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Sample records for reciprocally innervated circuit

  1. Tissue engineering the mechanosensory circuit of the stretch reflex arc: sensory neuron innervation of intrafusal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, John W; Das, Mainak; Bhalkikar, Abhijeet; Stancescu, Maria; Hickman, James J

    2010-11-01

    The sensory circuit of the stretch reflex arc, composed of specialized intrafusal muscle fibers and type Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons, converts mechanical information regarding muscle length and stretch to electrical action potentials and relays them to the central nervous system. Utilizing a non-biological substrate, surface patterning photolithography and a serum-free medium formulation a co-culture system was developed that facilitated functional interactions between intrafusal muscle fibers and sensory neurons. The presence of annulospiral wrappings (ASWs) and flower-spray endings (FSEs), both physiologically relevant morphologies in sensory neuron-intrafusal fiber interactions, were demonstrated and quantified using immunocytochemistry. Furthermore, two proposed components of the mammalian mechanosensory transduction system, BNaC1 and PICK1, were both identified at the ASWs and FSEs. To verify functionality of the mechanoreceptor elements the system was integrated with a MEMS cantilever device, and Ca(2+) currents were imaged along the length of an axon innervating an intrafusal fiber when stretched by cantilever deflection. This system provides a platform for examining the role of this mechanosensory complex in the pathology of myotonic and muscular dystrophies, peripheral neuropathy, and spasticity inducing diseases like Parkinson's. These studies will also assist in engineering fine motor control for prosthetic devices by improving our understanding of mechanosensitive feedback. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Passive technologies for future large-scale photonic integrated circuits on silicon: polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoxin Dai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-based large-scale photonic integrated circuits are becoming important, due to the need for higher complexity and lower cost for optical transmitters, receivers and optical buffers. In this paper, passive technologies for large-scale photonic integrated circuits are described, including polarization handling, light non-reciprocity and loss reduction. The design rule for polarization beam splitters based on asymmetrical directional couplers is summarized and several novel designs for ultra-short polarization beam splitters are reviewed. A novel concept for realizing a polarization splitter–rotator is presented with a very simple fabrication process. Realization of silicon-based light non-reciprocity devices (e.g., optical isolator, which is very important for transmitters to avoid sensitivity to reflections, is also demonstrated with the help of magneto-optical material by the bonding technology. Low-loss waveguides are another important technology for large-scale photonic integrated circuits. Ultra-low loss optical waveguides are achieved by designing a Si3N4 core with a very high aspect ratio. The loss is reduced further to <0.1 dB m−1 with an improved fabrication process incorporating a high-quality thermal oxide upper cladding by means of wafer bonding. With the developed ultra-low loss Si3N4 optical waveguides, some devices are also demonstrated, including ultra-high-Q ring resonators, low-loss arrayed-waveguide grating (demultiplexers, and high-extinction-ratio polarizers.

  3. Autonomic cardiac innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Wohaib

    2013-01-01

    Autonomic cardiac neurons have a common origin in the neural crest but undergo distinct developmental differentiation as they mature toward their adult phenotype. Progenitor cells respond to repulsive cues during migration, followed by differentiation cues from paracrine sources that promote neurochemistry and differentiation. When autonomic axons start to innervate cardiac tissue, neurotrophic factors from vascular tissue are essential for maintenance of neurons before they reach their targets, upon which target-derived trophic factors take over final maturation, synaptic strength and postnatal survival. Although target-derived neurotrophins have a central role to play in development, alternative sources of neurotrophins may also modulate innervation. Both developing and adult sympathetic neurons express proNGF, and adult parasympathetic cardiac ganglion neurons also synthesize and release NGF. The physiological function of these “non-classical” cardiac sources of neurotrophins remains to be determined, especially in relation to autocrine/paracrine sustenance during development.   Cardiac autonomic nerves are closely spatially associated in cardiac plexuses, ganglia and pacemaker regions and so are sensitive to release of neurotransmitter, neuropeptides and trophic factors from adjacent nerves. As such, in many cardiac pathologies, it is an imbalance within the two arms of the autonomic system that is critical for disease progression. Although this crosstalk between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves has been well established for adult nerves, it is unclear whether a degree of paracrine regulation occurs across the autonomic limbs during development. Aberrant nerve remodeling is a common occurrence in many adult cardiovascular pathologies, and the mechanisms regulating outgrowth or denervation are disparate. However, autonomic neurons display considerable plasticity in this regard with neurotrophins and inflammatory cytokines having a central regulatory

  4. Sympathetic Innervation during Development Is Necessary for Pancreatic Islet Architecture and Functional Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Borden

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic neurons depend on target-derived neurotrophic cues to control their survival and growth. However, whether sympathetic innervation contributes reciprocally to the development of target tissues is less clear. Here, we report that sympathetic innervation is necessary for the formation of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and for their functional maturation. Genetic or pharmacological ablation of sympathetic innervation during development resulted in altered islet architecture, reduced insulin secretion, and impaired glucose tolerance in mice. Similar defects were observed with pharmacological blockade of β-adrenergic signaling. Conversely, the administration of a β-adrenergic agonist restored islet morphology and glucose tolerance in deinnervated animals. Furthermore, in neuron-islet cocultures, sympathetic neurons promoted islet cell migration in a β-adrenergic-dependent manner. This study reveals that islet architecture requires extrinsic inductive cues from neighboring tissues such as sympathetic nerves and suggests that early perturbations in sympathetic innervation might underlie metabolic disorders.

  5. Electromagnetic reciprocity in antenna theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stumpf, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The reciprocity theorem is among the most intriguing concepts in wave field theory and has become an integral part of almost all standard textbooks on electromagnetic (EM) theory. This book makes use of the theorem to quantitatively describe EM interactions concerning general multiport antenna systems. It covers a general reciprocity-based description of antenna systems, their EM scattering properties, and further related aspects. Beginning with an introduction to the subject, Electromagnetic Reciprocity in Antenna Theory provides readers first with the basic prerequisites before offering coverage of the equivalent multiport circuit antenna representations, EM coupling between multiport antenna systems and their EM interactions with scatterers, accompanied with the corresponding EM compensation theorems.

  6. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories

  7. Netrin-1 controls sympathetic arterial innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Isabelle; Gordon, Emma; Han, Jinah; Cristofaro, Brunella; Broqueres-You, Dong; Liu, Chun; Bouvrée, Karine; Zhang, Jiasheng; del Toro, Raquel; Mathivet, Thomas; Larrivée, Bruno; Jagu, Julia; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Pardanaud, Luc; Machado, Maria J C; Kennedy, Timothy E; Zhuang, Zhen; Simons, Michael; Levy, Bernard I; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger; Eichmann, Anne

    2014-07-01

    Autonomic sympathetic nerves innervate peripheral resistance arteries, thereby regulating vascular tone and controlling blood supply to organs. Despite the fundamental importance of blood flow control, how sympathetic arterial innervation develops remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the axon guidance cue netrin-1 as an essential factor required for development of arterial innervation in mice. Netrin-1 was produced by arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) at the onset of innervation, and arterial innervation required the interaction of netrin-1 with its receptor, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC), on sympathetic growth cones. Function-blocking approaches, including cell type-specific deletion of the genes encoding Ntn1 in SMCs and Dcc in sympathetic neurons, led to severe and selective reduction of sympathetic innervation and to defective vasoconstriction in resistance arteries. These findings indicate that netrin-1 and DCC are critical for the control of arterial innervation and blood flow regulation in peripheral organs.

  8. Innervation of the mammalian esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhuber, Winfried L; Raab, Marion; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Wörl, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the innervation of the esophagus is a prerequisite for successful treatment of a variety of disorders, e.g., dysphagia, achalasia, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and non-cardiac chest pain. Although, at first glance, functions of the esophagus are relatively simple, their neuronal control is considerably complex. Vagal motor neurons of the nucleus ambiguus and preganglionic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus innervate striated and smooth muscle, respectively. Myenteric neurons represent the interface between the dorsal motor nucleus and smooth muscle but they are also involved in striated muscle innervation. Intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs) represent mechanosensory vagal afferent terminals. They also establish intricate connections with enteric neurons. Afferent information is implemented by the swallowing central pattern generator in the brainstem, which generates and coordinates deglutitive activity in both striated and smooth esophageal muscle and orchestrates esophageal sphincters as well as gastric adaptive relaxation. Disturbed excitation/inhibition balance in the lower esophageal sphincter results in motility disorders, e.g., achalasia and GERD. Loss of mechanosensory afferents disrupts adaptation of deglutitive motor programs to bolus variables, eventually leading to megaesophagus. Both spinal and vagal afferents appear to contribute to painful sensations, e.g., non-cardiac chest pain. Extrinsic and intrinsic neurons may be involved in intramural reflexes using acetylcholine, nitric oxide, substance P, CGRP and glutamate as main transmitters. In addition, other molecules, e.g., ATP, GABA and probably also inflammatory cytokines, may modulate these neuronal functions.

  9. Arterial innervation in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Anne; Brunet, Isabelle

    2014-09-03

    Innervation of arteries by sympathetic nerves is well known to control blood supply to organs. Recent studies have elucidated the mechanisms that regulate the development of arterial innervation and show that in addition to vascular tone, sympathetic nerves may also influence arterial maturation and growth. Understanding sympathetic arterial innervation may lead to new approaches to treat peripheral arterial disease and hypertension. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. The personal norm of reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perugini, M.; Gallucci, M.; Presaghi, F.; Ercolani, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Reciprocity is here considered as an internalized social norm, and a questionnaire to measure individual differences in the internalized norm of reciprocity is presented. The questionnaire, Personal Norm of Reciprocity (PNR), measures three aspects of reciprocity: positive reciprocity, negative

  11. Is it time for cardiac innervation imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuti, J. [Turku Univ., Turku (Finland) Turku PET Center; Sipola, P. [Kuopio Univ., Kuopio (Finland)

    2005-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac function and the regional distribution of cardiac nerve terminals can be visualized using scintigraphic techniques. The most commonly used tracer is iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) but C-11-hydroxyephedrine has also been used with PET. When imaging with MIBG, the ratio of heart-to-mediastinal counts is used as an index of tracer uptake, and regional distribution is also assessed from tomographic images. The rate of clearance of the tracer can also be measured and indicates the function of the adrenergic system. Innervation imaging has been applied in patients with susceptibility to arrythmias, coronary artery disease, hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy and anthracycline induced cardiotoxicity. Abnormal adrenergic innervation or function appear to exist in many pathophysiological conditions indicating that sympathetic neurons are very susceptible to damage. Abnormal findings in innervation imaging also appear to have significant prognostic value especially in patients with cardiomyopathy. Recently, it has also been shown that innervation imaging can monitor drug-induced changes in cardiac adrenergic activity. Although innervation imaging holds great promise for clinical use, the method has not received wider clinical acceptance. Larger randomized studies are required to confirm the value of innervation imaging in various specific indications.

  12. Connections of the superior paraolivary nucleus of the rat: II. Reciprocal connections with the tectal longitudinal column

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    Antonio eViñuela

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON, a prominent GABAergic center of the mammalian auditory brainstem, projects to the ipsilateral inferior colliculus (IC and sends axons through the commissure of the IC (CoIC. Herein we demonstrate that the SPON is reciprocally connected with the recently discovered tectal longitudinal column (TLC. The TLC is a long and narrow structure that spans nearly the entire midbrain tectum longitudinally, immediately above the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG and very close to the midline.Unilateral injections of biotinylated dextran into the SPON of the rat label abundant terminal fibers in the TLC of both sides, with an ipsilateral predominance. The SPON provides a dense innervation of the entire rostrocaudal extent of the ipsilateral TLC, and a relatively sparser innervation of the caudal and rostral portions of the contralateral TLC. SPON fibers reach the TLC by two routes: as collaterals of axons of the CoIC, and as axons that circumvent the ipsilateral IC before traveling in the deep layers of the superior colliculus.The density of these projections identifies SPON as a significant source of input to the TLC. Other targets of the SPON discovered in this study include the deep layers of the superior colliculus and the PAG. The same experiments reveal numerous labeled cell bodies in the TLC, interspersed among the labeled SPON fibers. This observation suggests that the SPON is a significant target of TLC projections.The discovery of novel reciprocal connections between the SPON and the TLC opens unexpected avenues for investigation of sound processing in mammalian brainstem circuits.

  13. Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Rau, Uwe [IEF5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The limiting efficiency of photovoltaic devices follows from the detailed balance of absorption and emission of a diode according to the Shockley-Queisser theory. However, the principle of detailed balance has more implications for the understanding of photovoltaic devices than only defining the efficiency limit. We show how reciprocity relations between carrier collection and dark carrier injection, between electroluminescence emission and photovoltaic quantum efficiency and between open circuit voltage and light emitting diode quantum efficiency all follow from the principle of detailed balance. We also discuss the validity range of the Shockley-Queisser limit and the reciprocity relations. Discussing the validity of the reciprocity relations helps to deepen the understanding of photovoltaic devices and allows us to identify interrelationships between the superposition principle, the diode ideality and the reciprocity relations. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Reciprocity of weighted networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation.

  15. Reciprocating pellet press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles W.

    1981-04-07

    A machine for pressing loose powder into pellets using a series of reciprocating motions has an interchangeable punch and die as its only accurately machines parts. The machine reciprocates horizontally between powder receiving and pressing positions. It reciprocates vertically to press, strip and release a pellet.

  16. Rayleigh reciprocity relations: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ju; Li Xiao-Lei; Wang Ning

    2016-01-01

    Classical reciprocity relations have wide applications in acoustics, from field representation to generalized optical theorem. In this paper we introduce our recent results on the applications and generalization of classical Rayleigh reciprocity relation: higher derivative reciprocity relations as a generalization of the classical one and a theoretical proof on the Green’s function retrieval from volume noises. (special topic)

  17. Adrenergic innervation of the rat hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palkovits, M.; Mezey, E.; Záborszky, L.; Feminger, A.; Versteeg, D.H.G.; Wijnen, H.J.L.M.; Jong, Wybren de; Fekete, M.I.K.; Herman, J.P.; Kanyicska, B.

    The adrenergic innervation of the hypothalamus was studied by measuring hypothalamic adrenaline levels following surgical transection of the lower brain stem or electrolytic lesion of the medullary adrenaline-containing cell groups. The adrenaline levels in some hypothalamic nuclei and in the median

  18. Preganglionic innervation of the pancreas islet cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUITEN, PGM; TERHORST, GJ; KOOPMANS, SJ; RIETBERG, M; STEFFENS, AB

    1984-01-01

    The position and number of preganglionic somata innervating the insulin-secreting β-cells of the endocrine pancreas were investigated in Wistar rats. This question was approached by comparing the innervation of the pancreas of normal rats with the innervation of the pancreas in alloxan-induced

  19. Anatomy of psoas muscle innervation: Cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Mark A; Sanders, Luke E; Guan, Jian; Dailey, Andrew T; Taylor, William; Morton, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hip flexion weakness is relatively common after lateral transpsoas surgery. Persistent weakness may result from injury to the innervation of the psoas major muscles (PMMs); however, anatomical texts have conflicting descriptions of this innervation, and the branching pattern of the nerves within the psoas major, particularly relative to vertebral anatomy, has not been described. The authors dissected human cadavers to describe the branching pattern of nerves supplying the PMMs. Sixteen embalmed cadavers were dissected, and the fine branching pattern of the innervation to the PMM was studied in 24 specimens. The number of branches and width and length of each branch of nerves to the PMMs were quantified. Nerve branches innervating the PMMs arose from spinal nerve levels L1-L4, with an average of 6.3 ± 1.1 branches per muscle. The L1 nerve branch was the least consistently present, whereas L2 and L3 branches were the most robust, the most numerous, and always present. The nerve branches to the psoas major commonly crossed the intervertebral (IV) disc obliquely prior to ramification within the muscle; 76%, 80%, and 40% of specimens had a branch to the PMM cross the midportion of the L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 IV discs, respectively. The PMMs are segmentally innervated from the L2-L4 ventral rami branches, where these branches course obliquely across the L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 IV discs. Knowledge of the mapping of nerve branches to the PMMs may reduce injury and the incidence of persistent weak hip flexion during lateral transpsoas surgery. Clin. Anat. 30:479-486, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reciprocity in optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potton, R J

    2004-01-01

    The application of reciprocity principles in optics has a long history that goes back to Stokes, Lorentz, Helmholtz and others. Moreover, optical applications need to be seen in the context of applications of reciprocity in particle scattering, acoustics, seismology and the solution of inverse problems, generally. In some of these other fields vector wave propagation is, as it is in optics, of the essence. For this reason the simplified approach to light wave polarization developed by, and named for, Jones is explored initially to see how and to what extent it encompasses reciprocity. The characteristic matrix of a uniform dielectric layer, used in the analysis of interference filters and mirrors, is reciprocal except when the layer is magneto-optical. The way in which the reciprocal nature of a characteristic matrix can be recognized is discussed next. After this, work on the influence of more realistic attributes of a dielectric stack on reciprocity is reviewed. Some of the numerous technological applications of magneto-optic non-reciprocal media are identified and the potential of a new class of non-reciprocal components is briefly introduced. Finally, the extension of the classical reciprocity concept to systems containing components that have nonlinear optical response is briefly mentioned

  1. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  2. The Structure of Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molm, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Reciprocity is one of the defining features of social exchange and social life, yet exchange theorists have tended to take it for granted. Drawing on work from a decade-long theoretical research program, I argue that reciprocity is structured and variable across different forms of exchange, that these variations in the structure of reciprocity…

  3. L-acetylcarnitine enhances functional muscle re-innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Brunetti, O; Carobi, C; Della Torre, G; Grassi, S

    1991-01-01

    The efficacy of L-acetylcarnitine and L-carnitine treatment on motor re-innervation was analyzed by evaluating different muscular parameters describing functional muscle recovery after denervation and re-innervation. The results show that L-acetylcarnitine markedly enhances functional muscle re-innervation, which on the contrary is unaffected by L-carnitine. The medial gastrocnemius muscle was denervated by cutting the nerve at the muscle entry point. After 20 days the sectioned nerve was resutured into the medial gastrocnemius muscle, and the extent of re-innervation was monitored 45 days later. L-acetylcarnitine-treated animals show significantly higher twitch and tetanic tensions of re-innervated muscle. Furthermore the results, obtained by analysing the twitch time to peak and tetanic contraction-relaxation times, suggest that L-acetylcarnitine mostly affects the functional re-innervation of slow motor units. The possible mechanisms by which L-acetylcarnitine facilitates such motor and nerve recovery are discussed.

  4. Attribution and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2010-01-01

    , in turn, influence behavior. Dufwenberg and Kirchsteiger [Dufwenberg, M., Kirchsteiger, G., 2004. A theory of sequential reciprocity. Games Econ. Behav. 47 (2), 268-298] formalize this empirical finding in their ‘theory of sequential reciprocity'. This paper extends their analysis by moves of chance. More...... precisely, an extended framework is presented which allows for the analysis of strategic interactions of reciprocal agents in situations in which material outcomes also depend on chance. Moves of chance influence the attribution of responsibilities, people's perceptions about the (un)kindness of others and......, hence, their reciprocal behavior. Furthermore, with the help of two applications it is demonstrated how this framework can be used to explain experimental findings showing that people react very differently in outcomewise-identical situations depending on the moves of chance involved....

  5. Innervation of the Anterior Sacroiliac Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Marcus; Ng, Garrett; Mashriqi, Faizullah; Iwanaga, Joe; Alonso, Fernando; Tubbs, Kevin; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-11-01

    Sacroiliac joint pain can be disabling and recalcitrant to medical therapy. The innervation of this joint is poorly understood, especially its anterior aspect. Therefore, the present cadaveric study was performed to better elucidate this anatomy. Twenty-four cadaveric sides underwent dissection of the anterior sacroiliac joint, with special attention given to any branches from regional nerves to this joint. No femoral, obturator, or lumbosacral trunk branches destined to the anterior sacroiliac joint were identified in the 24 sides. In 20 sides, one or two small branches (less than 0.5 mm in diameter) were found to arise from the L4 ventral ramus (10%), the L5 ventral ramus (80%), or simultaneously from both the L4 and L5 ventral rami (10%). The length of the branches ranged from 5 to 31 mm (mean, 14 mm). All these branches arose from the posterior part of the nerves and traveled to the anterior surface of the sacroiliac joint. No statistical significance was found between sides or sexes. An improved knowledge of the innervation of the anterior sacroiliac joint might decrease suffering in patients with chronic sacroiliac joint pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cholinergic innervation of human mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, V; Bianchi, E; Taurone, S; Mignini, F; Cavallotti, C; Artico, M

    2013-11-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmission within the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels has been poorly studied. Therefore, our aim is to analyse the cholinergic nerve fibres of lymphatic vessels using the traditional enzymatic techniques of staining, plus the biochemical modifications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Specimens obtained from human mesenteric lymphatic vessels were subjected to the following experimental procedures: 1) drawing, cutting and staining of tissues; 2) staining of total nerve fibres; 3) enzymatic staining of cholinergic nerve fibres; 4) homogenisation of tissues; 5) biochemical amount of proteins; 6) biochemical amount of AChE activity; 6) quantitative analysis of images; 7) statistical analysis of data. The mesenteric lymphatic vessels show many AChE positive nerve fibres around their wall with an almost plexiform distribution. The incubation time was performed at 1 h (partial activity) and 6 h (total activity). Moreover, biochemical dosage of the same enzymatic activity confirms the results obtained with morphological methods. The homogenates of the studied tissues contain strong AChE activity. In our study, the lymphatic vessels appeared to contain few cholinergic nerve fibres. Therefore, it is expected that perivascular nerve stimulation stimulates cholinergic nerves innervating the mesenteric arteries to release the neurotransmitter AChE, which activates muscarinic or nicotinic receptors to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest, that perivascular cholinergic nerves have little or no effect on the adrenergic nerve function in mesenteric arteries. The cholinergic nerves innervating mesenteric arteries do not mediate direct vascular responses.

  7. Peribronchial innervation of the rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Bosco, Sandro; Bronzetti, Elena; Felici, Laura M; Pelusi, Giuseppe; Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Vitale, Marco

    2004-10-01

    Mammalian peribronchial tissue is supplied by several peptide-containing nerve fibers. Although it is well established that different neuropeptides exert significant effects on bronchial and vascular tone in the lungs, the role played by some neuromediators on the general regulation, differentiation and release of locally active substances is still controversial. We studied the innervation of rat peribronchial tissue by immunohistochemical techniques. The immunoperoxidase method with nickel amplification was applied to detect the distribution of nerve fibers using antibodies against the general neuronal marker PGP 9.5 (neuron-specific cytoplasmic protein), while the cholinacetyltransferase immunoreactivity was studied by immunohistochemistry. A slight immunoreactivity for NT receptors is observed in lung bronchial epithelium. There is increasing evidence that NTs may act with a paracrine mechanism regulating functional activity of neuronal and non-neuronal structures. A specific immunoreactivity for NTs and NT receptors was also demonstrated within different layers of large, medium and small sized intrapulmonary arteries and veins, according to a recent study of our group. Moreover our data describe the expression of NTs and NT receptors in lymphoid aggregates of the lung (BALT) in which both lymphocytes and macrophages express TrkA receptor and synthesize NTs. Our results show the presence of an extensive network of innervation in the rat peribronchial tissue, confirming a morphological basis for a possible neural modulation of the respiratory mucosa and the physiological/pathophysiological mechanisms of the lung.

  8. Visual Neurons in the Superior Colliculus Innervated by Islet2+ or Islet2− Retinal Ganglion Cells Display Distinct Tuning Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel B. Kay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the visual system, different subtypes of neurons are tuned to distinct aspects of the visual scene, establishing parallel circuits. Defining the mechanisms by which such tuning arises has been a long-standing challenge for neuroscience. To investigate this, we have focused on the retina’s projection to the superior colliculus (SC, where multiple visual neuron subtypes have been described. The SC receives inputs from a variety of retinal ganglion cell (RGC subtypes; however, which RGCs drive the tuning of different SC neurons remains unclear. Here, we pursued a genetic approach that allowed us to determine the tuning properties of neurons innervated by molecularly defined subpopulations of RGCs. In homozygous Islet2-EphA3 knock-in (Isl2EA3/EA3 mice, Isl2+ and Isl2− RGCs project to non-overlapping sub-regions of the SC. Based on molecular and anatomic data, we show that significantly more Isl2− RGCs are direction-selective (DS in comparison with Isl2+ RGCs. Targeted recordings of visual responses from each SC sub-region in Isl2EA3/EA3 mice revealed that Isl2− RGC-innervated neurons were significantly more DS than those innervated by Isl2+ RGCs. Axis-selective (AS neurons were found in both sub-regions, though AS neurons innervated by Isl2+ RGCs were more tightly tuned. Despite this segregation, DS and AS neurons innervated by Isl2+ or Isl2− RGCs did not differ in their spatial summation or spatial frequency (SF tuning. Further, we did not observe alterations in receptive field (RF size or structure of SC neurons innervated by Isl2+ or Isl2− RGCs. Together, these data show that innervation by Isl2+ and Isl2− RGCs results in distinct tuning in the SC and set the stage for future studies investigating the mechanisms by which these circuits are built.

  9. Innervation of the renal proximal convoluted tubule of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas, L.; Powers, K.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data suggest the proximal tubule as a major site of neurogenic influence on tubular function. The functional and anatomical axial heterogeneity of the proximal tubule prompted this study of the distribution of innervation sites along the early, mid, and late proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the rat. Serial section autoradiograms, with tritiated norepinephrine serving as a marker for monoaminergic nerves, were used in this study. Freehand clay models and graphic reconstructions of proximal tubules permitted a rough estimation of the location of the innervation sites along the PCT. In the subcapsular nephrons, the early PCT (first third) was devoid of innervation sites with most of the innervation occurring in the mid (middle third) and in the late (last third) PCT. Innervation sites were found in the early PCT in nephrons located deeper in the cortex. In juxtamedullary nephrons, innervation sites could be observed on the PCT as it left the glomerulus. This gradient of PCT innervation can be explained by the different tubulovascular relationships of nephrons at different levels of the cortex. The absence of innervation sites in the early PCT of subcapsular nephrons suggests that any influence of the renal nerves on the early PCT might be due to an effect of neurotransmitter released from renal nerves reaching the early PCT via the interstitium and/or capillaries

  10. SOLITARY CHEMORECEPTOR CELL SURVIVAL IS INDEPENDENT OF INTACT TRIGEMINAL INNERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian; Silver, Wayne; Finger, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) are a population of specialized chemosensory epithelial cells presumed to broaden trigeminal chemoreceptivity in mammals (Finger et al., 2003). SCCs are innervated by peptidergic trigeminal nerve fibers (Finger et al., 2003) but it is currently unknown if intact innervation is necessary for SCC development or survival. We tested the dependence of SCCs on innervation by eliminating trigeminal nerve fibers during development with neurogenin-1 knockout mice, during early postnatal development with capsaicin desensitization, and during adulthood with trigeminal lesioning. Our results demonstrate that elimination of innervation at any of these times does not result in decreased SCC numbers. In conclusion, neither SCC development nor mature cell maintenance is dependent on intact trigeminal innervation. PMID:18300260

  11. Dual Innervation of Neonatal Merkel Cells in Mouse Touch Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell-neurite complexes are specialized mechanosensory end organs that mediate discriminative touch sensation. It is well established that type I slowly adapting (SAI) mechanoreceptors, which express neural filament heavy chain (NFH), innervate Merkel cells. It was previously shown that neurotrophic factor NT3 and its receptor TrkC play crucial roles in controlling touch dome Merkel cell innervation of NFH+ fibers. In addition, nerve fibers expressing another neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK), Ret, innervate touch dome Merkel cells as well. However, the relationship between afferents responsive to NT3/TrkC signaling and those expressing Ret is unclear. It is also controversial if these Ret+ fibers belong to the early or late Ret+ DRG neurons, which are defined based on the co-expression and developmental dependence of TrkA. To address these questions, we genetically traced Ret+ and TrkC+ fibers and analyzed their developmental dependence on TrkA. We found that Merkel cells in neonatal mouse touch domes receive innervation of two types of fibers: one group is Ret+, while the other subset expresses TrkC and NFH. In addition, Ret+ fibers depend on TrkA for their survival and normal innervation whereas NFH+ Merkel cell innervating fibers are almost unaltered in TrkA mutant mice, supporting that Ret+ and NFH+/TrkC+ afferents are two distinct groups. Ret signaling, on the other hand, plays a minor role for the innervation of neonatal touch domes. In contrast, Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly contacted by NFH+/TrkC+ afferents. Taken together, our results suggest that neonatal Merkel cells around hair follicles receive dual innervation while Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly innervated by only SAI mechanoreceptors. In addition, our results suggest that neonatal Ret+ Merkel cell innervating fibers most likely belong to the late but not early Ret+ DRG neurons. PMID:24637732

  12. Innervation of the sheep pineal gland by nonsympathetic nerve fibers containing NADPH-diaphorase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Figueroa, Manuel O.; Ravault, Jean-Paul; Cozzi, Bruno

    1997-01-01

    Neuroanatomy, NADPH-diaphorase, nitric oxide, innervation, superior cervical ganglionectomy, neuropeptide Y.......Neuroanatomy, NADPH-diaphorase, nitric oxide, innervation, superior cervical ganglionectomy, neuropeptide Y....

  13. Innervated boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Chiou, Tai-Fung

    2007-11-01

    The boomerang flap originates from the dorsolateral aspect of the proximal phalanx of an adjacent digit and is supplied by the retrograde blood flow through the vascular arcades between the dorsal and palmar digital arteries. To provide sensation of the boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction, the dorsal sensory branch of the proper digital nerve and the superficial sensory branch of the corresponding radial or ulnar nerve are included within the skin flap. After transfer of the flap to the injured site, epineural neurorrhaphies are done between the digital nerves of the pulp and the sensory branches of the flap. We used this sensory flap in five patients, with more than 1 year follow-up, and all patients achieved measurable two-points discrimination. The boomerang flap not only preserves the proper palmar digital artery but also provides an extended and innervated skin paddle. It seems to be an alternative choice for one-stage reconstruction of major pulp defect.

  14. Afferent innervation of the utricular macula in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xiaohong; Zakir, Mridha Md; Dickman, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was used to retrogradely label afferents innervating the utricular macula in adult pigeons. The pigeon utriclar macula consists of a large rectangular-shaped neuroepithelium with a dorsally curved anterior edge and an extended medioposterior tail. The macula could be demarcated into several regions based on cytoarchitectural differences. The striola occupied 30% of the macula and contained a large density of type I hair cells with fewer type II hair cells. Medial and lateral extrastriola zones were located outside the striola and contained only type II hair cells. A six- to eight-cell-wide band of type II hair cells existed near the center of the striola. The reversal line marked by the morphological polarization of hair cells coursed throughout the epithelium, near the peripheral margin, and through the center of the type II band. Calyx afferents innervated type I hair cells with calyceal terminals that contained between 2 and 15 receptor cells. Calyx afferents were located only in the striola region, exclusive of the type II band, had small total fiber innervation areas and low innervation densities. Dimorph afferents innervated both type I and type II hair cells with calyceal and bouton terminals and were primarily located in the striola region. Dimorph afferents had smaller calyceal terminals with few type I hair cells, extended fiber branches with bouton terminals and larger innervation areas. Bouton afferents innervated only type II hair cells in the extrastriola and type II band regions. Bouton afferents innervating the type II band had smaller terminal fields with fewer bouton terminals and smaller innervation areas than fibers located in the extrastriolar zones. Bouton afferents had the most bouton terminals on the longest fibers, the largest innervation areas with the highest innervation densities of all afferents. Among all afferents, smaller terminal innervation fields were observed in the striola and large fields were

  15. Reciprocity in electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, J.; Goodman, P.

    1991-01-01

    The symmetry of reciprocity is reviewed in the context of relativistic quantum mechanics with the specific aim of relating to P-C-T invariances. From this investigation global time reversal is found to be sufficient condition for reciprocity to hold in scattering from a vector potential. Elastic scattering is assumed. The paper also deals exclusively with the scattering of a charged particle by an electromagnetic field. The present proof is free from assumptions of small angle scattering and from restrictions on z-dependent terms in the scattering equation, and by avoiding S-matrix theory is thought to be accessible to undergraduate teaching. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  16. Reciprocity in electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, J.; Goodman, P.

    1992-01-01

    The symmetry of reciprocity is reviewed in the context of relativistic quantum mechanics with the specific aim of relating to C, P and T invariances. From this investigation global time reversal is found to be a sufficient condition for reciprocity to hold in scattering from a vector potential. The present proof is free from assumptions of small-angle scattering and from restrictions on z-dependent terms in the scattering equation, and by avoiding S-matrix theory is thought to be accessible to undergraduate teaching. (orig.)

  17. Time-dependent miR-16 serum fluctuations together with reciprocal changes in the expression level of miR-16 in mesocortical circuit contribute to stress resilient phenotype in chronic mild stress - An animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurawek, Dariusz; Kusmider, Maciej; Faron-Gorecka, Agata; Gruca, Piotr; Pabian, Paulina; Kolasa, Magdalena; Solich, Joanna; Szafran-Pilch, Kinga; Papp, Mariusz; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in stress-related pathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying stress resilience are elusive. Using chronic mild stress (CMS), an animal model of depression, we identified animals exhibiting a resilient phenotype. We investigated serum levels of corticosterone, melatonin and 376 mature miRNAs to find peripheral biomarkers associated with the resilient phenotype. miR-16, selected during screening step, was assayed in different brain regions in order to find potential relationship between brain and peripheral alterations in response to stress. Two CMS experiments that lasted for 2 and 7 consecutive weeks were performed. During both CMS procedures, sucrose consumption levels were significantly decreased in anhedonic-like animals (panimals, whereas the drinking profiles of resilient rats did not change despite the rats being stressed. Serum corticosterone measurements indicated that anhedonic-like animals had blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, whereas resilient animals exhibited dynamic responses to stress. miRNA profiling revealed that resilient animals had elevated serum levels of miR-16 after 7 weeks of CMS (adjusted p-valueanimals exhibited reciprocal changes in miR-16 expression level in mesocortical pathway after 2 weeks of CMS (panimals can actively cope with stress on a biochemical level and miR-16 may contribute to a "stress-resistant" behavioral phenotype by pleiotropic modulation of the expression of genes involved in the function of the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. Innervation of the thick ascending limb of Henle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas, L.; Powers, K.V.

    1988-01-01

    The overlap of accumulations of autoradiographic grains (AAGs) on profiles of the thick ascending limb of Henle (TALH) was measured in autoradiograms of sections from rat kidneys with monoaminergic nerves labeled by means of tritiated norepinephrine. The amount of AAG overlap was used as an indirect means of quantifying innervation along the TALHs of superficial, mid-cortical, and juxtamedullary nephrons. The density of innervation along the TALH showed nephron heterogeneity; the juxtamedullary nephrons with a high pre- and postjuxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) TALH density of innervation and the upper and midcortical nephrons with high TALH innervation densities at the level of the JGA. The pre-JGA TALH of the juxtamedullary nephrons had a significantly higher (P less than 0.001) density of innervation than the midcortical or superficial nephrons. The TALHs of juxtamedullary nephrons were found to have substantially more innervation than the TALHs of the other nephrons. For all three populations of nephrons, the pre-JGA TALH had the greatest amount of innervation. Neural regulation of TALH function would occur mainly along the pre-JGA and level of the JGA TALH. This regulation would increase TALH NaCl reabsorption (decrease luminal NaCl concentration) and therefore influence 1) the urinary concentrating mechanism, and 2) renin secretion via the macula densa mechanism. The innervation of the TALH was predominantly associated with the vasculature of the TALH's own nephron. However, innervation associated with medullary ray capillary beds from deeper nephrons was observed on pre-JGA TALHs from superficial and midcortical nephrons

  19. Innervation of the thick ascending limb of Henle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barajas, L.; Powers, K.V.

    1988-08-01

    The overlap of accumulations of autoradiographic grains (AAGs) on profiles of the thick ascending limb of Henle (TALH) was measured in autoradiograms of sections from rat kidneys with monoaminergic nerves labeled by means of tritiated norepinephrine. The amount of AAG overlap was used as an indirect means of quantifying innervation along the TALHs of superficial, mid-cortical, and juxtamedullary nephrons. The density of innervation along the TALH showed nephron heterogeneity; the juxtamedullary nephrons with a high pre- and postjuxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) TALH density of innervation and the upper and midcortical nephrons with high TALH innervation densities at the level of the JGA. The pre-JGA TALH of the juxtamedullary nephrons had a significantly higher (P less than 0.001) density of innervation than the midcortical or superficial nephrons. The TALHs of juxtamedullary nephrons were found to have substantially more innervation than the TALHs of the other nephrons. For all three populations of nephrons, the pre-JGA TALH had the greatest amount of innervation. Neural regulation of TALH function would occur mainly along the pre-JGA and level of the JGA TALH. This regulation would increase TALH NaCl reabsorption (decrease luminal NaCl concentration) and therefore influence 1) the urinary concentrating mechanism, and 2) renin secretion via the macula densa mechanism. The innervation of the TALH was predominantly associated with the vasculature of the TALH's own nephron. However, innervation associated with medullary ray capillary beds from deeper nephrons was observed on pre-JGA TALHs from superficial and midcortical nephrons.

  20. Hidden patterns of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syi

    2014-03-21

    Reciprocity can help the evolution of cooperation. To model both types of reciprocity, we need the concept of strategy. In the case of direct reciprocity there are four second-order action rules (Simple Tit-for-tat, Contrite Tit-for-tat, Pavlov, and Grim Trigger), which are able to promote cooperation. In the case of indirect reciprocity the key component of cooperation is the assessment rule. There are, again, four elementary second-order assessment rules (Image Scoring, Simple Standing, Stern Judging, and Shunning). The eight concepts can be formalized in an ontologically thin way we need only an action predicate and a value function, two agent concepts, and the constant of goodness. The formalism helps us to discover that the action and assessment rules can be paired, and that they show the same patterns. The logic of these patterns can be interpreted with the concept of punishment that has an inherent paradoxical nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  2. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  3. Catecholamine innervation of the caudal spinal cord in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Skagerberg, G

    1985-01-01

    matter were found to contain catecholamines. In the dorsal horn the most intense fluorescence was seen in the superficial layers. The motoneuron neuropil exhibited the most prominent catecholamine-fluorescence of the ventral horn layers. In the sixth lumbar segment, which contains the motor nuclei....... In the intermediate gray the intermediolateral nucleus in thoracic and upper lumbar segments was the most heavily innervated area, followed by the medial lumbar sympathetic group, which contains the majority of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the pelvic organs. The parasympathetic intermediolateral...... nucleus in the upper sacral segments received a catecholamine innervation of moderate density. The catecholamine innervation pattern is discussed in relation to the patterns of other putative transmitters. The distribution of catecholamine fluorescence in relation to nuclei that control the pelvic organs...

  4. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While it is possi...... of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries.......We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...

  5. Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R

    1953-01-01

    Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.

  6. Reciprocity in Vector Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Green’s Theorem to the left hand side of Equation (3.2) converts it to a surface integral that vanishes for the impedance boundary conditions one...There are situations where this assumption does not hold, such as at boundaries between layers or in an inhomogeneous layer , because the density gradient...instead of requiring one model run for each source location. Application of the vector-scalar reciprocity principle is demonstrated with analytic

  7. Corrupt reciprocity: An experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Graf Lambsdorff, Johann; Frank, Björn

    2007-01-01

    We let students play a corruption game, embedded into a variant of the ultimatum game. Those allotted the role of public servants chose between whistleblowing, opportunism and reciprocity by delivery (of a contract) and those acting as businesspeople chose how to frame the game and whether to blow the whistle. While opportunism and abstaining from whistleblowing is the Nash equilibrium, another likely outcome was that businesspeople allocate resources to punishing public servants for non-deli...

  8. Cutting efficiency of Reciproc and waveOne reciprocating instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Giansiracusa Rubini, Alessio; Grande, Nicola M; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cutting efficiency of 2 new reciprocating instruments, Reciproc and WaveOne. Twenty-four new Reciproc R25 and 24 new WaveOne Primary files were activated by using a torque-controlled motor (Silver Reciproc) and divided into 4 groups (n = 12): group 1, Reciproc activated by Reciproc ALL program; group 2, Reciproc activated by WaveOne ALL program; group 3, WaveOne activated by Reciproc ALL program; and group 4, WaveOne activated by WaveOne ALL program. The device used for the cutting test consisted of a main frame to which a mobile plastic support for the handpiece is connected and a stainless steel block containing a Plexiglas block (inPlexiglass, Rome, Italy) against which the cutting efficiency of the instruments was tested. The length of the block cut in 1 minute was measured in a computerized program with a precision of 0.1 mm. Means and standard deviations of each group were calculated, and data were statistically analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test (P cutting efficiency than WaveOne Primary for both the movements used (P cutting efficiency than WaveOne instruments used with their proper reciprocating motion (P .05). Reciproc instruments demonstrated statistically higher cutting efficiency than WaveOne instruments. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cholinergic innervation of the zebrafish olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey G; Greig, Ann; Sakata, Yoko; Elkin, Dimitry; Michel, William C

    2007-10-20

    A number of fish species receive forebrain cholinergic input but two recent reports failed to find evidence of cholinergic cell bodies or fibers in the olfactory bulbs (OBs) of zebrafish. In the current study we sought to confirm these findings by examining the OBs of adult zebrafish for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. We observed a diffuse network of varicose ChAT-positive fibers associated with the nervus terminalis ganglion innervating the mitral cell/glomerular layer (MC/GL). The highest density of these fibers occurred in the anterior region of the bulb. The cellular targets of this cholinergic input were identified by exposing isolated OBs to acetylcholine receptor (AChR) agonists in the presence of agmatine (AGB), a cationic probe that permeates some active ion channels. Nicotine (50 microM) significantly increased the activity-dependent labeling of mitral cells and juxtaglomerular cells but not of tyrosine hydroxlase-positive dopaminergic neurons (TH(+) cells) compared to control preparations. The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine, an alpha7-nAChR subunit-specific antagonist, calcium-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid, or a cocktail of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists each blocked nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that AGB does not enter the labeled neurons through activated nAChRs but rather through activated iGluRs following ACh-stimulated glutamate release. Deafferentation of OBs did not eliminate nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that cholinergic input is primarily acting on bulbar neurons. These findings confirm the presence of a functioning cholinergic system in the zebrafish OB.

  10. Reciprocal inhibition between motor neurons of the tibialis anterior and triceps surae in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Utku Ş; Negro, Francesco; Diedrichs, Robin; Farina, Dario

    2018-05-01

    Motor neurons innervating antagonist muscles receive reciprocal inhibitory afferent inputs to facilitate the joint movement in the two directions. The present study investigates the mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibitory afferent inputs between the tibialis anterior (TA) and triceps surae (soleus and medial gastrocnemius) motor units. We assessed this mutual mechanism in large populations of motor units for building a statistical distribution of the inhibition amplitudes during standardized input to the motor neuron pools to minimize the effect of modulatory pathways. Single motor unit activities were identified using high-density surface electromyography (HDsEMG) recorded from the TA, soleus (Sol), and medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscles during isometric dorsi- and plantarflexion. Reciprocal inhibition on the antagonist muscle was elicited by electrical stimulation of the tibial (TN) or common peroneal nerves (CPN). The probability density distributions of reflex strength for each muscle were estimated to examine the strength of mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibitory input. The results showed that the strength of reciprocal inhibition in the TA motor units was fourfold greater than for the GM and the Sol motor units. This suggests an asymmetric transmission of reciprocal inhibition between ankle extensor and flexor muscles. This asymmetry cannot be explained by differences in motor unit type composition between the investigated muscles since we sampled low-threshold motor units in all cases. Therefore, the differences observed for the strength of inhibition are presumably due to a differential reciprocal spindle afferent input and the relative contribution of nonreciprocal inhibitory pathways. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We investigated the mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibition in large samples of motor units using a standardized input (electrical stimulation) to the motor neurons. The results demonstrated that the disynaptic reciprocal inhibition exerted

  11. Immunomodulation stimulates the innervation of engineered tooth organ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunay Kökten

    Full Text Available The sensory innervation of the dental mesenchyme is essential for tooth function and protection. Sensory innervation of the dental pulp is mediated by axons originating from the trigeminal ganglia and is strictly regulated in time. Teeth can develop from cultured re-associations between dissociated dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells from Embryonic Day 14 mouse molars, after implantation under the skin of adult ICR mice. In these conditions however, the innervation of the dental mesenchyme did not occur spontaneously. In order to go further with this question, complementary experimental approaches were designed. Cultured cell re-associations were implanted together with trigeminal ganglia for one or two weeks. Although axonal growth was regularly observed extending from the trigeminal ganglia to all around the forming teeth, the presence of axons in the dental mesenchyme was detected in less than 2.5% of samples after two weeks, demonstrating a specific impairment of their entering the dental mesenchyme. In clinical context, immunosuppressive therapy using cyclosporin A was found to accelerate the innervation of transplanted tissues. Indeed, when cultured cell re-associations and trigeminal ganglia were co-implanted in cyclosporin A-treated ICR mice, nerve fibers were detected in the dental pulp, even reaching odontoblasts after one week. However, cyclosporin A shows multiple effects, including direct ones on nerve growth. To test whether there may be a direct functional relationship between immunomodulation and innervation, cell re-associations and trigeminal ganglia were co-implanted in immunocompromised Nude mice. In these conditions as well, the innervation of the dental mesenchyme was observed already after one week of implantation, but axons reached the odontoblast layer after two weeks only. This study demonstrated that immunodepression per se does stimulate the innervation of the dental mesenchyme.

  12. Anatomical evidence for brainstem circuits mediating feeding motor programs in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C W

    2001-09-01

    Using injections of small molecular weight fluorescein dextran amines, combined with activity-dependent uptake of sulforhodamine 101 (SR101), brainstem circuits presumed to be involved in feeding motor output were investigated. As has been shown previously in other studies, projections to the cerebellar nuclei were identified from the cerebellar cortex, the trigeminal motor nucleus, and the vestibular nuclei. Results presented here suggest an additional pathway from the hypoglossal motor nuclei to the cerebellar nucleus as well as an afferent projection from the peripheral hypoglossal nerve to the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. Injections in the cerebellar cortex combined with retrograde labeling of the peripheral hypoglossal nerve demonstrate anatomical convergence at the level of the medial reticular formation. This suggests a possible integrative region for afferent feedback from the hypoglossal nerve and information through the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. The activity-dependent uptake of SR101 additionally suggests a reciprocal, polysynaptic pathway between this same area of the medial reticular formation and the trigeminal motor nuclei. The trigeminal motor neurons innervate the m adductor mandibulae, the primary mouth-closing muscle. The SR101 uptake clearly labeled the ventrolateral hypoglossal nuclei, the medial reticular formation, and the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellar cortex. Unlike retrograde labeling of the peripheral hypoglossal nerve, stimulating the hypoglossal nerve while SR101 was bath-applied labeled trigeminal motor neurons. This, combined with the dextran labeling, suggests a reciprocal connection between the trigeminal motor nuclei and the cerebellar nuclei, as well as the medulla. Taken together, these data are important for understanding the neurophysiological pathways used to coordinate the proper timing of an extremely rapid, goal-directed movement and may prove useful for elucidating some of the

  13. Successful Implantation of Bioengineered, Intrinsically Innervated, Human Internal Anal Sphincter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Shreya; Gilmont, Robert R.; Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Somara, Sita; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Bitar, Khalil N.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims To restore fecal continence, the weakened pressure of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) must be increased. We bioengineered intrinsically innervated human IAS, to emulate sphincteric physiology, in vitro. Methods We co-cultured human IAS circular smooth muscle with immortomouse fetal enteric neurons. We investigated the ability of bioengineered innervated human IAS, implanted in RAG1−/− mice, to undergo neovascularization and preserve the physiology of the constituent myogenic and neuronal components. Results The implanted IAS was neovascularized in vivo; numerous blood vessels were observed with no signs of inflammation or infection. Real-time force acquisition from implanted and pre-implant IAS showed distinct characteristics of IAS physiology. Features included the development of spontaneous myogenic basal tone; relaxation of 100% of basal tone in response to inhibitory neurotransmitter vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and direct electrical field stimulation of the intrinsic innervation; inhibition of nitrergic and VIPergic EFS-induced relaxation (by antagonizing nitric oxide synthesis or receptor interaction); contraction in response to cholinergic stimulation with acetylcholine; and intact electromechanical coupling (evidenced by direct response to potassium chloride). Implanted, intrinsically innervated bioengineered human IAS tissue preserved the integrity and physiology of myogenic and neuronal components. Conclusion Intrinsically innervated human IAS bioengineered tissue can be successfully implanted in mice. This approach might be used to treat patients with fecal incontinence. PMID:21463628

  14. Noradrenergic and cholinergic innervation of the bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Bosco, Sandro; Cavallotti, Carlo; Agostinelli, Enzo; Giuliani-Piccari, Gabriella; Sciorio, Salvatore; Cocco, Lucio; Vitale, Marco

    2002-07-01

    Bone marrow is supplied by sensory and autonomic innervation. Although it is well established that hematopoiesis is regulated by cytokines and cell-to-cell contacts, the role played by neuromediators on the proliferation, differentiation and release of hematopoietic cells is still controversial. We studied the innervation of rat femur bone marrow by means of fluorescence histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence was used to demonstrate catecholaminergic nerve fibers. The immunoperoxidase method with nickel amplification was applied to detect the distribution of nerve fibers using antibodies against the general neuronal marker PGP 9.5 (neuron-specific cytoplasmic protein), while the cholinacetyltransferase immunoreactivity was studied by immunohistochemistry. Our results show the presence of an extensive network of innervation in the rat bone marrow, providing a morphological basis for the neural modulation of hemopoiesis.

  15. Cortical cholinergic innervation: Distribution and source in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, R.G.; Cork, L.C.; Coyle, J.T.; Lehmann, J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Price, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its late-life variant, senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT), the predominant neurochemical abnormalities are marked decrements in the activities of ChAT and AChE, the high affinity uptake of tritium-choline, and synthesis of acetylcholine. Two studies are undertaken to delineate more clearly the variability of cortical cholinergic innervation and the contribution of the Ch system, particularly the Ch4, to this cholinergic innervation. In the first study, ChAT activity was assessed in multiple samples of neocortex from seven normal cynomolgus monkeys. In the second study, the nbM was lesioned in order to determine the contribution of the Ch system to cortical cholinergic innervation

  16. Discrete innervation of murine taste buds by peripheral taste neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal N; Whitehead, Mark C

    2006-08-09

    The peripheral taste system likely maintains a specific relationship between ganglion cells that signal a particular taste quality and taste bud cells responsive to that quality. We have explored a measure of the receptoneural relationship in the mouse. By injecting single fungiform taste buds with lipophilic retrograde neuroanatomical markers, the number of labeled geniculate ganglion cells innervating single buds on the tongue were identified. We found that three to five ganglion cells innervate a single bud. Injecting neighboring buds with different color markers showed that the buds are primarily innervated by separate populations of geniculate cells (i.e., multiply labeled ganglion cells are rare). In other words, each taste bud is innervated by a population of neurons that only connects with that bud. Palate bud injections revealed a similar, relatively exclusive receptoneural relationship. Injecting buds in different regions of the tongue did not reveal a topographic representation of buds in the geniculate ganglion, despite a stereotyped patterned arrangement of fungiform buds as rows and columns on the tongue. However, ganglion cells innervating the tongue and palate were differentially concentrated in lateral and rostral regions of the ganglion, respectively. The principal finding that small groups of ganglion cells send sensory fibers that converge selectively on a single bud is a new-found measure of specific matching between the two principal cellular elements of the mouse peripheral taste system. Repetition of the experiments in the hamster showed a more divergent innervation of buds in this species. The results indicate that whatever taste quality is signaled by a murine geniculate ganglion neuron, that signal reflects the activity of cells in a single taste bud.

  17. The human thoracic duct is functionally innervated by adrenergic nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telinius, Niklas; Baandrup, Ulrik; Rumessen, Jüri Johs.

    2013-01-01

    ) that is predominantly adrenergic. TDs harvested from 51 patients undergoing esophageal and cardia cancer surgery were either fixed for structural investigations or maintained in vitro for the functional assessment of innervation by isometric force measurements and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Electron microscopy......, and methacholine was demonstrated by exogenous application to human TD ring segments. Norepinephrine provided the most consistent responses, whereas responses to the other agonists varied. We conclude that the human TD is functionally innervated with both cholinergic and adrenergic components, with the latter...

  18. Reciprocal Relationships: Something for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumosa, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Reciprocal relationships based on mutual goals, respect and trust are key to maintaining working relationships and getting reliable research results. Yet relationship building is not a concept taught in academia. These skills are often learned the hard way, with singular solutions found for case-by-case scenarios. Several journeys to identify the components, barriers and rewards of reciprocal relationships are discussed.

  19. Structural Behaviour of Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures....

  20. Belief in reciprocity in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-08-01

    Belief in reciprocity refers to a personally internalized faith in the reciprocity norm: that people will return positive and negative interactions or favors in kind. The current study aims to examine the relationship between belief in reciprocity and altruism among a Chinese sample. The Personal Norm of Reciprocity Scale, Trait Forgiveness Scale, Prosocial Tendency Measure, and Altruism Scale were used to assess extent of belief in reciprocity, forgiveness, and prosocial motivation, respectively, among 204 Chinese undergraduates. The results indicated that belief in reciprocity was a partially negative, but not neutral, reciprocity norm for Chinese people. Specifically, belief in reciprocity was positively related to negative reciprocity, but not significantly related to positive reciprocity. Moreover, belief in reciprocity was negatively related to both prosocial tendency and altruistic motivation. The results also indicated that forgiveness largely mediated the effect of belief in reciprocity on altruism. Finally, the implications and limitations of the current study were discussed.

  1. Reciprocating linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  2. Development of the intrinsic and extrinsic innervation of the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesaka, Toshihiro; Young, Heather M; Pachnis, Vassilis; Enomoto, Hideki

    2016-09-15

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is innervated by intrinsic enteric neurons and by extrinsic efferent and afferent nerves. The enteric (intrinsic) nervous system (ENS) in most regions of the gut consists of two main ganglionated layers; myenteric and submucosal ganglia, containing numerous types of enteric neurons and glial cells. Axons arising from the ENS and from extrinsic neurons innervate most layers of the gut wall and regulate many gut functions. The majority of ENS cells are derived from vagal neural crest cells (NCCs), which proliferate, colonize the entire gut, and first populate the myenteric region. After gut colonization by vagal NCCs, the extrinsic nerve fibers reach the GI tract, and Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) enter the gut along the extrinsic nerves. Furthermore, a subpopulation of cells in myenteric ganglia undergoes a radial (inward) migration to form the submucosal plexus, and the intrinsic and extrinsic innervation to the mucosal region develops. Here, we focus on recent progress in understanding the developmental processes that occur after the gut is colonized by vagal ENS precursors, and provide an up-to-date overview of molecular mechanisms regulating the development of the intrinsic and extrinsic innervation of the GI tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Testosterone supplementation restores vasopressin innervation in the senescent rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, E.; Fliers, E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    The vasopressin (AVP) innervation in the male rat brain is decreased in senescence. This decrease is particularly pronounced in brain regions where AVP fiber density is dependent on plasma levels of sex steroids. Since plasma testosterone levels decrease progressively with age in the rat, the

  4. Autonomic innervation of the heart. Role of molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slart, Riemer H.J.A; Elsinga, Philip H. [Univ. Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Tio, Rene A. [Univ. Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Thorax Center Cardiology; Schwaiger, Markus (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik

    2015-03-01

    Reviews in detail the value of SPECT-CT and PET-CT in the imaging of cardiac innervation. Details the role of imaging in a range of conditions and diseases. Includes important background on pathophysiology, tracers, radiopharmaceutical production, and kinetic modeling software. This book explains in detail the potential value of the hybrid modalities, SPECT-CT and PET-CT, in the imaging of cardiac innervation in a wide range of conditions and diseases, including ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, amyloidosis, heart transplantation, and ventricular arrhythmias. Imaging of the brain-heart axis in neurodegenerative disease and stress and of cardiotoxicity is also discussed. The roles of the various available tracers are fully considered, and individual chapters address radiopharmaceutical development under GMP, imaging physics, and kinetic modeling software. Highly relevant background information is included on the autonomic nervous system of the heart and its pathophysiology, and in addition future perspectives are discussed. Awareness of the importance of autonomic innervation of the heart for the optimal management of cardiac patients is growing, and there is an evident need for objective measurement techniques or imaging modalities. In this context, Autonomic Innervation of the Heart will be of wide interest to clinicians, researchers, and industry.

  5. Autonomic innervation of the heart. Role of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slart, Riemer H.J.A; Elsinga, Philip H.; Tio, Rene A.; Schwaiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Reviews in detail the value of SPECT-CT and PET-CT in the imaging of cardiac innervation. Details the role of imaging in a range of conditions and diseases. Includes important background on pathophysiology, tracers, radiopharmaceutical production, and kinetic modeling software. This book explains in detail the potential value of the hybrid modalities, SPECT-CT and PET-CT, in the imaging of cardiac innervation in a wide range of conditions and diseases, including ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, amyloidosis, heart transplantation, and ventricular arrhythmias. Imaging of the brain-heart axis in neurodegenerative disease and stress and of cardiotoxicity is also discussed. The roles of the various available tracers are fully considered, and individual chapters address radiopharmaceutical development under GMP, imaging physics, and kinetic modeling software. Highly relevant background information is included on the autonomic nervous system of the heart and its pathophysiology, and in addition future perspectives are discussed. Awareness of the importance of autonomic innervation of the heart for the optimal management of cardiac patients is growing, and there is an evident need for objective measurement techniques or imaging modalities. In this context, Autonomic Innervation of the Heart will be of wide interest to clinicians, researchers, and industry.

  6. Reciprocity principle in duct acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.-C.

    1979-01-01

    Various reciprocity relations in duct acoustics have been derived on the basis of the spatial reciprocity principle implied in Green's functions for linear waves. The derivation includes the reciprocity relations between mode conversion coefficients for reflection and transmission in nonuniform ducts, and the relation between the radiation of a mode from an arbitrarily terminated duct and the absorption of an externally incident plane wave by the duct. Such relations are well defined as long as the systems remain linear, regardless of acoustic properties of duct nonuniformities which cause the mode conversions.

  7. Resonance circuits for adiabatic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlachta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible techniques to reduces the power consumption in digital CMOS circuits is to slow down the charge transport. This slowdown can be achieved by introducing an inductor in the charging path. Additionally, the inductor can act as an energy storage element, conserving the energy that is normally dissipated during discharging. Together with the parasitic capacitances from the circuit a LCresonant circuit is formed.

  8. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Reciproc Blue, Reciproc, and WaveOne Gold Reciprocating Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cangül; Inan, Uğur; Demiral, Murat; Keleş, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of Reciproc Blue R25 (VDW, Munich, Germany) with Reciproc R25 (VDW) and WaveOne Gold Primary (Denstply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Fifteen Reciproc Blue R25, 15 Reciproc R25, and 15 WaveOne Gold Primary instruments were collected and tested in a dynamic cyclic fatigue test device, which has an artificial canal with a 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. All instruments were operated until fracture occurred, and time to fracture (TF) and the lengths of the fractured fragments were recorded. The mean and standard deviations of TF and fragment length were calculated for each reciprocating system. TF data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis 1-way analysis of variance and the Dunn test, whereas fractured fragment length data were subjected to 1-way analysis of variance (P  .05). Reciproc Blue R25 instruments had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than WaveOne Gold and Reciproc R25 instruments. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Direct reciprocity in spatial populations enhances R-reciprocity as well as ST-reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Kohei; Tanimoto, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    As is well-known, spatial reciprocity plays an important role in facilitating the emergence of cooperative traits, and the effect of direct reciprocity is also obvious for explaining the cooperation dynamics. However, how the combination of these two scenarios influences cooperation is still unclear. In the present work, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2 × 2 games via considering both spatial structured populations and direct reciprocity driven by the strategy with 1-memory length. Our results show that cooperation can be significantly facilitated on the whole parameter plane. For prisoner's dilemma game, cooperation dominates the system even at strong dilemma, where maximal social payoff is still realized. In this sense, R-reciprocity forms and it is robust to the extremely strong dilemma. Interestingly, when turning to chicken game, we find that ST-reciprocity is also guaranteed, through which social average payoff and cooperation is greatly enhanced. This reciprocity mechanism is supported by mean-field analysis and different interaction topologies. Thus, our study indicates that direct reciprocity in structured populations can be regarded as a more powerful factor for the sustainability of cooperation.

  10. Richness and Reciprocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Harding RN, PhD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting and retaining nurses in mental health practice settings have long been problematic: A situation which is not helped by student nurses being exposed to negative attitudes about mental health nursing or poor clinical experiences. A pilot program in which student nurses were mentored on the mental health clinical placement was initiated at an Australian School of Nursing. A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the value of this program for the student mentee and the registered nurse mentor. A questionnaire containing six questions was distributed to all participants before and after the clinical experience. The questions were open format seeking data on (a the perceived advantages or disadvantages of mentoring, (b perceptions of whether mentoring contributes to professional development, and (c whether mentoring contributes personally to the participant. The data were subjected to inductive thematic analysis. The registered nurse mentors found that time diverted from clients was a barrier to mentoring students; however, they experienced reciprocity through nurturance of self, students, and the profession. The student mentees found that they experienced a richer and deeper learning environment. Mentoring provides a satisfying learning environment for both parties if carefully implemented and supported.

  11. Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles

    KAUST Repository

    Giese, Andrew; Latypov, Daniel; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming

  12. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-01

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  13. Electronic circuit encyclopedia 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Ho

    1992-10-15

    This book is composed of 15 chapters, which are amplification of weak signal and measurement circuit audio control and power amplification circuit, data transmission and wireless system, forwarding and isolation, signal converting circuit, counter and comparator, discriminator circuit, oscillation circuit and synthesizer, digital and circuit on computer image processing circuit, sensor drive circuit temperature sensor circuit, magnetic control and application circuit, motor driver circuit, measuring instrument and check tool and power control and stability circuit.

  14. Collateral Projections Innervate the Mammillary Bodies and Retrosplenial Cortex: A New Category of Hippocampal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Mara, Shane M.

    2018-01-01

    To understand the hippocampus, it is necessary to understand the subiculum. Unlike other hippocampal subfields, the subiculum projects to almost all distal hippocampal targets, highlighting its critical importance for external networks. The present studies, in male rats and mice, reveal a new category of dorsal subiculum neurons that innervate both the mammillary bodies (MBs) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSP). These bifurcating neurons comprise almost half of the hippocampal cells that project to RSP. The termination of these numerous collateral projections was visualized within the medial mammillary nucleus and the granular RSP (area 29). These collateral projections included subiculum efferents that cross to the contralateral MBs. Within the granular RSP, the collateral projections form a particularly dense plexus in deep Layer II and Layer III. This retrosplenial termination site colocalized with markers for VGluT2 and neurotensin. While efferents from the hippocampal CA fields standardly collateralize, subiculum projections often have only one target site. Consequently, the many collateral projections involving the RSP and the MBs present a relatively unusual pattern for the subiculum, which presumably relates to how both targets have complementary roles in spatial processing. Furthermore, along with the anterior thalamic nuclei, the MBs and RSP are key members of a memory circuit, which is usually described as both starting and finishing in the hippocampus. The present findings reveal how the hippocampus simultaneously engages different parts of this circuit, so forcing an important revision of this network. PMID:29527569

  15. K-groups of reciprocity functors

    OpenAIRE

    Ivorra, Florian; Rülling, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In this work we introduce reciprocity functors, construct the associated K-group of a family of reciprocity functors, which itself is a reciprocity functor, and compute it in several different cases. It may be seen as a first attempt to get close to the notion of reciprocity sheaves imagined by B. Kahn. Commutative algebraic groups, homotopy invariant Nisnevich sheaves with transfers, cycle modules or K\\"ahler differentials are examples of reciprocity functors. As commutative algebraic groups...

  16. Unilateral variant motor innervations of flexure muscles of arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Yogesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The musculocutaneous nerve usually branches out from the lateral cord of brachial plexus. It innervates the corcobrachialis, biceps brachii and brachialis muscles and continues as the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm without exhibiting any communication with the median nerve or any other nerve. We report unilateral variation in motor innervations of the left arm in a 58-year-old male cadaver. The musculocutaneous nerve was found to be absent. A muscular branch of the median nerve was supplying the coracobrachialis muscle. In the middle of arm, the median nerve was found to be branching out, bifurcating and supplying the long and short head of biceps. The median nerve was found to be giving a separate branch, which supplied the brachialis muscle and continued as the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm. The right sided structures were found to be normal. Surgeons should keep such variations in mind while performing arm surgeries.

  17. Microscopic Perspective on Photovoltaic Reciprocity in Ultrathin Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, Urs; Rau, Uwe

    2017-06-16

    The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions. Its derivation is based on detailed balance relations between local absorption and emission rates in optically isotropic media with nondegenerate quasiequilibrium carrier distributions. In many cases, the dependence of density and spatial variation of electronic and optical device states on the point of operation is modest and the reciprocity relation holds. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic devices exploiting confined modes, however, the underlying assumptions are no longer justifiable. In the case of ultrathin absorber solar cells, the modification of the electronic structure with applied bias is significant due to the large variation of the built-in field. Straightforward use of the external quantum efficiency as measured at short circuit conditions in the photovoltaic reciprocity theory thus fails to reproduce the electroluminescence spectrum at large forward bias voltage. This failure is demonstrated here by numerical simulation of both spectral quantities at normal incidence and emission for an ultrathin GaAs p-i-n solar cell using an advanced quantum kinetic formalism based on nonequilibrium Green's functions of coupled photons and charge carriers. While coinciding with the semiclassical relations under the conditions of their validity, the theory provides a consistent microscopic relationship between absorption, emission, and charge carrier transport in photovoltaic devices at arbitrary operating conditions and for any shape of optical and electronic density of states.

  18. The spatiotemporal development of innervation in spinal ligaments of chickens.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, H; Moreau, M; Greidanus, N; Bilo, J; Russell, G; Raso, J; Bagnall, K

    1996-01-01

    The development of the innervation of both central and lateral (intertransverse) spinal ligaments was investigated in chickens between the time of hatching and 13 wk of age. A total of 36 White Leghorn chickens in 4 groups of 9 at ages 0, 2, 7, and 13 wk were used. The spinal ligaments were dissected, serially sectioned and labelled with a monoclonal antibody against neurofilament protein and observed using either conventional fluorescence or confocal microscopy. Only a few nerve elements wer...

  19. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2018-03-01

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  20. Public privacy: Reciprocity and Silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Kennedy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In his 1958 poem 'Dedication to my Wife' TS Eliot proclaims "these are private words addressed to you in public". Simultaneously written for his wife, Valerie Fletcher, and to the implied you of a discourse network, Eliot's poem helps to illustrate the narrative voices and silences that are constitutive of an intimate public sphere. This paper situates reciprocity as a condition of possibility for public privacy. It shows how reciprocity is enabled by systems of code operating through material and symbolic registers. Code promises to control communication, to produce neutral, systemic forms of meaning. Yet such automation is challenged by uneven and fragmented patterns of reciprocity. Moreover, examining the media of public privacy reveals historical trajectories important for understanding contemporary socio­technical platforms of reciprocity. To explore the implicit requirement of reciprocity in publicly private practices, three sites of communication are investigated framed by a media archaeology perspective: postal networks, the mail­art project PostSecret and the anonymous zine 'You'.

  1. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one's trustworthiness as a service user.

  2. Direct reciprocity in structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen, Matthijs; García, Julián; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A

    2012-06-19

    Reciprocity and repeated games have been at the center of attention when studying the evolution of human cooperation. Direct reciprocity is considered to be a powerful mechanism for the evolution of cooperation, and it is generally assumed that it can lead to high levels of cooperation. Here we explore an open-ended, infinite strategy space, where every strategy that can be encoded by a finite state automaton is a possible mutant. Surprisingly, we find that direct reciprocity alone does not lead to high levels of cooperation. Instead we observe perpetual oscillations between cooperation and defection, with defection being substantially more frequent than cooperation. The reason for this is that "indirect invasions" remove equilibrium strategies: every strategy has neutral mutants, which in turn can be invaded by other strategies. However, reciprocity is not the only way to promote cooperation. Another mechanism for the evolution of cooperation, which has received as much attention, is assortment because of population structure. Here we develop a theory that allows us to study the synergistic interaction between direct reciprocity and assortment. This framework is particularly well suited for understanding human interactions, which are typically repeated and occur in relatively fluid but not unstructured populations. We show that if repeated games are combined with only a small amount of assortment, then natural selection favors the behavior typically observed among humans: high levels of cooperation implemented using conditional strategies.

  3. Synchronized conductivity modulation to realize broadband lossless magnetic-free non-reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinc, Tolga; Tymchenko, Mykhailo; Nagulu, Aravind; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alu, Andrea; Krishnaswamy, Harish

    2017-10-06

    Recent research has explored the spatiotemporal modulation of permittivity to break Lorentz reciprocity in a manner compatible with integrated-circuit fabrication. However, permittivity modulation is inherently weak and accompanied by loss due to carrier injection, particularly at higher frequencies, resulting in large insertion loss, size, and/or narrow operation bandwidths. Here, we show that the presence of absorption in an integrated electronic circuit may be counter-intuitively used to our advantage to realize a new generation of magnet-free non-reciprocal components. We exploit the fact that conductivity in semiconductors provides a modulation index several orders of magnitude larger than permittivity. While directly associated with loss in static systems, we show that properly synchronized conductivity modulation enables loss-free, compact and extremely broadband non-reciprocity. We apply these concepts to obtain a wide range of responses, from isolation to gyration and circulation, and verify our findings by realizing a millimeter-wave (25 GHz) circulator fully integrated in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology.Optical non-reciprocity achieved through refractive index modulation can have its challenges and limitations. Here, Dinc et al. introduce the concept of non-reciprocity based on synchronized spatio-temporal modulation of conductivity to achieve different types of non-reciprocal functionality.

  4. Reciprocation of perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, R; Armeli, S; Rexwinkel, B; Lynch, P D; Rhoades, L

    2001-02-01

    Four hundred thirteen postal employees were surveyed to investigate reciprocation's role in the relationships of perceived organizational support (POS) with employees' affective organizational commitment and job performance. The authors found that (a) POS was positively related to employees' felt obligation to care about the organization's welfare and to help the organization reach its objectives; (b) felt obligation mediated the associations of POS with affective commitment, organizational spontaneity, and in-role performance; and (c) the relationship between POS and felt obligation increased with employees' acceptance of the reciprocity norm as applied to work organizations. Positive mood also mediated the relationships of POS with affective commitment and organizational spontaneity. The pattern of findings is consistent with organizational support theory's assumption that POS strengthens affective commitment and performance by a reciprocation process.

  5. Postnatal reduction of BDNF regulates the developmental remodeling of taste bud innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-09-15

    The refinement of innervation is a common developmental mechanism that serves to increase the specificity of connections following initial innervation. In the peripheral gustatory system, the extent to which innervation is refined and how refinement might be regulated is unclear. The initial innervation of taste buds is controlled by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Following initial innervation, taste receptor cells are added and become newly innervated. The connections between the taste receptor cells and nerve fibers are likely to be specific in order to retain peripheral coding mechanisms. Here, we explored the possibility that the down-regulation of BDNF regulates the refinement of taste bud innervation during postnatal development. An analysis of BDNF expression in Bdnf(lacZ/+) mice and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that BDNF was down-regulated between postnatal day (P) 5 and P10. This reduction in BDNF expression was due to a loss of precursor/progenitor cells that express BDNF, while the expression of BDNF in the subpopulations of taste receptor cells did not change. Gustatory innervation, which was identified by P2X3 immunohistochemistry, was lost around the perimeter where most progenitor/precursor cells are located. In addition, the density of innervation in the taste bud was reduced between P5 and P10, because taste buds increase in size without increasing innervation. This reduction of innervation density was blocked by the overexpression of BDNF in the precursor/progenitor population of taste bud cells. Together these findings indicate that the process of BDNF restriction to a subpopulation of taste receptor cells between P5 and P10, results in a refinement of gustatory innervation. We speculate that this refinement results in an increased specificity of connections between neurons and taste receptor cells during development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Postnatal reduction of BDNF regulates the developmental remodeling of taste bud innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    The refinement of innervation is a common developmental mechanism that serves to increase the specificity of connections following initial innervation. In the peripheral gustatory system, the extent to which innervation is refined and how refinement might be regulated is unclear. The initial innervation of taste buds is controlled by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Following initial innervation, taste receptor cells are added and become newly innervated. The connections between the taste receptor cells and nerve fibers are likely to be specific in order to retain peripheral coding mechanisms. Here, we explored the possibility that the down-regulation of BDNF regulates the refinement of taste bud innervation during postnatal development. An analysis of BDNF expression in BdnflacZ/+ mice and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that BDNF was down-regulated between postnatal day (P) 5 and P10. This reduction in BDNF expression was due to a loss of precursor/progenitor cells that express BDNF, while the expression of BDNF in the subpopulations of taste receptor cells did not change. Gustatory innervation, which was identified by P2X3 immunohistochemistry, was lost around the perimeter where most progenitor/precursor cells are located. In addition, the density of innervation in the taste bud was reduced between P5 and P10, because taste buds increase in size without increasing innervation. This reduction of innervation density was blocked by the overexpression of BDNF in the precursor/progenitor population of taste bud cells. Together these findings indicate that the process of BDNF restriction to a subpopulation of taste receptor cells between P5 and P10, results in a refinement of gustatory innervation. We speculate that this refinement results in an increased specificity of connections between neurons and taste receptor cells during development. PMID:26164656

  7. Egr3 dependent sympathetic target tissue innervation in the absence of neuron death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available Nerve Growth Factor (NGF is a target tissue derived neurotrophin required for normal sympathetic neuron survival and target tissue innervation. NGF signaling regulates gene expression in sympathetic neurons, which in turn mediates critical aspects of neuron survival, axon extension and terminal axon branching during sympathetic nervous system (SNS development. Egr3 is a transcription factor regulated by NGF signaling in sympathetic neurons that is essential for normal SNS development. Germline Egr3-deficient mice have physiologic dysautonomia characterized by apoptotic sympathetic neuron death and abnormal innervation to many target tissues. The extent to which sympathetic innervation abnormalities in the absence of Egr3 is caused by altered innervation or by neuron death during development is unknown. Using Bax-deficient mice to abrogate apoptotic sympathetic neuron death in vivo, we show that Egr3 has an essential role in target tissue innervation in the absence of neuron death. Sympathetic target tissue innervation is abnormal in many target tissues in the absence of neuron death, and like NGF, Egr3 also appears to effect target tissue innervation heterogeneously. In some tissues, such as heart, spleen, bowel, kidney, pineal gland and the eye, Egr3 is essential for normal innervation, whereas in other tissues such as lung, stomach, pancreas and liver, Egr3 appears to have little role in innervation. Moreover, in salivary glands and heart, two tissues where Egr3 has an essential role in sympathetic innervation, NGF and NT-3 are expressed normally in the absence of Egr3 indicating that abnormal target tissue innervation is not due to deregulation of these neurotrophins in target tissues. Taken together, these results clearly demonstrate a role for Egr3 in mediating sympathetic target tissue innervation that is independent of neuron survival or neurotrophin deregulation.

  8. Teacher License Reciprocity. 50-State Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This policy report defines and provides a 50-state review of teacher license reciprocity, explores how state-specific licensing requirements impact the teacher labor market, and includes examples of national and state efforts to facilitate reciprocity.

  9. Reciprocity theory of homogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbormbai, Adolf A.

    1990-03-01

    The reciprocity formalism is applied to the homogeneous gaseous reactions in which the structure of the participating molecules changes upon collision with one another, resulting in a change in the composition of the gas. The approach is applied to various classes of dissociation, recombination, rearrangement, ionizing, and photochemical reactions. It is shown that for the principle of reciprocity to be satisfied it is necessary that all chemical reactions exist in complementary pairs which consist of the forward and backward reactions. The backward reaction may be described by either the reverse or inverse process. The forward and backward processes must satisfy the same reciprocity equation. Because the number of dynamical variables is usually unbalanced on both sides of a chemical equation, it is necessary that this balance be established by including as many of the dynamical variables as needed before the reciprocity equation can be formulated. Statistical transformation models of the reactions are formulated. The models are classified under the titles free exchange, restricted exchange and simplified restricted exchange. The special equations for the forward and backward processes are obtained. The models are consistent with the H theorem and Le Chatelier's principle. The models are also formulated in the context of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

  10. The Principle of Structural Reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugnale, Alberto; Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the principle of structural reciprocity, considering its origins in both Occidental and Orient culture and aiming to highlight the definition, main peculiarities and interesting aspects of such concept referring to its application to the world of construction. Issues spannin...

  11. Reciprocity and Humility in Wonderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Beth

    2011-01-01

    This article supports the perspective of Jan Valle regarding the importance of recognizing the subjectivity inherent in decisions about Learning Disabilities. The author argues that the perspectives of both parents and professionals are informed by subjective judgments that must be taken into account in decision making. A reciprocal approach to…

  12. Indirect Reciprocity : A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Apeldoorn, J.; Schram, A.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has

  13. A Theory of Sequential Reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufwenberg, M.; Kirchsteiger, G.

    1998-01-01

    Many experimental studies indicate that people are motivated by reciprocity. Rabin (1993) develops techniques for incorporating such concerns into game theory and economics. His model, however, does not fare well when applied to situations with an interesting dynamic structure (like many

  14. Social evolution: reciprocity there is.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborsky, Michael

    2013-06-03

    The theory of cooperation predicts that altruism can be established by reciprocity, yet empirical evidence from nature is contentious. Increasingly though, experimental results from social vertebrates challenge the nearly exclusive explanatory power of relatedness for the evolution of cooperation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2013-10-01

    In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Indirect Reciprocity under Incomplete Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient. PMID:21829335

  18. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  19. Circuit Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane B.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a research-based activity for high school physics students in which they build an LC circuit and find its resonant frequency of oscillation using an oscilloscope. Includes a diagram of the apparatus and an explanation of the procedures. (DDR)

  20. Putaminal serotonergic innervation: monitoring dyskinesia risk in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee-Young; Seo, Seongho; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Han-Joon; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Jeon, Beom S

    2015-09-08

    To explore serotonergic innervation in the basal ganglia in relation to levodopa-induced dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). A total of 30 patients with PD without dementia or depression were divided into 3 matched groups (dyskinetic, nondyskinetic, and drug-naive) for this study. We acquired 2 PET scans and 3T MRI for each patient using [(11)C]-3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethylphenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile ((11)C-DASB) and N-(3-[(18)F]fluoropropyl)-2-carbomethoxy-3-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ((18)F-FP-CIT). Then we analyzed binding potentials of the 2 radiotracers at basal ganglia structures and correlations with clinical variables. We observed no difference in (18)F-FP-CIT binding between dyskinetic and nondyskinetic patients, whereas there were differences in (11)C-DASB binding for the caudate and putamen. Binding potential ratios ((11)C-DASB/(18)F-FP-CIT) at the putamen, which indicate serotoninergic fiber innervation relative to dopaminergic fiber availability, were highest in the dyskinetic group, followed by the nondyskinetic and drug-naive PD groups. (11)C-DASB/(18)F-FP-CIT ratios at the putamen and pallidum correlated positively with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total scores and duration of PD, and pallidal binding ratio also correlated with the UPDRS motor scores. Ratios were not dependent on dopaminergic medication dosages for any of the regions studied. Relative serotonergic innervation of the putamen and pallidum increased with clinical PD progression and was highest in patients with established dyskinesia. The serotonin/dopamine transporter ratio might be a potential marker of disease progression and an indicator of risk for levodopa-induced dyskinesia in PD. A prospective evaluation is warranted in the future. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Substrate optimization for integrated circuit antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Alexopoulos, N. G.; Katehi, P. B.; Rutledge, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    Imaging systems in microwaves, millimeter and submillimeter wave applications employ printed circuit antenna elements. The effect of substrate properties is analyzed in this paper by both reciprocity theorem as well as integral equation approach for infinitesimally short as well as finite length dipole and slot elements. Radiation efficiency and substrate surface wave guidance is studied for practical substrate materials as GaAs, Silicon, Quartz and Duroid.

  2. An Inquiry into Relationship Suicides and Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark S.; Callanan, Valerie J.; Lester, David; Haines, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Few theories on suicide have been grounded in the norm of reciprocity. There is literature on suicide, however, describing motivations such as retaliation and retreat which can be interpreted as modes of adaptation to the norm of reciprocity. We propose a reciprocity-based theory to explain suicides associated with relationship problems. Employing…

  3. Capuchin Monkeys Judge Third-Party Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…

  4. 30 CFR 955.16 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reciprocity. 955.16 Section 955.16 Mineral... AND ON INDIAN LANDS § 955.16 Reciprocity. (a) Grant of certificate. OSM shall grant an OSM blaster certificate through reciprocity to any qualified applicant who demonstrates that he or she, and whom OSM finds...

  5. 46 CFR 8.120 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reciprocity. 8.120 Section 8.120 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 8.120 Reciprocity. (a) The Commandant may delegate authority to a classification society that has... determine reciprocity on a “case-by-case” basis. (b) In order to demonstrate that the conditions described...

  6. The sympathetic innervation of the heart: Important new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, J H; Chauhan, R A

    2016-08-01

    Autonomic control of the heart has a significant influence over development of life threatening arrhythmias that can lead to sudden cardiac death. Sympathetic activity is known to be upregulated during these conditions and hence the sympathetic nerves present a target for treatment. However, a better understanding of the anatomy and physiology of cardiac sympathetic nerves is required for the progression of clinical interventions. This review explores the organization of the cardiac sympathetic nerves, from the preganglionic origin to the postganglionic innervations, and provides an overview of literature surrounding anti-arrhythmic therapies including thoracic sympathectomy and dorsal spinal cord stimulation. Several features of the innervation are clear. The cardiac nerves differentially supply the nodal and myocardial tissue of the heart and are dependent on activity generated in spinal neurones in the upper thoracic cord which project to synapse with ganglion cells in the stellate complex on each side. Networks of spinal interneurones determine the pattern of activity. Groups of spinal neurones selectively target specific regions of the heart but whether they exhibit a functional selectivity has still to be elucidated. Electrical or ischemic signals can lead to remodeling of nerves in the heart or ganglia. Surgical and electrical methods are proving to be clinically beneficial in reducing atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, heart failure and severe cardiac pain. This is a rapidly developing area and we need more basic understanding of how these methods work to ensure safety and reduction of side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential serotonergic innervation of the amygdala in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Cheryl D; Barger, Nicole; Taglialatela, Jared P; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Hof, Patrick R; Hopkins, William D; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-03-01

    Humans' closest living relatives are bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet these great ape species differ considerably from each other in terms of social behavior. Bonobos are more tolerant of conspecifics in competitive contexts and often use sexual behavior to mediate social interactions. Chimpanzees more frequently employ aggression during conflicts and actively patrol territories between communities. Regulation of emotional responses is facilitated by the amygdala, which also modulates social decision-making, memory and attention. Amygdala responsiveness is further regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. We hypothesized that the amygdala of bonobos and chimpanzees would differ in its neuroanatomical organization and serotonergic innervation. We measured volumes of regions and the length density of serotonin transporter-containing axons in the whole amygdala and its lateral, basal, accessory basal and central nuclei. Results showed that accessory basal nucleus volume was larger in chimpanzees than in bonobos. Of particular note, the amygdala of bonobos had more than twice the density of serotonergic axons than chimpanzees, with the most pronounced differences in the basal and central nuclei. These findings suggest that variation in serotonergic innervation of the amygdala may contribute to mediating the remarkable differences in social behavior exhibited by bonobos and chimpanzees. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Limited distal organelles and synaptic function in extensive monoaminergic innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Juan; Bulgari, Dinara; Deitcher, David L; Levitan, Edwin S

    2017-08-01

    Organelles such as neuropeptide-containing dense-core vesicles (DCVs) and mitochondria travel down axons to supply synaptic boutons. DCV distribution among en passant boutons in small axonal arbors is mediated by circulation with bidirectional capture. However, it is not known how organelles are distributed in extensive arbors associated with mammalian dopamine neuron vulnerability, and with volume transmission and neuromodulation by monoamines and neuropeptides. Therefore, we studied presynaptic organelle distribution in Drosophila octopamine neurons that innervate ∼20 muscles with ∼1500 boutons. Unlike in smaller arbors, distal boutons in these arbors contain fewer DCVs and mitochondria, although active zones are present. Absence of vesicle circulation is evident by proximal nascent DCV delivery, limited impact of retrograde transport and older distal DCVs. Traffic studies show that DCV axonal transport and synaptic capture are not scaled for extensive innervation, thus limiting distal delivery. Activity-induced synaptic endocytosis and synaptic neuropeptide release are also reduced distally. We propose that limits in organelle transport and synaptic capture compromise distal synapse maintenance and function in extensive axonal arbors, thereby affecting development, plasticity and vulnerability to neurodegenerative disease. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Soft Ultrathin Electronics Innervated Adaptive Fully Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjun; Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Jin; Kim, Hojin; Rao, Zhoulyu; Li, Yuhang; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou; Verduzco, Rafael; Yu, Cunjiang

    2018-03-01

    Soft robots outperform the conventional hard robots on significantly enhanced safety, adaptability, and complex motions. The development of fully soft robots, especially fully from smart soft materials to mimic soft animals, is still nascent. In addition, to date, existing soft robots cannot adapt themselves to the surrounding environment, i.e., sensing and adaptive motion or response, like animals. Here, compliant ultrathin sensing and actuating electronics innervated fully soft robots that can sense the environment and perform soft bodied crawling adaptively, mimicking an inchworm, are reported. The soft robots are constructed with actuators of open-mesh shaped ultrathin deformable heaters, sensors of single-crystal Si optoelectronic photodetectors, and thermally responsive artificial muscle of carbon-black-doped liquid-crystal elastomer (LCE-CB) nanocomposite. The results demonstrate that adaptive crawling locomotion can be realized through the conjugation of sensing and actuation, where the sensors sense the environment and actuators respond correspondingly to control the locomotion autonomously through regulating the deformation of LCE-CB bimorphs and the locomotion of the robots. The strategy of innervating soft sensing and actuating electronics with artificial muscles paves the way for the development of smart autonomous soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Sympathetic Innervation Promotes Arterial Fate by Enhancing Endothelial ERK Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardanaud, Luc; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Dubrac, Alexandre; Mathivet, Thomas; English, Isabel; Brunet, Isabelle; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-08-19

    Arterial endothelial cells are morphologically, functionally, and molecularly distinct from those found in veins and lymphatic vessels. How arterial fate is acquired during development and maintained in adult vessels is incompletely understood. We set out to identify factors that promote arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. We developed a functional assay, allowing us to monitor and manipulate arterial fate in vivo, using arteries isolated from quails that are grafted into the coelom of chick embryos. Endothelial cells migrate out from the grafted artery, and their colonization of host arteries and veins is quantified. Here we show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. Removal of sympathetic nerves decreases arterial fate and leads to colonization of veins, whereas exposure to sympathetic nerves or norepinephrine imposes arterial fate. Mechanistically, sympathetic nerves increase endothelial ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) activity via adrenergic α1 and α2 receptors. These findings show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial fate and may lead to novel approaches to improve arterialization in human disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Tacit Collusion under Fairness and Reciprocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doruk İriş

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper departs from the standard profit-maximizing model of firm behavior by assuming that firms are motivated in part by personal animosity–or respect–towards their competitors. A reciprocal firm responds to unkind behavior of rivals with unkind actions (negative reciprocity, while at the same time, it responds to kind behavior of rivals with kind actions (positive reciprocity. We find that collusion is easier to sustain when firms have a concern for reciprocity towards competing firms provided that they consider collusive prices to be kind and punishment prices to be unkind. Thus, reciprocity concerns among firms can have adverse welfare consequences for consumers.

  12. Using reciprocity in Boundary Element Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The concept of reciprocity is widely used in both theoretical and experimental work. In Boundary Element calculations reciprocity is sometimes employed in the solution of computationally expensive scattering problems, which sometimes can be more efficiently dealt with when formulated...... as the reciprocal radiation problem. The present paper concerns the situation of having a point source (which is reciprocal to a point receiver) at or near a discretized boundary element surface. The accuracy of the original and the reciprocal problem is compared in a test case for which an analytical solution...

  13. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-05-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Fast reciprocating probe system on the HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Longwen; Hong Wenyu; Qian Jun; Luo Cuiwen; Pan Li

    2005-01-01

    A reciprocating probe system has been installed at the midplane of the HL-2A tokamak. The probe is used to measure plasma edge density, temperature, floating potential, and corresponding fluctuation profiles with 8 cm scan from the scrape-off layer to the plasma boundary. The reciprocating probe can move at a speed of 1 m/s. A digital grating displacement measurement system that can provide a high displacement resolution of 0.04 mm is applied to the reciprocating probe system for the first time. A port located behind the vacuum isolation valve is designed for viewing and the exchange of the probe head. Different probe heads can be used to satisfy different experimental requirements. The first probe head had four graphite measurement tips. For high frequency response, no isolation amplifier is used in the electric circuit of the probe measurement. A personal computer via an analog-to-digital digitizer card acquires probe system data, which are sent to a data server by optical fiber after a discharge. All data are sent to the centralized data management system of the HL-2A. In this article we presented the edge temperature and density profiles for the limiter and divertor configurations of a selected plasma discharge

  15. Imperfect information facilitates the evolution of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The existence of cooperation demands explanation since cooperation is costly to the actor. Reciprocity has long been regarded as a potential explanatory mechanism for the existence of cooperation. Reciprocity is a mechanism wherein a cooperator responds to an opponent's behavior by switching his/her own behavior. Hence, a possible problematic case relevant to the theory of reciprocity evolution arises when the mechanism is such that the information regarding an opponent's behavior is imperfect. Although it has been confirmed also by previous theoretical studies that imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity, this argument is based on the assumption that there are no mistakes in behavior. And, a previous study presumed that it might be expected that when such mistakes occur, reciprocity can more readily evolve in the case of imperfect information than in the case of perfect information. The reason why the previous study considers so is that in the former case, reciprocators can miss defections incurred by other reciprocators' mistakes due to imperfect information, allowing cooperation to persist when such reciprocators meet. However, contrary to this expectation, the previous study has shown that even when mistakes occur, imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity. Nevertheless, the previous study assumed that payoffs are linear (i.e., that the effect of behavior is additive and there are no synergetic effects). In this study, we revisited the same problem but removed the assumption that payoffs are linear. We used evolutionarily stable strategy analysis to compare the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is imperfect with the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is perfect. Our study revealed that when payoffs are not linear, imperfect information can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity when mistakes occur; while when payoffs are linear

  16. LOGIC CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, G.H.; Faught, M.L.

    1963-12-24

    A device for safety rod counting in a nuclear reactor is described. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is adapted to prevent de-energizing the hopper coils of a ball backup system if safety rods, sufficient in total control effect, properly enter the reactor core to effect shut down. A plurality of resistances form one arm of the bridge, each resistance being associated with a particular safety rod and weighted in value according to the control effect of the particular safety rod. Switching means are used to switch each of the resistances in and out of the bridge circuit responsive to the presence of a particular safety rod in its effective position in the reactor core and responsive to the attainment of a predetermined velocity by a particular safety rod enroute to its effective position. The bridge is unbalanced in one direction during normal reactor operation prior to the generation of a scram signal and the switching means and resistances are adapted to unbalance the bridge in the opposite direction if the safety rods produce a predetermined amount of control effect in response to the scram signal. The bridge unbalance reversal is then utilized to prevent the actuation of the ball backup system, or, conversely, a failure of the safety rods to produce the predetermined effect produces no unbalance reversal and the ball backup system is actuated. (AEC)

  17. Sensory innervation of the temporomandibular joint in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreessen, D; Halata, Z; Strasmann, T

    1990-01-01

    The sensory innervation of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 8 STR/IN mice was investigated by means of light and electron microscopy. Through the cutting of complete semithin sections in series it was possible to investigate the joints thoroughly. Additionally, one joint with its nerve supply was reconstructed three-dimensionally with a computerized three-dimensional programme. The reconstruction was based on one complete semithin section series. The joint's nerve supply originates from the nervus auriculotemporalis and additionally from motor branches of the n. mandibularis: n. massetericus, n. pterygoideus lateralis and the nn. temporales posteriores. The greatest number of nerve fibres and endings is located in the dorsolateral part of the joint capsule. They lie only in the stratum fibrosum and subsynovially. Neither the stratum synoviale nor the discus articularis contain any nerve fibres or endings, whereas the peri-articular loose connective tissue is richly innervated. The only type of nerve ending observed within the joint was the free nerve ending, which is assumed to serve not only as a nociceptor but also as a polymodal mechanoreceptor. Merely within the insertion of the musculus pterygoideus lateralis at the collum mandibulae single stretch receptors of the Ruffini type were observed. Ultrastructurally, they correspond to those described in the cat's knee joint. Neither lamellated nor nerve endings of the Golgi or Pacini type were observed in the joint or in the peri-articular connective tissue. The unexpected paucity of nerve fibres and endings in the TMJ itself of the mouse suggests that the afferent information from the joint is less important for position sense and movement than the afferent information from muscles, tendons and periodontal ligaments.

  18. Cortical Reorganization in Dual Innervation by Single Peripheral Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mou-Xiong; Shen, Yun-Dong; Hua, Xu-Yun; Hou, Ao-Lin; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Wen-Dong

    2017-09-21

    Functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury and repair is related with cortical reorganization. However, the mechanism of innervating dual targets by 1 donor nerve is largely unknown. To investigate the cortical reorganization when the phrenic nerve simultaneously innervates the diaphragm and biceps. Total brachial plexus (C5-T1) injury rats were repaired by phrenic nerve-musculocutaneous nerve transfer with end-to-side (n = 15) or end-to-end (n = 15) neurorrhaphy. Brachial plexus avulsion (n = 5) and sham surgery (n = 5) rats were included for control. Behavioral observation, electromyography, and histologic studies were used for confirming peripheral nerve reinnervation. Cortical representations of the diaphragm and reinnervated biceps were studied by intracortical microstimulation techniques before and at months 0.5, 3, 5, 7, and 10 after surgery. At month 0.5 after complete brachial plexus injury, the motor representation of the injured forelimb disappeared. The diaphragm representation was preserved in the "end-to-side" group but absent in the "end-to-end" group. Rhythmic contraction of biceps appeared in "end-to-end" and "end-to-side" groups, and the biceps representation reappeared in the original biceps and diaphragm areas at months 3 and 5. At month 10, it was completely located in the original biceps area in the "end-to-end" group. Part of the biceps representation remained in the original diaphragm area in the "end-to-side" group. Destroying the contralateral motor cortex did not eliminate respiration-related contraction of biceps. The brain tends to resume biceps representation from the original diaphragm area to the original biceps area following phrenic nerve transfer. The original diaphragm area partly preserves reinnervated biceps representation after end-to-side transfer. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  19. Short- circuit tests of circuit breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Chorovský, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with short-circuit tests of low voltage electrical devices. In the first part of this paper, there are described basic types of short- circuit tests and their principles. Direct and indirect (synthetic) tests with more details are described in the second part. Each test and principles are explained separately. Oscilogram is obtained from short-circuit tests of circuit breakers at laboratory. The aim of this research work is to propose a test circuit for performing indirect test.

  20. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  1. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-15

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  2. Onsager Reciprocity in Premelting Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, S. S. L.; Spannuth, M. J.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    The diffusive motion of foreign particles dispersed in a premelting solid is analyzed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. We determine the mass diffusion coefficient, thermal diffusion coefficient and Soret coefficient of the particles in the dilute limit, and find good agreement with experimental data. In contrast to liquid suspensions, the unique nature of premelting solids allows us to derive an expression for the Dufour coefficient and independently verify the Onsager reciprocal relation coupling diffusion to the flow of heat. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. Onsager Reciprocity in Premelting Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, S. S. L.

    2009-02-01

    The diffusive motion of foreign particles dispersed in a premelting solid is analyzed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. We determine the mass diffusion coefficient, thermal diffusion coefficient and Soret coefficient of the particles in the dilute limit, and find good agreement with experimental data. In contrast to liquid suspensions, the unique nature of premelting solids allows us to derive an expression for the Dufour coefficient and independently verify the Onsager reciprocal relation coupling diffusion to the flow of heat. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Reciprocity of mobile phone calls

    OpenAIRE

    Kovanen, Lauri; Saramaki, Jari; Kaski, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the reciprocity of human behaviour based on mobile phone usage records. The underlying question is whether human relationships are mutual, in the sense that both are equally active in keeping up the relationship, or is it on the contrary typical that relationships are lopsided, with one party being significantly more active than the other. We study this question with the help of a mobile phone data set consisting of all mobile phone calls between 5.3 million customers of...

  5. Towards a unified theory of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    In a unified theory of human reciprocity, the strong and weak forms are similar because neither is biologically altruistic and both require normative motivation to support cooperation. However, strong reciprocity is necessary to support cooperation in public goods games. It involves inflicting costs on defectors; and though the costs for punishers are recouped, recouping costs requires complex institutions that would not have emerged if weak reciprocity had been enough.

  6. Circuit parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R

    2000-03-01

    Circuit parties are extended celebrations, lasting from a day to a week, primarily attended by gay and bisexual men in their thirties and forties. These large-scale dance parties move from city to city and draw thousands of participants. The risks for contracting HIV during these parties include recreational drug use and unsafe sex. Limited data exists on the level of risk at these parties, and participants are skeptical of outside help because of past criticism of these events. Health care and HIV advocates can promote risk-reduction strategies with the cooperation of party planners and can counsel individuals to personally reduce their own risk. To convey the message, HIV prevention workers should emphasize positive and community-centered aspects of the parties, such as taking care of friends and avoiding overdose.

  7. Reciprocity and gyrotropism in magnetic resonance transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropp, James

    2006-01-01

    the two antenna ports--giving in one instance a signal intensity pattern whose form resembles an umbrella (i.e., with a central column of moderate intensity surmounted by a bright canopy), and in the other, a distorted oval with slight concavities at its horizontal extremes, whose outline suggests that of a cat's eye. The relation between image patterns and drive scheme can be shown to reverse if the static polarizing field is reversed. Electromagnetic and circuit calculations, together with the modified reciprocity principle, allow us to reproduce these pattern changes in numerical simulations, closely and convincingly. Although the imaging experiments are performed at a static field of 3.0 T, and consequently a Larmor frequency of 128 MHz, the nonreciprocal effects are not related to the shortness of the wavelength in aqueous medium, but appear equally in simulations based in either the quasistatic or full electromagnetic regimes. Finally, we show that although antenna patterns for transmission and reception are swapped with reversal of the polarizing field, meaning that the receive pattern equals the transmit pattern with the field reversed, this in no way invalidates the familiar rotating wave model of spin dynamics in magnetic resonance

  8. Detecting reciprocity at a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Obradovich, Nick; Sun, Lijun; Woon, Wei Lee; LeVeck, Brad L; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    Reciprocity stabilizes cooperation from the level of microbes all the way up to humans interacting in small groups, but does reciprocity also underlie stable cooperation between larger human agglomerations, such as nation states? Famously, evolutionary models show that reciprocity could emerge as a widespread strategy for achieving international cooperation. However, existing studies have only detected reciprocity-driven cooperation in a small number of country pairs. We apply a new method for detecting mutual influence in dynamical systems to a new large-scale data set that records state interactions with high temporal resolution. Doing so, we detect reciprocity between many country pairs in the international system and find that these reciprocating country pairs exhibit qualitatively different cooperative dynamics when compared to nonreciprocating pairs. Consistent with evolutionary theories of cooperation, reciprocating country pairs exhibit higher levels of stable cooperation and are more likely to punish instances of noncooperation. However, countries in reciprocity-based relationships are also quicker to forgive single acts of noncooperation by eventually returning to previous levels of mutual cooperation. By contrast, nonreciprocating pairs are more likely to exploit each other's cooperation via higher rates of defection. Together, these findings provide the strongest evidence to date that reciprocity is a widespread mechanism for achieving international cooperation.

  9. Detecting reciprocity at a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R.; Obradovich, Nick; Sun, Lijun; Woon, Wei Lee; LeVeck, Brad L.; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    Reciprocity stabilizes cooperation from the level of microbes all the way up to humans interacting in small groups, but does reciprocity also underlie stable cooperation between larger human agglomerations, such as nation states? Famously, evolutionary models show that reciprocity could emerge as a widespread strategy for achieving international cooperation. However, existing studies have only detected reciprocity-driven cooperation in a small number of country pairs. We apply a new method for detecting mutual influence in dynamical systems to a new large-scale data set that records state interactions with high temporal resolution. Doing so, we detect reciprocity between many country pairs in the international system and find that these reciprocating country pairs exhibit qualitatively different cooperative dynamics when compared to nonreciprocating pairs. Consistent with evolutionary theories of cooperation, reciprocating country pairs exhibit higher levels of stable cooperation and are more likely to punish instances of noncooperation. However, countries in reciprocity-based relationships are also quicker to forgive single acts of noncooperation by eventually returning to previous levels of mutual cooperation. By contrast, nonreciprocating pairs are more likely to exploit each other’s cooperation via higher rates of defection. Together, these findings provide the strongest evidence to date that reciprocity is a widespread mechanism for achieving international cooperation. PMID:29326983

  10. Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles

    KAUST Repository

    Giese, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Modern multi-agent systems frequently use highlevel planners to extract basic paths for agents, and then rely on local collision avoidance to ensure that the agents reach their destinations without colliding with one another or dynamic obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming, we introduce Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles (RRVO). RRVO generalizes ORCA by introducing a notion of rotation for polygonally-shaped agents. This generalization permits more realistic motion than ORCA and does not suffer from as much deadlock. In this paper, we present the theory of RRVO and show empirically that it does not suffer from the deadlock issue ORCA has, permits agents to reach goals faster, and has a comparable collision rate at the cost of performance overhead quadratic in the (typically small) user-defined parameter δ.

  11. Reciprocal Learning: One Teacher's Narrative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrienne RIGLER

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a personal narrative from the perspective of one teacher in Toronto who participated in the Canada-China Reciprocal Learning in Teacher Education and School Education Partnership Grant Project.I took part in a Sister School partnership between 2013 and 2017.Over the four years,I came to understand relationships in an international professional learning community.Participating in the project gave me the benefit of seeing my practice through an international lens.For my students,it offered a global citizenship experience.Although there are numerous professional development opportunities in Toronto,this partnership extends beyond a lunch and learn,or a full day professional learning.The commitment to my partners has fueled my desire to incorporate new teaching ideas and has required ongoing reflection on my own teaching practice.In this article,I will explain some of the challenges,stages of development,reciprocal learning,and implications for future international professional learning communities.

  12. Quantum coherence: Reciprocity and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad-211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2017-03-18

    Quantum coherence is the outcome of the superposition principle. Recently, it has been theorized as a quantum resource, and is the premise of quantum correlations in multipartite systems. It is therefore interesting to study the coherence content and its distribution in a multipartite quantum system. In this work, we show analytically as well as numerically the reciprocity between coherence and mixedness of a quantum state. We find that this trade-off is a general feature in the sense that it is true for large spectra of measures of coherence and of mixedness. We also study the distribution of coherence in multipartite systems by looking at monogamy-type relation–which we refer to as additivity relation–between coherences of different parts of the system. We show that for the Dicke states, while the normalized measures of coherence violate the additivity relation, the unnormalized ones satisfy the same. - Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Reciprocity between quantum coherence and mixedness. • Distribution of quantum coherence in multipartite quantum systems. • Additivity relation for distribution of quantum coherence in Dicke and “X” states.

  13. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  15. Hypothalamic vasopressinergic projections innervate central amygdala GABAergic neurons: implications for anxiety and stress coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Salvador Hernandez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The arginine-vasopressin (AVP-containing hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory neurons (VPMNNs are known for their role in hydro-electrolytic balance control via their projections to neurohypophysis. Recently, projections from these same neurons to hippocampus, habenula, and other brain regions, in which vasopressin infusion modulates contingent social and emotionally-affected behaviors, have been reported. Here, we present evidence that VPMNN collaterals also project to the amygdaloid complex, and establish synaptic connections with neurons in central amygdala (CeA. The density of AVP innervation in amygdala was substantially increased in adult rats that had experienced neonatal maternal separation (MS, consistent with our previous observations that MS enhances VPMNN number in the paraventricular (PVN and supraoptic (SON nuclei of the hypothalamus. In the CeA, V1a AVP receptor mRNA was only observed in GABAergic neurons, demonstrated by complete co-localization of V1a transcripts in neurons expressing Gad1 and Gad2 transcripts in CeA using the RNAscope method. V1b and V2 receptors mRNA were not detected, using the same method. Water-deprivation for 24 hrs, which increased the metabolic activity of VPMNNs, also increased anxiety-like behavior measured using the elevated plus maze test, and this effect was mimicked by bilateral microinfusion of VP into the CeA. Anxious behavior induced by either water deprivation or VP infusion was reversed by CeA infusion of V1a antagonist. VPMNNs are thus a newly discovered source of central amygdala inhibitory circuit modulation, through which both early-life and adult stress coping signals are conveyed from the hypothalamus to the amygdala.

  16. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  17. Trigger circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verity, P.R.; Chaplain, M.D.; Turner, G.D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A monostable trigger circuit comprises transistors TR2 and TR3 arranged with their collectors and bases interconnected. The collector of the transistor TR2 is connected to the base of transistor TR3 via a capacitor C2 the main current path of a grounded base transistor TR1 and resistive means R2,R3. The collector of transistor TR3 is connected to the base of transistor TR2 via resistive means R6, R7. In the stable state all the transistors are OFF, the capacitor C2 is charged, and the output is LOW. A positive pulse input to the base of TR2 switches it ON, which in turn lowers the voltage at points A and B and so switches TR1 ON so that C2 can discharge via R2, R3, which in turn switches TR3 ON making the output high. Thus all three transistors are latched ON. When C2 has discharged sufficiently TR1 switches OFF, followed by TR3 (making the output low again) and TR2. The components C1, C3 and R4 serve to reduce noise, and the diode D1 is optional. (author)

  18. Reciprocal Tutoring: Design with Cognitive Load Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2016-01-01

    "Reciprocal tutoring," as reported in "Exploring the design of computer supports for reciprocal tutoring" (Chan and Chou 1997), has extended the meaning and scope of "intelligent tutoring" originally implemented in stand alone computers. This research is a follow-up to our studies on a "learning companion…

  19. Free-Form Kinetic Reciprocal System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Kinetic Reciprocal System (KRS) are innovative moveable structures based on the principle of reciprocity [1] with internal pin-slot constraints [2]. The analysis of KRS kinematic and static determinacy is developed through the construction of kinematic matrices, accordingly with [3] and a discuss...

  20. Loneliness, exchange orientation, and reciprocity in friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Prins, K.S.

    Guided by equity theory this study among 185 Dutch students explored the effects of exchange orientation and reciprocity in the relationship with the best friend upon loneliness. Reciprocity was in general more common in this relationship than feeling advantaged or deprived. The association between

  1. Non-reciprocity in nonlinear elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Antoine; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    Reciprocity is a fundamental property of linear time-invariant (LTI) acoustic waveguides governed by self-adjoint operators with symmetric Green's functions. The break of reciprocity in LTI elastodynamics is only possible through the break of time reversal symmetry on the micro-level, and this can be achieved by imposing external biases, adding nonlinearities or allowing for time-varying system properties. We present a Volterra-series based asymptotic analysis for studying spatial non-reciprocity in a class of one-dimensional (1D), time-invariant elastic systems with weak stiffness nonlinearities. We show that nonlinearity is neither necessary nor sufficient for breaking reciprocity in this class of systems; rather, it depends on the boundary conditions, the symmetries of the governing linear and nonlinear operators, and the choice of the spatial points where the non-reciprocity criterion is tested. Extension of the analysis to higher dimensions and time-varying systems is straightforward from a mathematical point of view (but not in terms of new non-reciprocal physical phenomena), whereas the connection of non-reciprocity and time irreversibility can be studied as well. Finally, we show that suitably defined non-reciprocity measures enable optimization, and can provide physical understanding of the nonlinear effects in the dynamics, enabling one to establish regimes of "maximum nonlinearity." We highlight the theoretical developments by means of a numerical example.

  2. 33 CFR 173.17 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reciprocity. 173.17 Section 173.17 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Numbering § 173.17 Reciprocity. (a) Section...

  3. 23 CFR 1235.8 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reciprocity. 1235.8 Section 1235.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.8 Reciprocity. The State system...

  4. 36 CFR 251.63 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reciprocity. 251.63 Section 251.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.63 Reciprocity. If it is determined that a right-of-way shall be needed by the United States...

  5. Education, Gift and Reciprocity: A Preliminary Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the importance and role of the reciprocity relationship in education. It presents a review on the mobilization of the principle of reciprocity--in the anthropological but also sociological and economic senses--in educational processes, especially in adult education. The study is divided into three parts. The first part analyzes…

  6. Reciprocity in therapeutic relationships: A conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Sima; Arcidiacono, Eleonora; Aguglia, Eugenio; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Reciprocity has generally been understood as a process of giving and taking, within an exchange of emotions or services, and has long been recognized as a central part of human life. However, an understanding of reciprocity in professional helping relationships has seldom received attention, despite movements in mental health care towards more collaborative approaches between service users and professionals. In this review, a systematic search of the published papers was conducted in order to explore how reciprocity is conceptualized and understood as part of the dyadic therapeutic relationship between professionals and service users. Eleven papers met our inclusion criteria and a narrative synthesis was used to synthesize the key concepts of reciprocity. The concepts of: 'dynamic equilibrium', 'shared affect', 'asymmetric alliance', and 'recognition as a fellow human being' were recurrent in understandings of reciprocity in professional contexts. These conceptualizations of reciprocity were also linked to specific behavioural and psychological processes. The findings suggest that reciprocity may be conceptualized and incorporated as a component of mental health care, with recurrent and observable processes which may be harnessed to promote positive outcomes for service users. To this end, we make recommendations for further research to progress and develop reciprocal processes in mental health care. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. 49 CFR 384.214 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reciprocity. 384.214 Section 384.214 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Reciprocity. The State shall allow any person to operate a CMV in the State who is not disqualified from...

  8. Information seeking and reciprocity: A transformational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, M.; Perugini, M.

    2003-01-01

    The motivation to reciprocate is analyzed within the framework of interdependence theory, with focus on the process of transformation of situations. A model of transformation is presented for the motivation to reciprocate and hypotheses regarding allocation behavior and information seeking are

  9. DEVELOPING AND THE ANALYSIS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF GENERATORS OF LINEAR AND RECIPROCATING TYPES WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC EXCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Menzhinski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical modeling of generators of linear and reciprocating types with electromagnetic excitation resulted in obtaining the equivalent electrical circuit and diagrams of magnetic circuit of generators as well as the expressions that describe the electromagnetic processes in generators of linear and reciprocating types with electromagnetic excitation is presented in the article. Mathematical models of generators of linear and reciprocating types with electromagnetic excitation take into account the geometrical parameters of the magnetic system of generators, effect of the armature reaction, the unequal distribution of the magnetic field in the magnetic system of the generators and the dependence of the scattering coefficient and the fringe effect (in linear generators and buckling (in the reciprocating electric generators on the coordinates of the movement. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the generators of linear and reciprocating types with electromagnetic excitation was performed that demonstrated that the efficiency of the reciprocating generator with electromagnetic excitation is limited to the amount of movement of the moving part of the generator that can be considered as a drawback of this type of generators. Therefore, the reciprocating generator with electromagnetic excitation is more effective to be used in a small value of the working stroke of the movable part of it or in conjunction with a linear generator as a compensator of the end effect in reciprocating motion. In the linear generator the rate of change of inductance and mutual inductance throughout the movement of the moving part is practically constant. So if an increase of the magnitude of the working stroke of the movable part takes place the benefits of the linear generator are undeniable. However, it should be noted that a reduction of the stroke magnitude of the movable part of the linear generator is limited by constructional dimensions of the magnetic

  10. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  11. Positron emission tomographic imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.S.; Chang, P.C.; Eisenhofer, G.; Miletich, R.; Finn, R.; Bacher, J.; Kirk, K.L.; Bacharach, S.; Kopin, I.J.

    1990-01-01

    Sites of uptake, storage, and metabolism of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine and excretion of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine and its metabolites were visualized using positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning after intravenous injection of the tracer into anesthetized dogs. Radioactivity was concentrated in the renal pelvis, heart, liver, spleen, salivary glands, and gall bladder. Uptake of 18F by the heart resulted in striking delineation of the left ventricular myocardium. Pretreatment with desipramine markedly decreased cardiac positron emission, consistent with dependence of the heart on neuronal uptake (uptake-1) for removal of circulating catecholamines. In reserpinized animals, cardiac positron emission was absent within 30 minutes after injection of [ 18 F]-6-fluorodopamine, demonstrating that the emission in untreated animals was from radioactive labeling of the sympathetic storage vesicles. Decreased positron emission from denervated salivary glands confirmed that the tracer was concentrated in sympathetic neurons. Radioactivity in the gall bladder and urinary system depicted the hepatic and renal excretion of the tracer and its metabolites. Administration of tyramine or nitroprusside increased and ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan decreased the rate of loss of myocardial radioactivity. The results show that PET scanning after administration of [ 18 F]fluorodopamine can be used to visualize sites of sympathetic innervation, follow the metabolism and renal and hepatic excretion of catecholamines, and examine cardiac sympathetic function

  12. The vagal innervation of the gut and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteoli, Gianluca; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2013-08-01

    The central nervous system interacts dynamically with the immune system to modulate inflammation through humoral and neural pathways. Recently, in animal models of sepsis, the vagus nerve (VN) has been proposed to play a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response, also referred to as the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. The VN, through release of acetylcholine, dampens immune cell activation by interacting with α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Recent evidence suggests that the vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal tract also plays a major role controlling intestinal immune activation. Indeed, VN electrical stimulation potently reduces intestinal inflammation restoring intestinal homeostasis, whereas vagotomy has the reverse effect. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding concerning the mechanisms and effects involved in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the gastrointestinal tract. Deeper investigation on this counter-regulatory neuroimmune mechanism will provide new insights in the cross-talk between the nervous and immune system leading to the identification of new therapeutic targets to treat intestinal immune disease.

  13. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

    1999-06-01

    This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. Investigation of Innervation Zone Shift with Continuous Dynamic Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Nishihara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Innervation zone (IZ has been identified as the origin of action potential propagation in isometric contraction. However, IZ shifts with changes in muscle length during muscle activity. The IZ shift has been estimated using raw EMG signals. This study aimed to investigate the movement of IZ location during continuous dynamic muscle contraction, using a computer program. Subjects flexed their elbow joint as repetitive dynamic muscle contractions. EMG signals were recorded from the biceps brachii muscle using an eight-channel surface electrode array. Approximately 100 peaks from EMG signals were detected for each channel and summed to estimate the IZ location. For each subject, the estimated IZ locations were subtracted from the IZ location during isometric contractions with the elbow flexed at 90°. The results showed that the IZ moved significantly with elbow joint movement from 45° to 135°. However, IZ movement was biased with only a 3.9 mm IZ shift on average when the elbow angle was acute but a 16 mm IZ shift on average when it was obtuse. The movement of IZ location during continuous dynamic muscle contraction can be investigated using this signal processing procedure without subjective judgment.

  15. Synaptic Plasticity in Cardiac Innervation and Its Potential Role in Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Jesse L. Ashton; Rebecca A. B. Burton; Gil Bub; Bruce H. Smaill; Bruce H. Smaill; Johanna M. Montgomery

    2018-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is defined as the ability of synapses to change their strength of transmission. Plasticity of synaptic connections in the brain is a major focus of neuroscience research, as it is the primary mechanism underpinning learning and memory. Beyond the brain however, plasticity in peripheral neurons is less well understood, particularly in the neurons innervating the heart. The atria receive rich innervation from the autonomic branch of the peripheral nervous system. Sympathetic...

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging patterns of mononeuropathic denervation in muscles with dual innervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneag, Darryl B.; Lee, Susan C.; Melisaratus, Darius P. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Department of Radiology and Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Feinberg, Joseph H. [Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Amber, Ian [MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Radiology, DC, Washington (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of mononeuropathy in muscles with dual innervation depicts geographic denervation corresponding to the affected nerve. Knowledge of the normal distribution of a muscle's neural supply is clinically relevant as partial muscle denervation represents a potential imaging pitfall that can be confused with other pathology, such as muscle strain. This article reviews the normal innervation pattern of extremity muscles with dual supply, providing illustrative examples of mononeuropathy affecting such muscles. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging patterns of mononeuropathic denervation in muscles with dual innervation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneag, Darryl B.; Lee, Susan C.; Melisaratus, Darius P.; Feinberg, Joseph H.; Amber, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of mononeuropathy in muscles with dual innervation depicts geographic denervation corresponding to the affected nerve. Knowledge of the normal distribution of a muscle's neural supply is clinically relevant as partial muscle denervation represents a potential imaging pitfall that can be confused with other pathology, such as muscle strain. This article reviews the normal innervation pattern of extremity muscles with dual supply, providing illustrative examples of mononeuropathy affecting such muscles. (orig.)

  18. Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross E G

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis (TB) treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of justifying the use of reciprocity through appeal to different moral and political theoretical traditions (i.e., virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism). We suggest that each theory can be used to provide reasons to take reciprocity seriously as an independent moral concept, despite any other differences. Third, we explore general meanings and uses of the concept of reciprocity, with the primary intention of demonstrating that it cannot be simply reduced to other more frequently invoked moral concepts such as beneficence or justice. We argue that reciprocity can function as a mid-level principle in public health, and generally, captures a core social obligation arising once an individual or group is burdened as a result of acting for the benefit of others (even if they derive a benefit themselves). We conclude that while more needs to be explored in relation to the theoretical justification and application of reciprocity, sufficient arguments can be made for it to be taken more seriously as a key principle within public health ethics and bioethics more generally.

  19. Reciprocity of agonistic support in ravens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Orlaith N; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative behaviour through reciprocation or interchange of valuable services in primates has received considerable attention, especially regarding the timeframe of reciprocation and its ensuing cognitive implications. Much less, however, is known about reciprocity in other animals, particularly birds. We investigated patterns of agonistic support (defined as a third party intervening in an ongoing conflict to attack one of the conflict participants, thus supporting the other) in a group of 13 captive ravens, Corvus corax. We found support for long-term, but not short-term, reciprocation of agonistic support. Ravens were more likely to support individuals who preened them, kin and dominant group members. These results suggest that ravens do not reciprocate on a calculated tit-for-tat basis, but aid individuals from whom reciprocated support would be most useful and those with whom they share a good relationship. Additionally, dyadic levels of agonistic support and consolation (postconflict affiliation from a bystander to the victim) correlated strongly with each other, but we found no evidence to suggest that receiving agonistic support influences the victim's likelihood of receiving support (consolation) after the conflict ends. Our findings are consistent with an emotionally mediated form of reciprocity in ravens and provide additional support for convergent cognitive evolution in birds and mammals.

  20. On Reciprocal Causation in the Evolutionary Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik I

    2018-01-01

    Recent calls for a revision of standard evolutionary theory (SET) are based partly on arguments about the reciprocal causation. Reciprocal causation means that cause-effect relationships are bi-directional, as a cause could later become an effect and vice versa. Such dynamic cause-effect relationships raise questions about the distinction between proximate and ultimate causes, as originally formulated by Ernst Mayr. They have also motivated some biologists and philosophers to argue for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES). The EES will supposedly expand the scope of the Modern Synthesis (MS) and SET, which has been characterized as gene-centred, relying primarily on natural selection and largely neglecting reciprocal causation. Here, I critically examine these claims, with a special focus on the last conjecture. I conclude that reciprocal causation has long been recognized as important by naturalists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists working in the in the MS tradition, although it it could be explored even further. Numerous empirical examples of reciprocal causation in the form of positive and negative feedback are now well known from both natural and laboratory systems. Reciprocal causation have also been explicitly incorporated in mathematical models of coevolutionary arms races, frequency-dependent selection, eco-evolutionary dynamics and sexual selection. Such dynamic feedback were already recognized by Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin in their bok The Dialectical Biologist . Reciprocal causation and dynamic feedback might also be one of the few contributions of dialectical thinking and Marxist philosophy in evolutionary theory. I discuss some promising empirical and analytical tools to study reciprocal causation and the implications for the EES. Finally, I briefly discuss how quantitative genetics can be adapated to studies of reciprocal causation, constructive inheritance and phenotypic plasticity and suggest that the flexibility of this approach

  1. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  2. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity

  3. Development of neuropeptide Y-mediated heart innervation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliukov, Petr M; Moiseev, Konstantin; Emanuilov, Andrey I; Anikina, Tatyana A; Zverev, Alexey A; Nozdrachev, Alexandr D

    2016-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a trophic role in the nervous and vascular systems and in cardiac hypertrophy. However, there is no report concerning the expression of NPY and its receptors in the heart during postnatal development. In the current study, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis was used to label NPY, and Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R receptors in the heart tissue and intramural cardiac ganglia from rats of different ages (newborn, 10 days old, 20 days old, 30 days old, 60 days old, 1 year old, and 2 years old).The obtained data suggest age-dependent changes of NPY-mediated heart innervation. The density of NPY-immunoreactive (IR) fibers was the least in newborn animals and increased in the first 20 days of life. In the atria of newborn and 10-day-old rats, NPY-IR fibers were more abundant compared with the ventricles. The vast majority of NPY-IR fibers also contained tyrosine hydroxylase, a key enzyme in catecholamine synthesis.The expression of Y1R increased between 10 and 20 days of life. Faint Y2R immunoreactivity was observed in the atria and ventricles of 20-day-old and older rats. In contrast, the highest level of the expression of Y5R was found in newborn pups comparing with more adult rats. All intramural ganglionic neurons were also Y1R-IR and Y5R-IR and Y2R-negative in all studied animals.Thus, the increasing of density of NPY-containing nerve fibers accompanies changes in relation of different subtypes of NPY receptors in the heart during development.

  4. Imbalance between sympathetic and sensory innervation in peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Julia; Barcena de Arellano, Maria L; Rüster, Carola; Vercellino, Giuseppe F; Chiantera, Vito; Schneider, Achim; Mechsner, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    To investigate possible mechanisms of pain pathophysiology in patients with peritoneal endometriosis, a clinical study on sensory and sympathetic nerve fibre sprouting in endometriosis was performed. Peritoneal lesions (n=40) and healthy peritoneum (n=12) were immunostained and analysed with anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), anti-substance P (SP) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), specific markers for intact nerve fibres, sensory nerve fibres and sympathetic nerve fibres, respectively, to identify the ratio of sympathetic and sensory nerve fibres. In addition, immune cell infiltrates in peritoneal endometriotic lesions were analysed and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and interleukin (IL)-1β expression was correlate with the nerve fibre density. Peritoneal fluids from patients with endometriosis (n=40) and without endometriosis (n=20) were used for the in vitro neuronal growth assay. Cultured chicken dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and sympathetic ganglia were stained with anti-growth associated protein 43 (anti-GAP 43), anti-SP and anti-TH. We could detect an increased sensory and decreased sympathetic nerve fibres density in peritoneal lesions compared to healthy peritoneum. Peritoneal fluids of patients with endometriosis compared to patients without endometriosis induced an increased sprouting of sensory neurites from DRG and decreased neurite outgrowth from sympathetic ganglia. In conclusion, this study demonstrates an imbalance between sympathetic and sensory nerve fibres in peritoneal endometriosis, as well as an altered modulation of peritoneal fluids from patients with endometriosis on sympathetic and sensory innervation which might directly be involved in the maintenance of inflammation and pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Innervation pattern of polycystic ovaries in the women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtkiewicz, Joanna; Jana, Barbara; Kozłowska, Anna; Crayton, Robert; Majewski, Mariusz; Zalecki, Michał; Baranowski, Włodzimierz; Radziszewski, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in both the distribution pattern and density of nerve fibers containing dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the human polycystic ovaries. In the polycystic ovaries, when compared to the immunoreactions pattern observed in the control gonads, following changes were revealed: (1) an increase in the number of DβH-, VAChT-, VIP- or GAL-immunoreactive (IR) nerve fibers within the stroma as well as in the number of DβH-IR fibers near primordial follicles and medullar veins and venules; (2) a reduction in the number of nerve fibers containing nNOS, CGRP, SOM, PACAP within the stroma and in the numbers of CGRP-IR fibers around arteries; (3) an appearance of SP- and GAL-IR fibers around medullar and cortical arteries, arterioles, veins and venules, with except of GAL-IR fibers supplying medullar veins; and (4) the lack of nNOS-IR nerve fibers near primordial follicles and VIP-IR nerves around medullar arteries and arterioles. In conclusion, our results suggest that the changes in the innervation pattern of the polycystic ovaries in human may play an important role in the pathogenesis and/or course of this disorder. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Reciprocity Effects in the Trust Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Smith

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I use data from a previous experiment for classifying subjects based on their behavior in the trust game. Prior literature defines a “reciprocity effect” as the tendency for Second Movers to return proportions increasing in the amounts that they receive. In the data that I use, 31% of Second Movers show reciprocity effects, 31% are neutral, and 25% consistently free-ride, indicating that the aggregate reciprocity effect for the sample as a whole is attributable to a minority of the subjects.

  7. Born's reciprocity principle in stochastic phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugovecki, E.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the application of Born's reciprocity principle to relativistic quantum mechanics in stochastic phase space (by the requirement that the proper wave functions of extended particles satisfy the Born-Lande as well as the Klein-Gordon equation) leads to the unique determination of these functions for any given value of their rms radius. The resulting particle propagators display not only Lorentz but also reciprocal invariance. This feature remains true even in the case of mass-zero particles, such as photons, when their localization is achieved by means of extended test particles whose proper wave functions obey the reciprocity principle. (author)

  8. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  9. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  10. Current limiter circuit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  11. Reciprocal synapses between outer hair cells and their afferent terminals: evidence for a local neural network in the mammalian cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiers, Fabio A; Nadol, Joseph B; Liberman, M Charles

    2008-12-01

    Cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) serve both as sensory receptors and biological motors. Their sensory function is poorly understood because their afferent innervation, the type-II spiral ganglion cell, has small unmyelinated axons and constitutes only 5% of the cochlear nerve. Reciprocal synapses between OHCs and their type-II terminals, consisting of paired afferent and efferent specialization, have been described in the primate cochlea. Here, we use serial and semi-serial-section transmission electron microscopy to quantify the nature and number of synaptic interactions in the OHC area of adult cats. Reciprocal synapses were found in all OHC rows and all cochlear frequency regions. They were more common among third-row OHCs and in the apical half of the cochlea, where 86% of synapses were reciprocal. The relative frequency of reciprocal synapses was unchanged following surgical transection of the olivocochlear bundle in one cat, confirming that reciprocal synapses were not formed by efferent fibers. In the normal ear, axo-dendritic synapses between olivocochlear terminals and type-II terminals and/or dendrites were as common as synapses between olivocochlear terminals and OHCs, especially in the first row, where, on average, almost 30 such synapses were seen in the region under a single OHC. The results suggest that a complex local neuronal circuitry in the OHC area, formed by the dendrites of type-II neurons and modulated by the olivocochlear system, may be a fundamental property of the mammalian cochlea, rather than a curiosity of the primate ear. This network may mediate local feedback control of, and bidirectional communication among, OHCs throughout the cochlear spiral.

  12. Reciprocity is not give and take: asymmetric reciprocity to positive and negative acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysar, Boaz; Converse, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiunwen; Epley, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Unlike economic exchange, social exchange has no well-defined "value." It is based on the norm of reciprocity, in which giving and taking are to be repaid in equivalent measure. Although giving and taking are colloquially assumed to be equivalent actions, we demonstrate that they produce different patterns of reciprocity. In five experiments utilizing a dictator game, people reciprocated in like measure to apparently prosocial acts of giving, but reciprocated more selfishly to apparently antisocial acts of taking, even when the objective outcomes of the acts of giving and taking were identical. Additional results demonstrate that acts of giving in social exchanges are perceived as more generous than objectively identical acts of taking, that taking tends to escalate, and that the asymmetry in reciprocity is not due to gaining versus losing resources. Reciprocity appears to operate on an exchange rate that assigns value to the meaning of events, in a fashion that encourages prosocial exchanges.

  13. Mathematical modeling of reciprocating pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Kyeom; Jung, Jun Ki; Chai, Jang Bom; Lee, Jin Woo

    2015-01-01

    A new mathematical model is presented for the analysis and diagnosis of a high-pressure reciprocating pump system with three cylinders. The kinematic and hydrodynamic behaviors of the pump system are represented by the piston displacements, volume flow rates and pressures in its components, which are expressed as functions of the crankshaft angle. The flow interaction among the three cylinders, which was overlooked in the previous models, is considered in this model and its effect on the cylinder pressure profiles is investigated. The tuning parameters in the mathematical model are selected, and their values are adjusted to match the simulated and measured cylinder pressure profiles in each cylinder in a normal state. The damage parameter is selected in an abnormal state, and its value is adjusted to match the simulated and ensured pressure profiles under the condition of leakage in a valve. The value of the damage parameter over 300 cycles is calculated, and its probability density function is obtained for diagnosis and prognosis on the basis of the probabilistic feature of valve leakage.

  14. Spite and Reciprocity in Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ikeda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a complete information model of bidding in second price sealed-bid and ascending-bid (English auctions, in which potential buyers know the unit valuation of other bidders and may spitefully prefer that their rivals earn a lower surplus. Bidders with spiteful preferences should overbid in equilibrium when they know their rival has a higher value than their own, and bidders with a higher value underbid to reciprocate the spiteful overbidding of the lower value bidders. The model also predicts different bidding behavior in second price as compared to ascending-bid auctions. The paper also presents experimental evidence broadly consistent with the model. In the complete information environment, lower value bidders overbid more than higher value bidders, and they overbid more frequently in the second price auction than in the ascending price auction. Overall, the lower value bidder submits bids that exceed value about half the time. These patterns are not found in the incomplete information environment, consistent with the model.

  15. Catecholaminergic and serotoninergic fibres innervate the ventricular system of the hedgehog CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaloudi, H C; Papadopoulos, G C

    1996-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry with antisera against serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) was used to detect monoaminergic (MA) fibres in the ventricular system of the hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus. Light microscopic examination of immunocytochemically stained sections revealed that the ventricular system of the hedgehog is unique among mammals in that the choroid plexuses receive CA axons and that the supraependyma and subependyma of the cerebral ventricles and the spinal central canal are innervated both by serotoninergic and catecholaminergic (CA) fibres. Supraependymal 5-HT axons were generally more abundant and created at places a large number of interconnected basket-like structures, whereas CA fibres were usually directed towards the ventricular lumen. In the lateral ventricles, CA fibres were more numerous in the ependyma lining grey matter, whereas a higher 5-HT innervation density was observed in the area between the corpus callosum and the caudate nucleus or the septum. In the 3rd ventricle, the ependyma of its dorsal part exhibited a higher 5-HT and NA innervation density, whereas DA fibres were preferentially distributed in the ventral half of the basal region. The ependyma lining the cerebral aqueduct displayed a higher MA innervation density in its ventral part. The ependymal wall of the 4th ventricle exhibited an extremely dense 5-HT innervation, mainly in the floor of the ventricle, relatively fewer NA fibres and only sparse DA ones. Few NA and relatively more 5-HT fibres were detected in the ependyma of the central canal. Finally, the circumventricular organs were unevenly innervated by the 3 types of MA fibres. The extensive monoaminergic innervation of the hedgehog ventricular system described here probably reflects a transitory evolutionary stage in the phylogeny of the MA systems with presently unknown functional implications. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Figs 3-8 Figs 9-14 Figs 15-20 PMID:8886949

  16. Negative reciprocity and retrenched pension rights

    OpenAIRE

    Montizaan, R.M.; Cörvers, F.; de Grip, A.; Dohmen, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    We document the importance of negatively reciprocal inclinations in labor relationships by showing that a retrenchment of pension rights, which is perceived as unfair, causes a larger reduction in job motivation the stronger workers' negatively reciprocal inclinations are. We exploit unique matched survey and administrative data on male employees in the public sector in the Netherlands and compare the job motivation of employees born in 1950, who faced a substantial retrenchment of their pens...

  17. Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea

    2017-02-23

    Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function-the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity-between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time. Here we show that it is possible to break reciprocity in static systems, realizing mechanical metamaterials that exhibit vastly different output displacements under excitation from different sides, as well as one-way displacement amplification. This is achieved by combining large nonlinearities with suitable geometrical asymmetries and/or topological features. In addition to extending non-reciprocity and isolation to statics, our work sheds light on energy propagation in nonlinear materials with asymmetric crystalline structures and topological properties. We anticipate that breaking reciprocity will open avenues for energy absorption, conversion and harvesting, soft robotics, prosthetics and optomechanics.

  18. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood. PMID:26730405

  19. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood.

  20. Anatomic Patterns of Renal Arterial Sympathetic Innervation: New Aspects for Renal Denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imnadze, Guram; Balzer, Stefan; Meyer, Baerbel; Neumann, Joerg; Krech, Rainer Horst; Thale, Joachim; Franz, Norbert; Warnecke, Henning; Awad, Khaled; Hayek, Salim S; Devireddy, Chandan

    2016-12-01

    Initial studies of catheter-based renal arterial sympathetic denervation to lower blood pressure in resistant hypertensive patients renewed interest in the sympathetic nervous system's role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 study failed to meet its prespecified blood pressure lowering efficacy endpoint. To date, only a limited number of studies have described the microanatomy of renal nerves, of which, only two involve humans. Renal arteries were harvested from 15 cadavers from the Klinikum Osnabruck and Schuchtermann Klinik, Bad Rothenfelde. Each artery was divided longitudinally in equal thirds (proximal, middle, and distal), with each section then divided into equal superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior quadrants, which were then stained. Segments containing no renal nerves were given a score value = 0, 1-2 nerves with diameter 4 nerves or nerve diameter ≥600 µm a score = 3. A total of 22 renal arteries (9 right-sided, 13 left-sided) were suitable for examination. Overall, 691 sections of 5 mm thickness were prepared. Right renal arteries had significantly higher mean innervation grade (1.56 ± 0.85) compared to left renal arteries (1.09 ± 0.87) (P renal artery has significantly higher innervation scores than the left. The anterior and superior quadrants of the renal arteries scored higher in innervation than the posterior and inferior quadrants did. The distal third of the renal arteries are more innervated than the more proximal segments. These findings warrant further evaluation of the spatial innervation patterns of the renal artery in order to understand how it may enhance catheter-based renal arterial denervation procedural strategy and outcomes. The SYMPLICITY HTN-3 study dealt a blow to the idea of the catheter-based renal arterial sympathetic denervation. We investigated the location and patterns of periarterial renal nerves in cadaveric human renal arteries. To quantify the density of the

  1. Neurons of self-defence: neuronal innervation of the exocrine defence glands in stick insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Konrad; von Bredow, Christoph-Rüdiger; von Bredow, Yvette M; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard; Trenczek, Tina E; Strauß, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Stick insects (Phasmatodea) use repellent chemical substances (allomones) for defence which are released from so-called defence glands in the prothorax. These glands differ in size between species, and are under neuronal control from the CNS. The detailed neural innervation and possible differences between species are not studied so far. Using axonal tracing, the neuronal innervation is investigated comparing four species. The aim is to document the complexity of defence gland innervation in peripheral nerves and central motoneurons in stick insects. In the species studied here, the defence gland is innervated by the intersegmental nerve complex (ISN) which is formed by three nerves from the prothoracic (T1) and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG), as well as a distinct suboesophageal nerve (Nervus anterior of the suboesophageal ganglion). In Carausius morosus and Sipyloidea sipylus, axonal tracing confirmed an innervation of the defence glands by this N. anterior SOG as well as N. anterior T1 and N. posterior SOG from the intersegmental nerve complex. In Peruphasma schultei, which has rather large defence glands, only the innervation by the N. anterior SOG was documented by axonal tracing. In the central nervous system of all species, 3-4 neuron types are identified by axonal tracing which send axons in the N. anterior SOG likely innervating the defence gland as well as adjacent muscles. These neurons are mainly suboesophageal neurons with one intersegmental neuron located in the prothoracic ganglion. The neuron types are conserved in the species studied, but the combination of neuron types is not identical. In addition, the central nervous system in S. sipylus contains one suboesophageal and one prothoracic neuron type with axons in the intersegmental nerve complex contacting the defence gland. Axonal tracing shows a very complex innervation pattern of the defence glands of Phasmatodea which contains different neurons in different nerves from two adjacent body segments

  2. Reduced Sympathetic Innervation in Endometriosis is Associated to Semaphorin 3C and 3F Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerer, Claudia; Frangini, Sergio; Chiantera, Vito; Mechsner, Sylvia

    2017-09-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and one of the most common causes of pelvic pain. The mechanisms underlying pain emergence or chronic inflammation during endometriosis remain unknown. Several chronic inflammatory diseases including endometriosis show reduced amounts of noradrenergic nerve fibers. The source of the affected innervation is still unclear. Semaphorins represent potential elicitors, due to their known role as axonal guidance cues, and are suggested as nerve repellent factors in different chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, semaphorins might influence the progress of neuroinflammatory mechanisms during endometriosis. Here, we analyzed the noradrenergic innervation and the expression of the specific semaphorins and receptors possibly involved in the neuroimmunomodulation in endometriosis. Our studies revealed an affected innervation and a significant increase of semaphorins and their receptors in peritoneal endometriotic tissue. Thereby, the expression of the receptors was identified on the membrane of noradrenergic nerve fibers and vessels. Macrophages and activated fibroblasts were found in higher density levels and additionally express semaphorins in peritoneal endometriotic tissue. Inflammation leads to an increased release of immune cells, which secrete a variety of inflammatory factors capable of affecting innervation. Therefore, our data suggests that the chronic inflammatory condition in endometriosis might contribute to the increase of semaphorins, which could possibly affect the innervation in peritoneal endometriosis.

  3. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  4. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    1991-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  5. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  6. Morphogenesis of Kinetic Reciprocal Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Kinetic structures in civil engineering and architecture gained considerable more attention in the very recent years as a practical solution to face time dependant performances. Realized projects are mostly bridges, retractable roofs, while in architecture the trend follows the category of intera......Kinetic structures in civil engineering and architecture gained considerable more attention in the very recent years as a practical solution to face time dependant performances. Realized projects are mostly bridges, retractable roofs, while in architecture the trend follows the category...... (RF) were studied in the past as a practical solution to span distances with shorter elements. Leonardo da Vinci discovered interesting RF patterns and studied three dimensional arch structures for bridges. RF are generally defined as structures that forms closed circuits of forces, and where elements...

  7. Canonical cortical circuits: current evidence and theoretical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capone F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fioravante Capone,1,2 Matteo Paolucci,1,2 Federica Assenza,1,2 Nicoletta Brunelli,1,2 Lorenzo Ricci,1,2 Lucia Florio,1,2 Vincenzo Di Lazzaro1,2 1Unit of Neurology, Neurophysiology, Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome, Italy; 2Fondazione Alberto Sordi – Research Institute for Aging, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies have found that the same basic structural and functional organization of neuronal circuits exists throughout the cortex. This kind of cortical organization, termed canonical circuit, has been functionally demonstrated primarily by studies involving visual striate cortex, and then, the concept has been extended to different cortical areas. In brief, the canonical circuit is composed of superficial pyramidal neurons of layers II/III receiving different inputs and deep pyramidal neurons of layer V that are responsible for cortex output. Superficial and deep pyramidal neurons are reciprocally connected, and inhibitory interneurons participate in modulating the activity of the circuit. The main intuition of this model is that the entire cortical network could be modeled as the repetition of relatively simple modules composed of relatively few types of excitatory and inhibitory, highly interconnected neurons. We will review the origin and the application of the canonical cortical circuit model in the six sections of this paper. The first section (The origins of the concept of canonical circuit: the cat visual cortex reviews the experiments performed in the cat visual cortex, from the origin of the concept of canonical circuit to the most recent developments in the modelization of cortex. The second (The canonical circuit in neocortex and third (Toward a canonical circuit in agranular cortex sections try to extend the concept of canonical circuit to other cortical areas, providing some significant examples of circuit functioning in different cytoarchitectonic

  8. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  9. Intrinsic and extrinsic innervation of the heart in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyek, Matthew R; Croll, Roger P; Smith, Frank M

    2015-08-01

    In the vertebrate heart the intracardiac nervous system is the final common pathway for autonomic control of cardiac output, but the neuroanatomy of this system is not well understood. In this study we investigated the innervation of the heart in a model vertebrate, the zebrafish. We used antibodies against acetylated tubulin, human neuronal protein C/D, choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide to visualize neural elements and their neurotransmitter content. Most neurons were located at the venous pole in a plexus around the sinoatrial valve; mean total number of cells was 197 ± 23, and 92% were choline acetyltransferase positive, implying a cholinergic role. The plexus contained cholinergic, adrenergic, and nitrergic axons and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive terminals, some innervating somata. Putative pacemaker cells near the plexus showed immunoreactivity for hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (HCN4) and the transcription factor Islet-1 (Isl1). The neurotracer neurobiotin showed that extrinsic axons from the left and right vagosympathetic trunks innervated the sinoatrial plexus proximal to their entry into the heart; some extrinsic axons from each trunk also projected into the medial dorsal plexus region. Extrinsic axons also innervated the atrial and ventricular walls. An extracardiac nerve trunk innervated the bulbus arteriosus and entered the arterial pole of the heart to innervate the proximal ventricle. We have shown that the intracardiac nervous system in the zebrafish is anatomically and neurochemically complex, providing a substrate for autonomic control of cardiac effectors in all chambers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Quantified distribution of the noradrenaline innervation in the hippocampus of adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleskevich, S.; Descarries, L.; Lacaille, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    A recently developed radioautographic technique, based on the uptake labeling of monoamine terminals in vitro, was used to quantify the noradrenaline (NA) innervation in adult rat hippocampus. After incubation of brain slices with 1 microM 3H-NA, the NA varicosities were visualized as small aggregates of silver grains, in light microscope radioautographs prepared at 3 equidistant horizontal levels across the ventral 2/3 of the hippocampus. Using a computer-assisted image analyzer, counts were obtained from the subiculum (SUB), 3 sectors of Ammon's horn (CA1, CA3-a, CA3-b) and 3 sectors of the dentate gyrus (DG-medial blade, crest, and lateral blade), every lamina being sampled in each region. After a double correction for duration of radioautographic exposure and section thickness, and following measurement of varicosity diameter in electron microscope radioautographs, it was possible to express these results in number of terminals per volumetric unit of tissue. It was thus found that the overall density of hippocampal NA innervation averages 2.1 million varicosities/mm3 of tissue, a value almost twice as high as that in cerebral cortex. This innervation is 20% denser ventrally than dorsally and is heterogeneous both in terms of regional and laminar distribution. SUB and DG are more strongly innervated than Ammon's horn, wherein CA1 has the lowest overall density. In SUB and CA1, there is a clear predilection of NA varicosities for the stratum moleculare. In CA3, there is a narrow band of even stronger innervation in the stratum radiatum, near the apical border of the stratum pyramidale, contrasting with a 3 times lower density in this cell layer and the stratum oriens. In DG, the NA innervation is again the weakest in the cell body layer and exhibits an almost 3-fold greater density in the polymorph layer, the highest of all hippocampus

  11. Innervation pattern of the suprascapular nerve within supraspinatus: a three-dimensional computer modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenegildo, J A; Roberts, S L; Kim, S Y

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between the innervation pattern of the suprascapular nerve (SSN) and the muscle architecture of supraspinatus has not been thoroughly investigated. The supraspinatus is composed of two architecturally distinct regions: anterior and posterior. Each of these regions is further subdivided into three parts: superficial, middle and deep. The purpose of this study was to investigate the course of the SSN throughout the volume of supraspinatus and to relate the intramuscular branches to the distinct regions and parts of the supraspinatus. The SSN was dissected in thirty formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens and digitized throughout the muscle volume in six of those specimens. The digitized data were modeled using Autodesk(®) Maya(®) 2011. The three-dimensional (3D) models were used to relate the intramuscular innervation pattern to the muscle and tendon architecture defined by Kim et al. (2007, Clin Anat 20:648-655). The SSN bifurcated into two main trunks: medial and lateral. All parts of the anterior region were predominantly innervated by the medial trunk and its proximal and medial branches, whereas all parts of the posterior region predominantly by the lateral trunk and its posterolateral and/or posteromedial branches. The posterior region also received innervation from the proximal branch of the medial trunk in half of the specimens. These findings provide evidence that the anterior and posterior regions are distinct with respect to their innervation. The 3D map of the innervation pattern will aid in planning future clinical studies investigating muscle activation patterns and provide insight into possible injury of the nerve with supraspinatus pathology and surgical techniques. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  13. The neural correlates of reciprocity are sensitive to prior experience of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceda, Ricardo; Prendes-Alvarez, Stefania; Hsu, Jung-Jiin; Tripathi, Shanti P; Kilts, Clint D; James, G Andrew

    2017-08-14

    Reciprocity is central to human relationships and is strongly influenced by multiple factors including the nature of social exchanges and their attendant emotional reactions. Despite recent advances in the field, the neural processes involved in this modulation of reciprocal behavior by ongoing social interaction are poorly understood. We hypothesized that activity within a discrete set of neural networks including a putative moral cognitive neural network is associated with reciprocity behavior. Nineteen healthy adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning while playing the trustee role in the Trust Game. Personality traits and moral development were assessed. Independent component analysis was used to identify task-related functional brain networks and assess their relationship to behavior. The saliency network (insula and anterior cingulate) was positively correlated with reciprocity behavior. A consistent array of brain regions supports the engagement of emotional, self-referential and planning processes during social reciprocity behavior. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Cultured embryonic non-innervated mouse muzzle is capable of generating a whisker pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, F L; Van Der Loos, H

    1983-01-01

    The whisker pattern on the muzzle of the mouse is mapped in the contralateral parietal neocortex, each whisker follicle projecting to its own multineuronal unit ('barrel'). To determine the role, if any, of the peripheral innervation in the establishment of the vibrissal array, we cultured non-innervated prospective whiskerpads from 9- and 10-day-old embryos, mostly on chorioallantoic membrane. The results show that skin, alone, is capable of generating the whisker pattern, thus adducing a strong argument for the hypothesis that the central brain maps have their origin in the periphery. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  16. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  17. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  18. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  19. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital

  20. Associations between xerostomia, histopathological alterations, and autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands in men in late midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Reibel, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    connective tissue. Acinar atrophy and fibrosis were negatively correlated with the parenchymal innervation and positively related to diffuse inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present study indicate that aspects of the autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands may play a role...

  1. Crystallization features of ternary reversible reciprocal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, V.N.; Shcherbak, L.P.; Fejchuk, P.I.; Grytsiv, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Some features of the primary crystallization of phases in ternary reversible reciprocal system are considered and discussed. The diagonal join CdTe-GeSe of the CdTe + GeSe = CdSe + GeTe ternary reciprocal system is studied to show that the features in primary and secondary heating and cooling curves in such systems under fully equilibrium conditions are not reproduced upon consecutive heating and cooling sessions, because of the existence of different amounts of the reagents and the reaction products in the mixture; the temperatures of each transformation lie in a range. Those who experimentally investigate other ternary and more complex reversible reciprocal systems should take this fact into account [ru

  2. Gauge invariance and reciprocity in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P. T.; Young, K.

    2010-01-01

    Reciprocity in wave propagation usually refers to the symmetry of the Green's function under the interchange of the source and the observer coordinates, but this condition is not gauge invariant in quantum mechanics, a problem that is particularly significant in the presence of a vector potential. Several possible alternative criteria are given and analyzed with reference to different examples with nonzero magnetic fields and/or vector potentials, including the case of a multiply connected spatial domain. It is shown that the appropriate reciprocity criterion allows for specific phase factors separable into functions of the source and observer coordinates and that this condition is robust with respect to the addition of any scalar potential. In the Aharonov-Bohm effect, reciprocity beyond monoenergetic experiments holds only because of subsidiary conditions satisfied in actual experiments: the test charge is in units of e and the flux is produced by a condensate of particles with charge 2e.

  3. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  4. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  5. Feasibility analysis of reciprocating magnetic heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, A. V.; Hartley, J. G.; Shelton, Sam V.; Smith, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    A reciprocating gadolinium core in a regeneration fluid column in the warm bore of a superconducting solenoidal magnet is considered for magnetic refrigeration in 3.517 MW (1000 ton) applications. A procedure is presented to minimize the amount of superconducting cable needed in the magnet design. Estimated system capital costs for an ideal magnetic refrigerator of this type become comparable to conventional chillers as the frequency of reciprocation approaches 10 Hertz. A 1-D finite difference analysis of a regenerator cycling at 0.027 Hertz is presented which exhibits some of the features seen in the experiments of G. V. Brown.

  6. Enhanced additive manufacturing with a reciprocating platen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Randall F.; Blue, Craig A.; Love, Lonnie J.; Post, Brian K.; Lloyd, Peter D.

    2018-02-06

    An additive manufacturing extrusion head that includes a heated nozzle for accepting a feedstock and extruding the feedstock onto a substrate at a deposition plane, the nozzle having a longitudinal extrusion axis. A reciprocating platen surrounds the nozzle, the platen operable to reciprocate along the extrusion axis at or above the deposition plane as the nozzle extrudes feedstock onto the substrate; and wherein the platen flattens the extruded feedstock such that it does not protrude above the deposition plane as the extrusion head traverses over the substrate.

  7. Supersymmetric reciprocal transformation and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q. P.; Popowicz, Ziemowit; Tian Kai

    2010-01-01

    The supersymmetric analog of the reciprocal transformation is introduced. This is used to establish a transformation between one of the supersymmetric Harry Dym equations and the supersymmetric modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. The reciprocal transformation, as a Baecklund-type transformation between these two equations, is adopted to construct a recursion operator for the supersymmetric Harry Dym equation. By proper factorization of the recursion operator, a bi-Hamiltonian structure is found for the supersymmetric Harry Dym equation. Furthermore, a supersymmetric Kawamoto equation is proposed and is associated with the supersymmetric Sawada-Kotera equation. The recursion operator and odd bi-Hamiltonian structure of the supersymmetric Kawamoto equation are also constructed.

  8. Reciprocity principle in stochastic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.A.; Guz, W.; Prugovecki, E.

    1982-01-01

    Born's reciprocity theory can be combined with a recently proposed framework for quantum spacetime by requiring that the free test particle propagators obey the Born-Lande equation in addition to the Klein-Gordon equation. If, furthermore, the coordinate transition amplitudes in between various standards are required to be eigenfunctions of Born's metric operator, then a mass formula results which predicts linear dependence on spin of the squared rest mass of elementary particles. This procedure also leads to a guage and reciprocally invariant formulation of the relativistic canonical commutation relations

  9. Relationships between cardiac innervation/perfusion imbalance and ventricular arrhythmias: impact on invasive electrophysiological parameters and ablation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Menichetti, Francesca; Soldati, Ezio; Liga, Riccardo; Vannozzi, Andrea; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Marzullo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    To assess the relationship between regional myocardial perfusion and sympathetic innervation parameters at myocardial scintigraphy and intra-cavitary electrophysiological data in patients with ventricular arrhythmias (VA) submitted to invasive electrophysiological study and ablation procedure. Sixteen subjects underwent invasive electrophysiological study with electroanatomical mapping (EAM) followed by trans-catheter ablations of VA. Before ablation all patients were studied with a combined evaluation of regional myocardial perfusion and sympathetic innervation by means of tomographic "9"9"mTc-tetrofosmin and "1"2"3I- metaiodobenzylguanidine cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) scintigraphies, respectively. Off-line spatial co-registration of CZT perfusion and innervation data with the three-dimensional EAM reconstruction was performed in every patient. CZT revealed the presence of myocardial scar in 55 (20 %) segments. Of the viable myocardial segments, 131 (60 %) presented a preserved adrenergic innervation, while 86 (40 %) showed a significantly depressed innervation (i.e. innervation/perfusion mismatch). On EAM, the invasively measured intra-cavitary voltage was significantly lower in scarred segments than in viable ones (1.7 ± 1.5 mV vs. 4.0 ± 2.2 mV, P < 0.001). Interestingly, among the viable segments, those showing an innervation/perfusion mismatch presented a significantly lower intra-cavitary voltage than those with preserved innervation (1.9 ± 2.5 mV vs. 4.7 ± 2.3 mV, P < 0.001). Intra-cardiac ablation was performed in 63 (23 %) segments. On multivariate analysis, after correction for scar burden, the segments showing an innervation/perfusion mismatch remained the most frequent ablation targets (OR 5.6, 95 % CI 1.5-20.8; P = 0.009). In patients with VA, intra-cavitary electrical abnormalities frequently originate at the level of viable myocardial segments with depressed sympathetic innervation that frequently represents the ultimate ablation target. (orig.)

  10. Relationships between cardiac innervation/perfusion imbalance and ventricular arrhythmias: impact on invasive electrophysiological parameters and ablation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimelli, Alessia [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); Menichetti, Francesca; Soldati, Ezio; Liga, Riccardo; Vannozzi, Andrea; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia [University Hospital of Pisa, Cardio-Thoracic and Vascular Department, Pisa (Italy); Marzullo, Paolo [Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio, Pisa (Italy); CNR, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    To assess the relationship between regional myocardial perfusion and sympathetic innervation parameters at myocardial scintigraphy and intra-cavitary electrophysiological data in patients with ventricular arrhythmias (VA) submitted to invasive electrophysiological study and ablation procedure. Sixteen subjects underwent invasive electrophysiological study with electroanatomical mapping (EAM) followed by trans-catheter ablations of VA. Before ablation all patients were studied with a combined evaluation of regional myocardial perfusion and sympathetic innervation by means of tomographic {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 123}I- metaiodobenzylguanidine cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) scintigraphies, respectively. Off-line spatial co-registration of CZT perfusion and innervation data with the three-dimensional EAM reconstruction was performed in every patient. CZT revealed the presence of myocardial scar in 55 (20 %) segments. Of the viable myocardial segments, 131 (60 %) presented a preserved adrenergic innervation, while 86 (40 %) showed a significantly depressed innervation (i.e. innervation/perfusion mismatch). On EAM, the invasively measured intra-cavitary voltage was significantly lower in scarred segments than in viable ones (1.7 ± 1.5 mV vs. 4.0 ± 2.2 mV, P < 0.001). Interestingly, among the viable segments, those showing an innervation/perfusion mismatch presented a significantly lower intra-cavitary voltage than those with preserved innervation (1.9 ± 2.5 mV vs. 4.7 ± 2.3 mV, P < 0.001). Intra-cardiac ablation was performed in 63 (23 %) segments. On multivariate analysis, after correction for scar burden, the segments showing an innervation/perfusion mismatch remained the most frequent ablation targets (OR 5.6, 95 % CI 1.5-20.8; P = 0.009). In patients with VA, intra-cavitary electrical abnormalities frequently originate at the level of viable myocardial segments with depressed sympathetic innervation that frequently represents the ultimate ablation target

  11. A New Wavelet-Based ECG Delineator for the Evaluation of the Ventricular Innervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cesari, Matteo; Mehlsen, Jesper; Mehlsen, Anne-Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    T-wave amplitude (TWA) has been proposed as a marker of the innervation of the myocardium. Until now, TWA has been calculated manually or with poor algorithms, thus making its use not efficient in a clinical environment. We introduce a new wavelet-based algorithm for the delineation QRS complexes...

  12. Innervation Patterns of Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris Mystacial Follicle-Sinus Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Douglas Marshall

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F-SCs to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F-SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7-8 rows and 9-13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339±408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses¬.

  13. Synaptic Plasticity in Cardiac Innervation and Its Potential Role in Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Ashton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity is defined as the ability of synapses to change their strength of transmission. Plasticity of synaptic connections in the brain is a major focus of neuroscience research, as it is the primary mechanism underpinning learning and memory. Beyond the brain however, plasticity in peripheral neurons is less well understood, particularly in the neurons innervating the heart. The atria receive rich innervation from the autonomic branch of the peripheral nervous system. Sympathetic neurons are clustered in stellate and cervical ganglia alongside the spinal cord and extend fibers to the heart directly innervating the myocardium. These neurons are major drivers of hyperactive sympathetic activity observed in heart disease, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Both pre- and postsynaptic changes have been observed to occur at synapses formed by sympathetic ganglion neurons, suggesting that plasticity at sympathetic neuro-cardiac synapses is a major contributor to arrhythmias. Less is known about the plasticity in parasympathetic neurons located in clusters on the heart surface. These neuronal clusters, termed ganglionated plexi, or “little brains,” can independently modulate neural control of the heart and stimulation that enhances their excitability can induce arrhythmia such as atrial fibrillation. The ability of these neurons to alter parasympathetic activity suggests that plasticity may indeed occur at the synapses formed on and by ganglionated plexi neurons. Such changes may not only fine-tune autonomic innervation of the heart, but could also be a source of maladaptive plasticity during atrial fibrillation.

  14. Bilateral familial vertical Duane Syndrome with synergistic convergence, aberrant trigeminal innervation, and facial hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvika Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old girl presented with bilateral familial vertical  Duane retraction syndrome with alternating esotropia, elevation deficit, Marcus gunn phenomenon, and facial hypoplasia. Abnormal adducting downshoots on attempting abduction suggestive of a synergistic convergence were noted. Hypothesis suggests aberrant innervations or peripheral anatomic connections between inferior and medial recti.

  15. The role of Sema3–Npn-1 signaling during diaphragm innervation and muscle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettl, Rosa-Eva; Hanuschick, Philipp; Amend, Anna-Lena; Alberton, Paolo; Aszodi, Attila; Huber, Andrea B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Correct innervation of the main respiratory muscle in mammals, namely the thoracic diaphragm, is a crucial pre-requisite for the functionality of this muscle and the viability of the entire organism. Systemic impairment of Sema3A–Npn-1 (Npn-1 is also known as NRP1) signaling causes excessive branching of phrenic nerves in the diaphragm and into the central tendon region, where the majority of misguided axons innervate ectopic musculature. To elucidate whether these ectopic muscles are a result of misguidance of myoblast precursors due to the loss of Sema3A–Npn-1 signaling, we conditionally ablated Npn-1 in somatic motor neurons, which led to a similar phenotype of phrenic nerve defasciculation and, intriguingly, also formation of innervated ectopic muscles. We therefore hypothesize that ectopic myocyte fusion is caused by additional factors released by misprojecting growth cones. Slit2 and its Robo receptors are expressed by phrenic motor axons and migrating myoblasts, respectively, during innervation of the diaphragm. In vitro analyses revealed a chemoattractant effect of Slit2 on primary diaphragm myoblasts. Thus, we postulate that factors released by motor neuron growth cones have an influence on the migration properties of myoblasts during establishment of the diaphragm. PMID:27466379

  16. The role of the autonomic nervous liver innervation in the control of energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Chun-Xia; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Despite a longstanding research interest ever since the early work by Claude Bernard, the functional significance of autonomic liver innervation, either sympathetic or parasympathetic, is still ill defined. This scarcity of information not only holds for the brain control of hepatic metabolism, but

  17. Low Latency Digit-Recurrence Reciprocal and Square-Root Reciprocal Algorithm and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antelo, Elisardo; Lang, Tomas; Montuschi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The reciprocal and square-root reciprocal operations are important in several applications. For these operations, we present algorithms that combine a digit-by-digit module and one iteration of a quadratic-convergence approximation. The latter is implemented by a digit-recurrence, which uses......-up of about 2 and, because of the approximation part, the area factor is also about 2. We also show a combined implementation for both operations that has essentially the same complexity as that for square-root reciprocal alone....

  18. Peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular nerve afferents in the bullfrog utriculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard A.; Schuff, N. R.

    1994-01-01

    Vestibular nerve afferents innervating the bullfrog utriculus differ in their response dynamics and sensitivity to natural stimulation. They also supply hair cells that differ markedly in hair bundle morphology. To examine the peripheral innervation patterns of individual utricular afferents more closely, afferent fibers were labeled by the extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the vestibular nerve after sectioning the vestibular nerve medial to Scarpa's ganglion to allow the degeneration of sympathetic and efferent fibers. The peripheral arborizations of individual afferents were then correlated with the diameters of their parent axons, the regions of the macula they innervate, and the number and type of hair cells they supply. The utriculus is divided by the striola, a narrow zone of distinctive morphology, into media and lateral parts. Utiricular afferents were classified as striolar or extrastriolar according to the epithelial entrance of their parent axons and the location of their terminal fields. In general, striolar afferents had thicker parent axons, fewer subepithelial bifurcations, larger terminal fields, and more synaptic endings than afferents in extrstriolar regions. Afferents in a juxtastriolar zone, immediately adjacent to the medial striola, had innervation patterns transitional between those in the striola and more peripheral parts of the medial extrastriola. moast afferents innervated only a single macular zone. The terminal fields of striolar afferents, with the notable exception of a few afferents with thin parent axons, were generally confined to one side of the striola. Hair cells in the bullfrog utriculus have perviously been classified into four types based on hair bundle morphology. Afferents in the extrastriolar and juxtastriolar zones largely or exclusively innervated Type B hair cells, the predominant hair cell type in the utricular macula. Striolar afferents supplied a mixture of four hair cell types, but largely

  19. Innervating sympathetic neurons regulate heart size and the timing of cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreipke, R E; Birren, S J

    2015-12-01

    Sympathetic drive to the heart is a key modulator of cardiac function and interactions between heart tissue and innervating sympathetic fibres are established early in development. Significant innervation takes place during postnatal heart development, a period when cardiomyocytes undergo a rapid transition from proliferative to hypertrophic growth. The question of whether these innervating sympathetic fibres play a role in regulating the modes of cardiomyocyte growth was investigated using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to abolish early sympathetic innervation of the heart. Postnatal chemical sympathectomy resulted in rats with smaller hearts, indicating that heart growth is regulated by innervating sympathetic fibres during the postnatal period. In vitro experiments showed that sympathetic interactions resulted in delays in markers of cardiomyocyte maturation, suggesting that changes in the timing of the transition from hyperplastic to hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes could underlie changes in heart size in the sympathectomized animals. There was also an increase in the expression of Meis1, which has been linked to cardiomyocyte cell cycle withdrawal, suggesting that sympathetic signalling suppresses cell cycle withdrawal. This signalling involves β-adrenergic activation, which was necessary for sympathetic regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophy. The effect of β-adrenergic signalling on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy underwent a developmental transition. While young postnatal cardiomyocytes responded to isoproterenol (isoprenaline) with a decrease in cell size, mature cardiomyocytes showed an increase in cell size in response to the drug. Together, these results suggest that early sympathetic effects on proliferation modulate a key transition between proliferative and hypertrophic growth of the heart and contribute to the sympathetic regulation of adult heart size. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  20. Early Corneal Innervation and Trigeminal Alterations in Parkinson Disease: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Alessandro; Rania, Laura; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Postorino, Elisa Imelde; Mormina, Enricomaria; Gaeta, Michele; Marino, Silvia; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Quartarone, Angelo; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Puzzolo, Domenico; Aragona, Pasquale

    2018-04-01

    To describe corneal innervation and trigeminal alterations in drug-naive patients with Parkinson disease (PD). A case series study was conducted by recruiting 3 early drug-naive patients with PD, 2 men and 1 woman (age: 72, 68, and 66, respectively). Ophthalmologic assessment included Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, visual acuity by the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution score, pupillary light reflexes, extrinsic ocular movements, corneal sensitivity, and slit-lamp examination. Corneal innervation parameter changes were evaluated in vivo using the Confoscan 4 confocal microscope, and they were compared with a control data set. The Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 (HRT3) has been used to assess retinal alterations in our patients, if compared with normal range values provided by the HRT3. Moreover, 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of water diffusion property changes of trigeminal nerves was performed. All data were analyzed and compared with 2 control data sets made by 14 age-matched controls. Patients with PD showed profound alterations of corneal innervation and of trigeminal diffusion MRI parameters, compared with controls. Strong differences (PD vs. controls) were found for deep nerve tortuosity (Kallinikos mean 19.94 vs. 2.13) and the number of beadings (mean 34.2 vs. 15.5). HRT3 retinal evaluation revealed less structural changes compared with the normal range. Diffusion MRI showed profound changes of white matter diffusion properties (PD vs. controls), with fractional anisotropy decrement (mean 0.3029 vs. 0.3329) and mean diffusivity increment (mean 0.00127 vs. 0.00106). Corneal innervation changes might occur earlier in patients with PD than in retinal ones. Confocal corneal innervation analysis might provide possible early biomarkers for a better PD evaluation and for its earlier diagnosis.

  1. Double muscle innervation using end-to-side neurorrhaphy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Jeronymo Stipp-Brambilla

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: One of the techniques used for treating facial paralysis is double muscle innervation using end-to-end neurorrhaphy with sectioning of healthy nerves. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether double muscle innervation by means of end-to-side neurorrhaphy could occur, with maintenance of muscle innervation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study developed at the Experimental Research Center, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Unesp. METHODS: One hundred rats were allocated to five groups as follows: G1, control group; G2, the peroneal nerve was sectioned; G3, the tibial nerve was transected and the proximal stump was end-to-side sutured to the intact peroneal nerve; G4, 120 days after the G3 surgery, the peroneal nerve was sectioned proximally to the neurorrhaphy; G5, 120 days after the G3 surgery, the peroneal and tibial nerves were sectioned proximally to the neurorrhaphy. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty days after the surgery, G3 did not show any change in tibial muscle weight or muscle fiber diameter, but the axonal fiber diameter in the peroneal nerve distal to the neurorrhaphy had decreased. Although G4 showed atrophy of the cranial tibial muscle 30 days after sectioning the peroneal nerve, the electrophysiological test results and axonal diameter measurement confirmed that muscle reinnervation had occurred. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that double muscle innervation did not occur through end-to-side neurorrhaphy; the tibial nerve was not able to maintain muscle innervation after the peroneal nerve had been sectioned, although muscle reinnervation was found to have occurred, 30 days after the peroneal nerve had been sectioned.

  2. Reciprocity, Materialism and Welfare: An Evolutionary Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We analyze preference evolution in a simple bargaining situation. Preferences for reciprocity, who sustain a conflict-free outcome, may be viable if players have enough information about the opponent's preferences. However, depending on the initial starting point preference evolution can in gener...... both enhance and reduce welfare, relative to the situation where all players have materialistic perferences....

  3. Reciprocity theorem in high-temperature superconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, I.; Vašek, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 390, - (2003), s. 330-340 ISSN 0921-4534 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1602; GA AV ČR IAA1010919 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : transport properties * reciprocity theorem Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2003

  4. Onsager's reciprocity theorem in extended irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Colin, L.S.; Velasco, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we shall discuss the Onsager relations for the transport coefficients in a dilute monatomic gas described by the extended irreversible thermodynamics. Our discussion is based on a 26 variables description of the system and its corresponding comparison with the kinetic reciprocity between coefficients is shown (Author)

  5. Development of Trust and Reciprocity in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Westenberg, Michiel; van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the development of two types of prosocial behavior, trust and reciprocity, as defined using a game-theoretical task that allows investigation of real-time social interaction, among 4 age groups from 9 to 25 years. By manipulating the possible outcome alternatives, we could distinguish among important determinants of trust and…

  6. Tuition Reciprocity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gregory; Wright, Dianne Brown; Kennedy, Angelica

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocity agreements are contracts between two or more parties whereby students pay reduced tuition rates. The rate of reduction is determined by the parameters set forth in each individual state's agreement but may range from a modest reduction in fees to a waiver of full non-resident tuition. In addition to providing tuition relief,…

  7. The transition probabilities of the reciprocity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The reciprocity model is a continuous-time Markov chain model used for modeling longitudinal network data. A new explicit expression is derived for its transition probability matrix. This expression can be checked relatively easily. Some properties of the transition probabilities are given, as well

  8. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  9. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  10. Reciprocity in Preschool Peers' Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jih-Perng Peter

    This study sought to describe the norms of reciprocity in social interaction from the viewpoint of immediate behavioral exchanges by examining the social interaction of preschool peers in a free-play situation. Seventeen 4-year-old children, eight girls and nine boys, were observed during free play activity periods after a picture sociometric test…

  11. Supervisory behavior, reciprocity and subordinate absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierendonck, van D.; Blanc, Le P.M.; Breukelen, van W.

    2002-01-01

    The present study among 242 professionals working in a lung clinic and nursing home was designed to test a model that links supervisory behavior (i.e. leader member exchange (LMX) behavior and conflict management behavior) and reciprocity in the supervisor/subordinate relationship to objectively

  12. Integral Inequalities for Self-Reciprocal Polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 120; Issue 2. Integral Inequalities for Self-Reciprocal Polynomials. Horst Alzer. Volume 120 Issue 2 April 2010 ...

  13. Electric circuits and signals

    CERN Document Server

    Sabah, Nassir H

    2007-01-01

    Circuit Variables and Elements Overview Learning Objectives Electric Current Voltage Electric Power and Energy Assigned Positive Directions Active and Passive Circuit Elements Voltage and Current Sources The Resistor The Capacitor The Inductor Concluding Remarks Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Circuit Connections and Laws Overview Learning Objectives Circuit Terminology Kirchhoff's Laws Voltage Division and Series Connection of Resistors Current Division and Parallel Connection of Resistors D-Y Transformation Source Equivalence and Transformation Reduced-Voltage Supply Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics and Examples on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Analysis of Resistive Circuits Overview Learning Objectives Number of Independent Circuit Equations Node-Voltage Analysis Special Considerations in Node-Voltage Analysis Mesh-Current Analysis Special Conside...

  14. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  15. The specificity of reciprocity: Young children reciprocate more generously to those who intentionally benefit them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Amrisha; Hepach, Robert; Tomasello, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Young children engage in direct reciprocity, but the mechanisms underlying such reciprocity remain unclear. In particular, prior work leaves unclear whether children's reciprocity is simply a response to receiving benefits (regardless of whether the benefits were intended) or driven by a mechanism of rewarding or preferring all benefactors (regardless of whom they benefited). Alternatively, perhaps children engage in genuine reciprocity such that they are particularly prosocial toward benefactors who intentionally provided them with benefits. Our findings support this third, richer possibility; the 3-year-olds who received benefits through the good intentions of a benefactor were subsequently more generous toward the benefactor than children who either (a) received the same benefits from the benefactor unintentionally or (b) observed the benefactor bestow the same benefits on another individual. Thus, young children are especially motivated to benefit those who have demonstrated goodwill toward them, suggesting, as one possible mechanism, an early sense of gratitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Profit Sharing and Reciprocity: Theory and Survey Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Thomas; Heywood, John S.; Jirjahn, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The 1/n problem potentially limits the effectiveness of profit sharing in motivating workers. While the economic literature suggests that reciprocity can mitigate this problem, it remains silent on the optimal degree of reciprocity. We present a representative model demonstrating that reciprocity may increase productive effort but may also increase unproductive effort such as socializing on the job. The model implies that reciprocity increases profit up to a point but decreases profit beyond ...

  17. Genetically-induced cholinergic hyper-innervation enhances taste learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin eNeseliler

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh has been shown to impair many forms of simple learning, and notably conditioned taste aversion (CTA. The most adhered-to theory that has emerged as a result of this work—that ACh increases a taste’s perceived novelty, and thereby its associability—would be further strengthened by evidence showing that enhanced cholinergic function improves learning above normal levels. Experimental testing of this corollary hypothesis has been limited, however, by side-effects of pharmacological ACh agonism and by the absence of a model that achieves long-term increases in cholinergic signaling. Here, we present this further test of the ACh hypothesis, making use of mice lacking the p75 pan-neurotrophin receptor gene, which show a resultant over-abundance of cholinergic neurons in subregions of the basal forebrain (BF. We first demonstrate that the p75-/- abnormality directly affects portions of the CTA circuit, locating mouse gustatory cortex (GC using a functional assay and then using immunohistochemisty to demonstrate cholinergic hyperinnervation of GC in the mutant mice—hyperinnervation that is unaccompanied by changes in cell numbers or compensatory changes in muscarinic receptor densities. We then demonstrate that both p75-/- and wild-type mice learn robust CTAs, which extinguish more slowly in the mutants. Further testing to distinguish effects on learning from alterations in memory retention demonstrate that p75-/- mice do in fact learn stronger CTAs than wild-type mice. These data provide novel evidence for the hypothesis linking ACh and taste learning.

  18. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  19. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  20. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  1. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  2. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  3. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  4. Maximum Acceleration Recording Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Coarsely digitized maximum levels recorded in blown fuses. Circuit feeds power to accelerometer and makes nonvolatile record of maximum level to which output of accelerometer rises during measurement interval. In comparison with inertia-type single-preset-trip-point mechanical maximum-acceleration-recording devices, circuit weighs less, occupies less space, and records accelerations within narrower bands of uncertainty. In comparison with prior electronic data-acquisition systems designed for same purpose, circuit simpler, less bulky, consumes less power, costs and analysis of data recorded in magnetic or electronic memory devices. Circuit used, for example, to record accelerations to which commodities subjected during transportation on trucks.

  5. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  6. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  7. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  8. A 1.5 GFLOPS Reciprocal Unit for Computer Graphics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto; Rasmussen, Morten Sleth; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2006-01-01

    The reciprocal operation 1/d is a frequent operation performed in graphics processors (GPUs). In this work, we present the design of a radix-16 reciprocal unit based on the algorithm combining the traditional digit-by-digit algorithm and the approximation of the reciprocal by one Newton-Raphson i...

  9. Reciprocity, social ties, and competition in markets for experience goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2007-01-01

    a positive externality for non-reciprocal customers who would, in the absence of reciprocal types, face market breakdown. This efficiency-enhancing effect of reciprocity is boosted when there are social ties between consumers and competition between firms. The existence of social ties or competition alone...

  10. 32 CFR 634.16 - Reciprocal state-military action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reciprocal state-military action. 634.16 Section... Reciprocal state-military action. (a) Commanders will recognize the interests of the states in matters of POV... formal military reciprocity, the procedures below will be adopted: (1) Commanders will recognize official...

  11. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  12. Familial Reciprocity and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated variations in reciprocity and the impact of reciprocity on well-being in a West African society. They hypothesized that household size and income diversity encourage reciprocity, which in turn enhances subjective well-being. In empirical testing of these hypotheses the authors used the data of the Core Welfare Indicators…

  13. Afferent Innervation, Muscle Spindles, and Contractures Following Neonatal Brachial Plexus Injury in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Sia; Hu, Liangjun; Cornwall, Roger

    2015-10-01

    We used an established mouse model of elbow flexion contracture after neonatal brachial plexus injury (NBPI) to test the hypothesis that preservation of afferent innervation protects against contractures and is associated with preservation of muscle spindles and ErbB signaling. A model of preganglionic C5 through C7 NBPI was first tested in mice with fluorescent axons using confocal imaging to confirm preserved afferent innervation of spindles despite motor end plate denervation. Preganglionic and postganglionic injuries were then created in wild-type mice. Four weeks later, we assessed total and afferent denervation of the elbow flexors by musculocutaneous nerve immunohistochemistry. Biceps muscle volume and cross-sectional area were measured by micro computed tomography. An observer who was blinded to the study protocol measured elbow flexion contractures. Biceps spindle and muscle fiber morphology and ErbB signaling pathway activity were assessed histologically and immunohistochemically. Preganglionic and postganglionic injuries caused similar total denervation and biceps muscle atrophy. However, after preganglionic injuries, afferent innervation was partially preserved and elbow flexion contractures were significantly less severe. Spindles degenerated after postganglionic injury but were preserved after preganglionic injury. ErbB signaling was inactivated in denervated spindles after postganglionic injury but ErbB signaling activity was preserved in spindles after preganglionic injury with retained afferent innervation. Preganglionic and postganglionic injuries were associated with upregulation of ErbB signaling in extrafusal muscle fibers. Contractures after NBPI are associated with muscle spindle degeneration and loss of spindle ErbB signaling activity. Preservation of afferent innervation maintained spindle development and ErbB signaling activity, and protected against contractures. Pharmacologic modulation of ErbB signaling, which is being investigated as a

  14. Circuits on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Vinay, V

    2006-01-01

    We consider the computational power of constant width polynomial size cylindrical circuits and nondeterministic branching programs. We show that every function computed by a Pi2 o MOD o AC0 circuit can also be computed by a constant width polynomial size cylindrical nondeterministic branching pro...

  15. CMOS analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Phillip E

    1987-01-01

    This text presents the principles and techniques for designing analog circuits to be implemented in a CMOS technology. The level is appropriate for seniors and graduate students familiar with basic electronics, including biasing, modeling, circuit analysis, and some familiarity with frequency response. Students learn the methodology of analog integrated circuit design through a hierarchically-oriented approach to the subject that provides thorough background and practical guidance for designing CMOS analog circuits, including modeling, simulation, and testing. The authors' vast industrial experience and knowledge is reflected in the circuits, techniques, and principles presented. They even identify the many common pitfalls that lie in the path of the beginning designer--expert advice from veteran designers. The text mixes the academic and practical viewpoints in a treatment that is neither superficial nor overly detailed, providing the perfect balance.

  16. Dynamic Reciprocity in the Wound Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Gregory S.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Bornstein, Paul; Herman, Ira M.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we define dynamic reciprocity (DR) as an ongoing, bidirectional interaction amongst cells and their surrounding microenvironment. In the review, we posit that DR is especially meaningful during wound healing as the DR-driven biochemical, biophysical and cellular responses to injury play pivotal roles in regulating tissue regenerative responses. Such cell-extracellular matrix interactions not only guide and regulate cellular morphology, but cellular differentiation, migration, proliferation, and survival during tissue development, including e.g. embryogenesis, angiogenesis, as well as during pathologic processes including cancer diabetes, hypertension and chronic wound healing. Herein, we examine DR within the wound microenvironment while considering specific examples across acute and chronic wound healing. This review also considers how a number of hypotheses that attempt to explain chronic wound pathophysiology, which may be understood within the DR framework. The implications of applying the principles of dynamic reciprocity to optimize wound care practice and future development of innovative wound healing therapeutics are also briefly considered. PMID:21362080

  17. Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Berger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1 expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1 as well as rewards (Study 2, two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation.

  18. Reciprocity as a Foundation of Financial Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy C

    This paper argues that the subsistence of the fundamental theorem of contemporary financial mathematics is the ethical concept 'reciprocity'. The argument is based on identifying an equivalence between the contemporary, and ostensibly 'value neutral', Fundamental Theory of Asset Pricing with theories of mathematical probability that emerged in the seventeenth century in the context of the ethical assessment of commercial contracts in a framework of Aristotelian ethics. This observation, the main claim of the paper, is justified on the basis of results from the Ultimatum Game and is analysed within a framework of Pragmatic philosophy. The analysis leads to the explanatory hypothesis that markets are centres of communicative action with reciprocity as a rule of discourse. The purpose of the paper is to reorientate financial economics to emphasise the objectives of cooperation and social cohesion and to this end, we offer specific policy advice.

  19. Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sebastian; Hatt, Hanns; Ockenfels, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED) as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1) expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1) as well as rewards (Study 2), two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation. PMID:28512400

  20. Anomalous Innervation of the Median Nerve in the Arm in the Absence of the Musculocutaneous Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khursheed Raza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus innervates the upper extremities. While variations in the formation of the brachial plexus and its terminal branches are quite common, it is uncommon for the median nerve to innervate the muscles of the arm. During the dissection of an elderly male cadaver at the Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, the coracobrachialis muscle was found to be supplied by a direct branch from the lateral root of the median nerve and the musculocutaneous nerve was absent. The branches of the median nerve supplied the biceps brachii and brachialis muscles and the last branch continued as the lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm. These variations may present atypically in cases of arm flexor paralysis or sensory loss on the lateral forearm. Knowledge of these variations is important in surgeries and during the administration of regional anaesthesia near the shoulder joint and upper arm.

  1. Innervation of taste buds revealed with Brainbow-labeling in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal N; Cicchini, Vanessa; Kaufman, Daniel; Ko, Elizabeth; Ko, Abraham; Van Tassel, Heather; Whitehead, Mark C

    2016-12-01

    Nerve fibers that surround and innervate the taste bud were visualized with inherent fluorescence using Brainbow transgenic mice that were generated by mating the founder line L with nestin-cre mice. Multicolor fluorescence revealed perigemmal fibers as branched within the non-taste epithelium and ending in clusters of multiple rounded swellings surrounding the taste pore. Brainbow-labeling also revealed the morphology and branching pattern of single intragemmal fibers. These taste bud fibers frequently innervated both the peripheral bud, where immature gemmal cells are located, and the central bud, where mature, differentiated cells are located. The fibers typically bore preterminal and terminal swellings, growth cones with filopodia, swellings, and rounded retraction bulbs. These results establish an anatomical substrate for taste nerve fibers to contact and remodel among receptor cells at all stages of their differentiation, an interpretation that was supported by staining with GAP-43, a marker for growing fibers and growth cones. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  2. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micevych, Paul E; Meisel, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) activity-the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa . While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  3. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Micevych

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH, activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN, which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH activity—the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa. While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  4. Reciprocal mass tensor : a general form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    Using the results of earlier treatment of wave packets, a general form of reciprocal mass tensor has been obtained. The elements of this tensor are seen to be dependent on momentum as well as space coordinates of the particle under consideration. The conditions under which the tensor would reduce to the usual space-independent form, are discussed and the impact of the space-dependence of this tensor on the motion of Bloch electrons, is examined. (author)

  5. Generalized Weierstrass Relations and Frobenius Reciprocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates local properties of the further generalized Weierstrass relations for a spin manifold S immersed in a higher dimensional spin manifold M from the viewpoint of the study of submanifold quantum mechanics. We show that the kernel of a certain Dirac operator defined over S, which we call a submanifold Dirac operator, gives the data of the immersion. In the derivation, the simple Frobenius reciprocity of Clifford algebras S and M plays an important role

  6. Metal segmenting using abrasive and reciprocating saws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Haun, F.E. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    This paper evaluates a light-weight, high-power abrasive saw for segmenting radioactively contaminated metal components. A unique application of a reciprocating mechanical saw for the remote disassembly of equipment in a hot cell also is described. The results of this work suggest that use of these techniques for selected remote sectioning applications could minimize operational and access problems and be very cost effective in comparison with other inherently faster sectioning methods. 2 refs., 7 figs

  7. The TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating RF probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at ORNL. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal RF magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal RF magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/sec) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 cm to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data shows parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  8. Expression of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Vagal Motor Neurons Innervating the Trachea and Esophagus in Mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ichi Matsuda, Ken; Bando, Hideki; Takanami, Keiko; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The medullary vagal motor nuclei, the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), innervate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα), in relation to innervation of the trachea and esophagus via vagal motor nuclei in mice. AR and ERα were expressed in the rostral NA and in part of the DMV. Tracing experiments using cholera toxin B subunit demonstrated that neurons of vagal motor nuclei that innervate the trachea and esophagus express AR and ERα. There was no difference in expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between trachea- and esophagus-innervating neurons. These results suggest that sex steroid hormones may act on vagal motor nuclei via their receptors, thereby regulating functions of the trachea and esophagus

  9. TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating radio frequency probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.; Kwon, M.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Ladurelle, L.; Pascal, J.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal rf magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal rf magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/s) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/s) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition, and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data show parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  10. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Innervation of the cow's inner ear derived from micro-computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costeur, Loic; Mennecart, Bastien; Khimchenko, Anna; Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg

    2017-09-01

    The innervation of the inner ear has been thoroughly investigated in humans and in some animal models such as the guinea pig, the rabbit, the cat, the dog, the rat, the pig and some monkeys. Ruminant inner ears are still poorly known and their innervation was never investigated despite its potential interest in phylogenetic reconstructions. Following earlier works on the ontogeny of the cow's ear, we expand our understanding of this structure by reconstructing the fine innervation pattern of the inner ear of the cow in two ontogenetic stages, at 7 months gestation and at an adult age. Since we work on dry skeletal specimens, only the endocast of the innervation inside the petrosal bone was reconstructed up to the internal acoustic meatus. The paths of the facial and vestibulocochlear nerves could be reconstructed together with that of the spiral ganglion canal. The nerves have a very fibrous pattern. The bony cavities of the ampular and utricular branches of the vestibulocochlear nerve could also be reconstructed. Our observations confirm that not all bony structures are present in foetal stages since the branch of cranial nerve VII is not visible on the foetus but very broad on the adult stage. The fibrous pattern within the modiolus connecting the spiral canal to the cochlear nerve is also less dense than in the adult stage. The shape of the branch of cranial nerve VII is very broad in the cow ending in a large hiatus Fallopii; this, together with the above-mentioned particularities, could constitute relevant observations for phylogenetical purposes when more data will be made available.

  12. The sympathetic and sensory innervation of rat airways: origin and neurochemical characterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Radtke, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Sensory and sympathetic innervation of Brown Norway rat airways were investigated using retrograde neuronal tracing with fluorescent dyes and double labelling immunofluorescence. Sensory neurons projecting to the lung are located in nodose and jugular vagal ganglia. Sympathetic neuronal supply of the lung originates in the stellate ganglia and superior cervical ganglia. Concerning immuno-reactivity for the SP and NOS in sensory and NPY and TH in sympathetic neurons were investigated. IR for S...

  13. Insulin resistance is associated with impaired cardiac sympathetic innervation in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, S; Rengo, G; Pellegrino, T; Formisano, R; Pagano, G; Gargiulo, P; Savarese, G; Carotenuto, R; Petraglia, L; Rapacciuolo, A; Perrino, C; Piscitelli, S; Attena, E; Del Guercio, L; Leosco, D; Trimarco, B; Cuocolo, A; Perrone-Filardi, P

    2015-10-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) represents, at the same time, cause and consequence of heart failure (HF) and affects prognosis in HF patients, but pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Hyperinsulinemia, which characterizes IR, enhances sympathetic drive, and it can be hypothesized that IR is associated with impaired cardiac sympathetic innervation in HF. Yet, this hypothesis has never been investigated. Aim of the present observational study was to assess the relationship between IR and cardiac sympathetic innervation in non-diabetic HF patients. One hundred and fifteen patients (87% males; 65 ± 11.3 years) with severe-to-moderate HF (ejection fraction 32.5 ± 9.1%) underwent iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy to assess sympathetic innervation and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) evaluation to determine the presence of IR. From (123)I-MIBG imaging, early and late heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratios and washout rate were calculated. Seventy-two (63%) patients showed IR and 43 (37%) were non-IR. Early [1.68 (IQR 1.53-1.85) vs. 1.79 (IQR 1.66-1.95); P = 0.05] and late H/M ratio [1.50 (IQR 1.35-1.69) vs. 1.65 (IQR 1.40-1.85); P = 0.020] were significantly reduced in IR compared with non-IR patients. Early and late H/M ratio showed significant inverse correlation with fasting insulinemia and HOMA-IR. Cardiac sympathetic innervation is more impaired in patients with IR and HF compared with matched non-IR patients. These findings shed light on the relationship among IR, HF, and cardiac sympathetic nervous system. Additional studies are needed to clarify the pathogenetic relationship between IR and HF. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Function and Innervation of the Locus Ceruleus in a Macaque Model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Kim, Aaron; Cameron, Judy L

    2012-01-01

    A body of knowledge implicates an increase in output from the locus ceruleus (LC) during stress. We questioned the innervation and function of the LC in our macaque model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea, also known as Stress-Induced Amenorrhea. Cohorts of macaques were initially characterized as highly stress resilient (HSR) or stress-sensitive (SS) based upon the presence or absence of ovulation during a protocol involving 2 menstrual cycles with psychosocial and metabolic stress. Afte...

  15. Distribution, Innervation, and Cellular Organization of Taste Buds in the Sea Catfish, Plotosus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Matsuyama, Naoki; Kirino, Masato; Kasai, Masanori; Kiyohara, Sadao; Ikenaga, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    The gustatory system of the sea catfish Plotosus japonicus, like that of other catfishes, is highly developed. To clarify the details of the morphology of the peripheral gustatory system of Plotosus, we used whole-mount immunohistochemistry to investigate the distribution and innervation of the taste buds within multiple organs including the barbels, oropharyngeal cavity, fins (pectoral, dorsal, and caudal), and trunk. Labeled taste buds could be observed in all the organs examined. The density of the taste buds was higher along the leading edges of the barbels and fins; this likely increases the chance of detecting food. In all the fins, the taste buds were distributed in linear arrays parallel to the fin rays. Labeling of nerve fibers by anti-acetylated tubulin antibody showed that the taste buds within each sensory field are innervated in different ways. In the barbels, large nerve bundles run along the length of the organ, with fascicles branching off to innervate polygonally organized groups of taste buds. In the fins, nerve bundles run along the axis of fin rays to innervate taste buds lying in a line. In each case, small fascicles of fibers branch from large bundles and terminate within the basal portions of the taste buds. Serotonin immunohistochemistry demonstrated that most of the taste buds in all the organs examined contained disk-shaped serotonin-immunopositive cells in their basal region. This indicates a similar organization of the taste buds, in terms of the existence of serotonin-immunopositive basal cells, across the different sensory fields in this species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Target innervation is necessary for neuronal polyploidization in the terrestrial slug Limax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Ryota; Yamagishi, Miki; Wakiya, Kyoko; Tanaka, Yoko; Ito, Etsuro

    2013-08-01

    The brain of gastropod mollusks contains many giant neurons with polyploid genomic DNAs. Such DNAs are generated through repeated DNA endoreplication during body growth. However, it is not known what triggers DNA endoreplication in neurons. There are two possibilities: (1) DNAs are replicated in response to some unknown molecules in the hemolymph that reflect the nutritive status of the animal; or (2) DNAs are replicated in response to some unknown factors that are retrogradely transported through axons from the innervated target organs. We first tested whether hemolymph with rich nutrition could induce DNA endoreplication. We tested whether the transplanted brain exhibits enhanced DNA endoreplication like an endogenous brain does when transplanted into the homocoel of the body of a slug whose body growth is promoted by an increased food supply. However, no enhancement was observed in the frequency of DNA endoreplication when we compared the transplanted brains in the growth-promoted and growth-suppressed host slugs, suggesting that the humoral environment is irrelevant to triggering the body growth-dependent DNA endoreplication. Next, we tested the requirement of target innervation by surgically dissecting a unilateral posterior pedal nerve of an endogenous brain. Substantially lower number of neurons exhibited DNA endoreplication in the pedal ganglion ipsilateral to the dissected nerve. These results support the view that enhanced DNA endoreplication is mediated by target innervation and is not brought about through the direct effect of humoral factors in the hemolymph during body growth. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Innervation and immunohistochemical characteristics of epididymis in Alpaca camelid (Vicugna pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Liguori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpacas (Vicugna pacos are domesticated camelids indigenous to south America and recently also bred in Europe and Italy for their high quality wool. There is little data available regarding the innervation of the male reproductive tract of this species. In the present study, the distribution of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5, neuropeptide Y (NPY, tyrosine hydroxilase (TH, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP was analyzed in the epididymis by using immunohistochemical methods. Specimens of the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis were fixed in Bouin’s fluid and processed for immunohistochemistry analysis with primary antibodies against PGP 9.5, NPY, TH, CGRP and SP. Immunopositivity to PGP 9.5 and TH and NPY was observed in nerve fibre bundles and in single nerve fibres contained into the peritubular connective tissue. Many TH and NPY immunopositive cells were found to innervate blood vessels. Rare CGRP and SP immunopositive nerves were observed. Several PGP 9,5 and NPY immunopositive epithelial cells were observed in the caput epididymis. The results of the present study suggest a role for the innervations in modulate reproductive functions in the alpaca epididymis.

  18. Sensory Innervation of the Nonspecialized Connective Tissues in the Low Back of the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Sarah M.; Vizzard, Margaret A.; Badger, Gary J.; Langevin, Helene M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain, including low back pain, is a worldwide debilitating condition; however, the mechanisms that underlie its development remain poorly understood. Pathological neuroplastic changes in the sensory innervation of connective tissue may contribute to the development of nonspecific chronic low back pain. Progress in understanding such potentially important abnormalities is hampered by limited knowledge of connective tissue's normal sensory innervation. The goal of this study was to evaluate and quantify the sensory nerve fibers terminating within the nonspecialized connective tissues in the low back of the rat. With 3-dimensional reconstructions of thick (30–80 μm) tissue sections we have for the first time conclusively identified sensory nerve fiber terminations within the collagen matrix of connective tissue in the low back. Using dye labeling techniques with Fast Blue, presumptive dorsal root ganglia cells that innervate the low back were identified. Of the Fast Blue-labeled cells, 60–88% also expressed calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity. Based on the immunolabeling with CGRP and the approximate size of these nerve fibers (≤2 μm) we hypothesize that they are Aδ or C fibers and thus may play a role in the development of chronic pain. PMID:21411968

  19. Ontogeny of neuro-insular complexes and islets innervation in the human pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Proshchina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of the neuro-insular complexes (NIC and the islets innervation in human pancreas has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to describe the developmental dynamics and distribution of the nervous system structures in the endocrine part of human pancreas. We used doublestaining with antibodies specific to pan-neural markers (neuron-specific enolase (NSE and S100 protein and to hormones of pancreatic endocrine cells. NSE and S100-positive nerves and ganglia were identified in the human fetal pancreas from gestation week (gw 10 onwards. Later the density of S100 and NSE-positive fibers increased. In adults this network was sparse. The islets innervation started to form from gw 14. NSE-containing endocrine cells were identified from gw 12 onwards. Additionally, S100-positive cells were detected both in the periphery and within some of the islets starting at gw 14. The analysis of islets innervation has shown that the fetal pancreas contained neuro-insular complexes and the number of these complexes was reduced in adults. The highest density of neuro-insular complexes is detected during middle and late fetal periods, when the mosaic islets, typical for adults, form. The close integration between the developing pancreatic islets and the nervous system structures may play an important role not only in the hormone secretion, but also in the islets morphogenesis.

  20. Ontogeny of neuro-insular complexes and islets innervation in the human pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proshchina, Alexandra E; Krivova, Yulia S; Barabanov, Valeriy M; Saveliev, Sergey V

    2014-01-01

    The ontogeny of the neuro-insular complexes (NIC) and the islets innervation in human pancreas has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to describe the developmental dynamics and distribution of the nervous system structures in the endocrine part of human pancreas. We used double-staining with antibodies specific to pan-neural markers [neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100 protein] and to hormones of pancreatic endocrine cells. NSE and S100-positive nerves and ganglia were identified in the human fetal pancreas from gestation week (gw) 10 onward. Later the density of S100 and NSE-positive fibers increased. In adults, this network was sparse. The islets innervation started to form from gw 14. NSE-containing endocrine cells were identified from gw 12 onward. Additionally, S100-positive cells were detected both in the periphery and within some of the islets starting at gw 14. The analysis of islets innervation has shown that the fetal pancreas contained NIC and the number of these complexes was reduced in adults. The highest density of NIC is detected during middle and late fetal periods, when the mosaic islets, typical for adults, form. The close integration between the developing pancreatic islets and the nervous system structures may play an important role not only in the hormone secretion, but also in the islets morphogenesis.

  1. Sensory and motor innervation of the crural diaphragm by the vagus nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard L; Page, Amanda J; Cooper, Nicole J; Frisby, Claudine L; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2010-03-01

    During gastroesophageal reflux, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and crural diaphragm (CD) inhibition occur concomitantly. Modifying vagus nerve control of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation is a major focus of development of therapeutics for gastroesophageal reflux disease, but neural mechanisms that coordinate the CD are poorly understood. Nerve tracing and immunolabeling were used to assess innervation of the diaphragm and lower esophageal sphincter in ferrets. Mechanosensory responses of vagal afferents in the CD and electromyography responses of the CD were recorded in novel in vitro preparations and in vivo. Retrograde tracing revealed a unique population of vagal CD sensory neurons in nodose ganglia and CD motor neurons in brainstem vagal nuclei. Anterograde tracing revealed specialized vagal endings in the CD and phrenoesophageal ligament-sites of vagal afferent mechanosensitivity recorded in vitro. Spontaneous electromyography activity persisted in the CD following bilateral phrenicotomy in vivo, while vagus nerve stimulation evoked electromyography responses in the CD in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that vagal sensory and motor neurons functionally innervate the CD and phrenoesophageal ligament. CD vagal afferents show mechanosensitivity to distortion of the gastroesophageal junction, while vagal motor neurons innervate both CD and distal esophagus and may represent a common substrate for motor control of the reflux barrier. Copyright 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Estrogen Replacement Regulates Vaginal Innervations in Ovariectomized Adult Virgin Rats: A Histological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Our previous Gräfenberg spot findings confirmed that the distal-third areas of the anterior vaginal wall bore a significantly greater number of nerves and sexual hormone may have certain degree of influence on these significant differences. However, the role of estrogen in vaginal innervations remains controversial. Methods. To investigate whether hormonal-neural interactions occur in the vagina, sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups: Sham-operated, ovariectomy, and 4 treatment groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, vaginal biopsies were prepared with hematoxylin and eosin and PGP9.5 using immunohistochemistry. Results. The density of small nerve fibers was significantly higher in the distal-half areas of intact vaginal walls than the proximal-half areas (P=0.001. In contrast, the overall PGP 9.5-ir fiber innervation density was significantly decreased in the OVX rats subjected to surgical menopause. Sustained estrogen administration for 2 weeks resulted in nerve fiber proliferation, with values reaching normal levels in the low-dose estradiol valerate group. Conclusion. Our findings indicate that systemic hormonal therapy with low-dose estradiol valerate is effective and safe for treating deficient vaginal innervation caused by low level of estrogen activity in menopausal women and may aid studies to identify an optimal estradiol dose to provide relief from vaginal discomfort.

  3. Oropharyngeal and laryngeal sensory innervation in the pathophysiology of swallowing disorders and sensory stimulation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berdugo, Daniel; Rofes, Laia; Casamitjana, J Francesc; Padrón, Andreína; Quer, Miquel; Clavé, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) affects older and neurological patients, causing malnutrition and dehydration and increasing the risk for aspiration pneumonia. There is evidence that sensory deficits in those populations are closely related to swallowing disorders, and several research groups are developing new therapies based on sensory stimulation of this area. More information on the sensory innervation participating in the swallow response is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of OD and to develop new treatments. This review focuses on the sensory innervation of the human oropharynx and larynx in healthy people compared with patients with swallowing disorders in order to unravel the abnormalities that may lead to the loss of sensitivity in patients with OD. We also hypothesize the pathway through which active sensory-enhancement treatments may elicit their therapeutic effect on patients with swallowing dysfunctions. As far as we know, this is the first time a review covers the anatomy, histology, ultrastructure, and molecular biology of the sensory innervation of the swallowing function. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Heterogeneous sensory innervation and extensive intrabulbar connections of olfactory necklace glomeruli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee E Cockerham

    Full Text Available The mammalian nose employs several olfactory subsystems to recognize and transduce diverse chemosensory stimuli. These subsystems differ in their anatomical position within the nasal cavity, their targets in the olfactory forebrain, and the transduction mechanisms they employ. Here we report that they can also differ in the strategies they use for stimulus coding. Necklace glomeruli are the sole main olfactory bulb (MOB targets of an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN subpopulation distinguished by its expression of the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and the phosphodiesterase PDE2, and by its chemosensitivity to the natriuretic peptides uroguanylin and guanylin and the gas CO(2. In stark contrast to the homogeneous sensory innervation of canonical MOB glomeruli from OSNs expressing the same odorant receptor (OR, we find that each necklace glomerulus of the mouse receives heterogeneous innervation from at least two distinct sensory neuron populations: one expressing GC-D and PDE2, the other expressing olfactory marker protein. In the main olfactory system it is thought that odor identity is encoded by a combinatorial strategy and represented in the MOB by a pattern of glomerular activation. This combinatorial coding scheme requires functionally homogeneous sensory inputs to individual glomeruli by OSNs expressing the same OR and displaying uniform stimulus selectivity; thus, activity in each glomerulus reflects the stimulation of a single OSN type. The heterogeneous sensory innervation of individual necklace glomeruli by multiple, functionally distinct, OSN subtypes precludes a similar combinatorial coding strategy in this olfactory subsystem.

  5. Midbrain dopamine neurons associated with reward processing innervate the neurogenic subventricular zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennington, Jessica B; Pope, Sara; Goodheart, Anna E; Drozdowicz, Linda; Daniels, Stephen B; Salamone, John D; Conover, Joanne C

    2011-09-14

    Coordinated regulation of the adult neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) is accomplished by a myriad of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The neurotransmitter dopamine is one regulatory molecule implicated in SVZ function. Nigrostriatal and ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons innervate regions adjacent to the SVZ, and dopamine synapses are found on SVZ cells. Cell division within the SVZ is decreased in humans with Parkinson's disease and in animal models of Parkinson's disease following exposure to toxins that selectively remove nigrostriatal neurons, suggesting that dopamine is critical for SVZ function and nigrostriatal neurons are the main suppliers of SVZ dopamine. However, when we examined the aphakia mouse, which is deficient in nigrostriatal neurons, we found no detrimental effect to SVZ proliferation or organization. Instead, dopamine innervation of the SVZ tracked to neurons at the ventrolateral boundary of the VTA. This same dopaminergic neuron population also innervated the SVZ of control mice. Characterization of these neurons revealed expression of proteins indicative of VTA neurons. Furthermore, exposure to the neurotoxin MPTP depleted neurons in the ventrolateral VTA and resulted in decreased SVZ proliferation. Together, these results reveal that dopamine signaling in the SVZ originates from a population of midbrain neurons more typically associated with motivational and reward processing.

  6. Vagal innervation is required for pulmonary function phenotype in Htr4-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, John S; Nichols, Cody E; Li, Huiling; Brandenberger, Christina; Virgincar, Rohan S; DeGraff, Laura M; Driehuys, Bastiaan; Zeldin, Darryl C; London, Stephanie J

    2017-04-01

    Human genome-wide association studies have identified over 50 loci associated with pulmonary function and related phenotypes, yet follow-up studies to determine causal genes or variants are rare. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in serotonin receptor 4 ( HTR4 ) are associated with human pulmonary function in genome-wide association studies and follow-up animal work has demonstrated that Htr4 is causally associated with pulmonary function in mice, although the precise mechanisms were not identified. We sought to elucidate the role of neural innervation and pulmonary architecture in the lung phenotype of Htr4 -/- animals. We report here that the Htr4 -/- phenotype in mouse is dependent on vagal innervation to the lung. Both ex vivo tracheal ring reactivity and in vivo flexiVent pulmonary functional analyses demonstrate that vagotomy abrogates the Htr4 -/- airway hyperresponsiveness phenotype. Hyperpolarized 3 He gas magnetic resonance imaging and stereological assessment of wild-type and Htr4 -/- mice reveal no observable differences in lung volume, inflation characteristics, or pulmonary microarchitecture. Finally, control of breathing experiments reveal substantive differences in baseline breathing characteristics between mice with/without functional HTR4 in breathing frequency, relaxation time, flow rate, minute volume, time of inspiration and expiration and breathing pauses. These results suggest that HTR4's role in pulmonary function likely relates to neural innervation and control of breathing. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. [Efferent innervation of the arteries of human leptomeninx in arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, V M; Kotsiuba, A E; Babich, E V

    2009-01-01

    Structure of the efferent nerve plexuses (adrenergic, acetylcholinestherase- and cholinacetyltranspherase-positive, NO-dependent), was studied in the arteries of human leptomeninx with different diameters. Material was obtained from the corpses of the healthy people and of the patients with initial stages of arterial hypertension (AH). It was shown that the concentrations of cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers and varicosities in axon terminal part, innervating the arteries with the diameters ranging from 450 till 100 microm, were not significantly different. In these arteries, NO-ergic plexuses were also detected. In patients with AH, regardless the arterial diameters, the significant increase (up to 15-20%) of adrenergic nerve fiber and varicosity concentrations was found. The changes in cholinergic nerve fiber concentration were found to depend on the vessel diameter: the significant decrease of these parameter was observed only in arteries with the diameter of 100-200 microm. No significant changes in nerve plexus concentration was noticed in the arteries with greater or smaller diameter. In NO-ergic neural conductors, the enzyme activity decreased only in the large arteries, and remained almost unchanged in the small vascular branches. The changes in the vasomotor innervation described in AH, are interpreted as a vasomotor innervation dysfunction of the leptomeninx arteries that may result in the hemodynamic disturbances.

  8. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  9. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  10. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  11. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  12. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  13. 'Speedy' superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1994-01-01

    The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)

  14. Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robb Willer

    Full Text Available Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.

  15. Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, Robb; Sharkey, Amanda; Frey, Seth

    2012-01-01

    Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA) games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.

  16. Reciprocity in quantum, electromagnetic and other wave scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deák, L.; Fülöp, T.

    2012-01-01

    The reciprocity principle is that, when an emitted wave gets scattered on an object, the scattering transition amplitude does not change if we interchange the source and the detector—in other words, if incoming waves are interchanged with appropriate outgoing ones. Reciprocity is sometimes confused with time reversal invariance, or with invariance under the rotation that interchanges the location of the source and the location of the detector. Actually, reciprocity covers the former as a special case, and is fundamentally different from–but can be usefully combined with–the latter. Reciprocity can be proved as a theorem in many situations and is found violated in other cases. The paper presents a general treatment of reciprocity, discusses important examples, shows applications in the field of photon (Mössbauer) scattering, and establishes a fruitful connection with a recently developing area of mathematics. - Highlights: ► A frame independent generalized reciprocity theorem of scattering theory is given. ► Reciprocity for two spin/polarization degrees of freedom is detailed. ► Relationship of reciprocity to time reversal and to 180 degree rotation is discussed. ► Reciprocal and nonreciprocal settings in Mossbauer spectroscopy are studied. ► The symmetry of diffuse omega-scans is explained with the aid of reciprocity.

  17. Analogue circuits simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendo, C

    1988-09-01

    Most analogue simulators have evolved from SPICE. The history and description of SPICE-like simulators are given. From a mathematical formulation of the electronic circuit the following analysis are possible: DC, AC, transient, noise, distortion, Worst Case and Statistical.

  18. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  19. Magnonic logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitun, Alexander; Bao Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L

    2010-01-01

    We describe and analyse possible approaches to magnonic logic circuits and basic elements required for circuit construction. A distinctive feature of the magnonic circuitry is that information is transmitted by spin waves propagating in the magnetic waveguides without the use of electric current. The latter makes it possible to exploit spin wave phenomena for more efficient data transfer and enhanced logic functionality. We describe possible schemes for general computing and special task data processing. The functional throughput of the magnonic logic gates is estimated and compared with the conventional transistor-based approach. Magnonic logic circuits allow scaling down to the deep submicrometre range and THz frequency operation. The scaling is in favour of the magnonic circuits offering a significant functional advantage over the traditional approach. The disadvantages and problems of the spin wave devices are also discussed.

  20. Peak reading detector circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtin, E.; Grund, K.; Traub, S.; Zeeb, H.

    1975-01-01

    The peak reading detector circuit serves for picking up the instants during which peaks of a given polarity occur in sequences of signals in which the extreme values, their time intervals, and the curve shape of the signals vary. The signal sequences appear in measuring the foetal heart beat frequence from amplitude-modulated ultrasonic, electrocardiagram, and blood pressure signals. In order to prevent undesired emission of output signals from, e. g., disturbing intermediate extreme values, the circuit consists of the series connections of a circuit to simulate an ideal diode, a strong unit, a discriminator for the direction of charging current, a time-delay circuit, and an electronic switch lying in the decharging circuit of the storage unit. The time-delay circuit thereby causes storing of a preliminary maximum value being used only after a certain time delay for the emission of the output signal. If a larger extreme value occurs during the delay time the preliminary maximum value is cleared and the delay time starts running anew. (DG/PB) [de

  1. Color Coding of Circuit Quantities in Introductory Circuit Analysis Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisslein, Jana; Johnson, Amy M.; Reisslein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Learning the analysis of electrical circuits represented by circuit diagrams is often challenging for novice students. An open research question in electrical circuit analysis instruction is whether color coding of the mathematical symbols (variables) that denote electrical quantities can improve circuit analysis learning. The present study…

  2. Project Circuits in a Basic Electric Circuits Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, James P.; Plumb, Carolyn; Revia, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of project circuits (a photoplethysmograph circuit and a simple audio amplifier), introduced in a sophomore-level electric circuits course utilizing active learning and inquiry-based methods, is described. The development of the project circuits was initiated to promote enhanced engagement and deeper understanding of course content among…

  3. Revisiting "The evolution of reciprocity in sizable groups": continuous reciprocity in the repeated n-person prisoner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Masanori; Price, Michael E

    2010-05-21

    For many years in evolutionary science, the consensus view has been that while reciprocal altruism can evolve in dyadic interactions, it is unlikely to evolve in sizable groups. This view had been based on studies which have assumed cooperation to be discrete rather than continuous (i.e., individuals can either fully cooperate or else fully defect, but they cannot continuously vary their level of cooperation). In real world cooperation, however, cooperation is often continuous. In this paper, we re-examine the evolution of reciprocity in sizable groups by presenting a model of the n-person prisoner's dilemma that assumes continuous rather than discrete cooperation. This model shows that continuous reciprocity has a dramatically wider basin of attraction than discrete reciprocity, and that this basin's size increases with efficiency of cooperation (marginal per capita return). Further, we find that assortative interaction interacts synergistically with continuous reciprocity to a much greater extent than it does with discrete reciprocity. These results suggest that previous models may have underestimated reciprocity's adaptiveness in groups. However, we also find that the invasion of continuous reciprocators into a population of unconditional defectors becomes realistic only within a narrow parameter space in which the efficiency of cooperation is close to its maximum bound. Therefore our model suggests that continuous reciprocity can evolve in large groups more easily than discrete reciprocity only under unusual circumstances. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Realizing total reciprocity violation in the phase for photon scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, László; Bottyán, László; Fülöp, Tamás; Merkel, Dániel Géza; Nagy, Dénes Lajos; Sajti, Szilárd; Schulze, Kai Sven; Spiering, Hartmut; Uschmann, Ingo; Wille, Hans-Christian

    2017-02-22

    Reciprocity is when wave or quantum scattering satisfies a symmetry property, connecting a scattering process with the reversed one. While reciprocity involves the interchange of source and detector, it is fundamentally different from rotational invariance, and is a generalization of time reversal invariance, occurring in absorptive media as well. Due to its presence at diverse areas of physics, it admits a wide variety of applications. For polarization dependent scatterings, reciprocity is often violated, but violation in the phase of the scattering amplitude is much harder to experimentally observe than violation in magnitude. Enabled by the advantageous properties of nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation, we have measured maximal, i.e., 180-degree, reciprocity violation in the phase. For accessing phase information, we introduced a new version of stroboscopic detection. The scattering setting was devised based on a generalized reciprocity theorem that opens the way to construct new types of reciprocity related devices.

  5. Mortality salience increases personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2012-10-01

    Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  6. REGIONAL RECIPROCAL GUARANTEE SOCIETIES IN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando J. Canelones

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the operation of services offered by the Regional Mutual Guarantee Societies (SGRs in Venezuela, and to present synthetically, the rudiments for constitution, as well as the legal basis that must rule them, through conducting an executive summary of the Law of the National System of Reciprocal Guarantees for Small and Medium Business and the Promotion, Constitution and Functioning Rules of National Mutual Funds and Guarantees and SGRs.  The methodology used in this research is documentary, through a literature review and exploration that allowed inferences about the importance of Regional SGRs in Venezuela, as financing alternative

  7. Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...... a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. The interest has also been facilitated due to recently severe structural failures...

  8. Reinforcement learning account of network reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory predicts that cooperation in social dilemma games is promoted when agents are connected as a network. However, when networks are fixed over time, humans do not necessarily show enhanced mutual cooperation. Here we show that reinforcement learning (specifically, the so-called Bush-Mosteller model) approximately explains the experimentally observed network reciprocity and the lack thereof in a parameter region spanned by the benefit-to-cost ratio and the node's degree. Thus, we significantly extend previously obtained numerical results.

  9. Reinforcement learning account of network reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ezaki

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory predicts that cooperation in social dilemma games is promoted when agents are connected as a network. However, when networks are fixed over time, humans do not necessarily show enhanced mutual cooperation. Here we show that reinforcement learning (specifically, the so-called Bush-Mosteller model approximately explains the experimentally observed network reciprocity and the lack thereof in a parameter region spanned by the benefit-to-cost ratio and the node's degree. Thus, we significantly extend previously obtained numerical results.

  10. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  11. Reciprocity relation for multichannel coupling kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotanch, S.R.; Satchler, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    Assuming time-reversal invariance of the many-body Hamiltonian, it is proven that the kernels in a general coupled-channels formulation are symmetric, to within a specified spin-dependent phase, under the interchange of channel labels and coordinates. The theorem is valid for both Hermitian and suitably chosen non-Hermitian Hamiltonians which contain complex effective interactions. While of direct practical consequence for nuclear rearrangement reactions, the reciprocity relation is also appropriate for other areas of physics which involve coupled-channels analysis

  12. Is there reciprocity in preferential trade agreements on services?

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Juan; Roy, Martin; Zoratto, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Are market access commitments on services in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) reciprocal or simply unilateral? If reciprocal, do concessions granted in services depend on concessions received from the trading partner in other services or in non-services areas as well? In this paper we investigate the presence of reciprocity in bilateral services agreements, by sub-sector, mode of supply and type of agreement (North-North, South-North, South-South). To do so, we use a database of concessio...

  13. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro eSakaiya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human and strategy (random, tit-for-tat in repeated prisoner’s dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate and theory of mind (ToM regions (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex [VMPFC] and precuneus. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (deactivation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during

  14. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaiya, Shiro; Shiraito, Yuki; Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Okada, Kensuke; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human) and strategy (random, tit-for-tat) in repeated prisoner's dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate) and theory of mind (ToM) regions [i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and precuneus]. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (de)activation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during social interactions.

  15. Acoustic reciprocity: An extension to spherical harmonics domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinghe, Prasanga; Abhayapala, Thushara D; Kellermann, Walter

    2017-10-01

    Acoustic reciprocity is a fundamental property of acoustic wavefields that is commonly used to simplify the measurement process of many practical applications. Traditionally, the reciprocity theorem is defined between a monopole point source and a point receiver. Intuitively, it must apply to more complex transducers than monopoles. In this paper, the authors formulate the acoustic reciprocity theory in the spherical harmonics domain for directional sources and directional receivers with higher order directivity patterns.

  16. Static and kinematic formulation of planar reciprocal assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed extending the theory of pin-jointed assemblies....... This formulation is used to evaluate the static and kinematic determinacy of reciprocal assemblies from the properties of their equilibrium and kinematic matrices...

  17. Taste bud-derived BDNF maintains innervation of a subset of TrkB-expressing gustatory nerve fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Rios-Pilier, Jennifer; Krimm, Robin

    2017-07-01

    Taste receptor cells transduce different types of taste stimuli and transmit this information to gustatory neurons that carry it to the brain. Taste receptor cells turn over continuously in adulthood, requiring constant new innervation from nerve fibers. Therefore, the maintenance of innervation to taste buds is an active process mediated by many factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Specifically, 40% of taste bud innervation is lost when Bdnf is removed during adulthood. Here we speculated that not all gustatory nerve fibers express the BDNF receptor, TrkB, resulting in subsets of neurons that vary in their response to BDNF. However, it is also possible that the partial loss of innervation occurred because the Bdnf gene was not effectively removed. To test these possibilities, we first determined that not all gustatory nerve fibers express the TrkB receptor in adult mice. We then verified the efficiency of Bdnf removal specifically in taste buds of K14-CreER:Bdnf mice and found that Bdnf expression was reduced to 1%, indicating efficient Bdnf gene recombination. BDNF removal resulted in a 55% loss of TrkB-expressing nerve fibers, which was greater than the loss of P2X3-positive fibers (39%), likely because taste buds were innervated by P2X3+/TrkB- fibers that were unaffected by BDNF removal. We conclude that gustatory innervation consists of both TrkB-positive and TrkB-negative taste fibers and that BDNF is specifically important for maintaining TrkB-positive innervation to taste buds. In addition, although taste bud size was not affected by inducible Bdnf removal, the expression of the γ subunit of the ENaC channel was reduced. So, BDNF may regulate expression of some molecular components of taste transduction pathways. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Alternative energy efficient membrane bioreactor using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J; Smith, S; Roh, H K

    2014-01-01

    A novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot system, using membrane reciprocation instead of air scouring, was operated at constant high flux and daily fluctuating flux to demonstrate its application under peak and diurnal flow conditions. Low and stable transmembrane pressure was achieved at 40 l/m(2)/h (LMH) by use of repetitive membrane reciprocation. The results reveal that the inertial forces acting on the membrane fibers effectively propel foulants from the membrane surface. Reciprocation of the hollow fiber membrane is beneficial for the constant removal of solids that may build up on the membrane surface and inside the membrane bundle. The membrane reciprocation in the reciprocating MBR pilot consumed less energy than coarse air scouring used in conventional MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for the membrane reciprocation was 0.072 kWh/m(3) permeate produced at 40 LMH flux, which is 75% less than for a conventional air scouring system as reported in literature without consideration of energy consumption for biological aeration (0.29 kWh/m(3)). The daily fluctuating flux test confirmed that the membrane reciprocation is effective to handle fluctuating flux up to 50 LMH. The pilot-scale reciprocating MBR system successfully demonstrated that fouling can be controlled via 0.43 Hz membrane reciprocation with 44 mm or higher amplitude.

  19. On reciprocal Baecklund transformations of inverse scattering schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.; Wong, P.

    1984-01-01

    The notion of reciprocally related inverse scattering schemes is introduced and is shown to be a key component in the link between the AKNS and WKI schemes. Reciprocal auto-Baecklund transformations are represented both for a generalised Harry-Dym equation and an equation descriptive of nonlinear oscillation of elastic beams. Further, the N-loop soliton solution of the KIW equation is generated in a convenient parametric form via reciprocal Baecklund transformations. Finally, an important reduction to canonical spectral form is shown to be a reciprocal transformation. (Auth.)

  20. Low latency asynchronous interface circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Greg

    2017-06-20

    In one form, a logic circuit includes an asynchronous logic circuit, a synchronous logic circuit, and an interface circuit coupled between the asynchronous logic circuit and the synchronous logic circuit. The asynchronous logic circuit has a plurality of asynchronous outputs for providing a corresponding plurality of asynchronous signals. The synchronous logic circuit has a plurality of synchronous inputs corresponding to the plurality of asynchronous outputs, a stretch input for receiving a stretch signal, and a clock output for providing a clock signal. The synchronous logic circuit provides the clock signal as a periodic signal but prolongs a predetermined state of the clock signal while the stretch signal is active. The asynchronous interface detects whether metastability could occur when latching any of the plurality of the asynchronous outputs of the asynchronous logic circuit using said clock signal, and activates the stretch signal while the metastability could occur.

  1. Reciprocating piston pump system with screw drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Gerald S. (Inventor); Moore, Nicholas R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pump system of the reciprocating piston type is described, which facilitates direct motor drive and cylinder sealing. A threaded middle potion of the piston is engaged by a nut connected to rotate with the rotor of an electric motor, in a manner that minimizes loading on the rotor by the use of a coupling that transmits torque to the nut but permits it to shift axially and radially with respect to the rotor. The nut has a threaded hydrostatic bearing for engaging the threaded piston portion, with an oil-carrying groove in the nut being interrupted. A fluid emitting seal located at the entrance to each cylinder, can serve to center the piston within the cylinder, wash the piston, and to aid in sealing. The piston can have a long stroke to diameter ratio to minimize reciprocations and wear on valves at high pressures. The voltage applied to the motor can be reversed prior to the piston reaching the end of its stroke, to permit pressure on the piston to aid in reversing the motor.

  2. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James [Dresser, Inc., Addison, TX (United States)

    2012-04-05

    The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs

  3. Adrenal hormones interact with sympathetic innervation to modulate growth of embryonic heart in oculo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, D C; Torres, A

    1992-02-01

    To allow experimental manipulation of adrenal hormone and autonomic influences on developing myocardium without alteration of hemodynamic load, embryonic rat heart was cultured in the anterior eye chamber of an adult rat. Sympathetic innervation of embryonic day 12 heart grafts was manipulated by surgical sympathectomy of one eye chamber in each host rat. Adrenal hormone exposure was manipulated by host adrenal medullectomy (MEDX) in experiment 1 and by host adrenalectomy (ADX) in experiment 2. In experiment 1, whole heart grafts were larger in MEDX than in sham-operated hosts by 8 wk in oculo (6.14 +/- 0.71 vs. 5.09 +/- 0.69 mm2 with innervation intact and 7.97 +/- 2.07 vs. 3.09 +/- 0.63 mm2 with sympathetic innervation prevented). In experiment 2, host ADX increased growth of embryonic day 12 ventricles grafted into sympathectomized eye chambers (0.69 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.44 +/- 0.04 mm2) but did not affect growth of grafts in intact eye chambers (0.85 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.05 +/- 0.15 mm2). Corticosterone replacement (4 mg/day) entirely reversed the effect of host ADX on graft growth (superior cervical ganglionectomy, 0.47 +/- 0.03 mm2; intact eye chambers, 0.90 +/- 0.91 mm2). Beating rate of grafts was not affected by adrenal hormone manipulations. These experiments indicate that the compromised growth of embryonic heart grafts placed in sympathectomized eye chambers requires exposure to adult levels of glucocorticoids during the early days after grafting. These results suggest that interactions between neural and hormonal stimulation influence cardiac growth in the in oculo culture system and during normal development.

  4. Development of cardiac parasympathetic neurons, glial cells, and regional cholinergic innervation of the mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, S P; Hoover, D B

    2012-09-27

    Very little is known about the development of cardiac parasympathetic ganglia and cholinergic innervation of the mouse heart. Accordingly, we evaluated the growth of cholinergic neurons and nerve fibers in mouse hearts from embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) through postnatal day 21(P21). Cholinergic perikarya and varicose nerve fibers were identified in paraffin sections immunostained for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Satellite cells and Schwann cells in adjacent sections were identified by immunostaining for S100β calcium binding protein (S100) and brain-fatty acid binding protein (B-FABP). We found that cardiac ganglia had formed in close association to the atria and cholinergic innervation of the atrioventricular junction had already begun by E18.5. However, most cholinergic innervation of the heart, including the sinoatrial node, developed postnatally (P0.5-P21) along with a doubling of the cross-sectional area of cholinergic perikarya. Satellite cells were present throughout neonatal cardiac ganglia and expressed primarily B-FABP. As they became more mature at P21, satellite cells stained strongly for both B-FABP and S100. Satellite cells appeared to surround most cardiac parasympathetic neurons, even in neonatal hearts. Mature Schwann cells, identified by morphology and strong staining for S100, were already present at E18.5 in atrial regions that receive cholinergic innervation at later developmental times. The abundance and distribution of S100-positive Schwann cells increased postnatally along with nerve density. While S100 staining of cardiac Schwann cells was maintained in P21 and older mice, Schwann cells did not show B-FABP staining at these times. Parallel development of satellite cells and cholinergic perikarya in the cardiac ganglia and the increase in abundance of Schwann cells and varicose cholinergic nerve fibers in the atria suggest that neuronal-glial interactions could be important for development of the parasympathetic nervous

  5. Management of pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and anatomy of renal innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellman, Matthew W; Bahler, Clinton D; Shumate, Ashley M; Bacallao, Robert L; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2015-05-01

    Chronic pain is a prominent feature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease that is difficult to treat and manage, often resulting in a decrease in quality of life. Understanding the underlying anatomy of renal innervation and the various etiologies of pain that occur in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can help guide proper treatments to manage pain. Reviewing previously studied treatments for pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can help characterize treatment in a stepwise fashion. We performed a literature search of the etiology and management of pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and the anatomy of renal innervation using PubMed® and Embase® from January 1985 to April 2014 with limitations to human studies and English language. Pain occurs in the majority of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease due to renal, hepatic and mechanical origins. Patients may experience different types of pain which can make it difficult to clinically confirm its etiology. An anatomical and histological evaluation of the complex renal innervation helps in understanding the mechanisms that can lead to renal pain. Understanding the complex nature of renal innervation is essential for surgeons to perform renal denervation. The management of pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease should be approached in a stepwise fashion. Acute causes of renal pain must first be ruled out due to the high incidence in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. For chronic pain, nonopioid analgesics and conservative interventions can be used first, before opioid analgesics are considered. If pain continues there are surgical interventions such as renal cyst decortication, renal denervation and nephrectomy that can target pain produced by renal or hepatic cysts. Chronic pain in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is often refractory to conservative, medical and other noninvasive treatments

  6. [Microscopic innervation of the spermatic ducts and testis. I. Vas deferens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Garnacho, S; Vega, J A; Alvarez Arenal, A; Pérez Casas, A; Alvarez Menéndez, J C; Hernández, L C

    1989-01-01

    The microscopic innervation of the vas deferens in the rat was studied both in light and electron microscope. The nerve fibres form perivascular, intramuscular and subepithelial plexuses. Inside the connective tissue surrounding the vas deferens both isolated nerve fibres and sensory corpuscles (glomerular and Ruffine-like types) were observed. The varicosities and endings of nerve fibres contain synaptic vesicles of different sizes and electron characteristics. These varicosities were closely related to the smooth muscle cells and some of them lacked of Schwannian sheath. The nervous fibres were not in direct contact with the epithelial cells.

  7. Phalloplasty with an Innervated Island Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap in a Female-to-Male Transsexual

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Kenjiro; Namba, Yuzaburo; Kimata, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Since 2001, we have been performing phalloplasty with a radial forearm free flap as the flap of first choice in female-to-male transsexuals (FTMTS). In the present case, a 22-year-old FTMTS with a negative Allen test, we achieved good results by performing phalloplasty with an innervated island pedicled anterolateral thigh flap using the "tube within a tube" technique, in which the penis and urethra are constructed with a single flap. While phalloplasty with an island-pedicled or free anterol...

  8. Innervation of periesophageal region of cat's diaphragm - Implication for studies of control of vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L. K.; Miller, A. D.

    1986-01-01

    The extent of the region of the diaphragm around the esophagus that displays greatly reduced activity during the expulsive phase of vomiting was determined from electromyographic studies in cats to be about 0.75-1.0 cm from the esophagus. Horseradish peroxidase injected into this region retrogradely labeled motoneurons throughout most of the rostral-caudal extent of the phrenic nucleus, with the exception of caudal C6 and rostral C7. This widespread intermingling of motoneurons that innervate the region of reduced activity with other phrenic motoneurons creates a difficulty for needed follow-up studies of diaphragmatic control during vomiting.

  9. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  10. Sensory innervation of the dorsal longitudinal ligament and the meninges in the lumbar spine of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waber-Wenger, Barbara; Forterre, Franck; Kuehni-Boghenbor, Kathrin; Danuser, Renzo; Stein, Jens Volker; Stoffel, Michael Hubert

    2014-10-01

    Although intervertebral disc herniation is a well-known disease in dogs, pain management for this condition has remained a challenge. The goal of the present study is to address the lack of information regarding the innervation of anatomical structures within the canine vertebral canal. Immunolabeling was performed with antibodies against protein gene product 9.5, Tuj-1 (neuron-specific class III β-tubulin), calcitonin gene-related peptide, and neuropeptide Y in combination with the lectin from Lycopersicon esculentum as a marker for blood vessels. Staining was indicative of both sensory and sympathetic fibers. Innervation density was the highest in lateral areas, intermediate in dorsal areas, and the lowest in ventral areas. In the dorsal longitudinal ligament (DLL), the highest innervation density was observed in the lateral regions. Innervation was lower at mid-vertebral levels than at intervertebral levels. The presence of sensory and sympathetic fibers in the canine dura and DLL suggests that pain may originate from both these structures. Due to these regional differences in sensory innervation patterns, trauma to intervertebral DLL and lateral dura is expected to be particularly painful. The results ought to provide a better basis for the assessment of medicinal and surgical procedures.

  11. Small circuits for cryptography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Draelos, Timothy John; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Miller, Russell D.; Anderson, William Erik

    2005-10-01

    This report examines a number of hardware circuit design issues associated with implementing certain functions in FPGA and ASIC technologies. Here we show circuit designs for AES and SHA-1 that have an extremely small hardware footprint, yet show reasonably good performance characteristics as compared to the state of the art designs found in the literature. Our AES performance numbers are fueled by an optimized composite field S-box design for the Stratix chipset. Our SHA-1 designs use register packing and feedback functionalities of the Stratix LE, which reduce the logic element usage by as much as 72% as compared to other SHA-1 designs.

  12. Silicon integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-01

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  13. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  14. Silicon integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-15

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  15. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  16. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  17. Efficient Design And Fabrication Of Free-Form Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    Structures based on the principle of reciprocity have been autonomously studied and used since the antiquity on the basis of different needs and purposes. The application of the principle of reciprocity requires the presence of at least two elements, at the same time both supporting and being sup...

  18. Static And Kinematic Formulation Of Planar Reciprocal Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed by extending the work on pin-jointed assemblies by Pe...

  19. Group differences in reciprocity, multiplexity and exchange : measures and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, Filip; Skvoretz, John

    Local forces structure social networks. One major and widely researched local force is reciprocity, often assumed to work homogeneously across actors-i.e., all actors are equally subject to the same level of force towards reciprocity. Other local forces, like multiplexity and exchange, are also

  20. Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Behaviour of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in…

  1. Structural optimization of free-form reciprocal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization algorithm for the design of structurally efficient free-form reciprocal structures. Because of the geometric complexity of reciprocal structures, only a few structural studies have been carried out so far, and we have a limited knowledge of the relation between...

  2. Disjunctured reciprocity: Paradoxes of community-school relationship in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan, Uma; Shrestha, Shivana; Valentin, Karen

    2018-01-01

    and community. This article questions the simplistic assumption through an ethnographic study of community-school relationship in Nepal. While these relationships may conflict with the kind of reciprocity assumed in school governance policies, we argue that this disjunctured reciprocity, firstly, reflects...

  3. Using Excel's Matrix Operations to Facilitate Reciprocal Cost Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, Wallace R.; Kizirian, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The reciprocal method of service department cost allocation requires linear equations to be solved simultaneously. These computations are often so complex as to cause the abandonment of the reciprocal method in favor of the less sophisticated direct or step-down methods. Here is a short example demonstrating how Excel's sometimes unknown matrix…

  4. Apical extrusion of debris using reciprocating files and rotary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Procedure: Sixty extracted human mandibular premolars were used. The root canals were instrumented using reciprocating (WaveOne, Reciproc, SafeSider) or rotary ... and cross‑sections, and kinematics, and this situation may influence the amount of apically extruded debris through the apical foramen.[15]. The aim of this ...

  5. Sex differences in the reciprocal behaviour of children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M; Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with

  6. Reciprocal Relationships between Math Self-Concept and Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between self-concept and anxiety in mathematics. A sample of 495 grade 7 students (51% girls) completed self-report measures assessing self-concept and anxiety three times in a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to test a cross-lagged panel model of reciprocal effects between…

  7. 24 CFR 3282.11 - Preemption and reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preemption and reciprocity. 3282.11 Section 3282.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... and reciprocity. (a) No State manufactured home standard regarding manufactured home construction and...

  8. BitTorrent's dilemma: Enhancing reciprocity or reducing inequity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, A.L.; D'Acunto, L.; Meulpolder, M.; Pouwelse, J.A.; Epema, D.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing reciprocity has been one of the primary motivations for the design of incentive policies in BitTorrent-like P2P systems. Reciprocity implies that peers need to contribute their bandwidth to other peers if they want to receive bandwidth in return. However, the over-provisioning that

  9. Transient nature of cooperation by pay-it-forward reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yutaka; Takezawa, Masanori; Kinjo, Takuji; Nakawake, Yo; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-01-20

    Humans often forward kindness received from others to strangers, a phenomenon called the upstream or pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity. Some field observations and laboratory experiments found evidence of pay-it-forward reciprocity in which chains of cooperative acts persist in social dilemma situations. Theoretically, however, cooperation based on pay-it-forward reciprocity is not sustainable. We carried out laboratory experiments of a pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity game (i.e., chained gift-giving game) on a large scale in terms of group size and time. We found that cooperation consistent with pay-it-forward reciprocity occurred only in a first few decisions per participant and that cooperation originated from inherent pro-sociality of individuals. In contrast, the same groups of participants showed persisting chains of cooperation in a different indirect reciprocity game in which participants earned reputation by cooperating. Our experimental results suggest that pay-it-forward reciprocity is transient and disappears when a person makes decisions repeatedly, whereas the reputation-based reciprocity is stable in the same situation.

  10. Symmetry-based reciprocity: evolutionary constraints on a proximate mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the evolution of reciprocal cooperation has attracted an enormous attention, the proximate mechanisms underlying the ability of animals to cooperate reciprocally are comparatively neglected. Symmetry-based reciprocity is a hypothetical proximate mechanism that has been suggested to be widespread among cognitively unsophisticated animals. Methods. We developed two agent-based models of symmetry-based reciprocity (one relying on an arbitrary tag and the other on interindividual proximity) and tested their ability both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Results. Populations formed by agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received: two common aspects of animal cooperation. However, when reproduction and selection across multiple generations were added to the models, agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity were outcompeted by selfish agents that never cooperated. Discussion. In order to evolve, hypothetical proximate mechanisms must be able to stand competition from alternative strategies. While the results of our simulations require confirmation using analytical methods, we provisionally suggest symmetry-based reciprocity is to be abandoned as a possible proximate mechanism underlying the ability of animals to reciprocate cooperative interactions.

  11. Participation costs can suppress the evolution of upstream reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge; Pestelacci, Enea; Berchtold, André; Tomassini, Marco

    2011-03-21

    Indirect reciprocity, one of the many mechanisms proposed to explain the evolution of cooperation, is the idea that altruistic actions can be rewarded by third parties. Upstream or generalized reciprocity is one type of indirect reciprocity in which individuals help someone if they have been helped by somebody else in the past. Although empirically found to be at work in humans, the evolution of upstream reciprocity is difficult to explain from a theoretical point of view. A recent model of upstream reciprocity, first proposed by Nowak and Roch (2007) and further analyzed by Iwagami and Masuda (2010), shows that while upstream reciprocity alone does not lead to the evolution of cooperation, it can act in tandem with mechanisms such as network reciprocity and increase the total level of cooperativity in the population. We argue, however, that Nowak and Roch's model systematically leads to non-uniform interaction rates, where more cooperative individuals take part in more games than less cooperative ones. As a result, the critical benefit-to-cost ratios derived under this model in previous studies are not invariant with respect to the addition of participation costs. We show that accounting for these costs can hinder and even suppress the evolution of upstream reciprocity, both for populations with non-random encounters and graph-structured populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. State Authorization Reciprocity Agreement: Participation and Access to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuameze, Nkechi

    2017-01-01

    The State Authorization Reciprocity Agreement initiative was launched in 2014 to provide a uniform standard for the regulation of distance education across states in the United States. The system established by the National Council for State Authorization Reciprocity Agreement (NC-SARA) allows willing post-secondary institutions to participate…

  13. Lack of Acceptance of Reciprocity Norms in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies investigated preschool children's acceptance of the reciprocity norms that allow retaliation and that require returning favors. Children viewed cartoons that portrayed animal puppets involved in reciprocal or nonreciprocal aggressive and prosocial behavior. They were then asked to evaluate the actor in each cartoon as "good"…

  14. Structural Implications of Reciprocal Exchange: A Power-Dependence Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacich, Phillip; Bienenstock, Elisa Jayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and tests a general model to predict emergent exchange patterns and power differences in reciprocal exchange networks when individual actors follow the norm of reciprocity. With an interesting qualification, the experimental results reported here support the power-dependence approach (Emerson 1972a, b): those who acquire the…

  15. Reciprocity and Dependency Considerations in Adult Donating and Verbal Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lizette; McCommis, Bruce

    The norms of social responsibility and reciprocity govern altruistic behavior. Children and adults show a consistent developmental trend in comparisons of their responses to positive reciprocal situations and their subsequent altruism. Research indicates, however, that children, given the choice to behaviorally aid a needy individual, choose more…

  16. Guilt driven reciprocity in a psychological signaling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fong, Y.; Huang, C.-Y.; Offerman, T.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a theory of reciprocity according to which reciprocal behavior is driven by a donor's guilt. Through an experiment we show that subjects respond to factors which induce guilt but do not reflect allocative equity or intention. When the guilt inducing factor is privately observed by the

  17. Guilt driven reciprocity in a psychological signaling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fong, Y.; Huang, C.-Y.; Offerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a theory of reciprocity according to which reciprocal behavior is driven by a donor’s guilt. Through an experiment we show that subjects respond to factors which induce guilt but do not reflect allocative equity or intention. When the guilt inducing factor is privately observed by the

  18. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule... reciprocating internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and surgical...

  19. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines...

  20. Sex differences in the reciprocal behaviour of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M; Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander

    2017-08-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in typically developing children (24 girls, 55 boys). While children with autism spectrum disorder showed clear limitations in reciprocal behaviour compared to typically developing children, sex differences were found only in the autism spectrum disorder group: girls with autism spectrum disorder had higher reciprocity scores than boys with autism spectrum disorder. However, compared to typically developing girls, girls with autism spectrum disorder showed subtle differences in reciprocal behaviour. The sex-specific response patterns in autism spectrum disorder can inform and improve the diagnostic assessment of autism in females.

  1. Design and Fabrication of a Free-Form Reciprocal Roof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the framework and the design and construction process of a freeform reciprocal pavilion realized during a one-week long workshop with the students of the 1st semester of the Master of Science in Architecture and Design, fall 2014, at Aalborg University. The workshop didactic...... of relations between design parameters and a wide array of measurable performances. Due to the reciprocal structures geometric complexity, the shape generation process is handled using the Reciprocalizer, a software tool developed by the author that embeds in a computational environment the constructional...... logic of reciprocal structures. It enables to engage in real time in iterative processes that allows unfolding the geometric complexity and turn it into a source of inspiration for expanding the design space and triggering the development of unique, adapted and integrated design solutions. Reciprocal...

  2. EVOLUTION OF NEUROENDOCRINE CELL POPULATION AND PEPTIDERGIC INNERVATION, ASSESSED BY DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS, DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE RAT PROSTATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Rodríguez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin immunoreactive neuroendocrine cells and peptidergic nerves (NPY and VIP could have a role in prostate growth and function. In the present study, rats grouped by stages of postnatal development (prepubertal, pubertal, young and aged adults were employed in order to ascertain whether age causes changes in the number of serotoninergic neuroendocrine cells and the length of NPY and VIP fibres. Discriminant analysis was performed in order to ascertain the classificatory power of stereologic variables (absolute and relative measurements of cell number and fibre length on age groups. The following conclusions were drawn: a discriminant analysis confirms the androgen-dependence of both neuroendocrine cells and NPYVIP innervation during the postnatal development of the rat prostate; b periglandular innervation has more relevance than interglandular innervation in classifying the rats in age groups; and c peptidergic nerves from ventral, ampullar and periductal regions were more age-dependent than nerves from the dorso-lateral region.

  3. Influence of psychomotor skills and innervation patterns on results of latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Clément M L; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Müller, Roland; Zanetti, Marco; Gerber, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was performed to analyze the influence of innervation and psychomotor skills on the outcome of latissimus dorsi transfer. Patients with the 10 best and 10 worst results after latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears were selected. All patients meeting the inclusion criteria (n = 12) were subject to a psychomotor test battery (Motorische Leistungsserie) and electromyographic innervation assessment. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups preoperatively in terms of the commonly tested factors known to influence the results of this procedure adversely. There was a significant difference in both the pattern and selectivity of innervation in the group that had better clinical results. The psychomotor findings were negatively correlated with the range of motion and the strength of the operative shoulder. Function of the operative shoulder could also be predicted by psychomotor function of the uninjured contralateral side. Psychomotor skills testing appears to be a new, potential method by which to predict the outcome of latissimus dorsi transfer.

  4. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  5. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ...... in the circuit. The performance of the circuit is investigated by means of numerical integration of appropriate differential equations, PSPICE simulations, and hardware experiment.......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  6. The test of VLSI circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baviere, Ph.

    Tests which have proven effective for evaluating VLSI circuits for space applications are described. It is recommended that circuits be examined after each manfacturing step to gain fast feedback on inadequacies in the production system. Data from failure modes which occur during operational lifetimes of circuits also permit redefinition of the manufacturing and quality control process to eliminate the defects identified. Other tests include determination of the operational envelope of the circuits, examination of the circuit response to controlled inputs, and the performance and functional speeds of ROM and RAM memories. Finally, it is desirable that all new circuits be designed with testing in mind.

  7. Electronic Circuit Analysis Language (ECAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenghang, C.

    1983-03-01

    The computer aided design technique is an important development in computer applications and it is an important component of computer science. The special language for electronic circuit analysis is the foundation of computer aided design or computer aided circuit analysis (abbreviated as CACD and CACA) of simulated circuits. Electronic circuit analysis language (ECAL) is a comparatively simple and easy to use circuit analysis special language which uses the FORTRAN language to carry out the explanatory executions. It is capable of conducting dc analysis, ac analysis, and transient analysis of a circuit. Futhermore, the results of the dc analysis can be used directly as the initial conditions for the ac and transient analyses.

  8. An integrated circuit switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, E. L.

    1969-01-01

    Multi-chip integrated circuit switch consists of a GaAs photon-emitting diode in close proximity with S1 phototransistor. A high current gain is obtained when the transistor has a high forward common-emitter current gain.

  9. Automatic sweep circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input is described. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found

  10. Automatic sweep circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  11. "Printed-circuit" rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Rectifying antenna is less bulky structure for absorbing transmitted microwave power and converting it into electrical current. Printed-circuit approach, using microstrip technology and circularly polarized antenna, makes polarization orientation unimportant and allows much smaller arrays for given performance. Innovation is particularly useful with proposed electric vehicles powered by beam microwaves.

  12. Het onzichtbare circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2013-01-01

    De chip, of geïntegreerde schakeling, heeft in een razend tempo ons leven ingrijpend veranderd. Het lijkt zo vanzelfsprekend dat er weer een nieuwe generatie smartphones, tablets of computers is. Maar dat is het niet. Prof.dr.ir. Bram Nauta, hoogleraar Integrated Circuit Design, laat in zijn rede

  13. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  14. Streaming Reduction Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Reduction circuits are used to reduce rows of floating point values to single values. Binary floating point operators often have deep pipelines, which may cause hazards when many consecutive rows have to be reduced. We present an algorithm by which any number of consecutive rows of arbitrary lengths

  15. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  16. Heart Development, Diseases, and Regeneration - New Approaches From Innervation, Fibroblasts, and Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Masaki

    2016-09-23

    It is well known that cardiac function is tightly controlled by neural activity; however, the molecular mechanism of cardiac innervation during development and the relationship with heart disease remain undetermined. My work has revealed the molecular networks that govern cardiac innervation and its critical roles in heart diseases such as silent myocardial ischemia and arrhythmias. Cardiomyocytes proliferate during embryonic development, but lose their proliferative capacity after birth. Cardiac fibroblasts are a major source of cells during fibrosis and induce cardiac hypertrophy after myocardial injury in the adult heart. Despite the importance of fibroblasts in the adult heart, the role of fibroblasts in embryonic heart development was previously not determined. I demonstrated that cardiac fibroblasts play important roles in myocardial growth and cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryonic development, and I identified key paracrine factors and signaling pathways. In contrast to embryonic cardiomyocytes, adult cardiomyocytes have little regenerative capacity, leading to heart failure and high mortality rates after myocardial infarction. Leveraging the knowledge of developmental biology, I identified cardiac reprogramming factors that can directly convert resident cardiac fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes for heart regeneration. These findings greatly improved our understanding of heart development and diseases, and provide a new strategy for heart regenerative therapy. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2081-2088).

  17. Time course of myosin heavy chain transitions in neonatal rats: importance of innervation and thyroid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, G. R.; McCue, S. A.; Zeng, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1999-01-01

    During the postnatal period, rat limb muscles adapt to weight bearing via the replacement of embryonic (Emb) and neonatal (Neo) myosin heavy chains (MHCs) by the adult isoforms. Our aim was to characterize this transition in terms of the six MHC isoforms expressed in skeletal muscle and to determine the importance of innervation and thyroid hormone status on the attainment of the adult MHC phenotype. Neonatal rats were made hypothyroid via propylthiouracil (PTU) injection. In normal and PTU subgroups, leg muscles were unilaterally denervated at 15 days of age. The MHC profiles of plantaris (PLN) and soleus (Sol) muscles were determined at 7, 14, 23, and 30 days postpartum. At day 7, the Sol MHC profile was 55% type I, 30% Emb, and 10% Neo; in the PLN, the pattern was 60% Neo and 25% Emb. By day 30 the Sol and PLN had essentially attained an adult MHC profile in the controls. PTU augmented slow MHC expression in the Sol, whereas in the PLN it markedly repressed IIb MHC by retaining neonatal MHC expression. Denervation blunted the upregulation of IIb in the PLN and of Type I in the Sol and shifted the pattern to greater expression of IIa and IIx MHCs in both muscles. In contrast to previous observations, these findings collectively suggest that both an intact thyroid and innervation state are obligatory for the attainment of the adult MHC phenotype, particularly in fast-twitch muscles.

  18. Measurement of functional cholinergic innervation in rat heart with a novel vesamicol receptor ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffeen, Paul R.; Efange, S.M.N.; Haidet, George C.; McKnite, Scott; Langason, Rosemary B.; Khare, A.B.; Pennington, Jennifer; Lurie, Keith G.

    1996-01-01

    Regional differences in cholinergic activity in the cardiac conduction system have been difficult to study. We tested the utility of (+)-m-[ 125 I]iodobenzyl)trozamicol(+)-[ 125 I]MIBT), a novel radioligand that binds to the vesamicol receptor located on the synaptic vesicle in presynaptic cholinergic neurons, as a functional marker of cholinergic activity in the conduction system. The (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT was injected intravenously into four rats. Three hours later, the rats were killed and their hearts were frozen. Quantitative autoradiography was performed on 20-micron-thick sections that were subsequently stained for acetylcholinesterase to identify specific conduction-system elements. Marked similarities existed between (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT uptake and acetylcholinesterase-positive regions. Optical densitometric analysis of regional (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT uptake revealed significantly greater (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT binding (nCi/mg) in the atrioventricular node (AVN) and His bundle regions compared with other conduction and contractile elements (AVN: 3.43 ± 0.37; His bundle: 2.16 ± 0.30; right bundle branch: 0.95 ± 0.13; right atrium: 0.68 ± 0.05; right ventricle: 0.57 ± 0.03; and left ventricle: 0.57 ± 0.03; p 125 I]MIBT binds avidly to cholinergic nerve tissue innervating specific conduction-system elements. Thus, (+)-[ 125 I]MIBT may be a useful functional marker in studies on cholinergic innervation in the cardiac conduction system

  19. Comprehensive model of a hermetic reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Ziviani, D.; Groll, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive simulation model is presented to predict the performance of a hermetic reciprocating compressor and to reveal the underlying mechanisms when the compressor is running. The presented model is composed of sub-models simulating the in-cylinder compression process, piston ring/journal bearing frictional power loss, single phase induction motor and the overall compressor energy balance among different compressor components. The valve model, leakage through piston ring model and in-cylinder heat transfer model are also incorporated into the in-cylinder compression process model. A numerical algorithm solving the model is introduced. The predicted results of the compressor mass flow rate and input power consumption are compared to the published compressor map values. Future work will focus on detailed experimental validation of the model and parametric studies investigating the effects of structural parameters, including the stroke-to-bore ratio, on the compressor performance.

  20. Retrofitting reciprocating compressors for noise control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.; Qualfe, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board recently enacted their noise control directive ID 88-1. The effects of this regulation on the operation of an oil and gas facility are discussed, and a specific case history is presented to provide a disciplined strategy for noise attenuation retrofits. An investigation was carried out into sound sources at a reciprocating compressor gas plant, revealing several sound sources: engine exhaust stacks, engine exhaust silencer shells, direct-drive fan cooler inlets, direct drive fan cooler outlets, aerial cooler inlets and aerial cooler outlets. Details are presented of the investigative techniques and order-ranking of sources by decibel level. When controlling engine exhaust noise, silencers or mufflers are the preferred treatment. Choice of type (reactive or absorptive) and specification of acoustical performance of a silencer are discussed. The gas plant achieved noise reductions of 6-13 dB, measured at affected residences, through the use of engine exhaust silencers. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Reciprocity, passivity and causality in Willis materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlestein, Michael B; Sieck, Caleb F; Alù, Andrea; Haberman, Michael R

    2016-10-01

    Materials that require coupling between the stress-strain and momentum-velocity constitutive relations were first proposed by Willis (Willis 1981 Wave Motion 3 , 1-11. (doi:10.1016/0165-2125(81)90008-1)) and are now known as elastic materials of the Willis type, or simply Willis materials. As coupling between these two constitutive equations is a generalization of standard elastodynamic theory, restrictions on the physically admissible material properties for Willis materials should be similarly generalized. This paper derives restrictions imposed on the material properties of Willis materials when they are assumed to be reciprocal, passive and causal. Considerations of causality and low-order dispersion suggest an alternative formulation of the standard Willis equations. The alternative formulation provides improved insight into the subwavelength physical behaviour leading to Willis material properties and is amenable to time-domain analyses. Finally, the results initially obtained for a generally elastic material are specialized to the acoustic limit.

  2. Excessive peptidergic sensory innervation of cutaneous arteriole-venule shunts (AVS) in the palmar glabrous skin of fibromyalgia patients: implications for widespread deep tissue pain and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Phillip J; Hou, Quanzhi; Argoff, Charles E; Storey, James R; Wymer, James P; Rice, Frank L

    2013-06-01

    To determine if peripheral neuropathology exists among the innervation of cutaneous arterioles and arteriole-venule shunts (AVS) in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Cutaneous arterioles and AVS receive a convergence of vasoconstrictive sympathetic innervation, and vasodilatory small-fiber sensory innervation. Given our previous findings of peripheral pathologies in chronic pain conditions, we hypothesized that this vascular location may be a potential site of pathology and/or serotonergic and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) drug action. Twenty-four female FM patients and nine female healthy control subjects were enrolled for study, with 14 additional female control subjects included from previous studies. AVS were identified in hypothenar skin biopsies from 18/24 FM patient and 14/23 control subjects. Multimolecular immunocytochemistry to assess different types of cutaneous innervation in 3 mm skin biopsies from glabrous hypothenar and trapezius regions. AVS had significantly increased innervation among FM patients. The excessive innervation consisted of a greater proportion of vasodilatory sensory fibers, compared with vasoconstrictive sympathetic fibers. In contrast, sensory and sympathetic innervation to arterioles remained normal. Importantly, the sensory fibers express α2C receptors, indicating that the sympathetic innervation exerts an inhibitory modulation of sensory activity. The excessive sensory innervation to the glabrous skin AVS is a likely source of severe pain and tenderness in the hands of FM patients. Importantly, glabrous AVS regulate blood flow to the skin in humans for thermoregulation and to other tissues such as skeletal muscle during periods of increased metabolic demand. Therefore, blood flow dysregulation as a result of excessive innervation to AVS would likely contribute to the widespread deep pain and fatigue of FM. SNRI compounds may provide partial therapeutic benefit by enhancing the impact of sympathetically mediated inhibitory

  3. Associations between xerostomia, histopathological alterations, and autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands in men in late midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Reibel, Jesper; Lauritzen, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Osler, Merete; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2014-09-01

    One aim of the present study was to investigate whether symptoms of oral dryness (xerostomia) during daytime, assessed in a study group of middle-aged male positive and negative outliers in cognition scores, were associated with age-related degenerative changes in human labial salivary glands and with quantitative measures of the glandular autonomic innervation. Another aim was to study the relation between the autonomic innervation and loss of secretory acinar cells in these glands. Labial salivary gland biopsies were taken from the lower lip from 190 men, born in 1953 and members of the Danish Metropolit birth cohort, who were examined for age-related changes in cognitive function and dental health as part of the Copenhagen University Center for Healthy Aging clinical neuroscience project. The glands were routinely processed and semi-quantitatively analyzed for inflammation, acinar atrophy, fibrosis, and adipocyte infiltration. Sections of labial salivary gland tissue were stained with the panneuronal marker PGP 9.5. In a subsample of 51 participants, the autonomic innervation of the glands was analyzed quantitatively by use of stereology. Labial salivary gland tissue samples from 33% of all participants displayed moderate to severe acinar atrophy and fibrosis (31%). Xerostomia was not significantly associated with structural changes of labial salivary glands, but in the subsample it was inversely related to the total nerve length in the glandular connective tissue. Acinar atrophy and fibrosis were negatively correlated with the parenchymal innervation and positively related to diffuse inflammation. The results from the present study indicate that aspects of the autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands may play a role in the occurrence of xerostomia which in the present study group was not significantly associated with degenerative changes in these glands. The findings further indicate that the integrity of labial salivary gland acini is related to the

  4. The influence of the reciprocal hip joint link in the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis on standing performance in paraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, G.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Boom, H.B.K.; Zilvold, G.; Zilvold, G.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of reciprocally linking the hip hinges of a hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis on standing performance was studied in a comparative trial of the Advanced Reciprocating Gait Orthosis (ARGO) and an ARGO in which the Bowden cable was removed (A_GO). Six male subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI)

  5. Origins of the sympathetic innervation to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT): an anatomical substrate for a neuroimmune connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marafetti, Lucas E; Romeo, Horacio E

    2014-11-15

    The participation of sympathetic nerve fibers in the innervation of the nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) was investigated in hamsters. Vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), an established sympathetic marker, is expressed in all neurons of superior cervical ganglia (SCG). In addition, VMAT2 -immunoreactive nerve fibers were localized in the NALT as well as in adjacent anatomical structures of the upper respiratory tract. Unilateral surgical ablation of the SCG abolished VMAT2 innervation patterns ipsilaterally while the contra lateral side is unaffected. These results provide the anatomical substrate for a neuroimmune connection in the NALT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A flight sensory-motor to olfactory processing circuit in the moth Manduca sexta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samual P Bradley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits projecting information from motor pathways to sensory pathways are common across sensory domains. These circuits typically modify sensory function as a result of motor pattern activation; this is particularly so in cases where the resultant behavior affects the sensory experience or its processing. However, such circuits have not been observed projecting to an olfactory pathway in any species despite well characterized active sampling behaviors that produce reafferent mechanical stimuli, such as sniffing in mammals and wing beating in the moth Manduca sexta. In this study we characterize a circuit that connects a flight sensory-motor center to an olfactory center in Manduca. This circuit consists of a single pair of histamine immunoreactive (HA-ir neurons that project from the mesothoracic ganglion to innervate a subset of ventral antennal lobe (AL glomeruli. Furthermore, within the AL we show that the Manduca sexta histamine B receptor (MsHisClB is exclusively expressed by a subset of GABAergic and peptidergic LNs, which broadly project to all olfactory glomeruli. Finally, the HA-ir cell pair is present in fifth stage instar larvae; however, the absence of MsHisClB-ir in the larval antennal center (LAC indicates that the circuit is incomplete prior to metamorphosis and importantly prior to the expression of flight behavior. Although the functional consequences of this circuit remain unknown, these results provide the first detailed description of a circuit that interconnects an olfactory system with motor centers driving flight behaviors including odor-guided flight.

  7. The LMT circuit and SPICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamacevicius, Arunas

    2006-01-01

    The state equations of the LMT circuit are modeled as a dedicated analogue computer circuit and solved by means of PSpice. The nonlinear part of the system is studied. Problems with the PSpice program are presented....

  8. Resistor Combinations for Parallel Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, James P.

    1978-01-01

    To help simplify both teaching and learning of parallel circuits, a high school electricity/electronics teacher presents and illustrates the use of tables of values for parallel resistive circuits in which total resistances are whole numbers. (MF)

  9. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  10. BR-5 primary circuit decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, I.A.; Nikulin, M.P.; Smirnov-Averin, A.P.; Tymosh, B.S.; Shereshkov, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    Results and methodology of steam-water and acid decontamination of the primary coolant circuit SBR-5 reactor in 1971 are discussed. Regeneration process in a cold trap of the primary coolant circuit is discussed

  11. MOS voltage automatic tuning circuit

    OpenAIRE

    李, 田茂; 中田, 辰則; 松本, 寛樹

    2004-01-01

    Abstract ###Automatic tuning circuit adjusts frequency performance to compensate for the process variation. Phase locked ###loop (PLL) is a suitable oscillator for the integrated circuit. It is a feedback system that compares the input ###phase with the output phase. It can make the output frequency equal to the input frequency. In this paper, PLL ###fomed of MOSFET's is presented.The presented circuit consists of XOR circuit, Low-pass filter and Relaxation ###Oscillator. On PSPICE simulation...

  12. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits, which aims at providing a synthesis flow which uses and tranfers methods from synchronous circuits to asynchronous circuits. We move the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration...

  13. Selected collection of circuit drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The many electronics circuits have been constracted in the Electronics Shop for use in nuclear experiments or other purposes of this Institute. The types of these circuits amount to about 500 items in total since 1968. This report describes the electronics circuit diagrams selected from this collection. The circuit details are not presented in this report, because these are already been published in the other technical reports. (auth.)

  14. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  15. Anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracing reveals central sensory circuits from brown fat and sensory denervation alters its thermogenic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Cheryl H; Bartness, Timothy J

    2012-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity and growth are controlled by its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation, but nerve fibers containing sensory-associated neuropeptides [substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)] also suggest sensory innervation. The central nervous system (CNS) projections of BAT afferents are unknown. Therefore, we used the H129 strain of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), an anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracer used to delineate sensory nerve circuits, to define these projections. HSV-1 was injected into interscapular BAT (IBAT) of Siberian hamsters and HSV-1 immunoreactivity (ir) was assessed 24, 48, 72, 96, and 114 h postinjection. The 96- and 114-h groups had the most HSV-1-ir neurons with marked infections in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray, olivary areas, parabrachial nuclei, raphe nuclei, and reticular areas. These sites also are involved in sympathetic outflow to BAT suggesting possible BAT sensory-SNS thermogenesis feedback circuits. We tested the functional contribution of IBAT sensory innervation on thermogenic responses to an acute (24 h) cold exposure test by injecting the specific sensory nerve toxin capsaicin directly into IBAT pads and then measuring core (T(c)) and IBAT (T(IBAT)) temperature responses. CGRP content was significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated IBAT demonstrating successful sensory nerve destruction. T(IBAT) and T(c) were significantly decreased in capsaicin-treated hamsters compared with the saline controls at 2 h of cold exposure. Thus the central sensory circuits from IBAT have been delineated for the first time, and impairment of sensory feedback from BAT appears necessary for the appropriate, initial thermogenic response to acute cold exposure.

  16. Non-reciprocal wave propagation in one-dimensional nonlinear periodic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benbiao Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a one-dimensional nonlinear periodic structure which contains two different spring stiffness and an identical mass in each period. The linear dispersion relationship we obtain indicates that our periodic structure has obvious advantages compared to other kinds of periodic structures (i.e. those with the same spring stiffness but two different mass, including its increased flexibility for manipulating the band gap. Theoretically, the optical cutoff frequency remains unchanged while the acoustic cutoff frequency shifts to a lower or higher frequency. A numerical simulation verifies the dispersion relationship and the effect of the amplitude-dependent signal filter. Based upon this, we design a device which contains both a linear periodic structure and a nonlinear periodic structure. When incident waves with the same, large amplitude pass through it from opposite directions, the output amplitude of the forward input is one order magnitude larger than that of the reverse input. Our devised, non-reciprocal device can potentially act as an acoustic diode (AD without an electrical circuit and frequency shifting. Our result represents a significant step forwards in the research of non-reciprocal wave manipulation.

  17. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  18. Analysis of Bernstein's factorization circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Shamir, A.; Tomlinson, J.; Tromer, E.; Zheng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In [1], Bernstein proposed a circuit-based implementation of the matrix step of the number field sieve factorization algorithm. These circuits offer an asymptotic cost reduction under the measure "construction cost x run time". We evaluate the cost of these circuits, in agreement with [1], but argue

  19. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  20. Trust and Reciprocity: Are Effort and Money Equivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilares, Iris; Dam, Gregory; Kording, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Trust and reciprocity facilitate cooperation and are relevant to virtually all human interactions. They are typically studied using trust games: one subject gives (entrusts) money to another subject, which may return some of the proceeds (reciprocate). Currently, however, it is unclear whether trust and reciprocity in monetary transactions are similar in other settings, such as physical effort. Trust and reciprocity of physical effort are important as many everyday decisions imply an exchange of physical effort, and such exchange is central to labor relations. Here we studied a trust game based on physical effort and compared the results with those of a computationally equivalent monetary trust game. We found no significant difference between effort and money conditions in both the amount trusted and the quantity reciprocated. Moreover, there is a high positive correlation in subjects' behavior across conditions. This suggests that trust and reciprocity may be character traits: subjects that are trustful/trustworthy in monetary settings behave similarly during exchanges of physical effort. Our results validate the use of trust games to study exchanges in physical effort and to characterize inter-subject differences in trust and reciprocity, and also suggest a new behavioral paradigm to study these differences. PMID:21364931

  1. Clustering in large networks does not promote upstream reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Masuda

    Full Text Available Upstream reciprocity (also called generalized reciprocity is a putative mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations with which players help others when they are helped by somebody else. It is a type of indirect reciprocity. Although upstream reciprocity is often observed in experiments, most theories suggest that it is operative only when players form short cycles such as triangles, implying a small population size, or when it is combined with other mechanisms that promote cooperation on their own. An expectation is that real social networks, which are known to be full of triangles and other short cycles, may accommodate upstream reciprocity. In this study, I extend the upstream reciprocity game proposed for a directed cycle by Boyd and Richerson to the case of general networks. The model is not evolutionary and concerns the conditions under which the unanimity of cooperative players is a Nash equilibrium. I show that an abundance of triangles or other short cycles in a network does little to promote upstream reciprocity. Cooperation is less likely for a larger population size even if triangles are abundant in the network. In addition, in contrast to the results for evolutionary social dilemma games on networks, scale-free networks lead to less cooperation than networks with a homogeneous degree distribution.

  2. The Role of Friendship Reciprocity in University Freshmen's Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Helge; Stok, F Marijn; Renner, Britta

    2017-07-01

    The similarity of friends in the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption is explored. During their first semester, 57 psychology freshmen indicated weekly drinking frequency and quantity and nominated the three peers of this group they liked most. These nominations were then used to derive the weekly alcohol consumption of friends that either did or did not reciprocate a nomination. Multilevel modeling of weekly variations showed that individuals' drinking frequency was similar to peers who reciprocated a friendship (b = 0.15, p = .001), but not to non-reciprocating peers (b = -0.01, p = .720). In contrast, weekly variation in quantity of individual students' drinking was similar to both reciprocating (b = 0.11, p = .018) and non-reciprocating peers' drinking (b = 0.10, p = .014). Yet across all weeks, quantity tended only to be similar to non-reciprocating peers (b = 0.49, p = .020). Freshmen might spend drinking time with peers who reciprocate a friendship, but are similar regarding the quantity of drinks consumed to all people they find interesting. Thus, alcohol consumption is used strategically for social purposes. This social purpose should also be acknowledged in alcohol-reduction interventions. © 2017 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Clustering in large networks does not promote upstream reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Upstream reciprocity (also called generalized reciprocity) is a putative mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations with which players help others when they are helped by somebody else. It is a type of indirect reciprocity. Although upstream reciprocity is often observed in experiments, most theories suggest that it is operative only when players form short cycles such as triangles, implying a small population size, or when it is combined with other mechanisms that promote cooperation on their own. An expectation is that real social networks, which are known to be full of triangles and other short cycles, may accommodate upstream reciprocity. In this study, I extend the upstream reciprocity game proposed for a directed cycle by Boyd and Richerson to the case of general networks. The model is not evolutionary and concerns the conditions under which the unanimity of cooperative players is a Nash equilibrium. I show that an abundance of triangles or other short cycles in a network does little to promote upstream reciprocity. Cooperation is less likely for a larger population size even if triangles are abundant in the network. In addition, in contrast to the results for evolutionary social dilemma games on networks, scale-free networks lead to less cooperation than networks with a homogeneous degree distribution.

  4. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  5. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  6. Dynamic Penile Corpora Cavernosa Reconstruction Using Bilateral Innervated Gracilis Muscles: A Preclinical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhuming; Liu, Liqiang; Xue, Bingjian; Fan, Jincai; Chen, Wenlin; Liu, Zheng

    2018-03-07

    Prosthesis-assisted penile reconstruction has been performed extensively to restore a cosmetically acceptable phallus. However, a large number of patients will undergo revision surgery for various prosthesis-related complications. To develop a 1-stage prosthesis-free dynamic cavernosa reconstruction method using bilateral innervated gracilis muscles and to investigate the feasibility and reliability of the surgical design. 10 fresh cadavers were dissected to assess the availability of bilateral gracilis muscles for functional cavernosa rebuilding. 11 mongrel female dogs were involved in the penile reconstruction surgery. The neophallus consisted of bilateral gracilis muscles as the neo-cavernosa, a right gracilis skin flap as the neourethra, and a lower abdominal flap with an anterior rectus sheath as the skin envelope and neo-tunica albuginea. The function and structure of the neo-phalli were assessed 7 months postoperatively. The neurovascular pedicle length of the gracilis muscles and the volume of the gracilis venter musculi were measured in the cadaveric investigation. The average dimensions of the canine neo-phalli at rest and during electrostimulated erection were obtained and the muscular fatigue-resistant curve was drawn. Histologic evaluations also were performed. The neurovascular pedicle length and volume of the gracilis muscles were sufficient to yield a nearly normal appearance of the neo-cavernosa in the cadaveric and animal studies. The muscular fatigue-resistant curve demonstrated adequate length, stiffness, and duration of erection of the neo-phalli to accomplish normal coitus. Histologic evaluations showed an intact neourethra and nearly normal muscle structure in the inner layer of the canine neo-cavernosa, except for significantly increased amount of collagen fibers and type I/III collagen ratio in the outer layer of the neo-cavernosa. The percentage of type II (fatigue-prone) muscle fibers did not change significantly. Our preclinical

  7. The vestibular nerve of the chinchilla. III. Peripheral innervation patterns in the utricular macula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, C.; Goldberg, J. M.; Baird, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    1. Nerve fibers supplying the utricular macula of the chinchilla were labeled by extracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase into the vestibular nerve. The peripheral terminations of individual fibers were reconstructed and related to the regions of the end organ they innervated and to the sizes of their parent axons. 2. The macula is divided into medial and lateral parts by the striola, a narrow zone that runs for almost the entire length of the sensory epithelium. The striola can be distinguished from the extrastriolar regions to either side of it by the wider spacing of its hair cells. Calyx endings in the striola have especially thick walls, and, unlike similar endings in the extrastriola, many of them innervate more than one hair cell. The striola occupies 10% of the sensory epithelium; the lateral extrastriola, 50%; and the medial extrastriola, 40%. 3. The utricular nerve penetrates the bony labyrinth anterior to the end organ. Axons reaching the anterior part of the sensory epithelium run directly through the connective tissue stroma. Those supplying more posterior regions first enter a fiber layer located at the bottom of the stroma. Approximately one-third of the axons bifurcate below the epithelium, usually within 5-20 microns of the basement membrane. Bifurcations are more common in fibers destined for the extrastriola than for the striola. 4. Both calyx and bouton endings were labeled. Calyces can be simple or complex. Simple calyces innervate individual hair cells, whereas complex calyces supply 2-4 adjacent hair cells. Complex endings are more heavily concentrated in the striola than in the extrastriola. Simple calyces and boutons are found in all parts of the epithelium. Calyces emerge from the parent axon or one of its thick branches. Boutons, whether en passant or terminal, are located on thin collaterals. 5. Fibers can be classified into calyx, bouton, or dimorphic categories. The first type only has calyx endings; the second, only bouton

  8. Function and innervation of the locus ceruleus in a macaque model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Kim, Aaron; Cameron, Judy L

    2013-02-01

    A body of knowledge implicates an increase in output from the locus ceruleus (LC) during stress. We questioned the innervation and function of the LC in our macaque model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea, also known as Stress-Induced Amenorrhea. Cohorts of macaques were initially characterized as highly stress resilient (HSR) or stress-sensitive (SS) based upon the presence or absence of ovulation during a protocol involving 2 menstrual cycles with psychosocial and metabolic stress. Afterwards, the animals were rested until normal menstrual cycles resumed and then euthanized on day 5 of a new menstrual cycle [a] in the absence of further stress; or [b] after 5 days of resumed psychosocial and metabolic stress. In this study, parameters of the LC were examined in HSR and SS animals in the presence and absence of stress (2×2 block design) using ICC and image analysis. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of catecholamines; and the TH level was used to assess by inference, NE output. The pixel area of TH-positive dendrites extending outside the medial border of the LC was significantly increased by stress to a similar degree in both HSR and SS animals (p<0.0001). There is a significant CRF innervation of the LC. The positive pixel area of CRF boutons, lateral to the LC, was higher in SS than HSR animals in the absence of stress. Five days of moderate stress significantly increased the CRF-positive bouton pixel area in the HSR group (p<0.02), but not in the SS group. There is also a significant serotonin innervation of the LC. A marked increase in medial serotonin dendrite swelling and beading was observed in the SS+stress group, which may be a consequence of excitotoxicity. The dendrite beading interfered with analysis of axonal boutons. However, at one anatomical level, the serotonin-positive bouton area was obtained between the LC and the superior cerebellar peduncle. Serotonin-positive bouton pixel area was significantly

  9. Integrated circuit structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The invention describes the fabrication of integrated circuit structures, such as read-only memory components of field-effect transistors, which may be fabricated and then maintained in inventory, and later selectively modified in accordance with a desired pattern. It is claimed that MOS depletion-mode devices in accordance with the invention can be fabricated at lower cost and at higher yields. (U.K.)

  10. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  11. Integrated coincidence circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borejko, V.F.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of two coincidence units employing integral circuits in the VISHNYA standard. The units are distinguished for the coincidence selection element which is essentially a combination of a tunnel diode and microcircuits. The output fast response of the units is at least 90 MHz in the mode of the output signal unshaped in duration and 50 MHz minimum in the mode of the output signal shaping. The resolution time of the units is dependent upon the duration of input signals

  12. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT). FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity

  13. Semiconductor integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, A.E.; Schwenker, R.O.; Ziegler, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    An improved method involving ion implantation to form non-epitaxial semiconductor integrated circuits. These are made by forming a silicon substrate of one conductivity type with a recessed silicon dioxide region extending into the substrate and enclosing a portion of the silicon substrate. A beam of ions of opposite conductivity type impurity is directed at the substrate at an energy and dosage level sufficient to form a first region of opposite conductivity within the silicon dioxide region. This impurity having a concentration peak below the surface of the substrate forms a region of the one conductivity type which extends from the substrate surface into the first opposite type region to a depth between the concentration peak and the surface and forms a second region of opposite conductivity type. The method, materials and ion beam conditions are detailed. Vertical bipolar integrated circuits can be made this way when the first opposite type conductivity region will function as a collector. Also circuits with inverted bipolar devices when this first region functions as a 'buried'' emitter region. (U.K.)

  14. Generalized Gribov-Lipatov Reciprocity and AdS/CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccaria, M.; Macorini, G.; Forini, V.

    2010-01-01

    Planar □=4 SYM theory and QCD share the gluon sector, suggesting the investigation of Gribov-Lipatov reciprocity in the supersymmetric theory. Since the AdS/CFT correspondence links □=4 SYM and superstring dynamics on AdS 5 x S5, reciprocity is also expected to show up in the quantum corrected energies of certain classical string configurations dual to gauge theory twist-operators. We review recent results confirming this picture and revisiting the old idea of Gribov-Lipatov reciprocity as a modern theoretical tool useful for the study of open problems in AdS/CFT.

  15. Reciprocal relativity of noninertial frames: quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Stephen G [4301 Avenue D, Austin, Texas, 78751 (United States)

    2007-04-06

    Noninertial transformations on time-position-momentum-energy space {l_brace}t, q, p, e{r_brace} with invariant Born-Green metric ds{sup 2} = -dt{sup 2} + 1/c{sup 2} dq{sup 2} + 1/b{sup 2} (dp{sup 2} = 1/c{sup 2} de{sup 2}) and the symplectic metric -de and dt + dp and dq are studied. This U 1,3) group of transformations contains the Lorentz group as the inertial special case and, in the limit of small forces and velocities, reduces to the expected Hamilton transformations leaving invariant the symplectic metric and the nonrelativistic line element ds{sup 2} -dt{sup 2}. The U(1,3) transformations bound relative velocities by c and relative forces by b. Spacetime is no longer an invariant subspace but is relative to noninertial observer frames. In the limit of b {yields} {infinity}, spacetime is invariant. Born was lead to the metric by a concept of reciprocity between position and momentum degrees of freedom and for this reason we call this reciprocal relativity. For large b, such effects will almost certainly only manifest in a quantum regime. Wigner showed that special relativistic quantum mechanics follows from the projective representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. Projective representations of a Lie group are equivalent to the unitary representations of its central extension. The same method of projective representations for the inhomogeneous U(1,3) group is used to define the quantum theory in the noninertial case. The central extension of the inhomogeneous U(1,3) group is the cover of the quaplectic group Q(1,3) U(1,3) x{sub s} H(4), H(4) is the Weyl-Heisenberg group. The H(4) group, and the associated Heisenberg commutation relations central to quantum mechanics, results directly from requiring projective representations. A set of second-order wave equations result from the representations of the Casimir operators.

  16. Interface Circuit For Printer Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Yadlowsky, Ann B.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic circuit, called printer-port interface circuit (PPI) developed to overcome certain disadvantages of previous methods for connecting IBM PC or PC-compatible computer to other equipment. Has both reading and writing modes of operation. Very simple, requiring only six integrated circuits. Provides for moderately fast rates of transfer of data and uses existing unmodified circuit card in IBM PC. When used with appropriate software, circuit converts printer port on IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible personal computer to general purpose, 8-bit-data, 16-bit address bus that connects to multitude of devices.

  17. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  18. Central Somatosensory Networks Respond to a De Novo Innervated Penis : A Proof of Concept in Three Spina Bifida Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, Rudie; Nanetti, Luca; Overgoor, Max L. E.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    Introduction. Spina bifida (SB) causes low spinal lesions, and patients often have absent genital sensation and a highly impaired sex life. TOMAX (TO MAX-imize sensation, sexuality and quality of life) is a surgical procedure whereby the penis is newly innervated using a sensory nerve originally

  19. MRI-based 3D pelvic autonomous innervation: a first step towards image-guided pelvic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, M.M. [University Montpellier I, Laboratory of Experimental Anatomy Faculty of Medicine Montpellier-Nimes, Montpellier (France); Macri, F.; Beregi, J.P. [Nimes University Hospital, University Montpellier 1, Radiology Department, Nimes (France); Mazars, R.; Prudhomme, M. [University Montpellier I, Laboratory of Experimental Anatomy Faculty of Medicine Montpellier-Nimes, Montpellier (France); Nimes University Hospital, University Montpellier 1, Digestive Surgery Department, Nimes (France); Droupy, S. [Nimes University Hospital, University Montpellier 1, Urology-Andrology Department, Nimes (France)

    2014-08-15

    To analyse pelvic autonomous innervation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in comparison with anatomical macroscopic dissection on cadavers. Pelvic MRI was performed in eight adult human cadavers (five men and three women) using a total of four sequences each: T1, T1 fat saturation, T2, diffusion weighed. Images were analysed with segmentation software in order to extract nervous tissue. Key height points of the pelvis autonomous innervation were located in every specimen. Standardised pelvis dissections were then performed. Distances between the same key points and the three anatomical references forming a coordinate system were measured on MRIs and dissections. Concordance (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient) between MRI and dissection was calculated. MRI acquisition allowed an adequate visualization of the autonomous innervation. Comparison between 3D MRI images and dissection showed concordant pictures. The statistical analysis showed a mean difference of less than 1 cm between MRI and dissection measures and a correct concordance correlation coefficient on at least two coordinates for each point. Our acquisition and post-processing method demonstrated that MRI is suitable for detection of autonomous pelvic innervations and can offer a preoperative nerve cartography. (orig.)

  20. Thermionic integrated circuits: electronics for hostile environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B.; MacRoberts, M.D.J.; Wilde, D.K.; Dooley, G.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Thermionic integrated circuits combine vacuum tube technology with integrated circuit techniques to form integrated vacuum triode circuits. These circuits are capable of extended operation in both high-temperature and high-radiation environments

  1. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  2. Central projections of the sensory innervation of the rat middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y.; Broman, J.; Edvinsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    Headaches, especially migraine, involve not only pain but also aspects such as vasodilation of cranial vessels and sensitization of nerve endings, processes dependent on and connected to the central nervous system. To understand pathogenic mechanisms of headache, it is important to elucidate...... the central projections of sensory nerves that innervate cranial vessels, of which the middle meningeal artery (MMA) is the largest artery supplying the dura mater. In this study, cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (WGA-HRP) was applied on the adventitia....... Labeled nerve terminations were found ipsilaterally in the lateral part of the spinal dorsal horn of segments C1-C3 and in the caudal and interpolar parts of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. WGA-HRP labeled terminations were mainly located in laminae I and II, whereas CTb labeled terminations located...

  3. Reconstructing the population activity of olfactory output neurons that innervate identifiable processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Namiki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the functional organization of the moth antennal lobe (AL, the primary olfactory network, using in vivo electrophysiological recordings and anatomical identification. The moth AL contains about 60 processing units called glomeruli that are identifiable from one animal to another. We were able to monitor the output information of the AL by recording the activity of a population of output neurons, each of which innervated a single glomerulus. Using compiled intracellular recordings and staining data from different animals, we mapped the odor-evoked dynamics on a digital atlas of the AL and geometrically reconstructed the population activity. We examined the quantitative relationship between the similarity of olfactory responses and the anatomical distance between glomeruli. Globally, the olfactory response profile was independent of the anatomical distance, although some local features were present.

  4. Innervation zones of fasciculating motor units: observations by a linear electrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanmiri-Nezhad, Faezeh; Barkhaus, Paul E; Rymer, William Z; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the innervation zone (IZ) in the biceps brachii muscle in healthy subjects and those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using a 20-channel linear electromyogram (EMG) electrode array. Raster plots of individual waveform potentials were studied to estimate the motor unit IZ. While this work mainly focused on fasciculation potentials (FPs), a limited number of motor unit potentials (MUPs) from voluntary activity of 12 healthy and seven ALS subjects were also examined. Abnormal propagation of MUPs and scattered IZs were observed in fasciculating units, compared with voluntarily activated MUPs in healthy and ALS subjects. These findings can be related to muscle fiber reinnervation following motor neuron degeneration in ALS and the different origin sites of FPs compared with voluntary MUPs.

  5. Changes of the vasculature and innervation in the anterior segment of the RCS rat eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Christian Albrecht

    2011-12-01

    Investigating the anterior eye segment vasculature and innervation of dystrophic RCS rats, two major unique findings were observed: in the iris, young adult animals with retinal dystrophy showed an increase in substance P nerve fibres and a dilation of arterioles and capillaries. This finding continued during ageing. In the pars plana region, the surface covered by venules decreased continuously with age. In older animals, this decrease was parallelled by a local decrease of sympathetic TH-positive nerve fibres supplying these venules. For both conditions, no comparable data exists so far in the literature. They might point to a unique situation in the anterior eye segment of the dystrophic RCS rat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated coherent matter wave circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through their electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry

  7. Dynamic interaction between the heart and its sympathetic innervation following T5 spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2012-10-15

    Midthoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with enhanced sympathetic support of heart rate as well as myocardial damage related to calcium overload. The myocardial damage may elicit an enhanced sympathetic support of contractility to maintain ventricular function. In contrast, the level of inotropic drive may be reduced to match the lower afterload that results from the injury-induced reduction in arterial pressure. Accordingly, the inotropic response to midthoracic SCI may be increased or decreased but has not been investigated and therefore remains unknown. Furthermore, the altered ventricular function may be associated with anatomical changes in cardiac sympathetic innervation. To determine the inotropic drive following midthoracic SCI, a telemetry device was used for repeated measurements of left ventricular (LV) function, with and without beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, in rats before and after midthoracic SCI or sham SCI. In addition, NGF content (ELISA) and dendritic arborization (cholera toxin B immunohistochemistry and Sholl analysis) of cardiac-projecting sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the stellate ganglia were determined. Midthoracic SCI was associated with an enhanced sympathetic support of heart rate, dP/dt(+), and dP/dt(-). Importantly, cardiac function was lower following blockade of the sympathetic nervous system in rats with midthoracic SCI compared with sham-operated rats. Finally, these functional neuroplastic changes were associated with an increased NGF content and structural neuroplasticity within the stellate ganglia. Results document impaired LV function with codirectional changes in chronotropic and inotropic responses following midthoracic SCI. These functional changes were associated with a dynamic interaction between the heart and its sympathetic innervation.

  8. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaudeau, Sébastien; Dongelmans, Marie-louise; Turiault, Marc; Ambroggi, Frédéric; Delbes, Anne-Sophie; Cansell, Céline; Luquet, Serge; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo; Tronche, François; Barik, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs) release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine's behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurons is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice. PMID:24574986

  9. Thermoreceptive innervation of human glabrous and hairy skin: a contact heat evoked potential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena; Matre, Dagfinn; Sokolik, Alexander; Lorenz, Jürgen; Casey, Kenneth L

    2005-06-01

    The human palm has a lower heat detection threshold and a higher heat pain threshold than hairy skin. Neurophysiological studies of monkeys suggest that glabrous skin has fewer low threshold heat nociceptors (AMH type 2) than hairy skin. Accordingly, we used a temperature-controlled contact heat evoked potential (CHEP) stimulator to excite selectively heat receptors with C fibers or Adelta-innervated AMH type 2 receptors in humans. On the dorsal hand, 51 degrees C stimulation produced painful pinprick sensations and 41 degrees C stimuli evoked warmth. On the glabrous thenar, 41 degrees C stimulation produced mild warmth and 51 degrees C evoked strong but painless heat sensations. We used CHEP responses to estimate the conduction velocities (CV) of peripheral fibers mediating these sensations. On hairy skin, 41 degrees C stimuli evoked an ultra-late potential (mean, SD; N wave latency: 455 (118) ms) mediated by C fibers (CV by regression analysis: 1.28 m/s, N=15) whereas 51 degrees C stimuli evoked a late potential (N latency: 267 (33) ms) mediated by Adelta afferents (CV by within-subject analysis: 12.9 m/s, N=6). In contrast, thenar responses to 41 and 51 degrees C were mediated by C fibers (average N wave latencies 485 (100) and 433 (73) ms, respectively; CVs 0.95-1.35 m/s by regression analysis, N=15; average CV=1.7 (0.41) m/s calculated from distal glabrous and proximal hairy skin stimulation, N=6). The exploratory range of the human and monkey palm is enhanced by the abundance of low threshold, C-innervated heat receptors and the paucity of low threshold AMH type 2 heat nociceptors.

  10. Perianal implantation of bioengineered human internal anal sphincter constructs intrinsically innervated with human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Shreya; Miyasaka, Eiichi A; Gilmont, Robert R; Somara, Sita; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Bitar, Khalil N

    2014-04-01

    The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is a major contributing factor to pressure within the anal canal and is required for maintenance of rectoanal continence. IAS damage or weakening results in fecal incontinence. We have demonstrated that bioengineered, intrinsically innervated, human IAS tissue replacements possess key aspects of IAS physiology, such as the generation of spontaneous basal tone and contraction/relaxation in response to neurotransmitters. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of implantation of bioengineered IAS constructs in the perianal region of athymic rats. Human IAS tissue constructs were bioengineered from isolated human IAS circular smooth muscle cells and human enteric neuronal progenitor cells. After maturation of the bioengineered constructs in culture, they were implanted operatively into the perianal region of athymic rats. Platelet-derived growth factor was delivered to the implanted constructs through a microosmotic pump. Implanted constructs were retrieved from the animals 4 weeks postimplantation. Animals tolerated the implantation well, and there were no early postoperative complications. Normal stooling was observed during the implantation period. At harvest, implanted constructs were adherent to the perirectal rat tissue and appeared healthy and pink. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed neovascularization. Implanted smooth muscle cells maintained contractile phenotype. Bioengineered constructs responded in vitro in a tissue chamber to neuronally evoked relaxation in response to electrical field stimulation and vasoactive intestinal peptide, indicating the preservation of neuronal networks. Our results indicate that bioengineered innervated IAS constructs can be used to augment IAS function in an animal model. This is a regenerative medicine based therapy for fecal incontinence that would directly address the dysfunction of the IAS muscle. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eParnaudeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While the GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine’s behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurones is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice.

  12. Efferent innervation of turtle semicircular canal cristae: comparisons with bird and mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Paivi M.; Fettis, Margaret; Holt, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    In the vestibular periphery of nearly every vertebrate, cholinergic vestibular efferent neurons give rise to numerous presynaptic varicosities that target hair cells and afferent processes in the sensory neuroepithelium. Although pharmacological studies have described the postsynaptic actions of vestibular efferent stimulation in several species, characterization of efferent innervation patterns and the relative distribution of efferent varicosities among hair cells and afferents are also integral to understanding how efferent synapses operate. Vestibular efferent markers, however, have not been well characterized in the turtle, one of the animal models utilized by our laboratory. Here, we sought to identify reliable efferent neuronal markers in the vestibular periphery of turtle, to utilize these markers to understand how efferent synapses are organized, and to compare efferent neuronal labeling patterns in turtle with two other amniotes using some of the same markers. Efferent fibers and varicosities were visualized in the semicircular canal of Red-Eared Turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans), Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata), and mice (Mus musculus) utilizing fluorescent immunohistochemistry with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Vestibular hair cells and afferents were counterstained using antibodies to myosin VIIa and calretinin. In all species, ChAT labeled a population of small diameter fibers giving rise to numerous spherical varicosities abutting type II hair cells and afferent processes. That these ChAT-positive varicosities represent presynaptic release sites were demonstrated by colabeling with antibodies against the synaptic vesicle proteins synapsin I, SV2, or syntaxin and the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Comparisons of efferent innervation patterns among the three species are discussed. PMID:25560461

  13. Innervation status in chronic vocal fold paralysis and implications for laryngeal reinnervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R Jun; Smith, Libby J; Munin, Michael C; Sridharan, Shaum; Rosen, Clark A

    2018-01-22

    Treatment options for symptomatic unilateral vocal fold paralysis (VFP) include vocal fold augmentation, laryngeal framework surgery, and laryngeal reinnervation. Laryngeal reinnervation (LR) has been suggested to provide "tone" to the paralyzed VF. This implies a loss of tone as a result of denervation without reinnervation. We performed laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) in patients with chronic VFP to understand the innervation status associated with a chronically paralyzed vocal fold. Retrospective review of LEMG data in adult patients with chronic VFP from January 2009 to December 2014. LEMG was performed at least 6 months after-onset of VFP. Qualitative LEMG, quantitative LEMG, and adductory synkinesis testing were performed, and the parameters were collected. Twenty-seven vocal folds were studied (23 unilateral VFP and 2 bilateral VFP). Average age was 59 ± 17 years. The median duration from recurrent laryngeal nerve injury to LEMG was 8.5 months (range 6-90 months). The majority of patients, 24 of 27 (89%), had motor unit potentials during phonation tasks on LEMG, and only 3 of 27 (11%) patients were electrically silent. Quantitative LEMG showed 287.8 mean turns per second (normal ≥ 400). Motor unit configuration was normal in 12 of 27 (44%), polyphasic in 12 of 27 (44%), and absent in the electrically silent patients. Adductory synkinesis was found in 6 of 20 (30%) patients. Chronic vocal fold paralysis is infrequently associated with absent motor-unit recruitment, indicating some degree of preserved innervation and/or reinnervation in these patients. LEMG should be part of the routine workup for chronic VFP prior to consideration of LR. 4. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Ontogeny and innervation of taste buds in mouse palatal gustatory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Ahmed; Konishi, Hiroyuki; El-Sharaby, Ashraf; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between mouse taste bud development and innervation of the soft palate. We employed scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry using antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 and peripherin to detect sensory nerves, and cytokeratin 8 and α-gustducin to stain palatal taste buds. At E14, nerve fibers were observed along the medial border of the palatal shelves that tracked toward the epithelium. At E15.5, primordial stages of taste buds in the basal lamina of the soft palate first appeared. At E16, the taste buds became large spherical masses of columnar cells scattered in the soft palate basal lamina. At E17, the morphology and also the location of taste buds changed. At E18-19, some taste buds acquired a more elongated shape with a short neck, extending a variable distance from the soft palate basal lamina toward the surface epithelium. At E18, mature taste buds with taste pores and perigemmal nerve fibers were observed on the surface epithelium of the soft palate. The expression of α-gustducin was demonstrated at postnatal day 1 and the number of pored taste buds increased with age and they became pear-shaped at 8 weeks. The percent of pored fungiform-like papillae at birth was 58.3% of the whole palate; this increased to 83.8% at postnatal day 8 and reached a maximum of 95.7% at 12 weeks. The innervation of the soft palate was classified into three types of plexuses in relation to taste buds: basal nerve plexus, intragemmal and perigemmal nerve fibers. This study reveals that the nerve fibers preceded the development of taste buds in the palate of mice, and therefore the nerve fibers have roles in the initial induction of taste buds in the soft palate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Coordinated Respiratory Motor Activity in Nerves Innervating the Upper Airway Muscles in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tachikawa

    Full Text Available Maintaining the patency of the upper airway during breathing is of vital importance. The activity of various muscles is related to the patency of the upper airway. In the present study, we examined the respiratory motor activity in the efferent nerves innervating the upper airway muscles to determine the movements of the upper airway during respiration under normocapnic conditions (pH = 7.4 and in hypercapnic acidosis (pH = 7.2. Experiments were performed on arterially perfused decerebrate rats aged between postnatal days 21-35. We recorded the efferent nerve activity in a branch of the cervical spinal nerve innervating the infrahyoid muscles (CN, the hypoglossal nerve (HGN, the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN, and the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN with the phrenic nerve (PN. Inspiratory nerve discharges were observed in all these nerves under normocapnic conditions. The onset of inspiratory discharges in the CN and HGN was slightly prior to those in the SLN and RLN. When the CO2 concentration in the perfusate was increased from 5% to 8% to prepare for hypercapnic acidosis, the peak amplitudes of the inspiratory discharges in all the recorded nerves were increased. Moreover, hypercapnic acidosis induced pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, SLN, and RLN. The onset of pre-inspiratory discharges in the CN, HGN, and SLN was prior to that of discharges in the RLN. These results suggest that the securing of the airway that occurs a certain time before dilation of the glottis may facilitate ventilation and improve hypercapnic acidosis.

  16. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  17. Monitoring fuel consumption for reciprocating engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebelean, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Northwest Pipeline Corp. has experienced substantial fuel cost savings through a program that provides continuous monitoring of predicted consumption against actual usage for reciprocating engines. With the continuous monitoring program, the company can gauge specific fuel consumption, flag inefficient engines and determine possible problems with computer software or hardware used to measure engine operations. The plan was initiated as part of an overall effort to reduce pipe line operating cost to remain market competitive by reducing cost of services to the customer. One of the factors in determining Northwest Pipeline's cost of service is the cost of fueling engines to transport natural gas. In 1990, Northwest consumed approximately 9,600,000 MMBtu in engine fuel. Fuel gas always has been accounted for and measured. However, the thermal efficiency of the fuel gas consumed was never quantified. Engineering management set a goal in 1989 to audit fuel consumption monthly on the basis of actual fuel consumed compared to the manufacturer's predicted consumption curves. The fuel consumption comparison between actual consumption with manufacturer's predicted consumption decreased 4% in six months after the first report was published. Unbalanced engines, faulty spark plugs, fuel valves, engines requiring overhauls, and even computer software and hardware problems were found, based on this report. Total decrease in the comparison of 4% was not all realized. Approximately 1.5% of the decrease was due to revising the manufacturer's fuel consumption curves to correctly predict Northwest's vintage of engine

  18. Improving reading comprehension through Reciprocal Teaching Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Komariah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at discovering the benefits of the Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM in the reading classroom, finding out the achievements of students after four comprehension training sessions of using RTM, and exploring the perceptions of students on the use of RTM. This method uses four comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing, to help learners monitor their development of reading comprehension by themselves. Students work in groups of four or five and the members are divided into five roles which are the leader, predictor, clarifier, questioner, and summarizer. The subjects were 24 students from the twelfth grade at a high school in Banda Aceh. Observations, tests, documents and interviews were collected to get the data. The results showed that the students were more active and productive in the reading classroom after RTM sessions and their reading proficiency improved. They learnt how to apply several of the strategies from RTM while reading. The results also showed that they preferred this method for teaching-learning reading compared to the conventional one. Therefore, teachers are suggested to consider using this method for teaching reading that instils the students on how to apply the four comprehension strategies used in reading.

  19. Memory-n strategies of direct reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbe, Christian; Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2017-05-02

    Humans routinely use conditionally cooperative strategies when interacting in repeated social dilemmas. They are more likely to cooperate if others cooperated before, and are ready to retaliate if others defected. To capture the emergence of reciprocity, most previous models consider subjects who can only choose from a restricted set of representative strategies, or who react to the outcome of the very last round only. As players memorize more rounds, the dimension of the strategy space increases exponentially. This increasing computational complexity renders simulations for individuals with higher cognitive abilities infeasible, especially if multiplayer interactions are taken into account. Here, we take an axiomatic approach instead. We propose several properties that a robust cooperative strategy for a repeated multiplayer dilemma should have. These properties naturally lead to a unique class of cooperative strategies, which contains the classical Win-Stay Lose-Shift rule as a special case. A comprehensive numerical analysis for the prisoner's dilemma and for the public goods game suggests that strategies of this class readily evolve across various memory- n spaces. Our results reveal that successful strategies depend not only on how cooperative others were in the past but also on the respective context of cooperation.

  20. Reciprocal Rights and Responsibilities in Parent-Child Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1978-01-01

    This article examines critically the case for protecting children's rights as against the case for protecting children's welfare. The principle of reciprocity in parent-child relations is rejected. (Author/AM)

  1. Drift stabilizer for reciprocating free-piston devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, William C.; Corey, John A.; Swift, Gregory W.

    2003-05-20

    A free-piston device has a stabilized piston drift. A piston having a frequency of reciprocation over a stroke length and with first and second sides facing first and second variable volumes, respectively, for containing a working fluid defining an acoustic wavelength at the frequency of reciprocation. A bypass tube waveguide connects the first and second variable volumes at all times during reciprocation of the piston. The waveguide has a relatively low impedance for steady flow and a relatively high impedance for oscillating flow at the frequency of reciprocation of the piston, so that steady flow returns fluid leakage from about the piston between the first and second volumes while oscillating flow is not diverted through the waveguide. Thus, net leakage about the piston is returned during each stroke of the piston while oscillating leakage is not allowed and pressure buildup on either the first or second side of the piston is avoided to provide a stable piston location.

  2. Research on networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangdong; Qi, Guoning; Xie, Qingsheng; Lu, Yujun

    2005-12-01

    Networked manufacturing is a trend of reciprocating pump industry. According to the enterprises' requirement, the architecture of networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry was proposed, which composed of infrastructure layer, system management layer, application service layer and user layer. Its main functions included product data management, ASP service, business management, and customer relationship management, its physics framework was a multi-tier internet-based model; the concept of ASP service integration was put forward and its process model was also established. As a result, a networked manufacturing system aimed at the characteristics of reciprocating pump industry was built. By implementing this system, reciprocating pump industry can obtain a new way to fully utilize their own resources and enhance the capabilities to respond to the global market quickly.

  3. Small variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressors for domestic refrigerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains both a theoretical and experimental investigation of some of the fundamental characteristics of a smal variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressor intended for application in domestic refrigeration. The results of a previously published simulation model for variable speed...

  4. Reciprocal link for a coupled Camassa–Holm type equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Nianhua; Zhang, Jinshun; Wu, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We construct a reciprocal transformation for a coupled Camassa–Holm type equation proposed by Geng and Xue. • The transformed coupled Camassa–Holm type system is a reduction of the first negative flow in a modified Drinfeld–Sokolov III hierarchy. • The Lax pair and bi-Hamiltonian structure behaviors of the coupled Camassa–Holm type equation under the reciprocal transformation are analyzed. - Abstract: A coupled Camassa–Holm type equation is linked to the first negative flow in a modified Drinfeld–Sokolov III hierarchy by a transformation of reciprocal type. Meanwhile the Lax pair and bi-Hamiltonian structure behaviors of this coupled Camassa–Holm type equation under the reciprocal transformation are analyzed.

  5. Reciprocity revisited: Give and take in Dutch and immigrant families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komter, A.; Schans, J.M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Classical theory suggests that "generalized reciprocity," giving without clear expectations of returns, is characteristic for exchange within the family. Modern theory assumes differences between Western, "individualistic" cultures, and non-Western, more "collectivistic" cultures, presumably leading

  6. Relatedness decreases and reciprocity increases cooperation in Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinfurth, Manon K; Taborsky, Michael

    2018-03-14

    Kin selection and reciprocity are two mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation, but the relative importance of kinship and reciprocity for decisions to cooperate are yet unclear for most cases of cooperation. Here, we experimentally tested the relative importance of relatedness and received cooperation for decisions to help a conspecific in wild-type Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ). Test rats provided more food to non-kin than to siblings, and they generally donated more food to previously helpful social partners than to those that had refused help. The rats thus applied reciprocal cooperation rules irrespective of relatedness, highlighting the importance of reciprocal help for cooperative interactions among both related and unrelated conspecifics. © 2018 The Author(s).

  7. Time-dependent pseudo-reciprocity relations in neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, R.S.; Sahni, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Earlier, certain reciprocity-like relations have been shown to hold in some restricted steady state cases in neutron diffusion and transport theories. Here, the possibility of existence of similar relations in time-dependent situations is investigated

  8. Reciprocal relations for transmission coefficients - Theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianmin; Achenbach, Jan D.; Roberts, Ronald A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a rigorous proof of certain intuitively plausible reciprocal relations for time harmonic plane-wave transmission and reflection at the interface between a fluid and an anisotropic elastic solid. Precise forms of the reciprocity relations for the transmission coefficients and for the transmitted energy fluxes are derived, based on the reciprocity theorem of elastodynamics. It is shown that the reciprocity relations can be used in conjunction with measured values of peak amplitudes for transmission through a slab of the solid (water-solid-water) to obtain the water-solid coefficients. Experiments were performed for a slab of a unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite. Good agreement of the experimentally measured transmission coefficients with theoretical values was obtained.

  9. Indirect reciprocity and the evolution of "moral signals"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smead, Rory

    2010-01-01

    Signals regarding the behavior of others are an essential element of human moral systems and there are important evolutionary connections between language and large-scale cooperation. In particular, social communication may be required for the reputation tracking needed to stabilize indirect reciprocity. Additionally, scholars have suggested that the benefits of indirect reciprocity may have been important for the evolution of language and that social signals may have coevolved with large-scale cooperation. This paper investigates the possibility of such a coevolution. Using the tools of evolutionary game theory, we present a model that incorporates primitive "moral signaling" into a simple setting of indirect reciprocity. This model reveals some potential difficulties for the evolution of "moral signals." We find that it is possible for "moral signals" to evolve alongside indirect reciprocity, but without some external pressure aiding the evolution of a signaling system, such a coevolution is unlikely.

  10. Photovoltaic reciprocity and quasi-Fermi level splitting in nanostructure-based solar cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeberhard, Urs

    2017-04-01

    The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions [1]. So far, the theory has been verified for a wide range of devices and material systems and forms the basis of a growing number of luminesecence imaging techniques used in the characterization of photovoltaic materials, cells and modules [2-5]. However, there are also some examples where the theory fails, such as in the case of amorphous silicon. In our contribution, we critically assess the assumptions made in the derivation of the theory and compare its predictions with rigorous formal relations as well as numerical computations in the framework of a comprehensive quantum-kinetic theory of photovoltaics [6] as applied to ultra-thin absorber architectures [7]. One of the main applications of the photovoltaic reciprocity relation is the determination of quasi-Fermi level splittings (QFLS) in solar cells from the measurement of luminescence. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic architectures, the determination of QFLS is challenging, but instrumental to assess the performance potential of the concepts. Here, we use our quasi-Fermi level-free theory to investigate existence and size of QFLS in quantum well and quantum dot solar cells. [1] Uwe Rau. Reciprocity relation between photovoltaic quantum efficiency and electrolumines- cent emission of solar cells. Phys. Rev. B, 76(8):085303, 2007. [2] Thomas Kirchartz and Uwe Rau. Electroluminescence analysis of high efficiency cu(in,ga)se2 solar cells. J. Appl. Phys., 102(10), 2007. [3] Thomas Kirchartz, Uwe Rau, Martin Hermle, Andreas W. Bett, Anke Helbig, and Jrgen H. Werner. Internal voltages in GaInP-GaInAs-Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electro- luminescence measurements. Appl. Phys. Lett., 92(12), 2008. [4] Thomas Kirchartz, Anke Helbig, Wilfried Reetz, Michael Reuter, Jürgen H. Werner, and

  11. Trust, Reciprocity and Institutional Design: Lessons from Behavioural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Pelligra, Vittorio

    2006-01-01

    Trust and reciprocity are the bond of society (Locke), but economic agents are both self-interested and intrinsically untrustworthy. These assumptions impair severely economists' accounts of social relationships. The paper examines strategies to escape this paradox by enlarging our conception of rationality: the assumptions of self-interest and consequentialism are critically discussed as well as relational behavioural principles (e.g. trust and reciprocity). The implications of this enlarged...

  12. The general chain transform and self-reciprocal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Nasim

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory of a generalized form of the chain transforms of order n is developed, and various properties of these are established including the Parseval relation. Most known cases of the standard theory are derived as special cases. Also a theory of self-reciprocal functions is given, based on these general chain transforms; and relations among various classes of self-reciprocal functions are established.

  13. A Journey into Reciprocal Space; A crystallographer's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    This book introduces undergraduate and graduate students to a crystallographer's view of real and reciprocal space, a concept that has been of particular use by crystallographers to understand the patterns of spots when x-rays are diffracted by crystals. It then proceeds to develop the concept in a form suitable for physics applications; such as how solid-state physicists use reciprocal space to explain various solid-state properties such as thermal and electrical phenomena.

  14. Asymmetric information capacities of reciprocal pairs of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Matteo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2018-05-01

    Reciprocal pairs of quantum channels are defined as completely positive transformations which admit a rigid, distance-preserving, yet not completely positive transformation that allows one to reproduce the outcome of one from the corresponding outcome of the other. From a classical perspective these transmission lines should exhibit the same communication efficiency. This is no longer the case in the quantum setting: explicit asymmetric behaviors are reported studying the classical communication capacities of reciprocal pairs of depolarizing and Weyl-covariant channels.

  15. Reciprocal cooperation in avian mobbing: playing nice pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatcroft, David J; Price, Trevor D

    2008-08-01

    Unrelated passerine birds often join together while mobbing, a widespread antipredator behavior during which birds harass a predator. Although previous analyses concluded that mobbing could not have evolved via reciprocity, Krams and colleagues' field experiments show that birds preferentially join mobs with neighbors that have aided them previously, suggesting that these birds utilize reciprocity-based strategies involving individual recognition and recollection of previous interactions with others. This implies a level of sophistication in bird communities greater than had previously been realized.

  16. The stability of quadratic-reciprocal functional equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aimin; Song, Minwei

    2018-04-01

    A new quadratic-reciprocal functional equation f ((k +1 )x +k y )+f ((k +1 )x -k y )=2/f (x )f (y )[(k+1 ) 2f (y )+k2f (x )] [(k+1)2f (y )-k2f (x )] 2 is introduced. The Hyers-Ulam stability for the quadratic-reciprocal functional equations is proved in Banach spaces using the direct method and the fixed point method, respectively.

  17. Reciprocity relations in transmission electron microscopy: A rigorous derivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Florian F; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    A concise derivation of the principle of reciprocity applied to realistic transmission electron microscopy setups is presented making use of the multislice formalism. The equivalence of images acquired in conventional and scanning mode is thereby rigorously shown. The conditions for the applicability of the found reciprocity relations is discussed. Furthermore the positions of apertures in relation to the corresponding lenses are considered, a subject which scarcely has been addressed in previous publications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Kato-Shimizu

    Full Text Available Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  19. Reciprocity in the electronic stopping of slow ions in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    2008-01-01

    The principle of reciprocity, i.e., the invariance of the inelastic excitation in ion-atom collisions against interchange of projectile and target, has been applied to the electronic stopping cross section of low-velocity ions and tested empirically on ion-target combinations supported by a more or less adequate amount of experimental data. Reciprocity is well obeyed (within ∼10%) for many systems studied, and deviations exceeding ∼20% are exceptional. Systematic deviations such as gas-solid or metal-insulator differences have been looked for but not identified on the present basis. A direct consequence of reciprocity is the equivalence of Z 1 with Z 2 structure for random slowing down. This feature is reasonably well supported empirically for ion-target combinations involving carbon, nitrogen, aluminium and argon. Reciprocity may be utilized as a criterion to reject questionable experimental data. In cases where a certain stopping cross section has not been or cannot be measured, the stopping cross section for the inverted system may be available and serve as a first estimate. It is suggested to build in reciprocity as a fundamental requirement into empirical interpolation schemes directed at the stopping of low-velocity ions. Examination of the SRIM and MSTAR codes reveals cases where reciprocity is obeyed accurately, but deviations of up to a factor of two are common. In case of heavy ions such as gold, electronic stopping cross sections predicted by SRIM are asserted to be almost an order of magnitude too high. (authors)

  20. Reciprocity in the electronic stopping of slow ions in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, P.

    2008-04-01

    The principle of reciprocity, i.e., the invariance of the inelastic excitation in ion-atom collisions against interchange of projectile and target, has been applied to the electronic stopping cross section of low-velocity ions and tested empirically on ion-target combinations supported by a more or less adequate amount of experimental data. Reciprocity is well obeyed (within ~10%) for many systems studied, and deviations exceeding ~20% are exceptional. Systematic deviations such as gas-solid or metal-insulator differences have been looked for but not identified on the present basis. A direct consequence of reciprocity is the equivalence of Z1 with Z2 structure for random slowing down. This feature is reasonably well supported empirically for ion-target combinations involving carbon, nitrogen, aluminium and argon. Reciprocity may be utilized as a criterion to reject questionable experimental data. In cases where a certain stopping cross section has not been or cannot be measured, the stopping cross section for the inverted system may be available and serve as a first estimate. It is suggested to build in reciprocity as a fundamental requirement into empirical interpolation schemes directed at the stopping of low-velocity ions. Examination of the SRIM and MSTAR codes reveals cases where reciprocity is obeyed accurately, but deviations of up to a factor of two are common. In case of heavy ions such as gold, electronic stopping cross sections predicted by SRIM are asserted to be almost an order of magnitude too high.

  1. Working dogs cooperate among one another by generalised reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfrerer, Nastassja; Taborsky, Michael

    2017-03-06

    Cooperation by generalised reciprocity implies that individuals apply the decision rule "help anyone if helped by someone". This mechanism has been shown to generate evolutionarily stable levels of cooperation, but as yet it is unclear how widely this cooperation mechanism is applied among animals. Dogs (Canis familiaris) are highly social animals with considerable cognitive potential and the ability to differentiate between individual social partners. But although dogs can solve complex problems, they may use simple rules for behavioural decisions. Here we show that dogs trained in an instrumental cooperative task to provide food to a social partner help conspecifics more often after receiving help from a dog before. Remarkably, in so doing they show no distinction between partners that had helped them before and completely unfamiliar conspecifics. Apparently, dogs use the simple decision rule characterizing generalised reciprocity, although they are probably capable of using the more complex decision rule of direct reciprocity: "help someone who has helped you". However, generalized reciprocity involves lower information processing costs and is therefore a cheaper cooperation strategy. Our results imply that generalised reciprocity might be applied more commonly than direct reciprocity also in other mutually cooperating animals.

  2. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  3. Indirect reciprocity in three types of social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2014-08-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Previous studies explored indirect reciprocity in the so-called donation game, a special class of Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) with unilateral decision making. A more general class of social dilemmas includes Snowdrift (SG), Stag Hunt (SH), and PD games, where two players perform actions simultaneously. In these simultaneous-move games, moral assessments need to be more complex; for example, how should we evaluate defection against an ill-reputed, but now cooperative, player? We examined indirect reciprocity in the three social dilemmas and identified twelve successful social norms for moral assessments. These successful norms have different principles in different dilemmas for suppressing cheaters. To suppress defectors, any defection against good players is prohibited in SG and PD, whereas defection against good players may be allowed in SH. To suppress unconditional cooperators, who help anyone and thereby indirectly contribute to jeopardizing indirect reciprocity, we found two mechanisms: indiscrimination between actions toward bad players (feasible in SG and PD) or punishment for cooperation with bad players (effective in any social dilemma). Moreover, we discovered that social norms that unfairly favor reciprocators enhance robustness of cooperation in SH, whereby reciprocators never lose their good reputation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bah humbug: Unexpected Christmas cards and the reciprocity norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocity norm refers to the expectation that people will help those who helped them. A well-known study revealed that the norm is strong with Christmas cards, with 20% of people reciprocating a Christmas card received from a stranger. I attempted to conceptually replicate and extend this effect. In Study 1, 755 participants received a Christmas card supposedly from a more- versus less-similar stranger. The reciprocation rate was unexpectedly low (2%), which did not allow for a test of a similarity effect. Two potential reasons for this low rate were examined in Study 2 in which 494 participants reported their likelihood of reciprocating a Christmas card from a stranger as well as their felt suspicions/threat about the card and their frequency of e-mail use. Reciprocation likelihood was negatively correlated with perceived threat/suspicion and e-mail use. It appears that reciprocating a gift from a stranger in offline settings may be less likely than expected.

  5. Reciprocity on Demand : Sharing and Exchanging Food in Northwestern Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnegg, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Two competing models concerning food transfers prominent in the anthropological literature conceptualize such transfers either as sharing or as exchange. Sharing is understood as situational transactions formed through demands and unconditional giving, whereas reciprocal exchange is understood in terms of networking and keeping score. I propose that the picture is more complicated than these classifications suggests. Drawing on data collected in Northwestern Namibia, I show that sharing and reciprocal exchange are dynamically interrelated in actual food transfers. As a local norm, people can demand food from anyone, and they are typically given food in response to a demand. However, in practice, food transfer networks emerge (N = 62) that are highly reciprocal and fit the exchange model much better. Although the sharing norm makes no restrictions on whom to ask, in practice people often turn to their neighbors. Interpersonal dynamics account for why some of those ties become strongly reciprocal and others do not. Under these circumstances, unconditional sharing, a norm that has been viewed as an alternative to exchange, can lead to reciprocity via reciprocity on demand.

  6. Development of the reciprocity of self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, K J; Chase, N

    1992-03-01

    This study was designed to assess whether children demonstrate covariant and equivalent forms of the reciprocity of self-disclosure, and if so, at what age. Twenty-one kindergarten, 23 second-grade, 24 fourth-grade, and 24 sixth-grade children were shown videotapes of three children (partners) who provided pre-established low-, medium-, and high-intimate disclosures. The subjects were required to send a message to the partners on topics varying in personal content. Fourth-grade children showed evidence of covariant reciprocity of self-disclosure by disclosing higher intimacy to high-intimate partners than to low-intimate partners. Sixth-grade children showed equivalent reciprocity of self-disclosure by providing a greater number of high- and medium-intimate disclosures to high- and medium-intimate partners, respectively, than to low-intimate partners. By contrast, neither form of reciprocity of self-disclosure was shown by kindergarten and second-grade children. Consistent with our expectations, girls provided a greater number of high-intimate disclosures than did boys in three of the four grades. The findings are discussed in terms of interplay between the development of the reciprocity of self-disclosure and the norm of the reciprocity of self-disclosure.

  7. Dynamic pulse difference circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    A digital electronic circuit of especial use for subtracting background activity pulses in gamma spectrometry is disclosed which comprises an up-down counter connected to count up with signal-channel pulses and to count down with background-channel pulses. A detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal when the up-down counter has completed one scaling sequence cycle of counts in the up direction. In an alternate embodiment, a detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal upon overflow of the counter

  8. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  9. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  10. Digital logic circuit test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Gil Jung; Yang, Hong Young

    2011-03-15

    This book is about digital logic circuit test, which lists the digital basic theory, basic gate like and, or And Not gate, NAND/NOR gate such as NAND gate, NOR gate, AND and OR, logic function, EX-OR gate, adder and subtractor, decoder and encoder, multiplexer, demultiplexer, flip-flop, counter such as up/down counter modulus N counter and Reset type counter, shift register, D/A and A/D converter and two supplements list of using components and TTL manual and CMOS manual.

  11. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  12. Integrated circuit cell library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    According to the invention, an ASIC cell library for use in creation of custom integrated circuits is disclosed. The ASIC cell library includes some first cells and some second cells. Each of the second cells includes two or more kernel cells. The ASIC cell library is at least 5% comprised of second cells. In various embodiments, the ASIC cell library could be 10% or more, 20% or more, 30% or more, 40% or more, 50% or more, 60% or more, 70% or more, 80% or more, 90% or more, or 95% or more comprised of second cells.

  13. Nano integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-01

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  14. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  15. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  16. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  17. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  18. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  19. Optically controllable molecular logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Takahiro; Fujii, Ryo; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Molecular logic circuits represent a promising technology for observation and manipulation of biological systems at the molecular level. However, the implementation of molecular logic circuits for temporal and programmable operation remains challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate an optically controllable logic circuit that uses fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signaling. The FRET-based signaling process is modulated by both molecular and optical inputs. Based on the distance dependence of FRET, the FRET pathways required to execute molecular logic operations are formed on a DNA nanostructure as a circuit based on its molecular inputs. In addition, the FRET pathways on the DNA nanostructure are controlled optically, using photoswitching fluorescent molecules to instruct the execution of the desired operation and the related timings. The behavior of the circuit can thus be controlled using external optical signals. As an example, a molecular logic circuit capable of executing two different logic operations was studied. The circuit contains functional DNAs and a DNA scaffold to construct two FRET routes for executing Input 1 AND Input 2 and Input 1 AND NOT Input 3 operations on molecular inputs. The circuit produced the correct outputs with all possible combinations of the inputs by following the light signals. Moreover, the operation execution timings were controlled based on light irradiation and the circuit responded to time-dependent inputs. The experimental results demonstrate that the circuit changes the output for the required operations following the input of temporal light signals

  20. Cell type-specific genetic and optogenetic tools reveal hippocampal CA2 circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Keigo; Pignatelli, Michele; Rivest, Alexander J; Jung, Hae-Yoon; Kitamura, Takashi; Suh, Junghyup; Frank, Dominic; Kajikawa, Koichiro; Mise, Nathan; Obata, Yuichi; Wickersham, Ian R; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    The formation and recall of episodic memory requires precise information processing by the entorhinal-hippocampal network. For several decades, the trisynaptic circuit entorhinal cortex layer II (ECII)→dentate gyrus→CA3→CA1 and the monosynaptic circuit ECIII→CA1 have been considered the primary substrates of the network responsible for learning and memory. Circuits linked to another hippocampal region, CA2, have only recently come to light. Using highly cell type-specific transgenic mouse lines, optogenetics and patch-clamp recordings, we found that dentate gyrus cells, long believed to not project to CA2, send functional monosynaptic inputs to CA2 pyramidal cells through abundant longitudinal projections. CA2 innervated CA1 to complete an alternate trisynaptic circuit, but, unlike CA3, projected preferentially to the deep, rather than to the superficial, sublayer of CA1. Furthermore, contrary to existing knowledge, ECIII did not project to CA2. Our results allow a deeper understanding of the biology of learning and memory.

  1. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence T [Phoenix, AZ; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  2. Kidney disease and aging: A reciprocal relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooman, Jeroen P; van der Sande, Frank M; Leunissen, Karel M L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are overrepresented in elderly patients. This provides specific challenges for the treatment, as the start of dialysis in vulnerable elderly patients may be associated with a rapid decline in functional performance. However, prognosis in elderly patients with ESRD is quite variable and related to the presence of comorbidity and geriatric impairments. The decision to start dialysis in elderly patients should always be based on shared decision making, which may be aided by the use of prediction models which should however not be used to withhold dialysis treatment. The treatment of ESRD in elderly patients should be based on a multidimensional treatment plan with a role for active rehabilitation. Moreover, there also appears to be a reciprocal relationship between aging and CKD, as the presence of geriatric complications is also high in younger patients with ESRD. This has led to the hypothesis of a premature aging process associated with CKD, resulting in different phenotypes such as premature vascular aging, muscle wasting, bone disease, cognitive dysfunction and frailty. Prevention and treatment of this phenotype is based on optimal treatment of CKD, associated comorbidities, and lifestyle factors by established treatments. For the future, interventions, which are developed to combat the aging process in general, might also have relevance for the treatment of patients with CKD, but their role should always be investigated in adequately powered clinical trials, as results obtained in experimental trials may not be directly translatable to the clinical situation of elderly patients. In the meantime, physical exercise is a very important intervention, by improving both physical capacity and functional performance, as well as by a direct effect on the aging process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Simple Cell Balance Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.; Byers, Jerry W.; Martin, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A method has been developed for continuous cell voltage balancing for rechargeable batteries (e.g. lithium ion batteries). A resistor divider chain is provided that generates a set of voltages representing the ideal cell voltage (the voltage of each cell should be as if the cells were perfectly balanced). An operational amplifier circuit with an added current buffer stage generates the ideal voltage with a very high degree of accuracy, using the concept of negative feedback. The ideal voltages are each connected to the corresponding cell through a current- limiting resistance. Over time, having the cell connected to the ideal voltage provides a balancing current that moves the cell voltage very close to that ideal level. In effect, it adjusts the current of each cell during charging, discharging, and standby periods to force the cell voltages to be equal to the ideal voltages generated by the resistor divider. The device also includes solid-state switches that disconnect the circuit from the battery so that it will not discharge the battery during storage. This solution requires relatively few parts and is, therefore, of lower cost and of increased reliability due to the fewer failure modes. Additionally, this design uses very little power. A preliminary model predicts a power usage of 0.18 W for an 8-cell battery. This approach is applicable to a wide range of battery capacities and voltages.

  4. Quantum-Circuit Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    MöTtöNen, Mikko; Tan, Kuan Y.; Masuda, Shumpei; Partanen, Matti; Lake, Russell E.; Govenius, Joonas; Silveri, Matti; Grabert, Hermann

    Quantum technology holds great potential in providing revolutionizing practical applications. However, fast and precise cooling of the functional quantum degrees of freedom on demand remains a major challenge in many solid-state implementations, such as superconducting circuits. We demonstrate direct cooling of a superconducting resonator mode using voltage-controllable quantum tunneling of electrons in a nanoscale refrigerator. In our first experiments on this type of a quantum-circuit refrigerator, we measure the drop in the mode temperature by electron thermometry at a resistor which is coupled to the resonator mode through ohmic losses. To eliminate unwanted dissipation, we remove the probe resistor and directly observe the power spectrum of the resonator output in agreement with the so-called P(E) theory. We also demonstrate in microwave reflection experiments that the internal quality factor of the resonator can be tuned by orders of magnitude. In the future, our refrigerator can be integrated with different quantum electric devices, potentially enhancing their performance. For example, it may prove useful in the initialization of superconducting quantum bits and in dissipation-assisted quantum annealing. We acknowledge European Research Council Grant SINGLEOUT (278117) and QUESS (681311) for funding.

  5. Quasi-Linear Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, William; Bird, Ross; Eldred, Dennis; Zook, Jon; Knowles, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    This work involved developing spacequalifiable switch mode DC/DC power supplies that improve performance with fewer components, and result in elimination of digital components and reduction in magnetics. This design is for missions where systems may be operating under extreme conditions, especially at elevated temperature levels from 200 to 300 degC. Prior art for radiation-tolerant DC/DC converters has been accomplished utilizing classical magnetic-based switch mode converter topologies; however, this requires specific shielding and component de-rating to meet the high-reliability specifications. It requires complex measurement and feedback components, and will not enable automatic re-optimization for larger changes in voltage supply or electrical loading condition. The innovation is a switch mode DC/DC power supply that eliminates the need for processors and most magnetics. It can provide a well-regulated voltage supply with a gain of 1:100 step-up to 8:1 step down, tolerating an up to 30% fluctuation of the voltage supply parameters. The circuit incorporates a ceramic core transformer in a manner that enables it to provide a well-regulated voltage output without use of any processor components or magnetic transformers. The circuit adjusts its internal parameters to re-optimize its performance for changes in supply voltage, environmental conditions, or electrical loading at the output

  6. Multiple Identified Neurons and Peripheral Nerves Innervating the Prothoracic Defense Glands in Stick Insects Reveal Evolutionary Conserved and Novel Elements of a Chemical Defense System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Strauß

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The defense glands in the dorsal prothorax are an important autapomorphic trait of stick insects (Phasmatodea. Here, we study the functional anatomy and neuronal innervation of the defense glands in Anisomorpha paromalus (Westwood, 1859 (Pseudophasmatinae, a species which sprays its defense secretions when disturbed or attacked. We use a neuroanatomical approach to identify the nerves innervating the gland muscles and the motoneurons with axons in the different nerves. The defense gland is innervated by nerves originating from two segments, the subesophageal ganglion (SOG, and the prothoracic ganglion. Axonal tracing confirms the gland innervation via the anterior subesophageal nerve, and two intersegmental nerves, the posterior subesophageal nerve, and the anterior prothoracic nerve. Axonal tracing of individual nerves reveals eight identified neuron types in the subesophageal or prothoracic ganglion. The strongest innervating nerve of the gland is the anterior subesophageal nerve, which also supplies dorsal longitudinal thorax muscles (neck muscles by separate nerve branches. Tracing of individual nerve branches reveals different sets of motoneurons innervating the defense gland (one ipsilateral and one contralateral subesophageal neuron or the neck muscle (ventral median neurons. The ipsilateral and contralateral subesophageal neurons have no homologs in related taxa like locusts and crickets, and thus evolved within stick insects with the differentiation of the defense glands. The overall innervation pattern suggests that the longitudinal gland muscles derived from dorsal longitudinal neck muscles. In sum, the innervating nerves for dorsal longitudinal muscles are conserved in stick insects, while the neuronal control system was specialized with conserved motoneurons for the persisting neck muscles, and evolutionarily novel subesophageal and prothoracic motoneurons innervating the defense gland.

  7. Arithmetic circuits for DSP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stouraitis, Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Arithmetic Circuits for DSP Applications is a complete resource on arithmetic circuits for digital signal processing (DSP). It covers the key concepts, designs and developments of different types of arithmetic circuits, which can be used for improving the efficiency of implementation of a multitude of DSP applications. Each chapter includes various applications of the respective class of arithmetic circuits along with information on the future scope of research. Written for students, engineers, and researchers in electrical and computer engineering, this comprehensive text offers a clear understanding of different types of arithmetic circuits used for digital signal processing applications. The text includes contributions from noted researchers on a wide range of topics, including a review o circuits used in implementing basic operations like additions and multiplications; distributed arithmetic as a technique for the multiplier-less implementation of inner products for DSP applications; discussions on look ...

  8. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  9. Control circuit for transformer relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A control circuit for a transformer relay which will automatically momentarily control the transformer relay to a selected state upon energization of the control circuit. The control circuit has an energy storage element and a current director coupled in series and adapted to be coupled with the secondary winding of the transformer relay. A device for discharge is coupled across the energy storage element. The energy storage element and current director will momentarily allow a unidirectional flow of current in the secondary winding of the transformer relay upon application of energy to the control circuit. When energy is not applied to the control circuit the device for discharge will allow the energy storage element to discharge and be available for another operation of the control circuit

  10. Working Memory and Decision-Making in a Frontoparietal Circuit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D; Jaramillo, Jorge; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-12-13

    Working memory (WM) and decision-making (DM) are fundamental cognitive functions involving a distributed interacting network of brain areas, with the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) at the core. However, the shared and distinct roles of these areas and the nature of their coordination in cognitive function remain poorly understood. Biophysically based computational models of cortical circuits have provided insights into the mechanisms supporting these functions, yet they have primarily focused on the local microcircuit level, raising questions about the principles for distributed cognitive computation in multiregional networks. To examine these issues, we developed a distributed circuit model of two reciprocally interacting modules representing PPC and PFC circuits. The circuit architecture includes hierarchical differences in local recurrent structure and implements reciprocal long-range projections. This parsimonious model captures a range of behavioral and neuronal features of frontoparietal circuits across multiple WM and DM paradigms. In the context of WM, both areas exhibit persistent activity, but, in response to intervening distractors, PPC transiently encodes distractors while PFC filters distractors and supports WM robustness. With regard to DM, the PPC module generates graded representations of accumulated evidence supporting target selection, while the PFC module generates more categorical responses related to action or choice. These findings suggest computational principles for distributed, hierarchical processing in cortex during cognitive function and provide a framework for extension to multiregional models. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Working memory and decision-making are fundamental "building blocks" of cognition, and deficits in these functions are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. These cognitive functions engage distributed networks with prefrontal cortex (PFC) and posterior parietal

  11. Source-circuit design overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The source circuit is the fundamental electrical building block of a large central-station array; it consists of a series-parallel network of solar cells that develops full system voltage. The array field is generally made up of a large number of parallel source circuits. Source-circuit electrical configuration is driven by a number of design considerations, which must be considered simultaneously. Array fault tolerance and hot spot heating endurance are examined in detail.

  12. Electrical stimulation to the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle induces involuntary reflex contraction of the frontalis muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Osada, Yoshiro; Ban, Ryokuya

    2013-02-01

    The levator and frontalis muscles lack interior muscle spindles, despite consisting of slow-twitch fibres that involuntarily sustain eyelid-opening and eyebrow-raising against gravity. To compensate for this anatomical defect, this study hypothetically proposes that initial voluntary contraction of the levator fast-twitch muscle fibres stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle and evokes proprioception, which continuously induces reflex contraction of slow-twitch fibres of the levator and frontalis muscles. This study sought to determine whether unilateral transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the trigeminal proprioceptive fibres that innervate the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle could induce electromyographic responses in the frontalis muscles, with monitoring responses in the orbicularis oculi muscles. The study population included 27 normal subjects and 23 subjects with aponeurotic blepharoptosis, who displayed persistently raised eyebrows on primary gaze and light eyelid closure. The stimulation induced a short-latency response in the ipsilateral frontalis muscle of all subjects and long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles of normal subjects. However, it did not induce long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles of subjects with aponeurotic blepharoptosis. The orbicularis oculi muscles showed R1 and/or R2 responses. The stimulation might reach not only the proprioceptive fibres, but also other sensory fibres related to the blink or corneal reflex. The experimental system can provoke a monosynaptic short-latency response in the ipsilateral frontalis muscle, probably through the mesencephalic trigeminal proprioceptive neuron and the frontalis motor neuron, and polysynaptic long-latency responses in the bilateral frontalis muscles through an unknown pathway. The latter neural circuit appeared to be engaged by the circumstances of aponeurotic blepharoptosis.

  13. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit has a light emitting diode which supplies light to a photo-transistor, the light being interrupted from time to time. When the photo-transistor is illuminated, current builds up and when this current reaches a predetermined value, a trigger circuit changes state. The peak output of the photo-transistor is measured and the trigger circuit is arranged to change state when the output of the device is a set proportion of the peak output, so as to allow for aging of the components. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  14. Four-junction superconducting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit. PMID:27356619

  15. Memristor Circuits and Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-05-01

    Current CMOS-based technologies are facing design challenges related to the continuous scaling down of the minimum feature size, according to Moore’s law. Moreover, conventional computing architecture is no longer an effective way of fulfilling modern applications demands, such as big data analysis, pattern recognition, and vector processing. Therefore, there is an exigent need to shift to new technologies, at both the architecture and the device levels. Recently, memristor devices and structures attracted attention for being promising candidates for this job. Memristor device adds a new dimension for designing novel circuits and systems. In addition, high-density memristor-based crossbar is widely considered to be the essential element for future memory and bio-inspired computing systems. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before the memristor genuinely replaces current memory and computing technologies, which is the motivation behind this research effort. In order to address the technology challenges, we begin by fabricating and modeling the memristor device. The devices fabricated at our local clean room enriched our understanding of the memristive phenomenon and enabled the experimental testing for our memristor-based circuits. Moreover, our proposed mathematical modeling for memristor behavior is an essential element for the theoretical circuit design stage. Designing and addressing the challenges of memristor systems with practical complexity, however, requires an extra step, which takes the form of a reliable and modular simulation platform. We, therefore, built a new simulation platform for the resistive crossbar, which can simulate realistic size arrays filled with real memory data. In addition, this simulation platform includes various crossbar nonidealities in order to obtain accurate simulation results. Consequently, we were able to address the significant challenges facing the high density memristor crossbar, as the building block for

  16. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  17. ECCS control circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To afford a sufficient margin to pressure vibrations upon starting of an automatic depressurization system by dispersing pressure vibration in suppression water due to the opening action of an automatic releaf valve in the automatic depressurization system thereby reducing the dynamic load exerted to the surface of the suppression walls. Constitution: Upon occurrence of loss of coolant accidents, an automatic releaf valve for automatic depressurization is opened to deliver the steams in the pressure vessel into the suppression pool. Since a plurality of automatic releaf valves have usually been disposed, if they are opened simultaneously, excess dynamic loads are exerted due to the pressure vibrations to the wall surface of the suppression pool. In this invention, a control circuit is disposed such that the opening timing for each of the automatic releaf valves is deviated upon occurrence of a driving signal for the automatic depressurization system to thereby disperse the pressure vibrations in the suppression water. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. A dishwasher for circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    You have always been told that electronic devices fear water. However, at the Surface Mount Devices (SMD) Workshop here at CERN all the electronic assemblies are cleaned with a machine that looks like a… dishwasher.   The circuit dishwasher. Credit: Clara Nellist.  If you think the image above shows a dishwasher, you wouldn’t be completely wrong. Apart from the fact that the whole pumping system and the case itself are made entirely from stainless steel and chemical resistant materials, and the fact that it washes electrical boards instead of dishes… it works exactly like a dishwasher. It’s a professional machine (mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry) designed to clean everything that can be washed with a water-based chemical soap. This type of treatment increases the lifetime of the electronic boards and therefore the LHC's reliability by preventing corrosion problems in the severe radiation and ozone environment of the LHC tunn...

  19. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  20. Inductive circuit arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, Peter; Coxon, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A switched coil arrangement is connected in a bridge configuration of four switches S 1 , S 2 , S 3 and S 4 which are each shunted by diodes D 1 , D 2 , D 3 and D 4 so that current can flow in either direction through a coil L depending on the setting of the switches. A capacitor C is connected across the bridge through a switch S 5 to receive the inductive energy stored in coil L on breaking the current flow path through the coil. The electrostatic energy stored in capacitor C can then be used to supply current through the coil in the reverse direction either immediately or after a time delay. Coil L may be a superconductive coil. Losses in the circuit can be made up by a trickle charge of capacitor C from a separate supply V 2 . The device may be used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. (author)