Obesity and infection: reciprocal causality.
Hainer, V; Zamrazilová, H; Kunešová, M; Bendlová, B; Aldhoon-Hainerová, I
2015-01-01
Associations between different infectious agents and obesity have been reported in humans for over thirty years. In many cases, as in nosocomial infections, this relationship reflects the greater susceptibility of obese individuals to infection due to impaired immunity. In such cases, the infection is not related to obesity as a causal factor but represents a complication of obesity. In contrast, several infections have been suggested as potential causal factors in human obesity. However, evidence of a causal linkage to human obesity has only been provided for adenovirus 36 (Adv36). This virus activates lipogenic and proinflammatory pathways in adipose tissue, improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and hepatic steatosis. The E4orf1 gene of Adv36 exerts insulin senzitizing effects, but is devoid of its pro-inflammatory modalities. The development of a vaccine to prevent Adv36-induced obesity or the use of E4orf1 as a ligand for novel antidiabetic drugs could open new horizons in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes. More experimental and clinical studies are needed to elucidate the mutual relations between infection and obesity, identify additional infectious agents causing human obesity, as well as define the conditions that predispose obese individuals to specific infections.
Owens, Timothy J.; Shippee, Nathan D.
2009-01-01
Does adolescent depressed mood portend increased or decreased drinking? Is frequent drinking positively or negatively associated with emotional well-being? Do the dynamic relations between depression and drinking differ by gender? Using block-recursive structural equation models, we explore the reciprocal short-term effects (within time, "t") and…
Reciprocity, passivity and causality in Willis materials.
Muhlestein, Michael B; Sieck, Caleb F; Alù, Andrea; Haberman, Michael R
2016-10-01
Materials that require coupling between the stress-strain and momentum-velocity constitutive relations were first proposed by Willis (Willis 1981 Wave Motion 3 , 1-11. (doi:10.1016/0165-2125(81)90008-1)) and are now known as elastic materials of the Willis type, or simply Willis materials. As coupling between these two constitutive equations is a generalization of standard elastodynamic theory, restrictions on the physically admissible material properties for Willis materials should be similarly generalized. This paper derives restrictions imposed on the material properties of Willis materials when they are assumed to be reciprocal, passive and causal. Considerations of causality and low-order dispersion suggest an alternative formulation of the standard Willis equations. The alternative formulation provides improved insight into the subwavelength physical behaviour leading to Willis material properties and is amenable to time-domain analyses. Finally, the results initially obtained for a generally elastic material are specialized to the acoustic limit.
Molm, Linda D.
2010-01-01
Reciprocity is one of the defining features of social exchange and social life, yet exchange theorists have tended to take it for granted. Drawing on work from a decade-long theoretical research program, I argue that reciprocity is structured and variable across different forms of exchange, that these variations in the structure of reciprocity…
Structural Behaviour of Reciprocal Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2013-01-01
The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures....
Causal imprinting in causal structure learning.
Taylor, Eric G; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung
2012-11-01
Suppose one observes a correlation between two events, B and C, and infers that B causes C. Later one discovers that event A explains away the correlation between B and C. Normatively, one should now dismiss or weaken the belief that B causes C. Nonetheless, participants in the current study who observed a positive contingency between B and C followed by evidence that B and C were independent given A, persisted in believing that B causes C. The authors term this difficulty in revising initially learned causal structures "causal imprinting." Throughout four experiments, causal imprinting was obtained using multiple dependent measures and control conditions. A Bayesian analysis showed that causal imprinting may be normative under some conditions, but causal imprinting also occurred in the current study when it was clearly non-normative. It is suggested that causal imprinting occurs due to the influence of prior knowledge on how reasoners interpret later evidence. Consistent with this view, when participants first viewed the evidence showing that B and C are independent given A, later evidence with only B and C did not lead to the belief that B causes C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Direct reciprocity in structured populations.
van Veelen, Matthijs; García, Julián; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A
2012-06-19
Reciprocity and repeated games have been at the center of attention when studying the evolution of human cooperation. Direct reciprocity is considered to be a powerful mechanism for the evolution of cooperation, and it is generally assumed that it can lead to high levels of cooperation. Here we explore an open-ended, infinite strategy space, where every strategy that can be encoded by a finite state automaton is a possible mutant. Surprisingly, we find that direct reciprocity alone does not lead to high levels of cooperation. Instead we observe perpetual oscillations between cooperation and defection, with defection being substantially more frequent than cooperation. The reason for this is that "indirect invasions" remove equilibrium strategies: every strategy has neutral mutants, which in turn can be invaded by other strategies. However, reciprocity is not the only way to promote cooperation. Another mechanism for the evolution of cooperation, which has received as much attention, is assortment because of population structure. Here we develop a theory that allows us to study the synergistic interaction between direct reciprocity and assortment. This framework is particularly well suited for understanding human interactions, which are typically repeated and occur in relatively fluid but not unstructured populations. We show that if repeated games are combined with only a small amount of assortment, then natural selection favors the behavior typically observed among humans: high levels of cooperation implemented using conditional strategies.
The Principle of Structural Reciprocity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pugnale, Alberto; Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2011-01-01
This paper deals with the principle of structural reciprocity, considering its origins in both Occidental and Orient culture and aiming to highlight the definition, main peculiarities and interesting aspects of such concept referring to its application to the world of construction. Issues spannin...
Dynamics of Quantum Causal Structures
Castro-Ruiz, Esteban; Giacomini, Flaminia; Brukner, Časlav
2018-01-01
It was recently suggested that causal structures are both dynamical, because of general relativity, and indefinite, because of quantum theory. The process matrix formalism furnishes a framework for quantum mechanics on indefinite causal structures, where the order between operations of local laboratories is not definite (e.g., one cannot say whether operation in laboratory A occurs before or after operation in laboratory B ). Here, we develop a framework for "dynamics of causal structures," i.e., for transformations of process matrices into process matrices. We show that, under continuous and reversible transformations, the causal order between operations is always preserved. However, the causal order between a subset of operations can be changed under continuous yet nonreversible transformations. An explicit example is that of the quantum switch, where a party in the past affects the causal order of operations of future parties, leading to a transition from a channel from A to B , via superposition of causal orders, to a channel from B to A . We generalize our framework to construct a hierarchy of quantum maps based on transformations of process matrices and transformations thereof.
Dynamics of Quantum Causal Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esteban Castro-Ruiz
2018-03-01
Full Text Available It was recently suggested that causal structures are both dynamical, because of general relativity, and indefinite, because of quantum theory. The process matrix formalism furnishes a framework for quantum mechanics on indefinite causal structures, where the order between operations of local laboratories is not definite (e.g., one cannot say whether operation in laboratory A occurs before or after operation in laboratory B. Here, we develop a framework for “dynamics of causal structures,” i.e., for transformations of process matrices into process matrices. We show that, under continuous and reversible transformations, the causal order between operations is always preserved. However, the causal order between a subset of operations can be changed under continuous yet nonreversible transformations. An explicit example is that of the quantum switch, where a party in the past affects the causal order of operations of future parties, leading to a transition from a channel from A to B, via superposition of causal orders, to a channel from B to A. We generalize our framework to construct a hierarchy of quantum maps based on transformations of process matrices and transformations thereof.
Structure and Strength in Causal Induction
Griffiths, Thomas L.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.
2005-01-01
We present a framework for the rational analysis of elemental causal induction--learning about the existence of a relationship between a single cause and effect--based upon causal graphical models. This framework makes precise the distinction between causal structure and causal strength: the difference between asking whether a causal relationship…
Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM
Markus, Keith A.
2010-01-01
One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…
Entropy for theories with indefinite causal structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markes, Sonia; Hardy, Lucien
2011-01-01
Any theory with definite causal structure has a defined past and future, be it defined by light cones or an absolute time scale. Entropy is a concept that has traditionally been reliant on a definite notion of causality. However, without a definite notion of causality, the concept of entropy is not all lost. Indefinite causal structure results from combining probabilistic predictions and dynamical space-time. The causaloid framework lays the mathematical groundwork to be able to treat indefinite causal structure. In this paper, we build on the causaloid mathematics and define a causally-unbiased entropy for an indefinite causal structure. In defining a causally-unbiased entropy, there comes about an emergent idea of causality in the form of a measure of causal connectedness, termed the Q factor.
Causal structure of analogue spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt
2004-01-01
The so-called 'analogue models of general relativity' provide a number of specific physical systems, well outside the traditional realm of general relativity, that nevertheless are well-described by the differential geometry of curved spacetime. Specifically, the propagation of perturbations in these condensed matter systems is described by 'effective metrics' that carry with them notions of 'causal structure' as determined by an exchange of quasi-particles. These quasi-particle-induced causal structures serve as specific examples of what can be done in the presence of a Lorentzian metric without having recourse to the Einstein equations of general relativity. (After all, the underlying analogue model is governed by its own specific physics, not necessarily by the Einstein equations.) In this paper we take a careful look at what can be said about the causal structure of analogue spacetimes, focusing on those containing quasi-particle horizons, both with a view to seeing what is different from standard general relativity, and what the similarities might be. For definiteness, and because the physics is particularly simple to understand, we will phrase much of the discussion in terms of acoustic disturbances in moving fluids, where the underlying physics is ordinary fluid mechanics, governed by the equations of traditional hydrodynamics, and the relevant quasi-particles are the phonons. It must however be emphasized that this choice of example is only for the sake of pedagogical simplicity and that our considerations apply generically to wide classes of analogue spacetimes
Structural optimization of free-form reciprocal structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario
2014-01-01
This paper presents an optimization algorithm for the design of structurally efficient free-form reciprocal structures. Because of the geometric complexity of reciprocal structures, only a few structural studies have been carried out so far, and we have a limited knowledge of the relation between...
Representing Personal Determinants in Causal Structures.
Bandura, Albert
1984-01-01
Responds to Staddon's critique of the author's earlier article and addresses issues raised by Staddon's (1984) alternative models of causality. The author argues that it is not the formalizability of causal processes that is the issue but whether cognitive determinants of behavior are reducible to past stimulus inputs in causal structures.…
Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2011-01-01
engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...... a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. The interest has also been facilitated due to recently severe structural failures...
Linear causal modeling with structural equations
Mulaik, Stanley A
2009-01-01
Emphasizing causation as a functional relationship between variables that describe objects, Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations integrates a general philosophical theory of causation with structural equation modeling (SEM) that concerns the special case of linear causal relations. In addition to describing how the functional relation concept may be generalized to treat probabilistic causation, the book reviews historical treatments of causation and explores recent developments in experimental psychology on studies of the perception of causation. It looks at how to perceive causal
Rate-Agnostic (Causal) Structure Learning.
Plis, Sergey; Danks, David; Freeman, Cynthia; Calhoun, Vince
2015-12-01
Causal structure learning from time series data is a major scientific challenge. Extant algorithms assume that measurements occur sufficiently quickly; more precisely, they assume approximately equal system and measurement timescales. In many domains, however, measurements occur at a significantly slower rate than the underlying system changes, but the size of the timescale mismatch is often unknown. This paper develops three causal structure learning algorithms, each of which discovers all dynamic causal graphs that explain the observed measurement data, perhaps given undersampling. That is, these algorithms all learn causal structure in a "rate-agnostic" manner: they do not assume any particular relation between the measurement and system timescales. We apply these algorithms to data from simulations to gain insight into the challenge of undersampling.
Pearl, Judea
2000-03-01
Written by one of the pre-eminent researchers in the field, this book provides a comprehensive exposition of modern analysis of causation. It shows how causality has grown from a nebulous concept into a mathematical theory with significant applications in the fields of statistics, artificial intelligence, philosophy, cognitive science, and the health and social sciences. Pearl presents a unified account of the probabilistic, manipulative, counterfactual and structural approaches to causation, and devises simple mathematical tools for analyzing the relationships between causal connections, statistical associations, actions and observations. The book will open the way for including causal analysis in the standard curriculum of statistics, artifical intelligence, business, epidemiology, social science and economics. Students in these areas will find natural models, simple identification procedures, and precise mathematical definitions of causal concepts that traditional texts have tended to evade or make unduly complicated. This book will be of interest to professionals and students in a wide variety of fields. Anyone who wishes to elucidate meaningful relationships from data, predict effects of actions and policies, assess explanations of reported events, or form theories of causal understanding and causal speech will find this book stimulating and invaluable.
Wolff, Jennifer M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Colaneri, Anthony S.
2016-01-01
Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol use may put individuals at increased risk of being victims of sexual harassment. Data from over 2,000 college students in the Midwestern United States were used to examine reciprocal causal effects of the relations between (1) experiencing sexual harassment and alcohol use and (2) experiencing sexual harassment and psychological distress symptoms, specifically depression and anger/hostility. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual harassment that occurs at school and that occurs in college students’ workplaces and also separately for men and women. Results of cross-lagged panel models showed that there were reciprocal causal effects between sexual harassment and alcohol problems, depression, and anger. Discussion focuses on the overall patterns of results as well as the nuances within these findings. PMID:26983588
Wolff, Jennifer M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Colaneri, Anthony S
2017-01-01
Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol use may put individuals at increased risk of being victims of sexual harassment. Data from more than 2,000 college students in the Midwestern United States were used to examine reciprocal causal effects of the relations between (a) experiencing sexual harassment and alcohol use and (b) experiencing sexual harassment and psychological distress symptoms, specifically depression and anger/hostility. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual harassment which occurs at school and which occurs in college students' workplaces, and also separately for men and women. Results of cross-lagged panel models showed that there were reciprocal causal effects between sexual harassment and alcohol problems, depression, and anger. Discussion focuses on the overall patterns of results as well as the nuances within these findings.
The causal structure of utility conditionals.
Bonnefon, Jean-François; Sloman, Steven A
2013-01-01
The psychology of reasoning is increasingly considering agents' values and preferences, achieving greater integration with judgment and decision making, social cognition, and moral reasoning. Some of this research investigates utility conditionals, ''if p then q'' statements where the realization of p or q or both is valued by some agents. Various approaches to utility conditionals share the assumption that reasoners make inferences from utility conditionals based on the comparison between the utility of p and the expected utility of q. This article introduces a new parameter in this analysis, the underlying causal structure of the conditional. Four experiments showed that causal structure moderated utility-informed conditional reasoning. These inferences were strongly invited when the underlying structure of the conditional was causal, and significantly less so when the underlying structure of the conditional was diagnostic. This asymmetry was only observed for conditionals in which the utility of q was clear, and disappeared when the utility of q was unclear. Thus, an adequate account of utility-informed inferences conditional reasoning requires three components: utility, probability, and causal structure. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Efficient Design And Fabrication Of Free-Form Reciprocal Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2013-01-01
Structures based on the principle of reciprocity have been autonomously studied and used since the antiquity on the basis of different needs and purposes. The application of the principle of reciprocity requires the presence of at least two elements, at the same time both supporting and being sup...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Parrado, Alfonso; Sanchez, Miguel
2005-01-01
Recently (Garcia-Parrado and Senovilla 2003 Class. Quantum Grav. 20 625-64) the concept of causal mapping between spacetimes, essentially equivalent in this context to the chronological map defined in abstract chronological spaces, and the related notion of causal structure, have been introduced as new tools to study causality in Lorentzian geometry. In the present paper, these tools are further developed in several directions such as (i) causal mappings-and, thus, abstract chronological ones-do not preserve two levels of the standard hierarchy of causality conditions (however, they preserve the remaining levels as shown in the above reference), (ii) even though global hyperbolicity is a stable property (in the set of all time-oriented Lorentzian metrics on a fixed manifold), the causal structure of a globally hyperbolic spacetime can be unstable against perturbations; in fact, we show that the causal structures of Minkowski and Einstein static spacetimes remain stable, whereas that of de Sitter becomes unstable, (iii) general criteria allow us to discriminate different causal structures in some general spacetimes (e.g. globally hyperbolic, stationary standard); in particular, there are infinitely many different globally hyperbolic causal structures (and thus, different conformal ones) on R 2 (iv) plane waves with the same number of positive eigenvalues in the frequency matrix share the same causal structure and, thus, they have equal causal extensions and causal boundaries
Structure induction in diagnostic causal reasoning.
Meder, Björn; Mayrhofer, Ralf; Waldmann, Michael R
2014-07-01
Our research examines the normative and descriptive adequacy of alternative computational models of diagnostic reasoning from single effects to single causes. Many theories of diagnostic reasoning are based on the normative assumption that inferences from an effect to its cause should reflect solely the empirically observed conditional probability of cause given effect. We argue against this assumption, as it neglects alternative causal structures that may have generated the sample data. Our structure induction model of diagnostic reasoning takes into account the uncertainty regarding the underlying causal structure. A key prediction of the model is that diagnostic judgments should not only reflect the empirical probability of cause given effect but should also depend on the reasoner's beliefs about the existence and strength of the link between cause and effect. We confirmed this prediction in 2 studies and showed that our theory better accounts for human judgments than alternative theories of diagnostic reasoning. Overall, our findings support the view that in diagnostic reasoning people go "beyond the information given" and use the available data to make inferences on the (unobserved) causal rather than on the (observed) data level. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
The Effect of Reciprocity Norms on Moral Judgment and Causal Attribution
Berndt, Thomas J.
1977-01-01
Kindergarten children and adults were shown slides with an accompanying taped soundtrack which portrayed reciprocal and nonreciprocal aggressive and prosocial interactions. Following each episode, subjects' evaluations of the actor and their attributions concerning the cause of his behavior were obtained. (Author/JMB)
Bending-active reciprocal structures based on equilateral polyhedral geometries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Popovic Larsen, Olga; BRANCART, Stijn; DE TEMMERMAN, Niels
2017-01-01
As mutually supported beam structures, reciprocal frames limit the number of components that are joined at each connection to two. However, this system of intermediate connections introduces undesirable bending moments in the beam elements. By utilising elastic deformation to create curved...... of parts of reciprocal bending-active components based on a selection of polyhedral dome types. To simplify the assembly of the structures and avoid the manual bending of the components on site, we introduce the concept of a double-layered, pre-bent component. Finally, this paper presents the development...
High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pantleon, Wolfgang; Wejdemann, Christian; Jakobsen, Bo
2014-01-01
With high-angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD), quantitative information is gained about dislocation structures in individual grains in the bulk of a macroscopic specimen by acquiring reciprocal space maps. In high-resolution 3D reciprocal space maps of tensile......-deformed copper, individual, almost dislocation-free subgrains are identified from high-intensity peaks and distinguished by their unique combination of orientation and elastic strain; dislocation walls manifest themselves as a smooth cloud of lower intensity. The elastic strain shows only minor variations within...... dynamics is followed in situ during varying loading conditions by reciprocal space mapping: during uninterrupted tensile deformation, formation of subgrains is observed concurrently with broadening of Bragg reflections shortly after the onset of plastic deformation. When the traction is terminated, stress...
Temporal and Statistical Information in Causal Structure Learning
McCormack, Teresa; Frosch, Caren; Patrick, Fiona; Lagnado, David
2015-01-01
Three experiments examined children's and adults' abilities to use statistical and temporal information to distinguish between common cause and causal chain structures. In Experiment 1, participants were provided with conditional probability information and/or temporal information and asked to infer the causal structure of a 3-variable mechanical…
Non-Gaussian Methods for Causal Structure Learning.
Shimizu, Shohei
2018-05-22
Causal structure learning is one of the most exciting new topics in the fields of machine learning and statistics. In many empirical sciences including prevention science, the causal mechanisms underlying various phenomena need to be studied. Nevertheless, in many cases, classical methods for causal structure learning are not capable of estimating the causal structure of variables. This is because it explicitly or implicitly assumes Gaussianity of data and typically utilizes only the covariance structure. In many applications, however, non-Gaussian data are often obtained, which means that more information may be contained in the data distribution than the covariance matrix is capable of containing. Thus, many new methods have recently been proposed for using the non-Gaussian structure of data and inferring the causal structure of variables. This paper introduces prevention scientists to such causal structure learning methods, particularly those based on the linear, non-Gaussian, acyclic model known as LiNGAM. These non-Gaussian data analysis tools can fully estimate the underlying causal structures of variables under assumptions even in the presence of unobserved common causes. This feature is in contrast to other approaches. A simulated example is also provided.
Non-Bayesian Inference: Causal Structure Trumps Correlation
Bes, Benedicte; Sloman, Steven; Lucas, Christopher G.; Raufaste, Eric
2012-01-01
The study tests the hypothesis that conditional probability judgments can be influenced by causal links between the target event and the evidence even when the statistical relations among variables are held constant. Three experiments varied the causal structure relating three variables and found that (a) the target event was perceived as more…
Yu, Ge; Sessions, John G; Fu, Yu; Wall, Martin
2015-10-01
We investigated the reciprocal relationship between individual social capital and perceived mental and physical health in the UK. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2008, we fitted cross-lagged structural equation models that include three indicators of social capital vis. social participation, social network, and loneliness. Given that multiple measurement points (level 1) are nested within individuals (level 2), we also applied a multilevel model to allow for residual variation in the outcomes at the occasion and individual levels. Controlling for gender, age, employment status, educational attainment, marital status, household wealth, and region, our analyses suggest that social participation predicts subsequent change in perceived mental health, and vice versa. However, whilst loneliness is found to be significantly related to perceived mental and physical health, reciprocal causality is not found for perceived mental health. Furthermore, we find evidence for reverse effects with both perceived mental and physical health appearing to be the dominant causal factor with respect to the prospective level of social network. Our findings thus shed further light on the importance of social participation and social inclusion in health promotion and aid the development of more effective public health policies in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Causal Foundations of Structural Equation Modeling
2012-02-16
and Baumrind (1993).” This, together with the steady influx of statisticians into the field, has left SEM re- searchers in a quandary about the...considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 1173–1182. Baumrind , D. (1993). Specious causal attributions in social sciences: The
Hybrid Optimization in the Design of Reciprocal Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sassone, Mario
2012-01-01
that explore the global domain of solutions as genetic algorithms (GAs). The benchmark tests show that when the control on the topology is required the best result is obtained by a hybrid approach that combines the global search of the GA with the local search of a GB algorithm. The optimization method......The paper presents a method to generate the geometry of reciprocal structures by means of a hybrid optimization procedure. The geometry of reciprocal structures where elements are sitting on the top or in the bottom of each other is extremely difficult to predict because of the non....... In this paper it is shown that the geometrically compatible position of the elements could be determined by local search algorithm gradient-based (GB). However the control on which bar sit on the top or in the bottom at each connection can be regarded as a topological problem and require the use of algorithms...
The causal structure of spacetime is a parameterized Randers geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skakala, Jozef; Visser, Matt, E-mail: jozef.skakala@msor.vuw.ac.nz, E-mail: matt.visser@msor.vuw.ac.nz [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)
2011-03-21
There is a well-established isomorphism between stationary four-dimensional spacetimes and three-dimensional purely spatial Randers geometries-these Randers geometries being a particular case of the more general class of three-dimensional Finsler geometries. We point out that in stably causal spacetimes, by using the (time-dependent) ADM decomposition, this result can be extended to general non-stationary spacetimes-the causal structure (conformal structure) of the full spacetime is completely encoded in a parameterized (t-dependent) class of Randers spaces, which can then be used to define a Fermat principle, and also to reconstruct the null cones and causal structure.
The causal structure of spacetime is a parameterized Randers geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skakala, Jozef; Visser, Matt
2011-01-01
There is a well-established isomorphism between stationary four-dimensional spacetimes and three-dimensional purely spatial Randers geometries-these Randers geometries being a particular case of the more general class of three-dimensional Finsler geometries. We point out that in stably causal spacetimes, by using the (time-dependent) ADM decomposition, this result can be extended to general non-stationary spacetimes-the causal structure (conformal structure) of the full spacetime is completely encoded in a parameterized (t-dependent) class of Randers spaces, which can then be used to define a Fermat principle, and also to reconstruct the null cones and causal structure.
Three-dimensional Reciprocal Structures: Morphology, Concepts, Generative Rules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Pugnale, Alberto
2012-01-01
, causing every configuration to develop naturally out-of the plane. The structures presented here were developed and built by the students of the Master of Science in “Architectural Design” during a two week long workshop organized at Aalborg University in the fall semester 2011.......This paper present seven different three dimensional structures based on the principle of structural reciprocity with superimposition joint and standardized un-notched elements. Such typology could be regarded as being intrinsically three-dimensional because elements sit one of the top of the other...
Robustness Analysis of Typologies of Reciprocal Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Parigi, Dario
2013-01-01
to the future development of typologies of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kinds of structures can have a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern building...... codes consider the need for robustness in structures and provides strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper outlines robustness issues related...
On the causal structure between CO2 and global temperature
Stips, Adolf; Macias, Diego; Coughlan, Clare; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Liang, X. San
2016-01-01
We use a newly developed technique that is based on the information flow concept to investigate the causal structure between the global radiative forcing and the annual global mean surface temperature anomalies (GMTA) since 1850. Our study unambiguously shows one-way causality between the total Greenhouse Gases and GMTA. Specifically, it is confirmed that the former, especially CO2, are the main causal drivers of the recent warming. A significant but smaller information flow comes from aerosol direct and indirect forcing, and on short time periods, volcanic forcings. In contrast the causality contribution from natural forcings (solar irradiance and volcanic forcing) to the long term trend is not significant. The spatial explicit analysis reveals that the anthropogenic forcing fingerprint is significantly regionally varying in both hemispheres. On paleoclimate time scales, however, the cause-effect direction is reversed: temperature changes cause subsequent CO2/CH4 changes. PMID:26900086
Whose statistical reasoning is facilitated by a causal structure intervention?
McNair, Simon; Feeney, Aidan
2015-02-01
People often struggle when making Bayesian probabilistic estimates on the basis of competing sources of statistical evidence. Recently, Krynski and Tenenbaum (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 430-450, 2007) proposed that a causal Bayesian framework accounts for peoples' errors in Bayesian reasoning and showed that, by clarifying the causal relations among the pieces of evidence, judgments on a classic statistical reasoning problem could be significantly improved. We aimed to understand whose statistical reasoning is facilitated by the causal structure intervention. In Experiment 1, although we observed causal facilitation effects overall, the effect was confined to participants high in numeracy. We did not find an overall facilitation effect in Experiment 2 but did replicate the earlier interaction between numerical ability and the presence or absence of causal content. This effect held when we controlled for general cognitive ability and thinking disposition. Our results suggest that clarifying causal structure facilitates Bayesian judgments, but only for participants with sufficient understanding of basic concepts in probability and statistics.
Tensor products of process matrices with indefinite causal structure
Jia, Ding; Sakharwade, Nitica
2018-03-01
Theories with indefinite causal structure have been studied from both the fundamental perspective of quantum gravity and the practical perspective of information processing. In this paper we point out a restriction in forming tensor products of objects with indefinite causal structure in certain models: there exist both classical and quantum objects the tensor products of which violate the normalization condition of probabilities, if all local operations are allowed. We obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for when such unrestricted tensor products of multipartite objects are (in)valid. This poses a challenge to extending communication theory to indefinite causal structures, as the tensor product is the fundamental ingredient in the asymptotic setting of communication theory. We discuss a few options to evade this issue. In particular, we show that the sequential asymptotic setting does not suffer the violation of normalization.
Information–theoretic implications of quantum causal structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chaves, Rafael; Majenz, Christian; Gross, David
2015-01-01
. However, no systematic method is known for treating such problems in a way that generalizes to quantum systems. Here, we describe a general algorithm for computing information–theoretic constraints on the correlations that can arise from a given causal structure, where we allow for quantum systems as well...... as classical random variables. The general technique is applied to two relevant cases: first, we show that the principle of information causality appears naturally in our framework and go on to generalize and strengthen it. Second, we derive bounds on the correlations that can occur in a networked architecture......It is a relatively new insight of classical statistics that empirical data can contain information about causation rather than mere correlation. First algorithms have been proposed that are capable of testing whether a presumed causal relationship is compatible with an observed distribution...
Causal gene identification using combinatorial V-structure search.
Cai, Ruichu; Zhang, Zhenjie; Hao, Zhifeng
2013-07-01
With the advances of biomedical techniques in the last decade, the costs of human genomic sequencing and genomic activity monitoring are coming down rapidly. To support the huge genome-based business in the near future, researchers are eager to find killer applications based on human genome information. Causal gene identification is one of the most promising applications, which may help the potential patients to estimate the risk of certain genetic diseases and locate the target gene for further genetic therapy. Unfortunately, existing pattern recognition techniques, such as Bayesian networks, cannot be directly applied to find the accurate causal relationship between genes and diseases. This is mainly due to the insufficient number of samples and the extremely high dimensionality of the gene space. In this paper, we present the first practical solution to causal gene identification, utilizing a new combinatorial formulation over V-Structures commonly used in conventional Bayesian networks, by exploring the combinations of significant V-Structures. We prove the NP-hardness of the combinatorial search problem under a general settings on the significance measure on the V-Structures, and present a greedy algorithm to find sub-optimal results. Extensive experiments show that our proposal is both scalable and effective, particularly with interesting findings on the causal genes over real human genome data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Structural Implications of Reciprocal Exchange: A Power-Dependence Approach
Bonacich, Phillip; Bienenstock, Elisa Jayne
2009-01-01
This paper presents and tests a general model to predict emergent exchange patterns and power differences in reciprocal exchange networks when individual actors follow the norm of reciprocity. With an interesting qualification, the experimental results reported here support the power-dependence approach (Emerson 1972a, b): those who acquire the…
Advances in Design and Fabrication of Free-Form Reciprocal Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario
2016-01-01
The paper presents the advances in design and fabrication of free-form Reciprocal Structures, and their application a during a one-week long workshop with the students of the 1st semester of the Master of Science in Architecture and Design, fall 2015, at Aalborg University. Two new factors were...... introduced and tested: a new version of the software Reciprocalizer, and an evolution of the Reciprocalizer Robot. The workshop didactic framework Performance Aided/Assisted Design (PAD) is presented....
Osaka, Kengo; Toriumi, Fujio; Sugawara, Toshihauru
2017-01-01
Social networking services (SNSs) are widely used as communicative tools for a variety of purposes. SNSs rely on the users' individual activities associated with some cost and effort, and thus it is not known why users voluntarily continue to participate in SNSs. Because the structures of SNSs are similar to that of the public goods (PG) game, some studies have focused on why voluntary activities emerge as an optimal strategy by modifying the PG game. However, their models do not include direct reciprocity between users, even though reciprocity is a key mechanism that evolves and sustains cooperation in human society. We developed an abstract SNS model called the reciprocity rewards and meta-rewards games that include direct reciprocity by extending the existing models. Then, we investigated how direct reciprocity in an SNS facilitates cooperation that corresponds to participation in SNS by posting articles and comments and how the structure of the networks of users exerts an influence on the strategies of users using the reciprocity rewards game. We run reciprocity rewards games on various complex networks and an instance network of Facebook and found that two types of stable cooperation emerged. First, reciprocity slightly improves the rate of cooperation in complete graphs but the improvement is insignificant because of the instability of cooperation. However, this instability can be avoided by making two assumptions: high degree of fun, i.e. articles are read with high probability, and different attitudes to reciprocal and non-reciprocal agents. We then propose the concept of half free riders to explain what strategy sustains cooperation-dominant situations. Second, we indicate that a certain WS network structure affects users' optimal strategy and facilitates stable cooperation without any extra assumptions. We give a detailed analysis of the different characteristics of the two types of cooperation-dominant situations and the effect of the memory of
Rapid characterization of a nanomaterial structure using X-ray reciprocal-lattice-space imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakata, Osami; Yoshimoto, Mamoru; Miki, Kazushi
2006-01-01
The X-ray reciprocal-lattice-space imaging method is able to record the reciprocal-lattice-space of nanostructure by sample-and-detector fixed geometry. This method was developed by the surface structure analysis beam line BL13XU of SPring-8. Outline of the X-ray diffraction method and basic principles of the X-ray reciprocal-lattice-space imaging method, and application examples are stated. The method is able to find out the Bragg conditions of nanostructure of surface in the atmosphere. The reciprocal-lattice of the embedded trace atomic wires was observed. The trace atoms of Bi atomic wires embedded in silicone showed the diffraction signal and image by a short exposure time. This method is useful at rapid non-destructive measurement of nanostructure. (S.Y.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Yi; Chen, Yaohui; Hu, Hao
2015-01-01
We suggest and experimentally demonstrate a photonic-crystal structure with more than 30 dB difference between forward and backward transmission levels. The non-reciprocity relies on the combination of ultrafast carrier nonlinearities and spatial symmetry breaking in a Fano structure employing...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diederichs, Annika M.; Thiel, Felix; Lienert, Ulrich
2017-01-01
dislocation structures can be identified using advanced electron microscopy and synchrotron techniques. A detailed characterization of the microstructure during cyclic loading by in-situ monitoring the internal structure within individual grains with high energy x-rays can help to understand and predict...... the materials behavior during cyclic deformation and to improve the material design. While monitoring macroscopic stress and strain during cyclic loading, reciprocal space maps of diffraction peaks from single grains are obtained with high resolution. High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping was applied...
The causal structure of dynamical charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Sungwook E; Hwang, Dong-il; Stewart, Ewan D; Yeom, Dong-han
2010-01-01
We study the causal structure of dynamical charged black holes, with a sufficient number of massless fields, using numerical simulations. Neglecting Hawking radiation, the inner horizon is a null Cauchy horizon and a curvature singularity due to mass inflation. When we include Hawking radiation, the inner horizon becomes space-like and is separated from the Cauchy horizon, which is parallel to the out-going null direction. Since a charged black hole must eventually transit to a neutral black hole, we studied the neutralization of the black hole and observed that the inner horizon evolves into a space-like singularity, generating a Cauchy horizon which is parallel to the in-going null direction. Since the mass function is finite around the inner horizon, the inner horizon is regular and penetrable in a general relativistic sense. However, since the curvature functions become trans-Planckian, we cannot say more about the region beyond the inner horizon, and it is natural to say that there is a 'physical' space-like singularity. However, if we assume an exponentially large number of massless scalar fields, our results can be extended beyond the inner horizon. In this case, strong cosmic censorship and black hole complementarity can be violated.
The causal structure of dynamical charged black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Sungwook E; Hwang, Dong-il; Stewart, Ewan D; Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: eostm@muon.kaist.ac.k, E-mail: enotsae@gmail.co, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.k [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2010-02-21
We study the causal structure of dynamical charged black holes, with a sufficient number of massless fields, using numerical simulations. Neglecting Hawking radiation, the inner horizon is a null Cauchy horizon and a curvature singularity due to mass inflation. When we include Hawking radiation, the inner horizon becomes space-like and is separated from the Cauchy horizon, which is parallel to the out-going null direction. Since a charged black hole must eventually transit to a neutral black hole, we studied the neutralization of the black hole and observed that the inner horizon evolves into a space-like singularity, generating a Cauchy horizon which is parallel to the in-going null direction. Since the mass function is finite around the inner horizon, the inner horizon is regular and penetrable in a general relativistic sense. However, since the curvature functions become trans-Planckian, we cannot say more about the region beyond the inner horizon, and it is natural to say that there is a 'physical' space-like singularity. However, if we assume an exponentially large number of massless scalar fields, our results can be extended beyond the inner horizon. In this case, strong cosmic censorship and black hole complementarity can be violated.
From Ordinary Differential Equations to Structural Causal Models: the deterministic case
Mooij, J.M.; Janzing, D.; Schölkopf, B.; Nicholson, A.; Smyth, P.
2013-01-01
We show how, and under which conditions, the equilibrium states of a first-order Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) system can be described with a deterministic Structural Causal Model (SCM). Our exposition sheds more light on the concept of causality as expressed within the framework of
Multistage Effort and the Equity Structure of Venture Investment Based on Reciprocity Motivation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuan Ding
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For venture capitals, it is a long process from an entry to its exit. In this paper, the activity of venture investment will be divided into multistages. And, according to the effort level entrepreneurs will choose, the venture capitalists will provide an equity structure at the very beginning. As a benchmark for comparison, we will establish two game models on multistage investment under perfect rationality: a cooperative game model and a noncooperative one. Further, as a cause of pervasive psychological preference behavior, reciprocity motivation will influence the behavior of the decision-makers. Given this situation, Rabin’s reciprocity motivation theory will be applied to the multistage game model of the venture investment, and multistage behavior game model will be established as well, based on the reciprocity motivation. By looking into the theoretical derivations and simulation studies, we find that if venture capitalists and entrepreneurs both have reciprocity preferences, their utility would have been Pareto improvement compared with those under perfect rationality.
Sessions, John; Yu, Ge; Fu, Yu; Wall, Matin
2015-01-01
We investigated the reciprocal relationship between individual social capital and perceived mental and physical health in the UK. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2008, we fitted cross-lagged structural equation models that include three indicators of social capital vis. social participation, social network, and loneliness. Given that multiple measurement points (level 1) are nested within individuals (level 2), we also applied a multilevel model to allow for re...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuhnert, Barbara; Lindner, Felix; Bentzen, Martin Mose
We introduce causal agency models as a modeling technique for representing and reasoning about ethical dilemmas. We find that ethical dilemmas, although they look similar on the surface, have very different causal structures. Based on their structural properties, as identified by the causal agency...... models, we cluster a set of dilemmas in Type 1 and Type 2 dilemmas. We observe that for Type 2 dilemmas but not for Type 1 dilemmas a utilitarian action dominates the possibility of refraining from action. Hence, we hypothesize, based on the model, that Type 2 dilemmas are perceived as less difficult...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawking, S.W.; King, A.R.; McCarthy, P.J.
1976-01-01
A new topology is proposed for strongly causal space--times. Unlike the standard manifold topology (which merely characterizes continuity properties), the new topology determines the causal, differential, and conformal structures of space--time. The topology is more appealing, physical, and manageable than the topology previously proposed by Zeeman for Minkowski space. It thus seems that many calculations involving the above structures may be made purely topological
Which causal structures might support a quantum-classical gap?
Pienaar, Jacques
2017-04-01
A causal scenario is a graph that describes the cause and effect relationships between all relevant variables in an experiment. A scenario is deemed ‘not interesting’ if there is no device-independent way to distinguish the predictions of classical physics from any generalised probabilistic theory (including quantum mechanics). Conversely, an interesting scenario is one in which there exists a gap between the predictions of different operational probabilistic theories, as occurs for example in Bell-type experiments. Henson, Lal and Pusey (HLP) recently proposed a sufficient condition for a causal scenario to not be interesting. In this paper we supplement their analysis with some new techniques and results. We first show that existing graphical techniques due to Evans can be used to confirm by inspection that many graphs are interesting without having to explicitly search for inequality violations. For three exceptional cases—the graphs numbered \\#15,16,20 in HLP—we show that there exist non-Shannon type entropic inequalities that imply these graphs are interesting. In doing so, we find that existing methods of entropic inequalities can be greatly enhanced by conditioning on the specific values of certain variables.
Reciprocity of weighted networks.
Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego
2013-01-01
In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation.
Non-reciprocal wave propagation in one-dimensional nonlinear periodic structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benbiao Luo
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We study a one-dimensional nonlinear periodic structure which contains two different spring stiffness and an identical mass in each period. The linear dispersion relationship we obtain indicates that our periodic structure has obvious advantages compared to other kinds of periodic structures (i.e. those with the same spring stiffness but two different mass, including its increased flexibility for manipulating the band gap. Theoretically, the optical cutoff frequency remains unchanged while the acoustic cutoff frequency shifts to a lower or higher frequency. A numerical simulation verifies the dispersion relationship and the effect of the amplitude-dependent signal filter. Based upon this, we design a device which contains both a linear periodic structure and a nonlinear periodic structure. When incident waves with the same, large amplitude pass through it from opposite directions, the output amplitude of the forward input is one order magnitude larger than that of the reverse input. Our devised, non-reciprocal device can potentially act as an acoustic diode (AD without an electrical circuit and frequency shifting. Our result represents a significant step forwards in the research of non-reciprocal wave manipulation.
An examination of a reciprocal relationship between network governance and network structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergenholtz, Carsten; Goduscheit, René Chester
The present article examines the network structure and governance of inter-organisational innovation networks. Network governance refers to the issue of how to manage and coordinate the relational activities and processes in the network while research on network structure deals with the overall...... structural relations between the actors in the network. These streams of research do contain references to each other but mostly rely on a static conception of the relationship between network structure and the applied network governance. The paper is based on a primarily qualitative case study of a loosely...... coupled Danish inter-organisational innovation network. The proposition is that a reciprocal relation between network governance and network structure can be identified....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoriev, Victor; Biancalana, Fabio
2010-01-01
The nonlinear properties of quasi-periodic photonic crystals based on the Thue-Morse sequence are investigated. The intrinsic spatial asymmetry of these one-dimensional structures for odd generation numbers results in bistability thresholds, which are sensitive to the propagation direction. Along with resonances of perfect transmission, this feature allows us to achieve strongly non-reciprocal propagation and to create an all-optical diode. The salient qualitative features of such optical diode action are readily explained through a simple coupled resonator model. The efficiency of a passive scheme that does not necessitate an additional short pump signal is compared to an active scheme where such a signal is required.
Ellis, George FR; Pabjan, Tadeusz
2013-01-01
Written by philosophers, cosmologists, and physicists, this collection of essays deals with causality, which is a core issue for both science and philosophy. Readers will learn about different types of causality in complex systems and about new perspectives on this issue based on physical and cosmological considerations. In addition, the book includes essays pertaining to the problem of causality in ancient Greek philosophy, and to the problem of God's relation to the causal structures of nature viewed in the light of contemporary physics and cosmology.
Denotational, Causal, and Operational Determinism in Event Structures
Rensink, Arend; Kirchner, H.
1996-01-01
Determinism of labelled transition systems and trees is a concept of theoretical and practical importance. We study its generalisation to event structures. It turns out that the result depends on what characterising property of tree determinism one sets out to generalise. We present three distinct
Denotational, Causal, and Operational Determinism in Event Structures
Rensink, Arend
Determinism is a theoretically and practically important concept in labelled transition systems and trees. We study its generalisation to event structures. It turns out that the result depends on what characterising property of tree determinism one sets out to generalise. We present three distinct
Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Bolton, Harvey; Fansler, Sarah; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Liu, Chongxuan; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeffrey; Bailey, Vanessa
2016-01-01
The effects of climate change on soil organic matter-its structure, microbial community, carbon storage, and respiration response-remain uncertain and widely debated. In addition, the effects of climate changes on ecosystem structure and function are often modulated or delayed, meaning that short-term experiments are not sufficient to characterize ecosystem responses. This study capitalized on a long-term reciprocal soil transplant experiment to examine the response of dryland soils to climate change. The two transplant sites were separated by 500 m of elevation on the same mountain slope in eastern Washington state, USA, and had similar plant species and soil types. We resampled the original 1994 soil transplants and controls, measuring CO2 production, temperature response, enzyme activity, and bacterial community structure after 17 years. Over a laboratory incubation of 100 days, reciprocally transplanted soils respired roughly equal cumulative amounts of carbon as non-transplanted controls from the same site. Soils transplanted from the hot, dry, lower site to the cooler and wetter (difference of -5°C monthly maximum air temperature, +50 mm yr-1 precipitation) upper site exhibited almost no respiratory response to temperature (Q10 of 1.1), but soils originally from the upper, cooler site had generally higher respiration rates. The bacterial community structure of transplants did not differ significantly from that of untransplanted controls, however. Slight differences in local climate between the upper and lower Rattlesnake locations, simulated with environmental control chambers during the incubation, thus prompted significant differences in microbial activity, with no observed change to bacterial structure. These results support the idea that environmental shifts can influence soil C through metabolic changes, and suggest that microbial populations responsible for soil heterotrophic respiration may be constrained in surprising ways, even as shorter- and
Davydyan, Garri
2015-12-01
The evolution of biologic systems (BS) includes functional mechanisms that in some conditions may lead to the development of cancer. Using mathematical group theory and matrix analysis, previously, it was shown that normally functioning BS are steady functional structures regulated by three basis regulatory components: reciprocal links (RL), negative feedback (NFB) and positive feedback (PFB). Together, they form an integrative unit maintaining system's autonomy and functional stability. It is proposed that phylogenetic development of different species is implemented by the splitting of "rudimentary" characters into two relatively independent functional parts that become encoded in chromosomes. The functional correlate of splitting mechanisms is RL. Inversion of phylogenetic mechanisms during ontogenetic development leads cell differentiation until cells reach mature states. Deterioration of reciprocal structure in the genome during ontogenesis gives rise of pathological conditions characterized by unsteadiness of the system. Uncontrollable cell proliferation and invasive cell growth are the leading features of the functional outcomes of malfunctioning systems. The regulatory element responsible for these changes is RL. In matrix language, pathological regulation is represented by matrices having positive values of diagonal elements ( TrA > 0) and also positive values of matrix determinant ( detA > 0). Regulatory structures of that kind can be obtained if the negative entry of the matrix corresponding to RL is replaced with the positive one. To describe not only normal but also pathological states of BS, a unit matrix should be added to the basis matrices representing RL, NFB and PFB. A mathematical structure corresponding to the set of these four basis functional patterns (matrices) is a split quaternion (coquaternion). The structure and specific role of basis elements comprising four-dimensional linear space of split quaternions help to understand what
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wejdemann, Christian
or to a strain of 7% at a temperature of -196 ○C, and the samples were characterized by electron microscopy and mechanical tests. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the pre-deformation produced a characteristic dislocation cell structure consisting of regions with relatively high dislocation density...... the pre-deformation axis. In the X-ray diffraction experiments a technique was employed with which it is possible to obtain high-resolution reciprocal space maps from individual bulk grains. The high-resolution reciprocal space maps contain features related to the dislocation structure in the grains......: A spread-out ‘cloud’ of low intensity caused by diffraction from the dislocation walls and a number of sharp peaks of high intensity caused by diffraction from the individual subgrains. By acquiring reciprocal space maps at a number of different strain levels the evolution of the dislocation structures can...
Babaei, Sepideh; Geranmayeh, Amir; Seyyedsalehi, Seyyed Ali
2010-12-01
The supervised learning of recurrent neural networks well-suited for prediction of protein secondary structures from the underlying amino acids sequence is studied. Modular reciprocal recurrent neural networks (MRR-NN) are proposed to model the strong correlations between adjacent secondary structure elements. Besides, a multilayer bidirectional recurrent neural network (MBR-NN) is introduced to capture the long-range intramolecular interactions between amino acids in formation of the secondary structure. The final modular prediction system is devised based on the interactive integration of the MRR-NN and the MBR-NN structures to arbitrarily engage the neighboring effects of the secondary structure types concurrent with memorizing the sequential dependencies of amino acids along the protein chain. The advanced combined network augments the percentage accuracy (Q₃) to 79.36% and boosts the segment overlap (SOV) up to 70.09% when tested on the PSIPRED dataset in three-fold cross-validation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Structure and Connectivity Analysis of Financial Complex System Based on G-Causality Network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Chuan-Ming; Yan Yan; Zhu Xiao-Wu; Li Xiao-Teng; Chen Xiao-Song
2013-01-01
The recent financial crisis highlights the inherent weaknesses of the financial market. To explore the mechanism that maintains the financial market as a system, we study the interactions of U.S. financial market from the network perspective. Applied with conditional Granger causality network analysis, network density, in-degree and out-degree rankings are important indicators to analyze the conditional causal relationships among financial agents, and further to assess the stability of U.S. financial systems. It is found that the topological structure of G-causality network in U.S. financial market changed in different stages over the last decade, especially during the recent global financial crisis. Network density of the G-causality model is much higher during the period of 2007–2009 crisis stage, and it reaches the peak value in 2008, the most turbulent time in the crisis. Ranked by in-degrees and out-degrees, insurance companies are listed in the top of 68 financial institutions during the crisis. They act as the hubs which are more easily influenced by other financial institutions and simultaneously influence others during the global financial disturbance. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Structure and Connectivity Analysis of Financial Complex System Based on G-Causality Network
Xu, Chuan-Ming; Yan, Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Wu; Li, Xiao-Teng; Chen, Xiao-Song
2013-11-01
The recent financial crisis highlights the inherent weaknesses of the financial market. To explore the mechanism that maintains the financial market as a system, we study the interactions of U.S. financial market from the network perspective. Applied with conditional Granger causality network analysis, network density, in-degree and out-degree rankings are important indicators to analyze the conditional causal relationships among financial agents, and further to assess the stability of U.S. financial systems. It is found that the topological structure of G-causality network in U.S. financial market changed in different stages over the last decade, especially during the recent global financial crisis. Network density of the G-causality model is much higher during the period of 2007-2009 crisis stage, and it reaches the peak value in 2008, the most turbulent time in the crisis. Ranked by in-degrees and out-degrees, insurance companies are listed in the top of 68 financial institutions during the crisis. They act as the hubs which are more easily influenced by other financial institutions and simultaneously influence others during the global financial disturbance.
Towards quantum gravity: a framework for probabilistic theories with non-fixed causal structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardy, Lucien
2007-01-01
General relativity is a deterministic theory with non-fixed causal structure. Quantum theory is a probabilistic theory with fixed causal structure. In this paper, we build a framework for probabilistic theories with non-fixed causal structure. This combines the radical elements of general relativity and quantum theory. We adopt an operational methodology for the purposes of theory construction (though without committing to operationalism as a fundamental philosophy). The key idea in the construction is physical compression. A physical theory relates quantities. Thus, if we specify a sufficiently large set of quantities (this is the compressed set), we can calculate all the others. We apply three levels of physical compression. First, we apply it locally to quantities (actually probabilities) that might be measured in a particular region of spacetime. Then we consider composite regions. We find that there is a second level of physical compression for a composite region over and above the first level physical compression for the component regions. Each application of first and second level physical compression is quantified by a matrix. We find that these matrices themselves are related by the physical theory and can therefore be subject to compression. This is the third level of physical compression. The third level of physical compression gives rise to a new mathematical object which we call the causaloid. From the causaloid for a particular physical theory we can calculate everything the physical theory can calculate. This approach allows us to set up a framework for calculating probabilistic correlations in data without imposing a fixed causal structure (such as a background time). We show how to put quantum theory in this framework (thus providing a new formulation of this theory). We indicate how general relativity might be put into this framework and how the framework might be used to construct a theory of quantum gravity
Inoue, Y.; Tsuruoka, K.; Arikawa, M.
2014-04-01
In this paper, we proposed a user interface that displays visual animations on geographic maps and timelines for depicting historical stories by representing causal relationships among events for time series. We have been developing an experimental software system for the spatial-temporal visualization of historical stories for tablet computers. Our proposed system makes people effectively learn historical stories using visual animations based on hierarchical structures of different scale timelines and maps.
Fermion Systems in Discrete Space-Time Exemplifying the Spontaneous Generation of a Causal Structure
Diethert, A.; Finster, F.; Schiefeneder, D.
As toy models for space-time at the Planck scale, we consider examples of fermion systems in discrete space-time which are composed of one or two particles defined on two up to nine space-time points. We study the self-organization of the particles as described by a variational principle both analytically and numerically. We find an effect of spontaneous symmetry breaking which leads to the emergence of a discrete causal structure.
Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor
Goldowsky, M. P.
1984-01-01
Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.
From patterns to causal understanding: Structural equation modeling (SEM) in soil ecology
Eisenhauer, Nico; Powell, Jeff R; Grace, James B.; Bowker, Matthew A.
2015-01-01
In this perspectives paper we highlight a heretofore underused statistical method in soil ecological research, structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM is commonly used in the general ecological literature to develop causal understanding from observational data, but has been more slowly adopted by soil ecologists. We provide some basic information on the many advantages and possibilities associated with using SEM and provide some examples of how SEM can be used by soil ecologists to shift focus from describing patterns to developing causal understanding and inspiring new types of experimental tests. SEM is a promising tool to aid the growth of soil ecology as a discipline, particularly by supporting research that is increasingly hypothesis-driven and interdisciplinary, thus shining light into the black box of interactions belowground.
Song, Hui; Dai, Ye; Song, Juan; Ma, Hongliang; Yan, Xiaona; Ma, Guohong
2017-04-01
In this paper, we report a non-reciprocal writing process for inducing asymmetric microstructure using a femtosecond laser with tilted pulse fronts in fused silica. The shape of the induced microstructure at the focus closely depends on the laser scan direction. An elongated end is observed as a kind of structural difference between the written lines with two reverse scans along + x and - x, which further leads to a birefringence intensity difference. We also find a bifurcation in the head region of the induced microstructure between the written lines along x and y. That process results from the focal intensity distortion caused by the pulse front tilt by comparing the simulated intensity distribution with the experimental results. The current results demonstrate that the pulse front tilt not only affects the free electron excitation at the focus but also further distorts the shape of the induced microstructure during a high-energy femtosecond laser irradiation. These results offer a route to fabricate optical elements by changing the spatiotemporal characteristics of ultrashort pulses.
Misol, Malte; Haase, Thomas; Monner, Hans Peter; Sinapius, Michael
2014-10-01
This paper provides experimental results of an aircraft-relevant double panel structure mounted in a sound transmission loss facility. The primary structure of the double panel system is excited either by a stochastic point force or by a diffuse sound field synthesized in the reverberation room of the transmission loss facility. The secondary structure, which is connected to the frames of the primary structure, is augmented by actuators and sensors implementing an active feedforward control system. Special emphasis is placed on the causality of the active feedforward control system and its implications on the disturbance rejection at the error sensors. The coherence of the sensor signals is analyzed for the two different disturbance excitations. Experimental results are presented regarding the causality, coherence, and disturbance rejection of the active feedforward control system. Furthermore, the sound transmission loss of the double panel system is evaluated for different configurations of the active system. A principal result of this work is the evidence that it is possible to strongly influence the transmission of stochastic disturbance sources through double panel configurations by means of an active feedforward control system.
Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel
2013-08-01
Previous studies of parent-child reciprocity have focused either on the long term (generalized exchange over the life course) or on the short term (concurrent exchange in later life). The purpose of this research was to investigate the linkage between both temporal patterns of reciprocity within an integrative conceptual framework. We assessed whether long-term and short-term reciprocity operated as interdependent mechanisms that initially selected and subsequently relieved intergenerational caregiving relationships. We used data from the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old study (AHEAD) provided by frail, single-living parents of at least two children (N=1010 respondents comprising 3768 parent-child dyads). Fixed-effects conditional logit models estimated between-sibling differences in assistance provided to parents, measured by instrumental help (i.e., assistance with IADLs) and hands-on care (i.e., assistance with ADLs). Key predictors were two measures of financial transfers given to children referring to longer and shorter recall periods. Receiving earlier and current financial transfers increased adult children's propensity to support their parents in later life. The effect of earlier transfers pertained to help rather than care whereas the reverse was true for the effect of current transfers. We found no evidence for a linkage between long-term and short-term reciprocity. Overall, the results indicate that adult children might balance long-term support accounts relative to their siblings, suggesting an intra-generational orientation on equity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Causal structure and algebraic classification of non-dissipative linear optical media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuller, Frederic P.; Witte, Christof; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.
2010-01-01
In crystal optics and quantum electrodynamics in gravitational vacua, the propagation of light is not described by a metric, but an area metric geometry. In this article, this prompts us to study conditions for linear electrodynamics on area metric manifolds to be well-posed. This includes an identification of the timelike future cones and their duals associated to an area metric geometry, and thus paves the ground for a discussion of the related local and global causal structures in standard fashion. In order to provide simple algebraic criteria for an area metric manifold to present a consistent spacetime structure, we develop a complete algebraic classification of area metric tensors up to general transformations of frame. This classification, valuable in its own right, is then employed to prove a theorem excluding the majority of algebraic classes of area metrics as viable spacetimes. Physically, these results classify and drastically restrict the viable constitutive tensors of non-dissipative linear optical media.
Frisch, Mathias
2014-01-01
Much has been written on the role of causal notions and causal reasoning in the so-called 'special sciences' and in common sense. But does causal reasoning also play a role in physics? Mathias Frisch argues that, contrary to what influential philosophical arguments purport to show, the answer is yes. Time-asymmetric causal structures are as integral a part of the representational toolkit of physics as a theory's dynamical equations. Frisch develops his argument partly through a critique of anti-causal arguments and partly through a detailed examination of actual examples of causal notions in physics, including causal principles invoked in linear response theory and in representations of radiation phenomena. Offering a new perspective on the nature of scientific theories and causal reasoning, this book will be of interest to professional philosophers, graduate students, and anyone interested in the role of causal thinking in science.
Causal Models for Mediation Analysis: An Introduction to Structural Mean Models.
Zheng, Cheng; Atkins, David C; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Rhew, Isaac C
2015-01-01
Mediation analyses are critical to understanding why behavioral interventions work. To yield a causal interpretation, common mediation approaches must make an assumption of "sequential ignorability." The current article describes an alternative approach to causal mediation called structural mean models (SMMs). A specific SMM called a rank-preserving model (RPM) is introduced in the context of an applied example. Particular attention is given to the assumptions of both approaches to mediation. Applying both mediation approaches to the college student drinking data yield notable differences in the magnitude of effects. Simulated examples reveal instances in which the traditional approach can yield strongly biased results, whereas the RPM approach remains unbiased in these cases. At the same time, the RPM approach has its own assumptions that must be met for correct inference, such as the existence of a covariate that strongly moderates the effect of the intervention on the mediator and no unmeasured confounders that also serve as a moderator of the effect of the intervention or the mediator on the outcome. The RPM approach to mediation offers an alternative way to perform mediation analysis when there may be unmeasured confounders.
Rehder, Bob
2017-01-01
This article assesses how people reason with categories whose features are related in causal cycles. Whereas models based on causal graphical models (CGMs) have enjoyed success modeling category-based judgments as well as a number of other cognitive phenomena, CGMs are only able to represent causal structures that are acyclic. A number of new…
Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.
2011-01-01
Background A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice-versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Methods Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Results Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other “externalizing” disorders and some “internalizing” disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conclusions CD is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed
Coupled hydrodynamic-structure analysis of piston motion in reciprocating compressors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, Seung Ju; Cho, Jin Rae; Ryu, Sung Hyon
2003-01-01
The piston slap phenomenon is one of the major noise source of reciprocating compressors used in household electric appliances. In response to public demand, strict regulations are increasingly being imposed on the allowable noise level which is caused mostly by household electric appliances. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of suction and discharge valves are analytically calculated and the lubricant behavior between piston and cylinder are investigated using two-dimensional Reynolds equation. And the piston slap caused by the piston secondary motion is investigated by the finite element method
K-causal structure of space-time in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
1Department of Mathematics, St. Francis De Sales College, Nagpur 440 006, India. 2Department of Mathematics ... From the physical point of view, concept of causalities embodies the concept of time evolution, finite .... A K-causal open set O ⊆ V is globally hyperbolic iff for every pair of points p, q ∈ O, the interval K(p, ...
The continuum limit of causal fermion systems from Planck scale structures to macroscopic physics
Finster, Felix
2016-01-01
This monograph introduces the basic concepts of the theory of causal fermion systems, a recent approach to the description of fundamental physics. The theory yields quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases and is therefore a candidate for a unified physical theory. From the mathematical perspective, causal fermion systems provide a general framework for describing and analyzing non-smooth geometries and "quantum geometries". The dynamics is described by a novel variational principle, called the causal action principle. In addition to the basics, the book provides all the necessary mathematical background and explains how the causal action principle gives rise to the interactions of the standard model plus gravity on the level of second-quantized fermionic fields coupled to classical bosonic fields. The focus is on getting a mathematically sound connection between causal fermion systems and physical systems in Minkowski space. The book is intended for graduate students e...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aldridge, David F.
2014-11-01
A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories
Eliseev, A.A.; Gorozhankin, D.F.; Napolskii, K.S.; Petukhov, A.V.; Sapoletova, N.A.; Vasilieva, A.V.; Grigoryeva, N.A.; Mistonov, A.A.; Belov, D.V.; Bouwman, W.G.; Kvashnina, K.; Chernyshov, D.Y.; Bosak, A.A.; Grigoriev, S.V.
2009-01-01
The distribution of the scattering intensity in the reciprocal space for natural and artificial opals has been reconstructed from a set of small-angle X-ray diffraction patterns. The resulting three-dimensional intensity maps are used to analyze the defect structure of opals. The structure of
Modular localization and the holistic structure of causal quantum theory, a historical perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroer, Bert
2014-01-01
Recent insights into the conceptual structure of localization in QFT ('modular localization') led to clarifications of old unsolved problems. The oldest one is the Einstein-Jordan conundrum which led Jordan in 1925 to the discovery of quantum field theory. This comparison of fluctuations in subsystems of heat bath systems (Einstein) with those resulting from the restriction of the QFT vacuum state to an open subvolume (Jordan) leads to a perfect analogy; the globally pure vacuum state becomes upon local restriction a strongly impure KMS state. This phenomenon of localization-caused thermal behavior as well as the vacuum-polarization clouds at the causal boundary of the localization region places localization in QFT into a sharp contrast with quantum mechanics and justifies the attribute 'holstic'. In fact it positions the E-J Gedankenexperiment into the same conceptual category as the cosmological constant problem and the Unruh Gedankenexperiment. The holistic structure of QFT resulting from 'modular localization' also leads to a revision of the conceptual origin of the crucial crossing property which entered particle theory at the time of the bootstrap S-matrix approach but suffered from incorrect use in the S-matrix settings of the dual model and string theory. The new holistic point of view, which strengthens the autonomous aspect of QFT, also comes with new messages for gauge theory by exposing the clash between Hilbert space structure and localization and presenting alternative solutions based on the use of string local fields in Hilbert space. Among other things this leads to a radical reformulation of the Englert-Higgs symmetry breaking mechanism. (author)
The potential in general linear electrodynamics. Causal structure, propagators and quantization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siemssen, Daniel [Department of Mathematical Methods in Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw (Poland); Pfeifer, Christian [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM), Universitaet Bremen (Germany)
2016-07-01
From an axiomatic point of view, the fundamental input for a theory of electrodynamics are Maxwell's equations dF=0 (or F=dA) and dH=J, and a constitutive law H=F, which relates the field strength 2-form F and the excitation 2-form H. In this talk we consider general linear electrodynamics, the theory of electrodynamics defined by a linear constitutive law. The best known application of this theory is the effective description of electrodynamics inside (linear) media (e.g. birefringence). We analyze the classical theory of the electromagnetic potential A before we use methods familiar from mathematical quantum field theory in curved spacetimes to quantize it. Our analysis of the classical theory contains the derivation of retarded and advanced propagators, the analysis of the causal structure on the basis of the constitutive law (instead of a metric) and a discussion of the classical phase space. This classical analysis sets the stage for the construction of the quantum field algebra and quantum states, including a (generalized) microlocal spectrum condition.
Xie, F.; Nieter, J.; Lifson, A.; Reba, R.; Sishtla, V.
2017-08-01
For years compressor researchers have tried to account for the fluid interaction effect of the working fluid on valve motion in displacement compressors. In recent years, the computing capacities and available CFD and FEA programs have allowed fully coupled interaction of fluids and moving structures to be modelled more comprehensively. This paper describes our experience and results from developing a model of a multi-cylinder reciprocating piston compressor with suction and discharge valve systems that are fully coupled with the pressure pulsation in the adjacent plenum. Valve dynamics are captured by the model that affects compressor performance. The results show that higher running speed causes more discharge valve delay on closing due to higher pressure pulsation in discharge plenum. The acoustic property of the discharge plenum as it relates to valve motion is studied by the developed cost-effective standalone model.
Structural differences in reciprocal translocations. Potential for a model of risk in Rcp.
Daniel, A
1979-10-01
Interchange segment sizes and the sizes of chromosome imbalance arising from the different modes of meiotic segregation were measured in a selected sample of 20 reciprocal translocations (Rep). The Rep were selected by two modes of ascertainment: (I) neonates with an unbalanced form of the translocation, and (II) couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions without evidence of full-term translocation aneuploid offspring. The measurements (% of haploid autosomal length: %HAL) were plotted as the observed or potential chromosomal imbalance with monosomy (abscissa) and trisomy (ordinate). It was found that (a) the interchange segments were larger in the spontaneous abortion Rcp, (b) that all of the imbalances observed in full-term neonates plotted close to the origin and to the left of the line joining 4% trisomy to 2% monosomy, and (c) the imbalances observed in the neonates in each individual Rcp were of the smallest size possible arising by any segregation mode. It was concluded that a major factor in the survival to term of aneuploid conceptuses is the size (proportion of genome) of the chromosome abnormality, irrespective of the origin of the chromosome regions. These results are discussed in relation to their use as a model to evaluate the risk of abnormal offspring in the progeny of translocation heterozygotes (the Chromosome Imbalance Size-Viability Model).
Repeated causal decision making.
Hagmayer, York; Meder, Björn
2013-01-01
Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in such situations and how they use their knowledge to adapt to changes in the decision context. Our studies show that decision makers' behavior is strongly contingent on their causal beliefs and that people exploit their causal knowledge to assess the consequences of changes in the decision problem. A high consistency between hypotheses about causal structure, causally expected values, and actual choices was observed. The experiments show that (a) existing causal hypotheses guide the interpretation of decision feedback, (b) consequences of decisions are used to revise existing causal beliefs, and (c) decision makers use the experienced feedback to induce a causal model of the choice situation even when they have no initial causal hypotheses, which (d) enables them to adapt their choices to changes of the decision problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Chen, Stephanie Y; Urminsky, Oleg; Bartels, Daniel M
2016-10-01
Personal identity is an important determinant of behavior, yet how people mentally represent their self-concepts and their concepts of other people is not well understood. In the current studies, we examined the age-old question of what makes people who they are. We propose a novel approach to identity that suggests that the answer lies in people's beliefs about how the features of identity (e.g., memories, moral qualities, personality traits) are causally related to each other. We examined the impact of the causal centrality of a feature, a key determinant of the extent to which a feature defines a concept, on judgments of identity continuity. We found support for this approach in three experiments using both measured and manipulated causal centrality. For judgments both of one's self and of others, we found that some features are perceived to be more causally central than others and that changes in such causally central features are believed to be more disruptive to identity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dappiaggi, Claudio [Erwin Schroedinger Institut fuer Mathematische Physik, Wien (Austria); Pinamonti, Nicola [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Porrmann, Martin [KwaZulu-Natal Univ. (South Africa). Quantum Research Group, School of Physics; National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Durban (South Africa)
2010-01-15
In the framework of the algebraic formulation, we discuss and analyse some new features of the local structure of a real scalar quantum field theory in a strongly causal spacetime. In particular we use the properties of the exponential map to set up a local version of a bulk-to-boundary correspondence. The bulk is a suitable subset of a geodesic neighbourhood of any but fixed point p of the underlying background, while the boundary is a part of the future light cone having p as its own tip. In this regime, we provide a novel notion for the extended *-algebra of Wick polynomials on the said cone and, on the one hand, we prove that it contains the information of the bulk counterpart via an injective *-homomorphism while, on the other hand, we associate to it a distinguished state whose pull-back in the bulk is of Hadamard form. The main advantage of this point of view arises if one uses the universal properties of the exponential map and of the light cone in order to show that, for any two given backgrounds M and M{sup '} and for any two subsets of geodesic neighbourhoods of two arbitrary points, it is possible to engineer the above procedure such that the boundary extended algebras are related via a restriction homomorphism. This allows for the pull-back of boundary states in both spacetimes and, thus, to set up a machinery which permits the comparison of expectation values of local field observables in M and M{sup '}. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dappiaggi, Claudio; Pinamonti, Nicola
2010-01-01
In the framework of the algebraic formulation, we discuss and analyse some new features of the local structure of a real scalar quantum field theory in a strongly causal spacetime. In particular we use the properties of the exponential map to set up a local version of a bulk-to-boundary correspondence. The bulk is a suitable subset of a geodesic neighbourhood of any but fixed point p of the underlying background, while the boundary is a part of the future light cone having p as its own tip. In this regime, we provide a novel notion for the extended *-algebra of Wick polynomials on the said cone and, on the one hand, we prove that it contains the information of the bulk counterpart via an injective *-homomorphism while, on the other hand, we associate to it a distinguished state whose pull-back in the bulk is of Hadamard form. The main advantage of this point of view arises if one uses the universal properties of the exponential map and of the light cone in order to show that, for any two given backgrounds M and M ' and for any two subsets of geodesic neighbourhoods of two arbitrary points, it is possible to engineer the above procedure such that the boundary extended algebras are related via a restriction homomorphism. This allows for the pull-back of boundary states in both spacetimes and, thus, to set up a machinery which permits the comparison of expectation values of local field observables in M and M ' . (orig.)
The explanatory structure of unexplainable events: Causal constraints on magical reasoning.
Shtulman, Andrew; Morgan, Caitlin
2017-10-01
A common intuition, often captured in fiction, is that some impossible events (e.g., levitating a stone) are "more impossible" than others (e.g., levitating a feather). We investigated the source of this intuition, hypothesizing that graded notions of impossibility arise from explanatory considerations logically precluded by the violation at hand but still taken into account. Studies 1-4 involved college undergraduates (n = 357), and Study 5 involved preschool-aged children (n = 32). In Studies 1 and 2, participants saw pairs of magical spells that violated one of 18 causal principles-six physical, six biological, and six psychological-and were asked to indicate which spell would be more difficult to learn. Both spells violated the same causal principle but differed in their relation to a subsidiary principle. Participants' judgments of spell difficulty honored the subsidiary principle, even when participants were given the option of judging the two spells equally difficult. Study 3 replicated those effects with Likert-type ratings; Study 4 replicated them in an open-ended version of the task in which participants generated their own causal violations; and Study 5 replicated them with children. Taken together, these findings suggest that events that defy causal explanation are interpreted in terms of explanatory considerations that hold in the absence of such violations.
Dodge, Tonya; Jaccard, James
2002-01-01
Compared sexual risk behavior of female athletes and nonathletes. Examined mediation, reverse mediation, spurious effects, and moderated causal models, using as potential mediators physical development, educational aspirations, self-esteem, attitudes toward pregnancy, involvement in a romantic relationship, age, ethnicity, and social class. Found…
Repeated Causal Decision Making
Hagmayer, York; Meder, Bjorn
2013-01-01
Many of our decisions refer to actions that have a causal impact on the external environment. Such actions may not only allow for the mere learning of expected values or utilities but also for acquiring knowledge about the causal structure of our world. We used a repeated decision-making paradigm to examine what kind of knowledge people acquire in…
An examination of a reciprocal relationship between network governance and network structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergenholtz, Carsten; Goduscheit, René Chester
2011-01-01
In the present article, we examine the network structure and governance of inter-organisational innovation networks over time. Network governance refers to the issue of how to manage and coordinate the relational activities and processes in the network while research on network structure deals...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ämin Baumeler
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Computation models such as circuits describe sequences of computation steps that are carried out one after the other. In other words, algorithm design is traditionally subject to the restriction imposed by a fixed causal order. We address a novel computing paradigm beyond quantum computing, replacing this assumption by mere logical consistency: We study non-causal circuits, where a fixed time structure within a gate is locally assumed whilst the global causal structure between the gates is dropped. We present examples of logically consistent non-causal circuits outperforming all causal ones; they imply that suppressing loops entirely is more restrictive than just avoiding the contradictions they can give rise to. That fact is already known for correlations as well as for communication, and we here extend it to computation.
Causal and causally separable processes
Oreshkov, Ognyan; Giarmatzi, Christina
2016-09-01
The idea that events are equipped with a partial causal order is central to our understanding of physics in the tested regimes: given two pointlike events A and B, either A is in the causal past of B, B is in the causal past of A, or A and B are space-like separated. Operationally, the meaning of these order relations corresponds to constraints on the possible correlations between experiments performed in the vicinities of the respective events: if A is in the causal past of B, an experimenter at A could signal to an experimenter at B but not the other way around, while if A and B are space-like separated, no signaling is possible in either direction. In the context of a concrete physical theory, the correlations compatible with a given causal configuration may obey further constraints. For instance, space-like correlations in quantum mechanics arise from local measurements on joint quantum states, while time-like correlations are established via quantum channels. Similarly to other variables, however, the causal order of a set of events could be random, and little is understood about the constraints that causality implies in this case. A main difficulty concerns the fact that the order of events can now generally depend on the operations performed at the locations of these events, since, for instance, an operation at A could influence the order in which B and C occur in A’s future. So far, no formal theory of causality compatible with such dynamical causal order has been developed. Apart from being of fundamental interest in the context of inferring causal relations, such a theory is imperative for understanding recent suggestions that the causal order of events in quantum mechanics can be indefinite. Here, we develop such a theory in the general multipartite case. Starting from a background-independent definition of causality, we derive an iteratively formulated canonical decomposition of multipartite causal correlations. For a fixed number of settings and
Causal and causally separable processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oreshkov, Ognyan; Giarmatzi, Christina
2016-01-01
The idea that events are equipped with a partial causal order is central to our understanding of physics in the tested regimes: given two pointlike events A and B , either A is in the causal past of B , B is in the causal past of A , or A and B are space-like separated. Operationally, the meaning of these order relations corresponds to constraints on the possible correlations between experiments performed in the vicinities of the respective events: if A is in the causal past of B , an experimenter at A could signal to an experimenter at B but not the other way around, while if A and B are space-like separated, no signaling is possible in either direction. In the context of a concrete physical theory, the correlations compatible with a given causal configuration may obey further constraints. For instance, space-like correlations in quantum mechanics arise from local measurements on joint quantum states, while time-like correlations are established via quantum channels. Similarly to other variables, however, the causal order of a set of events could be random, and little is understood about the constraints that causality implies in this case. A main difficulty concerns the fact that the order of events can now generally depend on the operations performed at the locations of these events, since, for instance, an operation at A could influence the order in which B and C occur in A ’s future. So far, no formal theory of causality compatible with such dynamical causal order has been developed. Apart from being of fundamental interest in the context of inferring causal relations, such a theory is imperative for understanding recent suggestions that the causal order of events in quantum mechanics can be indefinite. Here, we develop such a theory in the general multipartite case. Starting from a background-independent definition of causality, we derive an iteratively formulated canonical decomposition of multipartite causal correlations. For a fixed number of settings and
Multistage Effort and the Equity Structure of Venture Investment Based on Reciprocity Motivation
Ding, Chuan; Chen, Jiacheng; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Junjun
2015-01-01
For venture capitals, it is a long process from an entry to its exit. In this paper, the activity of venture investment will be divided into multistages. And, according to the effort level entrepreneurs will choose, the venture capitalists will provide an equity structure at the very beginning. As a benchmark for comparison, we will establish two game models on multistage investment under perfect rationality: a cooperative game model and a noncooperative one. Further, as a cause of pervasive ...
Direct reciprocity in spatial populations enhances R-reciprocity as well as ST-reciprocity.
Miyaji, Kohei; Tanimoto, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki
2013-01-01
As is well-known, spatial reciprocity plays an important role in facilitating the emergence of cooperative traits, and the effect of direct reciprocity is also obvious for explaining the cooperation dynamics. However, how the combination of these two scenarios influences cooperation is still unclear. In the present work, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2 × 2 games via considering both spatial structured populations and direct reciprocity driven by the strategy with 1-memory length. Our results show that cooperation can be significantly facilitated on the whole parameter plane. For prisoner's dilemma game, cooperation dominates the system even at strong dilemma, where maximal social payoff is still realized. In this sense, R-reciprocity forms and it is robust to the extremely strong dilemma. Interestingly, when turning to chicken game, we find that ST-reciprocity is also guaranteed, through which social average payoff and cooperation is greatly enhanced. This reciprocity mechanism is supported by mean-field analysis and different interaction topologies. Thus, our study indicates that direct reciprocity in structured populations can be regarded as a more powerful factor for the sustainability of cooperation.
STRUCTURAL BREAKS, COINTEGRATION, AND CAUSALITY BY VECM ANALYSIS OF CRUDE OIL AND FOOD PRICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aynur Pala
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This papers investigated form of the linkage beetwen crude oil price index and food price index, using Johansen Cointegration test, and Granger Causality by VECM. Empirical results for monthly data from 1990:01 to 2011:08 indicated that evidence for breaks after 2008:08 and 2008:11. We find a clear long-run relationship between these series for the full and sub sample. Cointegration regression coefficient is negative at the 1990:01-2008:08 time period, but adversely positive at the 2008:11-2011:08 time period. This results represent that relation between crude oil and food price chanced.
The personal norm of reciprocity
Perugini, M.; Gallucci, M.; Presaghi, F.; Ercolani, A.P.
2002-01-01
Reciprocity is here considered as an internalized social norm, and a questionnaire to measure individual differences in the internalized norm of reciprocity is presented. The questionnaire, Personal Norm of Reciprocity (PNR), measures three aspects of reciprocity: positive reciprocity, negative
Optimal causal inference: estimating stored information and approximating causal architecture.
Still, Susanne; Crutchfield, James P; Ellison, Christopher J
2010-09-01
We introduce an approach to inferring the causal architecture of stochastic dynamical systems that extends rate-distortion theory to use causal shielding--a natural principle of learning. We study two distinct cases of causal inference: optimal causal filtering and optimal causal estimation. Filtering corresponds to the ideal case in which the probability distribution of measurement sequences is known, giving a principled method to approximate a system's causal structure at a desired level of representation. We show that in the limit in which a model-complexity constraint is relaxed, filtering finds the exact causal architecture of a stochastic dynamical system, known as the causal-state partition. From this, one can estimate the amount of historical information the process stores. More generally, causal filtering finds a graded model-complexity hierarchy of approximations to the causal architecture. Abrupt changes in the hierarchy, as a function of approximation, capture distinct scales of structural organization. For nonideal cases with finite data, we show how the correct number of the underlying causal states can be found by optimal causal estimation. A previously derived model-complexity control term allows us to correct for the effect of statistical fluctuations in probability estimates and thereby avoid overfitting.
Di, Xin; Biswal, Bharat B
2014-02-01
The default mode network is part of the brain structure that shows higher neural activity and energy consumption when one is at rest. The key regions in the default mode network are highly interconnected as conveyed by both the white matter fiber tracing and the synchrony of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. However, the causal information flow within the default mode network is still poorly understood. The current study used the dynamic causal modeling on a resting-state fMRI data set to identify the network structure underlying the default mode network. The endogenous brain fluctuations were explicitly modeled by Fourier series at the low frequency band of 0.01-0.08Hz, and those Fourier series were set as driving inputs of the DCM models. Model comparison procedures favored a model wherein the MPFC sends information to the PCC and the bilateral inferior parietal lobule sends information to both the PCC and MPFC. Further analyses provide evidence that the endogenous connectivity might be higher in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. These data provided insight into the functions of each node in the DMN, and also validate the usage of DCM on resting-state fMRI data. © 2013.
van Dijk, Marjolein J A M; Claassen, Tom; Suwartono, Christiany; van der Veld, William M; van der Heijden, Paul T; Hendriks, Marc P H
Since the publication of the WAIS-IV in the U.S. in 2008, efforts have been made to explore the structural validity by applying factor analysis to various samples. This study aims to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the structure of the Dutch language version of the WAIS-IV (WAIS-IV-NL) by applying an alternative analysis based on causal modeling in addition to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The Bayesian Constraint-based Causal Discovery (BCCD) algorithm learns underlying network structures directly from data and assesses more complex structures than is possible with factor analysis. WAIS-IV-NL profiles of two clinical samples of 202 patients (i.e. patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and a mixed psychiatric outpatient group) were analyzed and contrasted with a matched control group (N = 202) selected from the Dutch standardization sample of the WAIS-IV-NL to investigate internal structure by means of CFA and BCCD. With CFA, the four-factor structure as proposed by Wechsler demonstrates acceptable fit in all three subsamples. However, BCCD revealed three consistent clusters (verbal comprehension, visual processing, and processing speed) in all three subsamples. The combination of Arithmetic and Digit Span as a coherent working memory factor could not be verified, and Matrix Reasoning appeared to be isolated. With BCCD, some discrepancies from the proposed four-factor structure are exemplified. Furthermore, these results fit CHC theory of intelligence more clearly. Consistent clustering patterns indicate these results are robust. The structural causal discovery approach may be helpful in better interpreting existing tests, the development of new tests, and aid in diagnostic instruments.
Time and frequency structure of causal correlation networks in the China bond market
Wang, Zhongxing; Yan, Yan; Chen, Xiaosong
2017-07-01
There are more than eight hundred interest rates published in the China bond market every day. Identifying the benchmark interest rates that have broad influences on most other interest rates is a major concern for economists. In this paper, a multi-variable Granger causality test is developed and applied to construct a directed network of interest rates, whose important nodes, regarded as key interest rates, are evaluated with CheiRank scores. The results indicate that repo rates are the benchmark of short-term rates, the central bank bill rates are in the core position of mid-term interest rates network, and treasury bond rates lead the long-term bond rates. The evolution of benchmark interest rates from 2008 to 2014 is also studied, and it is found that SHIBOR has generally become the benchmark interest rate in China. In the frequency domain we identify the properties of information flows between interest rates, and the result confirms the existence of market segmentation in the China bond market.
Eliseev, A. A.; Gorozhankin, D. F.; Napolskii, K. S.; Petukhov, A. V.; Sapoletova, N. A.; Vasilieva, A. V.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Mistonov, A. A.; Byelov, D. V.; Bouwman, W. G.; Kvashnina, K. O.; Chernyshov, D. Yu.; Bosak, A. A.; Grigoriev, S. V.
2009-10-01
The distribution of the scattering intensity in the reciprocal space for natural and artificial opals has been reconstructed from a set of small-angle X-ray diffraction patterns. The resulting three-dimensional intensity maps are used to analyze the defect structure of opals. The structure of artificial opals can be satisfactorily described in the Wilson probability model with the prevalence of layers in the fcc environment. The diffraction patterns observed for a natural opal confirm the presence of sufficiently long unequally occupied fcc domains.
Morabia, Alfredo
2005-01-01
Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.
CMB in a box: Causal structure and the Fourier-Bessel expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramo, L. Raul; Reimberg, Paulo H.; Xavier, Henrique S.
2010-01-01
This paper makes two points. First, we show that the line-of-sight solution to cosmic microwave anisotropies in Fourier space, even though formally defined for arbitrarily large wavelengths, leads to position-space solutions which only depend on the sources of anisotropies inside the past light cone of the observer. This foretold manifestation of causality in position (real) space happens order by order in a series expansion in powers of the visibility γ=e -μ , where μ is the optical depth to Thomson scattering. We show that the contributions of order γ N to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are regulated by spacetime window functions which have support only inside the past light cone of the point of observation. Second, we show that the Fourier-Bessel expansion of the physical fields (including the temperature and polarization momenta) is an alternative to the usual Fourier basis as a framework to compute the anisotropies. The viability of the Fourier-Bessel series for treating the CMB is a consequence of the fact that the visibility function becomes exponentially small at redshifts z>>10 3 , effectively cutting off the past light cone and introducing a finite radius inside which initial conditions can affect physical observables measured at our position x-vector=0 and time t 0 . Hence, for each multipole l there is a discrete tower of momenta k il (not a continuum) which can affect physical observables, with the smallest momenta being k 1l ∼l. The Fourier-Bessel modes take into account precisely the information from the sources of anisotropies that propagates from the initial value surface to the point of observation - no more, no less. We also show that the physical observables (the temperature and polarization maps), and hence the angular power spectra, are unaffected by that choice of basis. This implies that the Fourier-Bessel expansion is the optimal scheme with which one can compute CMB anisotropies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coleman, R.A.; Korte, H.
1984-01-01
According to the principle of the universality of free fall, the motions of all neutral monopole particles are governed by one common path structure. This principle does not, however, require the path structure to be geodesic; that is, the path structure need not be a projective structure. It is shown that any equation of motion structure (either a curve or a path structure) that has sufficient microisotropy to be compatible with the conformal causal structure of space-time must be geodesic and must be unique. Hence, the empirically well-supported principles of conformal causality and of the universality of free fall together require the existence of a unique Weyl structure on space-time
Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D
2012-05-01
A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other 'externalizing' disorders and some 'internalizing' disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conduct disorder is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed by studying CD in the context of
Jones, Charles W.
1981-04-07
A machine for pressing loose powder into pellets using a series of reciprocating motions has an interchangeable punch and die as its only accurately machines parts. The machine reciprocates horizontally between powder receiving and pressing positions. It reciprocates vertically to press, strip and release a pellet.
Rayleigh reciprocity relations: Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Ju; Li Xiao-Lei; Wang Ning
2016-01-01
Classical reciprocity relations have wide applications in acoustics, from field representation to generalized optical theorem. In this paper we introduce our recent results on the applications and generalization of classical Rayleigh reciprocity relation: higher derivative reciprocity relations as a generalization of the classical one and a theoretical proof on the Green’s function retrieval from volume noises. (special topic)
Free-Form Kinetic Reciprocal System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario
2011-01-01
Kinetic Reciprocal System (KRS) are innovative moveable structures based on the principle of reciprocity [1] with internal pin-slot constraints [2]. The analysis of KRS kinematic and static determinacy is developed through the construction of kinematic matrices, accordingly with [3] and a discuss...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holy, V.; Mundboth, K.; Mokuta, C.; Metzger, T.H.; Stangl, J.; Bauer, G.; Boeck, T.; Schmidbauer, M.
2008-01-01
For the first time self-organized epitaxially grown semiconductor islands were investigated by a full three-dimensional mapping of the scattered X-ray intensity in reciprocal space. Intensity distributions were measured in a coplanar diffraction geometry around symmetric and asymmetric Bragg reflections. The 3D intensity maps were compared with theoretical simulations based on continuum-elasticity simulations of internal strains in the islands and on kinematical scattering theory whereby local chemical composition and strain profiles of the islands were retrieved
A Theory of Sequential Reciprocity
Dufwenberg, M.; Kirchsteiger, G.
1998-01-01
Many experimental studies indicate that people are motivated by reciprocity. Rabin (1993) develops techniques for incorporating such concerns into game theory and economics. His model, however, does not fare well when applied to situations with an interesting dynamic structure (like many
Causal inference in public health.
Glass, Thomas A; Goodman, Steven N; Hernán, Miguel A; Samet, Jonathan M
2013-01-01
Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action's consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor's causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world.
Polverino, Pierpaolo; Frisk, Erik; Jung, Daniel; Krysander, Mattias; Pianese, Cesare
2017-07-01
The present paper proposes an advanced approach for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) systems fault detection and isolation through a model-based diagnostic algorithm. The considered algorithm is developed upon a lumped parameter model simulating a whole PEMFC system oriented towards automotive applications. This model is inspired by other models available in the literature, with further attention to stack thermal dynamics and water management. The developed model is analysed by means of Structural Analysis, to identify the correlations among involved physical variables, defined equations and a set of faults which may occur in the system (related to both auxiliary components malfunctions and stack degradation phenomena). Residual generators are designed by means of Causal Computation analysis and the maximum theoretical fault isolability, achievable with a minimal number of installed sensors, is investigated. The achieved results proved the capability of the algorithm to theoretically detect and isolate almost all faults with the only use of stack voltage and temperature sensors, with significant advantages from an industrial point of view. The effective fault isolability is proved through fault simulations at a specific fault magnitude with an advanced residual evaluation technique, to consider quantitative residual deviations from normal conditions and achieve univocal fault isolation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arup Kumar Baksi
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Information technology induced communications (ICTs have revolutionized the operational aspects of service sector and have triggered a perceptual shift in service quality as rapid dis-intermediation has changed the access-mode of services on part of the consumers. ICT-enabled services further stimulated the perception of automated service quality with renewed dimensions and there subsequent significance to influence the behavioural outcomes of the consumers. Customer Relationship Management (CRM has emerged as an offshoot to technological breakthrough as it ensured service-encapsulation by integrating people, process and technology. This paper attempts to explore the relationship between automated service quality and its behavioural consequences in a relatively novel business-philosophy – CRM. The study has been conducted on the largest public sector bank of India - State bank of India (SBI at Kolkata which has successfully completed its decade-long operational automation in the year 2008. The study used structural equation modeling (SEM to justify the proposed model construct and causal loop diagramming (CLD to depict the negative and positive linkages between the variables.
Friederich, Simon
There is widespread belief in a tension between quantum theory and special relativity, motivated by the idea that quantum theory violates J. S. Bell's criterion of local causality, which is meant to implement the causal structure of relativistic space-time. This paper argues that if one takes the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potton, R J
2004-01-01
The application of reciprocity principles in optics has a long history that goes back to Stokes, Lorentz, Helmholtz and others. Moreover, optical applications need to be seen in the context of applications of reciprocity in particle scattering, acoustics, seismology and the solution of inverse problems, generally. In some of these other fields vector wave propagation is, as it is in optics, of the essence. For this reason the simplified approach to light wave polarization developed by, and named for, Jones is explored initially to see how and to what extent it encompasses reciprocity. The characteristic matrix of a uniform dielectric layer, used in the analysis of interference filters and mirrors, is reciprocal except when the layer is magneto-optical. The way in which the reciprocal nature of a characteristic matrix can be recognized is discussed next. After this, work on the influence of more realistic attributes of a dielectric stack on reciprocity is reviewed. Some of the numerous technological applications of magneto-optic non-reciprocal media are identified and the potential of a new class of non-reciprocal components is briefly introduced. Finally, the extension of the classical reciprocity concept to systems containing components that have nonlinear optical response is briefly mentioned
Causal structures in inflation
Ellis, George F. R.; Uzan, Jean-Philippe
2015-12-01
This article reviews the properties and limitations associated with the existence of particle, visual, and event horizons in cosmology in general and in inflationary universes in particular, carefully distinguishing them from 'Hubble horizons'. It explores to what extent one might be able to probe conditions beyond the visual horizon (which is close in size to the present Hubble radius), thereby showing that visual horizons place major limits on what are observationally testable aspects of a multiverse, if such exists. Indeed these limits largely prevent us from observationally proving a multiverse either does or does not exist. We emphasize that event horizons play no role at all in observational cosmology, even in the multiverse context, despite some claims to the contrary in the literature. xml:lang="fr"
Causal structures in inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellis, G.F.R.; Uzan, J.P.
2015-01-01
This article reviews the properties and limitations associated with the existence of particle, visual, and event horizons in cosmology in general and in inflationary universes in particular, carefully distinguishing them from 'Hubble horizons'. It explores to what extent one might be able to probe conditions beyond the visual horizon (which is close in size to the present Hubble radius), thereby showing that visual horizons place major limits on what are observationally testable aspects of a multi-verse, if such exists. Indeed these limits largely prevent us from observationally proving a multi-verse either does or does not exist. We emphasize that event horizons play no role at all in observational cosmology, even in the multi-verse context, despite some claims to the contrary in the literature. (authors)
Reciprocity theory of homogeneous reactions
Agbormbai, Adolf A.
1990-03-01
The reciprocity formalism is applied to the homogeneous gaseous reactions in which the structure of the participating molecules changes upon collision with one another, resulting in a change in the composition of the gas. The approach is applied to various classes of dissociation, recombination, rearrangement, ionizing, and photochemical reactions. It is shown that for the principle of reciprocity to be satisfied it is necessary that all chemical reactions exist in complementary pairs which consist of the forward and backward reactions. The backward reaction may be described by either the reverse or inverse process. The forward and backward processes must satisfy the same reciprocity equation. Because the number of dynamical variables is usually unbalanced on both sides of a chemical equation, it is necessary that this balance be established by including as many of the dynamical variables as needed before the reciprocity equation can be formulated. Statistical transformation models of the reactions are formulated. The models are classified under the titles free exchange, restricted exchange and simplified restricted exchange. The special equations for the forward and backward processes are obtained. The models are consistent with the H theorem and Le Chatelier's principle. The models are also formulated in the context of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.
Causality Between Urban Concentration and Environmental Quality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amin Pujiati
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Population is concentrated in urban areas can cause the external diseconomies on environment if it exceeds the carrying capacity of the space and the urban economy. Otherwise the quality of the environment is getting better, led to the concentration of population in urban areas are increasingly high. This study aims to analyze the relationship of causality between the urban concentration and environmental quality in urban agglomeration areas. The data used in the study of secondary data obtained from the Central Bureau of statistics and the City Government from 2000 to 2013. The analytical method used is the Granger causality and descriptive. Granger causality study results showed no pattern of reciprocal causality, between urban concentration and the quality of the environment, but there unidirectional relationship between the urban concentration and environmental quality. This means that increasing urban concentration led to decreased environmental quality.
Kim, Seehyung
2005-01-01
This research develops and tests a model of the service unit ownership and control patterns used by international service companies. The main purpose of this study is to investigate trivariate causal relationships among environmental factors, organizational structure, and perceived performance in the internationalization process of service firms. A service firm operating in foreign soil has a choice of three general entry mode strategies offering different degrees of ownership and control of ...
Causal Set Generator and Action Computer
Cunningham, William; Krioukov, Dmitri
2017-01-01
The causal set approach to quantum gravity has gained traction over the past three decades, but numerical experiments involving causal sets have been limited to relatively small scales. The software suite presented here provides a new framework for the generation and study of causal sets. Its efficiency surpasses previous implementations by several orders of magnitude. We highlight several important features of the code, including the compact data structures, the $O(N^2)$ causal set generatio...
Causal Imprinting in Causal Structure Learning
Taylor, Eric G.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung
2012-01-01
Suppose one observes a correlation between two events, B and C, and infers that B causes C. Later one discovers that event A explains away the correlation between B and C. Normatively, one should now dismiss or weaken the belief that B causes C. Nonetheless, participants in the current study who observed a positive contingency between B and C…
Potential Reciprocal Relationship between Motivation and Achievement: A Longitudinal Study
Liu, Yuan; Hou, Shumeng
2018-01-01
Among the non-cognitive factors that influence academic achievement, intrinsic motivation has been found to be a potential reciprocal factor. The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between other types of motivation and academic achievement. For this purpose, a large-scale data survey, the National Education Longitudinal Study…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muehlbauer, Martin Johann
2013-07-19
This work is concerned with the investigation of inhomogeneities in materials with length scales of the order of micrometers by means of neutrons. In real space this is done by neutron imaging methods measuring the transmitted signal while for Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) the signal of the scattered neutrons is assigned to a spatial frequency distribution in reciprocal space. The part about neutron imaging is focused on time-resolved neutron radiography on an injection nozzle similar to the ones used for modern diesel truck engines. The associated experiments have been carried out at the neutron imaging facility ANTARES at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen in Garching near Munich. Especially the demands on the detector system were high. Therefore different detection methods and detector configurations have been tested. On the one hand the detector should allow for a time resolution high enough to record the injection process lasting about 900 μs. On the other hand it needed to offer a spatial resolution sufficient to resolve the test oil inside the spray hole of a maximum diameter of less than 200 μm. An advanced aim of this work is the visualization of cavitation phenomena which may occur during the injection process inside of the spray hole. In order to operate the injector at conditions as close to reality as possible a high pressure pump supplying the injector with test oil at a pressure of 1600 bar was needed in addition to the specially developed control electronics, the recuperation tank and the exhaust gas equipment for the escaping atomized spray. A second part of the work describes USANS experiments based on the idea of Dr. Roland Gaehler and carried out at the instrument D11 at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. For this purpose a specific multi-beam geometry was applied, where a multi-slit aperture replaced the standard source aperture and the sample aperture was
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muehlbauer, Martin Johann
2013-01-01
This work is concerned with the investigation of inhomogeneities in materials with length scales of the order of micrometers by means of neutrons. In real space this is done by neutron imaging methods measuring the transmitted signal while for Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) the signal of the scattered neutrons is assigned to a spatial frequency distribution in reciprocal space. The part about neutron imaging is focused on time-resolved neutron radiography on an injection nozzle similar to the ones used for modern diesel truck engines. The associated experiments have been carried out at the neutron imaging facility ANTARES at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) of the Technische Universitaet Muenchen in Garching near Munich. Especially the demands on the detector system were high. Therefore different detection methods and detector configurations have been tested. On the one hand the detector should allow for a time resolution high enough to record the injection process lasting about 900 μs. On the other hand it needed to offer a spatial resolution sufficient to resolve the test oil inside the spray hole of a maximum diameter of less than 200 μm. An advanced aim of this work is the visualization of cavitation phenomena which may occur during the injection process inside of the spray hole. In order to operate the injector at conditions as close to reality as possible a high pressure pump supplying the injector with test oil at a pressure of 1600 bar was needed in addition to the specially developed control electronics, the recuperation tank and the exhaust gas equipment for the escaping atomized spray. A second part of the work describes USANS experiments based on the idea of Dr. Roland Gaehler and carried out at the instrument D11 at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble. For this purpose a specific multi-beam geometry was applied, where a multi-slit aperture replaced the standard source aperture and the sample aperture was
Discrete causal theory emergent spacetime and the causal metric hypothesis
Dribus, Benjamin F
2017-01-01
This book evaluates and suggests potentially critical improvements to causal set theory, one of the best-motivated approaches to the outstanding problems of fundamental physics. Spacetime structure is of central importance to physics beyond general relativity and the standard model. The causal metric hypothesis treats causal relations as the basis of this structure. The book develops the consequences of this hypothesis under the assumption of a fundamental scale, with smooth spacetime geometry viewed as emergent. This approach resembles causal set theory, but differs in important ways; for example, the relative viewpoint, emphasizing relations between pairs of events, and relationships between pairs of histories, is central. The book culminates in a dynamical law for quantum spacetime, derived via generalized path summation.
Causal boundary for strongly causal spacetimes: Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szabados, L.B.
1989-01-01
In a previous paper an analysis of the general structure of the causal boundary constructions and a new explicit identification rule, built up from elementary TIP-TIF gluings, were presented. In the present paper we complete our identification by incorporating TIP-TIP and TIF-TIF gluings as well. An asymptotic causality condition is found which, for physically important cases, ensures the uniqueness of the endpoints of the non-spacelike curves in the completed spacetime. (author)
Spectral dimension in causal set quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eichhorn, Astrid; Mizera, Sebastian
2014-01-01
We evaluate the spectral dimension in causal set quantum gravity by simulating random walks on causal sets. In contrast to other approaches to quantum gravity, we find an increasing spectral dimension at small scales. This observation can be connected to the nonlocality of causal set theory that is deeply rooted in its fundamentally Lorentzian nature. Based on its large-scale behaviour, we conjecture that the spectral dimension can serve as a tool to distinguish causal sets that approximate manifolds from those that do not. As a new tool to probe quantum spacetime in different quantum gravity approaches, we introduce a novel dimensional estimator, the causal spectral dimension, based on the meeting probability of two random walkers, which respect the causal structure of the quantum spacetime. We discuss a causal-set example, where the spectral dimension and the causal spectral dimension differ, due to the existence of a preferred foliation. (paper)
Classical planning and causal implicatures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana
In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...... to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate...
Static and kinematic formulation of planar reciprocal assemblies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2014-01-01
Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed extending the theory of pin-jointed assemblies....... This formulation is used to evaluate the static and kinematic determinacy of reciprocal assemblies from the properties of their equilibrium and kinematic matrices...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sebald, Alexander Christopher
2010-01-01
, in turn, influence behavior. Dufwenberg and Kirchsteiger [Dufwenberg, M., Kirchsteiger, G., 2004. A theory of sequential reciprocity. Games Econ. Behav. 47 (2), 268-298] formalize this empirical finding in their ‘theory of sequential reciprocity'. This paper extends their analysis by moves of chance. More...... precisely, an extended framework is presented which allows for the analysis of strategic interactions of reciprocal agents in situations in which material outcomes also depend on chance. Moves of chance influence the attribution of responsibilities, people's perceptions about the (un)kindness of others and......, hence, their reciprocal behavior. Furthermore, with the help of two applications it is demonstrated how this framework can be used to explain experimental findings showing that people react very differently in outcomewise-identical situations depending on the moves of chance involved....
Causally nonseparable processes admitting a causal model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Brukner, Caslav
2016-01-01
A recent framework of quantum theory with no global causal order predicts the existence of ‘causally nonseparable’ processes. Some of these processes produce correlations incompatible with any causal order (they violate so-called ‘causal inequalities’ analogous to Bell inequalities ) while others do not (they admit a ‘causal model’ analogous to a local model ). Here we show for the first time that bipartite causally nonseparable processes with a causal model exist, and give evidence that they have no clear physical interpretation. We also provide an algorithm to generate processes of this kind and show that they have nonzero measure in the set of all processes. We demonstrate the existence of processes which stop violating causal inequalities but are still causally nonseparable when mixed with a certain amount of ‘white noise’. This is reminiscent of the behavior of Werner states in the context of entanglement and nonlocality. Finally, we provide numerical evidence for the existence of causally nonseparable processes which have a causal model even when extended with an entangled state shared among the parties. (paper)
Causal boundary for stably causal space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Racz, I.
1987-12-01
The usual boundary constructions for space-times often yield an unsatisfactory boundary set. This problem is reviewed and a new solution is proposed. An explicit identification rule is given on the set of the ideal points of the space-time. This construction leads to a satisfactory boundary point set structure for stably causal space-times. The topological properties of the resulting causal boundary construction are examined. For the stably causal space-times each causal curve has a unique endpoint on the boundary set according to the extended Alexandrov topology. The extension of the space-time through the boundary is discussed. To describe the singularities the defined boundary sets have to be separated into two disjoint sets. (D.Gy.) 8 refs
Static And Kinematic Formulation Of Planar Reciprocal Assemblies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2013-01-01
Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed by extending the work on pin-jointed assemblies by Pe...
Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials.
Coulais, Corentin; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea
2017-02-23
Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function-the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity-between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time. Here we show that it is possible to break reciprocity in static systems, realizing mechanical metamaterials that exhibit vastly different output displacements under excitation from different sides, as well as one-way displacement amplification. This is achieved by combining large nonlinearities with suitable geometrical asymmetries and/or topological features. In addition to extending non-reciprocity and isolation to statics, our work sheds light on energy propagation in nonlinear materials with asymmetric crystalline structures and topological properties. We anticipate that breaking reciprocity will open avenues for energy absorption, conversion and harvesting, soft robotics, prosthetics and optomechanics.
Causal relationship: a new tool for the causal characterization of Lorentzian manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Parrado, Alfonso; Senovilla, Jose M M
2003-01-01
We define and study a new kind of relation between two diffeomorphic Lorentzian manifolds called a causal relation, which is any diffeomorphism characterized by mapping every causal vector of the first manifold onto a causal vector of the second. We perform a thorough study of the mathematical properties of causal relations and prove in particular that two given Lorentzian manifolds (say V and W) may be causally related only in one direction (say from V to W, but not from W to V). This leads us to the concept of causally equivalent (or isocausal in short) Lorentzian manifolds as those mutually causally related and to a definition of causal structure over a differentiable manifold as the equivalence class formed by isocausal Lorentzian metrics upon it. Isocausality is a more general concept than the conformal relationship, because we prove the remarkable result that a conformal relation φ is characterized by the fact of being a causal relation of the particular kind in which both φ and φ -1 are causal relations. Isocausal Lorentzian manifolds are mutually causally compatible, they share some important causal properties, and there are one-to-one correspondences, which are sometimes non-trivial, between several classes of their respective future (and past) objects. A more important feature is that they satisfy the same standard causality constraints. We also introduce a partial order for the equivalence classes of isocausal Lorentzian manifolds providing a classification of all the causal structures that a given fixed manifold can have. By introducing the concept of causal extension we put forward a new definition of causal boundary for Lorentzian manifolds based on the concept of isocausality, and thereby we generalize the traditional Penrose constructions of conformal infinity, diagrams and embeddings. In particular, the concept of causal diagram is given. Many explicit clarifying examples are presented throughout the paper
Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robb Willer
Full Text Available Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.
Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.
Willer, Robb; Sharkey, Amanda; Frey, Seth
2012-01-01
Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA) games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.
Reciprocal relations between workplace bullying, anxiety, and vigor: a two-wave longitudinal study.
Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Moreno-Jiménez, Bernardo; Sanz-Vergel, Ana Isabel
2015-01-01
Workplace bullying has been classified as an extreme social stressor in work contexts and has been repeatedly linked to several negative consequences. However, little research has examined reversed or reciprocal relations of bullying and outcomes. We conducted a two-wave longitudinal study with a time lag of six months. The study sample consisted of 348 employees of the Spanish workforce. The present study examined longitudinal relationships between workplace bullying, psychological health, and well-being. On the basis of conservation of resources theory, we hypothesized that we would find reciprocal relations among study variables over time. Results of cross-lagged structural equation modeling analyses supported our hypotheses. Specifically, it was found that Time 1 (T1) workplace bullying was negatively related to Time 2 (T2) vigor and positively related to T2 anxiety. Additionally, T1 anxiety and vigor had an effect on T2 workplace bullying. Overall, these findings support the validity of the theoretical models postulating a reciprocal bullying-outcome relationship, rather than simple one-way causal pathways approaches.
Jones, Robert
2010-03-01
There are a wide range of views on causality. To some (e.g. Karl Popper) causality is superfluous. Bertrand Russell said ``In advanced science the word cause never occurs. Causality is a relic of a bygone age.'' At the other extreme Rafael Sorkin and L. Bombelli suggest that space and time do not exist but are only an approximation to a reality that is simply a discrete ordered set, a ``causal set.'' For them causality IS reality. Others, like Judea Pearl and Nancy Cartwright are seaking to build a complex fundamental theory of causality (Causality, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000) Or perhaps a theory of causality is simply the theory of functions. This is more or less my take on causality.
Reciprocity in electron diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunning, J.; Goodman, P.
1991-01-01
The symmetry of reciprocity is reviewed in the context of relativistic quantum mechanics with the specific aim of relating to P-C-T invariances. From this investigation global time reversal is found to be sufficient condition for reciprocity to hold in scattering from a vector potential. Elastic scattering is assumed. The paper also deals exclusively with the scattering of a charged particle by an electromagnetic field. The present proof is free from assumptions of small angle scattering and from restrictions on z-dependent terms in the scattering equation, and by avoiding S-matrix theory is thought to be accessible to undergraduate teaching. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig
Reciprocity in electron diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunning, J.; Goodman, P.
1992-01-01
The symmetry of reciprocity is reviewed in the context of relativistic quantum mechanics with the specific aim of relating to C, P and T invariances. From this investigation global time reversal is found to be a sufficient condition for reciprocity to hold in scattering from a vector potential. The present proof is free from assumptions of small-angle scattering and from restrictions on z-dependent terms in the scattering equation, and by avoiding S-matrix theory is thought to be accessible to undergraduate teaching. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devynck, P.; Antar, G.; Wang, G.; Garbet, X.; Gunn, J.; Pascal, J.Y.
1999-01-01
The fluctuations in the Scrape Off Layer (S.O.L.) of Tore Supra are studied with a movable Langmuir probe biased to ion saturation current. The probe system consists of three probes separated poloidally (0.68 cm between two nearby probes). The probe has no magnetic connection to the mid plane limiter on which the plasma is leaning, but the radial profile of the ion saturation current fluctuations displays a dip at the limiter position. At the same location the ion saturation current displays a dip at the limiter position. At the same location the ion saturation current displays an inflexion point. A correlation analysis technique is developed to study the radial behaviour of the fluctuations. It reveals that this dip is associated with a reduction of the poloidal velocity of the fluctuations with no sign reversal. In the dip the mean poloidal correlation length of the fluctuations is also reduced. These observations are consistent with a reduction of the fluctuations by a shear of the radial electric field created at the limiter surface. The autocorrelation time is also calculated. It increases slightly in the dip and is found to be sensitive to both the convection time and lifetime of the turbulent structures, because these quantities are of the same order. (authors)
Supersymmetric reciprocal transformation and its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Q. P.; Popowicz, Ziemowit; Tian Kai
2010-01-01
The supersymmetric analog of the reciprocal transformation is introduced. This is used to establish a transformation between one of the supersymmetric Harry Dym equations and the supersymmetric modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. The reciprocal transformation, as a Baecklund-type transformation between these two equations, is adopted to construct a recursion operator for the supersymmetric Harry Dym equation. By proper factorization of the recursion operator, a bi-Hamiltonian structure is found for the supersymmetric Harry Dym equation. Furthermore, a supersymmetric Kawamoto equation is proposed and is associated with the supersymmetric Sawada-Kotera equation. The recursion operator and odd bi-Hamiltonian structure of the supersymmetric Kawamoto equation are also constructed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina Puente Águeda
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Causality is a fundamental notion in every field of science. Since the times of Aristotle, causal relationships have been a matter of study as a way to generate knowledge and provide for explanations. In this paper I review the notion of causality through different scientific areas such as physics, biology, engineering, etc. In the scientific area, causality is usually seen as a precise relation: the same cause provokes always the same effect. But in the everyday world, the links between cause and effect are frequently imprecise or imperfect in nature. Fuzzy logic offers an adequate framework for dealing with imperfect causality, so a few notions of fuzzy causality are introduced.
Hidden patterns of reciprocity.
Syi
2014-03-21
Reciprocity can help the evolution of cooperation. To model both types of reciprocity, we need the concept of strategy. In the case of direct reciprocity there are four second-order action rules (Simple Tit-for-tat, Contrite Tit-for-tat, Pavlov, and Grim Trigger), which are able to promote cooperation. In the case of indirect reciprocity the key component of cooperation is the assessment rule. There are, again, four elementary second-order assessment rules (Image Scoring, Simple Standing, Stern Judging, and Shunning). The eight concepts can be formalized in an ontologically thin way we need only an action predicate and a value function, two agent concepts, and the constant of goodness. The formalism helps us to discover that the action and assessment rules can be paired, and that they show the same patterns. The logic of these patterns can be interpreted with the concept of punishment that has an inherent paradoxical nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bayesian networks improve causal environmental ...
Rule-based weight of evidence approaches to ecological risk assessment may not account for uncertainties and generally lack probabilistic integration of lines of evidence. Bayesian networks allow causal inferences to be made from evidence by including causal knowledge about the problem, using this knowledge with probabilistic calculus to combine multiple lines of evidence, and minimizing biases in predicting or diagnosing causal relationships. Too often, sources of uncertainty in conventional weight of evidence approaches are ignored that can be accounted for with Bayesian networks. Specifying and propagating uncertainties improve the ability of models to incorporate strength of the evidence in the risk management phase of an assessment. Probabilistic inference from a Bayesian network allows evaluation of changes in uncertainty for variables from the evidence. The network structure and probabilistic framework of a Bayesian approach provide advantages over qualitative approaches in weight of evidence for capturing the impacts of multiple sources of quantifiable uncertainty on predictions of ecological risk. Bayesian networks can facilitate the development of evidence-based policy under conditions of uncertainty by incorporating analytical inaccuracies or the implications of imperfect information, structuring and communicating causal issues through qualitative directed graph formulations, and quantitatively comparing the causal power of multiple stressors on value
Group differences in reciprocity, multiplexity and exchange : measures and application
Agneessens, Filip; Skvoretz, John
Local forces structure social networks. One major and widely researched local force is reciprocity, often assumed to work homogeneously across actors-i.e., all actors are equally subject to the same level of force towards reciprocity. Other local forces, like multiplexity and exchange, are also
Reciprocal Relationships between Math Self-Concept and Math Anxiety
Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje
2012-01-01
The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between self-concept and anxiety in mathematics. A sample of 495 grade 7 students (51% girls) completed self-report measures assessing self-concept and anxiety three times in a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to test a cross-lagged panel model of reciprocal effects between…
Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.
We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While it is possi...... of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries.......We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...
Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics
Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R
1953-01-01
Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.
Reciprocity in Vector Acoustics
2017-03-01
Green’s Theorem to the left hand side of Equation (3.2) converts it to a surface integral that vanishes for the impedance boundary conditions one...There are situations where this assumption does not hold, such as at boundaries between layers or in an inhomogeneous layer , because the density gradient...instead of requiring one model run for each source location. Application of the vector-scalar reciprocity principle is demonstrated with analytic
Corrupt reciprocity: An experiment
Graf Lambsdorff, Johann; Frank, Björn
2007-01-01
We let students play a corruption game, embedded into a variant of the ultimatum game. Those allotted the role of public servants chose between whistleblowing, opportunism and reciprocity by delivery (of a contract) and those acting as businesspeople chose how to frame the game and whether to blow the whistle. While opportunism and abstaining from whistleblowing is the Nash equilibrium, another likely outcome was that businesspeople allocate resources to punishing public servants for non-deli...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina Antunes
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Mathematics is a core subject in every school curriculum and it is strongly correlated with maths self-concept, which is defined as the subjective feelings and beliefs about one's competence in maths. In general, boys tend to report higher maths self-concept than girls, but the difference between boys and girls' maths scholastic performance is low or even inexistent. Some authors maintain that academic self-concept can play an important role as a motivational variable, promoting self-confidence and investment in the learning process. This study examined the causal relations between maths self-concept and maths scholastic performance in four cohorts of boys and girls within a three-wave longitudinal study. The first two cohorts were composed of 187 girls and 139 boys attending grades 7 and 8 at Time 1 and the third and fourth cohorts were composed of 167 girls and 123 boys attending grades 9 and 10 at Time 1. Structural Equation Modelling was used to test the fit of several models of causal relations. The results revealed that for the first two cohorts the best models were reciprocal and skill-development for both boys and girls. However, for the older students, a reciprocal model gave a best fit for the boys, but for the girls there was only one significant effect from maths self-concept to maths scholastic performance. Results are discussed on the basis of gender-related differential learning expectancies.
Design and Fabrication of a Free-Form Reciprocal Roof
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario
2015-01-01
The paper presents the framework and the design and construction process of a freeform reciprocal pavilion realized during a one-week long workshop with the students of the 1st semester of the Master of Science in Architecture and Design, fall 2014, at Aalborg University. The workshop didactic...... of relations between design parameters and a wide array of measurable performances. Due to the reciprocal structures geometric complexity, the shape generation process is handled using the Reciprocalizer, a software tool developed by the author that embeds in a computational environment the constructional...... logic of reciprocal structures. It enables to engage in real time in iterative processes that allows unfolding the geometric complexity and turn it into a source of inspiration for expanding the design space and triggering the development of unique, adapted and integrated design solutions. Reciprocal...
Cutting efficiency of Reciproc and waveOne reciprocating instruments.
Plotino, Gianluca; Giansiracusa Rubini, Alessio; Grande, Nicola M; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca
2014-08-01
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cutting efficiency of 2 new reciprocating instruments, Reciproc and WaveOne. Twenty-four new Reciproc R25 and 24 new WaveOne Primary files were activated by using a torque-controlled motor (Silver Reciproc) and divided into 4 groups (n = 12): group 1, Reciproc activated by Reciproc ALL program; group 2, Reciproc activated by WaveOne ALL program; group 3, WaveOne activated by Reciproc ALL program; and group 4, WaveOne activated by WaveOne ALL program. The device used for the cutting test consisted of a main frame to which a mobile plastic support for the handpiece is connected and a stainless steel block containing a Plexiglas block (inPlexiglass, Rome, Italy) against which the cutting efficiency of the instruments was tested. The length of the block cut in 1 minute was measured in a computerized program with a precision of 0.1 mm. Means and standard deviations of each group were calculated, and data were statistically analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test (P cutting efficiency than WaveOne Primary for both the movements used (P cutting efficiency than WaveOne instruments used with their proper reciprocating motion (P .05). Reciproc instruments demonstrated statistically higher cutting efficiency than WaveOne instruments. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A General Approach to Causal Mediation Analysis
Imai, Kosuke; Keele, Luke; Tingley, Dustin
2010-01-01
Traditionally in the social sciences, causal mediation analysis has been formulated, understood, and implemented within the framework of linear structural equation models. We argue and demonstrate that this is problematic for 3 reasons: the lack of a general definition of causal mediation effects independent of a particular statistical model, the…
[Causal analysis approaches in epidemiology].
Dumas, O; Siroux, V; Le Moual, N; Varraso, R
2014-02-01
Epidemiological research is mostly based on observational studies. Whether such studies can provide evidence of causation remains discussed. Several causal analysis methods have been developed in epidemiology. This paper aims at presenting an overview of these methods: graphical models, path analysis and its extensions, and models based on the counterfactual approach, with a special emphasis on marginal structural models. Graphical approaches have been developed to allow synthetic representations of supposed causal relationships in a given problem. They serve as qualitative support in the study of causal relationships. The sufficient-component cause model has been developed to deal with the issue of multicausality raised by the emergence of chronic multifactorial diseases. Directed acyclic graphs are mostly used as a visual tool to identify possible confounding sources in a study. Structural equations models, the main extension of path analysis, combine a system of equations and a path diagram, representing a set of possible causal relationships. They allow quantifying direct and indirect effects in a general model in which several relationships can be tested simultaneously. Dynamic path analysis further takes into account the role of time. The counterfactual approach defines causality by comparing the observed event and the counterfactual event (the event that would have been observed if, contrary to the fact, the subject had received a different exposure than the one he actually received). This theoretical approach has shown limits of traditional methods to address some causality questions. In particular, in longitudinal studies, when there is time-varying confounding, classical methods (regressions) may be biased. Marginal structural models have been developed to address this issue. In conclusion, "causal models", though they were developed partly independently, are based on equivalent logical foundations. A crucial step in the application of these models is the
Mathematical implications of Einstein-Weyl causality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borchers, H.J.; Sen, R.N.
2006-01-01
The present work is the first systematic attempt at answering the following fundamental question: what mathematical structures does Einstein-Weyl causality impose on a point-set that has no other previous structure defined on it? The authors propose an axiomatization of Einstein-Weyl causality (inspired by physics), and investigate the topological and uniform structures that it implies. Their final result is that a causal space is densely embedded in one that is locally a differentiable manifold. The mathematical level required of the reader is that of the graduate student in mathematical physics. (orig.)
Causality, spin, and equal-time commutators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Rahman, A.M.
1975-01-01
We study the causality constraints on the structure of the Lorentz-antisymmetric component of the commutator of two conserved isovector currents between fermion states of equal momenta. We discuss the sum rules that follow from causality and scaling, using the recently introduced refined infinite-momentum technique. The complete set of sum rules is found to include the spin-dependent fixed-mass sum rules obtained from light-cone commutators. The causality and scaling restrictions on the structure of the electromagnetic equal-time commutators are discussed, and it is found, in particular, that causality requires the spin-dependent part of the matrix element for the time-space electromagnetic equal-time commutator to vanish identically. It is also shown, in comparison with the electromagnetic case, that the corresponding matrix element for the time-space isovector current equal-time commutator is required, by causality, to have isospin-antisymmetric tensor and scalar operator Schwinger terms
Participation costs can suppress the evolution of upstream reciprocity.
Peña, Jorge; Pestelacci, Enea; Berchtold, André; Tomassini, Marco
2011-03-21
Indirect reciprocity, one of the many mechanisms proposed to explain the evolution of cooperation, is the idea that altruistic actions can be rewarded by third parties. Upstream or generalized reciprocity is one type of indirect reciprocity in which individuals help someone if they have been helped by somebody else in the past. Although empirically found to be at work in humans, the evolution of upstream reciprocity is difficult to explain from a theoretical point of view. A recent model of upstream reciprocity, first proposed by Nowak and Roch (2007) and further analyzed by Iwagami and Masuda (2010), shows that while upstream reciprocity alone does not lead to the evolution of cooperation, it can act in tandem with mechanisms such as network reciprocity and increase the total level of cooperativity in the population. We argue, however, that Nowak and Roch's model systematically leads to non-uniform interaction rates, where more cooperative individuals take part in more games than less cooperative ones. As a result, the critical benefit-to-cost ratios derived under this model in previous studies are not invariant with respect to the addition of participation costs. We show that accounting for these costs can hinder and even suppress the evolution of upstream reciprocity, both for populations with non-random encounters and graph-structured populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M.; Salim, J.M.; Torres, J.; Oliveira, H.P. de
1989-01-01
A set of spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological geometries generated by a class of non-perfect is investigated fluids. The irreversibility if this system is studied in the context of causal thermodynamics which provides a useful mechanism to conform to the non-violation of the causal principle. (author) [pt
Causal Analysis After Haavelmo
Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo
2014-01-01
Haavelmo's seminal 1943 and 1944 papers are the first rigorous treatment of causality. In them, he distinguished the definition of causal parameters from their identification. He showed that causal parameters are defined using hypothetical models that assign variation to some of the inputs determining outcomes while holding all other inputs fixed. He thus formalized and made operational Marshall's (1890) ceteris paribus analysis. We embed Haavelmo's framework into the recursive framework of Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) used in one influential recent approach to causality (Pearl, 2000) and in the related literature on Bayesian nets (Lauritzen, 1996). We compare the simplicity of an analysis of causality based on Haavelmo's methodology with the complex and nonintuitive approach used in the causal literature of DAGs—the “do-calculus” of Pearl (2009). We discuss the severe limitations of DAGs and in particular of the do-calculus of Pearl in securing identification of economic models. We extend our framework to consider models for simultaneous causality, a central contribution of Haavelmo. In general cases, DAGs cannot be used to analyze models for simultaneous causality, but Haavelmo's approach naturally generalizes to cover them. PMID:25729123
Causality in Classical Electrodynamics
Savage, Craig
2012-01-01
Causality in electrodynamics is a subject of some confusion, especially regarding the application of Faraday's law and the Ampere-Maxwell law. This has led to the suggestion that we should not teach students that electric and magnetic fields can cause each other, but rather focus on charges and currents as the causal agents. In this paper I argue…
Causality in Europeanization Research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lynggaard, Kennet
2012-01-01
to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas eWidlok
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-WEIRD people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition.
Repair of Partly Misspecified Causal Diagrams.
Oates, Chris J; Kasza, Jessica; Simpson, Julie A; Forbes, Andrew B
2017-07-01
Errors in causal diagrams elicited from experts can lead to the omission of important confounding variables from adjustment sets and render causal inferences invalid. In this report, a novel method is presented that repairs a misspecified causal diagram through the addition of edges. These edges are determined using a data-driven approach designed to provide improved statistical efficiency relative to de novo structure learning methods. Our main assumption is that the expert is "directionally informed," meaning that "false" edges provided by the expert would not create cycles if added to the "true" causal diagram. The overall procedure is cast as a preprocessing technique that is agnostic to subsequent causal inferences. Results based on simulated data and data derived from an observational cohort illustrate the potential for data-assisted elicitation in epidemiologic applications. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B208.
Reciprocal Relationships: Something for Everyone.
Tumosa, Nina
2017-01-01
Reciprocal relationships based on mutual goals, respect and trust are key to maintaining working relationships and getting reliable research results. Yet relationship building is not a concept taught in academia. These skills are often learned the hard way, with singular solutions found for case-by-case scenarios. Several journeys to identify the components, barriers and rewards of reciprocal relationships are discussed.
Belief in reciprocity in a Chinese sample.
Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianxin
2012-08-01
Belief in reciprocity refers to a personally internalized faith in the reciprocity norm: that people will return positive and negative interactions or favors in kind. The current study aims to examine the relationship between belief in reciprocity and altruism among a Chinese sample. The Personal Norm of Reciprocity Scale, Trait Forgiveness Scale, Prosocial Tendency Measure, and Altruism Scale were used to assess extent of belief in reciprocity, forgiveness, and prosocial motivation, respectively, among 204 Chinese undergraduates. The results indicated that belief in reciprocity was a partially negative, but not neutral, reciprocity norm for Chinese people. Specifically, belief in reciprocity was positively related to negative reciprocity, but not significantly related to positive reciprocity. Moreover, belief in reciprocity was negatively related to both prosocial tendency and altruistic motivation. The results also indicated that forgiveness largely mediated the effect of belief in reciprocity on altruism. Finally, the implications and limitations of the current study were discussed.
Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)
1987-01-01
A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.
Fiona Steele; Jon Rasbash; Jennifer Jenkins
2013-01-01
There has been substantial interest in the social and health sciences in the reciprocal causal influences that people in close relationships have on one another. Most research has considered reciprocal processes involving only 2 units, although many social relationships of interest occur within a larger group (e.g., families, work groups, peer groups, classrooms). This article presents a general longitudinal multilevel modeling framework for the simultaneous estimation of reciprocal relations...
Causality and headache triggers
Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.
2013-01-01
Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroer, Bert; FU-Berlin
2012-02-01
Recent insights into the conceptual structure of localization in QFT ('modular localization') led to clarifications of old unsolved problems. The oldest one is the Einstein-Jordan conundrum which led Jordan in 1925 to the discovery of quantum field theory. This comparison of fluctuations in subsystems of heat bath systems (Einstein) with those resulting from the restriction of the QFT vacuum state to an open sub volume (Jordan) leads to a perfect analogy; the globally pure vacuum state becomes upon local restriction a strongly impure KMS state. This phenomenon of localization-caused thermal behavior as well as the vacuum-polarization clouds at the causal boundary of the localization region places localization in QFT into a sharp contrast with quantum mechanics and justifies the attribute 'holistic'. In fact it positions the E-J Gedankenexperiment into the same conceptual class as the cosmological constant problem and the Unruh Gedankenexperiment and the problem of the cosmological constant. The holistic structure of QFT resulting from 'modular localization' also leads to a revision of the conceptual origin of the crucial crossing property which entered particle theory at the time of the bootstrap S-matrix approach but suffered from incorrect use in the S-matrix settings of the dual model and string theory. The new point of view, which strengthens the autonomous aspect of QFT, also comes with new messages for gauge theory by exposing the clash between Hilbert space structure and pointlike localization for massless higher spin fields. It hopefully also will contribute to its solution. (author)
Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds
de Boer, Jan; Haehl, Felix M.; Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C.
2016-08-01
We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be reorganized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2 d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglemententropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.
Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boer, Jan de [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haehl, Felix M. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2016-08-29
We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be re-organized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglement entropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
2018-07-13
Causality has never gained the status of a 'law' or 'principle' in physics. Some recent literature has even popularized the false idea that causality is a notion that should be banned from theory. Such misconception relies on an alleged universality of the reversibility of the laws of physics, based either on the determinism of classical theory, or on the multiverse interpretation of quantum theory, in both cases motivated by mere interpretational requirements for realism of the theory. Here, I will show that a properly defined unambiguous notion of causality is a theorem of quantum theory, which is also a falsifiable proposition of the theory. Such a notion of causality appeared in the literature within the framework of operational probabilistic theories. It is a genuinely theoretical notion, corresponding to establishing a definite partial order among events, in the same way as we do by using the future causal cone on Minkowski space. The notion of causality is logically completely independent of the misidentified concept of 'determinism', and, being a consequence of quantum theory, is ubiquitous in physics. In addition, as classical theory can be regarded as a restriction of quantum theory, causality holds also in the classical case, although the determinism of the theory trivializes it. I then conclude by arguing that causality naturally establishes an arrow of time. This implies that the scenario of the 'block Universe' and the connected 'past hypothesis' are incompatible with causality, and thus with quantum theory: they are both doomed to remain mere interpretations and, as such, are not falsifiable, similar to the hypothesis of 'super-determinism'.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Organizational justice and leadership : expanding the causal framework
Sajons, Gwendolin Beatriz
2014-01-01
This thesis examines the relationships among managerial justice and employee attitudes, emotions and behaviors to re-conceptualize the traditional causal frameworks of the justice literature. In the first chapter, I propose that distributive fairness perceptions do not unidirectionally affect performance, but that the two are linked reciprocally. Data from two laboratory experiments support this proposition. Chapter 2 builds on this idea to argue that managers use employee performance as a he...
Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.
Vromen, Jack
2017-08-23
Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing
Reciprocal link for a coupled Camassa–Holm type equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Nianhua; Zhang, Jinshun; Wu, Lihua
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We construct a reciprocal transformation for a coupled Camassa–Holm type equation proposed by Geng and Xue. • The transformed coupled Camassa–Holm type system is a reduction of the first negative flow in a modified Drinfeld–Sokolov III hierarchy. • The Lax pair and bi-Hamiltonian structure behaviors of the coupled Camassa–Holm type equation under the reciprocal transformation are analyzed. - Abstract: A coupled Camassa–Holm type equation is linked to the first negative flow in a modified Drinfeld–Sokolov III hierarchy by a transformation of reciprocal type. Meanwhile the Lax pair and bi-Hamiltonian structure behaviors of this coupled Camassa–Holm type equation under the reciprocal transformation are analyzed.
Causal knowledge and the development of inductive reasoning.
Bright, Aimée K; Feeney, Aidan
2014-06-01
We explored the development of sensitivity to causal relations in children's inductive reasoning. Children (5-, 8-, and 12-year-olds) and adults were given trials in which they decided whether a property known to be possessed by members of one category was also possessed by members of (a) a taxonomically related category or (b) a causally related category. The direction of the causal link was either predictive (prey→predator) or diagnostic (predator→prey), and the property that participants reasoned about established either a taxonomic or causal context. There was a causal asymmetry effect across all age groups, with more causal choices when the causal link was predictive than when it was diagnostic. Furthermore, context-sensitive causal reasoning showed a curvilinear development, with causal choices being most frequent for 8-year-olds regardless of context. Causal inductions decreased thereafter because 12-year-olds and adults made more taxonomic choices when reasoning in the taxonomic context. These findings suggest that simple causal relations may often be the default knowledge structure in young children's inductive reasoning, that sensitivity to causal direction is present early on, and that children over-generalize their causal knowledge when reasoning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maund, J.B.
1979-01-01
Although the existence of tachyons is not ruled out by special relativity, it appears that causal paradoxes will arise if there are tachyons. The usual solutions to these paradoxes employ some form of the reinterpretation principle. In this paper it is argued first that, the principle is incoherent, second, that even if it is not, some causal paradoxes remain, and third, the most plausible ''solution,'' which appeals to boundary conditions of the universe, will conflict with special relativity
Dynamics and causality constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sousa, Manoelito M. de
2001-04-01
The physical meaning and the geometrical interpretation of causality implementation in classical field theories are discussed. Causality in field theory are kinematical constraints dynamically implemented via solutions of the field equation, but in a limit of zero-distance from the field sources part of these constraints carries a dynamical content that explains old problems of classical electrodynamics away with deep implications to the nature of physicals interactions. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiande Hu
Full Text Available Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS is an aggressive pediatric cancer of skeletal muscle. More than 70% of ARMS tumors carry balanced t(2;13 chromosomal translocation that leads to the production of two novel fusion genes, PAX3-FKHR and FKHR-PAX3. While the PAX3-FKHR gene has been intensely studied, the reciprocal FKHR-PAX3 gene has rarely been described. We report here the cloning and functional characterization of the FKHR-PAX3 gene as the first step towards a better understanding of its potential impact on ARMS biology. From RH30 ARMS cells, we detected and isolated three versions of FKHR-PAX3 cDNAs whose C-terminal sequences corresponded to PAX3c, PAX3d, and PAX3e isoforms. Unlike the nuclear-specific localization of PAX3-FKHR, the reciprocal FKHR-PAX3 proteins stayed predominantly in the cytoplasm. FKHR-PAX3 potently inhibited myogenesis in both non-transformed myoblast cells and ARMS cells. We showed that FKHR-PAX3 was not a classic oncogene but could act as a facilitator in oncogenic pathways by stabilizing PAX3-FKHR expression, enhancing cell proliferation, clonogenicity, anchorage-independent growth, and matrix adhesion in vitro, and accelerating the onset of tumor formation in xenograft mouse model in vivo. In addition to these pro-oncogenic behaviors, FKHR-PAX3 also negatively affected cell migration and invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Taken together, these functional characteristics suggested that FKHR-PAX3 might have a critical role in the early stage of ARMS development.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleshin, A. N., E-mail: a.n.aleshin@mail.ru; Bugaev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Ermakova, M. A. [Federal Agency on Technical Regulating and Metrology, Center for Study of Surface and Vacuum Properties (Russian Federation); Ruban, O. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)
2016-03-15
The crystallographic parameters of elements of a metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) heterostructure with In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As quantum well are determined using reciprocal space mapping. The heterostructure has been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on the vicinal surface of a GaAs substrate with a deviation angle of 2° from the (001) plane. The structure consists of a metamorphic step-graded buffer (composed of six layers, including an inverse step), a high-temperature buffer of constant composition, and active high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) layers. The InAs content in the metamorphic buffer layers varies from 0.1 to 0.48. Reciprocal space mapping has been performed for the 004 and 224 reflections (the latter in glancing exit geometry). Based on map processing, the lateral and vertical lattice parameters of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}As ternary solid solutions of variable composition have been determined. The degree of layer lattice relaxation and the compressive stress are found within the linear elasticity theory. The high-temperature buffer layer of constant composition (on which active MHEMT layers are directly formed) is shown to have the highest (close to 100%) degree of relaxation in comparison with all other heterostructure layers and a minimum compressive stress.
Aleshin, A. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Ermakova, M. A.; Ruban, O. A.
2016-03-01
The crystallographic parameters of elements of a metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) heterostructure with In0.4Ga0.6As quantum well are determined using reciprocal space mapping. The heterostructure has been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on the vicinal surface of a GaAs substrate with a deviation angle of 2° from the (001) plane. The structure consists of a metamorphic step-graded buffer (composed of six layers, including an inverse step), a high-temperature buffer of constant composition, and active high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) layers. The InAs content in the metamorphic buffer layers varies from 0.1 to 0.48. Reciprocal space mapping has been performed for the 004 and 224 reflections (the latter in glancing exit geometry). Based on map processing, the lateral and vertical lattice parameters of In x Ga1- x As ternary solid solutions of variable composition have been determined. The degree of layer lattice relaxation and the compressive stress are found within the linear elasticity theory. The high-temperature buffer layer of constant composition (on which active MHEMT layers are directly formed) is shown to have the highest (close to 100%) degree of relaxation in comparison with all other heterostructure layers and a minimum compressive stress.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleshin, A. N.; Bugaev, A. S.; Ermakova, M. A.; Ruban, O. A.
2016-01-01
The crystallographic parameters of elements of a metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) heterostructure with In_0_._4Ga_0_._6As quantum well are determined using reciprocal space mapping. The heterostructure has been grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) on the vicinal surface of a GaAs substrate with a deviation angle of 2° from the (001) plane. The structure consists of a metamorphic step-graded buffer (composed of six layers, including an inverse step), a high-temperature buffer of constant composition, and active high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) layers. The InAs content in the metamorphic buffer layers varies from 0.1 to 0.48. Reciprocal space mapping has been performed for the 004 and 224 reflections (the latter in glancing exit geometry). Based on map processing, the lateral and vertical lattice parameters of In_xGa_1_–_xAs ternary solid solutions of variable composition have been determined. The degree of layer lattice relaxation and the compressive stress are found within the linear elasticity theory. The high-temperature buffer layer of constant composition (on which active MHEMT layers are directly formed) is shown to have the highest (close to 100%) degree of relaxation in comparison with all other heterostructure layers and a minimum compressive stress.
Electromagnetic reciprocity in antenna theory
Stumpf, Martin
2018-01-01
The reciprocity theorem is among the most intriguing concepts in wave field theory and has become an integral part of almost all standard textbooks on electromagnetic (EM) theory. This book makes use of the theorem to quantitatively describe EM interactions concerning general multiport antenna systems. It covers a general reciprocity-based description of antenna systems, their EM scattering properties, and further related aspects. Beginning with an introduction to the subject, Electromagnetic Reciprocity in Antenna Theory provides readers first with the basic prerequisites before offering coverage of the equivalent multiport circuit antenna representations, EM coupling between multiport antenna systems and their EM interactions with scatterers, accompanied with the corresponding EM compensation theorems.
Reciprocity principle in duct acoustics
Cho, Y.-C.
1979-01-01
Various reciprocity relations in duct acoustics have been derived on the basis of the spatial reciprocity principle implied in Green's functions for linear waves. The derivation includes the reciprocity relations between mode conversion coefficients for reflection and transmission in nonuniform ducts, and the relation between the radiation of a mode from an arbitrarily terminated duct and the absorption of an externally incident plane wave by the duct. Such relations are well defined as long as the systems remain linear, regardless of acoustic properties of duct nonuniformities which cause the mode conversions.
Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Reciproc Blue, Reciproc, and WaveOne Gold Reciprocating Instruments.
Keskin, Cangül; Inan, Uğur; Demiral, Murat; Keleş, Ali
2017-08-01
The aim of the present study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of Reciproc Blue R25 (VDW, Munich, Germany) with Reciproc R25 (VDW) and WaveOne Gold Primary (Denstply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Fifteen Reciproc Blue R25, 15 Reciproc R25, and 15 WaveOne Gold Primary instruments were collected and tested in a dynamic cyclic fatigue test device, which has an artificial canal with a 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. All instruments were operated until fracture occurred, and time to fracture (TF) and the lengths of the fractured fragments were recorded. The mean and standard deviations of TF and fragment length were calculated for each reciprocating system. TF data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis 1-way analysis of variance and the Dunn test, whereas fractured fragment length data were subjected to 1-way analysis of variance (P .05). Reciproc Blue R25 instruments had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than WaveOne Gold and Reciproc R25 instruments. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Harding RN, PhD
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Recruiting and retaining nurses in mental health practice settings have long been problematic: A situation which is not helped by student nurses being exposed to negative attitudes about mental health nursing or poor clinical experiences. A pilot program in which student nurses were mentored on the mental health clinical placement was initiated at an Australian School of Nursing. A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the value of this program for the student mentee and the registered nurse mentor. A questionnaire containing six questions was distributed to all participants before and after the clinical experience. The questions were open format seeking data on (a the perceived advantages or disadvantages of mentoring, (b perceptions of whether mentoring contributes to professional development, and (c whether mentoring contributes personally to the participant. The data were subjected to inductive thematic analysis. The registered nurse mentors found that time diverted from clients was a barrier to mentoring students; however, they experienced reciprocity through nurturance of self, students, and the profession. The student mentees found that they experienced a richer and deeper learning environment. Mentoring provides a satisfying learning environment for both parties if carefully implemented and supported.
Dijk, M.J.A.M. van; Claassen, T.; Suwartono, C.; Veld, W.M. van der; Heijden, P.T. van der; Hendriks, M.P.H.
2017-01-01
Objective: Since the publication of the WAIS-IV in the U.S. in 2008, efforts have been made to explore the structural validity by applying factor analysis to various samples. This study aims to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the structure of the Dutch language version of the WAIS-IV
Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles
Giese, Andrew; Latypov, Daniel; Amato, Nancy M.
2014-01-01
obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming
Causality discovery technology
Chen, M.; Ertl, T.; Jirotka, M.; Trefethen, A.; Schmidt, A.; Coecke, B.; Bañares-Alcántara, R.
2012-11-01
Causality is the fabric of our dynamic world. We all make frequent attempts to reason causation relationships of everyday events (e.g., what was the cause of my headache, or what has upset Alice?). We attempt to manage causality all the time through planning and scheduling. The greatest scientific discoveries are usually about causality (e.g., Newton found the cause for an apple to fall, and Darwin discovered natural selection). Meanwhile, we continue to seek a comprehensive understanding about the causes of numerous complex phenomena, such as social divisions, economic crisis, global warming, home-grown terrorism, etc. Humans analyse and reason causality based on observation, experimentation and acquired a priori knowledge. Today's technologies enable us to make observations and carry out experiments in an unprecedented scale that has created data mountains everywhere. Whereas there are exciting opportunities to discover new causation relationships, there are also unparalleled challenges to benefit from such data mountains. In this article, we present a case for developing a new piece of ICT, called Causality Discovery Technology. We reason about the necessity, feasibility and potential impact of such a technology.
A quantum causal discovery algorithm
Giarmatzi, Christina; Costa, Fabio
2018-03-01
Finding a causal model for a set of classical variables is now a well-established task—but what about the quantum equivalent? Even the notion of a quantum causal model is controversial. Here, we present a causal discovery algorithm for quantum systems. The input to the algorithm is a process matrix describing correlations between quantum events. Its output consists of different levels of information about the underlying causal model. Our algorithm determines whether the process is causally ordered by grouping the events into causally ordered non-signaling sets. It detects if all relevant common causes are included in the process, which we label Markovian, or alternatively if some causal relations are mediated through some external memory. For a Markovian process, it outputs a causal model, namely the causal relations and the corresponding mechanisms, represented as quantum states and channels. Our algorithm opens the route to more general quantum causal discovery methods.
Granger Causality Testing with Intensive Longitudinal Data.
Molenaar, Peter C M
2018-06-01
The availability of intensive longitudinal data obtained by means of ambulatory assessment opens up new prospects for prevention research in that it allows the derivation of subject-specific dynamic networks of interacting variables by means of vector autoregressive (VAR) modeling. The dynamic networks thus obtained can be subjected to Granger causality testing in order to identify causal relations among the observed time-dependent variables. VARs have two equivalent representations: standard and structural. Results obtained with Granger causality testing depend upon which representation is chosen, yet no criteria exist on which this important choice can be based. A new equivalent representation is introduced called hybrid VARs with which the best representation can be chosen in a data-driven way. Partial directed coherence, a frequency-domain statistic for Granger causality testing, is shown to perform optimally when based on hybrid VARs. An application to real data is provided.
K-groups of reciprocity functors
Ivorra, Florian; Rülling, Kay
2012-01-01
In this work we introduce reciprocity functors, construct the associated K-group of a family of reciprocity functors, which itself is a reciprocity functor, and compute it in several different cases. It may be seen as a first attempt to get close to the notion of reciprocity sheaves imagined by B. Kahn. Commutative algebraic groups, homotopy invariant Nisnevich sheaves with transfers, cycle modules or K\\"ahler differentials are examples of reciprocity functors. As commutative algebraic groups...
Olafsson, Gestur; Helgason, Sigurdur
1996-01-01
This book is intended to introduce researchers and graduate students to the concepts of causal symmetric spaces. To date, results of recent studies considered standard by specialists have not been widely published. This book seeks to bring this information to students and researchers in geometry and analysis on causal symmetric spaces.Includes the newest results in harmonic analysis including Spherical functions on ordered symmetric space and the holmorphic discrete series and Hardy spaces on compactly casual symmetric spacesDeals with the infinitesimal situation, coverings of symmetric spaces, classification of causal symmetric pairs and invariant cone fieldsPresents basic geometric properties of semi-simple symmetric spacesIncludes appendices on Lie algebras and Lie groups, Bounded symmetric domains (Cayley transforms), Antiholomorphic Involutions on Bounded Domains and Para-Hermitian Symmetric Spaces
Causal inference in econometrics
Kreinovich, Vladik; Sriboonchitta, Songsak
2016-01-01
This book is devoted to the analysis of causal inference which is one of the most difficult tasks in data analysis: when two phenomena are observed to be related, it is often difficult to decide whether one of them causally influences the other one, or whether these two phenomena have a common cause. This analysis is the main focus of this volume. To get a good understanding of the causal inference, it is important to have models of economic phenomena which are as accurate as possible. Because of this need, this volume also contains papers that use non-traditional economic models, such as fuzzy models and models obtained by using neural networks and data mining techniques. It also contains papers that apply different econometric models to analyze real-life economic dependencies.
Doest, ter L.; Jonge, de J.
2006-01-01
This study re-evaluated causal relationships between job characteristics (demands, autonomy, social support) and employee well-being (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion) in a methodological replication of De Jonge et al.'s (2001) two-wave panel study. The principal difference was the 2-year time
Reciprocity in the electronic stopping of slow ions in matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sigmund, P.
2008-01-01
The principle of reciprocity, i.e., the invariance of the inelastic excitation in ion-atom collisions against interchange of projectile and target, has been applied to the electronic stopping cross section of low-velocity ions and tested empirically on ion-target combinations supported by a more or less adequate amount of experimental data. Reciprocity is well obeyed (within ∼10%) for many systems studied, and deviations exceeding ∼20% are exceptional. Systematic deviations such as gas-solid or metal-insulator differences have been looked for but not identified on the present basis. A direct consequence of reciprocity is the equivalence of Z 1 with Z 2 structure for random slowing down. This feature is reasonably well supported empirically for ion-target combinations involving carbon, nitrogen, aluminium and argon. Reciprocity may be utilized as a criterion to reject questionable experimental data. In cases where a certain stopping cross section has not been or cannot be measured, the stopping cross section for the inverted system may be available and serve as a first estimate. It is suggested to build in reciprocity as a fundamental requirement into empirical interpolation schemes directed at the stopping of low-velocity ions. Examination of the SRIM and MSTAR codes reveals cases where reciprocity is obeyed accurately, but deviations of up to a factor of two are common. In case of heavy ions such as gold, electronic stopping cross sections predicted by SRIM are asserted to be almost an order of magnitude too high. (authors)
Reciprocity in the electronic stopping of slow ions in matter
Sigmund, P.
2008-04-01
The principle of reciprocity, i.e., the invariance of the inelastic excitation in ion-atom collisions against interchange of projectile and target, has been applied to the electronic stopping cross section of low-velocity ions and tested empirically on ion-target combinations supported by a more or less adequate amount of experimental data. Reciprocity is well obeyed (within ~10%) for many systems studied, and deviations exceeding ~20% are exceptional. Systematic deviations such as gas-solid or metal-insulator differences have been looked for but not identified on the present basis. A direct consequence of reciprocity is the equivalence of Z1 with Z2 structure for random slowing down. This feature is reasonably well supported empirically for ion-target combinations involving carbon, nitrogen, aluminium and argon. Reciprocity may be utilized as a criterion to reject questionable experimental data. In cases where a certain stopping cross section has not been or cannot be measured, the stopping cross section for the inverted system may be available and serve as a first estimate. It is suggested to build in reciprocity as a fundamental requirement into empirical interpolation schemes directed at the stopping of low-velocity ions. Examination of the SRIM and MSTAR codes reveals cases where reciprocity is obeyed accurately, but deviations of up to a factor of two are common. In case of heavy ions such as gold, electronic stopping cross sections predicted by SRIM are asserted to be almost an order of magnitude too high.
Maximally causal quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, S.M.
1998-01-01
We present a new causal quantum mechanics in one and two dimensions developed recently at TIFR by this author and V. Singh. In this theory both position and momentum for a system point have Hamiltonian evolution in such a way that the ensemble of system points leads to position and momentum probability densities agreeing exactly with ordinary quantum mechanics. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari
2011-01-01
to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hvorecký, Juraj
2012-01-01
Roč. 19, Supp.2 (2012), s. 64-69 ISSN 1335-0668 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/12/0833 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : conciousness * free will * determinism * causality Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Explaining through causal mechanisms
Biesbroek, Robbert; Dupuis, Johann; Wellstead, Adam
2017-01-01
This paper synthesizes and builds on recent critiques of the resilience literature; namely that the field has largely been unsuccessful in capturing the complexity of governance processes, in particular cause–effects relationships. We demonstrate that absence of a causal model is reflected in the
Public privacy: Reciprocity and Silence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jenny Kennedy
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In his 1958 poem 'Dedication to my Wife' TS Eliot proclaims "these are private words addressed to you in public". Simultaneously written for his wife, Valerie Fletcher, and to the implied you of a discourse network, Eliot's poem helps to illustrate the narrative voices and silences that are constitutive of an intimate public sphere. This paper situates reciprocity as a condition of possibility for public privacy. It shows how reciprocity is enabled by systems of code operating through material and symbolic registers. Code promises to control communication, to produce neutral, systemic forms of meaning. Yet such automation is challenged by uneven and fragmented patterns of reciprocity. Moreover, examining the media of public privacy reveals historical trajectories important for understanding contemporary sociotechnical platforms of reciprocity. To explore the implicit requirement of reciprocity in publicly private practices, three sites of communication are investigated framed by a media archaeology perspective: postal networks, the mailart project PostSecret and the anonymous zine 'You'.
Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment.
van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur
2016-01-01
Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one's trustworthiness as a service user.
Interactions of information transfer along separable causal paths
Jiang, Peishi; Kumar, Praveen
2018-04-01
Complex systems arise as a result of interdependences between multiple variables, whose causal interactions can be visualized in a time-series graph. Transfer entropy and information partitioning approaches have been used to characterize such dependences. However, these approaches capture net information transfer occurring through a multitude of pathways involved in the interaction and as a result mask our ability to discern the causal interaction within a subgraph of interest through specific pathways. We build on recent developments of momentary information transfer along causal paths proposed by Runge [Phys. Rev. E 92, 062829 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.062829] to develop a framework for quantifying information partitioning along separable causal paths. Momentary information transfer along causal paths captures the amount of information transfer between any two variables lagged at two specific points in time. Our approach expands this concept to characterize the causal interaction in terms of synergistic, unique, and redundant information transfer through separable causal paths. Through a graphical model, we analyze the impact of the separable and nonseparable causal paths and the causality structure embedded in the graph as well as the noise effect on information partitioning by using synthetic data generated from two coupled logistic equation models. Our approach can provide a valuable reference for an autonomous information partitioning along separable causal paths which form a causal subgraph influencing a target.
Reciprocation of perceived organizational support.
Eisenberger, R; Armeli, S; Rexwinkel, B; Lynch, P D; Rhoades, L
2001-02-01
Four hundred thirteen postal employees were surveyed to investigate reciprocation's role in the relationships of perceived organizational support (POS) with employees' affective organizational commitment and job performance. The authors found that (a) POS was positively related to employees' felt obligation to care about the organization's welfare and to help the organization reach its objectives; (b) felt obligation mediated the associations of POS with affective commitment, organizational spontaneity, and in-role performance; and (c) the relationship between POS and felt obligation increased with employees' acceptance of the reciprocity norm as applied to work organizations. Positive mood also mediated the relationships of POS with affective commitment and organizational spontaneity. The pattern of findings is consistent with organizational support theory's assumption that POS strengthens affective commitment and performance by a reciprocation process.
Operator ordering and causality
Plimak, L. I.; Stenholm, S. T.
2011-01-01
It is shown that causality violations [M. de Haan, Physica 132A, 375, 397 (1985)], emerging when the conventional definition of the time-normal operator ordering [P.L.Kelley and W.H.Kleiner, Phys.Rev. 136, A316 (1964)] is taken outside the rotating wave approximation, disappear when the amended definition [L.P. and S.S., Annals of Physics, 323, 1989 (2008)] of this ordering is used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucas, J.R.
1984-01-01
Originating from lectures given to first year undergraduates reading physics and philosophy or mathematics and philosophy, formal logic is applied to issues and the elucidation of problems in space, time and causality. No special knowledge of relativity theory or quantum mechanics is needed. The text is interspersed with exercises and each chapter is preceded by a suggested 'preliminary reading' and followed by 'further reading' references. (U.K.)
Spatially correlated heterogeneous aspirations to enhance network reciprocity
Tanimoto, Jun; Nakata, Makoto; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki
2012-02-01
Perc & Wang demonstrated that aspiring to be the fittest under conditions of pairwise strategy updating enhances network reciprocity in structured populations playing 2×2 Prisoner's Dilemma games (Z. Wang, M. Perc, Aspiring to the fittest and promoted of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, Physical Review E 82 (2010) 021115; M. Perc, Z. Wang, Heterogeneous aspiration promotes cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, PLOS one 5 (12) (2010) e15117). Through numerical simulations, this paper shows that network reciprocity is even greater if heterogeneous aspirations are imposed. We also suggest why heterogeneous aspiration fosters network reciprocity. It distributes strategy updating speed among agents in a manner that fortifies the initially allocated cooperators' clusters against invasion. This finding prompted us to further enhance the usual heterogeneous aspiration cases for heterogeneous network topologies. We find that a negative correlation between degree and aspiration level does extend cooperation among heterogeneously structured agents.
Teacher License Reciprocity. 50-State Review
Aragon, Stephanie
2017-01-01
This policy report defines and provides a 50-state review of teacher license reciprocity, explores how state-specific licensing requirements impact the teacher labor market, and includes examples of national and state efforts to facilitate reciprocity.
Reciprocity and Humility in Wonderland
Harry, Beth
2011-01-01
This article supports the perspective of Jan Valle regarding the importance of recognizing the subjectivity inherent in decisions about Learning Disabilities. The author argues that the perspectives of both parents and professionals are informed by subjective judgments that must be taken into account in decision making. A reciprocal approach to…
Indirect Reciprocity : A Field Experiment
van Apeldoorn, J.; Schram, A.
2016-01-01
Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has
Social evolution: reciprocity there is.
Taborsky, Michael
2013-06-03
The theory of cooperation predicts that altruism can be established by reciprocity, yet empirical evidence from nature is contentious. Increasingly though, experimental results from social vertebrates challenge the nearly exclusive explanatory power of relatedness for the evolution of cooperation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions.
Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A
2015-01-21
Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?
Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca
2013-10-01
In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Indirect Reciprocity under Incomplete Observation
Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki
2011-01-01
Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient. PMID:21829335
Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Klimidis Steven
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Methods Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Results Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Conclusion Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes
Illness causal beliefs in Turkish immigrants.
Minas, Harry; Klimidis, Steven; Tuncer, Can
2007-07-24
People hold a wide variety of beliefs concerning the causes of illness. Such beliefs vary across cultures and, among immigrants, may be influenced by many factors, including level of acculturation, gender, level of education, and experience of illness and treatment. This study examines illness causal beliefs in Turkish-immigrants in Australia. Causal beliefs about somatic and mental illness were examined in a sample of 444 members of the Turkish population of Melbourne. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were broadly similar to those of the Melbourne Turkish community. Five issues were examined: the structure of causal beliefs; the relative frequency of natural, supernatural and metaphysical beliefs; ascription of somatic, mental, or both somatic and mental conditions to the various causes; the correlations of belief types with socio-demographic, modernizing and acculturation variables; and the relationship between causal beliefs and current illness. Principal components analysis revealed two broad factors, accounting for 58 percent of the variation in scores on illness belief scales, distinctly interpretable as natural and supernatural beliefs. Second, beliefs in natural causes were more frequent than beliefs in supernatural causes. Third, some causal beliefs were commonly linked to both somatic and mental conditions while others were regarded as more specific to either somatic or mental disorders. Last, there was a range of correlations between endorsement of belief types and factors defining heterogeneity within the community, including with demographic factors, indicators of modernizing and acculturative processes, and the current presence of illness. Results supported the classification of causal beliefs proposed by Murdock, Wilson & Frederick, with a division into natural and supernatural causes. While belief in natural causes is more common, belief in supernatural causes persists despite modernizing and acculturative influences. Different
An Inquiry into Relationship Suicides and Reciprocity
Davis, Mark S.; Callanan, Valerie J.; Lester, David; Haines, Janet
2009-01-01
Few theories on suicide have been grounded in the norm of reciprocity. There is literature on suicide, however, describing motivations such as retaliation and retreat which can be interpreted as modes of adaptation to the norm of reciprocity. We propose a reciprocity-based theory to explain suicides associated with relationship problems. Employing…
Capuchin Monkeys Judge Third-Party Reciprocity
Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo
2013-01-01
Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reciprocity. 955.16 Section 955.16 Mineral... AND ON INDIAN LANDS § 955.16 Reciprocity. (a) Grant of certificate. OSM shall grant an OSM blaster certificate through reciprocity to any qualified applicant who demonstrates that he or she, and whom OSM finds...
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reciprocity. 8.120 Section 8.120 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 8.120 Reciprocity. (a) The Commandant may delegate authority to a classification society that has... determine reciprocity on a “case-by-case” basis. (b) In order to demonstrate that the conditions described...
Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joffe Michael
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s. Transmitted causes ("causes of causes" tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.
Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology.
Joffe, Michael; Gambhir, Manoj; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Vineis, Paolo
2012-03-19
Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed.The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties.The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets.Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.
Causality and analyticity in quantum fields theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iagolnitzer, D.
1992-01-01
This is a presentation of results on the causal and analytical structure of Green functions and on the collision amplitudes in fields theories, for massive particles of one type, with a positive mass and a zero spin value. (A.B.)
Inductive Reasoning about Causally Transmitted Properties
Shafto, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; Coley, John D.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.
2008-01-01
Different intuitive theories constrain and guide inferences in different contexts. Formalizing simple intuitive theories as probabilistic processes operating over structured representations, we present a new computational model of category-based induction about causally transmitted properties. A first experiment demonstrates undergraduates'…
Encoding dependence in Bayesian causal networks
Bayesian networks (BNs) represent complex, uncertain spatio-temporal dynamics by propagation of conditional probabilities between identifiable states with a testable causal interaction model. Typically, they assume random variables are discrete in time and space with a static network structure that ...
Causality in the semantics of Esterel : revisited
Mousavi, M.R.; Klin, B.; Sobocinski, P.
2010-01-01
We re-examine the challenges concerning causality in the semantics of Esterel and show that they pertain to the known issues in the semantics of Structured Operational Semantics with negative premises. We show that the solutions offered for the semantics of SOS also provide answers to the semantic
Causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sokol, Alexander; Hansen, Niels Richard
2014-01-01
We give a causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) by defining the postintervention SDE resulting from an intervention in an SDE. We show that under Lipschitz conditions, the solution to the postintervention SDE is equal to a uniform limit in probability of postintervention...... structural equation models based on the Euler scheme of the original SDE, thus relating our definition to mainstream causal concepts. We prove that when the driving noise in the SDE is a Lévy process, the postintervention distribution is identifiable from the generator of the SDE....
Morse theory on timelike and causal curves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Everson, J.; Talbot, C.J.
1976-01-01
It is shown that the set of timelike curves in a globally hyperbolic space-time manifold can be given the structure of a Hilbert manifold under a suitable definition of 'timelike.' The causal curves are the topological closure of this manifold. The Lorentzian energy (corresponding to Milnor's energy, except that the Lorentzian inner product is used) is shown to be a Morse function for the space of causal curves. A fixed end point index theorem is obtained in which a lower bound for the index of the Hessian of the Lorentzian energy is given in terms of the sum of the orders of the conjugate points between the end points. (author)
Preschoolers prefer to learn causal information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aubry eAlvarez
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Young children, in general, appear to have a strong drive to explore the environment in ways that reveal its underlying causal structure. But are they really attuned specifically to casual information in this quest for understanding, or do they show equal interest in other types of non-obvious information about the world? To answer this question, we introduced 20 three-year-old children to two puppets who were anxious to tell the child about a set of novel artifacts and animals. One puppet consistently described causal properties of the items while the other puppet consistently described carefully matched non-causal properties of the same items. After a familiarization period in which children learned which type of information to expect from each informant, children were given the opportunity to choose which they wanted to hear describe each of eight pictured test items. On average, children chose to hear from the informant that provided causal descriptions on 72% of the trials. This preference for causal information has important implications for explaining the role of conceptual information in supporting early learning and may suggest means for maximizing interest and motivation in young children.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukai, Akira; Kohara, Shinji; Uchino, Takashi
2007-01-01
We have carried out high-energy x-ray diffraction measurements on mechanically milled silica glass. It has been found that the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in the structure factor S(Q) of silica glass appreciably decreases in intensity as a result of mechanical milling, whereas the observed features of the other peaks in S(Q) almost remain unchanged. The corresponding real-space correlation function of the milled samples shows a marked decrease in intensity at r∼5 A. This gives an experimental manifestation that the dominant real-space structural correlation pertaining to the FSDP occurs at r∼5 A
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukai, Akira [Department of Chemistry, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [SPring-8, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Uchino, Takashi [Department of Chemistry, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)
2007-11-14
We have carried out high-energy x-ray diffraction measurements on mechanically milled silica glass. It has been found that the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in the structure factor S(Q) of silica glass appreciably decreases in intensity as a result of mechanical milling, whereas the observed features of the other peaks in S(Q) almost remain unchanged. The corresponding real-space correlation function of the milled samples shows a marked decrease in intensity at r{approx}5 A. This gives an experimental manifestation that the dominant real-space structural correlation pertaining to the FSDP occurs at r{approx}5 A.
Spatial hypersurfaces in causal set cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Major, Seth A; Rideout, David; Surya, Sumati
2006-01-01
Within the causal set approach to quantum gravity, a discrete analogue of a spacelike region is a set of unrelated elements, or an antichain. In the continuum approximation of the theory, a moment-of-time hypersurface is well represented by an inextendible antichain. We construct a richer structure corresponding to a thickening of this antichain containing non-trivial geometric and topological information. We find that covariant observables can be associated with such thickened antichains and transitions between them, in classical sequential growth models of causal sets. This construction highlights the difference between the covariant measure on causal set cosmology and the standard sum-over-histories approach: the measure is assigned to completed histories rather than to histories on a restricted spacetime region. The resulting re-phrasing of the sum-over-histories may be fruitful in other approaches to quantum gravity
Tacit Collusion under Fairness and Reciprocity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doruk İriş
2013-02-01
Full Text Available This paper departs from the standard profit-maximizing model of firm behavior by assuming that firms are motivated in part by personal animosity–or respect–towards their competitors. A reciprocal firm responds to unkind behavior of rivals with unkind actions (negative reciprocity, while at the same time, it responds to kind behavior of rivals with kind actions (positive reciprocity. We find that collusion is easier to sustain when firms have a concern for reciprocity towards competing firms provided that they consider collusive prices to be kind and punishment prices to be unkind. Thus, reciprocity concerns among firms can have adverse welfare consequences for consumers.
Using reciprocity in Boundary Element Calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente
2010-01-01
The concept of reciprocity is widely used in both theoretical and experimental work. In Boundary Element calculations reciprocity is sometimes employed in the solution of computationally expensive scattering problems, which sometimes can be more efficiently dealt with when formulated...... as the reciprocal radiation problem. The present paper concerns the situation of having a point source (which is reciprocal to a point receiver) at or near a discretized boundary element surface. The accuracy of the original and the reciprocal problem is compared in a test case for which an analytical solution...
Intensity and resolution of a general scan in reciprocal space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebech, B.; Nielsen, M.
1975-01-01
Elastic neutron scattering on single crystals is traditionally carried out either by rotating the sample and keeping the detector fixed, or by coupling the detector rotation to the sample rotation in the the ratio 2:1. In recent years, a number of papers have discussed the feasibility of other types of scans. General scans at oblique angles to reciprocal lattice vectors are commonly used in inelastic neutron scattering. Such scans are also useful in elastic neutron scattering and may easily be made by means of computer or tape controlled diffractometers. Formulas are derived for the intensity and width of Bragg reflections measured by scanning at oblique angles to reciprocal lattice vectors. The results of the calculations are compared to experimental results on simple structures. The limitations of general scans in reciprocal space are also discussed
Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity.
Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka
2014-05-01
Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Reciprocal Relationships between Math Self-Concept and Math Anxiety
Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans; Van der Werf, Greetje
The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between self-concept and anxiety in mathematics. A sample of 495 grade 7 students (51% girls) completed self-report measures assessing self-concept and anxiety three times in a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to test a
Reciprocity experiments on the transmission of sound in ships
Wolde, T. ten
1973-01-01
The general reciprocity theorem for linear dynamical systems was formulated by Rayleigh about a century ago (ref. 1.1). Nevertheless, in the fields of acoustics and structural dynamics the principle is not generally accepted as a useful tool and the number of applications is very limited. The
Causal events enter awareness faster than non-causal events
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Pieter Moors
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Philosophers have long argued that causality cannot be directly observed but requires a conscious inference (Hume, 1967. Albert Michotte however developed numerous visual phenomena in which people seemed to perceive causality akin to primary visual properties like colour or motion (Michotte, 1946. Michotte claimed that the perception of causality did not require a conscious, deliberate inference but, working over 70 years ago, he did not have access to the experimental methods to test this claim. Here we employ Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS—an interocular suppression technique to render stimuli invisible (Tsuchiya & Koch, 2005—to test whether causal events enter awareness faster than non-causal events. We presented observers with ‘causal’ and ‘non-causal’ events, and found consistent evidence that participants become aware of causal events more rapidly than non-causal events. Our results suggest that, whilst causality must be inferred from sensory evidence, this inference might be computed at low levels of perceptual processing, and does not depend on a deliberative conscious evaluation of the stimulus. This work therefore supports Michotte’s contention that, like colour or motion, causality is an immediate property of our perception of the world.
Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zurlo, James [Dresser, Inc., Addison, TX (United States)
2012-04-05
The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs
Causal inference in biology networks with integrated belief propagation.
Chang, Rui; Karr, Jonathan R; Schadt, Eric E
2015-01-01
Inferring causal relationships among molecular and higher order phenotypes is a critical step in elucidating the complexity of living systems. Here we propose a novel method for inferring causality that is no longer constrained by the conditional dependency arguments that limit the ability of statistical causal inference methods to resolve causal relationships within sets of graphical models that are Markov equivalent. Our method utilizes Bayesian belief propagation to infer the responses of perturbation events on molecular traits given a hypothesized graph structure. A distance measure between the inferred response distribution and the observed data is defined to assess the 'fitness' of the hypothesized causal relationships. To test our algorithm, we infer causal relationships within equivalence classes of gene networks in which the form of the functional interactions that are possible are assumed to be nonlinear, given synthetic microarray and RNA sequencing data. We also apply our method to infer causality in real metabolic network with v-structure and feedback loop. We show that our method can recapitulate the causal structure and recover the feedback loop only from steady-state data which conventional method cannot.
Causal inference based on counterfactuals
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Höfler M
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The counterfactual or potential outcome model has become increasingly standard for causal inference in epidemiological and medical studies. Discussion This paper provides an overview on the counterfactual and related approaches. A variety of conceptual as well as practical issues when estimating causal effects are reviewed. These include causal interactions, imperfect experiments, adjustment for confounding, time-varying exposures, competing risks and the probability of causation. It is argued that the counterfactual model of causal effects captures the main aspects of causality in health sciences and relates to many statistical procedures. Summary Counterfactuals are the basis of causal inference in medicine and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the estimation of counterfactual differences pose several difficulties, primarily in observational studies. These problems, however, reflect fundamental barriers only when learning from observations, and this does not invalidate the counterfactual concept.
Exploring causal networks of bovine milk fatty acids in a multivariate mixed model context
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bouwman, Aniek C; Valente, Bruno D; Janss, Luc L G
2014-01-01
Knowledge regarding causal relationships among traits is important to understand complex biological systems. Structural equation models (SEM) can be used to quantify the causal relations between traits, which allow prediction of outcomes to interventions applied to such a network. Such models...... are fitted conditionally on a causal structure among traits, represented by a directed acyclic graph and an Inductive Causation (IC) algorithm can be used to search for causal structures. The aim of this study was to explore the space of causal structures involving bovine milk fatty acids and to select...
Causal Diagrams for Empirical Research
Pearl, Judea
1994-01-01
The primary aim of this paper is to show how graphical models can be used as a mathematical language for integrating statistical and subject-matter information. In particular, the paper develops a principled, nonparametric framework for causal inference, in which diagrams are queried to determine if the assumptions available are sufficient for identifiying causal effects from non-experimental data. If so the diagrams can be queried to produce mathematical expressions for causal effects in ter...
Neural correlates of continuous causal word generation.
Wende, Kim C; Straube, Benjamin; Stratmann, Mirjam; Sommer, Jens; Kircher, Tilo; Nagels, Arne
2012-09-01
Causality provides a natural structure for organizing our experience and language. Causal reasoning during speech production is a distinct aspect of verbal communication, whose related brain processes are yet unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the continuous generation of cause-and-effect coherences during overt word production. During fMRI data acquisition participants performed three verbal fluency tasks on identical cue words: A novel causal verbal fluency task (CVF), requiring the production of multiple reasons to a given cue word (e.g. reasons for heat are fire, sun etc.), a semantic (free association, FA, e.g. associations with heat are sweat, shower etc.) and a phonological control task (phonological verbal fluency, PVF, e.g. rhymes with heat are meat, wheat etc.). We found that, in contrast to PVF, both CVF and FA activated a left lateralized network encompassing inferior frontal, inferior parietal and angular regions, with further bilateral activation in middle and inferior as well as superior temporal gyri and the cerebellum. For CVF contrasted against FA, we found greater bold responses only in the left middle frontal cortex. Large overlaps in the neural activations during free association and causal verbal fluency indicate that the access to causal relationships between verbal concepts is at least partly based on the semantic neural network. The selective activation in the left middle frontal cortex for causal verbal fluency suggests that distinct neural processes related to cause-and-effect-relations are associated with the recruitment of middle frontal brain areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
BOLD Granger causality reflects vascular anatomy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J Taylor Webb
Full Text Available A number of studies have tried to exploit subtle phase differences in BOLD time series to resolve the order of sequential activation of brain regions, or more generally the ability of signal in one region to predict subsequent signal in another region. More recently, such lag-based measures have been applied to investigate directed functional connectivity, although this application has been controversial. We attempted to use large publicly available datasets (FCON 1000, ADHD 200, Human Connectome Project to determine whether consistent spatial patterns of Granger Causality are observed in typical fMRI data. For BOLD datasets from 1,240 typically developing subjects ages 7-40, we measured Granger causality between time series for every pair of 7,266 spherical ROIs covering the gray matter and 264 seed ROIs at hubs of the brain's functional network architecture. Granger causality estimates were strongly reproducible for connections in a test and replication sample (n=620 subjects for each group, as well as in data from a single subject scanned repeatedly, both during resting and passive video viewing. The same effect was even stronger in high temporal resolution fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project, and was observed independently in data collected during performance of 7 task paradigms. The spatial distribution of Granger causality reflected vascular anatomy with a progression from Granger causality sources, in Circle of Willis arterial inflow distributions, to sinks, near large venous vascular structures such as dural venous sinuses and at the periphery of the brain. Attempts to resolve BOLD phase differences with Granger causality should consider the possibility of reproducible vascular confounds, a problem that is independent of the known regional variability of the hemodynamic response.
Causality Statistical Perspectives and Applications
Berzuini, Carlo; Bernardinell, Luisa
2012-01-01
A state of the art volume on statistical causality Causality: Statistical Perspectives and Applications presents a wide-ranging collection of seminal contributions by renowned experts in the field, providing a thorough treatment of all aspects of statistical causality. It covers the various formalisms in current use, methods for applying them to specific problems, and the special requirements of a range of examples from medicine, biology and economics to political science. This book:Provides a clear account and comparison of formal languages, concepts and models for statistical causality. Addr
Inductive reasoning about causally transmitted properties.
Shafto, Patrick; Kemp, Charles; Bonawitz, Elizabeth Baraff; Coley, John D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B
2008-11-01
Different intuitive theories constrain and guide inferences in different contexts. Formalizing simple intuitive theories as probabilistic processes operating over structured representations, we present a new computational model of category-based induction about causally transmitted properties. A first experiment demonstrates undergraduates' context-sensitive use of taxonomic and food web knowledge to guide reasoning about causal transmission and shows good qualitative agreement between model predictions and human inferences. A second experiment demonstrates strong quantitative and qualitative fits to inferences about a more complex artificial food web. A third experiment investigates human reasoning about complex novel food webs where species have known taxonomic relations. Results demonstrate a double-dissociation between the predictions of our causal model and a related taxonomic model [Kemp, C., & Tenenbaum, J. B. (2003). Learning domain structures. In Proceedings of the 25th annual conference of the cognitive science society]: the causal model predicts human inferences about diseases but not genes, while the taxonomic model predicts human inferences about genes but not diseases. We contrast our framework with previous models of category-based induction and previous formal instantiations of intuitive theories, and outline challenges in developing a complete model of context-sensitive reasoning.
Causal electromagnetic interaction equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinoviev, Yury M.
2011-01-01
For the electromagnetic interaction of two particles the relativistic causal quantum mechanics equations are proposed. These equations are solved for the case when the second particle moves freely. The initial wave functions are supposed to be smooth and rapidly decreasing at the infinity. This condition is important for the convergence of the integrals similar to the integrals of quantum electrodynamics. We also consider the singular initial wave functions in the particular case when the second particle mass is equal to zero. The discrete energy spectrum of the first particle wave function is defined by the initial wave function of the free-moving second particle. Choosing the initial wave functions of the free-moving second particle it is possible to obtain a practically arbitrary discrete energy spectrum.
Imperfect information facilitates the evolution of reciprocity.
Kurokawa, Shun
2016-06-01
The existence of cooperation demands explanation since cooperation is costly to the actor. Reciprocity has long been regarded as a potential explanatory mechanism for the existence of cooperation. Reciprocity is a mechanism wherein a cooperator responds to an opponent's behavior by switching his/her own behavior. Hence, a possible problematic case relevant to the theory of reciprocity evolution arises when the mechanism is such that the information regarding an opponent's behavior is imperfect. Although it has been confirmed also by previous theoretical studies that imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity, this argument is based on the assumption that there are no mistakes in behavior. And, a previous study presumed that it might be expected that when such mistakes occur, reciprocity can more readily evolve in the case of imperfect information than in the case of perfect information. The reason why the previous study considers so is that in the former case, reciprocators can miss defections incurred by other reciprocators' mistakes due to imperfect information, allowing cooperation to persist when such reciprocators meet. However, contrary to this expectation, the previous study has shown that even when mistakes occur, imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity. Nevertheless, the previous study assumed that payoffs are linear (i.e., that the effect of behavior is additive and there are no synergetic effects). In this study, we revisited the same problem but removed the assumption that payoffs are linear. We used evolutionarily stable strategy analysis to compare the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is imperfect with the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is perfect. Our study revealed that when payoffs are not linear, imperfect information can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity when mistakes occur; while when payoffs are linear
Causality in Psychiatry: A Hybrid Symptom Network Construct Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerald eYoung
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Causality or etiology in psychiatry is marked by standard biomedical, reductionistic models (symptoms reflect the construct involved that inform approaches to nosology, or classification, such as in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. However, network approaches to symptom interaction (i.e., symptoms are formative of the construct; e.g., McNally, Robinaugh, Wu, Wang, Deserno, & Borsboom, 2014, for PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder are being developed that speak to bottom-up processes in mental disorder, in contrast to the typical top-down psychological construct approach. The present article presents a hybrid top-down, bottom-up model of the relationship between symptoms and mental disorder, viewing symptom expression and their causal complex as a reciprocally dynamic system with multiple levels, from lower-order symptoms in interaction to higher-order constructs affecting them. The hybrid model hinges on good understanding of systems theory in which it is embedded, so that the article reviews in depth nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NLDST. The article applies the concept of emergent circular causality (Young, 2011 to symptom development, as well. Conclusions consider that symptoms vary over several dimensions, including: subjectivity; objectivity; conscious motivation effort; and unconscious influences, and the degree to which individual (e.g., meaning and universal (e.g., causal processes are involved. The opposition between science and skepticism is a complex one that the article addresses in final comments.
The Explanatory Power of Reciprocal Behavior for the Inter-Organizational Exchange Context
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martina Pieperhoff
2018-06-01
Full Text Available In order to create sustainable competitive advantages, organizations are embedded in dyadic exchange relationships, which depend on the coordination of the behavior of the actors involved. Often, coordinated behavior is explained by trust. Since trust develops in a process of reciprocal responses to presumed trustworthy behavior, it is a reciprocity-based concept. While inter-organizational exchange relationships can appear in different stages (forming, establishing, broken, different reciprocity types (direct, indirect, negative can be distinguished. The study links reciprocal behavior to different stages of inter-organizational exchange relationships in order to investigate reciprocity as a possible coordination mechanism of behavior and thus explore the basis of coordination of trust-based behavior. Qualitative Comparative Analysis as a set-theoretic approach is applied to analyze the empirical data consisting of 78 qualitative semi-structured interviews with managers of small-, medium- and large-sized companies. The results show that different reciprocity types become effective in different stages of an inter-organizational exchange relationship: For forming inter-organizational exchange relationships indirect reciprocal behavior, besides direct reciprocity, becomes effective while in establishing inter-organizational exchange relationships, direct reciprocal behavior is evident. Negative reciprocal behavior leads to a break up of relationships. Using these results, on the one hand, the concept of trust can be sharpened by deepening the understanding of the trust-building mechanisms and on the other hand, reciprocity can be seen as coordination mechanism in exchange relationships of different stages. In doing so, with this knowledge, relationships can be coordinated towards a long-term orientation in order to create sustainable advantages.
Causal learning and inference as a rational process: the new synthesis.
Holyoak, Keith J; Cheng, Patricia W
2011-01-01
Over the past decade, an active line of research within the field of human causal learning and inference has converged on a general representational framework: causal models integrated with bayesian probabilistic inference. We describe this new synthesis, which views causal learning and inference as a fundamentally rational process, and review a sample of the empirical findings that support the causal framework over associative alternatives. Causal events, like all events in the distal world as opposed to our proximal perceptual input, are inherently unobservable. A central assumption of the causal approach is that humans (and potentially nonhuman animals) have been designed in such a way as to infer the most invariant causal relations for achieving their goals based on observed events. In contrast, the associative approach assumes that learners only acquire associations among important observed events, omitting the representation of the distal relations. By incorporating bayesian inference over distributions of causal strength and causal structures, along with noisy-logical (i.e., causal) functions for integrating the influences of multiple causes on a single effect, human judgments about causal strength and structure can be predicted accurately for relatively simple causal structures. Dynamic models of learning based on the causal framework can explain patterns of acquisition observed with serial presentation of contingency data and are consistent with available neuroimaging data. The approach has been extended to a diverse range of inductive tasks, including category-based and analogical inferences.
Expert Causal Reasoning and Explanation.
Kuipers, Benjamin
The relationship between cognitive psychologists and researchers in artificial intelligence carries substantial benefits for both. An ongoing investigation in causal reasoning in medical problem solving systems illustrates this interaction. This paper traces a dialectic of sorts in which three different types of causal resaoning for medical…
Covariation in Natural Causal Induction.
Cheng, Patricia W.; Novick, Laura R.
1991-01-01
Biases and models usually offered by cognitive and social psychology and by philosophy to explain causal induction are evaluated with respect to focal sets (contextually determined sets of events over which covariation is computed). A probabilistic contrast model is proposed as underlying covariation computation in natural causal induction. (SLD)
Onsager Reciprocity in Premelting Solids
Peppin, S. S. L.; Spannuth, M. J.; Wettlaufer, J. S.
2009-01-01
The diffusive motion of foreign particles dispersed in a premelting solid is analyzed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. We determine the mass diffusion coefficient, thermal diffusion coefficient and Soret coefficient of the particles in the dilute limit, and find good agreement with experimental data. In contrast to liquid suspensions, the unique nature of premelting solids allows us to derive an expression for the Dufour coefficient and independently verify the Onsager reciprocal relation coupling diffusion to the flow of heat. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Onsager Reciprocity in Premelting Solids
Peppin, S. S. L.
2009-02-01
The diffusive motion of foreign particles dispersed in a premelting solid is analyzed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. We determine the mass diffusion coefficient, thermal diffusion coefficient and Soret coefficient of the particles in the dilute limit, and find good agreement with experimental data. In contrast to liquid suspensions, the unique nature of premelting solids allows us to derive an expression for the Dufour coefficient and independently verify the Onsager reciprocal relation coupling diffusion to the flow of heat. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Reciprocity of mobile phone calls
Kovanen, Lauri; Saramaki, Jari; Kaski, Kimmo
2010-01-01
We present a study of the reciprocity of human behaviour based on mobile phone usage records. The underlying question is whether human relationships are mutual, in the sense that both are equally active in keeping up the relationship, or is it on the contrary typical that relationships are lopsided, with one party being significantly more active than the other. We study this question with the help of a mobile phone data set consisting of all mobile phone calls between 5.3 million customers of...
Comprehensive model of a hermetic reciprocating compressor
Yang, B.; Ziviani, D.; Groll, E. A.
2017-08-01
A comprehensive simulation model is presented to predict the performance of a hermetic reciprocating compressor and to reveal the underlying mechanisms when the compressor is running. The presented model is composed of sub-models simulating the in-cylinder compression process, piston ring/journal bearing frictional power loss, single phase induction motor and the overall compressor energy balance among different compressor components. The valve model, leakage through piston ring model and in-cylinder heat transfer model are also incorporated into the in-cylinder compression process model. A numerical algorithm solving the model is introduced. The predicted results of the compressor mass flow rate and input power consumption are compared to the published compressor map values. Future work will focus on detailed experimental validation of the model and parametric studies investigating the effects of structural parameters, including the stroke-to-bore ratio, on the compressor performance.
Towards a unified theory of reciprocity.
Rosas, Alejandro
2012-02-01
In a unified theory of human reciprocity, the strong and weak forms are similar because neither is biologically altruistic and both require normative motivation to support cooperation. However, strong reciprocity is necessary to support cooperation in public goods games. It involves inflicting costs on defectors; and though the costs for punishers are recouped, recouping costs requires complex institutions that would not have emerged if weak reciprocity had been enough.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Yiqiang
2006-01-01
A dual-periodic structure for quasi-phase matching cascaded optical parametric interactions is proposed. Due to the coupling of reciprocal vectors between the original and imposed periodic sequence, the reciprocal vectors and the corresponding effective nonlinear coefficients is no longer the simple combination of two periodic structures. The new analytical expression of the effective nonlinear coefficients is deduced and given. The degeneracy phenomena and the novel extinction rule resulting from the coupling of reciprocal vectors are found and investigated. The corresponding physical nature is also discussed
Feldman, Ruth; Bamberger, Esther; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv
2013-01-01
Reciprocity - the capacity to engage in social exchange that integrates inputs from multiple partners into a unified social event - is a cornerstone of adaptive social life that is learned within dyad-specific attachments during an early period of neuroplasticity. Yet, very little research traced the expression of children's reciprocity with their mother and father in relation to long-term outcomes. Guided by evolutionary models, we followed mothers, fathers, and their firstborn child longitudinally and observed mother-child and father-child reciprocity in infancy, preschool, and adolescence. In preschool, children's social competence, aggression, and prosocial behavior were observed at kindergarten. In adolescence, children's dialogical skills were assessed during positive and conflict interactions with same-sex best friends. Father-child and mother-child reciprocity were individually stable, inter-related at each stage, and consisted of distinct behavioral components. Structural equation modeling indicated that early maternal and paternal reciprocity were each uniquely predictive of social competence and lower aggression in preschool, which, in turn, shaped dialogical skills in adolescence. Father-adolescent reciprocity contributed to the dialogical negotiation of conflict, whereas mother-adolescent reciprocity predicted adolescents' dialogical skills during positive exchanges. Results highlight the role of parent-child reciprocity in shaping children's social collaboration and intimate relationships with non-kin members of their social world.
Intrinsic rippling enhances static non-reciprocity in a graphene metamaterial.
Ho, Duc Tam; Park, Harold S; Kim, Sung Youb
2018-01-18
In mechanical systems, Maxwell-Betti reciprocity means that the displacement at point B in response to a force at point A is the same as the displacement at point A in response to the same force applied at point B. Because the notion of reciprocity is general, fundamental, and is operant for other physical systems like electromagnetics, acoustics, and optics, there is significant interest in understanding systems that are not reciprocal, or exhibit non-reciprocity. However, most studies on non-reciprocity have occurred in bulk-scale structures for dynamic problems involving time reversal symmetry. As a result, little is known about the mechanisms governing static non-reciprocal responses, particularly in atomically-thin two-dimensional materials like graphene. Here, we use classical atomistic simulations to demonstrate that out-of-plane ripples, which are intrinsic to graphene, enable significant, multiple orders of magnitude enhancements in the statically non-reciprocal response of graphene metamaterials. Specifically, we find that a striking interplay between the ripples and the stress fields that are induced in the metamaterials due to their geometry impacts the displacements that are transmitted by the metamaterial, thus leading to a significantly enhanced static non-reciprocal response. This study thus demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional mechanical metamaterials for symmetry-breaking applications.
Paradoxical Behavior of Granger Causality
Witt, Annette; Battaglia, Demian; Gail, Alexander
2013-03-01
Granger causality is a standard tool for the description of directed interaction of network components and is popular in many scientific fields including econometrics, neuroscience and climate science. For time series that can be modeled as bivariate auto-regressive processes we analytically derive an expression for spectrally decomposed Granger Causality (SDGC) and show that this quantity depends only on two out of four groups of model parameters. Then we present examples of such processes whose SDGC expose paradoxical behavior in the sense that causality is high for frequency ranges with low spectral power. For avoiding misinterpretations of Granger causality analysis we propose to complement it by partial spectral analysis. Our findings are illustrated by an example from brain electrophysiology. Finally, we draw implications for the conventional definition of Granger causality. Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience Goettingen
On causality of extreme events
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Massimiliano Zanin
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available.
Detecting reciprocity at a global scale.
Frank, Morgan R; Obradovich, Nick; Sun, Lijun; Woon, Wei Lee; LeVeck, Brad L; Rahwan, Iyad
2018-01-01
Reciprocity stabilizes cooperation from the level of microbes all the way up to humans interacting in small groups, but does reciprocity also underlie stable cooperation between larger human agglomerations, such as nation states? Famously, evolutionary models show that reciprocity could emerge as a widespread strategy for achieving international cooperation. However, existing studies have only detected reciprocity-driven cooperation in a small number of country pairs. We apply a new method for detecting mutual influence in dynamical systems to a new large-scale data set that records state interactions with high temporal resolution. Doing so, we detect reciprocity between many country pairs in the international system and find that these reciprocating country pairs exhibit qualitatively different cooperative dynamics when compared to nonreciprocating pairs. Consistent with evolutionary theories of cooperation, reciprocating country pairs exhibit higher levels of stable cooperation and are more likely to punish instances of noncooperation. However, countries in reciprocity-based relationships are also quicker to forgive single acts of noncooperation by eventually returning to previous levels of mutual cooperation. By contrast, nonreciprocating pairs are more likely to exploit each other's cooperation via higher rates of defection. Together, these findings provide the strongest evidence to date that reciprocity is a widespread mechanism for achieving international cooperation.
Detecting reciprocity at a global scale
Frank, Morgan R.; Obradovich, Nick; Sun, Lijun; Woon, Wei Lee; LeVeck, Brad L.; Rahwan, Iyad
2018-01-01
Reciprocity stabilizes cooperation from the level of microbes all the way up to humans interacting in small groups, but does reciprocity also underlie stable cooperation between larger human agglomerations, such as nation states? Famously, evolutionary models show that reciprocity could emerge as a widespread strategy for achieving international cooperation. However, existing studies have only detected reciprocity-driven cooperation in a small number of country pairs. We apply a new method for detecting mutual influence in dynamical systems to a new large-scale data set that records state interactions with high temporal resolution. Doing so, we detect reciprocity between many country pairs in the international system and find that these reciprocating country pairs exhibit qualitatively different cooperative dynamics when compared to nonreciprocating pairs. Consistent with evolutionary theories of cooperation, reciprocating country pairs exhibit higher levels of stable cooperation and are more likely to punish instances of noncooperation. However, countries in reciprocity-based relationships are also quicker to forgive single acts of noncooperation by eventually returning to previous levels of mutual cooperation. By contrast, nonreciprocating pairs are more likely to exploit each other’s cooperation via higher rates of defection. Together, these findings provide the strongest evidence to date that reciprocity is a widespread mechanism for achieving international cooperation. PMID:29326983
Neural Correlates of Causal Power Judgments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denise Dellarosa Cummins
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Causal inference is a fundamental component of cognition and perception. Probabilistic theories of causal judgment (most notably causal Bayes networks derive causal judgments using metrics that integrate contingency information. But human estimates typically diverge from these normative predictions. This is because human causal power judgments are typically strongly influenced by beliefs concerning underlying causal mechanisms, and because of the way knowledge is retrieved from human memory during the judgment process. Neuroimaging studies indicate that the brain distinguishes causal events from mere covariation, and between perceived and inferred causality. Areas involved in error prediction are also activated, implying automatic activation of possible exception cases during causal decision-making.
Causal Learning from Probabilistic Events in 24-Month-Olds: An Action Measure
Waismeyer, Anna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Gopnik, Alison
2015-01-01
How do young children learn about causal structure in an uncertain and variable world? We tested whether they can use observed probabilistic information to solve causal learning problems. In two experiments, 24-month-olds observed an adult produce a probabilistic pattern of causal evidence. The toddlers then were given an opportunity to design…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinberg, Aephraim M. [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)
2003-12-01
Experiment confirms that information cannot be transmitted faster than the speed of light. Ever since Einstein stated that nothing can travel faster than light, physicists have delighted in finding exceptions. One after another, observations of such 'superluminal' propagation have been made. However, while some image or pattern- such as the motion of a spotlight projected on a distant wall - might have appeared to travel faster than light, it seemed that there was no way to use the superluminal effect to transmit energy or information. In recent years, the superluminal propagation of light pulses through certain media has led to renewed controversy. In 1995, for example, Guenther Nimtz of the University of Cologne encoded Mozart's 40th Symphony on a microwave beam, which he claimed to have transmitted at a speed faster than light. Others maintain that such a violation of Einstein's speed limit would wreak havoc on our most fundamental ideas about causality, allowing an effect to precede its cause. Relativity teaches us that sending a signal faster than light would be equivalent to sending it backwards in time. (U.K.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Jackson Stenner
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Rasch’s unidimensional models for measurement show how to connect object measures (e.g., reader abilities, measurement mechanisms (e.g., machine-generated cloze reading items, and observational outcomes (e.g., counts correct on reading instruments. Substantive theory shows what interventions or manipulations to the measurement mechanism can be traded off against a change to the object measure to hold the observed outcome constant. A Rasch model integrated with a substantive theory dictates the form and substance of permissible interventions. Rasch analysis, absent construct theory and an associated specification equation, is a black box in which understanding may be more illusory than not. Finally, the quantitative hypothesis can be tested by comparing theory-based trade-off relations with observed trade-off relations. Only quantitative variables (as measured support such trade-offs. Note that to test the quantitative hypothesis requires more than manipulation of the algebraic equivalencies in the Rasch model or descriptively fitting data to the model. A causal Rasch model involves experimental intervention/manipulation on either reader ability or text complexity or a conjoint intervention on both simultaneously to yield a successful prediction of the resultant observed outcome (count correct. We conjecture that when this type of manipulation is introduced for individual reader text encounters and model predictions are consistent with observations, the quantitative hypothesis is sustained.
Stenner, A Jackson; Fisher, William P; Stone, Mark H; Burdick, Donald S
2013-01-01
Rasch's unidimensional models for measurement show how to connect object measures (e.g., reader abilities), measurement mechanisms (e.g., machine-generated cloze reading items), and observational outcomes (e.g., counts correct on reading instruments). Substantive theory shows what interventions or manipulations to the measurement mechanism can be traded off against a change to the object measure to hold the observed outcome constant. A Rasch model integrated with a substantive theory dictates the form and substance of permissible interventions. Rasch analysis, absent construct theory and an associated specification equation, is a black box in which understanding may be more illusory than not. Finally, the quantitative hypothesis can be tested by comparing theory-based trade-off relations with observed trade-off relations. Only quantitative variables (as measured) support such trade-offs. Note that to test the quantitative hypothesis requires more than manipulation of the algebraic equivalencies in the Rasch model or descriptively fitting data to the model. A causal Rasch model involves experimental intervention/manipulation on either reader ability or text complexity or a conjoint intervention on both simultaneously to yield a successful prediction of the resultant observed outcome (count correct). We conjecture that when this type of manipulation is introduced for individual reader text encounters and model predictions are consistent with observations, the quantitative hypothesis is sustained.
Stenner, A. Jackson; Fisher, William P.; Stone, Mark H.; Burdick, Donald S.
2013-01-01
Rasch's unidimensional models for measurement show how to connect object measures (e.g., reader abilities), measurement mechanisms (e.g., machine-generated cloze reading items), and observational outcomes (e.g., counts correct on reading instruments). Substantive theory shows what interventions or manipulations to the measurement mechanism can be traded off against a change to the object measure to hold the observed outcome constant. A Rasch model integrated with a substantive theory dictates the form and substance of permissible interventions. Rasch analysis, absent construct theory and an associated specification equation, is a black box in which understanding may be more illusory than not. Finally, the quantitative hypothesis can be tested by comparing theory-based trade-off relations with observed trade-off relations. Only quantitative variables (as measured) support such trade-offs. Note that to test the quantitative hypothesis requires more than manipulation of the algebraic equivalencies in the Rasch model or descriptively fitting data to the model. A causal Rasch model involves experimental intervention/manipulation on either reader ability or text complexity or a conjoint intervention on both simultaneously to yield a successful prediction of the resultant observed outcome (count correct). We conjecture that when this type of manipulation is introduced for individual reader text encounters and model predictions are consistent with observations, the quantitative hypothesis is sustained. PMID:23986726
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, G.N.
1981-01-01
The analysis is directed at a causal description of photon diffraction, which is explained in terms of a wave exerting real forces and providing actual guidance to each quantum of energy. An undulatory PSI wave is associated with each photon, and this wave is assumed to imply more than an informative probability function, so that it actually carries real energy, in much the same way as does an electro-magnetic wave. Whether or not it may be in some way related to the electromagnetic wave is left as a matter of on-going concern. A novel application of the concept of a minimum energy configuration is utilized; that is, a system of energy quanta seeks out relative positions and orientations of least mutual energy, much as an electron seeks its Bohr radius as a position of least mutual energy. Thus the concept implies more a guiding interaction of the PSI waves than an interfering cancellation of these waves. Similar concepts have been suggested by L. de Broglie and D. Bohm
["Karoshi" and causal relationships].
Hamajima, N
1992-08-01
This paper aims to introduce a measure for use by physicians for stating the degree of probable causal relationship for "Karoshi", ie, a sudden death from cerebrovascular diseases or ischemic heart diseases under occupational stresses, as well as to give a brief description for legal procedures associated with worker's compensation and civil trial in Japan. It is a well-used measure in epidemiology, "attributable risk percent (AR%)", which can be applied to describe the extent of contribution to "Karoshi" of the excess occupational burdens the deceased worker was forced to bear. Although several standards such as average occupational burdens for the worker, average occupational burdens for an ordinary worker, burdens in a nonoccupational life, and a complete rest, might be considered for the AR% estimation, the average occupational burdens for an ordinary worker should normally be utilized as a standard for worker's compensation. The adoption of AR% could be helpful for courts to make a consistent judgement whether "Karoshi" cases are compensatable or not.
Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles
Giese, Andrew
2014-05-01
© 2014 IEEE. Modern multi-agent systems frequently use highlevel planners to extract basic paths for agents, and then rely on local collision avoidance to ensure that the agents reach their destinations without colliding with one another or dynamic obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming, we introduce Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles (RRVO). RRVO generalizes ORCA by introducing a notion of rotation for polygonally-shaped agents. This generalization permits more realistic motion than ORCA and does not suffer from as much deadlock. In this paper, we present the theory of RRVO and show empirically that it does not suffer from the deadlock issue ORCA has, permits agents to reach goals faster, and has a comparable collision rate at the cost of performance overhead quadratic in the (typically small) user-defined parameter δ.
Reciprocal Learning: One Teacher's Narrative
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Adrienne RIGLER
2017-01-01
This paper is a personal narrative from the perspective of one teacher in Toronto who participated in the Canada-China Reciprocal Learning in Teacher Education and School Education Partnership Grant Project.I took part in a Sister School partnership between 2013 and 2017.Over the four years,I came to understand relationships in an international professional learning community.Participating in the project gave me the benefit of seeing my practice through an international lens.For my students,it offered a global citizenship experience.Although there are numerous professional development opportunities in Toronto,this partnership extends beyond a lunch and learn,or a full day professional learning.The commitment to my partners has fueled my desire to incorporate new teaching ideas and has required ongoing reflection on my own teaching practice.In this article,I will explain some of the challenges,stages of development,reciprocal learning,and implications for future international professional learning communities.
Quantum coherence: Reciprocity and distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad-211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)
2017-03-18
Quantum coherence is the outcome of the superposition principle. Recently, it has been theorized as a quantum resource, and is the premise of quantum correlations in multipartite systems. It is therefore interesting to study the coherence content and its distribution in a multipartite quantum system. In this work, we show analytically as well as numerically the reciprocity between coherence and mixedness of a quantum state. We find that this trade-off is a general feature in the sense that it is true for large spectra of measures of coherence and of mixedness. We also study the distribution of coherence in multipartite systems by looking at monogamy-type relation–which we refer to as additivity relation–between coherences of different parts of the system. We show that for the Dicke states, while the normalized measures of coherence violate the additivity relation, the unnormalized ones satisfy the same. - Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Reciprocity between quantum coherence and mixedness. • Distribution of quantum coherence in multipartite quantum systems. • Additivity relation for distribution of quantum coherence in Dicke and “X” states.
Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.
Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki
2013-01-21
Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Principal stratification in causal inference.
Frangakis, Constantine E; Rubin, Donald B
2002-03-01
Many scientific problems require that treatment comparisons be adjusted for posttreatment variables, but the estimands underlying standard methods are not causal effects. To address this deficiency, we propose a general framework for comparing treatments adjusting for posttreatment variables that yields principal effects based on principal stratification. Principal stratification with respect to a posttreatment variable is a cross-classification of subjects defined by the joint potential values of that posttreatment variable tinder each of the treatments being compared. Principal effects are causal effects within a principal stratum. The key property of principal strata is that they are not affected by treatment assignment and therefore can be used just as any pretreatment covariate. such as age category. As a result, the central property of our principal effects is that they are always causal effects and do not suffer from the complications of standard posttreatment-adjusted estimands. We discuss briefly that such principal causal effects are the link between three recent applications with adjustment for posttreatment variables: (i) treatment noncompliance, (ii) missing outcomes (dropout) following treatment noncompliance. and (iii) censoring by death. We then attack the problem of surrogate or biomarker endpoints, where we show, using principal causal effects, that all current definitions of surrogacy, even when perfectly true, do not generally have the desired interpretation as causal effects of treatment on outcome. We go on to forrmulate estimands based on principal stratification and principal causal effects and show their superiority.
Functional equations with causal operators
Corduneanu, C
2003-01-01
Functional equations encompass most of the equations used in applied science and engineering: ordinary differential equations, integral equations of the Volterra type, equations with delayed argument, and integro-differential equations of the Volterra type. The basic theory of functional equations includes functional differential equations with causal operators. Functional Equations with Causal Operators explains the connection between equations with causal operators and the classical types of functional equations encountered by mathematicians and engineers. It details the fundamentals of linear equations and stability theory and provides several applications and examples.
Reciprocal Tutoring: Design with Cognitive Load Sharing
Chou, Chih-Yueh; Chan, Tak-Wai
2016-01-01
"Reciprocal tutoring," as reported in "Exploring the design of computer supports for reciprocal tutoring" (Chan and Chou 1997), has extended the meaning and scope of "intelligent tutoring" originally implemented in stand alone computers. This research is a follow-up to our studies on a "learning companion…
Loneliness, exchange orientation, and reciprocity in friendships
Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Prins, K.S.
Guided by equity theory this study among 185 Dutch students explored the effects of exchange orientation and reciprocity in the relationship with the best friend upon loneliness. Reciprocity was in general more common in this relationship than feeling advantaged or deprived. The association between
Non-reciprocity in nonlinear elastodynamics
Blanchard, Antoine; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Vakakis, Alexander F.
2018-01-01
Reciprocity is a fundamental property of linear time-invariant (LTI) acoustic waveguides governed by self-adjoint operators with symmetric Green's functions. The break of reciprocity in LTI elastodynamics is only possible through the break of time reversal symmetry on the micro-level, and this can be achieved by imposing external biases, adding nonlinearities or allowing for time-varying system properties. We present a Volterra-series based asymptotic analysis for studying spatial non-reciprocity in a class of one-dimensional (1D), time-invariant elastic systems with weak stiffness nonlinearities. We show that nonlinearity is neither necessary nor sufficient for breaking reciprocity in this class of systems; rather, it depends on the boundary conditions, the symmetries of the governing linear and nonlinear operators, and the choice of the spatial points where the non-reciprocity criterion is tested. Extension of the analysis to higher dimensions and time-varying systems is straightforward from a mathematical point of view (but not in terms of new non-reciprocal physical phenomena), whereas the connection of non-reciprocity and time irreversibility can be studied as well. Finally, we show that suitably defined non-reciprocity measures enable optimization, and can provide physical understanding of the nonlinear effects in the dynamics, enabling one to establish regimes of "maximum nonlinearity." We highlight the theoretical developments by means of a numerical example.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reciprocity. 173.17 Section 173.17 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Numbering § 173.17 Reciprocity. (a) Section...
2010-04-01
... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reciprocity. 1235.8 Section 1235.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.8 Reciprocity. The State system...
2010-07-01
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reciprocity. 251.63 Section 251.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.63 Reciprocity. If it is determined that a right-of-way shall be needed by the United States...
Education, Gift and Reciprocity: A Preliminary Discussion
Sabourin, Eric
2013-01-01
This paper analyzes the importance and role of the reciprocity relationship in education. It presents a review on the mobilization of the principle of reciprocity--in the anthropological but also sociological and economic senses--in educational processes, especially in adult education. The study is divided into three parts. The first part analyzes…
Reciprocity in therapeutic relationships: A conceptual review.
Sandhu, Sima; Arcidiacono, Eleonora; Aguglia, Eugenio; Priebe, Stefan
2015-12-01
Reciprocity has generally been understood as a process of giving and taking, within an exchange of emotions or services, and has long been recognized as a central part of human life. However, an understanding of reciprocity in professional helping relationships has seldom received attention, despite movements in mental health care towards more collaborative approaches between service users and professionals. In this review, a systematic search of the published papers was conducted in order to explore how reciprocity is conceptualized and understood as part of the dyadic therapeutic relationship between professionals and service users. Eleven papers met our inclusion criteria and a narrative synthesis was used to synthesize the key concepts of reciprocity. The concepts of: 'dynamic equilibrium', 'shared affect', 'asymmetric alliance', and 'recognition as a fellow human being' were recurrent in understandings of reciprocity in professional contexts. These conceptualizations of reciprocity were also linked to specific behavioural and psychological processes. The findings suggest that reciprocity may be conceptualized and incorporated as a component of mental health care, with recurrent and observable processes which may be harnessed to promote positive outcomes for service users. To this end, we make recommendations for further research to progress and develop reciprocal processes in mental health care. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reciprocity. 384.214 Section 384.214 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Reciprocity. The State shall allow any person to operate a CMV in the State who is not disqualified from...
Information seeking and reciprocity: A transformational analysis
Gallucci, M.; Perugini, M.
2003-01-01
The motivation to reciprocate is analyzed within the framework of interdependence theory, with focus on the process of transformation of situations. A model of transformation is presented for the motivation to reciprocate and hypotheses regarding allocation behavior and information seeking are
Cortical hierarchies perform Bayesian causal inference in multisensory perception.
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Tim Rohe
2015-02-01
Full Text Available To form a veridical percept of the environment, the brain needs to integrate sensory signals from a common source but segregate those from independent sources. Thus, perception inherently relies on solving the "causal inference problem." Behaviorally, humans solve this problem optimally as predicted by Bayesian Causal Inference; yet, the underlying neural mechanisms are unexplored. Combining psychophysics, Bayesian modeling, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and multivariate decoding in an audiovisual spatial localization task, we demonstrate that Bayesian Causal Inference is performed by a hierarchy of multisensory processes in the human brain. At the bottom of the hierarchy, in auditory and visual areas, location is represented on the basis that the two signals are generated by independent sources (= segregation. At the next stage, in posterior intraparietal sulcus, location is estimated under the assumption that the two signals are from a common source (= forced fusion. Only at the top of the hierarchy, in anterior intraparietal sulcus, the uncertainty about the causal structure of the world is taken into account and sensory signals are combined as predicted by Bayesian Causal Inference. Characterizing the computational operations of signal interactions reveals the hierarchical nature of multisensory perception in human neocortex. It unravels how the brain accomplishes Bayesian Causal Inference, a statistical computation fundamental for perception and cognition. Our results demonstrate how the brain combines information in the face of uncertainty about the underlying causal structure of the world.
Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.
Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel
2017-10-01
Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.
Beyond Markov: Accounting for independence violations in causal reasoning.
Rehder, Bob
2018-06-01
Although many theories of causal cognition are based on causal graphical models, a key property of such models-the independence relations stipulated by the Markov condition-is routinely violated by human reasoners. This article presents three new accounts of those independence violations, accounts that share the assumption that people's understanding of the correlational structure of data generated from a causal graph differs from that stipulated by causal graphical model framework. To distinguish these models, experiments assessed how people reason with causal graphs that are larger than those tested in previous studies. A traditional common cause network (Y 1 ←X→Y 2 ) was extended so that the effects themselves had effects (Z 1 ←Y 1 ←X→Y 2 →Z 2 ). A traditional common effect network (Y 1 →X←Y 2 ) was extended so that the causes themselves had causes (Z 1 →Y 1 →X←Y 2 ←Z 2 ). Subjects' inferences were most consistent with the beta-Q model in which consistent states of the world-those in which variables are either mostly all present or mostly all absent-are viewed as more probable than stipulated by the causal graphical model framework. Substantial variability in subjects' inferences was also observed, with the result that substantial minorities of subjects were best fit by one of the other models (the dual prototype or a leaky gate models). The discrepancy between normative and human causal cognition stipulated by these models is foundational in the sense that they locate the error not in people's causal reasoning but rather in their causal representations. As a result, they are applicable to any cognitive theory grounded in causal graphical models, including theories of analogy, learning, explanation, categorization, decision-making, and counterfactual reasoning. Preliminary evidence that independence violations indeed generalize to other judgment types is presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Causal Modelling in Evaluation Research.
Winteler, Adolf
1983-01-01
A study applied path analysis methods, using new techniques of causal analysis, to the problem of predicting the achievement, dropout rate, and satisfaction of university students. Besides providing explanations, the technique indicates possible remedial measures. (MSE)
Spatial Causality. An application to the Deforestation Process in Bolivia
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Javier Aliaga
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses the causes of deforestation for a representative set of Bolivian municipalities. The literature on environmental economics insists on the importance of physical and social factors. We focus on the last group of variables. Our objective is to identify causal mechanisms between these factors of risk and the problem of deforestation. To this end, we present a testing strategy for spatial causality, based on a sequence of Lagrange Multipliers. The results that we obtain for the Bolivian case confirm only partially the traditional view of the problem of deforestation. Indeed, we only find unequivocal signs of causality in relation to the structure of property rights.
Consciousness and the "Causal Paradox"
Velmans, Max
1996-01-01
Viewed from a first-person perspective consciousness appears to be necessary for complex, novel human activity - but viewed from a third-person perspective consciousness appears to play no role in the activity of brains, producing a "causal paradox". To resolve this paradox one needs to distinguish consciousness of processing from consciousness accompanying processing or causing processing. Accounts of consciousness/brain causal interactions switch between first- and third-person perspectives...
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Bart De Clercq
Full Text Available The persistent lack of evidence on causal mechanisms between social capital and health threatens the credibility of the social capital-health association. The present study aims to address this ongoing problem by investigating whether health behaviours (i.e. smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity mediate the prospective relation between workplace reciprocity and future sickness absence.A cohort of 24,402 Belgian employees was followed up during 12 months for sickness absence. Workplace reciprocity was measured with four indicators-colleague help, colleague interest, supervisor help, and supervisor concern. Three types of multilevel mediation models were applied.Overall, workplace reciprocity negatively related to high sickness absence (≥ 10 days mainly independently from health behaviours. Uniquely, colleague interest positively related to smoking (OR = 1.058, 95% CI = 1.019, 1.098 and smoking in turn, positively related to sickness absence (OR = 1.074, 95% CI = 1.047, 1.101. No behavioural pathways could be identified between company-level reciprocity and sickness absence, and company-level health-related behaviours did not mediate the relation between company-level reciprocity and individual sickness absence.These results suggest that both social capital and health behaviours are relevant for employee health, but health behaviours seem not to be the underlying explanatory mechanism between workplace reciprocity and health.
De Clercq, Bart; Clays, Els; Janssens, Heidi; De Bacquer, Dirk; Casini, Annalisa; Kittel, France; Braeckman, Lutgart
2015-01-01
The persistent lack of evidence on causal mechanisms between social capital and health threatens the credibility of the social capital-health association. The present study aims to address this ongoing problem by investigating whether health behaviours (i.e. smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity) mediate the prospective relation between workplace reciprocity and future sickness absence. A cohort of 24,402 Belgian employees was followed up during 12 months for sickness absence. Workplace reciprocity was measured with four indicators-colleague help, colleague interest, supervisor help, and supervisor concern. Three types of multilevel mediation models were applied. Overall, workplace reciprocity negatively related to high sickness absence (≥ 10 days) mainly independently from health behaviours. Uniquely, colleague interest positively related to smoking (OR = 1.058, 95% CI = 1.019, 1.098) and smoking in turn, positively related to sickness absence (OR = 1.074, 95% CI = 1.047, 1.101). No behavioural pathways could be identified between company-level reciprocity and sickness absence, and company-level health-related behaviours did not mediate the relation between company-level reciprocity and individual sickness absence. These results suggest that both social capital and health behaviours are relevant for employee health, but health behaviours seem not to be the underlying explanatory mechanism between workplace reciprocity and health.
Links between causal effects and causal association for surrogacy evaluation in a gaussian setting.
Conlon, Anna; Taylor, Jeremy; Li, Yun; Diaz-Ordaz, Karla; Elliott, Michael
2017-11-30
Two paradigms for the evaluation of surrogate markers in randomized clinical trials have been proposed: the causal effects paradigm and the causal association paradigm. Each of these paradigms rely on assumptions that must be made to proceed with estimation and to validate a candidate surrogate marker (S) for the true outcome of interest (T). We consider the setting in which S and T are Gaussian and are generated from structural models that include an unobserved confounder. Under the assumed structural models, we relate the quantities used to evaluate surrogacy within both the causal effects and causal association frameworks. We review some of the common assumptions made to aid in estimating these quantities and show that assumptions made within one framework can imply strong assumptions within the alternative framework. We demonstrate that there is a similarity, but not exact correspondence between the quantities used to evaluate surrogacy within each framework, and show that the conditions for identifiability of the surrogacy parameters are different from the conditions, which lead to a correspondence of these quantities. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control.
Silva, Diego S; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross E G
2016-03-01
This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis (TB) treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of justifying the use of reciprocity through appeal to different moral and political theoretical traditions (i.e., virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism). We suggest that each theory can be used to provide reasons to take reciprocity seriously as an independent moral concept, despite any other differences. Third, we explore general meanings and uses of the concept of reciprocity, with the primary intention of demonstrating that it cannot be simply reduced to other more frequently invoked moral concepts such as beneficence or justice. We argue that reciprocity can function as a mid-level principle in public health, and generally, captures a core social obligation arising once an individual or group is burdened as a result of acting for the benefit of others (even if they derive a benefit themselves). We conclude that while more needs to be explored in relation to the theoretical justification and application of reciprocity, sufficient arguments can be made for it to be taken more seriously as a key principle within public health ethics and bioethics more generally.
Reciprocity of agonistic support in ravens.
Fraser, Orlaith N; Bugnyar, Thomas
2012-01-01
Cooperative behaviour through reciprocation or interchange of valuable services in primates has received considerable attention, especially regarding the timeframe of reciprocation and its ensuing cognitive implications. Much less, however, is known about reciprocity in other animals, particularly birds. We investigated patterns of agonistic support (defined as a third party intervening in an ongoing conflict to attack one of the conflict participants, thus supporting the other) in a group of 13 captive ravens, Corvus corax. We found support for long-term, but not short-term, reciprocation of agonistic support. Ravens were more likely to support individuals who preened them, kin and dominant group members. These results suggest that ravens do not reciprocate on a calculated tit-for-tat basis, but aid individuals from whom reciprocated support would be most useful and those with whom they share a good relationship. Additionally, dyadic levels of agonistic support and consolation (postconflict affiliation from a bystander to the victim) correlated strongly with each other, but we found no evidence to suggest that receiving agonistic support influences the victim's likelihood of receiving support (consolation) after the conflict ends. Our findings are consistent with an emotionally mediated form of reciprocity in ravens and provide additional support for convergent cognitive evolution in birds and mammals.
Causal Learning in Gambling Disorder: Beyond the Illusion of Control.
Perales, José C; Navas, Juan F; Ruiz de Lara, Cristian M; Maldonado, Antonio; Catena, Andrés
2017-06-01
Causal learning is the ability to progressively incorporate raw information about dependencies between events, or between one's behavior and its outcomes, into beliefs of the causal structure of the world. In spite of the fact that some cognitive biases in gambling disorder can be described as alterations of causal learning involving gambling-relevant cues, behaviors, and outcomes, general causal learning mechanisms in gamblers have not been systematically investigated. In the present study, we compared gambling disorder patients against controls in an instrumental causal learning task. Evidence of illusion of control, namely, overestimation of the relationship between one's behavior and an uncorrelated outcome, showed up only in gamblers with strong current symptoms. Interestingly, this effect was part of a more complex pattern, in which gambling disorder patients manifested a poorer ability to discriminate between null and positive contingencies. Additionally, anomalies were related to gambling severity and current gambling disorder symptoms. Gambling-related biases, as measured by a standard psychometric tool, correlated with performance in the causal learning task, but not in the expected direction. Indeed, performance of gamblers with stronger biases tended to resemble the one of controls, which could imply that anomalies of causal learning processes play a role in gambling disorder, but do not seem to underlie gambling-specific biases, at least in a simple, direct way.
On Reciprocal Causation in the Evolutionary Process.
Svensson, Erik I
2018-01-01
Recent calls for a revision of standard evolutionary theory (SET) are based partly on arguments about the reciprocal causation. Reciprocal causation means that cause-effect relationships are bi-directional, as a cause could later become an effect and vice versa. Such dynamic cause-effect relationships raise questions about the distinction between proximate and ultimate causes, as originally formulated by Ernst Mayr. They have also motivated some biologists and philosophers to argue for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES). The EES will supposedly expand the scope of the Modern Synthesis (MS) and SET, which has been characterized as gene-centred, relying primarily on natural selection and largely neglecting reciprocal causation. Here, I critically examine these claims, with a special focus on the last conjecture. I conclude that reciprocal causation has long been recognized as important by naturalists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists working in the in the MS tradition, although it it could be explored even further. Numerous empirical examples of reciprocal causation in the form of positive and negative feedback are now well known from both natural and laboratory systems. Reciprocal causation have also been explicitly incorporated in mathematical models of coevolutionary arms races, frequency-dependent selection, eco-evolutionary dynamics and sexual selection. Such dynamic feedback were already recognized by Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin in their bok The Dialectical Biologist . Reciprocal causation and dynamic feedback might also be one of the few contributions of dialectical thinking and Marxist philosophy in evolutionary theory. I discuss some promising empirical and analytical tools to study reciprocal causation and the implications for the EES. Finally, I briefly discuss how quantitative genetics can be adapated to studies of reciprocal causation, constructive inheritance and phenotypic plasticity and suggest that the flexibility of this approach
Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.
Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki
2014-03-18
Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.
ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler
2005-12-01
The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity
Nielsen, Simon; Wilms, L Inge
2014-01-01
We examined the effects of normal aging on visual cognition in a sample of 112 healthy adults aged 60-75. A testbattery was designed to capture high-level measures of visual working memory and low-level measures of visuospatial attention and memory. To answer questions of how cognitive aging affects specific aspects of visual processing capacity, we used confirmatory factor analyses in Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; Model 2), informed by functional structures that were modeled with path analyses in SEM (Model 1). The results show that aging effects were selective to measures of visual processing speed compared to visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity (Model 2). These results are consistent with some studies reporting selective aging effects on processing speed, and inconsistent with other studies reporting aging effects on both processing speed and VSTM capacity. In the discussion we argue that this discrepancy may be mediated by differences in age ranges, and variables of demography. The study demonstrates that SEM is a sensitive method to detect cognitive aging effects even within a narrow age-range, and a useful approach to structure the relationships between measured variables, and the cognitive functional foundation they supposedly represent.
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Simon eNielsen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We examined the effects of normal ageing on visual cognition in a sample of 112 healthy adults aged 60-75. A testbattery was designed to capture high-level measures of visual working memory and low-level measures of visuospatial attention and memory. To answer questions of how cognitive ageing affects specific aspects of visual processing capacity, we used confirmatory factor analyses in Structural Equation Modelling (SEM; Model 2, informed by functional structures that were modelled with path analyses in SEM (Model 1. The results show that ageing effects were selective to measures of visual processing speed compared to visual short-term memory (VSTM capacity (Model 2. These results are consistent with some studies reporting selective ageing effects on processing speed, and inconsistent with other studies reporting ageing effects on both processing speed and VSTM capacity. In the discussion we argue that this discrepancy may be mediated by differences in age ranges, and variables of demography. The study demonstrates that SEM is a sensitive method to detect cognitive ageing effects even within a narrow age-range, and a useful approach to structure the relationships between measured variables, and the cognitive functional foundation they supposedly represent.
Reciprocity Effects in the Trust Game
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Alexander Smith
2013-07-01
Full Text Available I use data from a previous experiment for classifying subjects based on their behavior in the trust game. Prior literature defines a “reciprocity effect” as the tendency for Second Movers to return proportions increasing in the amounts that they receive. In the data that I use, 31% of Second Movers show reciprocity effects, 31% are neutral, and 25% consistently free-ride, indicating that the aggregate reciprocity effect for the sample as a whole is attributable to a minority of the subjects.
Born's reciprocity principle in stochastic phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prugovecki, E.
1981-01-01
It is shown that the application of Born's reciprocity principle to relativistic quantum mechanics in stochastic phase space (by the requirement that the proper wave functions of extended particles satisfy the Born-Lande as well as the Klein-Gordon equation) leads to the unique determination of these functions for any given value of their rms radius. The resulting particle propagators display not only Lorentz but also reciprocal invariance. This feature remains true even in the case of mass-zero particles, such as photons, when their localization is achieved by means of extended test particles whose proper wave functions obey the reciprocity principle. (author)
Regression to Causality : Regression-style presentation influences causal attribution
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Bordacconi, Mats Joe; Larsen, Martin Vinæs
2014-01-01
of equivalent results presented as either regression models or as a test of two sample means. Our experiment shows that the subjects who were presented with results as estimates from a regression model were more inclined to interpret these results causally. Our experiment implies that scholars using regression...... models – one of the primary vehicles for analyzing statistical results in political science – encourage causal interpretation. Specifically, we demonstrate that presenting observational results in a regression model, rather than as a simple comparison of means, makes causal interpretation of the results...... more likely. Our experiment drew on a sample of 235 university students from three different social science degree programs (political science, sociology and economics), all of whom had received substantial training in statistics. The subjects were asked to compare and evaluate the validity...
Putting a cap on causality violations in causal dynamical triangulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, Jan; Loll, Renate; Westra, Willem; Zohren, Stefan
2007-01-01
The formalism of causal dynamical triangulations (CDT) provides us with a non-perturbatively defined model of quantum gravity, where the sum over histories includes only causal space-time histories. Path integrals of CDT and their continuum limits have been studied in two, three and four dimensions. Here we investigate a generalization of the two-dimensional CDT model, where the causality constraint is partially lifted by introducing branching points with a weight g s , and demonstrate that the system can be solved analytically in the genus-zero sector. The solution is analytic in a neighborhood around weight g s = 0 and cannot be analytically continued to g s = ∞, where the branching is entirely geometric and where one would formally recover standard Euclidean two-dimensional quantum gravity defined via dynamical triangulations or Liouville theory
Causality and analyticity in optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nussenzveig, H.M.
In order to provide an overall picture of the broad range of optical phenomena that are directly linked with the concepts of causality and analyticity, the following topics are briefly reviewed, emphasizing recent developments: 1) Derivation of dispersion relations for the optical constants of general linear media from causality. Application to the theory of natural optical activity. 2) Derivation of sum rules for the optical constants from causality and from the short-time response function (asymptotic high-frequency behavior). Average spectral behavior of optical media. Applications. 3) Role of spectral conditions. Analytic properties of coherence functions in quantum optics. Reconstruction theorem.4) Phase retrieval problems. 5) Inverse scattering problems. 6) Solution of nonlinear evolution equations in optics by inverse scattering methods. Application to self-induced transparency. Causality in nonlinear wave propagation. 7) Analytic continuation in frequency and angular momentum. Complex singularities. Resonances and natural-mode expansions. Regge poles. 8) Wigner's causal inequality. Time delay. Spatial displacements in total reflection. 9) Analyticity in diffraction theory. Complex angular momentum theory of Mie scattering. Diffraction as a barrier tunnelling effect. Complex trajectories in optics. (Author) [pt
Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dziopa, P.
1993-01-01
This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs
Reciprocity is not give and take: asymmetric reciprocity to positive and negative acts.
Keysar, Boaz; Converse, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiunwen; Epley, Nicholas
2008-12-01
Unlike economic exchange, social exchange has no well-defined "value." It is based on the norm of reciprocity, in which giving and taking are to be repaid in equivalent measure. Although giving and taking are colloquially assumed to be equivalent actions, we demonstrate that they produce different patterns of reciprocity. In five experiments utilizing a dictator game, people reciprocated in like measure to apparently prosocial acts of giving, but reciprocated more selfishly to apparently antisocial acts of taking, even when the objective outcomes of the acts of giving and taking were identical. Additional results demonstrate that acts of giving in social exchanges are perceived as more generous than objectively identical acts of taking, that taking tends to escalate, and that the asymmetry in reciprocity is not due to gaining versus losing resources. Reciprocity appears to operate on an exchange rate that assigns value to the meaning of events, in a fashion that encourages prosocial exchanges.
Mathematical modeling of reciprocating pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jong Kyeom; Jung, Jun Ki; Chai, Jang Bom; Lee, Jin Woo
2015-01-01
A new mathematical model is presented for the analysis and diagnosis of a high-pressure reciprocating pump system with three cylinders. The kinematic and hydrodynamic behaviors of the pump system are represented by the piston displacements, volume flow rates and pressures in its components, which are expressed as functions of the crankshaft angle. The flow interaction among the three cylinders, which was overlooked in the previous models, is considered in this model and its effect on the cylinder pressure profiles is investigated. The tuning parameters in the mathematical model are selected, and their values are adjusted to match the simulated and measured cylinder pressure profiles in each cylinder in a normal state. The damage parameter is selected in an abnormal state, and its value is adjusted to match the simulated and ensured pressure profiles under the condition of leakage in a valve. The value of the damage parameter over 300 cycles is calculated, and its probability density function is obtained for diagnosis and prognosis on the basis of the probabilistic feature of valve leakage.
Spite and Reciprocity in Auctions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshikazu Ikeda
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a complete information model of bidding in second price sealed-bid and ascending-bid (English auctions, in which potential buyers know the unit valuation of other bidders and may spitefully prefer that their rivals earn a lower surplus. Bidders with spiteful preferences should overbid in equilibrium when they know their rival has a higher value than their own, and bidders with a higher value underbid to reciprocate the spiteful overbidding of the lower value bidders. The model also predicts different bidding behavior in second price as compared to ascending-bid auctions. The paper also presents experimental evidence broadly consistent with the model. In the complete information environment, lower value bidders overbid more than higher value bidders, and they overbid more frequently in the second price auction than in the ascending price auction. Overall, the lower value bidder submits bids that exceed value about half the time. These patterns are not found in the incomplete information environment, consistent with the model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, J.F.; Prado, P.F.V.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Dias, S.M.G.; Ambrosio, A.L.B.; Thomazella, D.P.T.; Teixeira, P.J.P.L.; Pereira, G.A.G.
2012-01-01
Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, J.F.; Prado, P.F.V.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Dias, S.M.G.; Ambrosio, A.L.B. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Thomazella, D.P.T.; Teixeira, P.J.P.L.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)
2012-07-01
Full text: Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a protein attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane that receives electrons directly from reduced ubiquinone and catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. AOX is a non-proton motive terminal quinol oxidase that enables cell respiration to continue even in the presence of inhibitors targeting the complexes of the respiratory chain. This protein is present in higher plants, pathogenic fungi and some parasites. The structural characterization of AOX becomes interesting due to its potential as a fungicide target. AOX is predicted to be a monotopic interfacial membrane protein interacting with a single leaflet of the lipid bilayer, rather than transmembrane. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals the presence of two conserved glutamate-histidine motifs, identifying it as a member of the diiron carboxylate protein family. The AOX model is defined by two pairs of helices forming a four helix bundle and an additional hydrophobic connecting sequence between the two helical pairs is proposed to act as the membrane anchoring region. In this work we aim at production, purification and crystallization of the AOX protein from M. perniciosa for further structural studies of this membrane-associated protein, by X-ray protein crystallography (author)
Born reciprocity in string theory and the nature of spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freidel, Laurent, E-mail: lfreidel@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St., N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Leigh, Robert G., E-mail: rgleigh@uiuc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Minic, Djordje, E-mail: dminic@vt.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)
2014-03-07
After many years, the deep nature of spacetime in string theory remains an enigma. In this Letter we incorporate the concept of Born reciprocity in order to provide a new point of view on string theory in which spacetime is a derived dynamical concept. This viewpoint may be thought of as a dynamical chiral phase space formulation of string theory, in which Born reciprocity is implemented as a choice of a Lagrangian submanifold of the phase space, and amounts to a generalization of T-duality. In this approach the fundamental symmetry of string theory contains phase space diffeomorphism invariance and the underlying string geometry should be understood in terms of dynamical bi-Lagrangian manifolds and an apparently new geometric structure, somewhat reminiscent of para-quaternionic geometry, which we call Born geometry.
Born reciprocity in string theory and the nature of spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje
2014-01-01
After many years, the deep nature of spacetime in string theory remains an enigma. In this Letter we incorporate the concept of Born reciprocity in order to provide a new point of view on string theory in which spacetime is a derived dynamical concept. This viewpoint may be thought of as a dynamical chiral phase space formulation of string theory, in which Born reciprocity is implemented as a choice of a Lagrangian submanifold of the phase space, and amounts to a generalization of T-duality. In this approach the fundamental symmetry of string theory contains phase space diffeomorphism invariance and the underlying string geometry should be understood in terms of dynamical bi-Lagrangian manifolds and an apparently new geometric structure, somewhat reminiscent of para-quaternionic geometry, which we call Born geometry.
Klungsøyr, Ole; Antonsen, Bjørnar; Wilberg, Theresa
2017-06-05
Patients with personality disorders commonly exhibit impairment in psychosocial function that persists over time even with diagnostic remission. Further causal knowledge may help to identify and assess factors with a potential to alleviate this impairment. Psychosocial function is associated with personality functioning which describes personality disorder severity in DSM-5 (section III) and which can reportedly be improved by therapy. The reciprocal association between personality functioning and psychosocial function was assessed, in 113 patients with different personality disorders, in a secondary longitudinal analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial, over six years. Personality functioning was represented by three domains of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems: Relational Capacity, Identity Integration, and Self-control. Psychosocial function was measured by Global Assessment of Functioning. The marginal structural model was used for estimation of causal effects of the three personality functioning domains on psychosocial function, and vice versa. The attractiveness of this model lies in the ability to assess an effect of a time - varying exposure on an outcome, while adjusting for time - varying confounding. Strong causal effects were found. A hypothetical intervention to increase Relational Capacity by one standard deviation, both at one and two time-points prior to assessment of psychosocial function, would increase psychosocial function by 3.5 standard deviations (95% CI: 2.0, 4.96). Significant effects of Identity Integration and Self-control on psychosocial function, and from psychosocial function on all three domains of personality functioning, although weaker, were also found. This study indicates that persistent impairment in psychosocial function can be addressed through a causal pathway of personality functioning, with interventions of at least 18 months duration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Shahbaz, Muhammad
2013-01-01
This paper investigates the causal relationship between economic growth, urbanisation and electricity consumption in the case of Angola, while utilizing the data over the period of 1971–2009. We have applied Lee and Strazicich (2003. The Review of Economics and Statistics 63, 1082–1089; 2004. Working Paper. Department of Economics, Appalachian State University) unit root tests to examine the stationarity properties of the series. Using the Gregory–Hansen structural break cointegration procedure as a complement, we employ the ARDL bounds test to investigate long run relationships. The VECM Granger causality test is subsequently used to examine the direction of causality between economic growth, urbanisation, and electricity consumption. Our results indicate the existence of long run relationships. We further observe evidence in favour of bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. The feedback hypothesis is also found between urbanisation and economic growth. Urbanisation and electricity consumption Granger cause each other. We conclude that Angola is energy-dependent country. Consequently, the relevant authorities should boost electricity production as one of the means of achieving sustainable economic development in the long run. - Highlights: • We consider the link between electricity consumption and economic growth in Angola. • Urbanisation is added to turn the research into a trivariate investigation. • Various time series procedures are used. • Results show that increasing electricity will improve economic growth in Angola. • Results show urbanisations reduced economic growth during civil war
mediation: R package for causal mediation analysis
Tingley, Dustin; Yamamoto, Teppei; Hirose, Kentaro; Keele, Luke; Imai, Kosuke
2012-01-01
In this paper, we describe the R package mediation for conducting causal mediation analysis in applied empirical research. In many scientific disciplines, the goal of researchers is not only estimating causal effects of a treatment but also understanding the process in which the treatment causally affects the outcome. Causal mediation analysis is frequently used to assess potential causal mechanisms. The mediation package implements a comprehensive suite of statistical tools for conducting su...
Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirchartz, Thomas; Rau, Uwe [IEF5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)
2008-12-15
The limiting efficiency of photovoltaic devices follows from the detailed balance of absorption and emission of a diode according to the Shockley-Queisser theory. However, the principle of detailed balance has more implications for the understanding of photovoltaic devices than only defining the efficiency limit. We show how reciprocity relations between carrier collection and dark carrier injection, between electroluminescence emission and photovoltaic quantum efficiency and between open circuit voltage and light emitting diode quantum efficiency all follow from the principle of detailed balance. We also discuss the validity range of the Shockley-Queisser limit and the reciprocity relations. Discussing the validity of the reciprocity relations helps to deepen the understanding of photovoltaic devices and allows us to identify interrelationships between the superposition principle, the diode ideality and the reciprocity relations. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Energy consumption and economic growth: A causality analysis for Greece
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsani, Stela Z.
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the causal relationship between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth for Greece for the period 1960-2006 through the application of a later development in the methodology of time series proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). At aggregated levels of energy consumption empirical findings suggest the presence of a uni-directional causal relationship running from total energy consumption to real GDP. At disaggregated levels empirical evidence suggests that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between industrial and residential energy consumption to real GDP but this is not the case for the transport energy consumption with causal relationship being identified in neither direction. The importance of these findings lies on their policy implications and their adoption on structural policies affecting energy consumption in Greece suggesting that in order to address energy import dependence and environmental concerns without hindering economic growth emphasis should be put on the demand side and energy efficiency improvements.
QED representation for the net of causal loops
Ciolli, Fabio; Ruzzi, Giuseppe; Vasselli, Ezio
2015-06-01
The present work tackles the existence of local gauge symmetries in the setting of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). The net of causal loops, previously introduced by the authors, is a model independent construction of a covariant net of local C*-algebras on any 4-dimensional globally hyperbolic space-time, aimed to capture structural properties of any reasonable quantum gauge theory. Representations of this net can be described by causal and covariant connection systems, and local gauge transformations arise as maps between equivalent connection systems. The present paper completes these abstract results, realizing QED as a representation of the net of causal loops in Minkowski space-time. More precisely, we map the quantum electromagnetic field Fμν, not free in general, into a representation of the net of causal loops and show that the corresponding connection system and the local gauge transformations find a counterpart in terms of Fμν.
Tsai, Alexander C; Weiser, Sheri D; Petersen, Maya L; Ragland, Kathleen; Kushel, Margot B; Bangsberg, David R
2010-12-01
Depression strongly predicts nonadherence to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antiretroviral therapy, and adherence is essential to maintaining viral suppression. This suggests that pharmacologic treatment of depression may improve virologic outcomes. However, previous longitudinal observational analyses have inadequately adjusted for time-varying confounding by depression severity, which could yield biased estimates of treatment effect. Application of marginal structural modeling to longitudinal observation data can, under certain assumptions, approximate the findings of a randomized controlled trial. To determine whether antidepressant medication treatment increases the probability of HIV viral suppression. Community-based prospective cohort study with assessments conducted every 3 months. Community-based research field site in San Francisco, California. One hundred fifty-eight homeless and marginally housed persons with HIV who met baseline immunologic (CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, 13) inclusion criteria, observed from April 2002 through August 2007. Probability of achieving viral suppression to less than 50 copies/mL. Secondary outcomes of interest were probability of being on an antiretroviral therapy regimen, 7-day self-reported percentage adherence to antiretroviral therapy, and probability of reporting complete (100%) adherence. Marginal structural models estimated a 2.03 greater odds of achieving viral suppression (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-3.58; P = .02) resulting from antidepressant medication treatment. In addition, antidepressant medication use increased the probability of antiretroviral uptake (weighted odds ratio, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.98-7.58; P effect is likely attributable to improved adherence to a continuum of HIV care, including increased uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Tomás Alvarado
2009-08-01
Full Text Available This work presents a causal conception of metaphysical modality in which a state of affairs is metaphysically possible if and only if it can be caused (in the past, the present or the future by current entities. The conception is contrasted with what is called the “combinatorial” conception of modality, in which everything can co-exist with anything else. This work explains how the notion of ‘causality’ should be construed in the causal theory, what difference exists between modalities thus defined from nomological modality, how accessibility relations between possible worlds should be interpreted, and what is the relation between the causal conception and the necessity of origin.
Introductive remarks on causal inference
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvana A. Romio
2013-05-01
Full Text Available One of the more challenging issues in epidemiological research is being able to provide an unbiased estimate of the causal exposure-disease effect, to assess the possible etiological mechanisms and the implication for public health. A major source of bias is confounding, which can spuriously create or mask the causal relationship. In the last ten years, methodological research has been developed to better de_ne the concept of causation in epidemiology and some important achievements have resulted in new statistical models. In this review, we aim to show how a technique the well known by statisticians, i.e. standardization, can be seen as a method to estimate causal e_ects, equivalent under certain conditions to the inverse probability treatment weight procedure.
Causal reasoning with mental models
Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Barbey, Aron K.; Johnson-Laird, Philip N.
2014-01-01
This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex. PMID:25389398
Causal reasoning with mental models.
Khemlani, Sangeet S; Barbey, Aron K; Johnson-Laird, Philip N
2014-01-01
This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex.
Causal reasoning with mental models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sangeet eKhemlani
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper outlines the model-based theory of causal reasoning. It postulates that the core meanings of causal assertions are deterministic and refer to temporally-ordered sets of possibilities: A causes B to occur means that given A, B occurs, whereas A enables B to occur means that given A, it is possible for B to occur. The paper shows how mental models represent such assertions, and how these models underlie deductive, inductive, and abductive reasoning yielding explanations. It reviews evidence both to corroborate the theory and to account for phenomena sometimes taken to be incompatible with it. Finally, it reviews neuroscience evidence indicating that mental models for causal inference are implemented within lateral prefrontal cortex.
Negative reciprocity and retrenched pension rights
Montizaan, R.M.; Cörvers, F.; de Grip, A.; Dohmen, T.J.
2012-01-01
We document the importance of negatively reciprocal inclinations in labor relationships by showing that a retrenchment of pension rights, which is perceived as unfair, causes a larger reduction in job motivation the stronger workers' negatively reciprocal inclinations are. We exploit unique matched survey and administrative data on male employees in the public sector in the Netherlands and compare the job motivation of employees born in 1950, who faced a substantial retrenchment of their pens...
A reciprocity-based formula for the capacitance with quadrupolar electrodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Sungbo [Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)
2011-11-15
A new capacitance formula for the practical design and characterization of quadrupolar electrode arrays with capacitive structures was derived based on the reciprocal theorem. The reciprocity-based capacitance formula agreed with the empirical equations established to estimate the capacitance of a single strip line or disk electrode compensating for the fringing field effect that occurs at the electrode edge. The reciprocity-based formula was applied to compute the capacitance measurable by using a quadrupolar square electrode array with a symmetric dipole-dipole configuration and was compared with the analytical equation established based on the image method assuming that the electrodes were points. The results showed that the capacitance of the quadrupolar electrodes was determined by the size of the quadrupolar electrodes relative to the separation distance between the electrodes and that the reciprocity-based capacitance formula was in agreement with the established analytical equation if the separated distance between the electrodes relative to the electrode size was large enough.
A reciprocity-based formula for the capacitance with quadrupolar electrodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Sungbo
2011-01-01
A new capacitance formula for the practical design and characterization of quadrupolar electrode arrays with capacitive structures was derived based on the reciprocal theorem. The reciprocity-based capacitance formula agreed with the empirical equations established to estimate the capacitance of a single strip line or disk electrode compensating for the fringing field effect that occurs at the electrode edge. The reciprocity-based formula was applied to compute the capacitance measurable by using a quadrupolar square electrode array with a symmetric dipole-dipole configuration and was compared with the analytical equation established based on the image method assuming that the electrodes were points. The results showed that the capacitance of the quadrupolar electrodes was determined by the size of the quadrupolar electrodes relative to the separation distance between the electrodes and that the reciprocity-based capacitance formula was in agreement with the established analytical equation if the separated distance between the electrodes relative to the electrode size was large enough.
Granger Causality and Unit Roots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir; Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel
2014-01-01
The asymptotic behavior of the Granger-causality test under stochastic nonstationarity is studied. Our results confirm that the inference drawn from the test is not reliable when the series are integrated to the first order. In the presence of deterministic components, the test statistic diverges......, eventually rejecting the null hypothesis, even when the series are independent of each other. Moreover, controlling for these deterministic elements (in the auxiliary regressions of the test) does not preclude the possibility of drawing erroneous inferences. Granger-causality tests should not be used under...
Quantum theory and local causality
Hofer-Szabó, Gábor
2018-01-01
This book summarizes the results of research the authors have pursued in the past years on the problem of implementing Bell's notion of local causality in local physical theories and relating it to other important concepts and principles in the foundations of physics such as the Common Cause Principle, Bell's inequalities, the EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) scenario, and various other locality and causality concepts. The book is intended for philosophers of science with an interest in the formal background of sciences, philosophers of physics and physicists working in foundation of physics.
Causal Reasoning with Mental Models
2014-08-08
The initial rubric is equivalent to an exclusive disjunction between the two causal assertions. It 488 yields the following two mental models: 489...are 575 important, whereas the functions of artifacts are important (Ahn, 1998). A genetic code is 576 accordingly more critical to being a goat than
Identity, causality, and pronoun ambiguity.
Sagi, Eyal; Rips, Lance J
2014-10-01
This article looks at the way people determine the antecedent of a pronoun in sentence pairs, such as: Albert invited Ron to dinner. He spent hours cleaning the house. The experiment reported here is motivated by the idea that such judgments depend on reasoning about identity (e.g., the identity of the he who cleaned the house). Because the identity of an individual over time depends on the causal-historical path connecting the stages of the individual, the correct antecedent will also depend on causal connections. The experiment varied how likely it is that the event of the first sentence (e.g., the invitation) would cause the event of the second (the house cleaning) for each of the two individuals (the likelihood that if Albert invited Ron to dinner, this would cause Albert to clean the house, versus cause Ron to clean the house). Decisions about the antecedent followed causal likelihood. A mathematical model of causal identity accounted for most of the key aspects of the data from the individual sentence pairs. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Charged singularities: the causality violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia
1980-12-01
A search is made for examples of particle trajectories which, approaching a naked singularity from infinity, make up for lost time before going back to infinity. In the Kerr-Newman metric a whole family of such trajectories is found showing that the causality violation is indeed a non-avoidable pathology.
A reciprocal framework for spatial K-anonymity
Ghinita, Gabriel; Zhao, Keliang; Papadias, Dimitris; Kalnis, Panos
2010-01-01
Spatial K-anonymity (SKA) exploits the concept of K-anonymity in order to protect the identity of users from location-based attacks. The main idea of SKA is to replace the exact location of a user U with an anonymizing spatial region (ASR) that contains at least K-1 other users, so that an attacker can pinpoint U with probability at most 1/K. Simply generating an ASR that includes K users does not guarantee SKA. Previous work defined the reciprocity property as a sufficient condition for SKA. However, the only existing reciprocal method, Hilbert Cloak, relies on a specialized data structure. In contrast, we propose a general framework for implementing reciprocal algorithms using any existing spatial index on the user locations. We discuss ASR construction methods with different tradeoffs on effectiveness (i.e., ASR size) and efficiency (i.e., construction cost). Then, we present case studies of applying our framework on top of two popular spatial indices (namely, R*-trees and Quad-trees). Finally, we consider the case where the attacker knows the query patterns of each user. The experimental results verify that our methods outperform Hilbert Cloak. Moreover, since we employ general-purpose spatial indices, the proposed system is not limited to anonymization, but supports conventional spatial queries as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A reciprocal framework for spatial K-anonymity
Ghinita, Gabriel
2010-05-01
Spatial K-anonymity (SKA) exploits the concept of K-anonymity in order to protect the identity of users from location-based attacks. The main idea of SKA is to replace the exact location of a user U with an anonymizing spatial region (ASR) that contains at least K-1 other users, so that an attacker can pinpoint U with probability at most 1/K. Simply generating an ASR that includes K users does not guarantee SKA. Previous work defined the reciprocity property as a sufficient condition for SKA. However, the only existing reciprocal method, Hilbert Cloak, relies on a specialized data structure. In contrast, we propose a general framework for implementing reciprocal algorithms using any existing spatial index on the user locations. We discuss ASR construction methods with different tradeoffs on effectiveness (i.e., ASR size) and efficiency (i.e., construction cost). Then, we present case studies of applying our framework on top of two popular spatial indices (namely, R*-trees and Quad-trees). Finally, we consider the case where the attacker knows the query patterns of each user. The experimental results verify that our methods outperform Hilbert Cloak. Moreover, since we employ general-purpose spatial indices, the proposed system is not limited to anonymization, but supports conventional spatial queries as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hydropower harvesting from a small scale reciprocating system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malla, Ramesh B.; Shrestha, Binu; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios; Drasdis, Jonathon [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Connecticut, 261 Glenbrook Road, Storrs, CT 06269-2037 (United States); Johnson, Paul [eGen LLC, 1084 Shennecossett Road, Groton, CT 06340 (United States)
2011-05-15
Conventional hydropower systems that can take advantage of low head movement of water require substantial flow rates. However, these systems cannot harvest hydro energy from small sources of water with low head and low discharge, such as streams and creeks. The reciprocating hydropower system discussed in this paper can harvest power from such low flow discharge and low head sources. This paper presents a detailed proof-of-concept study of the hydropower model, including the underlining theoretical principles. Laboratory test results demonstrating the dependence of the lift force in the reciprocating small scale hydropower model as a function of flow velocity, size and rotational speed of the cylinder and comparison of the results with a previous study are also included. Two methods of power harvesting from the output displacement obtained from the hydropower system are discussed. The first employs electromagnetic induction principles and the other is based on a linear inertial generator using a conventional second order spring mass damper system. Finally, results from a finite element analysis of the hydropower system are presented and facilitate future design of the structural aspects of the housing for the reciprocating cylinder. (author)
Microscopic Perspective on Photovoltaic Reciprocity in Ultrathin Solar Cells.
Aeberhard, Urs; Rau, Uwe
2017-06-16
The photovoltaic reciprocity theory relates the electroluminescence spectrum of a solar cell under applied bias to the external photovoltaic quantum efficiency of the device as measured at short circuit conditions. Its derivation is based on detailed balance relations between local absorption and emission rates in optically isotropic media with nondegenerate quasiequilibrium carrier distributions. In many cases, the dependence of density and spatial variation of electronic and optical device states on the point of operation is modest and the reciprocity relation holds. In nanostructure-based photovoltaic devices exploiting confined modes, however, the underlying assumptions are no longer justifiable. In the case of ultrathin absorber solar cells, the modification of the electronic structure with applied bias is significant due to the large variation of the built-in field. Straightforward use of the external quantum efficiency as measured at short circuit conditions in the photovoltaic reciprocity theory thus fails to reproduce the electroluminescence spectrum at large forward bias voltage. This failure is demonstrated here by numerical simulation of both spectral quantities at normal incidence and emission for an ultrathin GaAs p-i-n solar cell using an advanced quantum kinetic formalism based on nonequilibrium Green's functions of coupled photons and charge carriers. While coinciding with the semiclassical relations under the conditions of their validity, the theory provides a consistent microscopic relationship between absorption, emission, and charge carrier transport in photovoltaic devices at arbitrary operating conditions and for any shape of optical and electronic density of states.
Causal Indicator Models: Unresolved Issues of Construction and Evaluation
West, Stephen G.; Grimm, Kevin J.
2014-01-01
These authors agree with Bainter and Bollen that causal effects represents a useful measurement structure in some applications. The structure of the science of the measurement problem should determine the model; the measurement model should not determine the science. They also applaud Bainter and Bollen's important reminder that the full…
Capturing connectivity and causality in complex industrial processes
Yang, Fan; Shah, Sirish L; Chen, Tongwen
2014-01-01
This brief reviews concepts of inter-relationship in modern industrial processes, biological and social systems. Specifically ideas of connectivity and causality within and between elements of a complex system are treated; these ideas are of great importance in analysing and influencing mechanisms, structural properties and their dynamic behaviour, especially for fault diagnosis and hazard analysis. Fault detection and isolation for industrial processes being concerned with root causes and fault propagation, the brief shows that, process connectivity and causality information can be captured in two ways: · from process knowledge: structural modeling based on first-principles structural models can be merged with adjacency/reachability matrices or topology models obtained from process flow-sheets described in standard formats; and · from process data: cross-correlation analysis, Granger causality and its extensions, frequency domain methods, information-theoretical methods, and Bayesian ne...
The argumentative impact of causal relations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anne Ellerup
1996-01-01
such as causality, explanation and justification. In certain types of discourse, causal relations also imply an intentional element. This paper describes the way in which the semantic and pragmatic functions of causal markers can be accounted for in terms of linguistic and rhetorical theories of argumentation.......The semantic relations between and within utterances are marked by the use of connectors and adverbials. One type of semantic relations is causal relations expressed by causal markers such as because, therefore, so, for, etc. Some of these markers cover different types of causal relations...
The neural correlates of reciprocity are sensitive to prior experience of reciprocity.
Cáceda, Ricardo; Prendes-Alvarez, Stefania; Hsu, Jung-Jiin; Tripathi, Shanti P; Kilts, Clint D; James, G Andrew
2017-08-14
Reciprocity is central to human relationships and is strongly influenced by multiple factors including the nature of social exchanges and their attendant emotional reactions. Despite recent advances in the field, the neural processes involved in this modulation of reciprocal behavior by ongoing social interaction are poorly understood. We hypothesized that activity within a discrete set of neural networks including a putative moral cognitive neural network is associated with reciprocity behavior. Nineteen healthy adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning while playing the trustee role in the Trust Game. Personality traits and moral development were assessed. Independent component analysis was used to identify task-related functional brain networks and assess their relationship to behavior. The saliency network (insula and anterior cingulate) was positively correlated with reciprocity behavior. A consistent array of brain regions supports the engagement of emotional, self-referential and planning processes during social reciprocity behavior. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Emergent Geometry from Entropy and Causality
Engelhardt, Netta
generalizations are discussed, both at the classical and perturbatively quantum limits. In particular, several No Go Theorems are proven, indicative of a conclusion that supplementary approaches or information may be necessary to recover the full spacetime geometry. Part II of this thesis involves the relation between geometry and causality, the property that information cannot travel faster than light. Requiring this of any quantum field theory results in constraints on string theory setups that are dual to quantum field theories via the AdS/CFT correspondence. At the level of perturbative quantum gravity, it is shown that causality in the field theory constraints the causal structure in the bulk. At the level of nonperturbative quantum string theory, we find that constraints on causal signals restrict the possible ways in which curvature singularities can be resolved in string theory. Finally, a new program of research is proposed for the construction of bulk geometry from the divergences of correlation functions in the dual field theory. This divergence structure is linked to the causal structure of the bulk and of the field theory.
The Causal Structure of Utility Conditionals
Bonnefon, Jean-Francois; Sloman, Steven A.
2013-01-01
The psychology of reasoning is increasingly considering agents' values and preferences, achieving greater integration with judgment and decision making, social cognition, and moral reasoning. Some of this research investigates utility conditionals, ‘"if 'p' then 'q'’" statements where the realization of "p" or "q" or…
On causal nonrelativistic classical electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goedecke, G.H.
1984-01-01
The differential-difference (DD) motion equations of the causal nonrelativistic classical electrodynamics developed by the author in 1975 are shown to possess only nonrunaway, causal solutions with no discontinuities in particle velocity or position. As an example, the DD equation solution for the problem of an electromagnetic shock incident on an initially stationary charged particle is contrasted with the standard Abraham-Lorentz equation solution. The general Cauchy problem for these DD motion equations is discussed. In general, in order to uniquely determine a solution, the initial data must be more detailed than the standard Cauchy data of initial position and velocity. Conditions are given under which the standard Cauchy data will determine the DD equation solutions to sufficient practical accuracy
Quantum mechanics, relativity and causality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tati, Takao.
1975-07-01
In quantum mechanics, the state is prepared by a measurement on a space-like surface sigma. What is that determines the surface sigma on which the measurement prepares the state It is considered either a mechanism proper to the measuring process (apparatus) or a universal property of space-time. In the former case, problems arise, concerning causality or conservation of probability due to that the velocity of reduction of wave-packet is considered to exceed the light velocity. The theory of finite degree of freedom proposed previously belongs to the latter case. In this theory, the surface sigma is restricted to the hyper-plane perpendicular to a universal time-like vector governing causal relations. We propose an experiment to discriminate between the above-mentioned two cases and to test the existence of the universal time-like vector. (auth.)
Crystallization features of ternary reversible reciprocal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomashik, V.N.; Shcherbak, L.P.; Fejchuk, P.I.; Grytsiv, V.I.
2006-01-01
Some features of the primary crystallization of phases in ternary reversible reciprocal system are considered and discussed. The diagonal join CdTe-GeSe of the CdTe + GeSe = CdSe + GeTe ternary reciprocal system is studied to show that the features in primary and secondary heating and cooling curves in such systems under fully equilibrium conditions are not reproduced upon consecutive heating and cooling sessions, because of the existence of different amounts of the reagents and the reaction products in the mixture; the temperatures of each transformation lie in a range. Those who experimentally investigate other ternary and more complex reversible reciprocal systems should take this fact into account [ru
Gauge invariance and reciprocity in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leung, P. T.; Young, K.
2010-01-01
Reciprocity in wave propagation usually refers to the symmetry of the Green's function under the interchange of the source and the observer coordinates, but this condition is not gauge invariant in quantum mechanics, a problem that is particularly significant in the presence of a vector potential. Several possible alternative criteria are given and analyzed with reference to different examples with nonzero magnetic fields and/or vector potentials, including the case of a multiply connected spatial domain. It is shown that the appropriate reciprocity criterion allows for specific phase factors separable into functions of the source and observer coordinates and that this condition is robust with respect to the addition of any scalar potential. In the Aharonov-Bohm effect, reciprocity beyond monoenergetic experiments holds only because of subsidiary conditions satisfied in actual experiments: the test charge is in units of e and the flux is produced by a condensate of particles with charge 2e.
The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.
Kurokawa, Shun
2017-05-21
The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with
Modeling of causality with metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolyaninov, Igor I
2013-01-01
Hyperbolic metamaterials may be used to model a 2 + 1-dimensional Minkowski space–time in which the role of time is played by one of the spatial coordinates. When a metamaterial is built and illuminated with a coherent extraordinary laser beam, the stationary pattern of light propagation inside the metamaterial may be treated as a collection of particle world lines, which represents a complete ‘history’ of this 2 + 1-dimensional space–time. While this model may be used to build interesting space–time analogs, such as metamaterial ‘black holes’ and a metamaterial ‘big bang’, it lacks causality: since light inside the metamaterial may propagate back and forth along the ‘timelike’ spatial coordinate, events in the ‘future’ may affect events in the ‘past’. Here we demonstrate that a more sophisticated metamaterial model may fix this deficiency via breaking the mirror and temporal (PT) symmetries of the original model and producing one-way propagation along the ‘timelike’ spatial coordinate. The resulting 2 + 1-dimensional Minkowski space–time appears to be causal. This scenario may be considered as a metamaterial model of the Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory of causality. (paper)
THE CAUSAL ANALYSIS / DIAGNOSIS DECISION ...
CADDIS is an on-line decision support system that helps investigators in the regions, states and tribes find, access, organize, use and share information to produce causal evaluations in aquatic systems. It is based on the US EPA's Stressor Identification process which is a formal method for identifying causes of impairments in aquatic systems. CADDIS 2007 increases access to relevant information useful for causal analysis and provides methods and tools that practitioners can use to analyze their own data. The new Candidate Cause section provides overviews of commonly encountered causes of impairments to aquatic systems: metals, sediments, nutrients, flow alteration, temperature, ionic strength, and low dissolved oxygen. CADDIS includes new Conceptual Models that illustrate the relationships from sources to stressors to biological effects. An Interactive Conceptual Model for phosphorus links the diagram with supporting literature citations. The new Analyzing Data section helps practitioners analyze their data sets and interpret and use those results as evidence within the USEPA causal assessment process. Downloadable tools include a graphical user interface statistical package (CADStat), and programs for use with the freeware R statistical package, and a Microsoft Excel template. These tools can be used to quantify associations between causes and biological impairments using innovative methods such as species-sensitivity distributions, biological inferenc
Mechanism of magnetic liquid flowing in the magnetic liquid seal gap of reciprocating shaft
Li, Decai; Xu, Haiping; He, Xinzhi; Lan, Huiqing
2005-03-01
In order to solve the problems that exist in the magnetic liquid seal of reciprocating shaft, we have set up an experimental facility, which composes a camera, microscope, step-by-step motor, pin roller screw, reciprocating motion shaft, pole pieces, permanent magnet and the magnetic liquid in the seal gap. Through the optical technology and image process of the experimental facility, we have studied the magnetic liquid flow in the seal gap when the reciprocating shaft moves with different velocities and strokes. This study specially concentrates on: (1) the regular pattern of such flow; (2) the loss quantity of magnetic liquid caused by the reciprocating motion shaft; (3) the failure reasons of this magnetic liquid seal; and (4) the design of a new structure for the magnetic liquid seal of reciprocating shaft. The application indicates that the new structure is very effective in some occasions. The new structure was accepted as the state patent in 2001 and authenticated as the achievement in the scientific research in 2002.
Mechanism of magnetic liquid flowing in the magnetic liquid seal gap of reciprocating shaft
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Decai; Xu Haiping; He Xinzhi; Lan Huiqing
2005-01-01
In order to solve the problems that exist in the magnetic liquid seal of reciprocating shaft, we have set up an experimental facility, which composes a camera, microscope, step-by-step motor, pin roller screw, reciprocating motion shaft, pole pieces, permanent magnet and the magnetic liquid in the seal gap. Through the optical technology and image process of the experimental facility, we have studied the magnetic liquid flow in the seal gap when the reciprocating shaft moves with different velocities and strokes. This study specially concentrates on: (1) the regular pattern of such flow; (2) the loss quantity of magnetic liquid caused by the reciprocating motion shaft; (3) the failure reasons of this magnetic liquid seal; and (4) the design of a new structure for the magnetic liquid seal of reciprocating shaft. The application indicates that the new structure is very effective in some occasions. The new structure was accepted as the state patent in 2001 and authenticated as the achievement in the scientific research in 2002
Photonic crystal Fano resonances for realizing optical switches, lasers and non-reciprocal elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu; Yu, Yi; Hu, Hao
2017-01-01
structure in combination with cavity-enhanced nonlinearity can be used to realize non-reciprocal transmission at ultra-low power and with large bandwidth. A novel type of laser structure, denoted a Fano laser, is discussed in which one of the mirrors is based on a Fano resonance. Finally, the design...
Behavioural Pattern of Causality Parameter of Autoregressive ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, a causal form of Autoregressive Moving Average process, ARMA (p, q) of various orders and behaviour of the causality parameter of ARMA model is investigated. It is deduced that the behaviour of causality parameter ψi depends on positive and negative values of autoregressive parameter φ and moving ...
Exploring Individual Differences in Preschoolers' Causal Stance
Alvarez, Aubry; Booth, Amy E.
2016-01-01
Preschoolers, as a group, are highly attuned to causality, and this attunement is known to facilitate memory, learning, and problem solving. However, recent work reveals substantial individual variability in the strength of children's "causal stance," as demonstrated by their curiosity about and preference for new causal information. In…
Causal inference in economics and marketing.
Varian, Hal R
2016-07-05
This is an elementary introduction to causal inference in economics written for readers familiar with machine learning methods. The critical step in any causal analysis is estimating the counterfactual-a prediction of what would have happened in the absence of the treatment. The powerful techniques used in machine learning may be useful for developing better estimates of the counterfactual, potentially improving causal inference.
Causal knowledge and reasoning in decision making
Hagmayer, Y.; Witteman, C.L.M.
2017-01-01
Normative causal decision theories argue that people should use their causal knowledge in decision making. Based on these ideas, we argue that causal knowledge and reasoning may support and thereby potentially improve decision making based on expected outcomes, narratives, and even cues. We will
Feasibility analysis of reciprocating magnetic heat pumps
Larson, A. V.; Hartley, J. G.; Shelton, Sam V.; Smith, M. M.
1989-01-01
A reciprocating gadolinium core in a regeneration fluid column in the warm bore of a superconducting solenoidal magnet is considered for magnetic refrigeration in 3.517 MW (1000 ton) applications. A procedure is presented to minimize the amount of superconducting cable needed in the magnet design. Estimated system capital costs for an ideal magnetic refrigerator of this type become comparable to conventional chillers as the frequency of reciprocation approaches 10 Hertz. A 1-D finite difference analysis of a regenerator cycling at 0.027 Hertz is presented which exhibits some of the features seen in the experiments of G. V. Brown.
Enhanced additive manufacturing with a reciprocating platen
Lind, Randall F.; Blue, Craig A.; Love, Lonnie J.; Post, Brian K.; Lloyd, Peter D.
2018-02-06
An additive manufacturing extrusion head that includes a heated nozzle for accepting a feedstock and extruding the feedstock onto a substrate at a deposition plane, the nozzle having a longitudinal extrusion axis. A reciprocating platen surrounds the nozzle, the platen operable to reciprocate along the extrusion axis at or above the deposition plane as the nozzle extrudes feedstock onto the substrate; and wherein the platen flattens the extruded feedstock such that it does not protrude above the deposition plane as the extrusion head traverses over the substrate.
Reciprocity principle in stochastic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brooke, J.A.; Guz, W.; Prugovecki, E.
1982-01-01
Born's reciprocity theory can be combined with a recently proposed framework for quantum spacetime by requiring that the free test particle propagators obey the Born-Lande equation in addition to the Klein-Gordon equation. If, furthermore, the coordinate transition amplitudes in between various standards are required to be eigenfunctions of Born's metric operator, then a mass formula results which predicts linear dependence on spin of the squared rest mass of elementary particles. This procedure also leads to a guage and reciprocally invariant formulation of the relativistic canonical commutation relations
Low Latency Digit-Recurrence Reciprocal and Square-Root Reciprocal Algorithm and Architecture
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antelo, Elisardo; Lang, Tomas; Montuschi, Paolo
2005-01-01
The reciprocal and square-root reciprocal operations are important in several applications. For these operations, we present algorithms that combine a digit-by-digit module and one iteration of a quadratic-convergence approximation. The latter is implemented by a digit-recurrence, which uses......-up of about 2 and, because of the approximation part, the area factor is also about 2. We also show a combined implementation for both operations that has essentially the same complexity as that for square-root reciprocal alone....
Morphogenesis of Kinetic Reciprocal Frames
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario
2011-01-01
Kinetic structures in civil engineering and architecture gained considerable more attention in the very recent years as a practical solution to face time dependant performances. Realized projects are mostly bridges, retractable roofs, while in architecture the trend follows the category of intera......Kinetic structures in civil engineering and architecture gained considerable more attention in the very recent years as a practical solution to face time dependant performances. Realized projects are mostly bridges, retractable roofs, while in architecture the trend follows the category...... (RF) were studied in the past as a practical solution to span distances with shorter elements. Leonardo da Vinci discovered interesting RF patterns and studied three dimensional arch structures for bridges. RF are generally defined as structures that forms closed circuits of forces, and where elements...
A theory of causal learning in children: causal maps and Bayes nets.
Gopnik, Alison; Glymour, Clark; Sobel, David M; Schulz, Laura E; Kushnir, Tamar; Danks, David
2004-01-01
The authors outline a cognitive and computational account of causal learning in children. They propose that children use specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate "causal map" of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or Bayes nets. Children's causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children construct new causal maps and that their learning is consistent with the Bayes net formalism.
Norms and customs: causally important or causally impotent?
Jones, Todd
2010-01-01
In this article, I argue that norms and customs, despite frequently being described as being causes of behavior in the social sciences and ordinary conversation, cannot really cause behavior. Terms like "norms" and the like seem to refer to philosophically disreputable disjunctive properties. More problematically, even if they do not, or even if there can be disjunctive properties after all, I argue that norms and customs still cannot cause behavior. The social sciences would be better off without referring to properties like norms and customs as if they could be causal.
Ângelo, R P; Chambel, M J
2015-04-01
The paradigm of this study is positive occupational psychology, with the job demands-resources model as the research model and the Conservation of Resources theory as the general stress theory. The research design analyses the job demands-resources model's dynamic nature with normal and reversed causation effects between work characteristics and psychological well-being among Portuguese firefighters. In addition, we analyse a positive (engagement) dimension and a negative (burnout) dimension in the firefighters' well-being, because previously, studies have merely focused on the strain or stress of these professionals. The research questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 651 firefighters, and a two-wave full panel design was used. Cross-lagged panel analyses indicated that the causal direction of the relationship between organizational demands and burnout is reciprocal. Also, we found that the reciprocal model, including cross-lagged reciprocal relationships between organizational demands/supervisory support and burnout/engagement, respectively, is what fits the data best. Practical implications to develop organizational change programmes and suggestions for future research regarding the promotion of occupational health are discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A theory of causal learning in children: Causal maps and Bayes nets
Gopnik, A; Glymour, C; Sobel, D M; Schulz, L E; Kushnir, T; Danks, D
2004-01-01
The authors outline a cognitive and computational account of causal learning in children. They propose that children use specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate "causal map" of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or Bayes nets. Children's causal learning and inference may involve computatio...
Facilitators on networks reveal optimal interplay between information exchange and reciprocity.
Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Mobilia, Mauro
2014-04-01
Reciprocity is firmly established as an important mechanism that promotes cooperation. An efficient information exchange is likewise important, especially on structured populations, where interactions between players are limited. Motivated by these two facts, we explore the role of facilitators in social dilemmas on networks. Facilitators are here mirrors to their neighbors-they cooperate with cooperators and defect with defectors-but they do not participate in the exchange of strategies. As such, in addition to introducing direct reciprocity, they also obstruct information exchange. In well-mixed populations, facilitators favor the replacement and invasion of defection by cooperation as long as their number exceeds a critical value. In structured populations, on the other hand, there exists a delicate balance between the benefits of reciprocity and the deterioration of information exchange. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations of social dilemmas on various interaction networks reveal that there exists an optimal interplay between reciprocity and information exchange, which sets in only when a small number of facilitators occupy the main hubs of the scale-free network. The drawbacks of missing cooperative hubs are more than compensated for by reciprocity and, at the same time, the compromised information exchange is routed via the auxiliary hubs with only marginal losses in effectivity. These results indicate that it is not always optimal for the main hubs to become leaders of the masses, but rather to exploit their highly connected state to promote tit-for-tat-like behavior.
Reciprocity, Materialism and Welfare: An Evolutionary Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Anders
2001-01-01
We analyze preference evolution in a simple bargaining situation. Preferences for reciprocity, who sustain a conflict-free outcome, may be viable if players have enough information about the opponent's preferences. However, depending on the initial starting point preference evolution can in gener...... both enhance and reduce welfare, relative to the situation where all players have materialistic perferences....
Reciprocity theorem in high-temperature superconductors
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Janeček, I.; Vašek, Petr
2003-01-01
Roč. 390, - (2003), s. 330-340 ISSN 0921-4534 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1602; GA AV ČR IAA1010919 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : transport properties * reciprocity theorem Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2003
Onsager's reciprocity theorem in extended irreversible thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Colin, L.S.; Velasco, R.M.
1992-01-01
In this paper we shall discuss the Onsager relations for the transport coefficients in a dilute monatomic gas described by the extended irreversible thermodynamics. Our discussion is based on a 26 variables description of the system and its corresponding comparison with the kinetic reciprocity between coefficients is shown (Author)
Development of Trust and Reciprocity in Adolescence
van den Bos, Wouter; Westenberg, Michiel; van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.
2010-01-01
We investigate the development of two types of prosocial behavior, trust and reciprocity, as defined using a game-theoretical task that allows investigation of real-time social interaction, among 4 age groups from 9 to 25 years. By manipulating the possible outcome alternatives, we could distinguish among important determinants of trust and…
Tuition Reciprocity in the United States
Stewart, Gregory; Wright, Dianne Brown; Kennedy, Angelica
2008-01-01
Reciprocity agreements are contracts between two or more parties whereby students pay reduced tuition rates. The rate of reduction is determined by the parameters set forth in each individual state's agreement but may range from a modest reduction in fees to a waiver of full non-resident tuition. In addition to providing tuition relief,…
The transition probabilities of the reciprocity model
Snijders, T.A.B.
1999-01-01
The reciprocity model is a continuous-time Markov chain model used for modeling longitudinal network data. A new explicit expression is derived for its transition probability matrix. This expression can be checked relatively easily. Some properties of the transition probabilities are given, as well
Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.
Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix
2010-10-27
Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.
Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serguei Saavedra
Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.
Reciprocity in Preschool Peers' Social Interaction.
Chiu, Jih-Perng Peter
This study sought to describe the norms of reciprocity in social interaction from the viewpoint of immediate behavioral exchanges by examining the social interaction of preschool peers in a free-play situation. Seventeen 4-year-old children, eight girls and nine boys, were observed during free play activity periods after a picture sociometric test…
Supervisory behavior, reciprocity and subordinate absenteeism
Dierendonck, van D.; Blanc, Le P.M.; Breukelen, van W.
2002-01-01
The present study among 242 professionals working in a lung clinic and nursing home was designed to test a model that links supervisory behavior (i.e. leader member exchange (LMX) behavior and conflict management behavior) and reciprocity in the supervisor/subordinate relationship to objectively
Integral Inequalities for Self-Reciprocal Polynomials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 120; Issue 2. Integral Inequalities for Self-Reciprocal Polynomials. Horst Alzer. Volume 120 Issue 2 April 2010 ...
Detectability of Granger causality for subsampled continuous-time neurophysiological processes.
Barnett, Lionel; Seth, Anil K
2017-01-01
Granger causality is well established within the neurosciences for inference of directed functional connectivity from neurophysiological data. These data usually consist of time series which subsample a continuous-time biophysiological process. While it is well known that subsampling can lead to imputation of spurious causal connections where none exist, less is known about the effects of subsampling on the ability to reliably detect causal connections which do exist. We present a theoretical analysis of the effects of subsampling on Granger-causal inference. Neurophysiological processes typically feature signal propagation delays on multiple time scales; accordingly, we base our analysis on a distributed-lag, continuous-time stochastic model, and consider Granger causality in continuous time at finite prediction horizons. Via exact analytical solutions, we identify relationships among sampling frequency, underlying causal time scales and detectability of causalities. We reveal complex interactions between the time scale(s) of neural signal propagation and sampling frequency. We demonstrate that detectability decays exponentially as the sample time interval increases beyond causal delay times, identify detectability "black spots" and "sweet spots", and show that downsampling may potentially improve detectability. We also demonstrate that the invariance of Granger causality under causal, invertible filtering fails at finite prediction horizons, with particular implications for inference of Granger causality from fMRI data. Our analysis emphasises that sampling rates for causal analysis of neurophysiological time series should be informed by domain-specific time scales, and that state-space modelling should be preferred to purely autoregressive modelling. On the basis of a very general model that captures the structure of neurophysiological processes, we are able to help identify confounds, and offer practical insights, for successful detection of causal connectivity
Causal mediation analysis with multiple causally non-ordered mediators.
Taguri, Masataka; Featherstone, John; Cheng, Jing
2018-01-01
In many health studies, researchers are interested in estimating the treatment effects on the outcome around and through an intermediate variable. Such causal mediation analyses aim to understand the mechanisms that explain the treatment effect. Although multiple mediators are often involved in real studies, most of the literature considered mediation analyses with one mediator at a time. In this article, we consider mediation analyses when there are causally non-ordered multiple mediators. Even if the mediators do not affect each other, the sum of two indirect effects through the two mediators considered separately may diverge from the joint natural indirect effect when there are additive interactions between the effects of the two mediators on the outcome. Therefore, we derive an equation for the joint natural indirect effect based on the individual mediation effects and their interactive effect, which helps us understand how the mediation effect works through the two mediators and relative contributions of the mediators and their interaction. We also discuss an extension for three mediators. The proposed method is illustrated using data from a randomized trial on the prevention of dental caries.
Work-home interference among nurses: reciprocal relationships with job demands and health.
van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B
2008-06-01
This paper is a report of a study with three aims: (i) to investigate whether emotional, quantitative and physical demands have a causal, negative impact on nurses' health; (ii) to examine whether work-home interference can explain this effect, by playing a mediating role; and (iii) to test the so-called loss spiral hypothesis claiming that nurses' health problems lead to even higher job demands and more work-home interference over time. While many scholars have thought in terms of the stressor-->work-home interference-->strain model, the validity of a model that includes opposite pathways needs to be tested. A questionnaire was completed twice, with a 1-year time interval by 753 (63.4%) Registered Nurses working in hospitals, 183 (15.4%) working in nursing homes, and 251 (21.1%) working in home care institutions. The first measurement took place between October 2002 and June 2003. Our findings strongly support the idea of cross-lagged, reciprocal relationships between job demands and general health over time. The reciprocal model with work-home interference as an intervening variable (including reciprocal relationships between job demands, work-home interference and general health) showed a good fit to the data, and proved to be superior to both the causality and reversed causation models. The higher nurses' job demands, the higher is their level of work-home interference and the more likely is a general health deterioration over time, in turn giving rise to higher job demands and work-home interference, which may even aggravate the nurses' general health, and so on.
Vaish, Amrisha; Hepach, Robert; Tomasello, Michael
2018-03-01
Young children engage in direct reciprocity, but the mechanisms underlying such reciprocity remain unclear. In particular, prior work leaves unclear whether children's reciprocity is simply a response to receiving benefits (regardless of whether the benefits were intended) or driven by a mechanism of rewarding or preferring all benefactors (regardless of whom they benefited). Alternatively, perhaps children engage in genuine reciprocity such that they are particularly prosocial toward benefactors who intentionally provided them with benefits. Our findings support this third, richer possibility; the 3-year-olds who received benefits through the good intentions of a benefactor were subsequently more generous toward the benefactor than children who either (a) received the same benefits from the benefactor unintentionally or (b) observed the benefactor bestow the same benefits on another individual. Thus, young children are especially motivated to benefit those who have demonstrated goodwill toward them, suggesting, as one possible mechanism, an early sense of gratitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Profit Sharing and Reciprocity: Theory and Survey Evidence
Cornelissen, Thomas; Heywood, John S.; Jirjahn, Uwe
2010-01-01
The 1/n problem potentially limits the effectiveness of profit sharing in motivating workers. While the economic literature suggests that reciprocity can mitigate this problem, it remains silent on the optimal degree of reciprocity. We present a representative model demonstrating that reciprocity may increase productive effort but may also increase unproductive effort such as socializing on the job. The model implies that reciprocity increases profit up to a point but decreases profit beyond ...
Corporate Governance and Financial Performance Nexus: Any Bidirectional Causality?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alley Ibrahim S.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Most studies on corporate governance recognize endogeneity in the nexus between corporate governance and financial performance. Little attention has, however, been paid to the direction of causality between the two phenomena, and hence the Vector Error Correction (VEC model, which allows for endogenous determination of the direction of causality, has not been widely employed. This study fills that gap by estimating the nexus and the direction of causality using the VEC model to analyze panel data on selected listed firms in Nigeria. The results agree with the findings of most previous studies that corporate governance significantly affects financial performance. Board skills, board composition and management skills enhanced financial performance indicators – return on equity (ROE, return on asset (ROA and net profit margin (NPM; in many occasions, significantly. Board size and audit committee size did not, and can actually undermine financial performance. More importantly, financial performance did not significantly affect corporate governance. On the basis of the lag structure of the VEC model, this study affirms unidirectional causality in the nexus, running from corporate governance to financial performance, nullifying the hypothesis of bidirectional causality in the nexus.
Relating the thermodynamic arrow of time to the causal arrow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allahverdyan, Armen E; Janzing, Dominik
2008-01-01
Consider a Hamiltonian system that consists of a slow subsystem S and a fast subsystem F. The autonomous dynamics of S is driven by an effective Hamiltonian, but its thermodynamics is unexpected. We show that a well-defined thermodynamic arrow of time (second law) emerges for S whenever there is a well-defined causal arrow from S to F and the back-action is negligible. This is because the back-action of F on S is described by a non-globally Hamiltonian Born–Oppenheimer term that violates the Liouville theorem, and makes the second law inapplicable to S. If S and F are mixing, under the causal arrow condition they are described by microcanonical distributions P(S) and P(S|F). Their structure supports a causal inference principle proposed recently in machine learning
Causal Analysis for Performance Modeling of Computer Programs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Lemeire
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Causal modeling and the accompanying learning algorithms provide useful extensions for in-depth statistical investigation and automation of performance modeling. We enlarged the scope of existing causal structure learning algorithms by using the form-free information-theoretic concept of mutual information and by introducing the complexity criterion for selecting direct relations among equivalent relations. The underlying probability distribution of experimental data is estimated by kernel density estimation. We then reported on the benefits of a dependency analysis and the decompositional capacities of causal models. Useful qualitative models, providing insight into the role of every performance factor, were inferred from experimental data. This paper reports on the results for a LU decomposition algorithm and on the study of the parameter sensitivity of the Kakadu implementation of the JPEG-2000 standard. Next, the analysis was used to search for generic performance characteristics of the applications.
A 1.5 GFLOPS Reciprocal Unit for Computer Graphics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nannarelli, Alberto; Rasmussen, Morten Sleth; Stuart, Matthias Bo
2006-01-01
The reciprocal operation 1/d is a frequent operation performed in graphics processors (GPUs). In this work, we present the design of a radix-16 reciprocal unit based on the algorithm combining the traditional digit-by-digit algorithm and the approximation of the reciprocal by one Newton-Raphson i...
Reciprocity, social ties, and competition in markets for experience goods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huck, Steffen; Tyran, Jean-Robert
2007-01-01
a positive externality for non-reciprocal customers who would, in the absence of reciprocal types, face market breakdown. This efficiency-enhancing effect of reciprocity is boosted when there are social ties between consumers and competition between firms. The existence of social ties or competition alone...
32 CFR 634.16 - Reciprocal state-military action.
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reciprocal state-military action. 634.16 Section... Reciprocal state-military action. (a) Commanders will recognize the interests of the states in matters of POV... formal military reciprocity, the procedures below will be adopted: (1) Commanders will recognize official...
Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships
Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel
2011-01-01
Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…
Familial Reciprocity and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana
Tsai, Ming-Chang; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.
2012-01-01
The authors investigated variations in reciprocity and the impact of reciprocity on well-being in a West African society. They hypothesized that household size and income diversity encourage reciprocity, which in turn enhances subjective well-being. In empirical testing of these hypotheses the authors used the data of the Core Welfare Indicators…
Causality and skies: is non-refocussing necessary?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bautista, A; Ibort, A; Lafuente, J
2015-01-01
The causal structure of a strongly causal, null pseudo-convex, space-time M is completely characterized in terms of a partial order on its space of skies defined by means of a class of non-negative Legendrian isotopies called sky isotopies. It is also shown that such partial order is determined by the class of future causal celestial curves, that is, curves in the space of light rays which are tangent to skies and such that they determine non-negative sky isotopies. It will also be proved that the space of skies Σ equipped with Low’s (or reconstructive) topology is homeomorphic and diffeomorphic to M under the only additional assumption that M separates skies, that is, that different events determine different skies. The sky-separating property of M is sharp and the previous result provides an answer to the question about the class of space-times whose causal structure, topological and differentiable structure can be reconstructed from their spaces of light rays and skies. These results can be understood as a Malament–Hawking-like theorem stated in terms of the partial order defined on the space of skies. (paper)
The Functions of Danish Causal Conjunctions
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Rita Therkelsen
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In the article I propose an analysis of the Danish causal conjunctions fordi, siden and for based on the framework of Danish Functional Grammar. As conjunctions they relate two clauses, and their semantics have in common that it indicates a causal relationship between the clauses. The causal conjunctions are different as far as their distribution is concerned; siden conjoins a subordinate clause and a main clause, for conjoins two main clauses, and fordi is able to do both. Methodologically I have based my analysis on these distributional properties comparing siden and fordi conjoining a subordinate and a main clause, and comparing for and fordi conjoining two main clauses, following the thesis that they would establish a causal relationship between different kinds of content. My main findings are that fordi establishes a causal relationship between the events referred to by the two clauses, and the whole utterance functions as a statement of this causal relationship. Siden presupposes such a general causal relationship between the two events and puts forward the causing event as a reason for assuming or wishing or ordering the caused event, siden thus establishes a causal relationship between an event and a speech act. For equally presupposes a general causal relationship between two events and it establishes a causal relationship between speech acts, and fordi conjoining two main clauses is able to do this too, but in this position it also maintains its event-relating ability, the interpretation depending on contextual factors.
Space and time in perceptual causality
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Benjamin Straube
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Inferring causality is a fundamental feature of human cognition that allows us to theorize about and predict future states of the world. Michotte suggested that humans automatically perceive causality based on certain perceptual features of events. However, individual differences in judgments of perceptual causality cast doubt on Michotte’s view. To gain insights in the neural basis of individual difference in the perception of causality, our participants judged causal relationships in animations of a blue ball colliding with a red ball (a launching event while fMRI-data were acquired. Spatial continuity and temporal contiguity were varied parametrically in these stimuli. We did not find consistent brain activation differences between trials judged as caused and those judged as non-caused, making it unlikely that humans have universal instantiation of perceptual causality in the brain. However, participants were slower to respond to and showed greater neural activity for violations of causality, suggesting that humans are biased to expect causal relationships when moving objects appear to interact. Our participants demonstrated considerable individual differences in their sensitivity to spatial and temporal characteristics in perceiving causality. These qualitative differences in sensitivity to time or space in perceiving causality were instantiated in individual differences in activation of the left basal ganglia or right parietal lobe, respectively. Thus, the perception that the movement of one object causes the movement of another is triggered by elemental spatial and temporal sensitivities, which themselves are instantiated in specific distinct neural networks.
Probabilistic causality and radiogenic cancers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groeer, P.G.
1986-01-01
A review and scrutiny of the literature on probability and probabilistic causality shows that it is possible under certain assumptions to estimate the probability that a certain type of cancer diagnosed in an individual exposed to radiation prior to diagnosis was caused by this exposure. Diagnosis of this causal relationship like diagnosis of any disease - malignant or not - requires always some subjective judgments by the diagnostician. It is, therefore, illusory to believe that tables based on actuarial data can provide objective estimates of the chance that a cancer diagnosed in an individual is radiogenic. It is argued that such tables can only provide a base from which the diagnostician(s) deviate in one direction or the other according to his (their) individual (consensual) judgment. Acceptance of a physician's diagnostic judgment by patients is commonplace. Similar widespread acceptance of expert judgment by claimants in radiation compensation cases does presently not exist. Judicious use of the present radioepidemiological tables prepared by the Working Group of the National Institutes of Health or of updated future versions of similar tables may improve the situation. 20 references
Causality and hyperbolicity of Lovelock theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reall, Harvey S; Tanahashi, Norihiro; Way, Benson
2014-01-01
In Lovelock theories, gravity can travel faster or slower than light. The causal structure is determined by the characteristic hypersurfaces. We generalize a recent result of Izumi to prove that any Killing horizon is a characteristic hypersurface for all gravitational degrees of freedom of a Lovelock theory. Hence gravitational signals cannot escape from the region inside such a horizon. We investigate the hyperbolicity of Lovelock theories by determining the characteristic hypersurfaces for various backgrounds. First we consider Ricci flat type N spacetimes. We show that characteristic hypersurfaces are generically all non-null and that Lovelock theories are hyperbolic in any such spacetime. Next we consider static, maximally symmetric black hole solutions of Lovelock theories. Again, characteristic surfaces are generically non-null. For some small black holes, hyperbolicity is violated near the horizon. This implies that the stability of such black holes is not a well-posed problem. (paper)
Reciprocal selection causes a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine.
Benkman, Craig W; Parchman, Thomas L; Favis, Amanda; Siepielski, Adam M
2003-08-01
Few studies have shown both reciprocal selection and reciprocal adaptations for a coevolving system in the wild. The goal of our study was to determine whether the patterns of selection on Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta spp. latifolia) and red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) were concordant with earlier published evidence of reciprocal adaptations in lodgepole pine and crossbills on isolated mountain ranges in the absence of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). We found that selection (directional) by crossbills on lodgepole pine where Tamiasciurus are absent was divergent from the selection (directional) exerted by Tamiasciurus on lodgepole pine. This resulted in divergent selection between areas with and without Tamiasciurus that was congruent with the geographic patterns of cone variation. In the South Hills, Idaho, where Tamiasciurus are absent and red crossbills are thought to be coevolving with lodgepole pine, crossbills experienced stabilizing selection on bill size, with cone structure as the agent of selection. These results show that crossbills and lodgepole pine exhibit reciprocal adaptations in response to reciprocal selection, and they provide insight into the traits mediating and responding to selection in a coevolutionary arms race.
Mercken, Liesbeth; Candel, Math; Willems, Paul; de Vries, Hein
2007-09-01
The goal of this study was to examine social selection and social influence within reciprocal and non-reciprocal friendships, and the role of parents and siblings, as factors explaining similarity of smoking behaviour among adolescent friends. A new social selection-social influence model is proposed. Longitudinal design with two measurements. Data were gathered among Dutch high school students in the control group of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study. The sample consisted of 1886 adolescents with a mean age of 12.7 years. The main outcome measures were the smoking behaviours of the respondents, best friends, parents and siblings. We tested the social selection-social influence model with structural equation modelling techniques. Social selection and social influence both played an important role in explaining similarity of smoking behaviour among friends. Within non-reciprocal friendships, only social selection explained similarity of smoking behaviour, whereas within reciprocal friendships, social influence and possibly also social selection explained similarity of smoking behaviour. Sibling smoking behaviour was a more important predictor of adolescent smoking behaviour than parental smoking behaviour. Social selection and social influence both promote similarity of smoking behaviour, and the impact of each process differs with the degree of reciprocity of friendships. These insights may contribute to further refinement of smoking prevention strategies.
Exotic distributions of rigid unit modes in the reciprocal spaces of framework aluminosilicates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dove, Martin T; Pryde, Alexandra K A; Heine, Volker; Hammonds, Kenton D
2007-01-01
Until recently it was assumed that rigid unit modes, defined as the zero-frequency solutions to the dynamical equations for an infinite framework of rigid corner-linked tetrahedra, were confined to a small set of normal modes with wavevectors on lines or planes of special symmetry in reciprocal space. Using a search method that explores the full three-dimensional reciprocal space, we have located rigid unit modes with wavevectors on exotic curved surfaces in reciprocal space for a range of silicate minerals. This has led to the realization that the crystal structures of these minerals contain rather more topological floppiness than had previously been realized. The origin of the exotic RUM surfaces remains to be understood
Hidden symmetry of the beam spread function resulting from the reciprocity theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolin, Lev S.
2016-01-01
It is shown that the optical reciprocity theorem imposes certain constraints on the radiation field structure of a unidirectional point source (beam spread function (BSF)) in a turbid medium with spatially uniform optical properties. To satisfy the reciprocal relation, the BSF should have an additional symmetry property along with axial symmetry. This paper mathematically formulates the BSF symmetry condition that follows from the reciprocity theorem and discusses test results of some approximate analytical BSF models for their compliance with the symmetry requirement. A universal method for eliminating symmetry errors of approximate BSF models is proposed. - Highlights: • Symmetry properties of beam spread function (BSF) are considered. • In uniform turbid medium BSF has hidden symmetry property besides axial symmetry. • The examples of BSF models with and without the required symmetry are given. • A universal method for BSF symmetry error elimination is proposed.
Study on pressure pulsation and piping vibration of complex piping of reciprocating compressor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Bin; Feng Quanke; Yu Xiaoling
2008-01-01
This paper presents a preliminary research on the piping vibration and pressure pulsation of reciprocating compressor piping system. On the basis of plane wave theory, the calculation of gas column natural frequency and pressure pulsation in complex pipelines is done by using the transfer matrix method and stiffness matrix method, respectively. With the discretization method of FEM, a mathematical model for calculating the piping vibration and stress of reciprocating compressor piping system is established, and proper boundary conditions are proposed. Then the structural modal and stress of the piping system are calculated with CAESAR II. The comparison of measured and calculated values found that the one dimensional wave equation can accurately calculate the natural frequency and pressure pulsation in gas column of piping system for reciprocating compressor. (authors)
Tian, Lin-Lin; Li, Ming-Chu; Wang, Zhen
2016-11-01
With the growing interest in social Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications, relationships of individuals are further exploited to improve the performances of reputation systems. It is an on-going challenge to investigate how spatial reciprocity aids indirect reciprocity in sustaining cooperation in practical P2P environments. This paper describes the construction of an extended prisoner's dilemma game on square lattice networks with three strategies, i.e., defection, unconditional cooperation, and reciprocal cooperation. Reciprocators discriminate partners according to their reputations based on image scoring, where mistakes in judgment of reputations may occur. The independent structures of interaction and learning neighborhood are discussed, with respect to the situation in which learning environments differ from interaction networks. The simulation results have indicated that the incentive mechanism enhances cooperation better in structured peers than among a well-mixed population. Given the realistic condition of inaccurate reputation scores, defection is still successfully held down when the players interact and learn within the unified neighborhoods. Extensive simulations have further confirmed the positive impact of spatial structure on cooperation with different sizes of lattice neighborhoods. And similar conclusions can also be drawn on regular random networks and scale-free networks. Moreover, for the separated structures of the neighborhoods, the interaction network has a critical effect on the evolution dynamics of cooperation and learning environments only have weaker impacts on the process. Our findings further provide some insights concerning the evolution of collective behaviors in social systems.
Koegel, Lynn Kern; Park, Mi N.; Koegel, Robert L.
2014-01-01
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit difficulties with reciprocal social conversation, engaging in limited verbal exchanges, even when language structures are intact. This study employed a multiple baseline design to examine the effectiveness of a self-management intervention targeting (1) on-topic responsiveness to a…
Tran, Van Tung; Thobiani, Faisal Al; Tinga, Tiedo; Ball, Andrew David; Niu, Gang
2017-01-01
In this paper, a hybrid deep belief network is proposed to diagnose single and combined faults of suction and discharge valves in a reciprocating compressor. This hybrid integrates the deep belief network structured by multiple stacked restricted Boltzmann machines for pre-training and simplified
Dynamic Reciprocity in the Wound Microenvironment
Schultz, Gregory S.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Bornstein, Paul; Herman, Ira M.
2011-01-01
Here, we define dynamic reciprocity (DR) as an ongoing, bidirectional interaction amongst cells and their surrounding microenvironment. In the review, we posit that DR is especially meaningful during wound healing as the DR-driven biochemical, biophysical and cellular responses to injury play pivotal roles in regulating tissue regenerative responses. Such cell-extracellular matrix interactions not only guide and regulate cellular morphology, but cellular differentiation, migration, proliferation, and survival during tissue development, including e.g. embryogenesis, angiogenesis, as well as during pathologic processes including cancer diabetes, hypertension and chronic wound healing. Herein, we examine DR within the wound microenvironment while considering specific examples across acute and chronic wound healing. This review also considers how a number of hypotheses that attempt to explain chronic wound pathophysiology, which may be understood within the DR framework. The implications of applying the principles of dynamic reciprocity to optimize wound care practice and future development of innovative wound healing therapeutics are also briefly considered. PMID:21362080
Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans
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Sebastian Berger
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1 expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1 as well as rewards (Study 2, two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation.
Reciprocity as a Foundation of Financial Economics.
Johnson, Timothy C
This paper argues that the subsistence of the fundamental theorem of contemporary financial mathematics is the ethical concept 'reciprocity'. The argument is based on identifying an equivalence between the contemporary, and ostensibly 'value neutral', Fundamental Theory of Asset Pricing with theories of mathematical probability that emerged in the seventeenth century in the context of the ethical assessment of commercial contracts in a framework of Aristotelian ethics. This observation, the main claim of the paper, is justified on the basis of results from the Ultimatum Game and is analysed within a framework of Pragmatic philosophy. The analysis leads to the explanatory hypothesis that markets are centres of communicative action with reciprocity as a rule of discourse. The purpose of the paper is to reorientate financial economics to emphasise the objectives of cooperation and social cohesion and to this end, we offer specific policy advice.
Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans
Berger, Sebastian; Hatt, Hanns; Ockenfels, Axel
2017-01-01
Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED) as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1) expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1) as well as rewards (Study 2), two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation. PMID:28512400
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bombelli, L.; Lee, J.; Meyer, D.; Sorkin, R.D.
1987-01-01
We propose that space-time at the smallest scales is in reality a causal set: a locally finite set of elements endowed with a partial order corresponding to the macroscopic relation that defines past and future. We explore how a Lorentzian manifold can approximate a causal set, noting in particular that the thereby defined effective dimensionality of a given causal set can vary with length scale. Finally, we speculate briefly on the quantum dynamics of causal sets, indicating why an appropriate choice of action can reproduce general relativity in the classical limit
Amodal causal capture in the tunnel effect.
Bae, Gi Yeul; Flombaum, Jonathan I
2011-01-01
In addition to identifying individual objects in the world, the visual system must also characterize the relationships between objects, for instance when objects occlude one another or cause one another to move. Here we explored the relationship between perceived causality and occlusion. Can one perceive causality in an occluded location? In several experiments, observers judged whether a centrally presented event involved a single object passing behind an occluder, or one object causally launching another (out of view and behind the occluder). With no additional context, the centrally presented event was typically judged as a non-causal pass, even when the occluding and disoccluding objects were different colors--an illusion known as the 'tunnel effect' that results from spatiotemporal continuity. However, when a synchronized context event involved an unambiguous causal launch, participants perceived a causal launch behind the occluder. This percept of an occluded causal interaction could also be driven by grouping and synchrony cues in the absence of any explicitly causal interaction. These results reinforce the hypothesis that causality is an aspect of perception. It is among the interpretations of the world that are independently available to vision when resolving ambiguity, and that the visual system can 'fill in' amodally.
Reciprocal mass tensor : a general form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, C.L.
1978-01-01
Using the results of earlier treatment of wave packets, a general form of reciprocal mass tensor has been obtained. The elements of this tensor are seen to be dependent on momentum as well as space coordinates of the particle under consideration. The conditions under which the tensor would reduce to the usual space-independent form, are discussed and the impact of the space-dependence of this tensor on the motion of Bloch electrons, is examined. (author)
Generalized Weierstrass Relations and Frobenius Reciprocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsutani, Shigeki
2006-01-01
This article investigates local properties of the further generalized Weierstrass relations for a spin manifold S immersed in a higher dimensional spin manifold M from the viewpoint of the study of submanifold quantum mechanics. We show that the kernel of a certain Dirac operator defined over S, which we call a submanifold Dirac operator, gives the data of the immersion. In the derivation, the simple Frobenius reciprocity of Clifford algebras S and M plays an important role
Metal segmenting using abrasive and reciprocating saws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Haun, F.E. Jr.
1987-06-01
This paper evaluates a light-weight, high-power abrasive saw for segmenting radioactively contaminated metal components. A unique application of a reciprocating mechanical saw for the remote disassembly of equipment in a hot cell also is described. The results of this work suggest that use of these techniques for selected remote sectioning applications could minimize operational and access problems and be very cost effective in comparison with other inherently faster sectioning methods. 2 refs., 7 figs
The TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating RF probe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.
1994-01-01
A fast reciprocating ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at ORNL. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal RF magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal RF magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/sec) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 cm to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data shows parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge
Electromagnetic pulses, localized and causal
Lekner, John
2018-01-01
We show that pulse solutions of the wave equation can be expressed as time Fourier superpositions of scalar monochromatic beam wave functions (solutions of the Helmholtz equation). This formulation is shown to be equivalent to Bateman's integral expression for solutions of the wave equation, for axially symmetric solutions. A closed-form one-parameter solution of the wave equation, containing no backward-propagating parts, is constructed from a beam which is the tight-focus limit of two families of beams. Application is made to transverse electric and transverse magnetic pulses, with evaluation of the energy, momentum and angular momentum for a pulse based on the general localized and causal form. Such pulses can be represented as superpositions of photons. Explicit total energy and total momentum values are given for the one-parameter closed-form pulse.
Quantum retrodiction and causality principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirokov, M.I.
1994-01-01
Quantum mechanics is factually a predictive science. But quantum retrodiction may also be needed, e.g., for the experimental verification of the validity of the Schroedinger equation for the wave function in the past if the present state is given. It is shown that in the retrodictive analog of the prediction the measurement must be replaced by another physical process called the retromeasurement. In this process, the reduction of a state vector into eigenvectors of a measured observable must proceed in the opposite direction of time as compared to the usual reduction. Examples of such processes are unknown. Moreover, they are shown to be forbidden by the causality principle stating that the later event cannot influence the earlier one. So quantum retrodiction seems to be unrealizable. It is demonstrated that the approach to the retrodiction given by S.Watanabe and F.Belinfante must be considered as an unsatisfactory ersatz of retrodicting. 20 refs., 3 figs
TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating radio frequency probe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.; Kwon, M.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Ladurelle, L.; Pascal, J.Y.
1995-01-01
A fast reciprocating ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal rf magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal rf magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/s) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/s) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition, and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data show parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge
Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.
Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong
2013-10-01
In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sami Saafi
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the linear and nonlinear causality between a set of alternative tax burden ratios and economic growth in 23 OECD countries. To that end, the linear causality approach of Toda– Yamamoto (1995 and the nonparametric causality method of Kyrtsou and Labys (2006 are applied to annual data spanning from 1970 to 2014. Results obtained from the nonlinear causality test tend to reject the neutrality hypothesis for the tax structure–growth relationship in 19 of the 23 OECD countries. In the majority of the countries under investigation, the evidence is in line with the growth hypothesis where causality running from economic growth to tax burden ratios was detected in Australia, Denmark, Finland, Japan, New Zealand, and Norway. The opposite causality running from tax structure to economic growth was found in Germany, Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden. In contrast, the neutrality hypothesis was supported in Austria, Italy, Luxembourg, and the USA, whereas the feedback hypothesis was supported in Turkey and the UK. Additional robustness checks show that when the signs of variations are taken into account, there is an asymmetric causality running from positive tax burden shocks to positive per capita GDP shocks for Belgium, France, and Turkey. Overall, our findings suggest that policy implications of the tax structure-economic growth relationships should be interpreted with caution, taking into account the test-dependent and country-specific results.
Preliminary experimental results from a linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tagliafico, Luca Antonio; Scarpa, Federico; Valsuani, Federico; Tagliafico, Giulio
2013-01-01
A linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype was designed and built with the aid of an industrial partner. The refrigerator is based on the Active Magnetic Regenerative cycle, and exploits two regenerators working in parallel. The active material is Gadolinium in plates, 0.8 mm thick, for a total mass of 0.36 kg. The device is described and results about magnetic field and temperature span measurements are presented. The designed permanent magnet structure, based on an improved cross-type arrangement, generates a maximum magnetic field intensity of 1.55 T in air, over a gap of (13 × 50 × 100) mm 3 . The maximum temperature span achieved is 5.0 K, in a free run condition. -- Highlights: ► We give preliminary results from a linear reciprocating magnetic refrigerator prototype. ► The design is intended to process visualization and investigation. ► The prototype behavior gives us various suggestions to improve its general performance
Peltier cooling and onsager reciprocity in ferromagnetic thin films.
Avery, A D; Zink, B L
2013-09-20
We present direct measurements of the Peltier effect as a function of temperature from 77 to 325 K in Ni, Ni(80)Fe(20), and Fe thin films made using a suspended Si-N membrane structure. Measurement of the Seebeck effect in the same films allows us to directly test predictions of Onsager reciprocity between the Peltier and Seebeck effects. The Peltier coefficient Π is negative for both Ni and Ni(80)Fe(20) films and positive for the Fe film. The Fe film also exhibits a peak associated with the magnon drag Peltier effect. The observation of magnon drag in the Fe film verifies that the coupling between the phonon, magnon, and electron systems in the film is the same whether driven by heat current or charge current. The excellent agreement between Π values predicted using the experimentally determined Seebeck coefficient for these films and measured values offers direct experimental confirmation of the Onsager reciprocity between these thermoelectric effects in ferromagnetic thin films near room temperature.
Causal ubiquity in quantum physics. A superluminal and local-causal physical ontology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neelamkavil, Raphael
2014-01-01
A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly [non-causal] processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the [non-causal]. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, ''probabilistic causality'' is a merely epistemic term.
Causal ubiquity in quantum physics. A superluminal and local-causal physical ontology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neelamkavil, Raphael
2014-07-01
A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly [non-causal] processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the [non-causal]. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That is, the QM world is sub-luminally, luminally and superluminally local-causal throughout, and the Law of Causality is ubiquitous in the micro-world. Thus, ''probabilistic causality'' is a merely epistemic term.
Causality and local determinism versus quantum nonlocality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kupczynski, M
2014-01-01
The entanglement and the violation of Bell and CHSH inequalities in spin polarization correlation experiments (SPCE) is considered to be one of the biggest mysteries of Nature and is called quantum nonlocality. In this paper we show once again that this conclusion is based on imprecise terminology and on the lack of understanding of probabilistic models used in various proofs of Bell and CHSH theorems. These models are inconsistent with experimental protocols used in SPCE. This is the only reason why Bell and CHSH inequalities are violated. A probabilistic non-signalling description of SPCE, consistent with quantum predictions, is possible and it depends explicitly on the context of each experiment. It is also deterministic in the sense that the outcome is determined by supplementary local parameters describing both physical signals and measuring instruments. The existence of such description gives additional arguments that quantum theory is emergent from some more detailed theory respecting causality and local determinism. If quantum theory is emergent then there exist perhaps some fine structures in time-series of experimental data which were not predicted by quantum theory. In this paper we explain how a systematic search for such fine structures can be done. If such reproducible fine structures were found it would show that quantum theory is not predictably complete, which would be a major discovery.
A Theory of Causal Learning in Children: Causal Maps and Bayes Nets
Gopnik, Alison; Glymour, Clark; Sobel, David M.; Schulz, Laura E.; Kushnir, Tamar; Danks, David
2004-01-01
The authors outline a cognitive and computational account of causal learning in children. They propose that children use specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate "causal map" of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously…
Reciprocity in quantum, electromagnetic and other wave scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deák, L.; Fülöp, T.
2012-01-01
The reciprocity principle is that, when an emitted wave gets scattered on an object, the scattering transition amplitude does not change if we interchange the source and the detector—in other words, if incoming waves are interchanged with appropriate outgoing ones. Reciprocity is sometimes confused with time reversal invariance, or with invariance under the rotation that interchanges the location of the source and the location of the detector. Actually, reciprocity covers the former as a special case, and is fundamentally different from–but can be usefully combined with–the latter. Reciprocity can be proved as a theorem in many situations and is found violated in other cases. The paper presents a general treatment of reciprocity, discusses important examples, shows applications in the field of photon (Mössbauer) scattering, and establishes a fruitful connection with a recently developing area of mathematics. - Highlights: ► A frame independent generalized reciprocity theorem of scattering theory is given. ► Reciprocity for two spin/polarization degrees of freedom is detailed. ► Relationship of reciprocity to time reversal and to 180 degree rotation is discussed. ► Reciprocal and nonreciprocal settings in Mossbauer spectroscopy are studied. ► The symmetry of diffuse omega-scans is explained with the aid of reciprocity.
Campbell's and Rubin's Perspectives on Causal Inference
West, Stephen G.; Thoemmes, Felix
2010-01-01
Donald Campbell's approach to causal inference (D. T. Campbell, 1957; W. R. Shadish, T. D. Cook, & D. T. Campbell, 2002) is widely used in psychology and education, whereas Donald Rubin's causal model (P. W. Holland, 1986; D. B. Rubin, 1974, 2005) is widely used in economics, statistics, medicine, and public health. Campbell's approach focuses on…
mediation: R Package for Causal Mediation Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dustin Tingley
2014-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the R package mediation for conducting causal mediation analysis in applied empirical research. In many scientific disciplines, the goal of researchers is not only estimating causal effects of a treatment but also understanding the process in which the treatment causally affects the outcome. Causal mediation analysis is frequently used to assess potential causal mechanisms. The mediation package implements a comprehensive suite of statistical tools for conducting such an analysis. The package is organized into two distinct approaches. Using the model-based approach, researchers can estimate causal mediation effects and conduct sensitivity analysis under the standard research design. Furthermore, the design-based approach provides several analysis tools that are applicable under different experimental designs. This approach requires weaker assumptions than the model-based approach. We also implement a statistical method for dealing with multiple (causally dependent mediators, which are often encountered in practice. Finally, the package also offers a methodology for assessing causal mediation in the presence of treatment noncompliance, a common problem in randomized trials.
Causal Mediation Analysis: Warning! Assumptions Ahead
Keele, Luke
2015-01-01
In policy evaluations, interest may focus on why a particular treatment works. One tool for understanding why treatments work is causal mediation analysis. In this essay, I focus on the assumptions needed to estimate mediation effects. I show that there is no "gold standard" method for the identification of causal mediation effects. In…
A Causal Model of Faculty Research Productivity.
Bean, John P.
A causal model of faculty research productivity was developed through a survey of the literature. Models of organizational behavior, organizational effectiveness, and motivation were synthesized into a causal model of productivity. Two general types of variables were assumed to affect individual research productivity: institutional variables and…
Counterfactual overdetermination vs. the causal exclusion problem.
Sparber, Georg
2005-01-01
This paper aims to show that a counterfactual approach to causation is not sufficient to provide a solution to the causal exclusion problem in the form of systematic overdetermination. Taking into account the truthmakers of causal counterfactuals provides a strong argument in favour of the identity of causes in situations of translevel, causation.
Causal Indicators Can Help to Interpret Factors
Bentler, Peter M.
2016-01-01
The latent factor in a causal indicator model is no more than the latent factor of the factor part of the model. However, if the causal indicator variables are well-understood and help to improve the prediction of individuals' factor scores, they can help to interpret the meaning of the latent factor. Aguirre-Urreta, Rönkkö, and Marakas (2016)…
Quasi-Experimental Designs for Causal Inference
Kim, Yongnam; Steiner, Peter
2016-01-01
When randomized experiments are infeasible, quasi-experimental designs can be exploited to evaluate causal treatment effects. The strongest quasi-experimental designs for causal inference are regression discontinuity designs, instrumental variable designs, matching and propensity score designs, and comparative interrupted time series designs. This…
Determining Directional Dependency in Causal Associations
Pornprasertmanit, Sunthud; Little, Todd D.
2012-01-01
Directional dependency is a method to determine the likely causal direction of effect between two variables. This article aims to critique and improve upon the use of directional dependency as a technique to infer causal associations. We comment on several issues raised by von Eye and DeShon (2012), including: encouraging the use of the signs of…
CAUSAL INFERENCE WITH A GRAPHICAL HIERARCHY OF INTERVENTIONS.
Shpitser, Ilya; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen
2016-12-01
Identifying causal parameters from observational data is fraught with subtleties due to the issues of selection bias and confounding. In addition, more complex questions of interest, such as effects of treatment on the treated and mediated effects may not always be identified even in data where treatment assignment is known and under investigator control, or may be identified under one causal model but not another. Increasingly complex effects of interest, coupled with a diversity of causal models in use resulted in a fragmented view of identification. This fragmentation makes it unnecessarily difficult to determine if a given parameter is identified (and in what model), and what assumptions must hold for this to be the case. This, in turn, complicates the development of estimation theory and sensitivity analysis procedures. In this paper, we give a unifying view of a large class of causal effects of interest, including novel effects not previously considered, in terms of a hierarchy of interventions, and show that identification theory for this large class reduces to an identification theory of random variables under interventions from this hierarchy. Moreover, we show that one type of intervention in the hierarchy is naturally associated with queries identified under the Finest Fully Randomized Causally Interpretable Structure Tree Graph (FFRCISTG) model of Robins (via the extended g-formula), and another is naturally associated with queries identified under the Non-Parametric Structural Equation Model with Independent Errors (NPSEM-IE) of Pearl, via a more general functional we call the edge g-formula. Our results motivate the study of estimation theory for the edge g-formula, since we show it arises both in mediation analysis, and in settings where treatment assignment has unobserved causes, such as models associated with Pearl's front-door criterion.
Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sample Selection Bias
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Breen, Richard; Choi, Seongsoo; Holm, Anders
2015-01-01
The role of education in the process of socioeconomic attainment is a topic of long standing interest to sociologists and economists. Recently there has been growing interest not only in estimating the average causal effect of education on outcomes such as earnings, but also in estimating how...... causal effects might vary over individuals or groups. In this paper we point out one of the under-appreciated hazards of seeking to estimate heterogeneous causal effects: conventional selection bias (that is, selection on baseline differences) can easily be mistaken for heterogeneity of causal effects....... This might lead us to find heterogeneous effects when the true effect is homogenous, or to wrongly estimate not only the magnitude but also the sign of heterogeneous effects. We apply a test for the robustness of heterogeneous causal effects in the face of varying degrees and patterns of selection bias...
Causal ubiquity in quantum physics a superluminal and local-causal physical ontology
Neelamkavil, Raphael
2014-01-01
A fixed highest criterial velocity (of light) in STR (special theory of relativity) is a convention for a layer of physical inquiry. QM (Quantum Mechanics) avoids action-at-a-distance using this concept, but accepts non-causality and action-at-a-distance in EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradox) entanglement experiments. Even in such allegedly non-causal processes, something exists processually in extension-motion, between the causal and the non-causal. If STR theoretically allows real-valued superluminal communication between EPR entangled particles, quantum processes become fully causal. That
Takezawa, Masanori; Price, Michael E
2010-05-21
For many years in evolutionary science, the consensus view has been that while reciprocal altruism can evolve in dyadic interactions, it is unlikely to evolve in sizable groups. This view had been based on studies which have assumed cooperation to be discrete rather than continuous (i.e., individuals can either fully cooperate or else fully defect, but they cannot continuously vary their level of cooperation). In real world cooperation, however, cooperation is often continuous. In this paper, we re-examine the evolution of reciprocity in sizable groups by presenting a model of the n-person prisoner's dilemma that assumes continuous rather than discrete cooperation. This model shows that continuous reciprocity has a dramatically wider basin of attraction than discrete reciprocity, and that this basin's size increases with efficiency of cooperation (marginal per capita return). Further, we find that assortative interaction interacts synergistically with continuous reciprocity to a much greater extent than it does with discrete reciprocity. These results suggest that previous models may have underestimated reciprocity's adaptiveness in groups. However, we also find that the invasion of continuous reciprocators into a population of unconditional defectors becomes realistic only within a narrow parameter space in which the efficiency of cooperation is close to its maximum bound. Therefore our model suggests that continuous reciprocity can evolve in large groups more easily than discrete reciprocity only under unusual circumstances. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Causality violations in Lovelock theories
Brustein, Ram; Sherf, Yotam
2018-04-01
Higher-derivative gravity theories, such as Lovelock theories, generalize Einstein's general relativity (GR). Modifications to GR are expected when curvatures are near Planckian and appear in string theory or supergravity. But can such theories describe gravity on length scales much larger than the Planck cutoff length scale? Here we find causality constraints on Lovelock theories that arise from the requirement that the equations of motion (EOM) of perturbations be hyperbolic. We find a general expression for the "effective metric" in field space when Lovelock theories are perturbed around some symmetric background solution. In particular, we calculate explicitly the effective metric for a general Lovelock theory perturbed around cosmological Friedman-Robertson-Walker backgrounds and for some specific cases when perturbed around Schwarzschild-like solutions. For the EOM to be hyperbolic, the effective metric needs to be Lorentzian. We find that, unlike for GR, the effective metric is generically not Lorentzian when the Lovelock modifications are significant. So, we conclude that Lovelock theories can only be considered as perturbative extensions of GR and not as truly modified theories of gravity. We compare our results to those in the literature and find that they agree with and reproduce the results of previous studies.
Reconstructing Causal Biological Networks through Active Learning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyunghoon Cho
Full Text Available Reverse-engineering of biological networks is a central problem in systems biology. The use of intervention data, such as gene knockouts or knockdowns, is typically used for teasing apart causal relationships among genes. Under time or resource constraints, one needs to carefully choose which intervention experiments to carry out. Previous approaches for selecting most informative interventions have largely been focused on discrete Bayesian networks. However, continuous Bayesian networks are of great practical interest, especially in the study of complex biological systems and their quantitative properties. In this work, we present an efficient, information-theoretic active learning algorithm for Gaussian Bayesian networks (GBNs, which serve as important models for gene regulatory networks. In addition to providing linear-algebraic insights unique to GBNs, leading to significant runtime improvements, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on data simulated with GBNs and the DREAM4 network inference challenge data sets. Our method generally leads to faster recovery of underlying network structure and faster convergence to final distribution of confidence scores over candidate graph structures using the full data, in comparison to random selection of intervention experiments.
Realizing total reciprocity violation in the phase for photon scattering.
Deák, László; Bottyán, László; Fülöp, Tamás; Merkel, Dániel Géza; Nagy, Dénes Lajos; Sajti, Szilárd; Schulze, Kai Sven; Spiering, Hartmut; Uschmann, Ingo; Wille, Hans-Christian
2017-02-22
Reciprocity is when wave or quantum scattering satisfies a symmetry property, connecting a scattering process with the reversed one. While reciprocity involves the interchange of source and detector, it is fundamentally different from rotational invariance, and is a generalization of time reversal invariance, occurring in absorptive media as well. Due to its presence at diverse areas of physics, it admits a wide variety of applications. For polarization dependent scatterings, reciprocity is often violated, but violation in the phase of the scattering amplitude is much harder to experimentally observe than violation in magnitude. Enabled by the advantageous properties of nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation, we have measured maximal, i.e., 180-degree, reciprocity violation in the phase. For accessing phase information, we introduced a new version of stroboscopic detection. The scattering setting was devised based on a generalized reciprocity theorem that opens the way to construct new types of reciprocity related devices.
Mortality salience increases personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity.
Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar
2012-10-01
Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed.
fMRI reveals reciprocal inhibition between social and physical cognitive domains
Jack, Anthony I.; Dawson, Abigail; Begany, Katelyn; Leckie, Regina L.; Barry, Kevin; Ciccia, Angela; Snyder, Abraham
2012-01-01
Two lines of evidence indicate that there exists a reciprocal inhibitory relationship between opposed brain networks. First, most attention-demanding cognitive tasks activate a stereotypical set of brain areas, known as the task-positive network and simultaneously deactivate a different set of brain regions, commonly referred to as the task negative or default mode network. Second, functional connectivity analyses show that these same opposed networks are anti-correlated in the resting state. We hypothesize that these reciprocally inhibitory effects reflect two incompatible cognitive modes, each of which is directed towards understanding the external world. Thus, engaging one mode activates one set of regions and suppresses activity in the other. We test this hypothesis by identifying two types of problem-solving task which, on the basis of prior work, have been consistently associated with the task positive and task negative regions: tasks requiring social cognition, i.e., reasoning about the mental states of other persons, and tasks requiring physical cognition, i.e., reasoning about the causal/mechanical properties of inanimate objects. Social and mechanical reasoning tasks were presented to neurologically normal participants during fMRI. Each task type was presented using both text and video clips. Regardless of presentation modality, we observed clear evidence of reciprocal suppression: social tasks deactivated regions associated with mechanical reasoning and mechanical tasks deactivated regions associated with social reasoning. These findings are not explained by self-referential processes, task engagement, mental simulation, mental time travel or external vs. internal attention, all factors previously hypothesized to explain default mode network activity. Analyses of resting state data revealed a close match between the regions our tasks identified as reciprocally inhibitory and regions of maximal anti-correlation in the resting state. These results indicate
fMRI reveals reciprocal inhibition between social and physical cognitive domains.
Jack, Anthony I; Dawson, Abigail J; Begany, Katelyn L; Leckie, Regina L; Barry, Kevin P; Ciccia, Angela H; Snyder, Abraham Z
2013-02-01
Two lines of evidence indicate that there exists a reciprocal inhibitory relationship between opposed brain networks. First, most attention-demanding cognitive tasks activate a stereotypical set of brain areas, known as the task-positive network and simultaneously deactivate a different set of brain regions, commonly referred to as the task negative or default mode network. Second, functional connectivity analyses show that these same opposed networks are anti-correlated in the resting state. We hypothesize that these reciprocally inhibitory effects reflect two incompatible cognitive modes, each of which may be directed towards understanding the external world. Thus, engaging one mode activates one set of regions and suppresses activity in the other. We test this hypothesis by identifying two types of problem-solving task which, on the basis of prior work, have been consistently associated with the task positive and task negative regions: tasks requiring social cognition, i.e., reasoning about the mental states of other persons, and tasks requiring physical cognition, i.e., reasoning about the causal/mechanical properties of inanimate objects. Social and mechanical reasoning tasks were presented to neurologically normal participants during fMRI. Each task type was presented using both text and video clips. Regardless of presentation modality, we observed clear evidence of reciprocal suppression: social tasks deactivated regions associated with mechanical reasoning and mechanical tasks deactivated regions associated with social reasoning. These findings are not explained by self-referential processes, task engagement, mental simulation, mental time travel or external vs. internal attention, all factors previously hypothesized to explain default mode network activity. Analyses of resting state data revealed a close match between the regions our tasks identified as reciprocally inhibitory and regions of maximal anti-correlation in the resting state. These results
REGIONAL RECIPROCAL GUARANTEE SOCIETIES IN VENEZUELA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orlando J. Canelones
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This research aims to describe the operation of services offered by the Regional Mutual Guarantee Societies (SGRs in Venezuela, and to present synthetically, the rudiments for constitution, as well as the legal basis that must rule them, through conducting an executive summary of the Law of the National System of Reciprocal Guarantees for Small and Medium Business and the Promotion, Constitution and Functioning Rules of National Mutual Funds and Guarantees and SGRs. The methodology used in this research is documentary, through a literature review and exploration that allowed inferences about the importance of Regional SGRs in Venezuela, as financing alternative
Reinforcement learning account of network reciprocity.
Ezaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Naoki
2017-01-01
Evolutionary game theory predicts that cooperation in social dilemma games is promoted when agents are connected as a network. However, when networks are fixed over time, humans do not necessarily show enhanced mutual cooperation. Here we show that reinforcement learning (specifically, the so-called Bush-Mosteller model) approximately explains the experimentally observed network reciprocity and the lack thereof in a parameter region spanned by the benefit-to-cost ratio and the node's degree. Thus, we significantly extend previously obtained numerical results.
Reinforcement learning account of network reciprocity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takahiro Ezaki
Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory predicts that cooperation in social dilemma games is promoted when agents are connected as a network. However, when networks are fixed over time, humans do not necessarily show enhanced mutual cooperation. Here we show that reinforcement learning (specifically, the so-called Bush-Mosteller model approximately explains the experimentally observed network reciprocity and the lack thereof in a parameter region spanned by the benefit-to-cost ratio and the node's degree. Thus, we significantly extend previously obtained numerical results.
Reciprocity relation for multichannel coupling kernels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cotanch, S.R.; Satchler, G.R.
1981-01-01
Assuming time-reversal invariance of the many-body Hamiltonian, it is proven that the kernels in a general coupled-channels formulation are symmetric, to within a specified spin-dependent phase, under the interchange of channel labels and coordinates. The theorem is valid for both Hermitian and suitably chosen non-Hermitian Hamiltonians which contain complex effective interactions. While of direct practical consequence for nuclear rearrangement reactions, the reciprocity relation is also appropriate for other areas of physics which involve coupled-channels analysis
Is there reciprocity in preferential trade agreements on services?
Marchetti, Juan; Roy, Martin; Zoratto, Laura
2012-01-01
Are market access commitments on services in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) reciprocal or simply unilateral? If reciprocal, do concessions granted in services depend on concessions received from the trading partner in other services or in non-services areas as well? In this paper we investigate the presence of reciprocity in bilateral services agreements, by sub-sector, mode of supply and type of agreement (North-North, South-North, South-South). To do so, we use a database of concessio...
Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shiro eSakaiya
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human and strategy (random, tit-for-tat in repeated prisoner’s dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate and theory of mind (ToM regions (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex [VMPFC] and precuneus. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (deactivation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during
Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions.
Sakaiya, Shiro; Shiraito, Yuki; Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Okada, Kensuke; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji
2013-01-01
Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human) and strategy (random, tit-for-tat) in repeated prisoner's dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate) and theory of mind (ToM) regions [i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and precuneus]. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (de)activation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during social interactions.
Acoustic reciprocity: An extension to spherical harmonics domain.
Samarasinghe, Prasanga; Abhayapala, Thushara D; Kellermann, Walter
2017-10-01
Acoustic reciprocity is a fundamental property of acoustic wavefields that is commonly used to simplify the measurement process of many practical applications. Traditionally, the reciprocity theorem is defined between a monopole point source and a point receiver. Intuitively, it must apply to more complex transducers than monopoles. In this paper, the authors formulate the acoustic reciprocity theory in the spherical harmonics domain for directional sources and directional receivers with higher order directivity patterns.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Diederichs, Annika Martina; Thiel, Felix; Fischer, Torben
2017-01-01
The recently developed synchrotron technique High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping (HRRSM) is used to characterize the deformation structures evolving during cyclic deformation of commercially pure, polycrystalline aluminium AA1050. Insight into the structural reorganization within single grains...... is gained by in-situ monitoring of the microstructural evolution during cyclic deformation. By HRRSM, a large number of individual subgrains can be resolved within individual grains in the bulk of polycrystalline specimens and their fate, their individual orientation and elastic stresses, tracked during...
Causal localizations in relativistic quantum mechanics
Castrigiano, Domenico P. L.; Leiseifer, Andreas D.
2015-07-01
Causal localizations describe the position of quantum systems moving not faster than light. They are constructed for the systems with finite spinor dimension. At the center of interest are the massive relativistic systems. For every positive mass, there is the sequence of Dirac tensor-localizations, which provides a complete set of inequivalent irreducible causal localizations. They obey the principle of special relativity and are fully Poincaré covariant. The boosters are determined by the causal position operator and the other Poincaré generators. The localization with minimal spinor dimension is the Dirac localization. Thus, the Dirac equation is derived here as a mere consequence of the principle of causality. Moreover, the higher tensor-localizations, not known so far, follow from Dirac's localization by a simple construction. The probability of localization for positive energy states results to be described by causal positive operator valued (PO-) localizations, which are the traces of the causal localizations on the subspaces of positive energy. These causal Poincaré covariant PO-localizations for every irreducible massive relativistic system were, all the more, not known before. They are shown to be separated. Hence, the positive energy systems can be localized within every open region by a suitable preparation as accurately as desired. Finally, the attempt is made to provide an interpretation of the PO-localization operators within the frame of conventional quantum mechanics attributing an important role to the negative energy states.
Causal inference, probability theory, and graphical insights.
Baker, Stuart G
2013-11-10
Causal inference from observational studies is a fundamental topic in biostatistics. The causal graph literature typically views probability theory as insufficient to express causal concepts in observational studies. In contrast, the view here is that probability theory is a desirable and sufficient basis for many topics in causal inference for the following two reasons. First, probability theory is generally more flexible than causal graphs: Besides explaining such causal graph topics as M-bias (adjusting for a collider) and bias amplification and attenuation (when adjusting for instrumental variable), probability theory is also the foundation of the paired availability design for historical controls, which does not fit into a causal graph framework. Second, probability theory is the basis for insightful graphical displays including the BK-Plot for understanding Simpson's paradox with a binary confounder, the BK2-Plot for understanding bias amplification and attenuation in the presence of an unobserved binary confounder, and the PAD-Plot for understanding the principal stratification component of the paired availability design. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Alternative energy efficient membrane bioreactor using reciprocating submerged membrane.
Ho, J; Smith, S; Roh, H K
2014-01-01
A novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot system, using membrane reciprocation instead of air scouring, was operated at constant high flux and daily fluctuating flux to demonstrate its application under peak and diurnal flow conditions. Low and stable transmembrane pressure was achieved at 40 l/m(2)/h (LMH) by use of repetitive membrane reciprocation. The results reveal that the inertial forces acting on the membrane fibers effectively propel foulants from the membrane surface. Reciprocation of the hollow fiber membrane is beneficial for the constant removal of solids that may build up on the membrane surface and inside the membrane bundle. The membrane reciprocation in the reciprocating MBR pilot consumed less energy than coarse air scouring used in conventional MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for the membrane reciprocation was 0.072 kWh/m(3) permeate produced at 40 LMH flux, which is 75% less than for a conventional air scouring system as reported in literature without consideration of energy consumption for biological aeration (0.29 kWh/m(3)). The daily fluctuating flux test confirmed that the membrane reciprocation is effective to handle fluctuating flux up to 50 LMH. The pilot-scale reciprocating MBR system successfully demonstrated that fouling can be controlled via 0.43 Hz membrane reciprocation with 44 mm or higher amplitude.
On reciprocal Baecklund transformations of inverse scattering schemes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, C.; Wong, P.
1984-01-01
The notion of reciprocally related inverse scattering schemes is introduced and is shown to be a key component in the link between the AKNS and WKI schemes. Reciprocal auto-Baecklund transformations are represented both for a generalised Harry-Dym equation and an equation descriptive of nonlinear oscillation of elastic beams. Further, the N-loop soliton solution of the KIW equation is generated in a convenient parametric form via reciprocal Baecklund transformations. Finally, an important reduction to canonical spectral form is shown to be a reciprocal transformation. (Auth.)
Causal models in epidemiology: past inheritance and genetic future
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kriebel David
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract The eruption of genetic research presents a tremendous opportunity to epidemiologists to improve our ability to identify causes of ill health. Epidemiologists have enthusiastically embraced the new tools of genomics and proteomics to investigate gene-environment interactions. We argue that neither the full import nor limitations of such studies can be appreciated without clarifying underlying theoretical models of interaction, etiologic fraction, and the fundamental concept of causality. We therefore explore different models of causality in the epidemiology of disease arising out of genes, environments, and the interplay between environments and genes. We begin from Rothman's "pie" model of necessary and sufficient causes, and then discuss newer approaches, which provide additional insights into multifactorial causal processes. These include directed acyclic graphs and structural equation models. Caution is urged in the application of two essential and closely related concepts found in many studies: interaction (effect modification and the etiologic or attributable fraction. We review these concepts and present four important limitations. 1. Interaction is a fundamental characteristic of any causal process involving a series of probabilistic steps, and not a second-order phenomenon identified after first accounting for "main effects". 2. Standard methods of assessing interaction do not adequately consider the life course, and the temporal dynamics through which an individual's sufficient cause is completed. Different individuals may be at different stages of development along the path to disease, but this is not usually measurable. Thus, for example, acquired susceptibility in children can be an important source of variation. 3. A distinction must be made between individual-based and population-level models. Most epidemiologic discussions of causality fail to make this distinction. 4. At the population level, there is additional
Can chance cause cancer? A causal consideration.
Stensrud, Mats Julius; Strohmaier, Susanne; Valberg, Morten; Aalen, Odd Olai
2017-04-01
The role of randomness, environment and genetics in cancer development is debated. We approach the discussion by using the potential outcomes framework for causal inference. By briefly considering the underlying assumptions, we suggest that the antagonising views arise due to estimation of substantially different causal effects. These effects may be hard to interpret, and the results cannot be immediately compared. Indeed, it is not clear whether it is possible to define a causal effect of chance at all. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dual Causality and the Autonomy of Biology.
Bock, Walter J
2017-03-01
Ernst Mayr's concept of dual causality in biology with the two forms of causes (proximate and ultimate) continues to provide an essential foundation for the philosophy of biology. They are equivalent to functional (=proximate) and evolutionary (=ultimate) causes with both required for full biological explanations. The natural sciences can be classified into nomological, historical nomological and historical dual causality, the last including only biology. Because evolutionary causality is unique to biology and must be included for all complete biological explanations, biology is autonomous from the physical sciences.
The mistake of the causal relationship
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
О. Д. Комаров
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The article deals with issues of the mistake of the causal relationship. The modern criminal law science approaches to the content of the mistake of the causal relationship and its significance to the qualification of the crime are described. It is proved that in cases of dolus generalis different mental attitude of the guilty person to two separate acts of his conduct exist. Consequently, in mentioned above cases mistake of the causal relationship does not have place. The rules of qualification of the crimes commited with the mistake of causation and in cases of dolus generalis are proposed .
Reciprocating piston pump system with screw drive
Perkins, Gerald S. (Inventor); Moore, Nicholas R. (Inventor)
1981-01-01
A pump system of the reciprocating piston type is described, which facilitates direct motor drive and cylinder sealing. A threaded middle potion of the piston is engaged by a nut connected to rotate with the rotor of an electric motor, in a manner that minimizes loading on the rotor by the use of a coupling that transmits torque to the nut but permits it to shift axially and radially with respect to the rotor. The nut has a threaded hydrostatic bearing for engaging the threaded piston portion, with an oil-carrying groove in the nut being interrupted. A fluid emitting seal located at the entrance to each cylinder, can serve to center the piston within the cylinder, wash the piston, and to aid in sealing. The piston can have a long stroke to diameter ratio to minimize reciprocations and wear on valves at high pressures. The voltage applied to the motor can be reversed prior to the piston reaching the end of its stroke, to permit pressure on the piston to aid in reversing the motor.
Attarzadeh, M. A.; Nouh, M.
2018-05-01
One-dimensional phononic materials with material fields traveling simultaneously in space and time have been shown to break elastodynamic reciprocity resulting in unique wave propagation features. In the present work, a comprehensive mathematical analysis is presented to characterize and fully predict the non-reciprocal wave dispersion in two-dimensional space. The analytical dispersion relations, in the presence of the spatiotemporal material variations, are validated numerically using finite 2D membranes with a prescribed number of cells. Using omnidirectional excitations at the membrane's center, wave propagations are shown to exhibit directional asymmetry that increases drastically in the direction of the material travel and vanishes in the direction perpendicular to it. The topological nature of the predicted dispersion in different propagation directions are evaluated using the computed Chern numbers. Finally, the degree of the 2D non-reciprocity is quantified using a non-reciprocity index (NRI) which confirms the theoretical dispersion predictions as well as the finite simulations. The presented framework can be extended to plate-type structures as well as 3D spatiotemporally modulated phononic crystals.
Assessing students' beliefs, emotions and causal attribution ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Keywords: academic emotion; belief; causal attribution; statistical validation; students' conceptions of learning ... Sadi & Lee, 2015), through their effect on motivation and learning strategies .... to understand why they may or may not be doing.
Selecting appropriate cases when tracing causal mechanisms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beach, Derek; Pedersen, Rasmus Brun
2016-01-01
The last decade has witnessed resurgence in the interest in studying the causal mechanisms linking causes and outcomes in the social sciences. This article explores the overlooked implications for case selection when tracing mechanisms using in-depth case studies. Our argument is that existing case...... selection guidelines are appropriate for research aimed at making cross-case claims about causal relationships, where case selection is primarily used to control for other causes. However, existing guidelines are not in alignment with case-based research that aims to trace mechanisms, where the goal...... is to unpack the causal mechanism between X and Y, enabling causal inferences to be made because empirical evidence is provided for how the mechanism actually operated in a particular case. The in-depth, within-case tracing of how mechanisms operate in particular cases produces what can be termed mechanistic...
K-causality and degenerate spacetimes
Dowker, H. F.; Garcia, R. S.; Surya, S.
2000-11-01
The causal relation K+ was introduced by Sorkin and Woolgar to extend the standard causal analysis of C2 spacetimes to those that are only C0. Most of their results also hold true in the case of metrics with degeneracies which are C0 but vanish at isolated points. In this paper we seek to examine K+ explicitly in the case of topology-changing `Morse histories' which contain degeneracies. We first demonstrate some interesting features of this relation in globally Lorentzian spacetimes. In particular, we show that K+ is robust and the Hawking and Sachs characterization of causal continuity translates into a natural condition in terms of K+. We then examine K+ in topology-changing Morse spacetimes with the degenerate points excised and then for the Morse histories in which the degenerate points are reinstated. We find further characterizations of causal continuity in these cases.
Efficient nonparametric estimation of causal mediation effects
Chan, K. C. G.; Imai, K.; Yam, S. C. P.; Zhang, Z.
2016-01-01
An essential goal of program evaluation and scientific research is the investigation of causal mechanisms. Over the past several decades, causal mediation analysis has been used in medical and social sciences to decompose the treatment effect into the natural direct and indirect effects. However, all of the existing mediation analysis methods rely on parametric modeling assumptions in one way or another, typically requiring researchers to specify multiple regression models involving the treat...
Inference of Boundaries in Causal Sets
Cunningham, William
2017-01-01
We investigate the extrinsic geometry of causal sets in $(1+1)$-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. The properties of boundaries in an embedding space can be used not only to measure observables, but also to supplement the discrete action in the partition function via discretized Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary terms. We define several ways to represent a causal set using overlapping subsets, which then allows us to distinguish between null and non-null bounding hypersurfaces in an embedding space...
The Continuum Limit of Causal Fermion Systems
Finster, Felix
2016-01-01
This monograph introduces the basic concepts of the theory of causal fermion systems, a recent approach to the description of fundamental physics. The theory yields quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases and is therefore a candidate for a unified physical theory. From the mathematical perspective, causal fermion systems provide a general framework for describing and analyzing non-smooth geometries and "quantum geometries." The dynamics is described by...
Causal strength induction from time series data.
Soo, Kevin W; Rottman, Benjamin M
2018-04-01
One challenge when inferring the strength of cause-effect relations from time series data is that the cause and/or effect can exhibit temporal trends. If temporal trends are not accounted for, a learner could infer that a causal relation exists when it does not, or even infer that there is a positive causal relation when the relation is negative, or vice versa. We propose that learners use a simple heuristic to control for temporal trends-that they focus not on the states of the cause and effect at a given instant, but on how the cause and effect change from one observation to the next, which we call transitions. Six experiments were conducted to understand how people infer causal strength from time series data. We found that participants indeed use transitions in addition to states, which helps them to reach more accurate causal judgments (Experiments 1A and 1B). Participants use transitions more when the stimuli are presented in a naturalistic visual format than a numerical format (Experiment 2), and the effect of transitions is not driven by primacy or recency effects (Experiment 3). Finally, we found that participants primarily use the direction in which variables change rather than the magnitude of the change for estimating causal strength (Experiments 4 and 5). Collectively, these studies provide evidence that people often use a simple yet effective heuristic for inferring causal strength from time series data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Kant on causal laws and powers.
Henschen, Tobias
2014-12-01
The aim of the paper is threefold. Its first aim is to defend Eric Watkins's claim that for Kant, a cause is not an event but a causal power: a power that is borne by a substance, and that, when active, brings about its effect, i.e. a change of the states of another substance, by generating a continuous flow of intermediate states of that substance. The second aim of the paper is to argue against Watkins that the Kantian concept of causal power is not the pre-critical concept of real ground but the category of causality, and that Kant holds with Hume that causal laws cannot be inferred non-inductively (that he accordingly has no intention to show in the Second analogy or elsewhere that events fall under causal laws). The third aim of the paper is to compare the Kantian position on causality with central tenets of contemporary powers ontology: it argues that unlike the variants endorsed by contemporary powers theorists, the Kantian variants of these tenets are resistant to objections that neo-Humeans raise to these tenets.
Causality violation, gravitational shockwaves and UV completion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hollowood, Timothy J.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)
2016-03-18
The effective actions describing the low-energy dynamics of QFTs involving gravity generically exhibit causality violations. These may take the form of superluminal propagation or Shapiro time advances and allow the construction of “time machines”, i.e. spacetimes admitting closed non-spacelike curves. Here, we discuss critically whether such causality violations may be used as a criterion to identify unphysical effective actions or whether, and how, causality problems may be resolved by embedding the action in a fundamental, UV complete QFT. We study in detail the case of photon scattering in an Aichelburg-Sexl gravitational shockwave background and calculate the phase shifts in QED for all energies, demonstrating their smooth interpolation from the causality-violating effective action values at low-energy to their manifestly causal high-energy limits. At low energies, these phase shifts may be interpreted as backwards-in-time coordinate jumps as the photon encounters the shock wavefront, and we illustrate how the resulting causality problems emerge and are resolved in a two-shockwave time machine scenario. The implications of our results for ultra-high (Planck) energy scattering, in which graviton exchange is modelled by the shockwave background, are highlighted.
Reward-Guided Learning with and without Causal Attribution
Jocham, Gerhard; Brodersen, Kay H.; Constantinescu, Alexandra O.; Kahn, Martin C.; Ianni, Angela M.; Walton, Mark E.; Rushworth, Matthew F.S.; Behrens, Timothy E.J.
2016-01-01
Summary When an organism receives a reward, it is crucial to know which of many candidate actions caused this reward. However, recent work suggests that learning is possible even when this most fundamental assumption is not met. We used novel reward-guided learning paradigms in two fMRI studies to show that humans deploy separable learning mechanisms that operate in parallel. While behavior was dominated by precise contingent learning, it also revealed hallmarks of noncontingent learning strategies. These learning mechanisms were separable behaviorally and neurally. Lateral orbitofrontal cortex supported contingent learning and reflected contingencies between outcomes and their causal choices. Amygdala responses around reward times related to statistical patterns of learning. Time-based heuristic mechanisms were related to activity in sensorimotor corticostriatal circuitry. Our data point to the existence of several learning mechanisms in the human brain, of which only one relies on applying known rules about the causal structure of the task. PMID:26971947
Regge behavior saves string theory from causality violations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
di Vecchia, Paolo; Giuseppe, D'Appollonio; Russo, Rodolfo
2015-01-01
Higher-derivative corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action are present in bosonic string theory leading to the potential causality violations recently pointed out by Camanho et al. [1]. We analyze in detail this question by considering high-energy string-brane collisions at impact parameters b....... Such violations are instead neatly avoided when the full structure of string theory — and in particular its Regge behavior — is taken into account....... ≤ l s (the string-length parameter) with l s ≫ R p (the characteristic scale of the Dp-brane geometry). If we keep only the contribution of the massless states causality is violated for a set of initial states whose polarization is suitably chosen with respect to the impact parameter vector...
Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Behaviour of Children with Autism
Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander
2017-01-01
Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in…