site was correlated with the N/P ratio. The height and diameter of trees were significantly larger in the post-mining area.

  11. Surface Movement Regularity of Super-Wide Mining Face With Top-Coal Caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Run-hou


    No.4326 super-wide panel of Wangzhuang Coal Mine ( in which the fully-mechanized top-coal caving longwall mining method was used) was monitored for dynamic characteristic of surface movement. The dynamic surface movement in and after mining was predicted by using the Mining Subsidence Prediction System. The results indicate that after mining, the surface above the super-wide panel reaches a state of full subsidence, making the No.309national highway above the panel be located on the flat bottom of the subsidence basin so that the influence of mining activity in both sides of 4326 panel on the national highway is the smallest.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladislav Kecojevic; Samuel Frimpong


    Ground excavation constitutes a significant component of production costs in any surface mining operation. The excavation process entails material digging and removal in which the equipment motion is constrained by the workspace geometry. A major excavation problem is the variability of material properties, resulting in varying mechanical energy input and stress loading of shovel dipper-and-tooth assembly across the working bench. This variability has a huge impact on the shovel dipper and tooth assembly in hard formations. With this in mind, the primary objectives of the project were to (i) provide the theoretical basis to develop the Intelligent Shovel Excavation (ISE) technology to solve the problems associated with excavation in material formations; (ii) advance knowledge and frontiers in shovel excavation through intelligent navigation; and (iii) submit proposal for the design, development and implementation of the ISE technology for shovel excavation at experimental surface mining sites. The mathematical methods were used to (i) develop shovel's kinematics and dynamics, and (ii) establish the relationship between shovel parameters and the resistive forces from the material formation during excavation process. The ADAMS simulation environment was used to develop the hydraulic and cable shovel virtual prototypes. Two numerical examples are included to test the theoretical hypotheses and the obtained results are discussed. The area of sensor technology was studied. Application of specific wrist-mounted sensors to characterize the material, bucket and frame assembly was determined. Data acquisition, display and control system for shovel loading technology was adopted. The concept of data acquisition and control system was designed and a shovel boom stresses were simulated. A multi-partner collaboration between research organizations, shovel manufacturer, hardware and sensor technology companies, and surface mining companies is proposed to test design


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭世济; 卢明银; 张达贤


    It is stipulated in the China national document, named"The Economical Appraisal Methods for Construction Projects" that dynamic analysis should dominate the project economical appraisal methods.This paper has set up a dynamic investment forecast model for Yuanbaoshan Surface Coal Mine. Based on this model, the investment reliability using simulation and analytic methods has been analysed, anti the probability that the designed internal rate of return can reach 8.4%, from economic points of view, have been also studied.

  14. 30 CFR 57.22601 - Blasting from the surface (I-A mines). (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (I-A mines). 57.22601... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22601 Blasting from the surface (I-A mines... blast area and through at least one atmospheric monitoring sensor. (b) After blasting, if the...

  15. Satellite synthetic aperture radar for monitoring of surface deformation in shallow underground mining environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, J


    Full Text Available Surface deformations associated with shallow underground mining activities have significant implications for both the natural- and built environment. Environmental problems include the exacerbation of acid mine drainage and the alteration...

  16. Surface mining machines problems of maintenance and modernization

    CERN Document Server

    Rusiński, Eugeniusz; Moczko, Przemysław; Pietrusiak, Damian


    This unique volume imparts practical information on the operation, maintenance, and modernization of heavy performance machines such as lignite mine machines, bucket wheel excavators, and spreaders. Problems of large scale machines (mega machines) are highly specific and not well recognized in the common mechanical engineering environment. Prof. Rusiński and his co-authors identify solutions that increase the durability of these machines as well as discuss methods of failure analysis and technical condition assessment procedures. "Surface Mining Machines: Problems in Maintenance and Modernization" stands as a much-needed guidebook for engineers facing the particular challenges of heavy performance machines and offers a distinct and interesting demonstration of scale-up issues for researchers and scientists from across the fields of machine design and mechanical engineering.

  17. Water quality of streams draining abandoned and reclaimed mined lands in the Kantishna Hills area, Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 2008–11 (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Ourso, Robert T.


    The Kantishna Hills are an area of low elevation mountains in the northwest part of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Streams draining the Kantishna Hills are clearwater streams that support several species of fish and are derived from rain, snowmelt, and subsurface aquifers. However, the water quality of many of these streams has been degraded by mining. Past mining practices generated acid mine drainage and excessive sediment loads that affected water quality and aquatic habitat. Because recovery through natural processes is limited owing to a short growing season, several reclamation projects have been implemented on several streams in the Kantishna Hills region. To assess the current water quality of streams in the Kantishna Hills area and to determine if reclamation efforts have improved water quality, a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service was undertaken during 2008-11. High levels of turbidity, an indicator of high concentrations of suspended sediment, were documented in water-quality data collected in the mid-1980s when mining was active. Mining ceased in 1985 and water-quality data collected during this study indicate that levels of turbidity have declined significantly. Turbidity levels generally were less than 2 Formazin Nephelometric Units and suspended sediment concentrations generally were less than 1 milligram per liter during the current study. Daily turbidity data at Rock Creek, an unmined stream, and at Caribou Creek, a mined stream, documented nearly identical patterns of turbidity in 2009, indicating that reclamation as well as natural revegetation in mined streams has improved water quality. Specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved solids and major ions were highest from streams that had been mined. Most of these streams flow into Moose Creek, which functions as an integrator stream, and dilutes the specific conductance and ion concentrations. Calcium and magnesium are the

  18. Effects of Different Reclaimed Scenarios on Soil Microbe and Enzyme Activities in Mining Areas%矿区植被恢复方式对土壤微生物和酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君剑; 刘峰; 周小梅


    Ecological degradation in the mining areas is greatly aggravated in recent several decades, and ecological restoration has become the primary measure for the sustainable development. Soil microbe and enzyme activity are sensitive indices to evaluate soil quality. Ecological reconstruction was initiated in Antaibao mining area, and we tested soil physicochemical properties, microbial populations of azotobacteria, nitrifying-bacteria and denitrifying-bacteria, and enzyme activities ( including sucrose, polyphenol oxidase, dehydrogenase and urease) under different regeneration scenarios. Regeneration scenarios had significant effects on soil physicochemical properties, microbial population and enzyme activities. Total nitrogen was strongly correlated with azotobacteria and nitrifying-bacteria, however, total nitrogen was not correlated with denitrifying-bacteria. Phenol oxidase activity was negatively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, but other enzyme activities were positively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to analyze the integrated fertility index (IFI). The highest and lowest IFIs were in Robinia pseudoacacia-Pinus tabuliformis mixed forests and un-reclaimed area, respectively. R. pseudoacacia-P. tabuliformis mixed forests were feasible for reclaimed mining areas in semi-arid region Northwest Shanxi.%矿区废弃地生态退化形势严峻,生态修复已成为矿区可持续发展的主要措施,土壤微生物和酶活性可作为评价土壤恢复质量的敏感因子。本研究将以山西省安太堡煤矿复垦区作为对象,分析植被恢复方式对土壤微生物和酶活的影响。结果表明,不同植被方式对土壤理化特征、参与氮代谢的3类菌群(固氮菌、硝化细菌和反硝化细菌)和4种酶活性(蔗糖酶、过氧化氢酶、脲酶和多酚氧化酶活)均有显著影响。土壤总氮含量与固氮菌和硝化细菌数量

  19. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province


    W.Wilopo; R.Resili; D.P.E. Putra


    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  20. Tree survival and growth on land reclaimed in accord with Public Law 95-87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, W.R.; Pope, P.E.; Byrnes, W.R. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Forestry and Natural Resources


    The objective of this study was to determine survival and growth of black walnut ({ital Juglans nigra} L.) and northern red oak ({ital Quercus alba} L.) 12 yr after planting on a surface-mined site in southern Indiana reclaimed according to specifications of Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. A stocking level adequate to meet the requirements for forest land use (1112 trees/ha, or 450 trees/acre) was attained only for black walnut and only if competing ground cover vegetation was controlled in the tree rows. Height of both tree species was significantly greater when ground cover vegetation was controlled during the first 2 yr, but the growth rate, approximately 10 cm/yr, was very slow. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Rational Use of Land Resource During the Implementation of Transportless System of Coal Strata Surface Mining (United States)

    Gvozdkova, T.; Tyulenev, M.; Zhironkin, S.; Trifonov, V. A.; Osipov, Yu M.


    Surface mining and open pits engineering affect the environment in a very negative way. Among other pollutions that open pits make during mineral deposits exploiting, particular problem is the landscape changing. Along with converting the land into pits, surface mining is connected with pilling dumps that occupy large ground. The article describes an analysis of transportless methods of several coal seams strata surface mining, applied for open pits of South Kuzbass coal enterprises (Western Siberia, Russia). To improve land-use management of open pit mining enterprises, the characteristics of transportless technological schemes for several coal seams strata surface mining are highlighted and observed. These characteristics help to systematize transportless open mining technologies using common criteria that characterize structure of the bottom part of a strata and internal dumping schemes. The schemes of transportless systems of coal strata surface mining implemented in South Kuzbass are given.

  2. Surface Mine System Simulation and Safety Risk Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui-xin; YU Dong-fang; LI Xin-wang; YAO Xin-gang; LIU Yu


    Modern surface mines, either mono-system or multi-systems, need a large fleet of equipment consisting of excavators, loaders, haulers and auxiliary machines. Presently, the complexity of the system, the interference between sub-systems and the lag in management skills has been a bottle neck for improving productivity of the system. Based on the fact that the traditional tools for safety analysis have been insufficient to evaluate systematically and dynamically the safety risks, this paper tries to create a virtual reality tool consisting of human, machine and mines, using Pro/E and the 3D MAX software in order to evaluate visually the operations of typical mining equipment, such as the bucket wheel excavator (BWE), the shovel, the truck and the dragline. Within this virtual world, the behavior of the system, such as interaction, interference and potential risk can be replayed and reviewed visually. The objective of the study is to identify the critical safety issues of the system and to provide a convenient and powerful tool for safety training and safety management.

  3. Reclaiming the lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg


    of individual rights that move well beyond the site of conflict. It is therefore argued that the actions to reclaim Lake Conococha were not only a battle for natural resources and clean water, but more fundamentally an attempt to repossess a citizenship that may be constitutionally secured but all too oft en...

  4. Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in reclaimed mine soil system carbon sequestration%丛枝菌根真菌对矿区修复系统固碳的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽萍; 张弘; 钱奎梅; 李江


    采用煤矸石为主体基质添加活性污泥,同时接种丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)于新栽植的黑麦草,进行为期16个月的现场种植试验.对比分析了黑麦草根部AMF的侵染状况,及其对土壤固碳的促进作用.结果表明:接种摩西球囊霉菌(Glomus mosseae,简记为G.m)和添加活性污泥量30%基质的菌根侵染率最高值为66.67%;接种处理的土壤有机碳(SOC)、易提取球囊霉素(EEG)、总球囊霉素(TG)含量和植物生物量远高于未接种处理,添加活性污泥量30%基质的增值最高.土壤有机碳及植物生物量与菌根侵染率、球囊霉素相关土壤蛋白(GRSP)间的相关性分析表明,AMF所分泌的代谢产物总球囊霉素TG与矿区复垦土壤SOC呈现正相关性(相关系数为0.699).AMF及其GRSP对于矿区复垦土壤固碳的贡献是直接有效的.%A field experiment is carried out to evaluate the carbon sequestration capacity in reclaimed mine soil by adding sludge to the coal gangue substrate and inoculated arbuscular my-corrhizal fungi (AMF) to the rye grass. The inoculation situations of AMF to the roots of rye grass is compared, and the promotion to the carbon sequestration in soil is also investigated. The results show that mycorrhizal colonization rate of treatment with 30% weight sludge addition, inoculated with Glornus mosseae (G. m) is the highest, 66.67%. Soil organic carbon (SOC), easily extractable g]omalin (EEG) and total glomalin (TG) and plants biomass of treatments inoculated with G. m were higher than those non-inoculated, and the increase of treatment with 30% weight sludge addition inoculated with G. m was the highest. Relativity of TG and SOC is 0. 699. Therefore, AMF and glomalin-related soil protein(GRSP) have direct and effective contribution to carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine soil.

  5. Research on Microbial Amount in Rhizosphere of Pioneer Plant in Reclaimed Core-Mining Subsidence Area%采煤塌陷复垦区先锋植物根际微生物数量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯颖; 丁锦平


    采用以空间代替时间的方法,研究了采煤塌陷区复垦后土壤自然演替状况下先锋植物根际微生物数量和组成的变化,探讨不同先锋植物根际微生物变化的特征和规律.结果表明,不同先锋植物其根际微生物的数量不同,其中,复垦1年后的土壤,狗尾草[Setaria viridis(L.)Beauv.]的根际细菌、真菌和放线菌数量及微生物总量均大于刺儿菜[Cirsium setosum Willd.ex MB.]的根际微生物数量,复垦3年后则相反;两种先锋植物根际微生物的数量均随着复垦年限的延长而显著增加,其中,细菌和放线菌数量增加的较快,因此,细菌所占微生物总量的比例随着复垦年限延长而增加,而真菌的比例降低.复垦后土壤上的先锋植物根际效应十分明显,从微生物类群来看,根际效应是真菌>放线菌>细菌,从植物类别来看,复垦1年后的土壤上,先锋植物狗尾草的根际效应大于刺儿菜,但复垦3年后则相反,说明随着物种和时间的变化,根际效应也发生变化.%The method that spatial sequence instead of time successional sequence was applied to analyze the soil microbial amount and composition in rhizosphere of pioneer plant in reclaimed core-mining subsidence area, to explore the change characteristics and law of rhizosphere microorganism of pioneer plant. The results showed that the rhizosphere microorganism quantity varied in different pioneer plants. The quantity of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and total microorganism of Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. was more than that of Cirsium setosum Willd. ex MB. after 1 year of land reclamation, while the quantity was contrary after 3 years of land reclamation. The number of rhizospheric microorganism of two pioneer plants increased sig-nificantly with the extension of reclamation time. Furthermore, the range of increase in bacteria and actinomycetes was larger than that of fungi. Therefore, the percentage of bacteria increased with time, but

  6. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.


    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  7. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  8. [Effects of reclaimed water recharge on groundwater quality: a review]. (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Lü, Si-Dan; Wang, Mei-E; Jiao, Wen-Tao


    Reclaimed water recharge to groundwater is an effective way to relieve water resource crisis. However, reclaimed water contains some pollutants such as nitrate, heavy metals, and new type contaminants, and thus, there exists definite environmental risk in the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater. To promote the development of reclaimed water recharge to groundwater and the safe use of reclaimed water in China, this paper analyzed the relevant literatures and practical experiences around the world, and summarized the effects of different reclaimed water recharge modes on the groundwater quality. Surface recharge makes the salt and nitrate contents in groundwater increased but the risk of heavy metals pollution be smaller, whereas well recharge can induce the arsenic release from sedimentary aquifers, which needs to be paid more attention to. New type contaminants are the hotspots in current researches, and their real risks are unknown. Pathogens have less pollution risks on groundwater, but some virus with strong activity can have the risks. Some suggestions were put forward to reduce the risks associated with the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater in China.

  9. Law of surface movement for multi-coal seam strip mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-ya; ZHANG Hong-mei


    It is an important part of green mining to control the disasters of coal mining which have caused irreversible damages to buildings and ecological environment. Strip mining is one of the efficient measures to control surface subsidence and mining damage. However, the research on the laws of the surface subsidence are still deficient in multi-coal seam strip mining at present. Based on the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (short for FLAC3D) numerical simulation software, the laws of the surface subsidence and horizontal movement were systematically studied for different depths, different mining widths, different distances between seams, different mining thickness, different parameters between seams and the special relations of the upper pillar and the lower pillar in the vertical direction in multi-seam strip mining. The function relation between the maximum subsidence and the maximum horizontal movement with the depth, the mining width, the seam distance, mining thickness, different parameters between seams and the partial offset are summarized respectively. Finally the formula integrating the surface maximum subsidence value and the maximum horizontal movement was deduced. The results can be used for reference theory and measure in forecasting the surface displacement in multi-coal seam strip mining.

  10. Investigation into Sources of Fipronil in Surface Water and Identification of a Novel Fipronil Metabolite in Reclaimed Wastewater (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenyl pyrazole insecticide used to control termites, fleas, roaches, ants, and other pests in residential and agricultural settings. Fipronil has been found in various environmental media (surface water, wastewater, indoor and outdoor dust, etc) and is known to un...

  11. Bitumen recovery from surface mined oil sands recycle water ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikula, R.J.; Munoz, V.A.; Elliott, G. L. [Natural Resources Canada, CanmetENERGY, Devon, Alberta (Canada)


    In surface mined oil sands, high bitumen recovery can be achieved but tailings have accumulated over the years. Several technologies have been proposed for recovering bitumen from tailings, but because this bitumen carries high surfactant concentrations there have been processing problems. This paper presents the application of oxidized ore characterization and processing methods to process tailings pond bitumen. Laboratory tests were carried out to characterize bitumen samples coming from four different tailings sources and tests were run with caustic additive. Results showed that high caustic additions can be applied to surfactant rich tailings pond bitumen to avoid downstream froth treatment emulsion problems; the oxidation degree should be carefully monitored. This study demonstrated that the use of caustic additive, already used for oxidized ores, can be applied to treat the bitumen recovered from tailings streams.

  12. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities. (United States)


    ... of Hazardous Substances Law, Cal. Health & Safety Code section 25280 et seq.; the Solid Waste... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...

  13. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities. (United States)


    ..., Environmental Protection Division; the Solid Waste Management Rules of the Georgia Department of Natural... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Song Jin


    Reclaimed mine lands have the potential to sequester carbon. The use of amendments to increase fertility and overall soil quality is encouraging. Waste amendments such as sewage sludge and clarifier sludge, as well as commercial compost were tested to determine their effects on carbon sequestration and humic acid formation in reclaimed mine lands. Sewage sludge and clarifier sludge have the potential to work as reclaimed mine lands amendments. C:N ratios need to be understood to determine probability of nutrient leaching and water contamination. Microbial activity on the humic acid fraction of sludge is directed toward the readily degradable constituents containing single chain functional groups. This finding indicate that amendments with lower molecular constituents such as aliphatic compounds are more amenable to microbial degradation, therefore serves as better nutrient sources to enhance the formation of vegetation in mine lands and leads to more efficient carbon sequestration.

  15. Spatial distribution and concentration of sulfur in relation to vegetation cover and soil properties on a reclaimed sulfur mine site (Southern Poland). (United States)

    Likus-Cieślik, Justyna; Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Szostak, Marta; Szulczewski, Melanie


    This work aims to assess the spatial distribution and concentration of sulfur in the topsoil layer and to determine the relationships between sulfur concentration, soil pH, soil electrical conductivity, and plant cover at the reforested site of the former sulfur mine (Southern Poland). Soil samples were collected from 0 to 20 cm (topsoil) from a total of 86 sampling points in a regular square grid with sides of 150 m. Plant cover was assayed in circular plots with an area of 100 m(2), divided into a woody plant layer and herbaceous plant layer. Soil properties such as particle size distribution, pH in KCl and H2O, soil electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (NT), and total sulfur (ST) were determined. The degree of soil contamination with sulfur was assessed based on the guidelines of the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation (IUNG), Poland. The results indicate that remediation and application of lime were not fully effective in spatial variation, because 33 points with sulfur contamination above 500 mg kg(-1) were observed. These spots occurred irregularly in the topsoil horizons. This high sulfur concentration in the soil did not result in severe acidification (below 4.5) in all cases, most likely due to neutralization from the application of high doses of flotation lime. High vegetative cover occurred at some points with high soil sulfur concentrations, with two points having S concentration above 40,000 mg kg(-1) and tree cover about 60%. Numerous points with high soil EC above 1500 μS cm(-1) as well as limited vegetation and high soil sulfur concentrations, however, indicate that the reclamation to forest is still not completely successful.

  16. Restoration of rare earth mine areas: organic amendments and phytoremediation. (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Shenghong; Zhang, Limin; Zhong, Liyan; Luo, Ximei; Liang, Hong


    Overexploitation of rare earth mine has caused serious desertification and various environmental issues, and ecological restoration of a mining area is an important concern in China. In this study, experiments involving dry grass landfilling, chicken manure broadcasting, and plant cultivation were carried out to reclaim a rare earth mine area located in Heping County, Guangdong Province, China. The prime focus was to improve soil quality in terms of nutrients, microbial community, enzyme activity, and physicochemical properties so as to reclaim the land. After 2 years of restoration, an increase of organic matter (OM), available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) levels, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and a reduction of the available nitrogen (N) level and urease (URE) activity in soil were achieved compared to the original mined land. The nutrients and enzyme activities in soil with 5 years of restoration were close to or surpass those in the unexploited land as control. The bulk density, total porosity, water holding capacity, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil were improved, and the number of cultivable microorganisms and the bacterial diversity in soil were greatly increased with time during ecological restoration, especially for surface soil. Furthermore, the artificial vegetation stably grew at the restored mining sites. The results indicated that organic amendments and phytoremediation could ecologically restore the rare earth mining sites and the mined land could finally be planted as farmland.

  17. Study on water loss of the surface stream affected by longwall mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-bing; Syd S.Peng


    In order to study the effect of longwalI mining on suface stream water,monitoring stations of water flow rate was established.A lot of water flowing data were collected before,during and after longwall mining.Based on monitoring data,the effects of longwall mining on surface stream water were analyzed.The results demonstrate that longwall mining has effects on the surface stream water:and the stream water would be lost and decrease due to longwall mining but never go into underground through fractured zone.Also.the mechanism of water loss due to longwall mining was presented.The stream water can go into the surface cracks in the intersection of stream and surface cracks.longwall mining subsidence can change the surface stream slope and the downstream water flowing status.The results also show the effects of longwall mining on stream water are temporary and about one or two years later,surface stream water can be recovered.

  18. Exploitation of raw materials from the overburden of the Klettwitz brown coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anke, S.; Knuth, M.


    The paper discusses mining of clay for the ceramic industry from the overburden of the Klettwitz mine. The clay fulfills the TGL 29317 quality standard for crude ceramic products; the clay layer in the surface mine has an average thickness of 4.7 m. Clay reserves of the mine will last 25 to 30 years for the operation of a new clinker brick factory. Mining losses of 20% of reserves are taken into account. Clay reserves were calculated without the first 0.3 m from the top and bottom of the layer. The clay is mined with a bucket wheel excavator and transported by train to an open air storage yard. The clay stock pile is 13 m high. Liquefaction of the clay occurs after rain causing flows up to 40 m long, thus partially reducing the dump height to between 5 and 7 m. Clay quality from the mine varies; clay blending at the storage yard is therefore required. Various details on legal obligations of clay mining as a measure of complex utilization of resources in surface mines, as well as details on clay delivery contracts made by the mine with the brick factory are outlined. (In German)

  19. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean... (United States)


    ... AGENCY Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean..., titled Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act... environmental review of Appalachian surface coal mining operations under the Clean Water Act,...

  20. Population patterns of Copperbelly Water Snakes (Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta) in a riparian corridor impacted by mining and reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacki, M.J.; Hummer, J.W.; Fitzgerald, J.L. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry


    Habitat loss has been identified as a principle reason for decline of many water snakes, and surface mining for coal could potentially put Copperbelly Water Snakes (Nerodia erythrogaster neglecta) at risk due to the severity of land cover change that takes place once mining and reclamation are complete. We studied Copperbelly water snakes in riparian habitat impacted by adjacent surface mining in southern Indiana. Snakes were surveyed premining (1992 and 1993), during mining (1994 to 1996) and post mining (1997 to 2000). The data indicate that the population of Copperbelly Water Snakes was reproductively active, sustained higher levels of abundance following completion of mining and reclamation and made frequent use of reclaimed habitat. The extensive use of constructed ponds and drainage ditches by these snakes suggests that reclamation following mining can be done in a manner that facilitates recovery of habitat for this species.

  1. 微生物肥料对铝矿废弃地复垦区土壤有机碳的影响%Effects of Microbial Fertilizers on Soil Organic Carbon of Reclaimed Minesoils in Aluminum Mining Wasteland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原芩; 孙崇凤; 李华; 张强; 郜春花


    在山西省孝义市铝矿废弃地复垦区玉米种植地块,采用不同的生物活化剂及生物菌剂处理,研究铝矿废弃地复垦过程中微生物肥料对复垦区玉米种植地块土壤有机碳的影响,测定了土壤有机碳含量、土壤δ13C值、玉米籽粒和秸秆中δ13C值.结果显示,不同微生物肥料处理下土壤有机碳含量随着土层深度的增加而降低,而土壤δ13C值随着土层深度的增加而增加;施加微生物肥料能显著提高土壤有机碳含量;使用微生物肥料后,玉米籽粒δ13C值显著高于秸秆,说明玉米籽粒比秸秆更容易富集13C,但玉米籽粒和秸秆的δ13C值之间没有显著相关性.以上结果表明,在铝矿废弃地的复垦过程中,使用微生物肥料有利于土壤有机碳的积累.%Field study was conducted in a corn cropping system in reclaimed minesoils of the aluminum mining wasteland in 2010 in Xiaoyi City,Shanxi Province in north of China.The purpose was to characterize the soil organic under different microbial fertilizers of biological activator,biological agents,and control treatment,i.e.without any microbial fertilizer in the maize (Yitian18) cropping system.The measurements included the organic carbon content and the values of δ13C of soil in the depths of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm,and the values of δ13C in maize stem and grain.Results showed that deeper soil corresponded to reducing soil organic carbon but increasing δ13C values.Microbial fertilizers could significantly increase soil organic carbon content.Maize grain accumulated much more 13C than stem,as evidenced by the statistically significant difference,in spite that no significant correlation was found.Based on the results it is concluded that microbial fertilizers could improve the accumulation of soil organic carbon in aluminum mining wasteland.

  2. Reclaimed Water for Turfgrass Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunzhong Zhang


    Full Text Available Sustainable irrigation of turfgrass grown on coarse-textured soils with reclaimed water must avoid detrimental effects of soluble salts on plant growth and soil quality and groundwater enrichment of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P. The purpose of this study was (1 to investigate the effects of irrigating with municipal reclaimed water containing higher concentrations of soluble salts than potable water on turfgrass growth and quality and (2 to compare the effects of reclaimed and potable water on turfgrass assimilation and leaching of N and P. A sand-based medium plumbed to supply potable and reclaimed water and instrumented with lysimeters to collect leachate was planted with hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis var. Tifsport and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. L-93. Both species produced high quality turfgrass with the reclaimed water. Although both grasses are moderately or highly salt tolerant when fully established, the bermudagrass growth and quality were reduced by the reclaimed water upon breaking dormancy, and its N use during this period was reduced. Continuous use of reclaimed water of the quality used in the study poses a potential soil Na accumulation problem. Both turfgrasses assimilated high amounts of N and P with minimal potential losses to groundwater.

  3. Long-term effects of surface coal mining on ground-water levels and quality in two small watersheds in eastern Ohio (United States)

    Cunningham, W.L.; Jones, R.L.


    Two small watersheds in eastern Ohio that were surface mined for coal and reclaimed were studied during 1986-89. Water-level and water-quality data were compared with similar data collected during previous investigations conducted during 1976-83 to determine long-term effects of surface mining on the hydrologic system. Before mining, the watersheds were characterized by sequences of flat-lying sedimentary rocks containing two major coal seams and underclays. An aquifer was present above each of the underclays. Surface mining removed the upper aquifer, stripped the coal seam, and replaced the sediment. This created a new upper aquifer with different hydraulic and chemical characteristics. Mining did not disturb the middle aquifer. A third, deeper aquifer in each watershed was not studied. Water levels were continuously recorded in one well in each aquifer. Other wells were measured every 2 months. Water levels in the upper aquifers reached hydraulic equilibrium from 2 to 5 years after mining ceased. Water levels in the middle aquifers increased more than 5 feet during mining and reached equilibrium almost immediately thereafter. Water samples were collected from three upper-aquifer well, a seep from the upper aquifer, and the stream in each watershed. Two samples were collected in 1986 and 1987, and one each in 1988 and 1989. In both watersheds, sulfate replaced bicarbonate as the dominant upper-aquifer and surface-water anion after mining. For the upper aquifer of a watershed located in Muskingum County, water-quality data were grouped into premining and late postmining time periods (1986-89). The premining median pH and concentration of dissolved solids and sulfate were 7.6, 378 mg/L (milligrams per liter), and 41 mg/L, respectively. The premining median concentrations of iron and manganese were 10? /L (micrograms per liter) and 25?, respectively. The postmining median values of pH, dissolved solids, and sulfate were 6.7, 1,150 mg/L, and 560 mg/L, respectively


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立新; 王金庄; 赵学胜; 李邦三


    This paper systematically expounds the history and present situation of the research & application of strip-partial mining at home and abroad. The prospect of using strip-partial mining mcthod to mine under buildings (structures) at the present situation of market economy is also expounded here. Strata & surface subsldcnce mechanism of strip-partiai mining, the optimization of the width of unit goal & coal pillar as weal as the calculation method of surface subsidenoc pridiction based on Holding-Plate Control Theory and Coal Pillar Long-term Stability, which are our research achivements in recent years about strata & surface subsidence control in strip-partial mining, are the main points introduced here.

  5. Mapping extent and change in surface mines within the United States for 2001 to 2006 (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Stehman, Stephen V.; Parker, Owen P.


    A complete, spatially explicit dataset illustrating the 21st century mining footprint for the conterminous United States does not exist. To address this need, we developed a semi-automated procedure to map the country's mining footprint (30-m pixel) and establish a baseline to monitor changes in mine extent over time. The process uses mine seed points derived from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS), and USGS National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) and recodes patches of barren land that meet a “distance to seed” requirement and a patch area requirement before mapping a pixel as mining. Seed points derived from EIA coal points, an edited MRDS point file, and 1992 NLCD mine points were used in three separate efforts using different distance and patch area parameters for each. The three products were then merged to create a 2001 map of moderate-to-large mines in the United States, which was subsequently manually edited to reduce omission and commission errors. This process was replicated using NLCD 2006 barren pixels as a base layer to create a 2006 mine map and a 2001–2006 mine change map focusing on areas with surface mine expansion. In 2001, 8,324 km2 of surface mines were mapped. The footprint increased to 9,181 km2 in 2006, representing a 10·3% increase over 5 years. These methods exhibit merit as a timely approach to generate wall-to-wall, spatially explicit maps representing the recent extent of a wide range of surface mining activities across the country. 



    Nikitin, Oleg; Väli, Erik; Sabanov, Sergei; Pastarus, Jyri-Rivaldo


    The paper introduces a high-selective oil-shale mining technology and the first results of surface miner Wirtgen 2500SM tests. The technology allows to decrease oil-shale loses from 10-15% up to 5-7%. Mining process of the surface miner has a lower disturbing impact, which is topical in open pits and quarries especially in densely populated areas. The low level of dust and noise emissions and also very’ low vibration are arguments to mine oil shale with surface miner instead of drilling-blast...

  7. Regional Studies Program. Biological aspects of surface coal mine reclamation, Black Mesa and San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B.B.


    This report discusses case study data on surface mine reclamation accumulated at selected mines in the Southwest, specifically the Black Mesa Mine in Arizona and the Navajo Mine located south of Fruitland, New Mexico, in the San Juan Basin. Experimental results have made it apparent that reclamation of disturbed lands cannot begin and end with planting seed. The report therefore considers hydrologic, edaphic, and biotic factors, as well as land use and management, as important aspects of land reclamation. Recommendations are made to initiate, broaden, and intensify research studies in plant succession, productivity, species selection, and attendant soil characteristics, along with grazing practices and land use potential.

  8. Fine root dynamics in lodgepole pine and white spruce stands along productivity gradients in reclaimed oil sands sites. (United States)

    Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Duan, Min; House, Jason


    Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area, total root biomass, and rates of root production, turnover, and decomposition) were assessed from May to October 2011 and 2012 using sequential coring and ingrowth core methods in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) stands. The pine and spruce stands were planted on peat mineral soil mix placed over tailings sand and overburden substrates, respectively, in reclaimed oil sands sites in Alberta. We selected stands that form a productivity gradient (low, medium, and high productivities) of each tree species based on differences in tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) increments. In lodgepole pine stands, fine root length density and fine root production, and turnover rates were in the order of high > medium > low productivity sites and were positively correlated with tree height and DBH and negatively correlated with soil salinity (P productivity gradient and was negatively correlated with soil compaction. In conclusion, fine root dynamics along the stand productivity gradients were closely linked to stand productivity and were affected by limiting soil properties related to the specific substrate used for reconstructing the reclaimed soil. Understanding the impact of soil properties on fine root dynamics and overall stand productivity will help improve land reclamation outcomes.

  9. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region V. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.


    This report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. This volume is specifically for the states of Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

  10. Identifying woody vegetation on coal surface mines using phenological indicators with multitemporal Landsat imagery (United States)

    Oliphant, A. J.; Li, J.; Wynne, R. H.; Donovan, P. F.; Zipper, C. E.


    Surface mining for coal has disturbed large land areas in the Appalachian Mountains. Better information on mined lands' ecosystem recovery status is necessary for effective environmental management in mining-impacted regions. Because record quality varies between state mining agencies and much mining occurred prior to widespread use of geospatial technologies, accurate maps of mining extents, durations, and land cover effects are often not available. Landsat data are well suited to mapping and characterizing land cover and forest recovery on former coal surface mines. Past mine reclamation techniques have often failed to restore premining forest vegetation but natural processes may enable native forests to re-establish on mined areas with time. However, the invasive species autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellate) is proliferating widely on former coal surface mines, often inhibiting reestablishment of native forests. Autumn olive outcompetes native vegetation because it fixes atmospheric nitrogen and benefits from a longer growing season than native deciduous trees. This longer growing season, along with Landsat 8's high signal to noise ratio, has enabled species-level classification of autumn olive using multitemporal Landsat 8 data at accuracy levels usually only obtainable using higher spatial or spectral resolution sensors. We have used classification and regression tree (CART®) and support vector machine (SVM) to classify five counties in the coal mining region of Virginia for presence and absence of autumn olive. The best model found was a CART® model with 36 nodes which had an overall accuracy of 84% and kappa of 0.68. Autumn olive had conditional kappa of 0.65 and a producers and users accuracy of 86% and 83% respectively. The best SVM model used a second order polynomial kernel and had an overall accuracy of 77%, an overall kappa of 0.54 and a producers and users accuracy of 60% and 90% respectively.

  11. Biosolids use for reclaiming fluvial mine tailings (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of biosolids and lime on reclamation of a heavily contaminated metal site. Within the Superfund area near Leadville, CO, biosolids and lime were amended (1998) to a 1 ha site at rates of 240 Mg per ha each. In 2006, soil samples were collected on a ...

  12. Reclaiming the island reefs. (United States)

    Bolido, L; White, A


    This article reports on the crisis facing the Philippine¿s coral reefs and their effort to reclaim its previous grandeur on a local and regional level. Faced with growing destruction of the coral reefs, the Philippine government agencies and nongovernmental organizations have taken steps to solve the problem. But even more significant is the growing trend among local communities in taking the initiative to restore and conserve their natural resources. This local effort all started from a much-admired initiative of the Silliman University, which is based in Negros Oriental's capital city of Dumaguete, in getting people to recognize and act on the need to protect and preserve their coral reefs and marine resources. The major achievement made by the University was the formation of the community-based Marine Conservation and Development Program in 1985, which sparked a series of initiatives among local communities in protecting the Philippine coastlines.

  13. 30 CFR 941.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (United States)


    ... pollution control, S. D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap. 34A-2, and solid waste disposal, S. D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING...

  14. Atlas of wetlands in the principal coal surface mining region of western Kentucky. Reference report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Taylor, J.R.; Benson, K.B.; Hill, P.L. Jr.


    This reference document provides information on the location of wetlands in the Western Kentucky Region where coal surface mining is an important industry, principally Muhlenberg, Hopkins, and Ohio Counties. The wetlands and fish and wildlife data are presented on U. S. Geologic Survey 1:24,000 scale Quad maps and tables. The discussion focuses on historical information on the wetlands, occurrence of selected species in various kinds of wetlands, and environmentally important factors affecting the biota through surface mining activities.

  15. Activities of the Commission for Ground Surface Protection against Mining Damage in the first quarter of 1985. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chroszcz, A.


    Five meetings of the Commission held from January to March 1985 are reported. Underground coal mining in the safety pillar of Bytom was discussed in the light of rock bursts and fatal accidents in the Dymitrow mine. Three coal mines remove the safety pillar: Dymitrow, Szombierki and Rozbark. The Commission discussed: replacing longwall mining with caving by longwall mining with hydraulic stowing, using packings with reduced settling, reducing concentration of mining operations in the area of Bytom center, coordination of underground mining by 3 mines (coordination of mining order, thickness of coal slices or coal seams, concentration of longwall mining in seams with reduced hazards of rock bursts, methods for protection of buildings and industrial plants at the ground surface against ground deformation. The Commission also discussed program of coal mining with hydraulic stowing in the safety pillar of the Batory Steelworks, the Hajduki chemical plant and Chorzow (order of mining, schemes for slice mining, forecasting ground subsidence, methods for protection against mining damage), underground mining with caving or stowing in safety pillars of the Miechowice and Karb mines under Bytom, new regulations on geodetic surveys in underground coal mines.

  16. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan


    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  17. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coblentz, B. [MSU Ag Communications (United States)


    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  18. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment.

  19. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment

  20. Experimental Study on the Heavy Metal Pollution in the Soil Irrigated by Reclaimed Water from Sewage Treatment Plant


    Yan, Xing; Luo, Gang; Cao, Jian; Xu, Jiawen; Wang, Shuang; YE, Weihai; Liang, Yicheng


    Reclaimed water irrigation is one of the potential ways of solving the shortage of water resources, and the pollution risk on migration behavior of heavy metals in the soil which are irrigated by reclaimed water and the related soil surface is still short of research. Through the experimental study of different kinds of water irrigation methods on vegetable, it can be concluded that compared with sewage irrigation and tap water irrigation, reclaimed water irrigation does not pollute the soil,...

  1. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation


    Haering, Kathryn C.; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael


    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  2. Assessment, management rehabilitation of surface water losses due to longwall coal mining subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawkins, A.P. [Coffey Geosciences Pty. Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Subsidence due to longwall coal mining has generated notable effects on surface water and groundwater above numerous longwall coal mines in Queensland and NSW. This paper deals with the methods which can be used to assess, predict and rehabilitate the effects of longwall surface subsidence on surface water bodies. Aspects discussed cover the subsidence model, hydrological and hydrogeological assessment, hydrogeochemical changes and subsidence rehabilitation issues. The paper concludes that longwall surface subsidence can significantly affect the mine's local environment. However, with sufficient baseline data and a thorough assessment of site specific issues, longwalls can be planned to account for subsidence effects on surface water, and possible deleterious effects can be mitigated. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in surface mine spoil restoration stands in Poland – first time recorded, rare, and red-listed species


    Izabela Lidia Kałucka; Andrzej M. Jagodziński; Mirosław Nowiński


    Results of mycological research conducted in the years 2001–2013 in the restoration stands growing on reclaimed mine spoils are presented. Four opencast lignite mine spoil heaps in Poland were examined: Pątnów-Jóźwin, Adamów, Mt Kamieńsk, and Turów. The paper focuses on 71 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi: recorded for the first time in the country (16 taxa), currently red-listed (23 taxa), known from few localities only (32 taxa). Notes on their ecology and habitats are provided, as well as ...

  4. Reconnaissance of stream biota and physical and chemical water quality in areas of selected land use in the coal-mining region, southwestern Indiana, 1979-80 (United States)

    Wangsness, D.J.


    To help meet the goals of the Surface-Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, the U.S. Geological Survey is assessing the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface water within the coal-mining region of southwestern Indiana. This report discusses benthic-invertebrate and periphyticalgal communities in streams draining homogeneous-agricultural, forested, active/reclaimed-mine, reclaimed-mine, and unreclaimed-mine watersheds--and relates the biological communities to the physical and chemical characteristics of the streams. Alkalinity and pH were lower and the concentrations of dissolved solids, suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc were higher in unreclaimed-mine watersheds than in the other land-use watersheds. Numbers and community diversity of benthic invertebrates were less at sites affected by mining than at agricultural or forested sites, owing to (1) synergistic effects of low pH, metals, and unsuitable habitat and (2) lack of colonizing drift organisms because of the small drainage area upstream from the mined area. Only a few organisms, such as the caddisflies Cheumatopsyche and Hydropsyche and the chironomids Chironomus and Cricotopus were found in streams draining mine areas.

  5. On-Site Radon Detection of Mining-induced Fractures from Overlying Strata to the Surface: A Case Study of the Baoshan Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang


    Full Text Available Large-scale longwall mining of shallow coal seams may cause mining-induced fractures that can project completely through to the surface. This could lead to a series of mine safety and environmental issues, further deteriorating the already fragile ecological environment in the Western mining areas in China. Therefore, an accurate and effective understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution law of mining-induced fractures in overlying strata and its relationship to upper aquifers is critical. In this paper, the application of the geophysical-chemical properties of radon in mining engineering is explored as a potential solution to the shortcomings of existing surveying methods. A radioactive measurement method is proposed for the detection of the development of mining-induced fractures from overlying strata to the surface in the Baoshan Coal Mine (BCM. The on-site test indicated that the first weighting step is approximately 60 m, the average periodic weighting step is approximately 20 m, and the influence coverage of the advanced abutment pressure is approximately 30 m. The presented method could be used as an indirect technical support to increase the safety of coal mining by acting as a simple, fast, and reliable method of detecting mining-induced fractures in overlying strata.

  6. Study on Removal Distance of a Crushing Station in Buzhaoba Surface Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A semi-continuous technology combines the merits of discontinuous and continuous technologies. Compared with the discontinuous technology, the semi-continuous technology can be used to decrease haulage costs in mines because of the use of a belt conveyor instead of trucks. The method may improve efficiency by using shovels instead of BWE. This paper discusses the removal distance of a crushing station based on the Buzhaoba surface mine.

  7. Contaminants in surface water and sediments around the Tynagh Mine, Galway, Ireland.


    O'Neill, A.; Phillips, D.H.; Bowen, J; Sen Gupta, B.


    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-sit...

  8. Geochemical Analyses of Surface and Shallow Gas Flux and Composition Over a Proposed Carbon Sequestration Site in Eastern Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Parris; Michael Solis; Kathryn Takacs


    Using soil gas chemistry to detect leakage from underground reservoirs (i.e. microseepage) requires that the natural range of soil gas flux and chemistry be fully characterized. To meet this need, soil gas flux (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) and the bulk (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) and isotopic chemistry ({delta}{sup 13}C-CO2) of shallow soil gases (<1 m, 3.3 ft) were measured at 25 locations distributed among two active oil and gas fields, an active strip mine, and a relatively undisturbed research forest in eastern Kentucky. The measurements apportion the biologic, atmospheric, and geologic influences on soil gas composition under varying degrees of human surface disturbance. The measurements also highlight potential challenges in using soil gas chemistry as a monitoring tool where the surface cover consists of reclaimed mine land or is underlain by shallow coals. For example, enrichment of ({delta}{sup 13}C-CO2) and high CH{sub 4} concentrations in soils have been historically used as indicators of microseepage, but in the reclaimed mine lands similar soil chemistry characteristics likely result from dissolution of carbonate cement in siliciclastic clasts having {delta}{sup 13}C values close to 0{per_thousand} and degassing of coal fragments. The gases accumulate in the reclaimed mine land soils because intense compaction reduces soil permeability, thereby impeding equilibration with the atmosphere. Consequently, the reclaimed mine lands provide a false microseepage anomaly. Further potential challenges arise from low permeability zones associated with compacted soils in reclaimed mine lands and shallow coals in undisturbed areas that might impede upward gas migration. To investigate the effect of these materials on gas migration and composition, four 10 m (33 ft) deep monitoring wells were drilled in reclaimed mine material and in undisturbed soils with and without coals. The wells, configured with sampling zones at discrete intervals, show the persistence of some of the

  9. Measurements and predictions of surface gas fluxes and actual evaporation on mine waste rock dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabwe, L.K.; Wilson, G.W. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Process Engineering


    Long-term closure issues with respect to the mining industry and acid rock drainage (ARD) management require accurate measurements, predictions and monitoring of surface gas fluxes and actual evaporation on mine waste-rock dumps. This study uses a technique, called the dynamic closed chamber system (DCC) that measures the oxygen flux into mine waste dumps. The technique was used with an oxygen gas analyzer to directly measure the change in the oxygen concentration in the headspace of the chamber installed at the surface of the waste dumps. A SoilCover model was also used to predict evaporation fluxes on a waste-rock pile after heavy rainfall events. Measurement of actual evaporation across the surfaces of waste dumps is important in the design of soil covers. The paper discussed the site locations including the Key Lake uranium mine located at the southern rim of the Athabasca Basin in north central Saskatchewan as well as the Syncrude Canada Ltd. mine, located 30 km north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Materials and methods used in the study as well as results and subsequent discussion were also presented. The effect of relative humidity and the effect of soil cover system on oxygen diffusion was reviewed. It was concluded that the SoilCover numerical model can be a useful tool for prediction of actual evaporation on mine waste dumps. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Natural and planted flora of the log mountain surface - mined demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.L. [Berea College, KY (United States); Wade, G.L. [USDA Forest Service, Burlington, VT (United States); Straw, R.A. [Univ. of Tennessee Plateau Experiment Station, Crossville, TN (United States)


    A descriptive study of the naturally invading and planted flora was conducted during 1984-1985 on a 14- and 21-year-old contour surface mine the 14.2 ha Log Mountain Demonstration Area (LMDA), in Bell County, Kentucky. Six habitats are designated from areas created from coal mining; the 1963 bench, 1970 bench, bench highwalls, mine outslopes, mine seeps, and coal haul-telephone microwave tower road. Twenty-four of 25 woody and herbaceous species (11 indigenous, 13 non-indigenous) have persisted from plantings by personnel of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. We recommend 11 native and exotic woody and herbaceous species for planting on coal surface-mined areas. An annotated list of vascular plants comprises 360 taxa (286 indigenous, 74 non-indigenous) in 224 genera from 82 families. Taxa consist of 1 Lycopodiophyta, 1 Equisetophyta, 8 Polypodiophyta, 7 Pinophyta, and 343 Magnoliophyta. The most species-rich families are the Asteraceae (64), Poaceae (39), Fabaceae (20), Cyperaceae (16), Rosaceae (13), and Lamiaceae (11). A total of 155 Bell County distribution records were documented. Three threatened Kentucky species (Gentiana decora, Liparis loeselii, Silene ovata) were present in refugial habitats created by surface mining. The high species richness has resulted from native and naturalized invading species from the environs, native and exotic planted species, and species from the remnant seed bank. Forest vegetation is a complex mosaic of natural and semi-natural plant communities on the unplanted and planted areas of LMDA.

  11. Development and Application of Blast Casting Technique in Large-Scale Surface Mines: A Case Study of Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma


    Full Text Available Blast casting is a high-efficiency technique applied in surface mines for overburden removal and results in stripping cost savings. According to ballistic theory and center-of-mass frame basic movement principles, key factors influencing blast casting effect were analyzed, which include bench height and mining panel width, inclined angle of blast holes, explosive unit consumption (EUC, delay-time interval, presplitting, and blast hole pattern parameters. An intelligent design software was developed for obtaining better breaking and casting effect, and the error rates predicted with actual result can be controlled with 10%. Blast casting technique was successfully applied in Heidaigou Surface Coal Mine (HSCM with more than 34% of material casted into the inner dump. A ramp ditch was set within the middle inner dump for coal transportation. The procedure of stripping and excavating was implemented separately and alternately in the two sections around the middle ramp ditch. An unconstrained-nonlinear model was deduced for optimizing the shift distance of the middle ramp. The calculation results show that optimum shift distance of HSCM is 480 m, and the middle ditch should be shifted after 6 blast casting mining panels being stripped.

  12. Activities of the Committee for Surface Protection from Mining Damage in the fourth quarter of 1983. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chroszcz, A.


    The Committee for Surface Protection from Mining Damage analyzed mining of coal seams in the protective pillar of Bytom and the program of coal mining in the protective pillar of Jastrzebie from 1984 to 1985. The Bobrek coal mine proposed mining a thick coal seam under Bytom (Karb and Miechowice area) by slicing with caving (2 slices, each 2.5 m thick). Due to forecast intensive ground subsidence the proposal was not accepted. The Committee recommended use of mining with hydraulic stowing. The Bobrek mine developed a modified plan. The seam would be mined with hydraulic stowing; only one slice, 2.5 m thick, would be removed to reduce ground subsidence. The Committee also analyzed coal mining under Jastrzebie city by 3 coal mines: Jastrzebie, Moszczenica and Manifest Lipcowy. Mining with caving would be used. The Committee critically evaluated mining the protective coal pillar from 1976 to 1982. It also made recommendations on reducing mining damage caused by mining in the protective pillar of Jastrzebie.

  13. Time function of surface subsidence based on Harris model in mined-out area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinrong; Wang Junbao; Guo Jianqiang; Yuan Hong; Li Peng


    The surface subsidence is a common environmental hazard in mined-out area.Based on careful analysis of the regularity of surface subsidence in mined-out area,we proposed a new time function based on Harris curve model in consideration of the shortage of current surface subsidence time functions.By analyzing the characteristics of the new time function,we found that it could meet the dynamic process,the velocity change process and the acceleration change process during surface subsidence.Then its rationality had been verified through project cases.The results show that the proposed time function model can give a good reflection of the regularity of surface subsidence in mined-out area and can accurately predict surface subsidence.And the prediction data of the model are a little greater than measured data on condition of proper measured data quantity,which is safety in the engineering.This model provides a new method for the analysis of surface subsidence in mined-out area and reference for future prediction,and it is valuable to engineering application.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Aggett


    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this segment of work, our goal was to review methods for estimating tree survival, growth, yield and value of forests growing on surface mined land in the eastern coalfields of the USA, and to determine the extent to which carbon sequestration is influenced by these factors. Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), mandates that mined land be reclaimed in a fashion that renders the land at least as productive after mining as it was before mining. In the central Appalachian region, where prime farmland and economic development opportunities for mined land are scarce, the most practical land use choices are hayland/pasture, wildlife habitat, or forest land. Since 1977, the majority of mined land has been reclaimed as hayland/pasture or wildlife habitat, which is less expensive to reclaim than forest land, since there are no tree planting costs. As a result, there are now hundreds of thousands of hectares of grasslands and scrublands in various stages of natural succession located throughout otherwise forested mountains in the U.S. A literature review was done to develop the basis for an economic feasibility study of a range of land-use conversion scenarios. Procedures were developed for both mixed hardwoods and white pine under a set of low product prices and under a set of high product prices. Economic feasibility is based on land expectation values. Further, our review shows that three types of incentive schemes might be important: (1) lump sum payment at planting (and equivalent series of annual payments); (2) revenue incentive at harvest; and (3) benefit based on carbon volume.

  15. Geomechanical processes at closed mines in Donbass coalfield and their potential effects at surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilenko, Y.N.; Yermakov, V.N. [Donetsk State Technical University, Donetsk (Ukraine)


    One of the principal technical problems that arises in the Donbass coalfield, Ukraine, during the closure of mines that are no longer viable is the activation of geomechanical processes and their effect at the surface. The main precondition for the initiation of such processes is the presence of voids and foliations underground. It is not possible to predict when the closure of these voids will occur, but the results are repeated slumping of the rock mass, ultimately affecting the surface. The consequences can be surface collapse or deformation. Collapse cones appear above the collars of vertical shafts, shallow workings, fissures and gaps in thick, solid seams. Additional movement and deformation are possible above stopes when the rock mass has been made wet by flooding of the mine and also when zones of concentrated deformation become active. The knowledge that can be derived from experience so far and from the monitoring of closed mine sites needs to be collected and applied. The monitoring scheme in the Stakhanov District of the Donbass is reviewed along with the first observations of surface deformation above closed mines - where anomalous movement was already observed when the mines were operational.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新春; 范力军


    It always adopts the direct hierarchy analysis to value the exploitation conditions of surface mining areas. This way has some unavoidable shortcomings because it is mainly under theaid of experts and it is affected by the subjective thinking of the experts. This paper puts forwards a new approach that divides the whole exploitation conditions into sixteen subsidiary systems and each subsidiary system forms a neural network system. The whole decision system of exploitation conditions of surface mining areas is composed of sixteen subsidiary neural network systems. Each neural network is practiced with the data of the worksite, which is reasonable and scientific. This way will be a new decision approach for exploiting the surface mining areas.

  17. Restoration of surface-mined lands with rainfall harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, R.H.; Rickard, W.H.


    Strip mining for coal in the arid western US will remove grazing land as energy demands are met. Conventional resotration usually includes leveling the spoil banks and covering them with top soil, fertilizing, seeding and irrigation with well or river water. An overview of research on an alternate method of restoring this land is reported. From 1976 through 1981 studies were conducted on the use of water harvesting, the collection and use of rainfall runoff, to restore the vegetative productivity of strip mined lands in arid regions. These studies tested the technical and economic feasibility of using partially leveled spoil banks at strip mines as catchment areas to collect and direct runoff to the topsoiled valley floor where crops were cultivated. Information was collected on the efficiency of seven treatments to increase runoff from the catchment areas and on the productivity of seven crops. The experiments were conducted in arid areas of Washington, Arizona, and Colorado. It was concluded that water harvesting can replace or augment expensive and inadequate supplies of well and river water in arid regions with a suitable climate. These studies showed that some treatments provided adequate runoff to produce a useful crop in the valleys, thus making this alternative approach to restoration technically feasible. This approach was also potentially economically feasible where the treatment costs of the catchment areas were low, the treatment was effective, the crop was productive and valuable, and earthmoving costs were lower than with conventional restoration involving complete leveling of spoil banks. It was also concluded that water harvesting can be made more effective with further information on catchment area treatments, which crops are most adaptable to water harvesting, the optimum incline of the catchment areas and climatic influences on water harvesting.

  18. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  19. Continuous Rating for Diggability Assessment in Surface Mines (United States)

    IPHAR, Melih


    The rocks can be loosened either by drilling-blasting or direct excavation using powerful machines in opencast mining operations. The economics of rock excavation is considered for each method to be applied. If blasting operation is not preferred and also the geological structures and rock mass properties in site are convenient (favourable ground conditions) for ripping or direct excavation method by mining machines, the next step is to determine which machine or excavator should be selected for the excavation purposes. Many researchers have proposed several diggability or excavatability assessment methods for deciding on excavator type to be used in the field. Most of these systems are generally based on assigning a rating for the parameters having importance in rock excavation process. However, the sharp transitions between the two adjacent classes for a given parameter can lead to some uncertainties. In this paper, it has been proposed that varying rating should be assigned for a given parameter called as “continuous rating” instead of giving constant rating for a given class.

  20. Defining reclaimed water potability requirements (United States)

    Janik, D. S.


    Water used during previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will probably have to utilize some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little applied experience in either the US or foreign space programs with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitutes an engineering challenge of the broadest nature and will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed US spacestation. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specification will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Perhaps the most strigent specifications will involve water to be consumed. NASA's present Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled potable water. No specifications for reclaimed or recycled potable water presently exist either inside or outside NASA. NASA's past experience with potable water systems is reviewed, limitations of the present Potable Water Specifications are examined, present world expertise with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and system analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent Reclaimed/Recycled Potable Water Specifications for spacecraft is presented.

  1. Selection of overburden surface mining method in West Virginia by analytical hierarchy process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy A.Nolan; Vladislav Kecojevic


    The broad objective of this research was to improve current surface mining practices and reduce negative environmental impact of overburden removal in West Virginia (WV). The specific objectives were to (i) compare con-ventional surface mining method (drilling, blasting, digging, and loading) to a surface miner (SM) method, and (ii) apply the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to help select the optimal mining method based on production, cost and envi-ronmental criteria. The design and the procedures used in this research involve five interrelated modules:(i) rock properties of overburden in WV, (ii) drilling and blasting, (iii) digging and loading, (iv) SM method, and (v) comparative analysis and selection of the optimal mining method by AHP. Results of this research indicate that application of SM method would yield higher cost of overburden removal than conventional mining methods in rocks with a high unconfined compressive strength and abrasivity. A significant advantage of SM method, where applicable, is the elimination of the negative environmental impacts associated with blasting.

  2. Determination of Granite Rock Massif Weathering and Cracking of Surface Layers in the Oldest Parts of Medieval Mine Depending on Used Mining Method (United States)

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk


    The paper presents the use of selected non-destructive testing methods for the purpose of specifying information on weathering and cracking of surface layers of granite rock massif in the medieval Jeroným Mine (the Czech Republic). This mine has been declared the National Heritage Site of the Czech Republic and its opening as a mining museum to the public is gradually prepared. Geological and geomechanical evaluation documents the possibility to find all kinds of weathering grades of rock massif in this mine. Two non-destructive methods have been tested, namely the measurement of ultrasonic pulse velocity and the measurement of Schmidt hammer rebound value. Field measurements were performed in two selected galleries to verify the application of such methods in specific conditions of underground spaces. Used mining method is one of the parameters later influencing cracking of rock massif. In selected galleries, two different mining methods were used which means that a part of a gallery profile was mined out by hand tools in the Middle Ages and another part of the profile was later mined out by blasting. Measurements in these galleries have enabled to analyse the influence of used mining methods on cracking of rock massif in the impaired zone, and, consequently, on ongoing weathering processes in those zones.

  3. Influence of reconstruction water-bearing levels on surface displacement of post-mining areas (United States)

    Milczarek, Wojciech; Blachowski, Jan; Grzempowski, Piotr


    The phenomenon of secondary deformation characteristic of the post-mining areas is not sufficiently recognized. For ground surfaces phenomenon may be continuous or discontinuous. There is no sufficient information that describes behavior of the rock mass in the long term after end of exploitation. It is considered that this phenomenon is gradually disappears with end of exploitation. Reliable quantitative data comes only from the analysis of direct measurements in selected areas: geodetic and satellites measurements. Analyzing current situation of operating mines can be said that in the near years, more centers will limit the mining of coal mining. This will contribute to separation further of post-mining areas, in which will be required to maintaining a permanent monitoring and making predictions on the impact of ended exploitation of the rock mass surface. This will be particularly important for highly urbanized areas. This study used finite element method (FEM) to describe phenomenon of reconstruction water-bearing levels and its impact on displacement on the ground surface. It was assumed that significant factors that influence the occurrence and size of secondary deformations are: reconstruction of water-bearing levels in the prior drainer rock mass, size of past exploitation, spatial distribution of coal seams and geological and tectonic structure has been assumed. The transversally isotropic model of six elastic constants: E1 = E2, E3, ν = ν12, ν13, G12, G13 has been assumed to describe of rock mass in the numerical calculations. Geometrical models used in the numerical calculations have been developed using GIS tools. For the study two-dimensional and three-dimensional models characterized by different geological conditions and different configuration of mining data have been developed. The results obtained displacements of the ground surface for the period of mining activity has been verified with the results based on the Knothe theory. The results of

  4. Utilization of InSAR differential interferometry for surface deformation detection caused by mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). School of Geomatics; Shao, Y. [Liaoning Technical Univ., Fuxin (China). Dept. of Foreign Language; Guichen, M. [Gifu Univ., Yanagido, Gifu (Japan). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    In China, the surface deformation of ground has been a significant geotechnical problem as a result of cracks in the ground surface, collapsing of house, and subsidence of roads. A powerful technology for detecting surface deformation in the ground is differential interferometry using synthetic aperture radar (INSAR). The technology enables the analysis from different phase of micro-wave between two observed data by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) of surface deformation of ground such as ground subsidence, land slide, and slope failure. In January 2006, the advanced land observing satellite was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presented an analytical investigation to detect ground subsidence or change caused by mining, overuse of ground water, and disaster. Specifically, the paper discussed the INSAR monitoring technology of the mine slope, including INSAR data sources and processing software; the principle of synthetic aperture radar interferometry; principles of differential SAR interferometry; and INSAR technology to slope monitoring of the Haizhou open pit mine. The paper also discussed the Haizhou strip mine side slope INSAR monitoring results and tests. It was concluded that the use of synthetic aperture radar interferometer technique was the optimal technique to provide three-dimensional spatial information and minimal change from ground surface by spatial remote sensing device. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Metagenomic analysis of viruses in reclaimed water. (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Nilsson, Christina; Lim, Yan Wei; Ruan, Yijun; Breitbart, Mya


    Reclaimed water use is an important component of sustainable water resource management. However, there are concerns regarding pathogen transport through this alternative water supply. This study characterized the viral community found in reclaimed water and compared it with viruses in potable water. Reclaimed water contained 1000-fold more virus-like particles than potable water, having approximately 10(8) VLPs per millilitre. Metagenomic analyses revealed that most of the viruses in both reclaimed and potable water were novel. Bacteriophages dominated the DNA viral community in both reclaimed and potable water, but reclaimed water had a distinct phage community based on phage family distributions and host representation within each family. Eukaryotic viruses similar to plant pathogens and invertebrate picornaviruses dominated RNA metagenomic libraries. Established human pathogens were not detected in reclaimed water viral metagenomes, which contained a wealth of novel single-stranded DNA and RNA viruses related to plant, animal and insect viruses. Therefore, reclaimed water may play a role in the dissemination of highly stable viruses. Information regarding viruses present in reclaimed water but not in potable water can be used to identify new bioindicators of water quality. Future studies will need to investigate the infectivity and host range of these viruses to evaluate the impacts of reclaimed water use on human and ecosystem health.

  6. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone... (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does not...

  7. Applicability of surface directional wells for upper Silesia Basin coal seams’ drainage ahead of mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jura Bartłomiej; Skiba Jacek; Wierzbinski Krystian


    Methods of exploitation drainage, which is presently applied in polish hard coal mines in Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland), are not effective enough, high risk of methane hazard can be observed, and produc-tion capacity of the mining plant is not fully used. Methane hazard, which may occur during planned coal exploitation, is presented in this paper. Following parameters are taken into consideration in the fore-casts:coal extraction parameters, geological and mining conditions, deposit’s methane saturation degree and impact of coal exploitation on the degasification coefficient of the seams, which are under the influ-ence of relaxation zone. This paper presents the results of the analysis aiming to verify applicability of drainage ahead of mining of the coal seams by using surface directional wells. Based on the collected data (coal seams’ structural maps, profiles of the exploratory wells, geological cross-sections), the lab tests of drilling cores and direct wells’ tests, static model of the deposit was constructed and suitable grid of directional wells from the surface was designed. Comparison of forecasted methane emission volume between the two methods is investigated. The results indicated the necessity of performing appropriate deposit’s stimulations in order to increase effectiveness of drainage ahead of mining.

  8. Modeling forest ecosystem changes resulting from surface coal mining in West Virginia (United States)

    John Brown; Andrew J. Lister; Mary Ann Fajvan; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Christine Mazzarella


    The objective of this project is to assess the effects of surface coal mining on forest ecosystem disturbance and restoration in the Coal River Subbasin in southern West Virginia. Our approach is to develop disturbance impact models for this subbasin that will serve as a case study for testing the feasibility of integrating currently available GIS data layers, remote...

  9. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.


    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏靖; 刘胜富; 赵铁林


    The development and experiment of a computer-controlled truck dispatching system insurface mine is presented in this paper. It includes the system overall design, the system workingmode design, the selection of the best truck travel path, the development of truck fleet program-ming, the development of database management system, and the development of truck real timedispatching, etc. The successful experiment is carried out in Huolinhe surface mine, and the sat-isfied results are obtained. Application of this system can improve the system production and themine management. This system is the first one in our country at present.

  11. Contamination in surface waters around uranium mines in the Guadiana Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, J.D.; Tome, F.V.; Sanchez, A.M.; Sanchez, A.R.


    In a study of the contamination by uranium mines in the River Guadiana basin, we have found the natural higher concentration of uranium in samples collected near the mines and the expected decrease with distance in samples farther away. In spite of this expected result, there is another interesting fact: a natural isotopic separation is observed. Measurements were by alpha spectrometry with a silicon surface barrier detector. The study was completed with total gamma activity at the same sites as for alphas, using an Nal(Tl) detector. (author).

  12. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Strager

    Full Text Available Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2 gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  13. Quality of surface water in the coal-mining region, southwestern Indiana, March and May 1979 (United States)

    Renn, Danny E.; Ragone, Stephen E.; Wilber, William G.


    On August 3, 1977, the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act, Public Law 95-87 (the Act) was enacted by the 95th Congress. Under Section 507(b)(11) of the Act, an appropriate Federal or State agency must provide applicants for coal-mining permits hydrologic and water-quality information for the general use of proposed mining. To help meet the goals of the Act, the U.S. Geological Survey is designing a data-collection network in the coal-mining region of southwestern Indiana. The purpose of the network is to provide hydrologic and water-quality data on the ' general area ' for coal-mining permits. Because of the large size of the study area and the lack of hydrologic and water-quality data, a preliminary assessment is being done to determine the factors that affect water quality in the coal-mining region. This information will be used in designing a data network that will (1) provide the hydrologic and water-quality data needed by applicants for coal-mining permits and (2) determine the major factors that affect water quality. Reconnaissance data were collected at 293 sites in March, and hydrologic and water-quality data were collected at 84 synoptic sampling sites in May. (Synoptic sampling is the virtually simultaneous collection of data at specific sites.) In the reconnaissance, pH, specific conductance, dissolved-oxygen concentration, temperature, and Eh of streams were measured on site to provide general water-quality data. In the synoptic sampling, the preceding characteristics, as well as concentrations of various dissolved and suspended constituents of stream water and concentrations of heavy metals on streambed materials, were determined. 

  14. 3D deformation effect and optimal excavated design of surface mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-ren; FENG Ji-li


    The three-dimensional (3D) deformation effect of the slope engineering under the step-by-step excavation for the Antaibao surface mine was analyzed using the FLAC3D technique. An optimal excavated scheme with a relatively steeper slope angle of 47° instead of 30° was successfully implemented at the west wall in the geological section 73200 of the mine area, where the 3D effect of the nonlinear large deformation of the slope was taken into account. Based on the above research conclusion, put forward the countermeasures of shortening mining length, excavating by different regions, timely foot backfilling to protect the excavated slope, and monitoring and feedback adjustment by studying the nonlinear effect. The results show that these countermeasures are effective in controlling maximum deformation and increasing the stability of the slope.

  15. Groundwater flow evaluation through backfilling materials of a surface coal mining site of Northeast Mexico (United States)

    Gutierrez-Ojeda, C.; Martínez-Morales, M.; Ortíz-Flores, G.


    Surface coal mining at the Allende-Piedras Negras aquifer system requires the complete dewatering and removal of the aquifer. The aquifer contains several geologic layers of variable hydraulic conductivity. Backfilling material is composed of a mixture of permeable and impermeable layers and it was initially considered as impermeable. Exploratory drillings, pumping tests and a geophysical survey were performed in the backfilling materials and the surrounding unaltered materials in order to evaluate the natural groundwater flow modification due to the mining activities. Results of geophysical survey evidenced a saturated water table within the back filling material which was verified by exploratory drilling. Pumping tests showed that unaltered materials have a mean hydraulic conductivity of 34.5 m/day while the backfilling of 5.3 m/day. Although the mining activities reduce the hydraulic conductivity by almost an order of magnitude, it was corroborated the existence of a groundwater flow through the backfilling materials.

  16. How to Reclaim Space?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel


    Space is vital for meaningful learning, yet today’s management education (HE) curricula are characterized by curricular congestion and rush. Students report frenetic learning experiences characterized by overwhelming amounts of content, surface learning, thoughtless sequencing, excessive multitas...

  17. Suitability of dredged material for reclamation of surface-mined land. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Van Luik, A.


    Eroding ridges of acidic coal-mine spoil in La Salle County, Illinois, were leveled to form a gently-sloped raised plateau. Four test plots were constructed: a control plot and three treatment plots that received a 0.9-m-thick cover of dredged material obtained from the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago. Two treatment plots received lime applications and all plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses. Pressure-vacuum soil water samplers were installed, in duplicate, at two levels in the control plot and at three levels in each treatment plot. The three levels in the treatment plots coincided with dredged material, the dredged-material mine-spoil interface, and the underlying mine spoil. Surface water, soil water, and groundwater were monitored for 29 water-quality parameters for one year. Rainfall, air temperature, runoff, and water-level elevation data were collected also. Detailed analysis of the data indicates that the dredged material used in this study does not adversely affect water quality; it supports abundant plant growth, lessens groundwater contamination, and controls acid runoff. The dredged material is judged to be a suitable material for use in reclamation of surface-mined land.

  18. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites. (United States)

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M


    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done.

  19. Arsenic speciation and mobility in surface water at Lucky Shot Gold Mine, Alaska. (United States)

    Torrance, Keith; Keenan, Helen; Munk, Leeann; Hagedorn, Birgit


    Historical mining in Alaska has created a legacy of approximately 6,830 abandoned mine sites which include adits, tailing piles and contaminated land that continue to impact surface and groundwater quality through run-off and leaching of potentially toxic metals, especially arsenic (As). One such site is the Lucky Shot Gold Mine in Hatcher Pass, south-central Alaska, which operated from 1920 until 1942, mining gold-bearing quartz veins hosted in a Cretaceous tonalite intrusion. Arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and pyrite (FeS(2)) present in the quartz veins contribute to elevated As levels in water draining, abandoned mine adits. As future underground mining at Lucky Shot may further adversely impact water quality, baseline geochemical studies were undertaken to assess As mobility in the vicinity of the mine adits. Water samples were collected from streams, adits and boreholes around the mine and analysed for major and minor elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and for anions by ion chromatography (IC). Arsenic species separation was performed in the field to determine the ratio of inorganic As(III)/As(V) using anion-exchange chromatography, following established methods. It was determined that water draining the adits had elevated levels of As roughly seventy times the United States Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Standard of 10 μg L(-1), although this was rapidly diluted downstream in Craigie Creek to water pH was circum-neutral and displayed no characteristics of acid mine drainage. Despite being well oxygenated, As(III) is the dominant As species in adit water, accounting for close to 100 % of total As. The proportion of As(V) increases downstream of the adits, as some As(III) is oxidized, but the speciation enhances arsenic mobility at the site. The δ(18)O measurements indicate that the water in the system has a short residence time as it is very similar to meteoric water, supporting the observation that the predominance of

  20. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial... (United States)


    ..., and evapotranspiration, relief, slope and density of drainage channels; (B) Factors contributing to... coal mining operation may affect this alluvial valley floor or waters that supply the alluvial valley... alluvial valley floor that would be affected by the surface coal mining operation is of such small...

  1. About the use and treatment of reclaimed wastewater; El reto de la reutilizacion de aguas usadas: tratamiento intensivo de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.


    Demand of water in our actual society is increasing each day. Taking into account the irregular climatic situation experienced in a lot of zones of Spain, it is necessary to use all the available resources. Among the conventional resources of sweet waters (surface and underground), we must pay attention to the desalted waters and to the reclaimed wastewater. In this way, the practical use of reclaimed wastewater must be supported in three basic items: normative about reusing of reclaimed wastewater, that of treated wastewater and effluents discarded to natural environment and finally, treatment processes to reclaim wastewater. (Author) 11 refs.

  2. Surface water contamination by uranium Mining/Milling activities in Northern guangdong province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin; Song, Gang; Chen, Yongheng; Zhu, Li [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Juan [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Li, Hongchun [Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Xiao, Tangfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China); Qi, Jianying [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou (China)


    The northern region of Guangdong Province, China, has suffered from the extensive mining/milling of uranium for several decades. In this study, surface waters in the region were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the concentrations of uranium (U), thorium (Th), and non-radioactive metals (Fe, Mn, Mg, Li, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn). Results showed highly elevated concentrations of the studied radionuclides and metals in the discharged effluents and the tailing seepage of the U mining/milling sites. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations were also observed to be overall enhanced in the recipient stream that collected the discharged effluents from the industrial site, compared to the control streams, and rivers with no impacts from the U mining/milling sites. They displayed significant spatial variations and a general decrease downstream away from upper point-source discharges of the industrial site. In addition, obvious positive correlations were found between U and Th, Fe, Zn, Li, and Co (R{sup 2} > 0.93, n = 28) in the studied water samples, which suggest for an identical source and transport pathway of these elements. In combination with present surface water chemistry and chemical compositions of uraniferous minerals, the elevation of the analyzed elements in the recipient stream most likely arose from the liquid effluents, processing water, and acid drainage from the U mining/milling facilities. The dispersion of radionuclides and hazardous metals is actually limited to a small area at present, but some potential risk should not be negligible for local ecosystem. The results indicate that environmental remediation work is required to implement and future cleaner production technology should be oriented to avoid wide dispersion of radioactivity and non-radioactive hazards in U mining/milling sites. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Microstructure & performance of laser cladding on pick surface of coal mining machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hui-lai; ZHAO Fang-fang; ZHANG Shou-xin; QI Xiang-yang


    Laser cladding of 316 L steel powders on pick substrate of coal mining machine was conducted, and microstructure of laser cladding coating was analyzed. The micro-hardness of laser cladding coating was examined. The results show that microstructure of laser cladding zone is exiguous dentrite, and there are hard spots dispersible distribution in the laser cladding zone. Performances of erode-resistant, surface micro-hardness and wear-resistant are improved obviously.

  4. Anelastic modeling of surface subsidence induced by the Crandall Mine (Utah) collapse (United States)

    Plattner, Christina; Wdowinski, Shimon; Dixon, Tim


    The Crandall Mine collapsed in August 2007 and resulted in the death of 6 miners. The collapse induced surface subsidence visible by satellite geodesy. We processed data from ALOS satellite acquired before and after the collapse to quantify the subsidence and infer the deformation at depth. Our InSAR results show a localized oval shaped (1000 x 500 m2) pattern of subsidence with a maximum vertical displacement of 29 cm. Profiles across the subsided area show a steep V-shaped pattern. We first model the collapse using an elastic halfspace model. However, we find poor agreement between the elastic model solution and the InSAR observations, mainly because the elastic solution is characterized by a broad subsidence pattern. To improve this fit, we apply a model predicting surface settlement from tunneling (Loganathan and Poulos, 1998), where the internal friction angle is considered in the solution. To account for the flat shape of the collapse strata, we modify the model by changing its geometry from circular shape to elliptical (500 x 2.4 m). Our results show a very good fit in terms of the subsidence pattern, in particular the localization of the subsidence. We found that the surface subsidence was caused by a 7.7% collapse of the mine elliptical shaped mine. Although our simple model does not explain all the observed features, we find it more suitable than elastic halfspace models to explain the localized deformation pattern.

  5. Life cycle Greenhouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies: surface mining and in situ applications. (United States)

    Bergerson, Joule A; Kofoworola, Oyeshola; Charpentier, Alex D; Sleep, Sylvia; Maclean, Heather L


    Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with two major recovery and extraction processes currently utilized in Alberta's oil sands, surface mining and in situ, are quantified. Process modules are developed and integrated into a life cycle model-GHOST (GreenHouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies) developed in prior work. Recovery and extraction of bitumen through surface mining and in situ processes result in 3-9 and 9-16 g CO(2)eq/MJ bitumen, respectively; upgrading emissions are an additional 6-17 g CO(2)eq/MJ synthetic crude oil (SCO) (all results are on a HHV basis). Although a high degree of variability exists in well-to-wheel emissions due to differences in technologies employed, operating conditions, and product characteristics, the surface mining dilbit and the in situ SCO pathways have the lowest and highest emissions, 88 and 120 g CO(2)eq/MJ reformulated gasoline. Through the use of improved data obtained from operating oil sands projects, we present ranges of emissions that overlap with emissions in literature for conventional crude oil. An increased focus is recommended in policy discussions on understanding interproject variability of emissions of both oil sands and conventional crudes, as this has not been adequately represented in previous studies.

  6. Report: Congressionally Requested Information on the Status and Length of Review for Appalachian Surface Mining Permit Applications (United States)

    Report #12-P-0083, November 21, 2011. After reconciling discrepancies and vetting information, we identified 185 surface mining permit applications to review from the list of 237 that we received from the senator.

  7. Colloidal mobilization of arsenic from mining-affected soils by surface runoff. (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Voegelin, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Bolea, Eduardo; Laborda, Francisco; Garrido, Fernando


    Scorodite-rich wastes left as a legacy of mining and smelting operations pose a threat to environmental health. Colloids formed by the weathering of processing wastes may control the release of arsenic (As) into surface waters. At a former mine site in Madrid (Spain), we investigated the mobilization of colloidal As by surface runoff from weathered processing wastes and from sediments in the bed of a draining creek and a downstream sedimentation-pond. Colloids mobilized by surface runoff during simulated rain events were characterized for their composition, structure and mode of As uptake using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively plasma mass spectrometry (AF4-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the As and Fe K-edges. Colloidal scorodite mobilized in surface runoff from the waste pile is acting as a mobile As carrier. In surface runoff from the river bed and the sedimentation pond, ferrihydrite was identified as the dominant As-bearing colloidal phase. The results from this study suggest that mobilization of As-bearing colloids by surface runoff may play an important role in the dispersion of As from metallurgical wastes deposited above ground and needs to be considered in risk assessment.

  8. How to Reclaim Space?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel


    Space is vital for meaningful learning, yet today’s management education (HE) curricula are characterized by curricular congestion and rush. Students report frenetic learning experiences characterized by overwhelming amounts of content, surface learning, thoughtless sequencing, excessive multitas......Space is vital for meaningful learning, yet today’s management education (HE) curricula are characterized by curricular congestion and rush. Students report frenetic learning experiences characterized by overwhelming amounts of content, surface learning, thoughtless sequencing, excessive...... multitasking and very little autonomy. So far, very little attention has been paid to this problem in responsible management education scholarship. So far, we know little about how to build productive learning spaces into curricula. Inspired by the Japanese concept of ma, meaning ‘inbetweenness’, ‘interval......’, ‘negative’ or ‘empty space’ between temporal and spatial things or events, I propose that we rethink curricula as three-dimensional artefacts comprising structures, content and space. Together, these three dimensions produce aesthetic experiences in students that impact learning. The article outlines...

  9. Investigation into sources of fipronil in surface water and identification of a novel fipronil metabolite in reclaimed wastewater (Carolinas SETAC 2015 presentation) (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenyl pyrazole insecticide used to control termites, fleas, roaches, ants, and otherpests in residential and agricultural settings. Fipronil has been found in various environmentalmedia (surface water, wastewater, indoor and outdoor dust, etc) and is known to under...

  10. Studying surface movements in working bed Sloistiy-II at the Anadyrskaya mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenbaum, M.A.; Gromov, Yu.V.; Shatrov, V.F.


    Results are presented of observations of surface movement during working of the bed SloistiyII in the field of the Anadyrskaya mine by mechanized complex KM-81 E. It is shown that simultaneously with collapse of the main roofing, the entire rock mass subsides to the earth's surface with the formation on it of cave-ins and rupture fractures. For the first time for conditions of permafrost, values are defined for the initial parameters and angles of advance which should be used in solving different types of geochemical problems.

  11. Lunar surface mining for automated acquisition of helium-3: Methods, processes, and equipment (United States)

    Li, Y. T.; Wittenberg, L. J.


    In this paper, several techniques considered for mining and processing the regolith on the lunar surface are presented. These techniques have been proposed and evaluated based primarily on the following criteria: (1) mining operations should be relatively simple; (2) procedures of mineral processing should be few and relatively easy; (3) transferring tonnages of regolith on the Moon should be minimized; (4) operations outside the lunar base should be readily automated; (5) all equipment should be maintainable; and (6) economic benefit should be sufficient for commercial exploitation. The economic benefits are not addressed in this paper; however, the energy benefits have been estimated to be between 250 and 350 times the mining energy. A mobile mining scheme is proposed that meets most of the mining objectives. This concept uses a bucket-wheel excavator for excavating the regolith, several mechanical electrostatic separators for beneficiation of the regolith, a fast-moving fluidized bed reactor to heat the particles, and a palladium diffuser to separate H2 from the other solar wind gases. At the final stage of the miner, the regolith 'tailings' are deposited directly into the ditch behind the miner and cylinders of the valuable solar wind gases are transported to a central gas processing facility. During the production of He-3, large quantities of valuable H2, H2O, CO, CO2, and N2 are produced for utilization at the lunar base. For larger production of He-3 the utilization of multiple-miners is recommended rather than increasing their size. Multiple miners permit operations at more sites and provide redundancy in case of equipment failure.

  12. The Problem of Multiple Criteria Selection of the Surface Mining Haul Trucks (United States)

    Bodziony, Przemysław; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Sawicki, Piotr


    Vehicle transport is a dominant type of technological processes in rock mines, and its profit ability is strictly dependent on overall cost of its exploitation, especially on diesel oil consumption. Thus, a rational design of transportation system based on haul trucks should result from thorough analysis of technical and economic issues, including both cost of purchase and its further exploitation, having a crucial impact on the cost of minerals extraction. Moreover, off-highway trucks should be selected with respect to all specific exploitation conditions and even the user's preferences and experience. In this paper a development of universal family of evaluation criteria as well as application of evaluation method for haul truck selection process for a specific exploitation conditions in surface mining have been carried out. The methodology presented in the paper is based on the principles of multiple criteria decision aiding (MCDA) using one of the ranking method, i.e. ELECTRE III. The applied methodology has been allowed for ranking of alternative solution (variants), on the considered set of haul trucks. The result of the research is a universal methodology, and it consequently may be applied in other surface mines with similar exploitation parametres.

  13. Solution of the capacity increase of the waste dump at the Merkur surface mine in Czechoslovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musil, P.


    The methods used in the past for backfilling the large dump at the Merkur surface mine have, due to an ignorance of the factors influencing dump stability, resulted in significant capacity reductions of the dump. This ignorance was the result of insufficient knowledge, research, and poor practice at the operation. Recent re-evaluation of the actual stability conditions has led to a solution which permits an increase in the dump capacity, such that it is compatible with future mining plans. By considering the structure of the soils being used as backfill, specific technological processes are being defined which enable the preservation of the highest possible shear strength of the clayey soils, and thereby maximize the utilization of the internal capacity with at least short term stability. Questions regarding the behaviour and properties of the loose clayey material are also being answered, and new methods of stability calculation for the high dump are being developed. The key to these solutions has been the knowledge gained regarding the shear strength of the loose clayey material under various effective stress conditions, while realizing that three different zones can exist simultaneously within the body of the dump: the slope areas (having the greatest failure-inducing stress), the temporary areas (having a somewhat lower applied stress), and the dump core (where the tendency to fail is nearly zero). Through a sound application of this knowledge, the capacity of the waste dump at the large Merkur surface mine has been adequately expanded for the future.

  14. Optimum crushing level of blasted rock at the Prokop'evsk surface coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemba, V.I.; Starkov, V.L.; Ustyuzhanin, V.S.


    Explains that improving the quality of rock crushing using blasting energy increases the efficiency of excavators and other mining equipment, reduces the energy required for scooping and loading tasks and hence reduces the cost of excavating and transporting rock. Investigations performed in surface mines in the Southern Urals and the Kuzbass coal sections showed that changing the mean linear dimensions of the lumps of blasted rock from 0.2 to 0.8 m increased the power consumption of a EhKG-4,6 excavator from 0.12 to 0.3 kWh/m/sup 3/ and that of loading from 0.1 to 1.56 kWh/m/sup 3/. Uses actual values for the efficiency and costs of blasting, excavation and transporting operations (presented in tabular form) as the basis for a comparative evaluation with the aim of determining how to achieve maximum cost-efficiency and, taking all factors into account, calculates that for the Prokop'evsk surface mine the optimum lump size is 0.4 m.

  15. Final Comparison of TM and MSS Data for Surface Mine Assessment in Logan County, West Virginia (United States)

    Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. M.


    A variety of classifications during both raw and transformed MSS and TM data sets from 4 September 1982 were performed for the Logan County, West Virginia study area. The object was to compare the utility of TM and MSS data for delineating small, irregular ground features, particularly surface mines, and also to test data reduction/transformation techniques (band selection, canonical analysis, and principal components) in relation to a traditional means of unsupervised classification. Statistical results demonstrate that, on the average, the TM classifications yielded an overall .53 factor of improvement relative to the MSS classifications. When the accuracies for only three minor (in terms of areal extent) land use categories are examined, the factor of improvement for TM over MSS increases to 1.48; i.e., the TM is nearly one and one-half times better than the MSS for delineating small and irregular ground features such as contour strip mines.

  16. An assessment of microbial communities associated with surface mining-disturbed overburden. (United States)

    Poncelet, Dominique M; Cavender, Nicole; Cutright, Teresa J; Senko, John M


    To assess the microbiological changes that occur during the maturation of overburden that has been disturbed by surface mining of coal, a surface mining-disturbed overburden unit in southeastern Ohio, USA was characterized. Overburden from the same unit that had been disturbed for 37 and 16 years were compared to undisturbed soil from the same region. Overburden and soil samples were collected as shallow subsurface cores from each subregion of the mined area (i.e., land 16 years and 37 years post-mining, and unmined land). Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of overburden samples were determined, as were microbial respiration rates. The composition of microbial communities associated with overburden and soil were determined using culture-independent, nucleic acid-based approaches. Chemical and mineralogical evaluation of overburden suggested that weathering of disturbed overburden gave rise to a setting with lower pH and more oxidized chemical constituents. Overburden-associated microbial biomass and respiration rates increased with time after overburden disturbance. Evaluation of 16S rRNA gene libraries that were produced by "next-generation" sequencing technology revealed that recently disturbed overburden contained an abundance of phylotypes attributable to sulfur-oxidizing Limnobacter spp., but with increasing time post-disturbance, overburden-associated microbial communities developed a structure similar to that of undisturbed soil, but retained characteristics of more recently disturbed overburden. Our results indicate that over time, the biogeochemical weathering of disturbed overburden leads to the development of geochemical conditions and microbial communities that approximate those of undisturbed soil, but that this transition is incomplete after 37 years of overburden maturation.

  17. Mineral exploitation by surface mining and environmental restoration. Explotacion minera a cielo abierto y restauracion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The subject of environmental restoration of zones affected by the opencast exploitation of coal, is one of the most interesting for mineral zones since at the end of the industrial process the reclaimed land is appropriate for subsequent use. In all, HUNOSA has restored more than 1000 Ha of pasture. 1 fig.

  18. Landuse change detection in a surface coal mine area using multi-temporal high resolution satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, N.; Duzgun, S.; Kemal Emil, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering


    Changes in the landcover and landuse of a mine area can be caused by surface mining activities, exploitation of ore and stripping and dumping overburden. In order to identify the long-term impacts of mining on the environment and land cover, these changes must be continuously monitored. A facility to regularly observe the progress of surface mining and reclamation is important for effective enforcement of mining and environmental regulations. Remote sensing provides a powerful tool to obtain rigorous data and reduce the need for time-consuming and expensive field measurements. The purpose of this study was to conduct post classification change detection for identifying, quantifying, and analyzing the spatial response of landscape due to surface lignite coal mining activities in Goynuk, Bolu, Turkey, from 2004 to 2008. The paper presented the research algorithm which involved acquiring multi temporal high resolution satellite data; preprocessing the data; performing image classification using maximum likelihood classification algorithm and performing accuracy assessment on the classification results; performing post classification change detection algorithm; and analyzing the results. Specifically, the paper discussed the study area, data and methodology, and image preprocessing using radiometric correction. Image classification and change detection were also discussed. It was concluded that the mine and dump area decreased by 192.5 ha from 2004 to 2008 and was caused by the diminishing reserves in the area and decline in the required production. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Effect of combined application of microbial inoculum and fertilizer on white clover growth in reclaimed mine soil%菌剂与肥料配施对矿区复垦土壤白三叶草生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 郜春花; 卢朝东; 张强; 靳东升; 范继香


    采用盆栽试验研究了矿区复垦土壤菌剂与肥料的不同配施对白三叶草(Trifolium repens Linn)生长的影响.结果表明:双接种VA菌根真菌(Glomus mossea)和根瘤菌(Rhizobium)能显著提高白三叶草根瘤数、根瘤鲜重和固氮酶活性,根瘤数在有机肥双接种与无机肥双接种处理之间差异不显著,而根瘤鲜重和固氮酶活性差异显著;肥料与各菌剂组合处理中,有机肥双接种处理的白三叶草分枝数、干物质重最大;在白三叶草生长40 d和150 d时,双接种处理的叶片数均为各处理中最大值;接种VA菌根真菌、根瘤菌和双接种均可增加白三叶草根系的菌根侵染率和土壤孢子数,总体表现为双接种处理>接种VA菌根真菌>接种根瘤菌,有机肥相应处理>无机肥相应处理>对照;肥料与菌剂的配合施用可有效提高植物对土壤氮、磷、钾养分的吸收.在矿区复垦土壤上有机肥与VA菌根真菌和根瘤菌菌剂配施能显著促进白三叶草的生长,是提高矿区复垦土壤植被恢复中比较适宜的组合方式.%The effect of combined application of microbial inoculum and fertilizer on growth of white clover in reclaimed mine soils were investigated in a pot experiment.Under dual inoculation of Glomus mossea and Rhizobium treatment, the number of nodules, nodule fresh weight and nitrogenase activity in white clover increased significantly.For white clovers treated with either dual inoculation of G.mossea and Rhizobium with organic mature or inorganic fertilizer, no significant difference existed in the number of nodules.However, there were significant differences in nodule weight and nitrogenase activity.Both branch number and dry biomass of white clovers were maximum for dual inoculation of G.mossea and Rhizobium with organic mature in all treatments.Leaf number of white clovers was highest for the dual inoculation of G.mossea and Rhizobium on the 40th and 150th days of growth

  20. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations. (United States)


    ... mining sites and mining operations vary widely with respect to topography, climate, surrounding land uses, proximity to densely used areas, and other environmental influences and that mining and reclamation...

  1. Experimental Study on the Heavy Metal Pollution in the Soil Irrigated by Reclaimed Water from Sewage Treatment Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing; YAN; Gang; LUO; Jian; CAO; Jiawen; XU; Shuang; WANG; Weihai; YE; Yicheng; LIANG


    Reclaimed water irrigation is one of the potential ways of solving the shortage of water resources,and the pollution risk on migration behavior of heavy metals in the soil which are irrigated by reclaimed water and the related soil surface is still short of research. Through the experimental study of different kinds of water irrigation methods on vegetable,it can be concluded that compared with sewage irrigation and tap water irrigation,reclaimed water irrigation does not pollute the soil,and it greatly saves the cost of water resources,and even provides a large number of growth elements for vegetables. The results show that after leaching by reclaimed water for 60 days,Cr,Cd,As,Hg,Pb,Ni,Zn and Cu from reclaimed water are enriched in soil to a certain degree,but with the leaching time extending,concentrations of the heavy metal remain stable. The variation of heavy metal content in soil irrigated by reclaimed water is small in vertical depth,basically showing a horizontal trend. According to Soil Environmental Quality Standards( GB15618- 1995),soil irrigated by reclaimed water does not exceed the standard,better than soil quality standard of planting vegetables.

  2. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations. (United States)


    ... mining operations vary widely with respect to topography, climate, surrounding land uses, proximity to densely used areas, and other environmental influences and that mining and reclamation requirements should...

  3. Surface subsidence induced by the Crandall Mine (Utah) collapse: InSAR observations and anelastic modeling (United States)

    Plattner, C.; Wdowinski, S.; Dixon, T. H.; Govers, R. M.


    The Crandall Mine collapsed in August 2007 and resulted in the death of 6 miners. The collapse induced surface subsidence visible by satellite geodesy. We processed data from ALOS satellite acquired before and after the collapse to quantify the subsidence and infer the deformation at depth. Our InSAR results show a localized oval shaped (1000 x 500 m2) pattern of subsidence with a maximum vertical displacement of 29 cm. Profiles across the subsided area show a steep V-shaped pattern. We first model the collapse using an elastic halfspace model. However, we find poor agreement between the elastic model solution and the InSAR observations, mainly because the elastic solution is characterized by a broad subsidence pattern, as elasticity does not explain localized strain. To overcome this limitation, we investigated analytical models that consider strain localization due to material failure. Here, we apply a model predicting surface settlement from tunneling (Loganathan and Poulos, 1998). This model uses the internal friction angle to define the maximum width of the subsidence area. To account for the flat shape of the collapse strata, we modify the model by changing its geometry from circular shape to elliptical (500 x 2.4 m). Our results show a very good fit in terms of the subsidence pattern, in particular the localization of the subsidence. We found that the surface subsidence was caused by a 7.7% collapse of the mine elliptical shaped mine. Although our simple model does not explain all the observed features, we find it more suitable than elastic halfspace models to explain the localized deformation pattern.

  4. The potential for using wildflower species to increase natural habitat in contour surface mine reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, J.R.; Sabre, M.; Cairns, J. Jr. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Holl, K.D. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)


    While non-native herbaceous species are commonly used for mine reclamation, these species have low wildlife and aesthetic value and may inhibit long-term succession. The goal of this study was to determine the suitability of wildflowers for surface mine reclamation in the Appalachian mountains. A seed mixture composed of native and naturalized wildflower species was compared to the standard revegetation mixture by testing greenhouse germination rates of all species in both mine spoils and potting soil and establishing field plots at reclamation sites in southwestern Virginia. In May 1993, two 9-m{sup 2} (97-ft{sup 2}) plots were seeded with each revegetation mixture on four slopes with different aspects. Vegetation cover and composition were recorded in all plots during the 1993 and 1994 field seasons. Wildflower species had germination rates ranging from 0-52%. In field studies, all but 2 of the 14 species of wildflowers seeded became established in study plots, while only 4 of the 8 species in the standard mixture were recorded. Cover was highly variable among plots on different aspects seeded with the same mixture. In most cases, total vegetative cover did not differ significantly between plots seeded with different mixtures. Some native and naturalized wildflower species appear to have potential for use in mine reclamation and could be included with standard revegetation mixtures in order to provide more native diversity. However, further research is necessary due to a number of factors confounding these results, including the low seeding rates used, drought conditions during the 1993 field season, and problems with regrowth of previous vegetation.

  5. Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization upon Surface Water Quality: A Pilot Study of Panzhihua Mining Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanguo Teng; Jie Yang; Rui Zuo; Jinsheng Wang


    In order to investigate the impact of urbanization and industrialization on surface water quality,a pilot study of Panzhihua (攀枝花) mining town was carried out.The urbanization of Panzhihua region was dominated by industry development and population growth.The level of urbanization showed that it was 18.44% in 1965,and reached 45.99% in 1983.Then,it reached 53.71% in 2005,so the urbanization process was very rapid in Panzhihua region.In the process of industrialization,the level of industrialization was fluctuated at around 70% from 1965 to 2005,which was influenced by mining,extracting,and smelting production.In the processes of urbanization,population growth caused an increase in life pollution sources,and an amount of effluents bearing coliform,COD (chemical oxygen demand),NH4+-N,and BOD5 (five-day biological oxygen demand) were released into Jinsha (金沙) River,which could cause decline in the surface water quality.While in the processes of industrialization (especially industrial scale expansion),more effluent bearing heavy metals could cause degradation of surface water quality.Thus,the measures,such as adjusting industry structure,optimizing the cleaning technology,and controlling pollution sources,should be enhanced to alleviate the current state of water quality exacerbation.

  6. Effect of coal mine dust and clay extracts on the biological activity of the quartz surface. (United States)

    Stone, V; Jones, R; Rollo, K; Duffin, R; Donaldson, K; Brown, D M


    Modification of the quartz surface by aluminium salts and metallic iron have been shown to reduce the biological activity of quartz. This study aimed to investigate the ability of water soluble extracts of coal mine dust (CMD), low aluminium clays (hectorite and montmorillonite) and high aluminium clays (attapulgite and kaolin) to inhibit the reactivity of the quartz surface. DQ12 induced significant haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes in vitro and inflammation in vivo as indicated by increases in the total cell numbers, neutrophil cell numbers, MIP-2 protein and albumin content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Treatment of DQ12 with CMD extract prevented both haemolysis and inflammation. Extracts of the high aluminium clays (kaolin and attapulgite) prevented inhibition of DQ12 induced haemolysis, and the kaolin extract inhibited quartz driven inflammation. DQ12 induced haemolysis by coal mine dust and kaolin extract could be prevented by pre-treatment of the extracts with a cation chellator. Extracts of the low aluminium clays (montmorillonite and hectorite) did not prevent DQ12 induced haemolysis, although the hectorite extract did prevent inflammation. These results suggest that CMD, and clays both low and rich in aluminium, all contain soluble components (possibly cations) capable of masking the reactivity of the quartz surface.

  7. Diagnostic measurements on the great machines conditions of lignite surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helebrant, F.; Jurman, J.; Fries, J. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)


    An analysis of the diagnosis of loading and service dependability of a rail-mounted excavator used in surface lignite mining is described. Wheel power vibrations in electric motor bearings and electric motor input bearings to the gearbox were measured in situ, in horizontal, vertical, and axial directions. The data were analyzed using a mathematical relationship. The results are presented in a loading diagram that shows the deterioration and the acceptable lower bound of machine conditions over time. Work is continuing. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  8. LUCC of large opencast mines in loess area during ecological restoration: a case study of Pingshuo Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qianjin; Bai Zhongke; Hao Jinmin; Zhou Xiao


    Taking Pingshuo mine as an example, this paper studies land use, cover change in the process of reclaiming in mine area in the methods of survey in fixed places, indoor analysis, investigation and verification of history data. The results show that as a special land-use form, LUCC is drastic. The change of LUCC in the process that the landform is being restructured is reflected by the change of altitude, slope exposure, slope gradient, slope patterns and specific surface area; the change of LUCC in the process that the soil is being restructured is reflected by the change of soil physical character, chemical character, biological character and erosion character, and the change of LUCC in the process that vegetation is being restructured is reflected by the increase of 91 artificial vegetations and the intrusive growth of 95 wild species.

  9. [Soil organic carbon storage changes with land reclamation under vegetation reconstruction on opencast coal mine dump]. (United States)

    Li, Jun-Chao; Dang, Ting-Hui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Xue, Jiang; Tang, Jun


    Vegetation reconstruction was an effective solution to reclaim the opencast coal mine dump which was formed in the process of mining. To understand the impact of the vegetation reconstruction patterns' on the mine soil organic carbon (SOC) storage was essential for selecting the methods of vegetation restoration and also important for accurately estimating the potential of the soil carbon sequestration. The study area was on the Heidaigou opencast coal mine, which was 15 years reclaimed coal mine dump in Zhungeer, Inner Mongolia autonomous region, we selected 5 vegetation reconstruction patterns (natural recovery land, grassland, bush land, mixed woodland of arbor and bush, arbor land), and 16 vegetation types, 408 soil samples (0-100 m), to study the effect of the vegetation reconstruction patterns on the SOC storage. The results were showed as follows: (1) on the reclaimed coal mine dump, the vegetation reconstruction patterns significantly affected the SOC content and its distribution in the soil profile (P shrub land > arbor forest > mixed forest of arbor and shrub > natural recovery land, in which the grassland, shrub land and arbor forest were about 2.2, 1.3, and 1.3 times of natural recovery land (2.14 g · kg(-1)) respectively. The total nitrogen (TN) showed the similar trends. (2) Among the vegetation types, Medicago sativa had the highest surface SOC content (5.71 g · kg(-1)) and TN content (0.49 g · kg(-1)), that were 171.3% and 166.7% higher than the natural recovery land, and two times of Hippophae rhamnoides, Amorpha fruticosa + Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. (3) The effect of vegetation types on SOC mainly concentrated in the 0-20 cm depth, and the effect on TN accounted for 40 cm. (4) For the SOC storage, the order was original landform area > reclaimed dump > new dump and grassland > woodland (including arbor and shrub land). After 15 years revegetation, the soil carbon storage of the grassland, shrub land and arbor land were

  10. Strip mine reclamation: criteria and methods for measurement of revegetation success. Progress report, April 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrel, J.E.; Kucera, C.L.; Johannsen, C.J.; Blanchar, R.W.


    During this contract period research was continued at finding suitable methods and criteria for determining the success of revegetation in Midwestern prime ag lands strip mined for coal. Particularly important to the experimental design was the concept of reference areas, which were nearby fields from which the performance standards for reclaimed areas were derived. Direct and remote sensing techniques for measuring plant ground cover, production, and species composition were tested. 15 mine sites were worked in which were permitted under interim permanent surface mine regulations and in 4 adjoining reference sites. Studies at 9 prelaw sites were continued. All sites were either in Missouri or Illinois. Data gathered in the 1980 growing season showed that 13 unmanaged or young mineland pastures generally had lower average ground cover and production than 2 reference pastures. In contrast, yields at approximately 40% of 11 recently reclaimed mine sites planted with winter wheat, soybeans, or milo were statistically similar to 3 reference values. Digital computer image analysis of color infrared aerial photographs, when compared to ground level measurements, was a fast, accurate, and inexpensive way to determine plant ground cover and areas. But the remote sensing approach was inferior to standard surface methods for detailing plant species abundance and composition.

  11. Humans reclaimed lands in NorthEastern Italy and artificial drainage networks: effects of 30 years of Agricultural Surface Water Management (United States)

    Sofia, Giulia; Pizzulli, Federica; Tarolli, Paolo


    Agriculture and land-use management has changed drastically in Italy since the end of the Second World War, driven by local but also European agricultural policies. As a result of these changes in farming practices and land use, many drainage networks have changed producing a greater exposure to flooding with a broad range of impacts on society, also because of climate inputs coupling with the human drivers. This study focuses on two main points: which kind of land use and farming changes have been observed in the most recent years ( 30 years)? How do these changes interact with climate and soil conditions? An open challenge to understand how these changes influence the watershed response, is, in fact, to understand if rainfall characteristics and climate have a synergistic effect, if their interaction matters, or to understand what element has the greatest influence on the watershed response connected to agricultural changes. The work is based on a simple model of water infiltration due to soil properties, and a connected evaluation of the distributed surface water storage offered by artificial drainage networks in a study area in Veneto (north-eastern Italy). The analysis shows that economic changes control the development of agro-industrial landscapes, with effects on the hydrological response. However, these changes deeply interact with antecedent soil conditions and climate characteristics. Intense and irregular rainfall events and events with a high recurrence should be expected to be the most critical. The presented outcomes highlight the importance of understanding how agricultural practices can be the driver of or can be used to avoid, or at least mitigate, flooding. The proposed methods can be valuable tools in evaluating the costs and benefits of the management of water in agriculture to inform better policy decision-making. References Sofia G, Tarolli P. 2017. Hydrological Response to 30 years of Agricultural Surface Water Management. Land 6 (1): 3 DOI

  12. Impact of mining residues on surface and groundwater quality. Case of the mining sector of Azzaba in the North-East of Algeria (United States)

    Haouli, Zouina; Kherici, Nacer; Derdous, Oussama; Sassane, Amina; Bougherira, Nabil


    Azzaba region contains a mining sector that was created in 1971 and operated until 2006, during this period huge quantities of mining residues were released in nature without any environmental rehabilitation plan which certainly deteriorated surface and groundwater quality by trace metals menacing the people's health as well as the aquatic ecosystems in this zone. The purpose of this study is to illustrate and to assess the surface and groundwater pollution toward heavy metals at the vicinity of the abandoned mining site. The primary analysis aimed to evaluate the pollution due to mercury in the region after many years of the closure of the mining industry to compare it with evaluations made during its operational period. In addition, further analyses of water pollution toward heavy metals usually used in the mercury industry (iron, zinc and copper) and probably released in the Fendek Wadi were conducted. These analyses allowed characterizing the ecological state of the studied environment by highlighting the concentrations of trace elements (mercury, iron, zinc, copper). According to the analyses, most of these concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO) standards; in fact only iron concentration exceeds them at the stations P7 and P8. Finally, the study results were compared by those obtained by previous studies; it was found that the mercury concentration has decreased with time which means that the contamination danger is disappearing.

  13. Mining soil phosphorus by zero P-application: an effective method to reduce the risk of P loading to surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, van der C.; Chardon, W.J.; Koopmans, G.F.


    This study aims to find field evidence for the effectiveness of P-mining to reduce the risk of P leaching to surface water. In 2002, a P-mining was conducted on four grassland sites in the Netherlands on sand (two sites), peat and clay soils. The mining plots received no P and an annual N surplus of

  14. Biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in surface mine spoil restoration stands in Poland – first time recorded, rare, and red-listed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Lidia Kałucka


    Full Text Available Results of mycological research conducted in the years 2001–2013 in the restoration stands growing on reclaimed mine spoils are presented. Four opencast lignite mine spoil heaps in Poland were examined: Pątnów-Jóźwin, Adamów, Mt Kamieńsk, and Turów. The paper focuses on 71 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi: recorded for the first time in the country (16 taxa, currently red-listed (23 taxa, known from few localities only (32 taxa. Notes on their ecology and habitats are provided, as well as their distribution in Europe and in Poland. Restoration tree stands, established as part of the reclamation process of mine spoils, form a unique habitat for many rare and interesting fungal taxa. Among them are pioneer species, species known mainly from Northern Europe or mountainous locations, highly specialized and narrow-niche taxa, and many threatened species. Afforested mine spoils contribute significantly to the fungal biodiversity, both at a local and at a larger scale.

  15. 中国高潜水位沉陷区采煤废弃物复垦农田的土壤特征%Soil properties in reclaimed farmland by filling subsidence basin due to underground coal mining with mineral wastes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程伟; 卞正富; 董霁红; 雷少刚


    为了研究充填介质对中国东部高潜水位采煤塌陷区复垦土壤特征的影响,对采用煤矸石或粉煤灰作为充填介质形成的复垦土壤化学和微生物指标进行分析。结果表明,充填介质粉煤灰的存在能显著提高复垦土壤中pH值和含水率;在0~10 cm、10~20 cm、20~50 cm土壤层,采用粉煤灰形成的复垦土壤 MBC、MBN、MBC/TOC的比率高于采用煤矸石形成的复垦土壤;采用煤矸石作为充填介质形成的复垦土壤中,重金属As和Cr含量、土壤微生物碳氮比、呼吸熵等高于对照土壤和粉煤灰充填形成的复垦土壤;主成分分析表明,充填土壤中重金属含量、土壤微生物量和土壤酶活性能代表大部分复垦土壤特征。%Reclaimed mining-induced subsidence area soils (RMSs) could restore soil quality and crop productivity in coal mining area. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mineral-processing wastes (fly ash vs coal gangue) as backfill substrates on soil chemical and microbial properties in mining-induced subsidence area. A general higher water holding capacity (WHC) and pH had been observed in fly ash than coal gangue reconstructed soil. Soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), MBC/TOC (total organic carbon) ratio (qmic) were higher under the influence of the fly ash, while contents of As, Cr, C/Nbio, the basal respiration per unit of microbial biomass (QCO2) were higher under the coal gangue reconstructed mode in 0-10, 10-20, 20-50 cm layers. The microbial basal respiration was higher in 0-10, 10-20, 0-50 cm layers, while was lower in 20-50 cm layer under fly ash than that of coal gangue reconstructed mode. The lower QCO2 of fly ash mine soil suggested the lower maintenance energy requirement of the microbial community. Moreover, the contents of metals may possibly have negative implications for soil microbial and enzyme activities in reconstructed soil.

  16. Assessment of mercury erosion by surface water in Wanshan mercury mining area. (United States)

    Dai, ZhiHui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Shang, Lihai; Qiu, Guangle


    Soil erosion is a main cause of land degradation, and in its accelerated form is also one of the most serious ecological environmental problems. Moreover, there are few studies on migration of mercury (Hg) induced by soil erosion in seriously Hg-polluted districts. This paper selected Wanshan Hg mining area, SW China as the study area. Revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and Geographic information system (GIS) methods were applied to calculate soil and Hg erosion and to classify soil erosion intensity. Our results show that the soil erosion rate can reach up to 600,884tkm(-2)yr(-1). Surfaces associated with very slight and extremely severe erosion include 76.6% of the entire land in Wanshan. Furthermore, the cumulative erosion rates in the area impacted by extremely severe erosion make up 90.5% of the total. On an annual basis, Hg surface erosion load was predicted to be 505kgyr(-1) and the corresponding mean migration flux of Hg was estimated to be 3.02kgkm(-2)yr(-1). The erosion loads of Hg resulting from farmland and meadow soil were 175 and 319kgyr(-1) respectively, which were enhanced compared to other landscape types due to the fact that they are generally located in the steep zones associated with significant reclamation. Contributing to establish a mass balance of Hg in Wanshan Hg mining area, this study supplies a dependable scientific basis for controlling soil and water erosion in the local ecosystems. Land use change is the most effective way for reducing Hg erosion load in Wanshan mining area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Thirteen-year hardwood tree performance on a Midwest surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, W.C.; Kolar, C.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology


    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa Michx.), and pin oak (Q. palustris Muenchh.) seedlings were planted both fall 1980 and spring 1981 on mixed overburden strip-mining banks (ungraded), mixed overburden graded to approximate original contour (AOC) (graded), mixed overburden graded to AOC wit h 60 cm of replaced pre-mining surface soil materials (topsoil), and on old fields near the strip-mine (unmined). Black walnut and pin oak were also planted as seed, with a total of 6000 seedlings/seed spots in the study. Initial species field viability ranged from 86 to 100%. With one exception, after 3 growing seasons oak seedlings had 50% or greater survival. Survival was mostly lower after 3 years with some additional mortality by years 8 and 13. Height and diameter breast height were measured after 13 years. Survival and growth of trees planted fall or spring was similar overall with variable performance by species. Seedlings of several species on the ungraded site had over 50% survival after 13 years, with fewer trees where planted as seed. Mean height of all species combined was significantly greater on the ungraded than on any other site and was lowest on the topsoil site. The unmined sites had high variability in species survival and height. Better reclamation with trees resulted from a deep, well-drained rooting medium with minimal compaction and a mineral-rich surface soil including coarse fragments over 2 mm in size for long-term productivity.

  18. Mine spoil prairies expand critical habitat for endangered and threatened amphibian and reptile species (United States)

    Lannoo, Michael J.; Kinney, Vanessa C.; Heemeyer, Jennifer L.; Engbrecht, Nathan J.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Klaver, Robert W.


    Coal extraction has been occurring in the Midwestern United States for over a century. Despite the pre-mining history of the landscape as woodlands, spent surface coalfields are often reclaimed to grasslands. We assessed amphibian and reptile species on a large tract of coal spoil prairie and found 13 species of amphibians (nine frog and four salamander species) and 19 species of reptiles (one lizard, five turtle, and 13 snake species). Two state-endangered and three state species of special concern were documented. The amphibian diversity at our study site was comparable to the diversity found at a large restored prairie situated 175 km north, within the historic prairie peninsula.

  19. Construction of the large-scale mining area decision-making support and the synthesis management platform (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Japper, Guli; Wang, Xiaohua


    Because of lacking modern information management and long-term planning, many serious problems, including environment, ecology, production and so forth, are found in Chinese large-scale, mid-scale and small-scale mining areas. GIS (Geographic Information System) can efficiently show its vital energies in problem solving, and which mainly depends on its powerful spatial analysis, decision-making and mass data storage and management ability. In this paper, we take large-scale mining area as an example to study GIS decision-making support, synthesis management platform applied mining area. According to characteristics of the large-scale mining area, we put forward a plan for GIS platform of information management and long-term planning of mining area: the platform is divided into decision support subsystem and the community synthesis management subsystem. The former includes following items: (1) Site selection, which is mainly for site selection of industrial production, commercial run and residential area; (2) Monitoring of reclaimed land and ecology, which is mainly for destructed field surface and subsurface of the mining area because of coal mining; (3) The synthesis management system of green mining, mainly for safety, efficiency and environment protection. The later, community synthesis management subsystem mainly includes: the community synthesis information subsystem and the public urgent predetermined planning subsystem. At last, some problems and shortages are analyzed in the system construction of the large-scale mining area.

  20. The Influence of Surface Coal Mining on Runoff Processes and Stream Chemistry in the Elk Valley, British Colubmbia, Canada (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Wellen, C. C.; Shatilla, N. J.


    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock, thereby allowing access to mineable ore. Following this, the removed overburden rock is deposited in adjacent valleys as waste rock spoils. Previous research has identified that areas downstream of surface coal mining have impaired water quality, yet there is limited information about the interaction of hydrology and geochemistry across a range of mining conditions, particularly at the headwater scale. Here, we provide an analysis of an extensive long-term data set of geochemistry and flows across a gradient of coal mining in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. This work is part of a broader R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that water from waste rock piles has an ionic profile distinct from unimpacted catchments. While the concentration of geochemicals increased with the degree of mine impact, the control of hydrological transport capacity over geochemical export did not vary with degree of mine impact. Geochemical export in mine-influenced catchments was limited more strongly by transport capacity than supply, implying that more water moving through the waste rock mobilized more geochemicals. Placement of waste rock within the catchment (headwaters or outlet) did not affect chemical concentrations but did alter the timing with which chemically distinct water mixed. This work advances on results reported earlier using empirical models of selenium loading and further highlights the importance of limiting water inputs into waste rock piles.

  1. Fertilidade de solos construídos em áreas de mineração de carvão na região sul de Santa Catarina Soil fertility of coal mining reclaimed areas in the southern region of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Costa


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar a fertilidade de solos construídos sobre áreas mineradas de carvão a céu aberto (28º35'50'' S e 49º25'26'' W no Município de Siderópolis, SC, foram escolhidas duas áreas recuperadas em épocas distintas: área IV em 2002 e área VI em 2003. No centro de cada área foi estabelecida uma transecção de 100 m de comprimento, em que foram lançadas alternadamente à direita e à esquerda, a intervalos de 10 m, transecções perpendiculares de 20 m, em que foram coletadas nove amostras de solo (0 - 0,2 m. As nove amostras de cada grupo de dois transectos consecutivos foram reunidas em uma amostra composta, reduzindo o universo amostral de 90 para cinco amostras de solo de cada área. Foram analisados os teores de argila, pH, fósforo, potássio, matéria orgânica, alumínio, cálcio, magnésio, H + Al, soma das bases, CTC e saturação por bases. Em ambas as áreas, o teor de argila foi enquadrada na classe 3, o teor de matéria orgânica foi baixa, o pH e V% muito baixos, o Mg variou de médio a alto, a SB variou de baixa a média e a CTC foi considerada alta. Na área IV, o teor de P foi baixo, e o de Ca variou de médio a baixo, enquanto na área VI o teor de P variou de baixo a médio, e o de Ca foi baixo. Embora tenham sido observadas diferenças entre alguns dos parâmetros analisados, essas não foram severamente afetadas pelo tempo de recuperação das duas áreas.With the objective of analyzing the fertility of soils built over open pit coal mining areas (28º35'50'' S e 49º25'26'' W in the city of Siderópolis (SC, two areas of different reclamation ages were selected: area IV and area VI, reclaimed in 2002 and 2003, respectively. A 100m transection was established in the center of each area, where perpendicular 20m transects were tossed at regular intervals of 10m, alternating to the right and to the left, and nine soil samples were collected (0 - 0,2 m. The nine samples of each group of two

  2. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  3. Reclaimed Water Use in Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pino Palacios-Diaz


    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L., a toxic species that does not interfere with the food chain, produces biodiesel of better environmental quality than mineral oils. However, in order to cultivate it sustainably, it is necessary to optimize the limited resources used, mainly water and soil. Therefore, in arid areas, it is necessary to cultivate under intensive conditions, irrigate with reclaimed water and cut production costs. To optimize water consumption, partial root-zone drying (PRD, which keeps a part of the root system dry, was used. This water management strategy, employed successfully in other oil crops, yielded less fruit per bunch, but more fruit bunches per plant. This fact will probably allow to establish higher planting density and, consequently, higher productivity per surface unit. This is one of the few available options for improving profitability as production per tree is stable (1.25 kg seed plant−1 year−1 for the most productive trees, with excellent climate and soil, and no limitations water use. A high percentage of fruit lying on the ground (24% and non-uniform timing in fruit production (except some specimens greatly hinder its mechanization. Although this crop’s environmental and socio-economic benefits are not taken into account, it is very difficult, with only the calculated water consumption (15.5 m3 water per L of oil or 5.6 m3 water per L of oil according to our best estimations, to consider it a profitable option.

  4. A Case Study on the Strata Movement Mechanism and Surface Deformation Regulation in Chengchao Underground Iron Mine (United States)

    Cheng, Guanwen; Chen, Congxin; Ma, Tianhui; Liu, Hongyuan; Tang, Chunan


    The regular pattern of surface deformation and the mechanism of underground strata movement, especially in iron mines constructed with the block caving method, have a great influence on infrastructure on the surface, so they are an important topic for research. Based on the engineering geology conditions and the surface deformation and fracture features in Chengchao Iron Mine, the mechanism of strata movement and the regular pattern of surface deformation in the footwall were studied by the geomechanical method, and the following conclusions can be drawn: I. The surface deformation process is divided into two stages over time, i.e., the chimney caving development stage and the post-chimney deformation stage. Currently, the surface deformation in Chengchao Iron Mine is at the post-chimney deformation stage. II. At the post-chimney deformation stage, the surface deformation and geological hazards in Chengchao Iron Mine are primarily controlled by the NWW-trending joints, with the phenomenon of toppling deformation and failure on the surface. Based on the surface deformation characteristics in Chengchao Iron Mine, the surface deformation area can be divided into the following four zones: the fracture extension zone, the fracture closure zone, the fracture formation zone and the deformation accumulation zone. The zones on the surface can be determined by the surface deformation characteristics. III. The cantilever beams near the chimney caving area, caused by the NWW-trending joints, have been subjected to toppling failure. This causes the different deformation and failure mechanisms in different locations of the deep rock mass. The deep rock can be divided into four zones, i.e., the fracture zone, fracture transition zone, deformation zone and undisturbed zone, according to the different deformation and failure mechanisms. The zones in the deep rock are the reason for the zones on the surface, so they can be determined by the zones on the surface. Through these

  5. Monitoring of the mercury mining site Almadén implementing remote sensing technologies. (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Rico, Celia; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; José Sierra, María; Javier Díaz-Puente, Fco; Pelayo, Marta; Millán, Rocio


    The Almadén area in Spain has a long history of mercury mining with prolonged human-induced activities that are related to mineral extraction and metallurgical processes before the closure of the mines and a more recent post period dominated by projects that reclaim the mine dumps and tailings and recuperating the entire mining area. Furthermore, socio-economic alternatives such as crop cultivation, livestock breeding and tourism are increasing in the area. Up till now, only scattered information on these activities is available from specific studies. However, improved acquisition systems using satellite borne data in the last decades opens up new possibilities to periodically study an area of interest. Therefore, comparing the influence of these activities on the environment and monitoring their impact on the ecosystem vastly improves decision making for the public policy makers to implement appropriate land management measures and control environmental degradation. The objective of this work is to monitor environmental changes affected by human-induced activities within the Almadén area occurring before, during and after the mine closure over a period of nearly three decades. To achieve this, data from numerous sources at different spatial scales and time periods are implemented into a methodology based on advanced remote sensing techniques. This includes field spectroradiometry measurements, laboratory analyses and satellite borne data of different surface covers to detect land cover and use changes throughout the mining area. Finally, monitoring results show that the distribution of areas affected by mercury mining is rapidly diminishing since activities ceased and that rehabilitated mining areas form a new landscape. This refers to mine tailings that have been sealed and revegetated as well as an open pit mine that has been converted to an "artificial" lake surface. Implementing a methodology based on remote sensing techniques that integrate data from

  6. Water resources and effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Hanging Woman Creek basin, southeastern Montana (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.


    Groundwater resources of the Hanging Woman Creek basin, Montana include Holocene and Pleistocene alluvial aquifers and sandstone , coal, and clinker aquifers in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Surface water resources are composed of Hanging Woman Creek, its tributaries, and small stock ponds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater ranged from 200 to 11,00 mg/L. Generally, concentrations were largest in alluvial aquifers and smallest in clinker aquifers. Near its mouth, Hanging Woman Creek had a median concentration of about 1,800 mg/L. Mining of the 20-foot to 35-foot-thick Anderson coal bed and 3-foot to 16-foot thick Dietz coal bed could increase dissolved-solids concentrations in shallow aquifers and in Hanging Woman Creek because of leaching of soluble minerals from mine spoils. Analysis of saturated-paste extracts from 158 overburden samples indicated that water moving through mine spoils would have a median increase in dissolved-solids concentration of about 3,700 mg/L, resulting in an additional dissolved-solids load to Hanging Woman Creek of about 3.0 tons/day. Hanging Woman Creek near Birney could have an annual post-mining dissolved-solids load of 3,415 tons at median discharge, a 47% increase from pre-mining conditions load. Post-mining concentrations of dissolved solids, at median discharge, could range from 2,380 mg/L in March to 3,940 mg/L in August, compared to mean pre-mining concentrations that ranged from 1,700 mg/L in July, November, and December to 2,060 mg/L in May. Post-mining concentrations and loads in Hanging Woman Creek would be smaller if a smaller area were mined. (USGS)

  7. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support (United States)

    Estep, Leland


    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  8. Effects of surface mining on the hydrology and biology in the Stony Fork basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, 1978-85 (United States)

    Williams, D.R.; Ritter, J.R.; Mastrilli, T.M.


    The effects of surface coal mining on the water quality, sediment discharge, and aquatic biology of streams in the Stony Fork Basin in southwestern Pennsylvania were studied from 1978 through 1985. Data were collected at five stream sites and one mine discharge site. Field data included streamflow, temperature, specific conductance, pH, acidity, and alkalinity. Laboratory analyses included sulfate, aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, and selected trace elements. Annual streamflow at gaged sites was not substantially different, suggesting that mining did not affect the total volume of streamflow significantly. Comparisons of sediment yields of the upstream control site (site 5) to the downstream site (site 1) indicated that the sediment yield at site 5 was greatest in 1978, 1981-83, and 1985. The sediment yields at both sites in 1979-80 were about the same. Differences in the drainage area sizes and effective control of sediment in the mined areas may explain the lack of increased sediment yield at the downstream site. As mining became more extensive throughout the basin in 1979-80 and later, several water-quality effects were observed downstream. Generally, specific conductance, sulfate, manganese, aluminum, and zinc increased; pH and alkalinity decreased. Acidity and iron typically increased immediately downstream of mined areas. No trace-element concentrations exceeded maximum contaminant levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Surface mining in the Stony Fork Basin severely affected the stream invertebrate and fish populations. During 1977-84, the number of taxonomic groups of invertebrates at sites affected by mine drainage decreased by 45 to 71 percent; the number of fish species decreased by 81 to 88 percent.

  9. Exploitation technology of pressure relief coalbed methane in vertical surface wells in the Huainan coal mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jia-zhang; SANG Shu-xun; CHENG Zhi-zhong; HUANG Hua-zhou


    Exploitation technology of pressure relief coalbed methane in vertical surface wells is a new method for exploration of gas and coalbed methane exploitation in mining areas with high concentrations of gas, where tectonic coal developed. Studies on vertical surface well technology in the Huainan Coal Mining area play a role in demonstration in the use of clean, new energy re-sources, preventing and reducing coal mine gas accidents and protecting the environment. Based on the practice of gas drainage engineering of pressure relief coalbed methane in vertical surface wells and combined with relative geological and exploration en-gineering theories, the design principles of design and structure of wells of pressure relief coaibed methane in vertical surface wells are studied. The effects of extraction and their causes are discussed and the impact of geological conditions on gas production of the vertical surface wells are analyzed. The results indicate that in mining areas with high concentrations of gas, where tectonic coal developed, a success rate of pressure relief coalbed methane in surface vertical well is high and single well production usually great. But deformation due to coal exploitation could damage boreholes and cause breaks in the connection between aquifers and bore-holes, which could induce a decrease, even a complete halt in gas production of a single well. The design of well site location and wellbore configuration are the key for technology. The development of the geological conditions for coalbed methane have a sig-nificant effect on gas production of coalbed methane wells.

  10. Mining for diagnostic information in body surface potential maps: A comparison of feature selection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullagh Paul J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In body surface potential mapping, increased spatial sampling is used to allow more accurate detection of a cardiac abnormality. Although diagnostically superior to more conventional electrocardiographic techniques, the perceived complexity of the Body Surface Potential Map (BSPM acquisition process has prohibited its acceptance in clinical practice. For this reason there is an interest in striking a compromise between the minimum number of electrocardiographic recording sites required to sample the maximum electrocardiographic information. Methods In the current study, several techniques widely used in the domains of data mining and knowledge discovery have been employed to mine for diagnostic information in 192 lead BSPMs. In particular, the Single Variable Classifier (SVC based filter and Sequential Forward Selection (SFS based wrapper approaches to feature selection have been implemented and evaluated. Using a set of recordings from 116 subjects, the diagnostic ability of subsets of 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 and 32 electrocardiographic recording sites have been evaluated based on their ability to correctly asses the presence or absence of Myocardial Infarction (MI. Results It was observed that the wrapper approach, using sequential forward selection and a 5 nearest neighbour classifier, was capable of choosing a set of 24 recording sites that could correctly classify 82.8% of BSPMs. Although the filter method performed slightly less favourably, the performance was comparable with a classification accuracy of 79.3%. In addition, experiments were conducted to show how (a features chosen using the wrapper approach were specific to the classifier used in the selection model, and (b lead subsets chosen were not necessarily unique. Conclusion It was concluded that both the filter and wrapper approaches adopted were suitable for guiding the choice of recording sites useful for determining the presence of MI. It should be noted however

  11. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department


    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  12. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of articles used in producing, manufacturing,...

  13. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.28 Undetermined... reclaimed fibers” or “undetermined reclaimed fibers,” as for example: 75% Recycled Wool—25% Unknown...

  14. Wildlife habitats provided by aquatic plant communities of surface mine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coss, R.D.; Nawrot, J.R.; Klimstra, W.D.


    Over 6000 ha of water impoundments have resulted from surface mining for coal in Illinois. A study was conducted to characterize aquatic plant communities in selected bodies of water, to evaluate these communities as wildlife habitat, and to determine utilization of vegetation by vertebrates. Study areas included between spoilbank impoundments and final cuts/haulroad incline lakes. All lakes had water quality sufficient to support aquatic plants dominated by Chara and Potamogeton. Littoral zone cover was good throughout the growing season; and remained relatively stable. Emergent plant communities were well-developed at only one lake; cattle grazing and steep shorelines restricted growth at other sites. A total of 89 vertebrate species was identified in and near the lakes studied. Utilization was most probably affected by development of emergent and watershed vegetation, accessibility of aquatic plants, and morphological features of the lakes. Management recommendations for enhancing wildlife habitat included grading to develop topographic variation and extensive littoral areas, and partial exclusion of cattle. Such waters can contribute significantly to available wildlife habitat in certain areas in Illinois, and may, in many instances, be a more desirable post-mining land use than row-crop production. 41 references, 4 figure, 3 table.

  15. Nutrient capital sequestration in pioneer plant communities on surface-mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, G.L.


    Four pioneer plant communities on a surface-mine spoil were compared in terms of biomass production and nutrient capital sequestration. A chenopodium album-dominated community (Treatment 4) produced the greatest amount of biomass. Next were a community derived from a forest topsoil seed bank spread over mine spoil (Treatment 2), a seed bank community with common reclamation species seeded into it (Treatment 3), and a mix of grasses and Lespedeza commonly used in reclamation (Treatment 1). Amounts of nutrients sequestered in vegetation were not strictly proportional to biomass. Community nutrient contents were largely influenced by community biomass and the nutrient uptake characteristics of the species with most biomass. Significant changes in soil chemistry were found after one growing season. Addition of the reclamation mix of grasses and Lespedeza to the seed bank resulted in significantly fewer established native species. Native species lost their normal dominance and exhibited stunted growth and phenological delay in Treatment 3. Nutrient content niche, nutrient content niche share, and niche breadth (Levins; B) were calculated for important species in each community. Native species generally had reduced niche breadths and niche shares when reclamation species were added to the community. Community content niche, the sums of species content niches, varied between different types of pioneer communities.

  16. Conditions for use of APV automatic reclosing units in surface mine distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, V.O.; Polozkov, A.V.; Kotov, V.P.


    Assesses the potential for use of APV automatic reclosing units in 6-10 kV electrical networks for surface mining equipment, with particular reference to Kuzbass conditions (Kemerovougol'association). These units automatically restore power after single phase grounds caused by damage to cables, etc. There are two major problems with APV units: the need to check insulation before restoration of power so as to prevent more serious injury to electrocuted persons, and the danger of asynchronous start-up of synchronous electric motors in which rundown lasts several tens of seconds. The first of these problems can be overcome with the aid of KBU insulation monitoring units. Tests have been performed at VostNII to determine the optimum parameters, with measurements of actual cable insulation resistance at mines. The minimum insulation resistance may be set at about 100 kohm. The second problem requires a no current condition before the APV for as long as 60 s to ensure full rundown of motors. An equation for determining the duration of this condition is given. Field suppression devices should be fitted to synchronous motors.

  17. Data mining approach to evaluating the use of skin surface electropotentials for breast cancer detection. (United States)

    Sree, S Vinitha; Ng, E Y K; Acharya, U Rajendra


    The Biofield Diagnostic System (BDS) uses a score formed with measured skin surface electropotentials and a prior Level Of Suspicion (LOS) value (predicted by the physician based on the patient's ultrasound or mammography results) to calculate a revised Post-BDS LOS to indicate the presence of breast cancer. The demographic details, BDS test results, and the recorded electropotential values form a potentially useful dataset, which can be further explored with data mining tools to extract important information that can be used to improve the current predictive accuracy of the device. According to the proposed data mining framework, the BDS dataset with 291 cases was first pre-processed to remove outliers and then used to select relevant and informative features for classifier development and finally to evaluate the capability of the built classifiers in detecting the presence of the disease. Two popular feature selection techniques, namely, the filter and wrapper methods, were used in parallel for feature selection. A few statistical inference based classifiers and neural networks were used for classification. The proposed technique significantly improved the BDS prediction accuracy. Also, the use of prior LOS and, hence, the Post-BDS LOS, associates a mild subjective interpretation to the current prediction methodology used by BDS. However, the feature subset selected in our analysis that gave the best accuracy did not use either of these features. This result indicates the possibility of using BDS as a better objective assessment tool for breast cancer detection.

  18. Surface Soil Preparetion for Leguminous Plants Growing in Degraded Areas by Mining Located in Amazon Forest-Brazil (United States)

    Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Hashimoto Fengler, Felipe; Araújo de Medeiros, Gerson; Márcia Longo, Regina; Frederici de Mello, Giovanna; José de Melo, Wanderley


    The revegetation of areas degraded by mining usually requires adequate mobilization of surface soil for the development of the species to be implemented. Unlike the traditional tillage, which has periodicity, the mobilization of degraded areas for revegetation can only occur at the beginning of the recovery stage. In this sense, the process of revegetation has as purpose the establishment of local native vegetation with least possible use of inputs and superficial tillage in order to catalyze the process of natural ecological succession, promoting the reintegration of areas and minimizing the negative impacts of mining activities in environmental. In this context, this work describes part of a study of land reclamation by tin exploitation in the Amazon ecosystem in the National Forest Jamari- Rondonia Brazil. So, studied the influence of surface soil mobilization in pit mine areas and tailings a view to the implementation of legumes. The results show that the surface has areas of mobilizing a significant effect on the growth of leguminous plants, areas for both mining and to tailings and pit mine areas.

  19. Effects of Different Management Measures on Soil Organic Carbon of Reclaimed Minesoils in Abandoned Aluminum Mining Land%不同管理措施对铝矿废弃地复垦区土壤有机碳的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原芩; 梅娟; 李华; 张强; 郜春花; 张秋华


    This field study was conducted in a corn cropping system in reclaimed minesoils of the aluminum mining wasteland in 2010 in Xi-aoyi County, Shanxi Province in north of China. The purpose is to characterize the soil organic under different applications of: organic manures, organic manures compound with inorganic fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer, and control treatment, i.e. without any fertilizer in the inter-planting system of bean(Jindou28 and Jindou25) and maize(Yitianl8). The randomized complete block design was used in reclaimed mine-soils with each treatment in triplicate. Results showed that deeper soil corresponded to reducing soil organic carbon but increasing 813C values. Fertilization significantly increased soil organic carbon content, and organic manures compound with inorganic fertilizer was the best fertilization pattern. In the field previously planted with Jindou28 and Jindou25, the organic carbon content increased by 1.85 g·kg‐1 and 1.35 g·kg‐1 at 0~20 cm soil layers and by 1.50 g·kg‐1 and 1.45 g·kg‐1 at 20~40 cm soil layers. On the other hand the field previously planted with Jindou25 showed better results than Jindou28 in terms of δ13C values in soil. Maize grain accumulated much more 13C than stem, as evidenced by the statistically significant difference, in spite that no significant correlation was found. It was noted that the organic carbon mainly came from leguminous plants in both crop rotation patterns with beans and corn, and the contributions of Jindou28 and Jindou25 in soil organic carbon were 64.82% and 60.64%. Overall, both fertilization and rotation can improve the accumulation of soil organic carbon in aluminum mining wasteland.%试验设置于山西省孝义铝矿废弃地复垦区,采用施肥及轮作双因素完全随机区组设计,研究铝矿废弃地复垦过程中不同管理措施对玉米田土壤有机碳的影响.结果表明,不同管理措施下,土壤有机碳含量随着土层深

  20. Geochemical processes in ground water resulting from surface mining of coal at the Big Sky and West Decker Mine areas, southeastern Montana (United States)

    Clark, D.W.


    A potential hydrologic effect of surface mining of coal in southeastern Montana is a change in the quality of ground water. Dissolved-solids concen- trations in water in spoils aquifers generally are larger than concentrations in water in the coal aquifers they replaced; however, laboratory experiments have indicated that concentrations can decrease if ground water flows from coal-mine spoils to coal. This study was conducted to determine if decreases in concentrations occur onsite and, if so, which geochemical processes caused the decreases. Solid-phase core samples of spoils, unmined over- burden, and coal, and ground-water samples were collected from 16 observation wells at two mine areas. In the Big Sky Mine area, changes in ground- water chemistry along a flow path from an upgradient coal aquifer to a spoils aquifer probably were a result of dedolomitization. Dissolved-solids concentrations were unchanged as water flowed from a spoils aquifer to a downgradient coal aquifer. In the West Decker Mine area, dissolved-solids concentrations apparently decreased from about 4,100 to 2,100 milligrams per liter as water moved along an inferred flow path from a spoils aquifer to a downgradient coal aquifer. Geochemical models were used to analyze changes in water chemistry on the basis of results of solid-phase and aqueous geochemical characteristics. Geochemical processes postulated to result in the apparent decrease in dissolved-solids concentrations along this inferred flow path include bacterial reduction of sulfate, reverse cation exchange within the coal, and precipitation of carbonate and iron-sulfide minerals.

  1. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Surface Areas, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent all Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUMs) on or within one mile of the Navajo Nation. Attributes include mine...

  2. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, Tim [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  3. Activities of the Committee for Surface Protection against Mining Damage in the second quarter of 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Reviews problems analyzed by the Committee, which is the highest state body approving development programs of coal mines from the point of view of environmental protection. The following programs are analyzed: longwall mining with caving in the safety pillar of the Szombierki power plant in Bytom, coordination of underground mining of the Marklowice coalfield (20.5 km/sup 2/ large) by the Marcel, Jankowice and 1 Maja coal mines, mining with caving or stowing in the safety pillar of Siemianowice city (coal seam 1.6 m thick at 250-320 m depth), program of underground mining in the safety pillar of Bytom for 1987-2010 with a special emphasis on 1987-1990, mining conditions in the area of the Reta housing estate, research programs on tremors caused by underground coal and copper ore mining in Poland, underground mining in the safety pillar of Katowice for 1987-1995, coordination of underground mining in the areas of Miechowice and Karb town districts of Bytom, program for underground mining in the safety pillar of the Orzel Bialy steelworks and Brzeziny town district by the Andaluzja, Rozbark and Barbara-Chorzow mines.

  4. Prediction of diffuse sulfate emissions from a former mining district and associated groundwater discharges to surface waters (United States)

    Graupner, Bastian J.; Koch, Christian; Prommer, Henning


    Rivers draining mining districts are often affected by the diffuse input of polluted groundwaters. The severity and longevity of the impact depends on a wide range of factors such as the source terms, the hydraulic regime, the distance between pollutant sources and discharge points and the dilution by discharge from upstream river reaches. In this study a deterministic multi-mine life-cycle model was developed. It is used to characterize pollutant sources and to quantify the resulting current and future effects on both groundwater and river water quality. Thereby sulfate acts as proxy for mining-related impacts. The model application to the Lausitz mining district (Germany) shows that the most important factors controlling concentrations and discharge of sulfate are mixing/dilution with ambient groundwater and the rates of biological sulfate reduction during subsurface transport. In contrast, future impacts originating from the unsaturated zones of the mining dumps showed to be of little importance due to the high age of the mining dumps and the associated depletion in reactive iron-sulfides. The simulations indicate that currently the groundwater borne diffuse input of sulfate into the rivers Kleine Spree and Spree is ∼2200 t/years. Our predictions suggest a future increase to ∼11,000 t/years within the next 40 years. Depending on river discharge rates this represents an increase in sulfate concentration of 40-300 mg/L. A trend reversal for the surface water discharge is not expected before 2050.

  5. Design of comprehensive test system for detecting overlying strata mining-induced fractures on surface with radon gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei; Zhang Dongsheng; Fan Gangwei


    Based on radon gas properties and its existing projects applications,we firstly attempted to apply geophysical and chemical properties of radon gas in the field of mining engineering,and imported radioactive measurement method to detect the development process of the overlying strata mining-induced fractures and their contained water quality in underground coal mining,which not only innovates a more simple-fast-reliable detection method,but also further expands the applications of radon gas detection technology in mining field.A 3D simulation design of comprehensive testing system for detecting strata mining-induced fractures on surface with radon gas (CTSR) was carried out by using a large-scale 3D solid model design software Pro/Engineer (Pro/E),which overcame three main disadvantages of “static design thought,2D planar design and heavy workload for remodification design” on exiting design for mining engineering test systems.Meanwhile,based on the simulation design results of Pro/E software,the stability of the jack-screw pressure bar for the key component in CTSR was checked with a material mechanics theory,which provided a reliable basis for materials selection during the latter machining process.

  6. Effects of industrial microcomputer use in control systems for machines and conveyors in surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borczyk, Z.; Rosseger, A. (Poltegor-Instytut, Wroclaw (Poland))


    Evaluates use of the ComPan Pzaz microcomputers manufactured in Poland for control of bucket wheel excavators without thrust action and for belt conveyors used in brown coal surface mines in Poland. The microcomputer consists of 14 standard microprocessor controller modules and 4 specialized modules. Structure of the control system, types of operations controlled by the system and effects of computerized control on safety and efficiency of operation of bucket wheel excavators are analyzed. Use of the ComPan Pzaz microcomputers for control of steep-angle conveyor systems (with a drive power from 1,000 kW to 4,000 kW) is evaluated. The system controls conveyor start-up and conveyor braking. Selected aspects of ComPan Pzaz reliability and service are also discussed. 2 refs.

  7. Direct-seeding of commercial trees on surface-mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tackett, E.M.; Graves, D.H.


    Three large-seeded tree species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra), pin oak (Quercus palustris), and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) and one small-seeded species Paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), were spot-seeded and European alder (Alnus glutinosa) was broadcast-seeded on eastern Kentucky surface mine spoil. Treatments included four mulches-hydromulch, shredded bark, shredded bark and poultry manure, and Real Earth (composted municipal waste and sewage sludge), two fertilizer treatments and two rates of grass/legume ground cover seed sown in competition with the tree species. Germination, growth and survival were evaluated after the first growing season. All three oak species germinated and grew well while both small-seeded species failed to become established from seed. Germination was affected by aspect, mulching, fertilizing and competition. Spoil moisture appeared to be indirectly responsible for most of the responses. The variables tested had little effect on the first years growth of the species tested.

  8. Instantaneous stress release in fault surface asperities during mining-induced fault-slip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atsushi Sainoki; Hani S. Mitri


    Fault-slip taking place in underground mines occasionally causes severe damage to mine openings as a result of strong ground motion induced by seismic waves arising from fault-slip. It is indicated from previous studies that intense seismic waves could be generated with the shock unloading of fault surface asperities during fault-slip. This study investigates the shock unloading with numerical simulation. A three-dimensional (3D) numerical model with idealized asperities is constructed with the help of discrete element code 3DEC. The idealization is conducted to particularly focus on simulating the shock unloading that previous numerical models, which replicate asperity degradation and crack development during the shear behavior of a joint surface in previous studies, fail to capture and simulate. With the numerical model, static and dynamic analyses are carried out to simulate unloading of asperities in the course of fault-slip. The results obtained from the dynamic analysis show that gradual stress release takes place around the center of the asperity tip at a rate of 45 MPa/ms for the base case, while an instantaneous stress release greater than 80 MPa occurs near the periphery of the asperity tip when the contact between the upper and lower asperities is lost. The instantaneous stress release becomes more intense in the vicinity of the asperity tip, causing tensile stress more than 20 MPa. It is deduced that the tensile stress could further increase if the numerical model is discretized more densely and analysis is carried out under stress conditions at a great depth. A model parametric study shows that in-situ stress state has a significant influence on the magnitude of the generated tensile stress. The results imply that the rapid stress release generating extremely high tensile stress on the asperity tip can cause intense seismic waves when it occurs at a great depth.

  9. Measurement and scaling of air-surface mercury exchange from substrates in the vicinity of two Nevada gold mines. (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S; Eckley, Chris S


    The state of Nevada has extensive mineral resources, and is the largest producer of gold in the USA as well as fourth in world gold production. Mercury (Hg) is often present in the hydrothermal systems that produce gold deposits, and can be found in elevated concentrations in gold ore. As a result, mining of gold ore in Nevada has been shown to release Hg to the atmosphere from point and non-point sources. This project focused on measurement of air-soil Hg exchange associated with undisturbed soils and bedrock outcrops in the vicinity of two large gold mines. Field and laboratory data collected were used to identify the important variables controlling Hg flux from these surfaces, and to estimate a net flux from the areas adjacent to the active mines as well as that occurring from the mined area pre-disturbance. Mean daily flux by substrate type ranged from 9 ng m(-2) day(-1) to 140 ng m(-2) day(-1). Periods of net deposition of elemental Hg were observed when air masses originating from a mine site moved over sampling locations. Based on these observations and measured soil Hg concentrations we suggest that emissions from point and non-point sources at the mines are a source of Hg to the surrounding substrates with the amount deposited not being of an environmental concern but of interest mainly with respect to the cycling of atmospheric elemental Hg. Observations indicate that while some component of the deposited Hg is sequestered in the soil, this Hg is gradually released back to the atmosphere over time. Estimated pre-disturbance emissions from the current mine footprints based on field data were 0.1 and 1.7 kg yr(-1), compared to that estimated for the current non-point mining sources of 19 and 109 kg yr(-1), respectively.

  10. Application and Evaluation of ALOS PALSAR Data for Monitoring of Mining Induced Surface Deformations Using Interferometric Techniques (United States)

    Walter, Diana; Wegmuller, Urs; Spreckels, Volker; Busch, Wolfgang


    The main objective of the projects "Determination of ground motions in mining areas by interferometric analyses of ALOS data" (ALOS ADEN 3576, ESA) and "Monitoring of mining induced surface deformation" (ALOS-RA-094, JAXA) is to evaluate PALSAR data for surface deformation monitoring, using interferometric techniques. We present monitoring results of surface movements for an active hard coal colliery of the German hard coal mining company RAG Deutsche Steinkohle (RAG). Underground mining activities lead to ground movements at the surface with maximum subsidence rates of about 10cm per month for the test site. In these projects the L-band sensor clearly demonstrates the good potential for deformation monitoring in active mining areas, especially in rural areas. In comparison to C-band sensors we clearly observe advantages in resolving the high deformation gradients that are present in this area and we achieve a more complete spatial coverage than with C-band. Extensive validation data based on levelling data and GPS measurements are available within RAǴs GIS based database "GeoMon" and thus enable an adequate analysis of the quality of the interferometric results. Previous analyses confirm the good accuracy of PALSAR data for deformation monitoring in mining areas. Furthermore, we present results of special investigations like precision geocoding of PALSAR data and corner reflector analysis. At present only DInSAR results are obtained due to the currently available number of PALSAR scenes. For the future we plan to also apply Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) using longer series of PALSAR data.

  11. Contaminants in surface water and sediments near the Tynagh silver mine site, County Galway, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Phillips, D.H., E-mail: [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Bowen, J. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Sen Gupta, B. [School of the Built Environment, Hariot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)


    A former silver mine in Tynagh, Co. Galway, Ireland is one of the most contaminated mine sites in Europe with maximum concentrations of Zn, As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Cd far exceeding guideline values for water and sediment. The aims of this research were to 1) further assess the contamination, particularly metals, in surface water and sediment around the site, and 2) determine if the contamination has increased 10 years after the Environmental Protection Agency Ireland (EPAI) identified off-site contamination. Site pH is alkaline to neutral because CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediment and rock material buffer the exposed acid generating sulphide-rich ore. When this study was compared to the previous EPAI study conducted 10 years earlier, it appeared that further weathering of exposed surface sediment had increased concentrations of As and other potentially toxic elements. Water samples from the tailings ponds and adjacent Barnacullia Stream had concentrations of Al, Cd, Mn, Zn and Pb above guideline values. Lead and Zn concentrations from the tailings pond sediment were 16 and 5 times higher, respectively, than concentrations reported 10 years earlier. Pb and Zn levels in most sediment samples exceeded the Expert Group (EGS) guidelines of 1000 and 5000 mg/kg, respectively. Arsenic concentrations were as high as 6238 mg/kg in the tailings ponds sediment, which is 62 and 862 times greater than the EGS and Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines (CSQG), respectively. Cadmium, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations in water and sediment were above guideline values downstream of the site. Additionally, Fe, Mn and organic matter (OM) were strongly correlated and correlated to Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu and Ni in stream sediment. Therefore, the nearby Barnacullia Stream is also a significant pathway for contaminant transport to downstream areas. Further rehabilitation of the site may decrease the contamination around the area. - Highlights: • Tynagh silver mine in Co. Galway, Ireland is a source of

  12. Potential ecological and human health risks of heavy metals in surface soils associated with iron ore mining in Pahang, Malaysia. (United States)

    Diami, Siti Merryan; Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Madzin, Zafira


    The composition of heavy metals (and metalloid) in surface soils of iron ore mine-impacted areas has been evaluated of their potential ecological and human health risks. The mining areas included seven selected locations in the vicinity of active and abandoned iron ore-mining sites in Pahang, Malaysia. Heavy metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Cd and metalloid As were present in the mining soils of the studied area, while Cu was found exceeding the soil guideline value at all sampling locations. However, the assessment of the potential ecological risk index (RI) indicated low ecological risk (RI between 44 and 128) with respect to Cd, Pb, Cu, As, Zn, Co, and Ni in the surface soils. Contributions of potential ecological risk [Formula: see text]by metal elements to the total potential ecological RI were evident for Cd, As, Pb, and Cu. Contribution of Cu appears to be consistently greater in the abandoned mining area compared to active iron ore-mining site. For non-carcinogenic risk, no significant potential health risk was found to both children and adults as the hazard indices (HIs) were all below than 1. The lifetime cancer risk (LCR) indicated that As has greater potential carcinogenic risk compared to other metals that may induce carcinogenic effects such as Pb, Cr, and Cd, while the LCR of As for children fell within tolerable range for regulatory purposes. Irrespective of carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risk, greater potential health risk was found among children (by an order of magnitude higher for most metals) compared to adults. The hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk indicated that the pathways for the risk to occur were found to be in the order of ingestion > dermal > inhalation. Overall, findings showed that some metals and metalloid were still present at comparable concentrations even long after cessation of the iron ore-mining activities.

  13. [Impact of polymetallic mine (Zn, Pb, Cu) residues on surface water, sediments and soils at the vicinity (Marrakech, Morocco)]. (United States)

    El Adnani, M; Rodriguez-Maroto, J M; Sbai, M L; Loukili Idrissi, L; Nejmeddine, A


    Metal sulphide tailings present a potential risk for the environment because of their natural oxidability which leads to the production of acid mine drainage. The prospected site close to Marrakech includes zinc, lead and copper sulphide deposits. This site is located in an agricultural area near the Tensift River which is used for irrigation. In addition to the tailing leachates, underground mine waters are also discharged into the river. This represents a potential risk for the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to assess the tailings impact on surface water, sediments and soil qualities. Chemical analysis of surface water and sediments collected downstream of the mine revealed that, water and sediments present high concentrations of major ions and heavy metals. The analysis also revealed spatial as well as temporal changes in the chemical properties of the studied water and sediments. These changes are attributed to the rising phenomena. The soil near the mine presents high content of sulphate. Its Zn, Pb, Cu and Fe contents are respectively 38, 15, 11 and 1.6 times higher than non contaminated soils located far away from the site. The soil irrigated with underground mine waters shows concentrations of SO4(2-), Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb which are respectively 4, 10, 28, 2, 9 and 12 times higher than soils which are not irrigated with this mine water. This study also showed that there has been a change in the physicochemical characteristics of water and sediments in the sampling points downstream of the mine before its closure and after its activity renewal.

  14. [Impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil chemical properties and culturable microorganisms ]. (United States)

    Gong, Xue; Wang, Ji-hua; Guan, Jian-fei; Yang, Xue-chen; Chen, Dai-ci


    This research used batch soil column experiment to study the effects of irrigating with reclaimed water and tap water on the soil chemical properties and culturable microorganisms. The results indicated that reclaimed water could markedly increase the soil organic material (OM) and total nitrogen (TN) content, but it had no obvious effect on total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP) and pH value. Reclaimed water irrigation could significantly enhance the amounts of surface soil bacteria and actinomycetes at a depth of 0-20 cm, but it had little effect on the biomass of 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm soil layers. The dominant bacteria in tap water irrigation area was the genus Bacillus whereas that of reclaimed water irrigation area was the genus Acinetobacter. Tap water irrigation area had four endemic genera and reclaimed water irrigation area had six endemic genera. Reclaimed water had no obvious effect on the microbial community Shannon diversity of 0-20 cm soil layer, while it decreased Pielou evenness index, and improved Margalef richness index. Through SPSS 17. 0 correlation analysis between soil microbes quantity and soil chemical properties, it was shown that the soil microbes quantity was positively correlated with OM, TN, TP and AP, but negatively correlated with soil water content (SWC) and pH value. Based on CANOCO 4.5 detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) between soil microbes species and soil chemical properties, it was shown that AP had the strongest correlation with the microbial community (P = 0.002). TN and TP had larger impact on Streptococcus, Aeromonas and Neisseria. OM and AP had larger impact on Aerococcus, Planococcus and Halobacterium.

  15. Impacts of coal dust from an active mine on the spectral reflectance of Arctic surface snow in Svalbard, Norway (United States)

    Khan, Alia L.; Dierssen, Heidi; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Schmitt, Carl; Chlus, Adam; Hermanson, Mark; Painter, Thomas H.; McKnight, Diane M.


    Light-absorbing particles (LAPs) in snow such as dust and black carbon influence the radiative forcing at the Earth's surface, which has major implications for global climate models. LAPs also significantly influence the melting of glaciers, sea ice, and seasonal snow. Here we present an in situ study of surface snow near an active coal mine in the Norwegian Arctic. We couple measurements of spectral hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF) with measurements of LAPs characterized in two ways, as refractory black carbon using a Single Particle Soot Photometer and the total light absorption of LAPs measured with the Light Absorption Heating Method. The Snow Ice and Aerosol Radiation model was constrained by LAP measurements. Results were compared to observed spectral albedo measurements. Modeled and observed albedos were similar at the cleaner and more remote sites. However, the modeled spectral albedos do not fully account for the low spectral albedo measured next to the mine. LAP measurements also showed a large variation in particle sizes (tenths to tens of microns) related to transport distance of the particles from the mine. Here we find that LAPs from coal dust reduce the spectral HDRF by up to 84% next to the mine and 55% 0.5 km downwind of the mine. The coupling of extreme LAP observations (1 ng g-1 to 4863 ng g-1) with HDRF measurements from 350 to 2500 nm has facilitated the development of spectral band pairs, which could be used in the future to remotely assess LAPs in Arctic snow.

  16. Reclaiming the definition of sustainability. (United States)

    Johnston, Paul; Everard, Mark; Santillo, David; Robèrt, Karl-Henrik


    Since its inception two decades ago, the concept of sustainable development has suffered from a proliferation of definitions, such that it has increasingly come to mean many things to many different people. This has limited its credibility, called into question its practical application and the significance of associated achievements and, overall, limited the progress in environmental and social developments which it was designed to underpin. This viewpoint article is intended to re-open the concept of sustainable development for discussion 20 years on from the Brundtland Report, in the context of the current state of the world, our growing understanding of ecosystems and their response to stressors and the parallel increase in recognition of inherent limitations to that understanding. Following a brief review of the diverse manner in which the concept has developed over time, we present the case for application of a series of simple conditions for sustainability, originally developed by The Natural Step in the early 90s, which nevertheless still provide a sound basis on which progress towards sustainable development could be monitored. The paper also highlights the unavoidable links between sustainability and ethics, including those in the sensitive fields of population and quality of life. Overall we argue the need for the concept of sustainable development to be reclaimed from the plethora of economically-focused or somewhat vague and un-measurable definitions which have found increasing favour in recent years and which all too often accompany relatively minor progress against 'business as usual'. The vision encapsulated in the Brundtland Report was ground-breaking. If, however, true sustainability in human interactions with the biosphere is to be realised, a far stronger and more empirical interpretation of the original intent is urgently required. To be effective, such an interpretation must encompass and guide developments in political instruments and public

  17. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.


    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.


    A new measurements methodology has been developed which allows the rapid and efficient measurement of methane (CH4) emissions from surface coal mines. An initial field trial of this methodology has been completed, and results from the field trial revealed that emissions from one ...

  19. 30 CFR 942.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (United States)


    ... requirements for information on environmental resources. 942.779 Section 942.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 779 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Information on Environmental Resources, shall apply to any person...

  20. 30 CFR 941.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (United States)


    ... requirements for information on environmental resources. 941.779 Section 941.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 779 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Information on Environmental Resources, shall apply to any person...

  1. 30 CFR 910.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (United States)


    ... requirements for information on environmental resources. 910.779 Section 910.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 779 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Information on Environmental Resources, shall apply to any person...

  2. 30 CFR 905.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (United States)


    ... requirements for information on environmental resources. 905.779 Section 905.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... requirements for information on environmental resources. (a) Part 779 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Information on Environmental Resources, shall apply to any person...

  3. 30 CFR 937.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (United States)


    ... requirements for information on environmental resources. 937.779 Section 937.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 779 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Information on Environmental Resources, shall apply to any person...

  4. 30 CFR 922.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (United States)


    ... requirements for information on environmental resources. 922.779 Section 922.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 779 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Information on Environmental Resources, shall apply to any person...

  5. 30 CFR 912.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (United States)


    ... requirements for information on environmental resources. 912.779 Section 912.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 779 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Information on Environmental Resources, shall apply to any person...

  6. 30 CFR 933.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (United States)


    ... requirements for information on environmental resources. 933.779 Section 933.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 779 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Information on Environmental Resources, shall apply to any person...

  7. 30 CFR 903.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (United States)


    ... requirements for information on environmental resources. 903.779 Section 903.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... requirements for information on environmental resources. (a) Part 779 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Information on Environmental Resources, applies to any person who...

  8. 30 CFR 921.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (United States)


    ... requirements for information on environmental resources. 921.779 Section 921.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 779 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Information on Environmental Resources, shall apply to any person...

  9. 30 CFR 939.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (United States)


    ... requirements for information on environmental resources. 939.779 Section 939.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 779 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Information on Environmental Resources, shall apply to any person...

  10. 30 CFR 947.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (United States)


    ... requirements for information on environmental resources. 947.779 Section 947.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 779 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Information on Environmental Resources, shall apply to any person...

  11. Geophysical mapping of contaminant leachate around a reclaimed open dumpsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.O. Raji


    Full Text Available Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM, 2D Electrical Resistivity Profiling (2D ERP and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES methods of geophysics were deployed to map the extent of leachate contamination in near-surface rocks around a popular reclaimed dumpsite in north central Nigeria. Two years after abandon and waste excavation; the dumpsite was converted to a residential area with over 80 houses under construction. Prior to waste dumping operation, clay-seal was installed at 2 m depth around the dumpsite to prevent leachate from the waste material flowing to the adjoining area. Results from VLF, 2D ERP, and VES show presence of leachate contamination in rocks and soil of the reclaimed dumpsite. Leachate has spread laterally up to a distance of about 1 km on the northern and southern parts of the dumpsite centre, and up to a depth of about 20 m. Compared to the results of similar survey in an area outside the dumpsite, leachate infiltration raised the conductivity signature of the rocks around the dumpsite by about 200%: from 7% to 22%. Both VLF-EM and 2D ERP show the presence of approximate north – south oriented structures/fracture characterised by high conductivity. VES results show the presence of four – five geo-electric layers. Important conclusions from the study are that (i leachate is still present in the rocks and soil of the reclaimed dumpsite two years after the abandonment and excavation of the waste materials, and (ii the clay seal installed around the dumpsite could not prevent leachate migration to the adjoining areas.

  12. An overview of reclaimed water reuse in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Yi; Wentao Jiao; Xiaoning Chen; Weiping Chen


    China is facing severe water problems including scarcity and pollution which are now becoming key factors restricting developments.Creating an alternative water resource and reducing effluent discharges,water reuse has been recognized as an integral part of water and wastewater management scheme in China.The government has launched nationwide efforts to optimize the benefits of utilizing reclaimed water.This article reviewed the water reuse activities in China,including:(1) application history and current status; (2)potentials of reclaimed water reuse; (3) laws,policies and regulations governing reclaimed water reuse; (4) risks associated with reclaimed water reuse; (5) issues in reclaimed water reuse.Reclaimed water in Beijing and Tianjin were given as examples.Suggestions for improving the efficiencies of reusing urban wastewater were advanced.Being the largest user of reclaimed wastewater in the world,China's experience can benefit the development of water reuse in other regions.

  13. Weathering behaviour of overburden-coal ash blending in relation to overburden management for acid mine drainage prevention in coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautama, R.S.; Kusuma, G.J.; Lestari, I.; Anggana, R.P. [Bandung Inst. Teknologi (Indonesia). Dept. of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering


    Potentially acid forming (PAF) materials are encapsulated with non-acid forming materials (NAF) in order to prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) in surface coal mines. NAF compaction techniques with fly and bottom ashes from coal-fired power plants are used in mines with limited amounts of NAF materials. This study investigated the weathering behaviour of blended overburden and coal combustion ash in laboratory conditions. Free draining column leach tests were conducted on different blending schemes. The weathering process was simulated by spraying the samples with de-ionized water once per day. The leachates were then analyzed using X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analyses in order to identify the mineral composition of the samples over a 14 week period. Results of the study indicated that the weathering process plays a significant role in controlling infiltration rates, and may increase the capability of capping materials to prevent infiltration into PAF materials. Fly- and bottom-ash additions improved the performance of the encapsulation materials. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Wetlands and coal surface mining: a management handbook with particular reference to the Illinois Basin of the Eastern Interior Coal Region. Research report September 1983-September 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardamone, M.A.; Taylor, J.R.; Mitsch, W.J.


    The report outlines management operation for protecting wetlands during the surface mining of coal, particularly for the portion of the Eastern Interior Coal Region that is found in Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois. The main issues addressed in this manual include: basic information for identifying wetlands; wetland values, and methods used for values assessment; how coal mining can affect wetlands; a method for addressing wetland protection needs and some prevention and mitigation actions; reclamation alternatives, including wetland restoration and the creation of wetlands as alternative ecosystems on mined areas; and general legal and regulatory information concerning wetland protection and surface mining of coal.

  15. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Water from Pristine Environments and Major Mining Areas in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yaw Hadzi


    Conclusions. The concentrations of heavy metals in the Nyam, Subri, Bonsa and Birim Rivers from the mining sites and the Atiwa Range, Oda, Ankasa and Bosomkese Rivers from the pristine sites were found to be either below or within the USEPA and WHO's recommended limits for surface water. The health risk assessment values for the hazard quotient for ingestion of water (HQing, dermal contact (HQderm and chronic daily intake (CDI indicated no adverse effects as a result of ingestion or dermal contact from the rivers. However, arsenic (As in both the pristine and mining sites and chromium (Cr in the pristine sites pose a carcinogenic threat to the local residents.

  16. Activities of the Committee for Surface Protection from Mining Damage in the second quarter of 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chroszcz, A.


    This paper evaluates programs for protection of buildings from effects of underground mining in the Marklowice coal field and protecting the Karb section of Bytom. The Marklowice field is divided between the Marcel and Jankowice mines. Ground subsidence caused by mining ranged from 1.7 to 4.5 m from 1980 to 1983. From 1983 to 1985 from 2 to 9 coal seams will be mined (1 with hydraulic stowing). The maximum ground subsidence should not exceed 6.0 m. From 1985 to 1990 from 6 to 11 coal seams will be mined, 3 with hydraulic stowing. The maximum ground subsidence should not exceed 9.0 m. The forecast damage to residential buildings above the Marklowice coal field is evaluated. Measures for reducing damage to the minimum are analyzed. A comprehensive program is described for protecting the Karb section of Bytom and a railway line in the area from the effects of underground mining in the Bobrek, Miechowice, Powstancow Slaskich and Dymitrow mines. Coordination of planning by the mines is analyzed. Recommendations are made for minimizing mining damage and hazards associated with ground subsidence and quakes caused by underground mining.

  17. Applying Spectral Unmixing to Determine Surface Water Parameters in a Mining Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kopačková


    Full Text Available Compared to natural waters, mine waters represent an extreme water type that is frequently heavily polluted. Although they have been traditionally monitored by in situ measurements of point samples taken at regular intervals, the emergence of a new generation of multispectral and hyperspectral (HS sensors means that image spectroscopy has the potential to become a modern method for monitoring polluted surface waters. This paper describes an approach employing linear Spectral Unmixing (LSU for analysis of hyperspectral image data to map the relative abundances of mine water components (dissolved Fe—Fediss, dissolved organic carbon—DOC, undissolved particles. The ground truth data (8 monitored ponds were used to validate the results of spectral mapping. The same approach applied to HS data was tested using the image data resampled to WorldView2 (WV2 spectral resolution. A key aspect of the image data processing was to define the proper pure image end members for the fundamental water types. The highest correlations detected between the studied water parameters and the fractional images using the HyMap and the resampled WV2 data, respectively, were: dissolved Fe (R2 = 0.74 and R2vw2 = 0.6, undissolved particles (R2 = 0.57 and R2vw2 = 0.49 and DOC (R2 = 0.42 and R2vw2 < 0.40. These fractional images were further classified to create semi-quantitative maps. In conclusion, the classification still benefited from the higher spectral resolution of the HyMap data; however the WV2 reflectance data can be suitable for mapping specific inherent optical properties (SIOPs, which significantly differ from one another from an optical point of view (e.g., mineral suspension, dissolved Fe and phytoplankton, but it seems difficult to differentiate among diverse suspension particles, especially when the waters have more complex properties (e.g., mineral particles, DOC together with tripton or other particles, etc..

  18. Hydrogeochemical features of surface water and groundwater contaminated with acid mine drainage (AMD) in coal mining areas: a case study in southern Brazil. (United States)

    Galhardi, Juliana Aparecida; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos


    Effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) were investigated in surface waters (Laranjinha River and Ribeirão das Pedras stream) and groundwaters from a coal mining area sampled in two different seasons at Figueira city, Paraná State, Brazil. The spatial data distribution indicated that the acid effluents favor the chemical elements leaching and transport from the tailings pile into the superficial water bodies or aquifers, modifying their quality. The acid groundwaters in both sampling periods (dry: pH 2.94-6.04; rainy: pH 3.25-6.63) were probably due to the AMD generation and infiltration, after the oxidation of sulfide minerals. Such acid effluents cause an increase of the solubilization rate of metals, mainly iron and aluminum, contributing to both groundwater and surface water contamination. Sulfate in high levels is a result of waters' pollution due to AMD. In some cases, high sulfate and low iron contents, associated with less acidic pH values, could indicate that AMD, previously generated, is nowadays being neutralized. The chemistry of the waters affected by AMD is controlled by the pH, sulfide minerals' oxidation, oxygen, iron content, and microbial activity. It is also influenced by seasonal variations that allow the occurrence of dissolution processes and the concentration of some chemical elements. Under the perspective of the waters' quality evaluation, the parameters such as conductivity, dissolved sodium, and sulfate concentrations acted as AMD indicators of groundwaters and surface waters affected by acid effluents.

  19. 山西矿区复垦土壤中解磷细菌的筛选及鉴定%Screening and identification of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from reclaimed soil in Shanxi mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈倩; 刘善江; 白杨; 李亚星; 郜春花; 张强; 李建华


    Objectives]The rec1aimed soi1s are inferti1e and 1ack of avai1ab1e PhosPhate. PhosPhate so1ubi1izing bacteria are caPab1e of transfering inso1ub1e organic PhosPhorus and inorganic PhosPhorus into the avai1ab1e form for the uti1ization of P1ants. With the PurPose of eco1ogica1y recover the rec1aimed soi1s,PhosPhorus so1ubi1izing bacteria strains were screened and investigated for microbia1 ferti1izer Production.[Methods]Strains which had D/d va1ue ≥1. 5 were Pre-screened using P1ate screening methods,then the strains disP1aying PhosPhorus so1ubi1izing efficiency higher than Bacillus megaterium As1. 223 were Picked out with hydroPonics. The PhosPhate so1ubi1izing abi1ity and PhosPhatase activity of the iso1ated strains were assessed in 1iquid cu1ture with so1ubi1izing rock PhosPhate and 1ecithin as P sources . The growth abi1ity of strains assessed through their resistance to temPerature, sa1t and PH variations. Strains were identified by the methods of morPho1ogy,gene sequencing and ce11u1ar fatty acid comPositions ana1ysis,co1ony morPho1ogy was observed on nutrient agar,microbia1 morPho1ogy was observed by scanning e1ectron microscoPe,gene sequencing was Performed by 16S rDNA sequence ana1ysis and a1igned in EzTaxon,and ce11u1ar fatty acid comPositions ana1ysis was carried out by the Sher1ock Microbia1 Identification System( MIDI).[Results]About nineteen PhosPhorus so1ubi1izing bacteria strains are screened from the rec1aimed soi1s in Shanxi mining area with inorganic and organic PhosPhorus P1ate medium. The D/d va1ues of seven strains are ≥1. 5. In medium using Ca3( PO4 )2 as the PhosPhorus source,the PhosPhorus so1ubi1izing efficiencies of four strains are higher than that of Bacillus megaterium As1. 223 ,and the efficiencies are about 7. 89% -12. 61%. Among the four strains,Y14 has the highest efficiency. In the medium containing 1ecithin,the PhosPhorus so1ubi1izing efficiency and acid PhosPhatase activity of four strains are about 1. 79% -3. 07% and 24. 3

  20. Evaluation of rope shovel operators in surface coal mining using a Multi-Attribute Decision-Making model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vukotic Ivana; Kecojevic Vladislav


    Rope shovels are used to dig and load materials in surface mines. One of the main factors that influence the production rate and energy consumption of rope shovels is the performance of the operator. This paper presents a method for evaluating rope shovel operators using the Multi-Attribute Decision-Making (MADM) model. Data used in this research were collected from an operating surface coal mine in the southern United States. The MADM model consists of attributes, their weights of importance, and alter-natives. Shovel operators are considered the alternatives. The energy consumption model was developed with multiple regression analysis, and its variables were included in the MADM model as attributes. Preferences with respect to min/max of the defined attributes were obtained with multi-objective opti-mization. Multi-objective optimization was conducted with the overall goal of minimizing energy con-sumption and maximizing production rate. Weights of importance of the attributes were determined by the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The overall evaluation of operators was performed by one of the MADM models, i.e., PROMETHEE II. The research results presented here may be used by mining professionals to help evaluate the performance of rope shovel operators in surface mining.

  1. Economic and technical feasibility and optimum production at the Ramici surface mine in the area of Banja Luka (SW Bosnia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazlibegovic, J.; Kostovic, G.


    Comments on the results of geological exploration carried out in the Ramici lignite deposit in the period of 1925-1960 are given. Coal reserves of 37.5 million tons were established. Based on a study made by the Institute for Mining and Technological Research in Tuzla an investment program for the construction of a surface mine has been proposed. The capacity of this mine should be 500,000-1,000,000 t/a. As an optimum capacity 700,000 t/a is suggested. For the excavation work over a 12 year period the employment of shovel excavators has been proposed. Further exploration work should increase the coal reserves and extend the planned period of exploitation.

  2. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Bloomfield coal tract, Dawson County, eastern Montana (United States)

    Cannon, M.R.


    The Bloomfield coal tract in Dawson County, Montana, contains about 420 million tons of recoverable coal reserves within the Pust coal bed. About 136 million tons of coal within the tract is Federally owned, of which 98 million tons has been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study has been conducted in the potential lease area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Shallow ground-water resources in the tract are limited to sandstone and coal aquifers in the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age). These shallow aquifers have small values of hydraulic conductivity; yields to wells generally range from 1 to 10 gallons per minute. Water from shallow sandstone and coal aquifers is used primarily for livestock watering and domestic supply. Chemical analyses indicate that water from most shallow aquifers is dominated by calcium and magnesium cations and sulfate and bicarbonate anions. Surface-water resources in the tract consist primarily of small reservoirs used for livestock watering. All streams in the tract are ephemeral, making them unreliable as a source of livestock water. Mining of the Pust coal bed would cause certain impacts on local water resources. About 15 stock and domestic wells and 13 small stock reservoirs would be destroyed by mining. Shallow coal and sandstone aquifers would be permanently removed from parts of the tract. Leaching of soluble salts from mine spoils may cause a long-term degradation of the quality of water in shallow aquifers in or near the coal tract. Impacts on the local water resources could be mitigated by development of alternative ground-water supplies from deeper aquifers in the Fort Union and in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek and Fox Hills Formations. Reservoirs destroyed by mining could be reconstructed during mine reclamation. (USGS)

  3. Evaluation of three constructed soil areas after surface coal mining in Lauro Muller, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, M.L.; Almeida, J.A.; Souza, L.S. [University of Estado Santa Catarina, Lages (Brazil)


    The present work evaluated chemical characteristics, clay content and mineralogy, and the spatial variability for some of these characteristics in three constructed soil areas after surface coal mining in Lauro Muller, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The selected areas present differences in their topographic soil construction. The first area, Juliana Mine (MJ), was constructed in 1996 with materials that had been removed and stored separately before mining, as laid down in the rehabilitation plan. The second, Apertado Mine (MA), was constructed in 1996 with solum removed from an adjacent hilltop. The third area, Rio do Meio Mine (MRM), was only submitted to topographical reconstitution in 1983 with a mixture of coal pyrite residues and rock fragments from several soil layers. Soil samples were collected in a grid system, at three depths, and analyzed for pH, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Al and H + Al contents, and electric conductivity. Heavy metals and clay mineralogy were also analyzed in some selected samples. Representative analyses of pre-mining conditions, carried out in two soil profiles, were utilized for comparisons with the constructed soils. Values of the chemical soil characteristics and clay contents in all areas presented a high variability among the sampled points. The soil construction process utilized in MJ caused the highest uniformity of characteristics and provided the most adequate conditions for the establishment of vegetal species. In MA, the addition of pyrite coal material to the superficial soil is causing. a continuous soil acidification, as well as high salt concentrations. In the MRM area, which had been abandoned and exposed to pyrite coal deposition on the surface layer for an extended period, the soil is very acid and has already suffered intensive leaching of salts, Al, H + Al, and clay contents were the only tested variables that presented a defined model for semi-variance, with a range of 50-70 m.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa TSUTSUMI; Kewei SUN


    It is customary to evaluate the sand reclamation efficiency by general standardmethod as sieve analysis etc.But the special method also can be used in the casewhere the weight of specimen sand is small and a more accurate result is expected.Inauthors’experiments,the grain-size analysis was carried out by an image analysingcomputer and the Na2O content analysis was done with a modified standard methodof acid consumption.From the results of analyses,it might be recognized that theCO2-sodium silicate bonded sand can be reclaimed by dry type vibration methodeffectively after pretreatment.The size and form of reclaimed sand grain are the sameas those of original new Sand and soda content in the remainder on the surface ofsand grain is about 0.I%.It is assumed that the sieve method may be replaced by theimage analysing computer in sand grain-size analysis in the future.It is also pro-posed that the titration method for measuring Na2O content may be necessary tobe studied further.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Quan-yuan; AN Guo-qiang; BAO Wen-dong; ZHANG Zu-lu; XU Qiu-xiao; FANG Xue-mi


    Surface sink is a main geological calamity of gold mining areas and a main factor to restrict economic sustainable development of mining zone. Based on former investigations, this article draws the environment information of surface sink of exploration vacancy in gold mining area of Zhaoyuan City, Shangdong Province by RS technology. Through spatial simulation analysis and expert diagnoses on the basis of GIS technology, the article affirms the inducement factors of the surface sink. Then using these factors as distinguishing ones the authors prognosticate the criticality of other exploration vacancies. The results indicate that the surface sink area of study area in Zhaoyuan City, has already come to 0.78km2 and it is forecasted that 0.97km2 of the exploration vacancy belongs to high danger area. Decisive measures need taking in order to prevent this crucial problem. Another 1.57km2 of the exploration vacancies belongs to middle danger area, which will sink when meeting some inducing factors, such as earthquake. Still another 1.53kmn2 of the exploration vacancies belongs to low danger area that can not lead to surface sink when meeting common inducing factors.

  6. Development of near surface seismic methods for urban and mining applications (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Brodic, Bojan; Place, Joachim; Juhlin, Christopher; Bastani, Mehrdad


    There is a great need to improve our understanding of the geological conditions in the shallow subsurface. Direct observations of the subsurface are cumbersome and expensive, and sometimes impossible. Urban and mining areas are especially challenging due to various sources of noise such as from traffic, buildings, cars, city trains, trams, bridges and high-voltage power-lines. Access is also restricted both in time and space, which requires the equipment to be versatile, fast to set up and pack, and produces the least disruptions. However, if properly designed and implemented, geophysical methods are capable of imaging detailed subsurface structures and can successfully be used to provide crucial information for site characterizations, infrastructure planning, brown- and near-field exploration, and mine planning. To address some of these issues Uppsala University, in collaboration with a number of public authorities, research organizations and industry partners, has recently developed a prototype broadband (0-800 Hz based on digital sensors) multi-component seismic landstreamer system. The current configuration consists of three segments with twenty 3C-sensors each 2 m apart and an additional segment with twenty 3C-sensors each 4 m apart, giving a total streamer length of 200 m. These four segments can be towed in parallel or in series, which in combination with synchronized wireless and cabled sensors can address a variety of complex near surface problems. The system is especially geared for noisy environments and areas where high-resolution images of the subsurface are needed. The system has little sensitivity to electrical noise and measures sensor tilt, important in rough terrains, so it can immediately be corrected for during the acquisition. Thanks to the digital sensors, the system can also be used for waveform tomography and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Both these methods require low frequencies and these are often sacrificed in

  7. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gulikova


    Full Text Available Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust

  8. Surface-water and groundwater interactions in an extensively mined watershed, upper Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania, USA (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Bartles, Michael D.; Risser, Dennis W.; Galeone, Daniel G.


    Streams crossing underground coal mines may lose flow, while abandoned mine drainage (AMD) restores flow downstream. During 2005-12, discharge from the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel, the largest AMD source in the upper Schuylkill River Basin, had near-neutral pH and elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate. Discharge from the tunnel responded rapidly to recharge but exhibited a prolonged recession compared to nearby streams, consistent with rapid infiltration and slow release of groundwater from the mine. Downstream of the AMD, dissolved iron was attenuated by oxidation and precipitation while dissolved CO2 degassed and pH increased. During high-flow conditions, the AMD and downstream waters exhibited decreased pH, iron, and sulfate with increased acidity that were modeled by mixing net-alkaline AMD with recharge or runoff having low ionic strength and low pH. Attenuation of dissolved iron within the river was least effective during high-flow conditions because of decreased transport time coupled with inhibitory effects of low pH on oxidation kinetics. A numerical model of groundwater flow was calibrated using groundwater levels in the Pine Knot Mine and discharge data for the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel and the West Branch Schuylkill River during a snowmelt event in January 2012. Although the calibrated model indicated substantial recharge to the mine complex took place away from streams, simulation of rapid changes in mine pool level and tunnel discharge during a high flow event in May 2012 required a source of direct recharge to the Pine Knot Mine. Such recharge produced small changes in mine pool level and rapid changes in tunnel flow rate because of extensive unsaturated storage capacity and high transmissivity within the mine complex. Thus, elimination of stream leakage could have a small effect on the annual discharge from the tunnel, but a large effect on peak discharge and associated water quality in streams.

  9. Temporal Trends of Ecosystem Development on Different Site Types in Reclaimed Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Pinno


    Full Text Available Forest development after land reclamation in the oil sands mining region of northern Alberta, Canada was assessed using long-term monitoring plots from both reclaimed and natural forests. The metrics of ecosystem development analyzed included measures of plant community structure and composition and soil nutrient availability. Early seral reclamation plots were grouped by site type (dry and moist-rich and age categories, and these were compared with mature natural forests. There were few significant differences in ecosystem metrics between reclamation site types, but natural stands showed numerous significant differences between site types. Over time, there were significant changes in most plant community metrics such as species richness and cover of plant community groups (e.g., forbs, shrubs, and non-native species, but these were still substantially different from mature forests 20 years after reclamation. Available soil nitrogen did not change over time or by reclamation site type but available soil phosphorus did, suggesting that phosphorus may be a more suitable indicator of ecosystem development. The significant temporal changes in these reclaimed ecosystems indicate that studies of ecosystem establishment and development on reclaimed areas should be conducted over the long-term, emphasizing the utility of monitoring using long-term plot networks.

  10. Thermal infrared remote sensing in assessing groundwater and surface-water resources related to Hannukainen mining development site, northern Finland (United States)

    Rautio, Anne B.; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti I.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka


    Mining development sites occasionally host complicated aquifer systems with notable connections to natural surface water (SW) bodies. A low-altitude thermal infrared (TIR) imaging survey was conducted to identify hydraulic connections between aquifers and rivers and to map spatial surface temperature patterns along the subarctic rivers in the proximity of the Hannukainen mining development area, northern Finland. In addition to TIR data, stable isotopic compositions (δ 18O, δD) and dissolved silica concentrations were used as tracers to verify the observed groundwater (GW) discharge into the river system. Based on the TIR survey, notable GW discharge into the main river channel and its tributaries (61 km altogether) was observed and over 500 GW discharge sites were located. On the basis of the survey, the longitudinal temperature patterns of the studied rivers were found to be highly variable. Hydrological and hydrogeological information is crucial in planning and siting essential mining operations, such as tailing areas, in order to prevent any undesirable environmental impacts. The observed notable GW discharge was taken into consideration in the planning of the Hannukainen mining development area. The results of this study support the use of TIR imagery in GW-SW interaction and environmental studies in extensive and remote areas with special concerns for water-related issues but lacking the baseline research.

  11. Uranium in Surface Waters and Sediments Affected by Historical Mining in the Denver West 1:100,000 Quadrangle, Colorado (United States)

    Zielinski, Robert A.; Otton, James K.; Schumann, R. Randall; Wirt, Laurie


    Geochemical sampling of 82 stream waters and 87 stream sediments within mountainous areas immediately west of Denver, Colorado, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in October 1994. The primary purpose was to evaluate regionally the effects of geology and past mining on the concentration and distribution of uranium. The study area contains uranium- and thorium-rich bedrock, numerous noneconomic occurrences of uranium minerals, and several uranium deposits of variable size and production history. During the sampling period, local streams had low discharge and were more susceptible to uranium-bearing acid drainage originating from historical mines of base- and precious-metal sulfides. Results indicated that the spatial distribution of Precambrian granites and metamorphic rocks strongly influences the concentration of uranium in stream sediments. Within-stream transport increases the dispersion of uranium- and thorium rich mineral grains derived primarily from granitic source rocks. Dissolved uranium occurs predominantly as uranyl carbonate complexes, and concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 65 micrograms per liter. Most values were less than 5 micrograms per liter, which is less than the current drinking water standard of 30 micrograms per liter and much less than locally applied aquatic-life toxicity standards of several hundred micrograms per liter. In local streams that are affected by uranium-bearing acid mine drainage, dissolved uranium is moderated by dilution and sorptive uptake by stream sediments. Sorbents include mineral alteration products and chemical precipitates of iron- and aluminum-oxyhydroxides, which form where acid drainage enters streams and is neutralized. Suspended uranium is relatively abundant in some stream segments affected by nearby acid drainage, which likely represents mobilization of these chemical precipitates. The 234U/238U activity ratio of acid drainage (0.95-1.0) is distinct from that of local surface waters (more than 1

  12. Mathematical modelling of stability of closing slopes in large-scale surface coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloss, K. (Stavebni Geologie, Prague (Czechoslovakia))


    Describes methods of modelling stability of slopes of the Krusne Hory mountains in North Bohemian brown coal mines using the finite element method and a large IBM computer, with output on a Digigraph plotter. Briefly discusses results for the Merkur, Jansky and Jiretin mines, illustrating their geological profiles with diagrams of finite element networks. 4 refs.

  13. 77 FR 62266 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines... (United States)


    ... understood, and the impact of collection requirements on respondents can be properly assessed. Currently, the... facilities. Highwalls, mining equipment, travelways, and the handling of mining materials each present... better ensure a safe working environment for the miners and a reduction in accidents. II. Desired...

  14. Min(d)ing the land: The relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining and surface land arrangements in the southern Philippines, eastern DRC and Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Cuvelier, J.; Bockstael, S. van


    This article examines the relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and surface land tenure arrangements, through a comparison of mining areas in the southern Philippines, the eastern DRC and Liberia. In all three cases, ASM takes place in peripheral regions outside central state c

  15. Min(d)ing the land: The relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining and surface land arrangements in the southern Philippines, eastern DRC and Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Cuvelier, J.; Bockstael, S. van


    This article examines the relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and surface land tenure arrangements, through a comparison of mining areas in the southern Philippines, the eastern DRC and Liberia. In all three cases, ASM takes place in peripheral regions outside central state c

  16. Nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) by annual winter legumes on a coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielson, F.C.


    The winter annuals, crimson clover, rose clover, subterranean clover and hairy vetch, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen on coal surface mine substrates by measuring their ability to reduce acetylene to ethylene. The effects of fertilizer, Abruzzi ryegrass, Kentucky 31 fescue grass and a phytotoxic plant Chenopodium album on nitrogen fixation was also assessed. Crimson clover was recommended as the best legume to use on topsoil and shale in the South. Hairy vetch gave good results on shale and subterranean clover did well on topsoil. The use of these species for revegetation is discussed. Overall, no correlation between substrate pH and ethylene levels was found and effects of substrate depended upon the legume species. Super phosphate fertilizer supported less nitrogen fixation than 13-13-13. Abruzzi ryegrass in some unknown way inhibited plant density and nitrogen fixation by legumes but not by free living substrate micro-organisms. Shale from under dead Chenopodium plants in both field and greenhouse experiments did not inhibit nitrogen fixation. 11 references, 7 tables.

  17. Nitrogen fixation (Acetylene Reduction) by annual winter legumes on a coal surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielson, F.C.


    The winter annuals, crimson clover, rose clover, subterranean clover and hairy vetch, were evaluated for nitrogen fixing capacity on coal surface mine substrates by measuring their ability to reduce acetylene to ethylene. The effects of fertilizer, Abruzzi rye, Kentucky 31 fescue grass and a phytotoxic plant Chenopodium album on nitrogen fixation were also assessed. Crimson clover was recommended as the best legume to use on topsoil and shale in the south. Hairy vetch gave good results on shale and subterranean clover did well on topsoil. The use of these species for revegetation is discussed. Overall, no correlation between substrate pH and ethylene levels was found and effects of substrate depended upon the legume species. Super phosphate fertilizer supported less nitrogen fixation than 13-13-13. Abruzzi rye in some unknown way inhibited plant density and nitrogen fixation by legumes but not by free living substrate micro-organisms. Shale from under dead Chenopodium plants in both field and greehouse experiments did not inhibit nitrogen fixation. 7 tables.

  18. Use of barium-strontium carbonatite for flux welding and surfacing of mining machines (United States)

    Kryukov, R. E.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Usoltsev, A. A.


    The results of application of barium-strontium carbonatite for modifying and refining iron-carbon alloys, used for welding and surfacing in ore mining and smelting industry, are generalized. The technology of manufacturing a flux additive containing 70 % of barium-strontium carbonatite and 30 % of liquid glass is proposed. Several compositions of welding fluxes based on silicomanganese slag were tested. The flux additive was introduced in an amount of 1, 3, 5 %. Technological features of welding with the application of the examined fluxes are determined. X-ray spectral analysis of the chemical composition of examined fluxes, slag crusts and weld metal was carried out, as well as metallographic investigations of welded joints. The principal possibility of applying barium-strontium carbonatite as a refining and gas-protective additive for welding fluxes is shown. The use of barium-strontium carbonatite reduces the contamination of the weld seam with nonmetallic inclusions: non-deforming silicates, spot oxides and brittle silicates, and increases the desulfurizing capacity of welding fluxes.

  19. Control of start-up and dynamic braking of conveyors used for downhill transport in surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosseger, A.; Borczyk, Z.; Kwater, M. (POLTEGOR Instytut, Wroclaw (Poland))


    Presents the structure of a microprocessor-aided control system for conveyors used in surface mines for downhill transport. Control of motor start-up and braking is performed in 8 speed stages. Permissible starting time duration is taken into consideration. The procedure of direct current braking is described. The microprocessor activates emergency braking by disc brakes if direct current braking is not sufficient. The system was implemented on four conveyors and has been used successfully since 1990.

  20. Land and natural resource information and some potential environmental effects of surface mining of coal in the Gillette area, Wyoming (United States)

    Keefer, William Richard; Hadley, R.F.


    Campbell County, along the east margin of the Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming, contains more coal than any other county in the United States. The principal deposit is the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed. The bed is 50-100 feet (15-30 meters) thick over large areas, lies less than 200 feet (60 meters) deep in a north-south trending strip nearly 100 miles (161 kilometers) long and 2-3 miles (3-5 kilometers) wide, and contains an estimated 15 billion tons (13.6 billion metric tons) of sub-bituminous, low-sulfur coal that is presently considered to be accessible to surface mining. Extensive mining of this deposit has the potential for causing a variety of environmental impacts and has been a matter of much public concern and debate in recent years. An integrated program of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and related studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in central Campbell County provides basic information about the land and its resources, including (1) characteristics of the landscape, (2) properties of rocks and surface materials, (3) depth and thickness of coal, (4) streamflow, (5) depth to ground water, (6) quality of ground water, (7) sediment yield, (8) concentrations of trace elements in soils, rocks, coal, vegetation, and water, and (9) current land use. The data are used to analyze and predict some of the potential environmental effects of surface mining, such as the extent of land disturbance, nature and degree of landscape modification, and disruption of surface-water and ground-water systems. Advance knowledge and understanding of these and other problems are useful in the planning and regulation of future leasing, mining, reclamation, and related activities.

  1. Modeling ozone mass transfer in reclaimed wastewater. (United States)

    Jiang, Pan; Chen, Hsiao-Ting; Babcock, Roger W; Stenstrom, Michael K


    Ozone mass transfer in reclaimed water was evaluated at pilot scale to determine mass-transfer characteristics and reaction kinetics and to assess the use of oxygen as a surrogate to measure this process. Tests were conducted in a 40-L/min pilot plant over a 3-year period. Nonsteady-state mass-transfer analyses for both oxygen and ozone were performed for superficial gas flow rates ranging from 0.13m/min to 0.40m/min. The psi factor, which is the ratio of volumetric mass-transfer coefficients of ozone to oxygen, was determined. The decrease in oxygen transfer rate caused by contaminants in reclaimed water was only 10 to 15% compared to tap water. A simple mathematical model was developed to describe transfer rate and steady state ozone concentration. Ozone decay was modeled accurately as a pseudo first-order reaction between ozone and ozone-demanding materials.

  2. AfricaArray International Geophysics Field School: Applications of Near Surface Geophysics to challenges encountered in mine planning (United States)

    Webb, S. J.; Jones, M. Q.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.; Snyman, Q.


    Hard rock exploration and mining presents many opportunities for the effective use of near surface geophysics. For over 10 years the AfricaArray international geophysics field school has been hosted at a variety of mines in South Africa. While the main objective of the field school is practical training for the next generation of geophysicists, being hosted at a mine has allowed us to investigate applications of near surface geophysics in the early stages of mine planning and development as geophysics is often cheaper and faster than drilling. Several applications include: detailed delineation of dykes and stringer dykes, physical property measurements on drill core for modeling and marker horizons, determination of overburden thickness, locations of water and faults. Dolerite dykes are usually magnetic and are associated with loss of ground (i.e. where the dyke replaces the ore and thus reduces the amount of ore available) and safety/stability concerns. Thus the accurate mapping of dykes and narrow stringers that are associated with them are crucial to the safe planning of a mine. We have acquired several case studies where ground magnetic surveys have greatly improved on the resolution and detail of airborne magnetic surveys in regions of complicated dyke swarms. In many cases, thin stringer dykes of less than 5 cm have been detected. Physical property measurements of these dykes can be used to distinguish between different ages of dykes. It is important to accurately determine overburden thickness when planning an open pit mine as this directly affects the cost of development. Depending on the nature of the overburden, both refraction seismic and or DC resistivity can provide continuous profiling in the area of interest that fills in gaps between boreholes. DC resistivity is also effective for determining water associated with dykes and structures that may affect mine planning. The field school mainly addresses the training of a variety of students. The core

  3. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map. (United States)


    ... SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) The location of railroad tracks and public highways leading to the mine, and mine buildings of a permanent nature with identifying names shown; (k) Underground mine workings underlying and within 1,000...

  4. Quality requirements for reclaimed/recycled water (United States)

    Janik, Daniel S.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.


    Water used during current and previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will require some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little experience in the U.S. space program with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitute engineering challenges of the broadest nature that will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed U.S. Space Station. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specifications will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Present NASA Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled water. Adequate specifications for ensuring the quality of the reclaimed or recycled potable water system is reviewed, limitations of present water specifications are examined, world experience with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and systems analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent biomedical water specifications for spacecraft is presented. Space Station water specifications should be designed to ensure the health of all likely spacecraft inhabitants including man, animals, and plants.

  5. Optimization principle of combined surface and underground mining and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建宏; 古德生; 李建雄


    The pit limit optimization is discussed, which is one of the most important problems in the combined min-ing method, on the basis of the economic model of ore-blocks. A new principle of the limit optimization is put for-ward through analyzing the limitations of moving cone method under such conditions. With a view to recovering asmuch mineral resource as possible and making the maximum profit from the whole deposit, the new principle is tomaximize the sum of gain from both open-pit and underground mining. The mathematical models along the horizon-tal and vertical directions and modules for software package (DM&MCAD) have been developed and tested inTonglushan Copper Mine. It has been proved to be rather effective in the mining practice.

  6. Longwall mining and surface deformation – lessons learned from dInSAR measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, Jeanine


    Full Text Available including 1) subsidence related to mining and groundwater abstraction, 2) deformation following earthquake events, 3) monitoring of landslides and slope stability, 4) monitoring the stability of infrastructure and large engineering works, and 5) monitoring...

  7. An Aquifer Storage and Recovery system with reclaimed wastewater to preserve native groundwater resources in El Paso, Texas. (United States)

    Sheng, Zhuping


    The traditional concept of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) has been emphasized and extensively applied for water resources conservation in arid and semi-arid regions using groundwater systems as introduced in Pyne's book titled Groundwater Recharge and Wells. This paper extends the ASR concept to an integrated level in which either treated or untreated surface water or reclaimed wastewater is stored in a suitable aquifer through a system of spreading basins, infiltration galleries and recharge wells; and part or all of the stored water is recovered through production wells, dual function recharge wells, or by streams receiving increased discharge from the surrounding recharged aquifer as needed. In this paper, the author uses the El Paso Water Utilities (EPWU) ASR system for injection of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer as an example to address challenges and resolutions faced during the design and operation of an ASR system under a new ASR system definition. This new ASR system concept consists of four subsystems: source water, storage space-aquifer, recharge facilities and recovery facilities. Even though facing challenges, this system has successfully recharged approximately 74.7 million cubic meters (19.7 billion gallons) of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer through 10 recharge wells in the last 18 years. This ASR system has served dual purposes: reuse of reclaimed wastewater to preserve native groundwater, and restoration of groundwater by artificial recharge of reclaimed wastewater into the Hueco Bolson aquifer.

  8. Heavy metal concentrations in soils, sediments, and surface water of mineral licks, Dunkel Mine, Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska: GLARSU report #10 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers heavy metal concentrations in soils, sediments, and surface water of mineral licks in Dunkel Mine, Denali National Park and Preserve. The...

  9. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia. (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I


    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  10. Environmental planning in mine waste management: The Huckleberry Mines experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D. C. [Suncor Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Letient, H. F. [Compania Minera Antamina (Peru)


    A mine waste management plan, designed to prevent the onset of acid rock drainage and facilitate reclamation of the mine site is discussed. The waste management plan takes into account the requirement for permanently flooding the potentially acid-generating rock and tailings. To avoid long-term acid rock drainage, the plan calls for floating the pyrite out of the tailings towards the end of the life of the mine, thus generating a a non-acid generating tailings stream which will be used to cap the deposited mine waste. When the mine is closed, a permanent water cover will be maintained over the mine waste, leaving only the potentially non-acid generating tailings exposed. Retaining structures will be constructed so as to maximize the use of overburden and minimize the need for additional till and rockfill to be imported from outside the mine site. Dam slopes will be reclaimed with topsoil and overburden stripped during mine development and stockpiled until needed for reclamation. By disposing of the acid-generating mine waste and tailings by permanent flooding, acid generation from these wastes will be prevented, overall environmental liabilities will be minimized, and long-term water quality of the surrounding streams will be safeguarded. 9 figs.

  11. Failure of a MEA reclaimer tube bundle due to corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, H.; Abdo, M.S.E.; Lal, D.P.


    The removal of sulphur compounds from natural gas used in ammonia production is carried out by scrubbing with monoethanol amine (MEA). To avoid build up of corrosion and degradation products, a portion of the circulating MEA solution is passed through a reclaimer. This is essentially a kettle-type reboiler with a tube bundle made of 316L stainless steel. Occasional failures of the tube bundle due to pitting corrosion have been reported. It is suggested that the excessive pitting corrosion observed on the upper rows of the tube bundle could be partly due to high steam temperature but mainly due to the liquid level falling below the tubes leaving an accumulation of corrosive degradation products on the exposed surfaces, normally these corrosive products remain diluted in the MEA solution and cause little corrosion of the covered tubes. Their concentration on the dry upper layers of the hot metal tubes, however, leads to excessive corrosion. (U.K.).

  12. Progress of environmental studies in coal mining areas of western Pennsylvania and central West Virginia (United States)

    Eychaner, James H.


    Two studies related to the regional environmental effects of coal mining in the Appalachian Plateau were conducted in 1998 as part of the National Water‐Quality Assessment program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The study area of about 20,000 square miles included parts of the Allegheny and Monongahela River basins in the north and the Kanawha River basin in the south. Water in domestic wells downgradient from fully reclaimed surface coal mines was compared to water in similar wells at unmined sites. As expected, pH was lower and the concentration of sulfate was greater at mined sites in both areas, although the pH difference was greater in the southern area. Median concentrations of iron and manganese exceeded federal drinking‐water standards at mined sites in both areas and at unmined sites in the southern area. Median concentrations of radon near reclaimed mines were about half those at unmined sites. Surface water was sampled during summer base flow at about 180 sites that drain between 5 and 80 square miles; the sites also were sampled during 1979‐81. Median pH in 1998 was 7.9 in the north and 7.4 in the south, about 0.5 unit higher than in 1980 in both areas. Median concentrations of sulfate increased from 38 mg/L to 56 mg/L in the north and from 46 mg/L to 77 mg/L in the south, in apparent contradiction to the generally lower sulfur content of geologic units in the southern area. Among 52 basins where mining occurred both before and after 1980, the sulfate concentration more than doubled in 13 (25 percent), including greater than five‐fold increases in 5 (10 percent). For 16 mined basins where no mining has occurred since 1980, the median decrease in sulfate concentration was 18 percent, from which the half‐time for oxidation of mining‐related pyrite is estimated to be about 65 years.

  13. Modelling Effects of Cover Material and Cover Depth on Hydrological Regime and Salt Redistribution in Reclaimed Oil Sand Landscapes in Northern Alberta (United States)

    Welegedara, N.; Grant, R. F.; Quideau, S.; Lloret, E.


    Large-Scale surface mining is continuing in the Athabasca oil sands region in northern Alberta, Canada, causing significant ecosystem disturbances and changes in hydrology. Reclamation efforts in this region require understanding processes that control water, nutrient and salt fluxes through reclaimed landscapes which is critical to restoring their productivity. These processes were tested in a comprehensive mathematical model, ecosys, which was used to determine the effect of different cover thicknesses on water balance, water buffering capacity, salinity and the productivity in the South Bison Hills reclamation site of Syncrude Canada (SCL). This site was constructed in 1999 by capping peat mineral mix and secondary (glacial till) soil over saline sodic overburden. The site was constructed with three different soil cover thicknesses: 35 cm (thin), 50 cm (intermediate) and 100 cm (thick) along a 20% north facing slope. Model outputs were validated with field measured volumetric water content, runoff, snow data, electrical conductivity (EC) and plant productivity data recorded from 1999 to 2013. Model and field results show differences in horizontal and vertical water transport among the three reclaimed prototype covers. Lower water retention capacity in the 35 cm cover compared to the 50 cm and 100 cm covers caused greater soil moisture variation so that permanent wilting point was reached during dry years, decreasing plant growth due to water stress. In addition, the modeled and field-measured EC values indicated some upward salt movement from overburden to cover material over the time. This movement caused higher EC values (6 - 8 dS m-1) to be reached in the shallow rooting zone of the 35 cm and 50 cm covers than of the 100 cm cover several years after the covers were established. The determination of cost effective but ecologically sustainable cover depth is a challenge and will be a focus in future simulations.

  14. Groundwater Surface Water Interactions in a Gold-Mined Dredged Floodplain of the Merced River (United States)

    Sullivan, L.; Conklin, M. H.; Ghezzehei, T. A.


    The Merced River, originating in the Sierra Nevada, California, drains a watershed with an area of ~3,305 km2. Merced River has been highly altered due to diversions, mechanically dredged mining, and damming. A year of groundwater-surface water interactions were studied to elucidate the hydrological connection between the Main Canal, an unlined canal that contains Merced River water flows parallel to the river with an average elevation of 89m, the highly conductive previously dredged floodplain, and the Merced River with an average elevation of 84m. Upstream of the study reach, located in an undredged portion, of the floodplain are two fish farms that have been operating for approximately 40 years. This study reach has been historically important for salmon spawning and rearing, where more than 50% of the Chinook salmon of the Merced River spawn. Currently salmon restoration is focusing gravel augmentation and adding side channel and ignoring groundwater influences. Exchanges between the hyporheic and surrounding surface, groundwater, riparian, and alluvial floodplain habitats occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Pressure transducers were installed in seven wells and four ponds located in the dredged floodplain. All wells were drilled to the Mehrten Formation, a confining layer, and screened for last 3m. These groundwater well water levels as well as the surface water elevations of the Main Canal and the Merced River were used to determine the direction of sublateral surface flows using Groundwater Vistas as a user interface for MODFLOW. The well and pond waters and seepage from the river banks were sampled for anion/cation, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total iron, and total dissolved iron concentrations to determine water sources and the possibility of suboxic water. Field analysis indicated that water in all wells and ponds exhibit low dissolved oxygen, high conductivity rates, and oxidation/reduction potentials that switched from

  15. Simulating the carbon balance in reclaimed forest ecosystems with the FORECAST model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welham, C. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences, Forest Ecosystem Simulation Group; ForRx Consulting, Belcarra, BC (Canada); 3GreenTree Ecosystem Services Ltd., Belcarra, BC (Canada)


    Large emission sources are beginning to report their carbon footprint on an annual basis as a result of government mandates, shareholder demand for disclosure of a company's risk to climate change, and as part of corporate social responsibility initiatives. Oil sands mining is a carbon intensive activity from the perspective of carbon dioxide emissions. The intensity of carbon emissions can be mitigated through technological and process innovations. However, reclamation is the only mining-related activity that directly removes atmospheric carbon dioxide. This presentation described a modeling exercise that had 3 principal objectives, notably to simulate the carbon balance in a developing reclaimed upland forest ecosystem; to explore the relative change in carbon pools over time; and to compare the carbon balance of the reclaimed ecosystem to its natural analogue. The presentation provided a description of the model and methodology and discussed the simulation protocol. Imperial Oil's Kearl Lake operation, which was used as a test case, showed that approximately 83,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per hectare can be sequestered per year as a result of reclamation. tabs., figs.

  16. Enhancing carbon and nitrogen sequestration in reclaimed soils through organic amendments and chiseling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, R.K.; Lal, R.; Jacinthe, P.A. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). School of Environmental & Natural Resources


    The choice of reclamation techniques could affect restoration success, ecosystem productivity, and the capacity of reclaimed mine soil (RMS) to sequester soil organic carbon (SOC). A field experiment was conducted at three reclaimed coal mine sites across eastern Ohio to assess the impact of several reclamation techniques on biomass production, soil properties, and temporal changes in SOC and N pools. Amendments and reclamation practices tested were: normal reclamation practice (NRP, control), cow (Bos taurus) manure (10 Mg ha{sup -1}), mulching with oat straw (15 Mg hat), and chiseling (30-cm depth). At each site, all treatments were applied in triplicate to experimental plots in accord with a randomized complete block design. After 5 yr of restoration, results showed no effect of mulching on any of the soil properties investigated but significant effects of manuring and chiseling. During that period, SOC sequestration rates ranged between 0.6 and 2.8 Mg C ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, with the highest rates recorded in the manure-treated plots. Aboveground biomass production, biomass N content, and soil N and SOC pools were also significantly higher in the manure and chiseling treatments, probably due to greater exploration of the soil volume by plant roots and more efficient uptake of water and available nutrients. Ecosystem C (SOC + biomass C) in these two treatments also exceeded that in the NRP by 25 to 27 Mg C ha{sup -}. Thus, manure application and chiseling are effective reclamation practices for restoring RMS.

  17. Investigating uranium distribution in surface sediments and waters: a case study of contamination from the Juniper Uranium Mine, Stanislaus National Forest, CA. (United States)

    Kayzar, Theresa M; Villa, Adam C; Lobaugh, Megan L; Gaffney, Amy M; Williams, Ross W


    The uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions of waters, sediment leachates and sediments from Red Rock Creek in the Stanislaus National Forest of California were measured to investigate the transport of uranium from a point source (the Juniper Uranium Mine) to a natural surface stream environment. The ((234)U)/((238)U) composition of Red Rock Creek is altered downstream of the Juniper Mine. As a result of mine-derived contamination, water ((234)U)/((238)U) ratios are 67% lower than in water upstream of the mine (1.114-1.127 ± 0.009 in the contaminated waters versus 1.676 in the clean branch of the stream), and sediment samples have activity ratios in equilibrium in the clean creek and out of equilibrium in the contaminated creek (1.041-1.102 ± 0.007). Uranium concentrations in water, sediment and sediment leachates are highest downstream of the mine, but decrease rapidly after mixing with the clean branch of the stream. Uranium content and compositions of the contaminated creek headwaters relative to the mine tailings of the Juniper Mine suggest that uranium has been weathered from the mine and deposited in the creek. The distribution of uranium between sediment surfaces (leachable fraction) and bulk sediment suggests that adsorption is a key element of transfer along the creek. In clean creek samples, uranium is concentrated in the sediment residues, whereas in the contaminated creek, uranium is concentrated on the sediment surfaces (∼70-80% of uranium in leachable fraction). Contamination only exceeds the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water in the sample with the closest proximity to the mine. Isotopic characterization of the uranium in this system coupled with concentration measurements suggest that the current state of contamination in Red Rock Creek is best described by mixing between the clean creek and contaminated upper branch of Red Rock Creek rather than mixing directly with mine sediment.

  18. Creating diverse wildlife habitat at La Plata mine, Northwestern New Mexico, a case study: part 2. soils and vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musslewhite, B.D.; Buchanan, B.A.; Ramsey, T.C.; Hamilton, J.S.; Luther, J. [Buchanan Consultants Ltd., Farmington, NM (United States)


    Biodiversity has increasingly become an important issue in determining the success of reclaimed minelands. The post-mine land-use of La Plata Mine is wildlife habitat, primarily for ungulates and small mammals. A reclamation plan was developed to promote biodiversity of reclaimed lands through the use of variable soil substrates, landscape features, and targeted seed mixes. A GIS was used to delineate the post-mine final surface contour into eight slope classes and eight aspect classes. The class information was used to develop four reclamation land types: 1. Upland shrub - north aspects, 2. Upland shrub - south aspects, 3. Grassland, and 4. Drainage. These land types correspond to four reclamation vegetation types. Suitable spoil materials and coarse textured topsoil materials were targeted for use on strongly sloping areas to minimize soil loss. Finer textured topsoil materials were targeted for the grassland and drainage types. The replacement depth of topsoil and topsoil substitute materials was varied for the reclamation vegetation types. Pre-mine vegetation inventories were used to develop unique seed mixes specific to physical habitat conditions exhibited by each land-type. Research conducted at La Plata Mine found that topsoil replacement thickness less than 15 cm promotes shrub establishment and topsoil thickness greater than 30 cm promotes native grass species. Therefore, areas designated for shrub communities will receive an average of 10 cm of topsoil or topsoil substitute material and the areas designated for grassland and drainage type communities will receive a minimum of 40 cm of topsoil. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Surface water characterization of three rivers in the lead/zinc mining region of northeastern Macedonia. (United States)

    Ramani, Sheriban; Dragun, Zrinka; Kapetanović, Damir; Kostov, Vasil; Jordanova, Maja; Erk, Marijana; Hajrulai-Musliu, Zehra


    Mine waste is recognized as being one of the most serious threats for freshwater ecosystems, and it still represents one of the greatest environmental concerns in Macedonia. The aim of our investigation was to obtain an in-depth understanding of mining influence on freshwater systems from water contamination to effects on aquatic organisms. In this study, we assessed the impact of active lead (Pb)/zinc (Zn) mines Zletovo and Toranica on the water quality of three rivers in northeastern Macedonia (Bregalnica, Zletovska, and Kriva rivers) based on data collected in spring and autumn of 2012. The Bregalnica River, near Shtip, was characterized mainly by weak contamination with arsenic, barium, iron, molybdenum, titanium, uranium, vanadium, nitrate, and phosphate, as well as critical faecal pollution, which alltogether could be connected to agricultural activities; however, an impact of the mines was not observed. Contrary, both the Zletovska and Kriva rivers showed a clear impact of Pb/Zn mines on water quality. In the Zletovska River, increased concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt, cesium, copper, lithium, manganese (Mn), nickel, rubidium, tin, strontium, thallium, Zn, sulphates, and chlorides were found, especially in autumn (e.g., Cd 2.0 μg L(-1); Mn 2.5 mg L(-1); Zn 1.5 mg L(-1)). In the Kriva River, increased Cd (0.270 μg L(-1)) and Pb (1.85 μg L(-1)) concentrations were found only in spring, possibly due to sediment resuspension during greater water discharge. The selected sampling sites on the Bregalnica, Zletovska, and Kriva rivers were confirmed as being appropriate locations for further studies of mining waste's impact on freshwater ecosystems, the first one as a nonimpacted site and the other two as possible areas of increased exposure of aquatic organisms to metals.

  20. Screening of emerging contaminants and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in reclaimed water for irrigation and groundwater in a volcanic aquifer (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain). (United States)

    Estévez, Esmeralda; Cabrera, María del Carmen; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Robles-Molina, José; Palacios-Díaz, María del Pino


    In semiarid regions, reclaimed water can be an important source of emerging pollutants in groundwater. In Gran Canaria Island, reclaimed water irrigation has been practiced for over thirty years and currently represents 8% of water resources. The aim of this study was to monitor contaminants of emerging concern and priority substances (2008/105/EC) in a volcanic aquifer in the NE of Gran Canaria where the Bandama Golf Course has been sprinkled with reclaimed water since 1976. Reclaimed water and groundwater were monitoring quarterly from July 2009 to May 2010. Only 43% of the 183 pollutants analysed were detected: 42 pharmaceuticals, 20 pesticides, 12 polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 2 volatile organic compounds and 2 flame retardants. The most frequent compounds were caffeine, nicotine, chlorpyrifos ethyl, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene. Concentrations were always below 50 ng L(-1), although some pharmaceuticals and one pesticide, cholrpyrifos ethyl, were occasionally detected at higher concentrations. This priority substance for surface water exceeded the maximum threshold (0.1 μg L(-1)) for pesticide concentration in groundwater (2006/118/EC). Sorption and degradation processes in soil account for more compounds being detected in reclaimed water than in groundwater, and that some contaminants were always detected in reclaimed water, but never in groundwater (flufenamic acid, propyphenazone, terbutryn and diazinon). Furthermore, erythromycin was always detected in reclaimed water (exceeding occasionally 0.1 μg L(-1)), and was detected only once in groundwater. In contrast, some compounds (phenylephrine, nifuroxazide and miconazole) never detected in reclaimed water, were always detected in groundwater. This fact and the same concentration range detected for the groups, regardless of the water origin, indicated alternative contaminant sources (septic tanks, agricultural practices and sewerage breaks). The widespread detection of high adsorption potential compounds

  1. Bioassessment of heavy metals in the surface soil layer of an opencast mine aimed for its rehabilitation. (United States)

    Ličina, Vlado; Akšić, Milica Fotirić; Tomić, Zorica; Trajković, Ivana; Antić Mladenović, Svetlana; Marjanović, Milena; Rinklebe, Jörg


    The contemporary reclamation method in an opencast coal mine closure comprises the use of the preserved surface soil layer (SSL) before mining, and can be directly returned to the areas being rehabilitated. The present study emphasizes a risk in the use of such a SSL in mine rehabilitation due to the possible excessive amount of heavy metals which usually derives from a metal-rich sediment or fluvial character of overburden material. This indication was approved by the bioassessment of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in root and aerial parts of maize (Zea mays), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum sativum), white clover (Trifolium repens), pasture (Poales sp.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and carrot (Daucus carota) grown on SSL in the opencast mine area. The fluvial layers of the investigated mine SSL revealed the excessive existence of Ni and Cr, probably of geogenic origin, according to the X-ray diffraction (XRD) which detected Ni- and Cr-bearing minerals in soil fractions. In addition, the highest residual fraction of these two heavy metals, obtained by sequential extraction analyses, together with all other tested soil parameters, supported this assumption. Nevertheless, the accumulations of Cr in tomato fruit (2.93 mg kg(-1)), potato tuber (5.89 mg kg(-1)) and carrot root (7.35 mg kg(-1)) grown on the investigated SSL were found to exceed a critical level of this element for human nutrition. However, despite the evident excess of Ni in the investigated SSL, a similar trend was not found in edible part of plants. The transfer and mobility of the investigated metals was evaluated using the accumulation factor (AF restoration after mining for food/fodder production, or it could indicate the potential risks of the presence of heavy metals regarding its possible use in improving the human

  2. Failure characteristics of surface vertical wells for relieved coal gas and their influencing factors in Huainan mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hongjie; Sang Shuxun; Fang Liangcai; Huang Huazhou; Ren Bo


    Based on data from through-hole and logging, we studied the failure characteristics of surface drainage wells for relieved coal gas in Huainan mining area and its influencing factors. The results show that the damaged positions of drainage wells are mainly located at the thick clay layer in the low alluvium and the lithological interface in the upper section of bedrock in west mining area. The failure depth of casing is 244-670 m and concentrates at about 270-460 m deep. These damaged positions are mainly located in the bending zone according to three zones of rock layers in the vertical section above the roof divided. Generally, the casing begins to deform or damage before the face line about 30-150 m. Special formation structure and rock mass properties are the direct causes of the casing failure, high mining height and fast advancing speed are fundamental reasons for rock mass damage. However, the borehole configuration and spacing to the casing failure are not very clear.

  3. Study of biofilm influenced corrosion on cast iron pipes in reclaimed water (United States)

    Zhang, Haiya; Tian, Yimei; Wan, Jianmei; Zhao, Peng


    Biofilm influenced corrosion on cast iron pipes in reclaimed water was systemically studied using the weight loss method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results demonstrated that compared to sterile water, the existence of the biofilm in reclaimed water promoted the corrosion process significantly. The characteristics of biofilm on cast iron coupons were examined by the surface profiler, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The bacterial counts in the biofilm were determined using the standard plate count method and the most probable number (MPN). The results demonstrated that the corrosion process was influenced by the settled bacteria, EPS, and corrosion products in the biofilm comprehensively. But, the corrosion mechanisms were different with respect to time and could be divided into three stages in our study. Furthermore, several corresponding corrosion mechanisms were proposed for different immersion times.

  4. A study on optimization and rehabilitation of damaged land of surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sun Duck; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)


    The demand of nonmetal minerals is ever increasing according to the expansion of national economy. Especially, limestone takes more than 75% of total production of nonmetal minerals, and 125 limestone mines are producing 84,740,000 tones annually 90% of which are adopting open pit mining system. However, recently, open pit mining systems are being discouraged by the stringent environmental regulations. In this research, general survey for present status and difficulties in view of operational and regulatory point of view. Considering production scale, shape of deposit, topography and quality, new mining system has been researched for minimizing environmental impacts and maximizing economical viability. Two sample mines were chosen and the model design were suggested one of which steeply inclined deposit producing 500,000 m{sup 3}/year and the other one is mildly inclines deposit producing 2,040,000 m{sup 3}/year. In case of former one, replacing stationary crusher by portable one, 14,440 cm{sup 2} of forest damage could be reduced and cost savings of 698.53 won/m{sup 3}, internal rate of return of 22.98% and pay back period of 4.3 year could be achieved respectively. On the other hand, in case of latter one, by redesign of blasting methods and hauling route, 207,192 m{sup 2} of forest damage could be reduced and cost savings of 999 won/m{sup 3}, internal rate of return of 96.2% and pay back period of 1.0 year could be achieved respectively. (author). 16 refs., 54 tabs., 35 figs.

  5. The abandoned surface mining sites in the Czech Republic: mapping and creating a database with a GIS web application (United States)

    Pokorný, Richard; Tereza Peterková, Marie


    Based on the vectorization of the 55-volume book series the Quarry Inventories of the Czechoslovak Republic/Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, published in the years 1932-1961, a new comprehensive database was built comprising 9958 surface mining sites of raw materials, which were active in the first half of the 20th century. The mapped area covers 40.9 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. For the purposes of visualization, a map application, the Quarry Inventories Online, was created that enables the data visualization.

  6. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk


    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  7. Evolution of the October 1999 Hector Mine Earthquake surface rupture: a decadal view (United States)

    Sousa, F.; Stock, J. M.; Akciz, S. O.


    We report on the first ever decadal scale repetition of a high density 3D aerial laser scan covering practically all of a large earthquake surface rupture. The scan was acquired by the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM) on May 27, 2012 along a 50 km stretch of the surface rupture of the October 16, 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine Earthquake. This new scan averages 1100 m total width, overlapping with and significantly increasing the breadth of a previous LiDAR scan acquired on April 19, 2000 by the USGS and Aerotech, LLC. Together, the two datasets comprise a 4D (12 year) snapshot of the post-event landscape evolution of a well-defined fault scarp and its immediate environs as well as a test case for characterization of the interplay between landscape evolution through human timescales and offset measurements made on geomorphic features visible in LiDAR derived DEMs. We investigate a 2 km long focus zone of the Lavic Lake fault where it cuts through Neogene volcanic rocks in the Bullion Mountains, a sparsely vegetated area which contains both the maximum horizontal offset measurements from field study and April 2000 LiDAR DEMs and the highest density of April 2000 LiDAR DEM offset measurements. After gridding both the 2000 and 2012 point cloud data for this zone into exactly congruent 0.5 m resolution DEMs we directly subtracted the two raster DEMs. This new raster elucidates specific and quantifiable areas of erosion and aggradation and shows that no measurable post-seismic slip has occurred within the focus zone during the interscan period. An unresolvable (sub-pixel) roughly southward horizontal shift of the 2012 data throughout the entire focus zone is present and could be due to a combination of factors including tectonic motion relative to the modeled plate velocities inherent in the reference frame or inaccuracies in either the April 2000 or May 2012 scan geolocations. Within the focus zone, 28 offset measurements were made previously using the

  8. Soil genesis of mine spoil, Navajo Mine, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, B.A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Stutz, H.C. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Estrada, O.J. [BHP - Utah International Inc., Fruitland, NM (United States)


    Documenting mine spoil genesis has been limited in the Western States. Few areas have {open_quotes}before{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}after{close_quotes} type data and for some mines older reclamation areas are limited. Soil samples were collected from 8-11 year old reclaimed spoil as part of a rooting depth study completed in June 1987 at the Navajo Mine. Samples were collected in 25 cm increments to depths of at least 200 cm and most often to 350 cm at a total of fifteen different reclamation plots. The spoil was composed of various amounts of shale and sandstone. The sites represented different topographic positions (swale/backslope), reclamation ages (8 to 11 years), slopes (0-15%), and topdressing treatments (with and without).

  9. 30 CFR 717.14 - Backfilling and grading of road cuts, mine entry area cuts, and other surface work areas. (United States)


    ... to prevent leaching of toxic pollutants. Barren rock or similar materials excess to the mining... MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS UNDERGROUND MINING GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 717.14 Backfilling and grading of road cuts, mine entry area...

  10. The effect of selenium on spoil suitability as root zone material at Navajo Mine, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, J.R.; Buchanan, B.A. [Buchanan Consultants, Ltd., Farmington, NM (United States); Ramsey, T.C. [BHP-Minerals, Fruitland, NM (United States)


    The root zone suitability limits for spoil Se at Navajo Mine in northwest New Mexico are currently 0.8 ppm total Se and 0.15 ppm hot-water soluble Se. These criteria were largely developed by the Office of Surface Mining using data from the Northern Great Plains. Applying these values, approximately 23% of the spoil volume and 47% of the spoil area sampled at Navajo Mine from 1985 to December 1993 were determined to be unsuitable as root zone material. Secondary Se accumulator plants (Atriplex canescens) growing in both undisturbed and reclaimed areas were randomly sampled for selenium from 1985 to December 1993. In most cases the undisturbed soil and reclaimed spoil at these plant sampling sites were sampled for both total and hot-water soluble Se. Selenium values for Atriplex canescens samples collected on the undisturbed sites averaged 0.64 ppm and ranged from 0.20 ppm to 2.5 ppm. Selenium values for the plants growing on spoil ranged from 0.02 ppm to 7.75 ppm and averaged 1.07 ppm. Total and hot-water Se values for spoil averaged 0.66 ppm and 0.06 ppm respectively, and ranged from 0.0 to 14.2 for total Se and 0.0 ppm to 0.72 ppm for hot-water soluble Se. The plant Se values were poorly correlated to both total and hot-water soluble Se values for both soil and spoil. Therefore, predicting suitable guidelines using normal regression techniques was ineffective. Based on background Se levels in native soils, and levels found on reclaimed areas with Atriplex canescens, it is suggested that a total Se level of 2.0 ppm and a hot-water soluble Se level of 0.25 ppm should be used to represent the suitability limits for Se at Navajo Mine. If these Se values are used, it is estimated that less than 1% of the spoil volume would be unsuitable. This volume of spoil seems to be a more accurate estimate of the amount of spoil with unsuitable levels of Se than the estimated 23% using the current guidelines.

  11. Proceedings of the twenty-third annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium: mine decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The symposium covered a spectrum of reclamation issues relevant to mining in British Columbia. The proceedings contain the twenty-one technical papers presented and a report by the awards subcommittee concerning citations awarded. Papers are included on native species in reclamation, bat conservation, biological removal of selenium, wetland cells for removing heavy metals leachates, end land use plan for a copper mine, environmental projects at Fording Coal, reclamation at a nickel plate tailings facility, forestry for end use, contaminated site legislation, compliance, environmental management considerations, acid rock drainage prediction, granular cover system for tailings management, long-term management of tailings and tailings dams at decommissioned mining properties, mine subsidence risk management, reclaiming subsidence in abandoned mining areas, and reclamation of mine openings. Two papers are abstracted separately.

  12. The cumulative effect of three decades of phosphogypsum amendments in reclaimed marsh soils from SW Spain: (226)Ra, (238)U and Cd contents in soils and tomato fruit. (United States)

    Abril, José-María; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Enamorado, Santiago M; Hurtado, M Dolores; Andreu, Luis; Delgado, Antonio


    Phosphogypsum (PG), a by-product of the phosphate fertiliser industries, has been applied as soil amendment to reduce Na saturation in soils, as in the reclaimed marsh area from SW Spain, where available PG has a typical fingerprint of 710+/-40 Bq kg(-1) of (226)Ra, 165+/-15 Bq kg(-1) of (238)U and 2.8+/-0.4 mg kg(-1) of Cd. This work was focussed on the cumulative effects of PG amendments on the enrichment of these pollutants in cultivated soils and plants (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill L.) from the area studied, where PG has been applied since 1978 at recommended rates of 20-25 Mg ha(-1) every 2-3 years. A field experiment was conducted over three years to compare activity concentrations of (226)Ra ((214)Pb) and (238)U ((234)Th) in non-reclaimed soils, reclaimed soils with no additional PG application, and reclaimed soils with two additional PG applications. A non-significant effect of two PG amendments (in three years) was observed when compared with non-amended reclaimed plots. Nevertheless, a significant (p<0.05) enrichment of (226)Ra was observed in the surface horizon (0-30 cm) of reclaimed plots relative to deeper horizons and also when compared with the surface horizon of non-reclaimed soil (p<0.05), thereby revealing the cumulative effect of three decades of PG applications. Furthermore, the effect of a continuous application of PG was studied by analysing soils and tomato fruits from six commercial farms with different cumulative rates of PG applied. Cadmium concentrations in tomatoes, which were one order of magnitude higher than those found in tomatoes from other areas in South Spain, were positively correlated (r = 0.917) with (226)Ra-concentration in soils, which can be considered an accurate index of the cumulative PG rate of each farm.

  13. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang


    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  14. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines. (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao


    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  15. Test results on re-use of reclaimed shower water: Summary. [space stations (United States)

    Verostko, C. E.; Garcia, R.; Sauer, R.; Linton, A. T.; Elms, T.; Reysa, R. P.


    A microgravity whole body shower (WBS) and waste water recovery systems (WWRS) were evaluated in three separate closed loop tests. Following a protocol similar to that anticipated for the U.S. Space Station, test subjects showered in a prototype whole body shower. The WWRS processes evaluated during the test series were phase change and reverse osmosis (RO). A preprototype Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem phase change process was used for the initial test with chemical pretreatment of the shower water waste input. The second and third tests concentrated on RO technologies. The second test evaluated a dynamic RO membrane consisting of zirconium oxide polyacrylic acid (ZOPA) membranes deposited on the interior diameter of 316L porous stainless steel tubes while the final test employed a thin semipermeable RO membrane deposited on the interior surface of polysulfone hollow fibers. All reclaimed water was post-treated for purity using ion exchange and granular activated carbon beds immediately followed by microbial control treatment using both heat and iodine. The test hardware, controls exercised for whole body showering, types of soaps evaluated, shower subject response to reclaimed water showering, and shower water collection and chemical pretreatment (if required) for microbial control are described. The WWRS recovered water performance and the effectiveness of the reclaimed water post-treatment techniques used for maintaining water purity and microorganism control are compared. Results on chemical and microbial impurity content of the water samples obtained from various locations in the shower water reuse system are summarized.

  16. 77 FR 26574 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Celatom Mine Expansion... (United States)


    ... disturbed through portions of the 50-year lifespan of the mine. Exploration, sampling and monitoring will... and then be reclaimed. Monitoring sites will remain active for the 50-year lifespan of the mine. The... wells and conducting exploratory drilling on 200 acres of BLM-administered land, development...

  17. Estimation of carbon sequestration in reclaimed coalmine degraded land dominated by Albizia lebbeck, Dalbergia sissoo and Bambusa arundinacea plantation: a case study from Jharia Coalfields, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rimi Das; Subodh Kumar Maiti


    Reclaimed mined lands provide an excellent opportunity to sequester carbon and combat global warming.Carbon sequestration on reclaimed sites depend on age of reclamation,composition of species,geomining conditions (soil characteristics) and prevailing climate.The aims of the present study were to calculate carbon ?—stock of biomass of 4 years old plantation (dominated by Albizia lebbeck,Dalbergia sissoo and Bambusa arundinacea),understorey vegetation and litter,soil organic carbon in reclaimed minesoil (RMS) and compare with reference forest site.Allometric equation was used for the estimation of biomass C stock and found 13.0 Mg C ha-1 (A lebbeck 7.8 Mg C ha-1,D sissoo 3.5 Mg C ha-1 and B.arundincea 1.2 Mg C ha-1),while stock of understorey vegetation was 0.98 Mg C ha-1.In RMS,C stock was 16.3 Mg C ha-1,out of which inorganic C contributed 1.7 g kg-1 (8 % of total soil C),Coal C 8.7 g kg-1(43 % of total soil C) and biogenic C 9.8 g kg-1 (49 % of total soil C).Total C stock in reclaimed site was calculated as 30.3 Mg C ha-1 (equivalent to 111 Mg CO2 ha-1).The study concluded that (i) coal C is responsible for overestimation of C stock in RMS (ii) Maximun C stock stored in aboveground biomass component and (iii) reclaimed mined lands will take approximately 17 years to reach the level of C stock of reference forest site in dry tropical climate.

  18. Trophic-metabolic activity of earthworms (Lumbricidae as a zoogenic factor of maintaining reclaimed soils’ resistance to copper contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Kulbachko


    Full Text Available Soil contamination by heavy metals, first of all, influences biological and ecological conditions, and it is able to change the conservative soil features, such as humus content, aggregation, acidity and others, leading to partial or total diminishing of soil fertility and decrease in soil economic value. Zoogenic issues of soil protective capacity formation in conditions of heavy metal content rise under technogenesis have been studied. The article discusses the features of earthworm trophic-metabolic activity in the afforested remediated site (Western Donbass, Ukraine with different options of mixed soil bulk. Western Donbass is the large center of coal mining located in South-Western part of Ukraine. High rates of technical development in this region lead to surface subsidence, rising and outbreak of high-mineralized groundwater, and formation of dump pits of mine wastes. Remediated area is represented by the basement of mine wastes covered by 5 options of artificial mixed soil with different depth of horizons. The following tree species were planted on top of artificial soil: Acer platanoides L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Juniperus virginiana L. The main practical tasks were to define on the quantitative basis the buffer capacity of artificial mixed soil and earthworm excreta in relation to copper contamination and to compare its immobilization capacity in conditions of artificial forest plants in the territory of Western Donbass. It was proved that earthworm excreta had a great influence on soil immobilization capacity (particularly, on soil buffering to copper which increased for excreta in the following range: humus-free loess loam – top humus layer of ordinary chernozem. Immobilization efficiency of copper by earthworm excreta from ordinary chernozem bulk compared with baseline (ordinary chernozem was significantly higher. It should be noted that trophic-metabolic activity of earthworms plays very important role as a zoogenic factor

  19. Dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the characteristics of used sodium silicate sand and the different use requirements for recycled sand, "dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand" is considered as the most suitable technique for the used sand. When the recycled sand is used as support sand, the used sand is only reused by dry process including breaking, screening, dust-removal, etc., and it is not necessary that the used sand is reclaimed with strongly rubbing and scraping method, but when the recycled sand is used as facing sand (or single sand), the used sand must be reclaimed by wet method for higher removal rate of the residual binders. The characteristics and the properties of the dry reused sand are compared with the wet reclaimed sand after combining the different use requirements of support sand and facing sand (or single sand), and above the most adaptive scheme has also been validated.

  20. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining. (United States)


    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... prior to mining. Prior to reopening any surface coal mine after it has been abandoned or declared... an authorized representative of the Secretary before any mining operations in such mine are...

  1. Endocrine disrupting compounds reduction and water quality improvement in reclaimed municipal wastewater: A field-scale study along Jialu River in North China. (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Ji, Xiaowen; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Yu; Liang, Ying; Du, Jinhui; Xie, Xianchuan; Li, Aimin


    Several ecological restoration projects have been constructed along urban rivers in North China to purify reclaimed municipal wastewater and improve the water quality of urban rivers. These projects attempt to address several environmental issues, including treating water contamination that is not fully remediated through standard wastewater treatment. This study investigated the efficiency of reducing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and estrogenic activity in reclaimed municipal wastewater along an 18.5 km field-scale ecological restoration project in Jialu River. The river only receives reclaimed municipal wastewater without natural effluent in North China. Data show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) of reclaimed municipal effluent improved when compared to the Chinese surface water standard, and natural estrogens, such as estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2), were effectively removed during ecological restoration purification processes. The estradiol activity based on measured EDCs concentrations (ΣEEQEDC) was less than 0.01 ng/L after the ecological purification of restoration river; however, synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds in reclaimed municipal wastewater, such as octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), were difficult to eliminate. The bioassays of MDA-kb2 cells and recombinant yeast in vitro showed no direct androgen response and estrogen effect in reclaimed municipal effluent after the purification processes. However, a chorionic long-term (21d) exposure in vivo test showed that exposure to the reclaimed municipal effluents, even after river purification, still significantly induced yolk protein vitellogenin (Vtg) in male zebrafish, leading to abnormal expression of testosterone (T) and E2. This indicates continued potent estrogenic activity to aquatic organisms, even after treatment and purification.

  2. Detecting surface coal mining areas from remote sensing imagery: an approach based on object-oriented decision trees (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoji; Liu, Zhifeng; He, Chunyang; Ma, Qun; Wu, Jianguo


    Detecting surface coal mining areas (SCMAs) using remote sensing data in a timely and an accurate manner is necessary for coal industry management and environmental assessment. We developed an approach to effectively extract SCMAs from remote sensing imagery based on object-oriented decision trees (OODT). This OODT approach involves three main steps: object-oriented segmentation, calculation of spectral characteristics, and extraction of SCMAs. The advantage of this approach lies in its effective integration of the spectral and spatial characteristics of SCMAs so as to distinguish the mining areas (i.e., the extracting areas, stripped areas, and dumping areas) from other areas that exhibit similar spectral features (e.g., bare soils and built-up areas). We implemented this method to extract SCMAs in the eastern part of Ordos City in Inner Mongolia, China. Our results had an overall accuracy of 97.07% and a kappa coefficient of 0.80. As compared with three other spectral information-based methods, our OODT approach is more accurate in quantifying the amount and spatial pattern of SCMAs in dryland regions.

  3. Geochemistry and Modes of Occurrence of Hazardous Trace Elements in the No.11 Coal Seam, Antaibao Surface Mine, Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Dangyu; QIN Yong; WANG Wenfeng; ZHANG Junying; ZHENG Chuguang


    Concentrations of seventeen hazardous trace elements including As, Pb, Hg, Se, Cd, Cr, Co,Mo, Mn, Ni, U, V, Th, Be, Sb, Br and Zn in the No.11 coal seam, Antaibao surface mine, Shanxi Province were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS).Comparisons with average concentrations of trace elements in Chinese coal show that the concentrations of Hg and Cd in the No. 11 coal seam, Antaibao surface mine are much higher. They may be harmful to the environment in the process of utilization. The variations of the trace elements contents and pyritic sulfur in vertical section indicated that: (a) the concentrations of As, Pb, Mn, and pyritic sulfur decrease from roof to floor; (b) the concentrations of Cr, Zn and Mo are higher in roof,floor and lower in coal seam; (c) the concentration of Br, Sb, and Hg are higher in coal seam and lower in roof and floor; (d) the concentrations of Mo, V, Th and Al vary consistently with the ash yield.Cluster analysis of trace elements, pyritic sulfur, ash yield and major elements, such as Al, Fe, P, Ca shows that: (a) pyritic sulfur, Fe, As, Mn, Ni, Be are closely associated and reflect the influence of pyrite; (b) Mo, Se, Pb, Cr, Th, Co, Ca and Al are related to clay mineral, which is the main source of ash; (c) U, Zn, V, Na, P maybe controlled by phosphate or halite; (d) Hg, Br, Sb and Cd may be mainly organic-associated elements which fall outside the three main groups. The concentration distribution characteristics of trace elements in coal seam and the cluster analysis of major and trace elements showed that the contents of trace elements in the No. 11 coal seam, Antaibao surface mine, are mainly controlled by detrital input and migration from roof and floor.

  4. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Corral Creek area, Hanging Woman Creek coal field, southeastern Montana (United States)

    McClymonds, N.E.


    The Corral Creek area of the Hanging Woman Creek coal field, 9 miles east of the Decker coal mines near the Tongue River, contains large reserves of Federal coal that have been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study was conducted in the area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to study assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Hydrogeologic data collected indicate that aquifers are coal and sandstone beds within the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age) and sand and gravel in valley alluvium (Pleistocene and Holocene age). Surface-water resources are limited to a few spring-fed stock ponds in the higher parts of the area and the intermittent flow of Corral Creek near the mouth. Most of the stock ponds in the area become dry by midsummer. Mining of the Anderson coal bed would remove three stock wells and would lower the potentiometric surface within the coal and sandstone aquifers. The alluvial aquifer beneath Corral Creek and South Fork would be removed. Although mining would alter the existing hydrologic systems and remove several shallow wells, alternative ground-water supplies are available that could be developed to replace those lost by mining. (USGS)

  5. Landform design conditions Runoff and erosion control on reclaimed areas; Diseno de la Morfologia y Red de Drenaje en la Restaurationes Mineras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Landform construction in Utrillas coal field, where the MFUSA Company is operating, is based on the runoff sharing out, making up different hydrological catchment. Artificial slopes, flat platforms, and the dram age network, with channels and small ponds, compose reclaimed cathments, which are connected to the natural drainage network. The goal of the project is to set up some tools for Landform design, i. e. hydrological and erosion models. The models give a quantitative base for predicting the long-term stability of reclaimed catchments. Empirical values of the parameters have been obtained by measuring runoff and sediments rates at the slope and catchments level. Runoff is predicted by applying the Curve Number Method. RUSLE 1.06, Rusle for Mined Lands, Construction Sites and Reclaimed Lands, is applied for soil erosion prediction at slope scale and MUSLE at catchment scale. It is explained the methodology for applying these models in others coal fields. Finally rules for conservation and management of the reclaimed catchments are given, emphasizing the influence of the Mediterranean-Continental climate. (Author)

  6. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper


    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and

  7. 3D geological modeling of surface coal mine based on AutoCAD%基于AutoCAD的露天煤矿三维地质建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金金; 白润才; 刘光伟; 赵浩


    3D geological modeling of surface coal mine is a core component of Digital Mine. The establishment of 3D geological model provides decisions for the estimation and design of Open Pit Coal Mine, and the models have an important guiding significance during the mine' s production and provide more important information for the designers. This paper, by taking specific surface coal mine for example, introduces the technique of 3D geological modeling of surface coal mine based on AutoCAD, builds 3D 3D geological model, displays the 3D geological updates 3D geological model, simulation mining, geological modeling of the mine, applies it in engineering, establishes model in any direction, builds the drilling database, modifies and and so on. The establishment of 3D geological model enables mining engineers in a real three - dimensional environment and in the approach of "human - computer interaction", so as to realize the mining design and mining plan, and so on.%露天煤矿三维地质模型的建立是矿山数字化的核心组成部分.三维地质模型的建立,对矿山的经济评价、采矿设计和生产管理都具有重要的指导意义.以具体露天煤矿为例,介绍了基于AutoCAD的三维地质建模技术,建立了该矿的三维地质模型并将其应用于工程实际,实现了该矿的三维地质模型建立和可视化显示,以及钻孔数据库的建立、模型的修改与实时动态更新、模拟开采等功能,使矿山工程技术人员在一个真三维环境中,利用三维可视化模拟开采技术,以“人机交互”的方式进行露天矿开采设计、生产计划编制等.

  8. Failure of man-made cavities in salt and surface subsidence due to sulfur mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, G.K.; Lee, C.A.; McClain, W.C.; Senseny, P.E.


    An engineering data base relevant to subsidence due to sulfur mining and to structural failure of cavities in salt is established, evaluated and documented. Nineteen failure events are discussed. Based on these documented failure events, capabilities of and inputs to a mathematical model of cavity failure are determined. Two failure events are adequately documented for use in model verification studies. A conclusion of this study that is pertinent to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve is that cavity failures in dome salt are fairly rare, but that as the number of large cavities (especially those having large roof spans) increases, failures will probably be more common unless stability and failure mechanisms of cavities are better understood.

  9. Results of investigations on reducing the lumpiness of gray clay removed from the Kosovo surface mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizvanoli, F.


    Tectonic disturbances, fractures, crushing properties and other features of the gray clay overburden reduced the output of bucket wheel excavators and caused frequent breakdowns in mine operation. It was found that clay lumpiness may be reduced by undertaking the following measures: 1) improving bucket wheel design and construction; 2) applying horizontal cutting of clay seams and secondary crushing of excavated clay by installation of a clay crusher on the bucket wheel excavators. The results of 90 days of observation of SRs-470 and SRs-1300 bucket wheel excavators with 6, 16 and 21 buckets are described. On one of the SRs-1300 bucket wheel excavators, a crusher was installed in order to avoid breakdowns in operation of excavator, belt conveyor system and waste stackers. (4 refs.) (In Serbo-Croat)

  10. Distinct element modelling of fracture plan control in continuum and jointed rock mass in presplitting method of surface mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharafisafa Mansour; Aliabadian Zeinab; Alizadeh Rezvan; Mortazavi Ali


    Controlled blasting techniques are used to control overbreak and to aid in the stability of the remaining rock formation. Presplitting is one of the most common methods which is used in many open pit mining and surface blast design. The purpose of presplitting is to form a fracture plane across which the radial cracks from the production blast cannot travel. The purpose of this study is to investigate of effect of pre-splitting on the generation of a smooth wall in continuum and jointed rock mass. The 2D distinct element code was used to simulate the presplitting in a rock slope. The blast load history as a function of time was applied to the inner wall of each blasthole. Important parameters that were considered in the analysis were stress tensor and fracturing pattern. The blast loading magnitude and blasthole spacing and jointing pattern were found to be very significant in the final results.

  11. Photogrammetrical deformation measurements at structures located in the vicinity of surface mine slopes, and forecasting of expected deformation values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, O. (Ingenieurschule fuer Geodaesie und Kartographie, Dresden (German Democratic Republic))


    Discusses measurement of equipment stability in brown coal surface mines. A long conveyor belt system installed parallel to the spoil bank slope and a spoil belt conveyor bridge were surveyed for movements of position. Photogrammetrical measuring instrument was the UMK 10/1318 unit of Carl Zeiss Jena; for data analysis the Stecometer G and the TEBIT program systems were used. Measurement results are provided. Forecasting possible future movement of belt conveyor supports was further carried out using a mathematical collocation model and the empirical Moeser auto-covariance function of the bell shaped cosinus type. Results of mathematical forecasting are compared to repeated measurements carried out after 6 months, proving suitability of the mathematical method. 3 refs.

  12. Surface subsidence induced by the Crandall Canyon Mine (Utah) collapse: InSAR observations and elasto-plastic modelling (United States)

    Plattner, C.; Wdowinski, S.; Dixon, T. H.; Biggs, J.


    The Crandall Canyon Mine, Utah, collapse in 2007 August resulted in a total of nine fatalities. We processed data from the ALOS satellite acquired before and after the collapse to quantify surface subsidence associated with the collapse to better understand the collapse process. The deformation shows a steep V-shaped pattern of subsidence with slight asymmetry. We compare the fit of four different models that simulate the subsidence pattern. The first two models use elastic half-space rheology. We find that collapse alone cannot explain the observations, and a component of normal faulting is required to fit the data. The second set of models simulates collapse in elasto-plastic media. Only a small component of normal faulting is required in these models. We suggest that considering elasto-plastic material behaviour is particularly important for shallow deformation modelling, where microfractures and other non-elastic rheology are common. Disregarding this material behaviour can lead to biased model parameter estimates.

  13. Impact of using paper mill sludge for surface-mine reclamation on runoff water quality and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipitalo, M.J.; Bonta, J.V. [USDA ARS, Coshocton, OH (United States)


    Paper mills generate large amounts of solid waste consisting of fibrous cellulose, clay, and lime. Paper mill Sludge (PMS) can improve reclamation of surface-coal mines where low pH and organic-carbon levels in the spoil cover material can inhibit revegetation. When applied at high rates, however, PMS may adversely impact the quality of surface runoff. Therefore, we applied PMS at 0, 224, and 672 dry Mg ha{sup -1} to 22.1 x 4.6-m plots at a recently mined site and monitored runoff for a total of 13 mo. The zero-rate plots served as controls and received standard reclamation consisting of mulching with hay and fertilization at planting. Compared to the control plots, PMS reduced runoff fourfold to sixfold and decreased erosion from 47 Mg ha{sup -1} to < 1 Mg ha{sup -1}. Most of the reduction occurred in the 2.5 mo before the plots were planted. Flow-weighted average dissolved oxygen concentrations in runoff from plots at the 224 and 672 Mg ha{sup -1} rates, however, were much lower ({<=} 0.4 vs. 8.2 mg L{sup -1}) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was much higher for the 672 Mg ha{sup -1} rate plots than the control plots during the pre-plant period (7229 vs. 880 mg L{sup -1}). There were few noteworthy differences in water quality among treatments post-planting, but plant dry-matter yields were greater for the PMS plots than for the controls. The 672 Mg ha{sup -1} rate did not increase COD or nutrient loads compared to the 224 Mg ha{sup -1} rate and may have more persistent beneficial effects by increasing soil organic carbon levels and pH to a greater extent.

  14. Using reclaimed water as make-up water for a district heating system: a case study in Beijing. (United States)

    Yajun, Zhang; Huizhen, Wang; Ping, Xu; Cuimin, Feng


    Make-up water used for a district heating system in Beijing is about 63 kg/m(2).a, so the total quantity of make-up water is over 10 million m(3) per year. Water deficiency is very serious in Beijing. Using reclaimed water as make-up water is one of the important measures to relieve water crises of the city. This study is mainly on nanofiltration (NF) process. The reclaimed water for the experiment is the effluent of The Sixth Water Plant, an urban reclaimed water plant in Beijing. Micro-filter (MF) and activated carbon filtration are used as pretreatment units to eliminate turbidity, organic matter in reclaimed water to avoid contamination and scale on the surface of NF membrane. Four SAEHAN NE-90 membrane elements with an array of 2-1-1 are selected for the NF unit and the flow rate is controlled around 1 m(3)/h. Through the test, it has been verified that NF membrane has high removal rate to the salt and impurity of reclaimed water. The average salt removal rate of the system is more than 94%, while the rejections of bivalent ions are more than 98%. The removal rates of organic matter, NH(3)-N and TP are 77%, 96% and 84% respectively. Temperature is a main influence of the process. When temperature is increasing, the permeate flux is increasing as well. The operating pressure is an important factor effecting membrane flux also. By the data comparison it is confirmed that the appropriate operating pressure and the water recovery of NF system are 0.75 MPa and 63.5% respectively.

  15. 引黄河泥沙充填复垦采煤沉陷地技术的试验研究%Technique for filling reclamation of mining subsidence land with Yellow River sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振琪; 王培俊; 邵芳


    fly ash, has disadvantages of limited amount and potential contamination. Other filling material such as lake mud can only be used in mining areas close to the lake, and the thick mud layer of the reclaimed land needs about 3 years to drain away the water, which is a very long time for land reclamation. Thus new land reclamation techniques need to be explored. In this study, a new technique of filling reclamation of mining subsidence land with Yellow River sediment was implemented in an experimental site in the north of Jining City, and the technique process, reclaimed landscape and soil profiles, soil physical and chemical properties, and reclaimed farmland productivity were introduced. The results indicated that 100 percent of land could be reclaimed with the new technique, in which more than 95 percent could be reclaimed to cultivated land. The reclaimed farmland had comparable landscape with that of the control farmland, proving that the new technique was feasible. However, there were some deficiencies of the capacity to retain water and fertility for the reclaimed soil profiles. The water contents of the surface soil layer (0-20 cm), subsoil layer (>20-50 cm) and substratum (>50-80 cm) of the reclaimed farmland were 9.16%, 5.06% and 3.67%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the control farmland. The pH values of the reclaimed farmland ranged from 7.5 to 8.11, which basically met the requirements of the crops in research region. The contents of total nitrogen, available potassium and organic matter of the surface soil layer (0-20 cm), subsoil layer (>20-50 cm) and substratum (>50-80 cm) and the content of available phosphorus of the surface soil layer (0-20 cm) of the reclaimed farmland were lower than those of the control farmland. As for the reclaimed farmland, the total nitrogen contents ranged from 0.07 to 0.53 g/kg, which were in low or very low levels according to the standard classification of the Second Soil Survey of China. The

  16. 30 CFR 77.1201 - Certification of mine maps. (United States)



  17. Selecting Proper Plant Species for Mine Reclamation Using Fuzzy AHP Approach (Case Study: Chadormaloo Iron Mine of Iran) (United States)

    Ebrahimabadi, Arash


    This paper describes an effective approach to select suitable plant species for reclamation of mined lands in Chadormaloo iron mine which is located in central part of Iran, near the city of Bafgh in Yazd province. After mine's total reserves are excavated, the mine requires to be permanently closed and reclaimed. Mine reclamation and post-mining land-use are the main issues in the phase of mine closure. In general, among various scenarios for mine reclamation process, i.e. planting, agriculture, forestry, residency, tourist attraction, etc., planting is the oldest and commonly-used technology for the reclamation of lands damaged by mining activities. Planting and vegetation play a major role in restoring productivity, ecosystem stability and biological diversity to degraded areas, therefore the main goal of this research work is to choose proper and suitable plants compatible with the conditions of Chadormaloo mined area, providing consistent conditions for future use. To ensure the sustainability of the reclaimed landscape, the most suitable plant species adapted to the mine conditions are selected. Plant species selection is a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a fuzzy MCDM technique, namely Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) is developed to assist chadormaloo iron mine managers and designers in the process of plant type selection for reclamation of the mine under fuzzy environment where the vagueness and uncertainty are taken into account with linguistic variables parameterized by triangular fuzzy numbers. The results achieved from using FAHP approach demonstrate that the most proper plant species are ranked as Artemisia sieberi, Salsola yazdiana, Halophytes types, and Zygophyllum, respectively for reclamation of Chadormaloo iron mine.

  18. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. (United States)

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei


    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Hys


    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of waste heat emission in a typical industrial installation. On the basis of the process monitoring system, periodic analyses of fumes composition, installation process manual and the conducted measurements of the heat fluxes from individual sources emitting heat on the way of natural convection from the devices’ coats and forced convection in the fumes flux were calculated. According to the authors the heat of temperature 140–155 °C and surface power density 860–970 W/m2 emitted by devices’ covers can be reclaimed in ORC techniques, Peltier’s modules and the systems realising Stirling cycle. Part of the waste heat included in fumes, which makes c.a. 76% of the total emission from the installation, should be returned to the process of fuel oxidation, what will reduce the emission by c.a. 18% and the volume of consumed fuel by c.a. 25 m3 CH4/h, according to the presented calculations.

  20. Proposed criteria and indicators of ecosystem function for reclaimed oil sands sites : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welham, C.; Robinson, N. [FOR rx Consulting Inc., Belcarra, BC (Canada)


    Sustainable forest management programs develop criteria and indicator (C and I) methodologies in order to demonstrate sustainability as well as to identify problems so that remedial actions can be employed. A critical feature of forestry-based C and I is the assumption that most of the basic ecosystem functions and services are in place at the time management activities are implemented. Application of the C and I approach to open-pit mining is often problematic, as the basic attributes of an ecosystem have been largely removed during mining operations. This report described a comprehensive list of indicators of forest ecosystem function along with a description of how they might be used to assess reclamation success in the oil sands region. Indicators were compiled from a workshop conducted at the University of British Columbia. The list was constrained by the fact that reclaimed oil sands sites are large and spatially heterogenous. The spatial and temporal nature of the data meant that sampling protocols were also necessary. Robust indicators that were economically expensive were favoured. Indicators were grouped under the following 3 criteria: (1) that the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil are restored to target levels; (2) that the structure, composition and vigor of vegetation cover are restored to target levels; and (3) that critical ecosystem processes are restored to target levels. Criteria were selected to reflect the core attributes necessary for assessing development of a reclaimed ecosystem. Indicators included nitrogen-fixing symbionts; soil fauna; soil nutrients; mycorrhizae; snags; invasive species; wetland input water chemistry; foliar nutrition; nutrient budgets; and plant carbon allocation. It was noted that reference sites should be equivalent ecologically to their reclaimed analogue and located close to the restoration project, so that success in oil sands remediation projects can be evaluated by the rate at which a given

  1. Multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data for the analysis of open-pit mining earth surface dynamics (United States)

    Feng, Zengwen; Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Tarolli, Paolo


    Open-pit mining activities can affect the earth surface processes inducing soil erosion, landslides, and subsidence. The recognition and the analysis of mining induced Earth surface changes and the related processes represent, therefore, a challenge for a sustainable environmental planning for those regions affected by an intense mining activity. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effects of open-pit mining and the associated landform processes using multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data. The study area consists in an open-pit mine located in Miyun county, northern Beijing. For the study area different datasets are available for different years: a GeoEye image (2011, res. 1m/pix), two pairs of Cartosat - 1 stereo pairs (2009, 2012, res. 2.5m/pix) from which we extracted two DSMs (res. 5m/pix), an UAV aerial photograph (2014, res. 0.07m) and the derived DSM (2014, res. 0.1m). We also obtained a DTM (2014, res. 1m) from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and a DSM (2014, res. 0.5m) using the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique by a camera. These data served as the basis to recognize, through the application of morphometric indicators, the areas subject to erosion and landsliding. A volumetric estimate of soil loss from 2009 to 2014 has been also quantified using the multiple DSMs provided by the multi-platform. The recognition and the analysis of earth surface dynamics using low-cost multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing such as SfM and UAVs represents a useful tool to mitigate the environmental consequences open-pit mining, and to mitigate the related natural disaster and risk.

  2. Effects of wearing gumboots and leather lace-up boots on lower limb muscle activity when walking on simulated underground coal mine surfaces. (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R


    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing two standard underground coal mining work boots (a gumboot and a leather lace-up boot) on lower limb muscle activity when participants walked across simulated underground coal mining surfaces. Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis) and hamstring (biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscle activity were recorded as twenty male participants walked at a self-selected pace around a circuit while wearing each boot type. The circuit consisted of level, inclined and declined surfaces composed of rocky gravel and hard dirt. Walking in a leather lace-up boot, compared to a gumboot, resulted in increased vastus lateralis and increased biceps femoris muscle activity when walking on sloped surfaces. Increased muscle activity appears to be acting as a slip and/or trip prevention strategy in response to challenging surfaces and changing boot features.

  3. Acidic pit lakes. The legacy of coal and metal surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Walter; Schultze, Martin [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany); Wolkersdorfer, Christian (eds.) [Cape Breton Univ., Sydney, NS (Canada). Industrial Research Chair in Mine Water Remediation and Management; International Mine Water Association, Wendelstein (Germany). General Secretary; Kleinmann, Robert


    This monograph provides an international perspective on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, including the problem of geogenic acidification. Much has been learned during the last decade through research and practical experience on how to mitigate or remediate the environmental problems of acidic pit lakes. In the first part of the book, general scientific issues are presented in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental science, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and on the peculiar biological features that occur in the extreme habitats of acidic pit lakes. Another chapter provides an overview of methods currently used to remediate acidic pit lakes and treat outflowing acidic water. The second part of the book is a collection of regional surveys of pit lake problems from three European countries and Australia, and case studies of various individual representative lakes. A final case study provides an innovative approach to assessing the economic value of new pit lakes and balancing the costs and benefits, a valuable tool for decision makers.

  4. Soil degradation under reclaimed wastewater in arenados (Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, M.; Jimenez, C.; Hernandez-Moreno, J. M.; Diaz, F.


    In the Island of Lanzarote, one of the most arid zones of the EU, a traditional farming system based on the soil mulching with basaltic tephra, locally known as arenados, was developed since the 18th century. This dry-framing system accounts currently for more than 21% of the island surface. However, in the last decades, this system has been transformed with the incorporation of irrigation, due to the availability of new non-conventional water resources (desalinised and reclaimed municipal wastewater). (Author)

  5. Baseline studies and evaluation of effects of surface discharge of deep-sea mining - INDEX area

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sardessai, S.

    Hydrochemical properties of the water column were measured at the Indian Experiment (INDEX) site in the Central Indian Ocean Basin, as a part of baseline studies for the environmental impact assessment of benthic disturbance. The surface mixed layer...

  6. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Horse Creek area, Sheridan and Moorehead coal fields, southeastern Montana (United States)

    McClymonds, N.E.


    The Horse Creek area of the Sheridan and Moorhead coal fields, 16 miles east of the Decker Coal Mines near the Tongue River, contains large reserves of Federally owned coal that have been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study was conducted in the area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Hydrologic data collected from private wells, observation wells, test holes, and springs indicate that the aquifers are primarily coal and sandstone beds in the upper part of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age) and sand and gravel of valley alluvium (Pleistocene and Holocene age). Surface-water resources are mostly limited to a few stock ponds receiving discharge from springs in the higher ports of the area. Two stock wells, one spring, and three stock ponds receiving discharge from springs supply most of the water used within the Horse Creek basin; the only use is watering of livestock. Mining of the Anderson and Dietz coal beds would destroy one stock well and two ponds receiving discharge from springs, and would lower the potentiometric surface within the coal and sandstone aquifers. Although mining would alter existing hydrologic systems, alternative deeper water supplies are available. (USGS)

  7. 重复开采上覆岩体与地移动规律研究%Research on Overlying Strata and Surface Movement Rule in Repeated Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾元重; 李静涛; 刘娜; 刘阳; 栾亨宣; 马德鹏


    In view of the problems of repeated mining in both the upper and lower No.3 coal seams in one mine under the Weishan Lake. Shandong Province, we measured the ground movement and deformation values of lake area with GPS-RTK technology, monitored the heights of water flowing fractured zone in the mining of both upper and lower No.3 coal seams using the technology of double-head water-stopped machine of upward drill holes under the well, and established the fitted function of surface subsidence and horizontal movement. Moreover, the functional equation of intermediate layer and strata movement boundary in the repeated mining of upper and lower No.3 seams was set up by use of FLAC3D, which reveals the characteristics of surface movement and strata deformation in repeated mining of upper and lower No.3 seams in south Shandong mining area. The study is significant for the safety mining under water, and has a certain reference value for the mining areas with the similar geological and mining conditions.%针对山东某煤矿在微山湖下重复开采3上、3下煤的问题,采用GPS-RTK技术实测了湖区地表移动变形值,运用“双端堵水器”技术采用井下打仰上孔方法,实测了3上、3下煤开采覆岩导水裂缝带发育高度,并建立了地表下沉、水平移动拟合方程.运用FLAC3D数值模拟数据建立了此煤层重复开采中间岩体与岩层移动边界函数方程表达式,揭示该煤层重复开采对地表移动与岩体移动变形特征,对水体下安全开采具重大意义,对地质采矿条件类同的矿区也有参考借鉴价值.

  8. Reclaiming our roots: accomplishments and challenges. (United States)

    King, Janet


    Best practices for Native Americans are rooted in culture. However, reclaiming best practices is a challenge given the genocidal policies that outlawed Native culture. Despite this challenge Native people have proven resilient in restoring culture. The Native American Health Center in Oakland, California, has made cultural interventions an option for an urban, intertribal and sometimes multiracial Native American population to create and maintain their health on a spiritual, emotional, mental and physical level. Nevertheless, sustaining these cultural options to maintain health continues to be a challenge. While the passage of the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in 2004 in California to transform treatment of mental and behavioral health "as we know it" would seem to create a gateway for cultural options, mainstream mental health has a hard time perceiving cultural interventions as a viable means to treat mental illness and maintain wellness. Frequently, the author has attended meetings of decisionmaking bodies that oversee how MHSA money is spent and someone will blurt out after someone has described an innovative cultural intervention "What does that have to do with mental illness?" The following article discusses how the clash of the two cultures, Native and mainstream, continues to be a challenge for sustained funding to implement culturally competent programs.

  9. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Sinha, Tushar; Bowling, Laura C.; Schoups, Gerrit H.W.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Campana, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Fuller, Pam L.; Graf, William L.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Kominoski, John S.; Taylor, Carissa; Trimble, Stanley W.; Webb, Robert H.; Wohl, Ellen E.


    Increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources presents a tangible limit to the sustainability of cities, agriculture, and ecosystems in the western United States. Marc Reisner tackles this theme in his 1986 classic Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Reisner's analysis paints a portrait of region-wide hydrologic dysfunction in the western United States, suggesting that the storage capacity of reservoirs will be impaired by sediment infilling, croplands will be rendered infertile by salt, and water scarcity will pit growing desert cities against agribusiness in the face of dwindling water resources. Here we evaluate these claims using the best available data and scientific tools. Our analysis provides strong scientific support for many of Reisner's claims, except the notion that reservoir storage is imminently threatened by sediment. More broadly, we estimate that the equivalent of nearly 76% of streamflow in the Cadillac Desert region is currently appropriated by humans, and this figure could rise to nearly 86% under a doubling of the region's population. Thus, Reisner's incisive journalism led him to the same conclusions as those rendered by copious data, modern scientific tools, and the application of a more genuine scientific method. We close with a prospectus for reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert, including a suite of recommendations for reducing region-wide human appropriation of streamflow to a target level of 60%.

  10. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Sinha, Tushar; Bowling, Laura C.; Schoups, Gerrit H. W.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Campana, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Fuller, Pam L.; Graf, William L.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Kominoski, John S.; Taylor, Carissa; Trimble, Stanley W.; Webb, Robert H.; Wohl, Ellen E.


    Increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources presents a tangible limit to the sustainability of cities, agriculture, and ecosystems in the western United States. Marc Reisner tackles this theme in his 1986 classic Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Reisner's analysis paints a portrait of region-wide hydrologic dysfunction in the western United States, suggesting that the storage capacity of reservoirs will be impaired by sediment infilling, croplands will be rendered infertile by salt, and water scarcity will pit growing desert cities against agribusiness in the face of dwindling water resources. Here we evaluate these claims using the best available data and scientific tools. Our analysis provides strong scientific support for many of Reisner's claims, except the notion that reservoir storage is imminently threatened by sediment. More broadly, we estimate that the equivalent of nearly 76% of streamflow in the Cadillac Desert region is currently appropriated by humans, and this figure could rise to nearly 86% under a doubling of the region's population. Thus, Reisner's incisive journalism led him to the same conclusions as those rendered by copious data, modern scientific tools, and the application of a more genuine scientific method. We close with a prospectus for reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert, including a suite of recommendations for reducing region-wide human appropriation of streamflow to a target level of 60%. PMID:21149727

  11. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data (United States)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.


    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  12. Application of Tracer-Injection Techniques to Demonstrate Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions Between an Alpine Stream and the North Star Mine, Upper Animas River Watershed, Southwestern Colorado (United States)

    Wright, Winfield G.; Moore, Bryan


    Tracer-injection studies were done in Belcher Gulch in the upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado, to determine whether the alpine stream infiltrates into underground mine workings of the North Star Mine and other nearby mines in the area. The tracer-injection studies were designed to determine if and where along Belcher Gulch the stream infiltrates into the mine. Four separate tracer-injec-tion tests were done using lithium bromide (LiBr), optical brightener dye, and sodium chloride (NaCl) as tracer solu-tions. Two of the tracers (LiBr and dye) were injected con-tinuously for 24 hours, one of the NaCl tracers was injected continuously for 12 hours, and one of the NaCl tracers was injected over a period of 1 hour. Concentration increases of tracer constituents were detected in water discharging from the North Star Mine, substantiating a surface-water and ground-water connection between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. Different timing and magnitude of tracer breakthroughs indicated multiple flow paths with different residence times from the stream to the mine. The Pittsburgh and Sultan Mines were thought to physically connect to the North Star Mine, but tracer breakthroughs were inconclusive in water from these mines. From the tracer-injection tests and synoptic measure-ments of streamflow discharge, a conceptual model was devel-oped for surface-water and ground-water interactions between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. This information, combined with previous surface geophysical surveys indicat-ing the presence of subsurface voids, may assist with decision-making process for preventing infiltration and for the remedia-tion of mine drainage from these mines.

  13. Aggregation of surface mine soil by interaction between VAM fungi and lignin degradation products of lespedeza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, F.M. (USDA Forest Service, Berea, KY (USA). Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory)


    The external mycelium of a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus was effective in aggregating a sandy loam minesoil. The polysaccharide nature of the soil binding agent on hyphal surfaces and on the surfaces of sand particles in contact with the hyphae within the aggregate was demonstrated with the periodic acid-Schiff reagent staining reaction. A possible stabilizing mechanism for macroaggregates was proposed that involves a coupling reaction between glucosamines in the hyphal walls of the fungus with phenolic compounds released during lignin degradation of sericea lespedeza root tissue. 28 refs.

  14. Mining Hidden Gems Beneath the Surface: A Look At the Invisible Web. (United States)

    Carlson, Randal D.; Repman, Judi


    Describes resources for researchers called the Invisible Web that are hidden from the usual search engines and other tools and contrasts them with those resources available on the surface Web. Identifies specialized search tools, databases, and strategies that can be used to locate credible in-depth information. (Author/LRW)

  15. Post-reclamation water quality trend in a Mid-Appalachian watershed of abandoned mine lands. (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Wei, Honghong; Viadero, Roger C


    Abandoned mine land (AML) is one of the legacies of historic mining activities, causing a wide range of environmental problems worldwide. A stream monitoring study was conducted for a period of 7 years to evaluate the water quality trend in a Mid-Appalachian watershed, which was heavily impacted by past coal mining and subsequently reclaimed by reforestation and revegetation. GIS tools and multivariate statistical analyses were applied to characterize land cover, to assess temporal trends of the stream conditions, and to examine the linkages between water quality and land cover. In the entire watershed, 15.8% of the land was designated as AML reclaimed by reforestation (4.9%) and revegetation (10.8%). Statistic analysis revealed sub-watersheds with similar land cover (i.e. percentage of reclaimed AML) had similar water quality and all tested water quality variables were significantly related to land cover. Based on the assessment of water quality, acid mine drainage was still the dominant factor leading to the overall poor water quality (low pH, high sulfate and metals) in the watershed after reclamation was completed more than 20 years ago. Nevertheless, statistically significant improvement trends were observed for the mine drainage-related water quality variables (except pH) in the reclaimed AML watershed. The lack of pH improvement in the watershed might be related to metal precipitation and poor buffering capacity of the impacted streams. Furthermore, water quality improvement was more evident in the sub-watersheds which were heavily impacted by past mining activities and reclaimed by reforestation, indicating good reclamation practice had positive impact on water quality over time.

  16. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture. (United States)

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J


    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  17. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tielin Wang; Jon Hovland; KlauS J.Jens


    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture.Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance,and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems.This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC).Thermal reclaiming,ion exchange,and electrodialysis,although principally developed for sour gas sweetening,have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas.The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses,and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs.An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs.

  18. Surface coal mine land reclamation using a dry flue gas desulfurization product: Short-term and long-term water responses. (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Stehouwer, Richard; Tong, Xiaogang; Kost, Dave; Bigham, Jerry M; Dick, Warren A


    Abandoned coal-mined lands are a worldwide concern due to their potential negative environmental impacts, including erosion and development of acid mine drainage. A field study investigated the use of a dry flue gas desulfurization product for reclamation of abandoned coal mined land in USA. Treatments included flue gas desulfurization product at a rate of 280 Mg ha(-1) (FGD), FGD at the same rate plus 112 Mg ha(-1) yard waste compost (FGD/C), and conventional reclamation that included 20 cm of re-soil material plus 157 Mg ha(-1) of agricultural limestone (SOIL). A grass-legume sward was planted after treatment applications. Chemical properties of surface runoff and tile water (collected from a depth of 1.2m below the ground surface) were measured over both short-term (1-4 yr) and long-term (14-20 yr) periods following reclamation. The pH of surface runoff water was increased from approximately 3, and then sustained at 7 or higher by all treatments for up to 20 yr, and the pH of tile flow water was also increased and sustained above 5 for 20 yr. Compared with SOIL, concentrations of Ca, S and B in surface runoff and tile flow water were generally increased by the treatments with FGD product in both short- and long-term measurements and concentrations of the trace elements were generally not statistically increased in surface runoff and tile flow water over the 20-yr period. However, concentrations of As, Ba, Cr and Hg were occasionally elevated. These results suggest the use of FGD product for remediating acidic surface coal mined sites can provide effective, long-term reclamation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa (United States)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi


    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence

  20. Reclaiming Water from Wastewater using Forward Osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutchmiah, K.


    Water scarcity is a global issue and waste accumulation is a steadily growing one. The innovative Sewer Mining concept, described in this thesis, is an example of an integrated forward osmosis application which incorporates different technologies to attain one goal: water recovery from wastewater,

  1. Reclaiming Water from Wastewater using Forward Osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutchmiah, K.


    Water scarcity is a global issue and waste accumulation is a steadily growing one. The innovative Sewer Mining concept, described in this thesis, is an example of an integrated forward osmosis application which incorporates different technologies to attain one goal: water recovery from wastewater, a

  2. The stable isotopes of site wide waters at an oil sands mine in northern Alberta, Canada (United States)

    Baer, Thomas; Barbour, S. Lee; Gibson, John J.


    Oil sands mines have large disturbance footprints and contain a range of new landforms constructed from mine waste such as shale overburden and the byproducts of bitumen extraction such as sand and fluid fine tailings. Each of these landforms are a potential source of water and chemical release to adjacent surface and groundwater, and consequently, the development of methods to track water migration through these landforms is of importance. The stable isotopes of water (i.e. 2H and 18O) have been widely used in hydrology and hydrogeology to characterize surface water/groundwater interactions but have not been extensively applied in mining applications, or specifically to oil sands mining in northern Alberta. A prerequisite for applying these techniques is the establishment of a Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) to characterize precipitation at the mine sites as well as the development of a 'catalogue' of the stable water isotope signatures of various mine site waters. This study was undertaken at the Mildred Lake Mine Site, owned and operated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. The LMWL developed from 2 years (2009/2012) of sample collection is shown to be consistent with other LMWLs in western Canada. The results of the study highlight the unique stable water isotope signatures associated with hydraulically placed tailings (sand or fluid fine tailings) and overburden shale dumps relative to natural surface water and groundwater. The signature associated with the snow melt water on reclaimed landscapes was found to be similar to ground water recharge in the region. The isotopic composition of the shale overburden deposits are also distinct and consistent with observations made by other researchers in western Canada on undisturbed shales. The process water associated with the fine and coarse tailings streams has highly enriched 2H and 18O signatures. These signatures are developed through the non-equilibrium fractionation of imported fresh river water during evaporation from

  3. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A


    has been validated for softwoods (white pine) on several reclaimed mine sites in the southern Appalachian coal region. The classification model is a viable method for classifying post-SMCRA abandoned mined lands into productivity classes for white pine. A thinning study was established as a random complete block design to evaluate the response to thinning of a 26-year-old white pine stand growing on a reclaimed surface mine in southwest Virginia. Stand parameters were projected to age 30 using a stand table projection. Site index of the stand was found to be 32.3 m at base age 50 years. Thinning rapidly increased the diameter growth of the residual trees to 0.84 cm yr{sup -1} compared to 0.58 cm yr{sup -1} for the unthinned treatment; however, at age 26, there was no difference in volume or value per hectare. At age 30, the unthinned treatment had a volume of 457.1 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} but was only worth $8807 ha{sup -1}, while the thinned treatment was projected to have 465.8 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1}, which was worth $11265 ha{sup -1} due to a larger percentage of the volume being in sawtimber size classes.

  4. Analysis and experiment on structure parameters for an energy reclaiming suspension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An energy reclaiming suspension is proposed to reclaim vibration energy in the suspension.To study its riding performance and reclaiming energy performance,a hydraulic energy reclaiming device prototype is produced and its mechanical behavior is analyzed and tested according to the hydraulic theory.Theoretical analysis shows that mechanical behavior of the energy reclaiming device is embodied by a viscidity damping parameter and an analogous coulomb damping parameter determined by its structure;their expressions are obtained.Experimental investigation shows that theoretical predictions agree with test results.

  5. Character analysis of mining disturbance and reclamation trajectory in surface coal-mine area by time-series NDVI%基于时序NDVI的露天煤矿区土地损毁与复垦过程特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; Zipper Carl E.; 李松; Donovan Patricia F.; Wynne Randolph H.; Oliphant Adam J.; 夏清


    inspecting each individual TM/ETM image displayed through a combination of the band of 2, 3 and 4 while referencing all available high-resolution aerial images and polygon vector files defining mining permitted area. Second, each pixel’s time-series NDVI trajectory is constructed and analyzed. Based on individual inspection of training points’ NDVI trajectory and qualitative trajectory classification, the characteristic parameters, including the NDVI maximum, the NDVI minimum, the difference of NDVI maxima before and after mining, the bare-ground threshold and ever-mined threshold, are designed, computed and used to identify whether the pixel is ever mined, revegetated or revegetated to the land cover level before mining. The relationship between NDVI minimal values and ever-mined thresholds for each study-area pixel over the full time series is computed and analyzed to determine if the pixel has been mined and, if so, the date of initial disturbance. For mined areas, the relationship between NDVI trajectory and bare-ground threshold for each point in time series after mining is analyzed to determinate if excavated land has been revegetated. For those revegetated pixels, the difference of NDVI maxima before and after mining is computed in order to find if it has been fully revegetated. Thirdly, by the data analysis function of database software and the spatial analysis function of ArcGIS software, the distribution of different mining-reclamation types is analyzed. Except for un-disturbed pixel, each mined pixel was classified for each year;such classes include the mined and un-vegetated during the whole observation period; the mined and un-revegetated after mining; the mined and revegetated without fully restored to the level before mining; and the mined and revegetated with vegetative cover fully restored to the level before mining. Time durations of non-vegetated status and revegetation after initial mining disturbance are also computed for fully reclaimed pixels. The

  6. Windborne transport and surface enrichment of arsenic in semi-arid mining regions: Examples from the Mojave Desert, California (United States)

    Kim, Christopher S.; Anthony, Tyler L.; Goldstein, Daniel; Rytuba, James J.


    Gold and silver mining conducted throughout the state of California has left an environmental legacy of exposed mine wastes containing elevated levels of toxic metals and metalloids including arsenic (As), a known carcinogen. These mine tailings, particularly the fine-grained size fractions, are susceptible to weathering and windborne transport, significantly increasing the spatial extent of contamination in topsoils and potential exposure of humans to toxic metal(loid)s. Depth-based field sampling of soils surrounding several abandoned mines in the Mojave Desert (Southern CA) have identified an exponential decline in As soil enrichment with both depth and increasing distance from tailings piles to the east, consistent with prevailing west-to-east wind directions. In vitro extraction studies using a phagolysosomal simulant fluid (PSF), mimicking the inhalation of the most finely sieved size fraction of selected samples (⩽20 μm), indicate that initial solid As concentration is the strongest indicator in predicting the concentration of As released in the lung. When extraction data are incorporated into exposure risk assessment calculations, the majority of samples investigated exceed both cancer risk thresholds and non-cancer-related minimal risk levels (MRLs) based on long-term chronic exposure to airborne mine tailings dusts. This suggests that long-term residents of communities located close to these abandoned mine sites, especially those who reside downwind (i.e. east) of mine tailings piles, face possible health effects due to the inhalation of fine-grained mine tailings mobilized through aeolian processes.

  7. Ecological bases of land reclamation in the mining regions of Ukraine (United States)

    Kharytonov, Mykola; Gumentyk, Myhailo; Heilmeier, Hermann


    The mining production is situated in the several provinces of Ukraine. Specification of the problem coal and mixed sulfide mining activities in Ukraine have resulted in the generation of hundreds of millions of tons of hazardous wastes consisting of rest of manganese and iron oxides, traces of rare elements, sulphur bearing minerals, such as pyrite. These wastes have been / are still deposited, throughout the years, in huge stockpiles and dams. Land restoration in the mining region takes several forms. One of the ways is land reclamation. This way includes forest, recreation and agricultural reclamation. Land reclamation in industrial regions is conducted in one technological cycle with the process of ore mining. The soil mass is taken off, piled up and heaped onto the land after the rock has been replaced. The ecohydrogeological background of reclaimed lands forming and exploration was worked out. It foresee an environment restoration of disturbed lands to manage flow down, atmospheric precipitations taking aside, the process of the reclaimed profile biogenetic horizons formation and promotion with total depth 1.0-1.2 m and involvement of more suitable rocks and artificial drainage building. The effectiveness of different models of land reclamation and heavy metals migration through the rock-soil-plant system was investigated. Field experiments were carried out to study the adaptive potential of plants having different requirements for substrate fertility, with the main task to assess the prospects of land management for the rocks of the Nikopol manganese basin. The rocks exposed to the surface after manganese ore mining, first technical stage of landscape restoration, and plant melioration stages pass into other geochemical conditions and change their physical-chemical properties. During long-term melioration crops have dramatically improved some processes as following: bioweathering of rocks, phytomeliorated rocks fertility growth, etc. Meantime some rocks

  8. Fluvial transport and surface enrichment of arsenic in semi-arid mining regions: examples from the Mojave Desert, California. (United States)

    Kim, Christopher S; Stack, David H; Rytuba, James J


    As a result of extensive gold and silver mining in the Mojave Desert, southern California, mine wastes and tailings containing highly elevated arsenic (As) concentrations remain exposed at a number of former mining sites. Decades of weathering and erosion have contributed to the mobilization of As-enriched tailings, which now contaminate surrounding communities. Fluvial transport plays an intermittent yet important and relatively undocumented role in the migration and dispersal of As-contaminated mine wastes in semi-arid climates. Assessing the contribution of fluvial systems to tailings mobilization is critical in order to assess the distribution and long-term exposure potential of tailings in a mining-impacted environment. Extensive sampling, chemical analysis, and geospatial mapping of dry streambed (wash) sediments, tailings piles, alluvial fans, and rainwater runoff at multiple mine sites have aided the development of a conceptual model to explain the fluvial migration of mine wastes in semi-arid climates. Intense and episodic precipitation events mobilize mine wastes downstream and downslope as a series of discrete pulses, causing dispersion both down and lateral to washes with exponential decay behavior as distance from the source increases. Accordingly a quantitative model of arsenic concentrations in wash sediments, represented as a series of overlapping exponential power-law decay curves, results in the acceptable reproducibility of observed arsenic concentration patterns. Such a model can be transferable to other abandoned mine lands as a predictive tool for monitoring the fate and transport of arsenic and related contaminants in similar settings. Effective remediation of contaminated mine wastes in a semi-arid environment requires addressing concurrent changes in the amounts of potential tailings released through fluvial processes and the transport capacity of a wash.

  9. Application of Response Surface Methodology on Leaching of Iron from Partially Laterised Khondalite Rocks: A Bauxite Mining Waste (United States)

    Swain, Ranjita; Bhima Rao, R.


    In the present investigation, response surface methodology (RSM) is used for a quadratic model that continuously controls the process parameters. This model is used to optimize the removal of iron oxide from Partially Laterised Khondalite (PLK) rocks which is influenced by several independent variables namely acid concentration, time and temperature. Second order response functions are produced for leaching of iron oxide from PLK rocks-a bauxite mining waste. In RSM, Box-Behnken design is used for the process optimization to achieve maximum removal of iron oxide. The influence of the process variables of leaching of iron oxide is presented in the form of 3-D response graphs. The results of this investigation reveals that 3 M hydrochloric acid concentration, 240 min time and 373 K temperature are found to be the best conditions for removal of 99% Fe2O3. The product obtain at this condition contain 80% brightness which is suitable for ceramic and filler industry applications. The novelity of the work is that the waste can be a value added product after suitable physical beneficiation and chemical treatment.

  10. Ecological relationships of fauna and flora on a pre-law coal surface-mined area in Perry County, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.


    Pre-law coal surface-mined lands in Pyramid State Park, Perry County, Illinois, were examined 1976-1980 to determine changes in fauna and flora from that on the area in 1954-1960. Vegetative development on naturally revegetated spoils reflected diverse habitat conditions with interspersion of cover types; some of oldest spoils displayed inhibited succession while others exhibited early flood plain forest development. Ground and overstory species richness and overstory density increased since mid 1950's and ground cover domination by therophytes in 1954-1956 shifted to phanerophytes and hemicryptophytes in 1976-1978. Thirty vegetative compositional and structural parameters indicated that ground cover was limited by subcanopy rather than large scattered trees. Aquatic vegetation communities developed but hydrosphere was not well represented; emergent vegetation was limited by morphology of basins. Although isolated sites exhibited deleterious conditions, vegetation was not generally inhibited by physico-chemical factors. The 29 mammals reflected an increase in species richness. Abundance of early successional forms decreased while occupants of shrub/forest increased. Past habitat enhancement influenced wildlife distribution; and plantations attracted woodland fauna. Leveled spoil crests, valleys and clearings with fescue retarded succession and provided open areas and edges for others.

  11. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 10. Geologic influences on ground and surface waters in the lower Red River watershed, New Mexico (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoff; Caine, Jonathan; Bove, Dana; Holloway, JoAnn; Livo, Eric


    Introduction: This report is one in a series that presents results of an interdisciplinary U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study of ground-water quality in the lower Red River watershed prior to open-pit and underground molybdenite mining at Molycorp's Questa mine. The stretch of the Red River watershed that extends from just upstream of the town of Red River, N. Mex., to just above the town of Questa includes several mineralized areas in addition to the one mined by Molycorp. Natural erosion and weathering of pyrite-rich rocks in the mineralized areas has created a series of erosional scars along this stretch of the Red River that contribute acidic waters, as well as mineralized alluvial material and sediments, to the river. The overall goal of the USGS study is to infer the premining ground-water quality at the Molycorp mine site. An integrated geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical model for ground water in the mineralized-but unmined-Straight Creek drainage (a tributary of the Red River) is being used as an analog for the geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions that influenced ground-water quality and quantity in the Red River drainage prior to mining. This report provides an overall geologic framework for the Red River watershed between Red River and Questa, in northern New Mexico, and summarizes key geologic, mineralogic, structural and other characteristics of various mineralized areas (and their associated erosional scars and debris fans) that likely influence ground- and surface-water quality and hydrology. The premining nature of the Sulphur Gulch and Goat Hill Gulch scars on the Molycorp mine site can be inferred through geologic comparisons with other unmined scars in the Red River drainage.

  12. Assessment of radioactive materials and heavy metals in the surface soil around uranium mining area of Tongliao, China. (United States)

    Haribala; Hu, Bitao; Wang, Chengguo; Gerilemandahu; Xu, Xiao; Zhang, Shuai; Bao, Shanhu; Li, Yuhong


    Natural and artificial radionuclides and heavy metals in the surface soil of the uranium mining area of Tongliao, China, were measured using gamma spectrometry, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and microwave dissolution atomic fluorescence spectrometry respectively. The estimated average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs are 27.53±16.01, 15.89±5.20, 12.64±4.27, 746.84±38.24 and 4.23±4.76Bq/kg respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose rate in the air and annual effective dose rate are 46.58±5.26nGy/h and 57.13±6.45μSv, respectively. The radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices were also calculated and their mean values are within the acceptable limits. The heavy metal concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg and As from the surface soil were measured and their health risks were then determined. Although the content of Cd is much higher than the average background in China, its non-cancer and cancer risk indices are all within the acceptable ranges. These calculated hazard indices to estimate the potential radiological health risk in soil and the dose rate are well below their permissible limit. In addition the correlations between the radioactivity concentrations of the radionuclides and the heavy metals in soil were determined by the Pearson linear coefficient.

  13. Environmental impact of mining activities in the Lousal area (Portugal): chemical and diatom characterization of metal-contaminated stream sediments and surface water of Corona stream. (United States)

    Luís, Ana Teresa; Teixeira, Paula; Almeida, Salomé Fernandes Pinheiro; Matos, João Xavier; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira


    Lousal mine is a typical "abandoned mine" with all sorts of problems as consequence of the cessation of the mining activity and lack of infrastructure maintenance. The mine is closed at present, but the heavy metal enriched tailings remain at the surface in oxidizing conditions. Surface water and stream sediments revealed much higher concentrations than the local geochemical background values, which the "Contaminated Sediment Standing Team" classifies as very toxic. High concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Cd and Hg occurred within the stream sediments downstream of the tailings sites (up to: 817 mg kg(-1) As, 6.7 mg kg(-1) Cd, 1568 mg kg(-1) Cu, 1059 mg kg(-1) Pb, 82.4 mg kg(-1) Sb, 4373 mg kg(-1) Zn). The AMD waters showed values of pH ranging from 1.9 to 2.9 and concentrations of 9249 to 20,700 mg L(-1) SO(4)(-2), 959 to 4830 mg L(-1) Fe and 136 to 624 mg L(-1) Al. Meanwhile, the acid effluents and mixed stream waters also carried high contents of SO(4)(2-,) Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, and As, generally exceeding the Fresh Water Aquatic Life Acute Criteria. Negative impacts in the diatom communities growing at different sites along a strong metal pollution gradient were shown through Canonical Correspondence Analysis: in the sites influenced by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD), the dominant taxon was Achnanthidium minutissimum. However, Pinnularia acoricola was the dominant species when the environmental conditions were extremely adverse: very low pH and high metal concentrations (sites 2 and 3). Teratological forms of Achnanthidium minutissimum (Kützing) Czarnecki, Brachysira vitrea (Grunow) Ross in Hartley, Fragilaria rumpens (Kützing) G. W. F. Carlson and Nitzschia hantzschiana Rabenhorst were found. A morphometric study of B. vitrea showed that a decrease in size was evident at the most contaminated sites. These results are evidence of metal and acidic pollution.

  14. Sources of coal-mine drainage and their effects on surface-water chemistry in the Claybank Creek basin and vicinity, north-central Missouri, 1983-84 (United States)

    Blevins, Dale W.


    Eighteen sources of drainage related to past coal-mining activity were identified in the Claybank Creek, Missouri, study area, and eight of them were considered large enough to have detectable effects on receiving streams. However, only three sources (two coal-waste sites and one spring draining an underground mine) significantly affected the chemistry of water in receiving streams. Coal wastes in the Claybank Creek basin contributed large quantities of acid drainage to receiving streams during storm runoff. The pH of coal-waste runoff ranged from 2.1 to 2.8. At these small pH values, concentrations of some dissolved metals and dissolved sulfate were a few to several hundred times larger than Federal and State water-quality standards established for these constituents. Effects of acid storm runoff were detected near the mouth of North Fork Claybank Creek where the pH during a small storm was 3.9. Coal wastes in the streambeds and seepage from coal wastes also had significant effects on receiving streams during base flows. The receiving waters had pH values between 2.8 and 3.5, and concentrations of some dissolved metals and dissolved sulfate were a few to several hundred times larger than Federal and State water-quality standards. Most underground mines in the North Fork Claybank Creek basin seem to be hydraulically connected, and about 80 percent of their discharge surfaced at one site. Drainage from the underground mines contributed most of the dissolved constituents in North Fork Claybank Creek during dry weather. Underground-mine water always had a pH near 5.9 and was well-buffered. It had a dissolved-sulfate concentration of about 2,400 milligrams per liter, dissolved-manganese concentrations ranging from 4.0 to 5.3 milligrams per liter, and large concentrations of ferrous iron. Iron was in the ferrous state because of reducing conditions in the mines. When underground-mine drainage reached the ground surface, the ferrous iron was oxidized and precipitated to

  15. A Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms for Mapping of Complex Surface-Mined and Agricultural Landscapes Using ZiYuan-3 Stereo Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianju Li


    Full Text Available Land cover mapping (LCM in complex surface-mined and agricultural landscapes could contribute greatly to regulating mine exploitation and protecting mine geo-environments. However, there are some special and spectrally similar land covers in these landscapes which increase the difficulty in LCM when employing high spatial resolution images. There is currently no research on these mixed complex landscapes. The present study focused on LCM in such a mixed complex landscape located in Wuhan City, China. A procedure combining ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 stereo satellite imagery, the feature selection (FS method, and machine learning algorithms (MLAs (random forest, RF; support vector machine, SVM; artificial neural network, ANN was proposed and first examined for both LCM of surface-mined and agricultural landscapes (MSMAL and classification of surface-mined land (CSML, respectively. The mean and standard deviation filters of spectral bands and topographic features derived from ZY-3 stereo images were newly introduced. Comparisons of three MLAs, including their sensitivities to FS and whether FS resulted in significant influences, were conducted for the first time in the present study. The following conclusions are drawn. Textures were of little use, and the novel features contributed to improve classification accuracy. Regarding the influence of FS: FS substantially reduced feature set (by 68% for MSMAL and 87% for CSML, and often improved classification accuracies (with an average value of 4.48% for MSMAL using three MLAs, and 11.39% for CSML using RF and SVM; FS showed statistically significant improvements except for ANN-based MSMAL; SVM was most sensitive to FS, followed by ANN and RF. Regarding comparisons of MLAs: for MSMAL based on feature subset, RF achieved the greatest overall accuracy of 77.57%, followed by SVM and ANN; for CSML, SVM had the highest accuracies (87.34%, followed by RF and ANN; based on the feature subsets, significant differences were

  16. Study on land use changes of the coal mining area based on TM image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-bo; YAO Jing; KANG Ting-jun


    Based on the two temporal TM images of 1995 and 2001 of one coal mining area, analyzed the variety information of the coal mining area. Relative registration were done with the two images firstly, then cut out the study area for experimental data, classified the coal mining area using supervised classification in ERDAS, the coal mining area will be divided into five categories as water body, agricultural land, construction land, coal mining area and other land. Make land use change matrix, the result shows that in the six years of 1995 to 2001, the change of the utilize of the land is greatly, the main represent is showed as follows: the area of water body, agricultural land and coal mining land had continually increased, on the contrary, construction area and other decreased. The percentage speed of the construction land is the biggest, the value reach -1.08%. The main reasons is that with the exploitation of the coal mine and the reclaim of the land, the exploitation of the coal mining land make the agricultural land and construction area convert into coal mining land, on the other hand with the backfill of the subsided waterlogged land and the reclaim of the subsided land make the coal mining land convert into agricultural land.

  17. Toxic metals in aquatic plants surviving in surface water polluted by copper mining industry. (United States)

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kempers, A J


    Concentrations of the metals Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn, as well as the macronutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S were measured in water, sediments, and the aquatic macrophytes Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum, growing in surface water receiving sewages and solid wastes from a copper smelter and a copper ore processing factory located in the Legnica-Glogow copper district in Southwest Poland. The deposition of mineral wastes in this area belong to the largest repository in Europe. The plants were able to survive at heavily contaminated sites. The concentrations of Cd (up to 0.6-1.7 microg/L in water and up to 10.1-12.9 mg/kg in sediments), Cu (up to 29-48 microg/L in water and up to 4.6-5.6g/kg in sediments), Pb (up to 1.5-2.2 g/kg in sediments), and Zn (up to 167-200 microg/L in water and up to 1.4-1.8 g/kg in sediments) seriously exceeded background values. P. pectinatus was able to survive tissue concentrations (in mg/kg) of up to 920 Cu, 6240 Mn, 98 Co, and 59 Ni, while M. spicatum survived tissue concentrations up to 1040 Cu, 6660 Mn, and 57 Co for. Enrichment ratios of elements in plant tissue and in water were much higher than those between plant tissue and sediments.

  18. Beautiful Walls: Reclaiming Urban Space through Mural Making (United States)

    Welch, Bethany J.


    During the nearly sixteen years she has lived and worked in inner city neighborhoods in New York, Delaware, and Philadelphia, Bethany Welch has seen communities reclaim these spaces by tackling the most visible things first. This includes clearing trash strewn vacant lots and creating murals on expansive exterior walls stained with marks of time.…

  19. Antidote for Zero Tolerance: Revisiting a "Reclaiming" School. (United States)

    Farner, Conrad D.


    Reports on a revisit to the Frank Lloyd Wright Middle School, which implemented strategies to deal with disciplinary problems. The school continues to progress towards creating the type of reclaiming environment necessary to ensure the needs of all students. Strategies used include alternatives to zero tolerance policy; smaller teams of students;…

  20. Reclaiming Culture: Reculturation of Transracial and International Adoptees (United States)

    Baden, Amanda L.; Treweeke, Lisa M.; Ahluwalia, Muninder K.


    The cultural experiences of transracial and international adoptees (TRIAs) are uniquely affected by their adoption across cultures and racial/ethnic groups. Upon adoption, TRIAs typically identify quickly with their adoptive parents' White culture but may eventually seek to reclaim their birth culture. Current terminology used to describe cultural…

  1. Reclaiming Kindergarten: Part II--Questions about Policy (United States)

    Gullo, Dominic F.; Hughes, Kim


    Part II of "Reclaiming Kindergarten" continues the discussion related to responding to the crisis in today's kindergarten. In Part II, two policy questions are posed, the answers to which seek to respond to this continuing crisis. The questions center on issues related to engaging families in kindergarten and the need to consider a new early…

  2. reClaiming Space & Dialogue in Adult Education (United States)

    Kawalilak, Colleen A.


    This paper critiques current trends in adult education against a backdrop of practice that was once testimony to an educational model that extended beyond formal learning and a business and industry agenda. Adult educators are called upon to reclaim an identity as leaders, in support of a shift in perspective and practice, more aligned to…

  3. Clogging of fractured formations by biocolloids suspended in reclaimed wastewater (United States)

    Chrysikopoulos, C.; Masciopinto, C.; La Mantia, R.; Manariotis, I. D.


    Two pilot-scale fractured filters consisting of horizontal limestone slabs were employed to investigate fracture aperture clogging due to deposition of biocolloids suspended in reclaimed wastewater. To better understand the behavior of real fractured aquifers, the filters intentionally were not “clean”. The fracture apertures were randomly spread with soil deposits and both filters were pre-flooded with reclaimed wastewater to simulate the field conditions of the Nardò fractured aquifer in the Salento area, Italy, where due to artificial groundwater recharge the fractures are not “clean”. One of the filters was injected with secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant collected prior to the chlorination step, and the other with exactly the same effluent, which was further treated in a commercial membrane reactor. Consequently, the organic and pathogen concentrations were considerably higher in the secondary effluent than the membrane reactor effluent. The injected wastewater was continuously recirculated. The pathogen removal by the filter was more significant for the secondary wastewater than the cleaner membrane reactor effluent. A simple mathematical model was developed to describe fracture clogging. The results suggest that the hydraulic conductivity of fractured filters can be significantly reduced from the retention of viable and inactivated biocolloids originating from reclaimed wastewater. Fracture aperture clogging is strongly related to the chemical oxygen demand of the reclaimed wastewater injected. Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

  4. Application of techniques to identify coal-mine and power-generation effects on surface-water quality, San Juan River basin, New Mexico and Colorado (United States)

    Goetz, C.L.; Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Thomas, E.V.


    Numerous analytical techniques were applied to determine water quality changes in the San Juan River basin upstream of Shiprock , New Mexico. Eight techniques were used to analyze hydrologic data such as: precipitation, water quality, and streamflow. The eight methods used are: (1) Piper diagram, (2) time-series plot, (3) frequency distribution, (4) box-and-whisker plot, (5) seasonal Kendall test, (6) Wilcoxon rank-sum test, (7) SEASRS procedure, and (8) analysis of flow adjusted, specific conductance data and smoothing. Post-1963 changes in dissolved solids concentration, dissolved potassium concentration, specific conductance, suspended sediment concentration, or suspended sediment load in the San Juan River downstream from the surface coal mines were examined to determine if coal mining was having an effect on the quality of surface water. None of the analytical methods used to analyzed the data showed any increase in dissolved solids concentration, dissolved potassium concentration, or specific conductance in the river downstream from the mines; some of the analytical methods used showed a decrease in dissolved solids concentration and specific conductance. Chaco River, an ephemeral stream tributary to the San Juan River, undergoes changes in water quality due to effluent from a power generation facility. The discharge in the Chaco River contributes about 1.9% of the average annual discharge at the downstream station, San Juan River at Shiprock, NM. The changes in water quality detected at the Chaco River station were not detected at the downstream Shiprock station. It was not possible, with the available data, to identify any effects of the surface coal mines on water quality that were separable from those of urbanization, agriculture, and other cultural and natural changes. In order to determine the specific causes of changes in water quality, it would be necessary to collect additional data at strategically located stations. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Biofilm structure and its influence on clogging in drip irrigation emitters distributing reclaimed wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Dazhuang; BAI Zhihui; Mike Rowan; GU Likun; Ren Shumei; YANG Peiling


    Using reclaimed wastewater for crop irrigation is a practical alternative to discharge wastewater treatment plant effluents into surface waters.However,biofouling has been identified as a major contributor to emitter clogging in drip irrigation systems distributing reclaimed wastewater.Little is known about the biofilm structure and its influence on clogging in the drip emitter flow path.This study was first to investigate the microbial characteristics of mature biofilms present in the emitters and the effect of flow path structures on the biofilm microbial communities.The analysis of biofilm matrix structure using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that particles in the matrix of the biofilm coupled extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and formed sediment in the emitter flow path.Analysis of biofilm mass including protein,polysaccharide and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) showed that emitter flow path style influenced biofilm community structure and diversity.The correlations of biofilm biomass and discharge reduction after 360 h irrigation were computed and suggest that PFLAs provide the best correlation coefficient.Comparatively,the emitter with the unsymmetrical dentate structure and shorter flow path (Emitter C) had the best anti-clogging capability.By optimizing the dentate structure,the internal flow pattern within the flow path could be enhanced as an important method to control the biofilm within emitter flow path.This study established electron microscope techniques and biochemical microbial analysis methods that may provide a framework for future emitter biofilm studies.

  6. The analysis of spatial and temporal changes of land cover and land use in the reclaimed areas with the application of airborne orthophotomaps and LANDSAT images (United States)

    Szostak, Marta; Wężyk, Piotr; Hawryło, Paweł; Pietrzykowski, Marcin


    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of geoinformatics tools and generally available geodata for mapping land cover/use on the reclaimed areas. The choice of subject was dictated by the growing number of such areas and the related problem of their restoration. Modern technology, including GIS, photogrammetry and remote sensing are relevant in assessing the reclamation effects and monitoring of changes taking place on such sites. The LULC classes mapping, supported with thorough knowledge of the operator, is useful tool for the proper reclamation process evaluation. The study was performed for two post-mine sites: reclaimed external spoil heap of the sulfur mine Machów and areas after exploitation of sulfur mine Jeziórko, which are located in the Tarnobrzeski district. The research materials consisted of aerial orthophotos, which were the basis of on-screen vectorization; LANDSAT satellite images, which were used in the pixel and object based classification; and the CORINE Land Cover database as a general reference to the global maps of land cover and land use.

  7. Soil quality assessment of urban green space under long-term reclaimed water irrigation. (United States)

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping


    Reclaimed water is widely used for landscape irrigation with the benefits of saving fresh water and ameliorating soil quality. Field samples were collected from seven parks in Beijing irrigated reclaimed water with different irrigation history in 2011 and 2014 to evaluate the long-term impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil quality. Soil quality index method was used to assess the comprehensive effects of reclaimed water irrigation on soil. Results showed that the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the soil nutrient conditions were limited. Compared with tap water irrigation, soil salinity was significantly higher in 2011, while the difference was insignificant in 2014; soil heavy metals were slightly higher by 0.5-10.6 % in 2011 and 2014, while the differences were insignificant. Under reclaimed water irrigation, soil biological activities were significantly improved in both years. Total nitrogen in reclaimed water had a largest effect on soil quality irrigated reclaimed water. Soil quality irrigated with reclaimed water increased by 2.6 and 6.8 % respectively in 2011 and 2014, while the increases were insignificant. Soil quality of almost half samples was more than or closed to soil quality of natural forest in Beijing. Soil quality was ameliorated at some extent with long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

  8. Restoration Practices Used on Post Mining Sites and Industrial Deposits in the Czech Republic with an Example of Natural Restoration of Granodiorite Quarries and Spoil Heaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuman Tomáš


    Full Text Available Mining of minerals that have significant impact on landscape and landscape functions affects 1% of the land surface worldwide. In the Czech Republic the extent of mining sites is estimated to be more than 800 km2 and according to the state legislation the land affected by mining should be reclaimed. There are several approaches to land restoration, which are shortly reviewed in this article, from pure technical approach to one adopting natural processes. The review shows increasing appeal of scientist and conservationist to use natural processes e.g. natural or directed succession as an alternative method of post-mining sites or industrial deposits restoration due to growing evidence of conservational value of such sites in human dominated landscapes. The natural processes used for land restoration are often argued to be slow therefore the rate of spontaneous vegetation succession was assessed in stone quarries and on spoil heaps using a sequence of panchromatic aerial images. The results showed that natural processes act fast and vegetation can reach 100% cover within 10-15 years in granodiorite quarries and on spoil heaps.

  9. Single-molecule conductivity of non-redox and redox molecules at pure and gold-mined Au(111)-electrode surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin; Ulstrup, Jens

    metalloproteins such as blue copper, heme, and iron-sulfur proteins as well as redox metalloenzymes are other new targets for single-molecule electrochemical and bioelectrochemical surface science. Electrochemistry combined with scanning tunnelling and atomic force microscopy in aqueous chemical or biological...... to surface-mined Au-atoms. In addition the SAMs ensure protein/enzyme immobilization gentle enough that the proteins retain electron transfer or enzyme activity in a variety of local environments. The second area is the mapping and control of the immobilized redox molecules and metalloproteins themselves...

  10. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Hartwig


    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  11. Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Harms, N., E-mail: naomi.harms@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Fairhurst, Graham D., E-mail: graham.fairhurst@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Bortolotti, Gary R., E-mail: gary.bortolotti@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada)


    In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined for i) feather corticosterone levels, ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and iii) innate immune function. Nestlings on one of two wetlands created with oil sands process affected material (OSPM) were heavier and had greater wing-lengths, and mounted a stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity response compared those on the reference wetland. Corticosterone was significantly higher in male nestlings on one of two OSPM-containing wetland compared to the reference wetland. Body condition of 12-day-old female nestlings was inversely related to feather corticosterone. Under ideal weather conditions, reclaimed wetlands can support healthy populations of aerially-insectivorous birds. - Under ideal weather conditions, tree swallow nestlings on reclaimed OSPM-affected wetlands are in good body condition and mount strong cell-mediated immune responses.

  12. The Treatment of Underground Water Gushing and Mine Drainage for the Shengli 1# Surface Mine%胜利1#露天煤矿地下水和疏干废水的治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Surface mine often suffers from the underground water gushing in its production process. To do the work of underground water gushing well is of great importance in improving production environment, and ensuring the safety of slope. This paper aims to dealing with underground water gushing and drainage in analyzing the measures of Shengli 1# surface mine.%  露天煤矿在生产过程中经常受到地下涌水的影响,做好防治水工作,对改善露天煤矿采场作业条件、保证边坡安全具有十分重要的意义。本文结合胜利1#露天煤矿在防治水工作中采取的措施,浅谈如何做好露天煤矿地下涌水和疏干废水的治理工作。

  13. Ground-Water Quality in the Vicinity of Coal-Refuse Areas Reclaimed with Biosolids in Fulton County, Illinois (United States)

    Morrow, William S.


    The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago has applied biosolids, followed by revegetation, to reclaim three coal-refuse areas. Most of the reclamation at the three sites was done from 1989 through 1992, and included the application of lime, clay, and various loads of biosolids up to 1,000 dry tons per acre. Water samples collected from 12 monitoring wells installed in the vicinity of the three reclaimed coal-refuse areas were analyzed to better understand the hydrogeology and water-quality effects. Ground water probably flows along preferential paths in the disturbed coal-refuse areas, and is impeded by undisturbed glacial till. Most of the samples contained elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese, constituents associated with ground water in coal-mined areas. Concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, nickel, or zinc were somewhat elevated in samples from four wells, and greatest in water samples with pH less than 5. The smaller nutrient concentrations indicate that the applied biosolids are not identifiably affecting nutrients or metal concentrations in shallow ground water near the refuse piles. The coal refuse likely is the primary influence on the chemical characterization of ground-water in the area.

  14. Prediction of surface movement and deformation characteristics under strip mining%条带开采条件下地表移动与变形特征的预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞飞; 杨武强


    A mine 150506 mining belongs to coal repeated mining,control surface Village building deformation is one of the mining industry is an urgent need to solve the problem,this paper by strip mining subsidence calculation coefficient,inflection point offset,main angle tangent,horizontal movement coefficient experience obtained three kinds of mining method of surface movement and deformation characteristic parameters,work safety mining optimized strip mining scheme.%某矿150506工作面开采属于多煤层重复开采,控制地表村庄等建筑物变形是采矿业迫切需要解决的难题之一,本文通过条采下沉系数、拐点偏距、主要影响角正切、水平移动系数经验计算得到三种回采方案下的地表移动与变形特征参数,为工作面安全回采优选了条采方案。


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭世济; 张达贤; 习永峰; 卢明银; 孙洪泉


    The method of reliability analysis of mineral reserve estimation, mining construction, mining technological system and surface mine investment in mine design is discussed in this paper. On the basis of this method, the questions, such as "whether the planned production and predicted economic effectiveness could be obtained", can be answered, and corresponding measures can be taken.

  16. Water quality and agricultural practices: the case study of southern Massaciuccoli reclaimed land (Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Cannavò, Silvia; Guidi, Massimo; Risaliti, Rosalba; Rossetto, Rudy; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico


    Owing to increasing anthropogenic impacts, lagoons and wetlands are being exposed to environmental degradation. Therefore, the sustainable management of these environmental resources is a fundamental issue to maintain either the ecosystems and the human activity. The Massaciuccoli Lake is a coastal lake of fresh to brackish water surrounded by a marsh, which drains a total catchment of about 114 km2. Large part of the basin has been reclaimed since 1930 by means of pumping stations forcing water from the drained areas into the lake. The system is characterized by: high complexity of the hydrological setting; subsidence of the peaty soils in the reclaimed area (2 to 3 m in 70 years), that left the lake perched; reclaimed land currently devoted mainly to conventional agriculture (e.g.: maize monoculture) along with some industrial sites, two sewage treatment plants and some relevant urban settlements; social conflicts among different land users because of the impact on water quality and quantity. The interaction between such a fragile natural system and human activities leads to an altered ecological status mainly due to eutrophication and water salinisation. Hence, the present work aims at identifying and assessing the sources of nutrients (phosphorous in particular) into the lake, and characterising land use and some socio-economic aspects focusing on agricultural systems, in order to set up suitable mitigation measures. Water quantity and quality in the most intensively cultivated sub-catchment, placed 0.5 to 3 m under m.s.l. were monitored in order to underlain the interaction between water and its nutrient load. Questionnaires and interviews to farmers were conducted to obtain information about agricultural practices, farm management, risks and constraints for farming activities. The available information about the natural system and land use were collected and organised in a GIS system: a conceptual model of surface water hydrodinamics was build up and 14

  17. Impact of biocrust succession on water retention and repellency on open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation in Lower Lusatia, NE-Germany (United States)

    Gypser, Stella; Fischer, Thomas; Lange, Philipp; Veste, Maik


    Mining activities can strongly affect ecosystem properties by destruction of naturally developed soils and removal of vegetation. The unstructured substrates show high bulk densities, compaction, low water infiltration rates, reduced water holding capacities and higher susceptibility to wind and water erosion. In the initial stage of the ecosystem development, the post-mining sites are open areas without or with a low cover of higher vegetation. It is well-known that biocrusts are able to colonize the soil surface under such extreme conditions without human support and affect soil hydrological processes such as water infiltration, run-off or re-distribution. Investigations were conducted on two former lignite open-cast mining sites, an artificial sand dune on the reclaimed watershed Welzow "Neuer Lugteich" and a reforestation area in Schlabendorf (Brandenburg, north-east Germany). The aim was to relate the hydrological characteristics of the topsoil to successional stages of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils and their influence on repellency index and water holding capacity compared to pure mining substrate. Our study emphasized the influence of changing successional stages and species composition of biological soil crusts, forming a small-scale crust pattern, on water repellency and retention on sandy soils in temperate climate. Different successional stages of soil crusts were identified from initial scattered green algae crusts, dominated by Zygogonium spec. and Ulothrix spec., and more developed soil crusts containing mosses such as Ceratodon purpureus and Polytrichum piliferum. Lichens of the Genus Cladonia were more pronouncedly contributed to biocrusts at later and mature stages of development. The repellency index on the one hand increased due to the cross-linking of sand particles by the filamentous green algae Zygogonium spec. which resulted in clogging of pores, and on the other hand decreased with the occurrence of moss plants due to absorption

  18. Monitoring of ground surface deformation in mining area with InSAR technique%利用InSAR技术监测矿区地表形变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建军; 邢学敏; 胡俊; 李志伟


    The application status and research progress of InSAR technique in the monitoring of the ground surface deformation in mining area were introduced. Firstly, the advantages of D-InSAR technique were analyzed by comparing to the traditional surveying methods. Then, the limitations of D-InSAR in the mining deformation detection were described. According to the limitations of the traditional D-InSAR method, the advanced InSAR technique, e.g., small baseline subset (SBAS), permanent scatterer (PS) and corner reflector (CR) techniques were discussed. Using real mining subsidence monitoring as example, the characteristics and application status of those advanced InSAR techniques were studied, and the key problems still existing in the current research were summarized. Finally, it is indicated that the development trend of InSAR monitoring surface deformation in mining area is the combination of advanced InSAR and high-resolution SAR images.%介绍了InSAR技术在矿区地表形变监测中的应用现状及进展,分析了D-InSAR技术相比于传统测量手段的优势,并指出其在矿区地表形变监测中的不足.针对传统D-InSAR技术的局限性,重点讨论了短基线(SBAS)、永久散射体(PS)和角反射器(CR)等高级差分干涉技术,并结合矿区沉降监测实例,分析了其特点与应用现状,讨论了现有研究中仍存在的问题.高级InSAR技术和高分辨率SAR影像的结合将是矿区地表形变监测的发展趋势.

  19. Longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  20. Influence of the Reclaim from the Cordis Technology on the Core Sand Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko J.


    Full Text Available The investigation results of the mechanical reclamation of spent moulding sands from the Cordis technology are presented in the paper. The quality assessment of the obtained reclaim and the influence of the reclaim fraction in a matrix on the core sand strength is given. The reclaim quality assessment was performed on the basis of the determination of losses on ignition, Na2O content on reclaim grains and pH values. The reclaim constituted 100%, 75% and 50% of the core sand matrix, for which the bending strength was determined. The matrix reclamation treatment was performed in the experimental rotor reclaimer RD-6. Spent sands were applied in as-delivered condition and after the heating to a temperature of 140 °C. Shaped samples for strength tests were made by shooting and hardening of sands in the warmbox technology.

  1. Low Cost Remediation of Mining Sites with Biosolids (United States)

    Daniels, Walter; Evanylo, Gregory; Stuczynski, Tomasz


    This paper will present collective results of 25 years of research by the authors into the use of municipal biosolids (sewage sludge) and other residuals to reclaim sites disturbed by a range of mining and construction activities. Loading rate experiments and demonstrations have been conducted on areas drastically disturbed by coal mining, sand mining, heavy mineral mining, urbanization, airport construction and heavy metal processing. At all sites, the post-mining soils were devoid of organic matter, very low in nutrients and frequently quite acidic. At all sites, addition of biosolids at higher than agronomic rates resulted in complete stabilization of the resultant mine soils and vigorous stable vegetation that persisted for > 5 years and has allowed enhanced invasion of native herbaceous species. Application of higher rates is not compatible with establishment of certain native tree species (e.g. Pinus sp.), however, due to adverse effects of soluble salts, nutrient enrichment and enhanced competition by grasses. An underlying goal of this program has been to develop approaches that use higher than agronomic rates of biosolids while simultaneously minimizing losses of N and P to local ground- and surface-waters. In the early 1980's, working on USA coal mining spoils, we determined that that approximately 100 Mg/ha of secondary cake biosolids was optimal for revegetation with herbaceous species, but water quality monitoring was not a concern at that time. This finding raised concerns, however, that the large amounts of total N applied (> 2500 kg/ha) would lead to nitrate-N contamination of local waters. Subsequent work in the early 1990's indicated that similar rates of biosolids could be mixed with woodchips (high palatable C source) and land-applied to large (> 100 ha) coal