WorldWideScience

Sample records for receptor signaling dynamics

  1. Role of protein dynamics in transmembrane receptor signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Bugge, Katrine Østergaard; Kragelund, Birthe Brandt

    2018-01-01

    Cells are dependent on transmembrane receptors to communicate and transform chemical and physical signals into intracellular responses. Because receptors transport 'information', conformational changes and protein dynamics play a key mechanistic role. We here review examples where experiment...... to function. Because the receptors function in a heterogeneous environment and need to be able to switch between distinct functional states, they may be particularly sensitive to small perturbations that complicate studies linking dynamics to function....

  2. Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton mediates receptor cross talk: An emerging concept in tuning receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Pieta K.; Batista, Facundo D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton in the control of receptor signaling. This may be of particular importance in the context of immune receptors, such as the B cell receptor, where dysregulated signaling can result in autoimmunity and malignancy. Here, we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling receptor compartmentalization, dynamics, and clustering as a means to regulate receptor signaling through controlling the interactions with protein partners. We propose that the actin cytoskeleton is a point of integration for receptor cross talk through modulation of protein dynamics and clustering. We discuss the implication of this cross talk via the cytoskeleton for both ligand-induced and low-level constitutive (tonic) signaling necessary for immune cell survival. PMID:26833785

  3. Phosphorylation site dynamics of early T-cell receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chylek, Lily A; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Dengjel, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    In adaptive immune responses, T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling impacts multiple cellular processes and results in T-cell differentiation, proliferation, and cytokine production. Although individual protein-protein interactions and phosphorylation events have been studied extensively, we lack...... that diverse dynamic patterns emerge within seconds. We detected phosphorylation dynamics as early as 5 s and observed widespread regulation of key TCR signaling proteins by 30 s. Development of a computational model pointed to the presence of novel regulatory mechanisms controlling phosphorylation of sites...... a systems-level understanding of how these components cooperate to control signaling dynamics, especially during the crucial first seconds of stimulation. Here, we used quantitative proteomics to characterize reshaping of the T-cell phosphoproteome in response to TCR/CD28 co-stimulation, and found...

  4. DMPD: Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18178131 Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease? Herbein G, Khan... KA. Trends Immunol. 2008 Feb;29(2):61-7. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven dise...ase? PubmedID 18178131 Title Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven diseas

  5. DMPD: TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10611754 TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. Roberts AB. Microbes Inf...ect. 1999 Dec;1(15):1265-73. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus.... PubmedID 10611754 Title TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. Authors Roberts AB. Publicat

  6. DMPD: Signals and receptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7744810 Signals and receptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. Ben-Ba...ow Signals and receptors involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells. PubmedID 7744810 Title Signals and receptors involved in recr...uitment of inflammatory cells. Authors Ben-Baruch A, Mic

  7. DMPD: Lysophospholipid receptors: signaling and biology. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15189145 Lysophospholipid receptors: signaling and biology. Ishii I, Fukushima N, Y...e X, Chun J. Annu Rev Biochem. 2004;73:321-54. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Lysophospholipid receptors...: signaling and biology. PubmedID 15189145 Title Lysophospholipid receptors: signaling and biology. Authors

  8. DMPD: Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15662540 Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. Li X, Qin J.... J Mol Med. 2005 Apr;83(4):258-66. Epub 2005 Jan 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Modulation of Toll-i...nterleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. PubmedID 15662540 Title Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor

  9. Macroscopic law of conservation revealed in the population dynamics of Toll-like receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarajoo Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stimulating the receptors of a single cell generates stochastic intracellular signaling. The fluctuating response has been attributed to the low abundance of signaling molecules and the spatio-temporal effects of diffusion and crowding. At population level, however, cells are able to execute well-defined deterministic biological processes such as growth, division, differentiation and immune response. These data reflect biology as a system possessing microscopic and macroscopic dynamics. This commentary discusses the average population response of the Toll-like receptor (TLR 3 and 4 signaling. Without requiring detailed experimental data, linear response equations together with the fundamental law of information conservation have been used to decipher novel network features such as unknown intermediates, processes and cross-talk mechanisms. For single cell response, however, such simplicity seems far from reality. Thus, as observed in any other complex systems, biology can be considered to possess order and disorder, inheriting a mixture of predictable population level and unpredictable single cell outcomes.

  10. Cooperative ethylene receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is perceived by a family of five ethylene receptor members in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis. Genetic and biochemical studies suggest that the ethylene response is suppressed by ethylene receptor complexes, but the biochemical nature of the receptor signal is unknown. Without appropriate biochemical measures to trace the ethylene receptor signal and quantify the signal strength, the biological significance of the modulation of ethylene responses ...

  11. Spatiotemporal intracellular dynamics of neurotrophin and its receptors. Implications for neurotrophin signaling and neuronal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, F C; Lazo, O M; Flores, C; Escudero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Neurons possess a polarized morphology specialized to contribute to neuronal networks, and this morphology imposes an important challenge for neuronal signaling and communication. The physiology of the network is regulated by neurotrophic factors that are secreted in an activity-dependent manner modulating neuronal connectivity. Neurotrophins are a well-known family of neurotrophic factors that, together with their cognate receptors, the Trks and the p75 neurotrophin receptor, regulate neuronal plasticity and survival and determine the neuronal phenotype in healthy and regenerating neurons. Is it now becoming clear that neurotrophin signaling and vesicular transport are coordinated to modify neuronal function because disturbances of vesicular transport mechanisms lead to disturbed neurotrophin signaling and to diseases of the nervous system. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of how the regulated secretion of neurotrophin, the distribution of neurotrophin receptors in different locations of neurons, and the intracellular transport of neurotrophin-induced signaling in distal processes are achieved to allow coordinated neurotrophin signaling in the cell body and axons.

  12. Serotonin 2A Receptor Signaling Underlies LSD-induced Alteration of the Neural Response to Dynamic Changes in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Frederick S; Preller, Katrin H; Herdener, Marcus; Janata, Petr; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2017-09-28

    Classic psychedelic drugs (serotonin 2A, or 5HT2A, receptor agonists) have notable effects on music listening. In the current report, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was collected during music listening in 25 healthy adults after administration of placebo, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and LSD pretreated with the 5HT2A antagonist ketanserin, to investigate the role of 5HT2A receptor signaling in the neural response to the time-varying tonal structure of music. Tonality-tracking analysis of BOLD data revealed that 5HT2A receptor signaling alters the neural response to music in brain regions supporting basic and higher-level musical and auditory processing, and areas involved in memory, emotion, and self-referential processing. This suggests a critical role of 5HT2A receptor signaling in supporting the neural tracking of dynamic tonal structure in music, as well as in supporting the associated increases in emotionality, connectedness, and meaningfulness in response to music that are commonly observed after the administration of LSD and other psychedelics. Together, these findings inform the neuropsychopharmacology of music perception and cognition, meaningful music listening experiences, and altered perception of music during psychedelic experiences. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Characterization of ubiquitination dependent dynamics in growth factor receptor signaling by quantitative proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akimov, Vyacheslav; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Nielsen, Mogens M

    2011-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic reversible post-translational modification that plays a key role in the regulation of numerous cellular processes including signal transduction, endocytosis, cell cycle control, DNA repair and gene transcription. The conjugation of the small protein ubiquitin...... investigating ubiquitination on a proteomic scale, mainly due to the inherited complexity and heterogeneity of ubiquitination. We describe here a quantitative proteomics strategy based on the specificity of ubiquitin binding domains (UBDs) and Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC...... as ubiquitination-dependent events in signaling pathways. In addition to a detailed seven time-point profile of EGFR ubiquitination over 30 minutes of ligand stimulation, our data determined prominent involvement of Lysine-63 ubiquitin branching in EGF signaling. Furthermore, we found two centrosomal proteins, PCM1...

  14. DMPD: G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signaling in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17456803 G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signaling in macropha...2007 Apr 24. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signali...ng in macrophages. PubmedID 17456803 Title G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function

  15. DMPD: Signaling to NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l Med. 2007 Nov;13(11):460-9. Epub 2007 Oct 29. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signaling to NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptors. Pub...medID 18029230 Title Signaling to NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptors. Authors Kawai T

  16. Applying label-free dynamic mass redistribution assay for studying endogenous FPR1 receptor signalling in human neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanna B; Gloriam, David E; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The label-free dynamic mass redistribution-based assay (DMR) is a powerful method for studying signalling pathways of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Herein we present the label-free DMR assay as a robust readout for pharmacological characterization of formyl peptide receptors...... (FPRs) in human neutrophils. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from fresh human blood and their responses to FPR1 and FPR2 agonists, i.e. compound 43, fMLF and WKYMVm were measured in a label-free DMR assay using Epic Benchtop System from Corning®. Obtained DMR traces were used to calculate agonist...... potencies. RESULTS: The potencies (pEC50) of fMLF, WKYMVm and compound 43, determined on human neutrophils using the label-free DMR assay were 8.63, 7.76 and 5.92, respectively. The DMR response to fMLF, but not WKYMVm and compound 43 could be blocked by the FPR1-specific antagonist cyclosporin H...

  17. Prostaglandin Receptor Signaling in Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Matsuoka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostanoids, consisting of the prostaglandins (PGs and the thromboxanes (TXs, are a group of lipid mediators formed in response to various stimuli. They include PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2, and TXA2. They are released outside of the cells immediately after synthesis, and exert their actions by binding to a G-protein coupled rhodopsin-type receptor on the surface of target cells. There are eight types of the prostanoid receptors conserved in mammals from mouse to human. They are the PGD receptor (DP, four subtypes of the PGE receptor (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, the PGF receptor (FP, PGI receptor (IP, and TXA receptor (TP. Recently, mice deficient in each of these prostanoid receptors were generated and subjected to various experimental models of disease. These studies have revealed the roles of PG receptor signaling in various pathological conditions, and suggest that selective manipulation of the prostanoid receptors may be beneficial in treatment of the pathological conditions. Here we review these recent findings of roles of prostanoid receptor signaling and their therapeutic implications.

  18. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is designed to foster the development of a comprehensive understanding of the structure, function, and role in disease...

  19. TAM receptor signaling in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn-Cohen, Tal

    2017-01-01

    TYRO3, AXL and MERTK comprise the TAM family of receptor protein tyrosine kinases. Activated by their ligands, protein S (PROS1) and growth-arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), they mediate numerous cellular functions throughout development and adulthood. Expressed by a myriad of cell types and tissues, they have been implicated in homeostatic regulation of the immune, nervous, vascular, bone and reproductive systems. The loss-of-function of TAM signaling in adult tissues culminates in the destruction of tissue homeostasis and diseased states, while TAM gain-of-function in various tumors promotes cancer phenotypes. Combinatorial ligand-receptor interactions may elicit different molecular and cellular responses. Many of the TAM regulatory functions are essentially developmental, taking place both during embryogenesis and postnatally. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of TAM receptors and their ligands during these developmental processes in the immune, nervous, vascular and reproductive systems.

  20. Dynamics of receptor-operated Ca(2+) currents through TRPC channels controlled via the PI(4,5)P2-PLC signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masayuki X; Itsuki, Kyohei; Hase, Hideharu; Sawamura, Seishiro; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Mori, Yasuo; Inoue, Ryuji

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are Ca(2+)-permeable, nonselective cation channels that carry receptor-operated Ca(2+) currents (ROCs) triggered by receptor-induced, phospholipase C (PLC)-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Within the vasculature, TRPC channel ROCs contribute to smooth muscle cell depolarization, vasoconstriction, and vascular remodeling. However, TRPC channel ROCs exhibit a variable response to receptor-stimulation, and the regulatory mechanisms governing TRPC channel activity remain obscure. The variability of ROCs may be explained by their complex regulation by PI(4,5)P2 and its metabolites, which differentially affect TRPC channel activity. To resolve the complex regulation of ROCs, the use of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases and model simulation have helped to reveal the time-dependent contribution of PI(4,5)P2 and the possible role of PI(4,5)P2 in the regulation of ROCs. These approaches may provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of PI(4,5)P2 regulation of TRPC channels and the fundamental mechanisms underlying transmembrane ion flow. Within that context, we summarize the regulation of TRPC channels and their coupling to receptor-mediated signaling, as well as the application of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases to this research. We also discuss the controversial bidirectional effects of PI(4,5)P2 using a model simulation that could explain the complicated effects of PI(4,5)P2 on different ROCs.

  1. Dynamics of receptor-operated Ca2+ Currents Through TRPC Channels Controlled via the PI(4,5P2-PLC Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki X Mori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC channels are Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channels that carry receptor-operated Ca2+ currents (ROCs triggered by receptor-induced, phospholipase C (PLC-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5P2. Within the vasculature, TRPC channel ROCs contribute to smooth muscle cell depolarization, vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. However, TRPC channel ROCs exhibit a variable response to receptor-stimulation, and the regulatory mechanisms governing TRPC channel activity remain obscure. The variability of ROCs may be explained by their complex regulation by PI(4,5P2 and its metabolites, which differentially affect TRPC channel activity. To resolve the complex regulation of ROCs, the use of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases and model simulation have helped to reveal the time-dependent contribution of PI(4,5P2 and the possible role of PI(4,5P2 in the regulation of ROCs. These approaches may provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of PI(4,5P2 regulation of TRPC channels and the fundamental mechanisms underlying transmembrane ion flow. Within that context, we summarize the regulation of TRPC channels and their coupling to receptor-mediated signaling, as well as the application of voltage-sensing phosphoinositide phosphatases to this research. We also discuss the controversial bidirectional effects of PI(4,5P2 using a model simulation that could explain the complicated effects of PI(4,5P2 on different ROCs.

  2. DMPD: Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA withToll-like receptor 9. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14751759 Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of CpG DNA withTo...;16(1):17-22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signal transduction pathways mediated by the interaction of... CpG DNA withToll-like receptor 9. PubmedID 14751759 Title Signal transduction pathways media

  3. DMPD: The involvement of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) incellular signaling networks controlling inflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ncellular signaling networks controlling inflammation. Ringwood L, Li L. Cytokine. 2008 Apr;42(1):1-7. Epub ...ases (IRAKs) incellular signaling networks controlling inflammation. PubmedID 182...49132 Title The involvement of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) incellular signaling networks controlling

  4. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in u...

  5. The interleukin-4 receptor: signal transduction by a hematopoietin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, A D; Pierce, J H

    1994-02-01

    Over the last several years, the receptors for numerous cytokines have been molecularly characterized. Analysis of their amino acid sequences shows that some of these receptors bear certain motifs in their extracellular domains that define a family of receptors called the Hematopoietin receptor superfamily. Significant advances in characterizing the structure, function, and mechanisms of signal transduction have been made for several members of this family. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances made for one of the family members, the interleukin (IL) 4 receptor. Other receptor systems have recently been reviewed elsewhere. The IL-4 receptor consists of, at the minimum, the cloned 140 kDa IL-4-binding chain with the potential for associating with other chains. The IL-4 receptor transduces its signal by activating a tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates cellular substrates, including the receptor itself, and the 170 kDa substrate called 4PS. Phosphorylated 4PS interacts with the SH2 domain of the enzyme PI-3'-kinase and increases its enzymatic activity. These early events in the IL-4 receptor initiated signaling pathway may trigger a series of signals that will ultimately lead to an IL-4 specific biologic outcome.

  6. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  7. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer

  8. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  9. Probing Biased Signaling in Chemokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarandi, Roxana Maria; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Rosenkilde, Mette Marie

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine system mediates leukocyte migration during homeostatic and inflammatory processes. Traditionally, it is described as redundant and promiscuous, with a single chemokine ligand binding to different receptors and a single receptor having several ligands. Signaling of chemokine receptors...... of others has been termed signaling bias and can accordingly be grouped into ligand bias, receptor bias, and tissue bias. Bias has so far been broadly overlooked in the process of drug development. The low number of currently approved drugs targeting the chemokine system, as well as the broad range...... of failed clinical trials, reflects the need for a better understanding of the chemokine system. Thus, understanding the character, direction, and consequence of biased signaling in the chemokine system may aid the development of new therapeutics. This review describes experiments to assess G protein...

  10. Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling Is Membrane Raft Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Kathy L.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Johnson, Joseph O.; Clark, Justine A.; Caceres, Gisela C.; Sokol, Lubomir; List, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Upon erythropoietin (Epo) engagement, Epo-receptor (R) homodimerizes to activate JAK2 and Lyn, which phosphorylate STAT5. Although recent investigations have identified key negative regulators of Epo-R signaling, little is known about the role of membrane localization in controlling receptor signal fidelity. Here we show a critical role for membrane raft (MR) microdomains in creation of discrete signaling platforms essential for Epo-R signaling. Treatment of UT7 cells with Epo induced MR assembly and coalescence. Confocal microscopy showed that raft aggregates significantly increased after Epo stimulation (mean, 4.3±1.4(SE) vs. 25.6±3.2 aggregates/cell; p≤0.001), accompanied by a >3-fold increase in cluster size (p≤0.001). Raft fraction immunoblotting showed Epo-R translocation to MR after Epo stimulation and was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy in Epo stimulated UT7 cells and primary erythroid bursts. Receptor recruitment into MR was accompanied by incorporation of JAK2, Lyn, and STAT5 and their activated forms. Raft disruption by cholesterol depletion extinguished Epo induced Jak2, STAT5, Akt and MAPK phosphorylation in UT7 cells and erythroid progenitors. Furthermore, inhibition of the Rho GTPases Rac1 or RhoA blocked receptor recruitment into raft fractions, indicating a role for these GTPases in receptor trafficking. These data establish a critical role for MR in recruitment and assembly of Epo-R and signal intermediates into discrete membrane signaling units. PMID:22509308

  11. Glucocorticoid receptor signaling in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadmiel, Mahita; Cidlowski, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones regulated in a circadian and stres-associated manner to maintain various metabolic and homeostatic functions that are necessary for life. Synthetic glucocorticoids are widely prescribed drugs for many conditions including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and inflammatory disorders of the eye. Research in the last few years has begun to unravel the profound complexity of glucocorticoid signaling and has contributed remarkably to improved therapeutic strategies. Glucocorticoids signal through the glucocorticoid receptor, a member of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, in both genomic and non-genomic ways in almost every tissue in the human body. In this review, we will provide an update on glucocorticoid receptor signaling and highlight the role of GR signaling in physiological and pathophysiological conditions in the major organ systems in the human body. PMID:23953592

  12. The Dynamics of Costly Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott O. Wagner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Costly signaling is a mechanism through which the honesty of signals can be secured in equilibrium, even in interactions where communicators have conflicting interests. This paper explores the dynamics of one such signaling game: Spence’s model of education. It is found that separating equilibria are unlikely to emerge under either the replicator or best response dynamics, but that partially communicative mixed equilibria are quite important dynamically. These mixtures are Lyapunov stable in the replicator dynamic and asymptotically stable in the best response dynamic. Moreover, they have large basins of attraction, in fact larger than those of either pooling or separating equilibria. This suggests that these mixtures may play significant, and underappreciated, roles in the explanation of the emergence and stability of information transfer.

  13. Receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: a view from quantitative proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Kratchmarova, Irina; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2009-01-01

    Growth factor receptor signaling via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is one of the basic cellular communication principals found in all metazoans. Extracellular signals are transferred via membrane spanning receptors into the cytoplasm, reversible tyrosine phosphorylation being the hallmark of all...

  14. ABA signaling in guard cells entails a dynamic protein-protein interaction relay from the PYL-RCAR family receptors to ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Chul; Lim, Chae Woo; Lan, Wenzhi; He, Kai; Luan, Sheng

    2013-03-01

    Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) serves as an integrator of environmental stresses such as drought to trigger stomatal closure by regulating specific ion channels in guard cells. We previously reported that SLAC1, an outward anion channel required for stomatal closure, was regulated via reversible protein phosphorylation events involving ABA signaling components, including protein phosphatase 2C members and a SnRK2-type kinase (OST1). In this study, we reconstituted the ABA signaling pathway as a protein-protein interaction relay from the PYL/RCAR-type receptors, to the PP2C-SnRK2 phosphatase-kinase pairs, to the ion channel SLAC1. The ABA receptors interacted with and inhibited PP2C phosphatase activity against the SnRK2-type kinase, releasing active SnRK2 kinase to phosphorylate, and activate the SLAC1 channel, leading to reduced guard cell turgor and stomatal closure. Both yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays were used to verify the interactions among the components in the pathway. These biochemical assays demonstrated activity modifications of phosphatases and kinases by their interaction partners. The SLAC1 channel activity was used as an endpoint readout for the strength of the signaling pathway, depending on the presence of different combinations of signaling components. Further study using transgenic plants overexpressing one of the ABA receptors demonstrated that changing the relative level of interacting partners would change ABA sensitivity.

  15. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jinbo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer. PMID:28241422

  16. Androgen Receptor Signaling in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer.

  17. Plant cell surface receptor-mediated signaling - a common theme amid diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Zhou, Jinggeng; Shan, Libo; Meng, Xiangzong

    2018-01-29

    Sessile plants employ a diverse array of plasma membrane-bound receptors to perceive endogenous and exogenous signals for regulation of plant growth, development and immunity. These cell surface receptors include receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that harbor different extracellular domains for perception of distinct ligands. Several RLK and RLP signaling pathways converge at the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs), which function as shared co-receptors. A repertoire of receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) associate with the receptor complexes to relay intracellular signaling. Downstream of the receptor complexes, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are among the key signaling modules at which the signals converge, and these cascades regulate diverse cellular and physiological responses through phosphorylation of different downstream substrates. In this Review, we summarize the emerging common theme that underlies cell surface receptor-mediated signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana : the dynamic association of RLKs and RLPs with specific co-receptors and RLCKs for signal transduction. We further discuss how signaling specificities are maintained through modules at which signals converge, with a focus on SERK-mediated receptor signaling. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Signal transduction by growth factor receptors: signaling in an instant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorylation-based signaling events happening within the first minute of receptor stimulation have so far only been analyzed by classical cell biological approaches like live-cell microscopy. The development of a quench flow system with a time resolution of one second coupled to a read...

  19. Erythropoietin receptor signaling is membrane raft dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.L. McGraw (Kathy); G.M. Fuhler (Gwenny); J.O. Johnson (Joseph); J.A. Clark (Justine); G.C. Caceres (Gisela); L. Sokol (Lubomir); A.F. List (Alan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractUpon erythropoietin (Epo) engagement, Epo-receptor (R) homodimerizes to activate JAK2 and Lyn, which phosphorylate STAT5. Although recent investigations have identified key negative regulators of Epo-R signaling, little is known about the role of membrane localization in controlling

  20. Dynamic complexity: plant receptor complexes at the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Rebecca C; Stahl, Yvonne

    2017-12-01

    Plant receptor complexes at the cell surface perceive many different external and internal signalling molecules and relay these signals into the cell to regulate development, growth and immunity. Recent progress in the analyses of receptor complexes using different live cell imaging approaches have shown that receptor complex formation and composition are dynamic and take place at specific microdomains at the plasma membrane. In this review we focus on three prominent examples of Arabidopsis thaliana receptor complexes and how their dynamic spatio-temporal distribution at the PM has been studied recently. We will elaborate on the newly emerging concept of plasma membrane microdomains as potential hubs for specific receptor complex assembly and signalling outputs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamics in atomic signaling games

    KAUST Repository

    Fox, Michael J.

    2015-04-08

    We study an atomic signaling game under stochastic evolutionary dynamics. There are a finite number of players who repeatedly update from a finite number of available languages/signaling strategies. Players imitate the most fit agents with high probability or mutate with low probability. We analyze the long-run distribution of states and show that, for sufficiently small mutation probability, its support is limited to efficient communication systems. We find that this behavior is insensitive to the particular choice of evolutionary dynamic, a property that is due to the game having a potential structure with a potential function corresponding to average fitness. Consequently, the model supports conclusions similar to those found in the literature on language competition. That is, we show that efficient languages eventually predominate the society while reproducing the empirical phenomenon of linguistic drift. The emergence of efficiency in the atomic case can be contrasted with results for non-atomic signaling games that establish the non-negligible possibility of convergence, under replicator dynamics, to states of unbounded efficiency loss.

  2. Dynamics in atomic signaling games

    KAUST Repository

    Fox, Michael J.; Touri, Behrouz; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2015-01-01

    We study an atomic signaling game under stochastic evolutionary dynamics. There are a finite number of players who repeatedly update from a finite number of available languages/signaling strategies. Players imitate the most fit agents with high probability or mutate with low probability. We analyze the long-run distribution of states and show that, for sufficiently small mutation probability, its support is limited to efficient communication systems. We find that this behavior is insensitive to the particular choice of evolutionary dynamic, a property that is due to the game having a potential structure with a potential function corresponding to average fitness. Consequently, the model supports conclusions similar to those found in the literature on language competition. That is, we show that efficient languages eventually predominate the society while reproducing the empirical phenomenon of linguistic drift. The emergence of efficiency in the atomic case can be contrasted with results for non-atomic signaling games that establish the non-negligible possibility of convergence, under replicator dynamics, to states of unbounded efficiency loss.

  3. TAM Receptor Signaling in Immune Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothlin, Carla V.; Carrera-Silva, Eugenio A.; Bosurgi, Lidia; Ghosh, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)—TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK—together with their cognate agonists GAS6 and PROS1 play an essential role in the resolution of inflammation. Deficiencies in TAM signaling have been associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Three processes regulated by TAM signaling may contribute, either independently or collectively, to immune homeostasis: the negative regulation of the innate immune response, the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and the restoration of vascular integrity. Recent studies have also revealed the function of TAMs in infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we review the important milestones in the discovery of these RTKs and their ligands and the studies that underscore the functional importance of this signaling pathway in physiological immune settings and disease. PMID:25594431

  4. Inositol trisphosphate receptor mediated spatiotemporal calcium signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, S

    1995-04-01

    Spatiotemporal Ca2+ signalling in the cytoplasm is currently understood as an excitation phenomenon by analogy with electrical excitation in the plasma membrane. In many cell types, Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ oscillations are mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor/Ca2+ channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, with positive feedback between cytosolic Ca2+ and IP3-induced Ca2+ release creating a regenerative process. Remarkable advances have been made in the past year in the analysis of subcellular Ca2+ microdomains using confocal microscopy and of Ca2+ influx pathways that are functionally coupled to IP3-induced Ca2+ release. Ca2+ signals can be conveyed into the nucleus and mitochondria. Ca2+ entry from outside the cell allows repetitive Ca2+ release by providing Ca2+ to refill the endoplasmic reticulum stores, thus giving rise to frequency-encoded Ca2+ signals.

  5. Homeobox NKX2-3 promotes marginal-zone lymphomagenesis by activating B-cell receptor signalling and shaping lymphocyte dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Eloy F.; Mena-Varas, Maria; Barrio, Laura; Merino-Cortes, Sara V.; Balogh, Péter; Du, Ming-Qing; Akasaka, Takashi; Parker, Anton; Roa, Sergio; Panizo, Carlos; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Siebert, Reiner; Segura, Victor; Agirre, Xabier; Macri-Pellizeri, Laura; Aldaz, Beatriz; Vilas-Zornoza, Amaia; Zhang, Shaowei; Moody, Sarah; Calasanz, Maria Jose; Tousseyn, Thomas; Broccardo, Cyril; Brousset, Pierre; Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sanchez-Garcia, Isidro; Fernandez-Luna, Jose Luis; Garcia-Muñoz, Ricardo; Pena, Esther; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Salar, Antonio; Baptista, Maria Joao; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesús Maria; Gonzalez, Marcos; Terol, Maria Jose; Climent, Joan; Ferrandez, Antonio; Sagaert, Xavier; Melnick, Ari M.; Prosper, Felipe; Oscier, David G.; Carrasco, Yolanda R.; Dyer, Martin J. S.; Martinez-Climent, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    NKX2 homeobox family proteins have a role in cancer development. Here we show that NKX2-3 is overexpressed in tumour cells from a subset of patients with marginal-zone lymphomas, but not with other B-cell malignancies. While Nkx2-3-deficient mice exhibit the absence of marginal-zone B cells, transgenic mice with expression of NKX2-3 in B cells show marginal-zone expansion that leads to the development of tumours, faithfully recapitulating the principal clinical and biological features of human marginal-zone lymphomas. NKX2-3 induces B-cell receptor signalling by phosphorylating Lyn/Syk kinases, which in turn activate multiple integrins (LFA-1, VLA-4), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, MadCAM-1) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4. These molecules enhance migration, polarization and homing of B cells to splenic and extranodal tissues, eventually driving malignant transformation through triggering NF-κB and PI3K-AKT pathways. This study implicates oncogenic NKX2-3 in lymphomagenesis, and provides a valid experimental mouse model for studying the biology and therapy of human marginal-zone B-cell lymphomas. PMID:27297662

  6. Taste Receptor Signaling-- From Tongues to Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are the transducing endorgans of gustation. Each taste bud comprises 50–100 elongated cells, which extend from the basal lamina to the surface of the tongue, where their apical microvilli encounter taste stimuli in the oral cavity. Salts and acids utilize apically located ion channels for transduction, while bitter, sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli utilize G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and second messenger signaling mechanisms. This review will focus on GPCR signaling mechanisms. Two classes of taste GPCRs have been identified, the T1Rs for sweet and umami (glutamate) stimuli, and the T2Rs for bitter stimuli. These low affinity GPCRs all couple to the same downstream signaling effectors that include Gβγ activation of PLCβ2, IP3-mediated release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores, and Ca2+-dependent activation of the monovalent selective cation channel, TrpM5. These events lead to membrane depolarization, action potentials, and release of ATP as a transmitter to activate gustatory afferents. The Gα subunit, α-gustducin, activates a phosphodiesterase to decrease intracellular cAMP levels, although the precise targets of cAMP have not been identified. With the molecular identification of the taste GPCRs, it has become clear that taste signaling is not limited to taste buds, but occurs in many cell types of the airways. These include solitary chemosensory cells, ciliated epithelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Bitter receptors are most abundantly expressed in the airways, where they respond to irritating chemicals and promote protective airway reflexes, utilizing the same downstream signaling effectors as taste cells. PMID:21481196

  7. Steroid Hormone Receptor Signals as Prognosticators for Urothelial Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Ide

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of preclinical or clinical evidence suggesting that steroid hormone receptor-mediated signals play a critical role in urothelial tumorigenesis and tumor progression. These receptors include androgen receptor, estrogen receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, progesterone receptor, vitamin D receptor, retinoid receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, and others including orphan receptors. In particular, studies using urothelial cancer tissue specimens have demonstrated that elevated or reduced expression of these receptors as well as alterations of their upstream or downstream pathways correlates with patient outcomes. This review summarizes and discusses available data suggesting that steroid hormone receptors and related signals serve as biomarkers for urothelial carcinoma and are able to predict tumor recurrence or progression.

  8. Proliferative signaling initiated in ACTH receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F.P. Lotfi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent results of studies aiming to elucidate modes of integrating signals initiated in ACTH receptors and FGF2 receptors, within the network system of signal transduction found in Y1 adrenocortical cells. These modes of signal integration should be central to the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the G0->G1->S transition in the adrenal cell cycle. FGF2 elicits a strong mitogenic response in G0/G1-arrested Y1 adrenocortical cells, that includes a rapid and transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases-mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK-MAPK (2 to 10 min, b transcription activation of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc genes (10 to 30 min, c induction of c-Fos and c-Myc proteins by 1 h and cyclin D1 protein by 5 h, and d onset of DNA synthesis stimulation within 8 h. ACTH, itself a weak mitogen, interacts with FGF2 in a complex manner, blocking the FGF2 mitogenic response during the early and middle G1 phase, keeping ERK-MAPK activation and c-Fos and cyclin D1 induction at maximal levels, but post-transcriptionally inhibiting c-Myc expression. c-Fos and c-Jun proteins are mediators in both the strong and the weak mitogenic responses respectively triggered by FGF2 and ACTH. Induction of c-Fos and stimulation of DNA synthesis by ACTH are independent of PKA and are inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. In addition, ACTH is a poor activator of ERK-MAPK, but c-Fos induction and DNA synthesis stimulation by ACTH are strongly inhibited by the inhibitor of MEK1 PD98059.

  9. Biased and g protein-independent signaling of chemokine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Anne; Larsen, Olav; Thiele, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    ), different receptors (with the same ligand), or different tissues or cells (for the same ligand-receptor pair). Most often biased signaling is differentiated into G protein-dependent and β-arrestin-dependent signaling. Yet, it may also cover signaling differences within these groups. Moreover, it may...

  10. Exponential signaling gain at the receptor level enhances signal-to-noise ratio in bacterial chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Neumann

    Full Text Available Cellular signaling systems show astonishing precision in their response to external stimuli despite strong fluctuations in the molecular components that determine pathway activity. To control the effects of noise on signaling most efficiently, living cells employ compensatory mechanisms that reach from simple negative feedback loops to robustly designed signaling architectures. Here, we report on a novel control mechanism that allows living cells to keep precision in their signaling characteristics - stationary pathway output, response amplitude, and relaxation time - in the presence of strong intracellular perturbations. The concept relies on the surprising fact that for systems showing perfect adaptation an exponential signal amplification at the receptor level suffices to eliminate slowly varying multiplicative noise. To show this mechanism at work in living systems, we quantified the response dynamics of the E. coli chemotaxis network after genetically perturbing the information flux between upstream and downstream signaling components. We give strong evidence that this signaling system results in dynamic invariance of the activated response regulator against multiplicative intracellular noise. We further demonstrate that for environmental conditions, for which precision in chemosensing is crucial, the invariant response behavior results in highest chemotactic efficiency. Our results resolve several puzzling features of the chemotaxis pathway that are widely conserved across prokaryotes but so far could not be attributed any functional role.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Labeur

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the most recent findings on the molecular mechanisms of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. Most effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by the intracellular GR which is present in almost every tissue and controls transcriptional activation via direct and indirect mechanisms. Nevertheless the glucocorticoid responses are tissue -and gene- specific. GR associates selectively with corticosteroid ligands produced in the adrenal gland in response to changes of humoral homeostasis. Ligand interaction with GR promotes either GR binding to genomic glucocorticoid response elements, in turn modulating gene transcription, or interaction of GR monomers with other transcription factors activated by other signalling pathways leading to transrepression. The GR regulates a broad spectrum of physiological functions, including cell differentiation, metabolism and inflammatory responses. Thus, disruption or dysregulation of GR function will result in severe impairments in the maintenance of homeostasis and the control of adaptation to stress.

  12. Cell surface receptors for signal transduction and ligand transport: a design principles study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Shankaran

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Receptors constitute the interface of cells to their external environment. These molecules bind specific ligands involved in multiple processes, such as signal transduction and nutrient transport. Although a variety of cell surface receptors undergo endocytosis, the systems-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor trafficking dynamics are far from fully understood. We have constructed a generalized mathematical model of receptor-ligand binding and internalization to understand how receptor internalization dynamics encodes receptor function and regulation. A given signaling or transport receptor system represents a particular implementation of this module with a specific set of kinetic parameters. Parametric analysis of the response of receptor systems to ligand inputs reveals that receptor systems can be characterized as being: i avidity-controlled where the response control depends primarily on the extracellular ligand capture efficiency, ii consumption-controlled where the ability to internalize surface-bound ligand is the primary control parameter, and iii dual-sensitivity where both the avidity and consumption parameters are important. We show that the transferrin and low-density lipoprotein receptors are avidity-controlled, the vitellogenin receptor is consumption-controlled, and the epidermal growth factor receptor is a dual-sensitivity receptor. Significantly, we show that ligand-induced endocytosis is a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of signaling receptors rather than merely serving to attenuate signaling. Our analysis reveals that the location of a receptor system in the avidity-consumption parameter space can be used to understand both its function and its regulation.

  13. Optodynamic simulation of β-adrenergic receptor signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda, Edward R; McCall, Jordan G; Al-Hasani, Ream; Shin, Gunchul; Il Park, Sung; Schmidt, Martin J; Anderson, Sonya L; Planer, William J; Rogers, John A; Bruchas, Michael R

    2015-09-28

    Optogenetics has provided a revolutionary approach to dissecting biological phenomena. However, the generation and use of optically active GPCRs in these contexts is limited and it is unclear how well an opsin-chimera GPCR might mimic endogenous receptor activity. Here we show that a chimeric rhodopsin/β2 adrenergic receptor (opto-β2AR) is similar in dynamics to endogenous β2AR in terms of: cAMP generation, MAP kinase activation and receptor internalization. In addition, we develop and characterize a novel toolset of optically active, functionally selective GPCRs that can bias intracellular signalling cascades towards either G-protein or arrestin-mediated cAMP and MAP kinase pathways. Finally, we show how photoactivation of opto-β2AR in vivo modulates neuronal activity and induces anxiety-like behavioural states in both fiber-tethered and wireless, freely moving animals when expressed in brain regions known to contain β2ARs. These new GPCR approaches enhance the utility of optogenetics and allow for discrete spatiotemporal control of GPCR signalling in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Membrane Trafficking of Death Receptors: Implications on Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Schneider-Brachert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Death receptors were initially recognised as potent inducers of apoptotic cell death and soon ambitious attempts were made to exploit selective ignition of controlled cellular suicide as therapeutic strategy in malignant diseases. However, the complexity of death receptor signalling has increased substantially during recent years. Beyond activation of the apoptotic cascade, involvement in a variety of cellular processes including inflammation, proliferation and immune response was recognised. Mechanistically, these findings raised the question how multipurpose receptors can ensure selective activation of a particular pathway. A growing body of evidence points to an elegant spatiotemporal regulation of composition and assembly of the receptor-associated signalling complex. Upon ligand binding, receptor recruitment in specialized membrane compartments, formation of receptor-ligand clusters and internalisation processes constitute key regulatory elements. In this review, we will summarise the current concepts of death receptor trafficking and its implications on receptor-associated signalling events.

  15. Plant cell wall signalling and receptor-like kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sebastian

    2017-02-15

    Communication between the extracellular matrix and the cell interior is essential for all organisms as intrinsic and extrinsic cues have to be integrated to co-ordinate development, growth, and behaviour. This applies in particular to plants, the growth and shape of which is governed by deposition and remodelling of the cell wall, a rigid, yet dynamic, extracellular network. It is thus generally assumed that cell wall surveillance pathways exist to monitor the state of the wall and, if needed, elicit compensatory responses such as altered expression of cell wall remodelling and biosynthesis genes. Here, I highlight recent advances in the field of cell wall signalling in plants, with emphasis on the role of plasma membrane receptor-like kinase complexes. In addition, possible roles for cell wall-mediated signalling beyond the maintenance of cell wall integrity are discussed. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Selection-Mutation Dynamics of Signaling Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Hofbauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure of the rest points of signaling games and their dynamic behavior under selection-mutation dynamics by taking the case of three signals as our canonical example. Many rest points of the replicator dynamics of signaling games are not isolated and, therefore, not robust under perturbations. However, some of them attract open sets of initial conditions. We prove the existence of certain rest points of the selection-mutation dynamics close to Nash equilibria of the signaling game and show that all but the perturbed rest points close to strict Nash equilibria are dynamically unstable. This is an important result for the evolution of signaling behavior, since it shows that the second-order forces that are governed by mutation can increase the chances of successful signaling.

  17. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menizibeya O. Welcome

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning.

  18. SOCS proteins in regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazi, Julhash U.; Kabir, Nuzhat N.; Flores Morales, Amilcar

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a family of cell surface receptors that play critical roles in signal transduction from extracellular stimuli. Many in this family of kinases are overexpressed or mutated in human malignancies and thus became an attractive drug target for cancer treatment....... The signaling mediated by RTKs must be tightly regulated by interacting proteins including protein-tyrosine phosphatases and ubiquitin ligases. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family proteins are well-known negative regulators of cytokine receptors signaling consisting of eight structurally similar...

  19. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, Lauren B; Darlington, Yolanda F; Ochsner, Scott A; Easton-Marks, Jeremy R; Watkins, Christopher M; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H; Wise, Michael W; DeHart, Michael; Margolis, Ronald N; McKenna, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs), their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org) that annotates and integrates diverse 'omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs). These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy "Web 2.0" technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA's Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field.

  20. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B Becnel

    Full Text Available Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs, their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org that annotates and integrates diverse 'omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs. These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy "Web 2.0" technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA's Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field.

  1. Duplicate retention in signalling proteins and constraints from network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, O S; Creevey, C J

    2010-11-01

    Duplications are a major driving force behind evolution. Most duplicates are believed to fix through genetic drift, but it is not clear whether this process affects all duplications equally or whether there are certain gene families that are expected to show neutral expansions under certain circumstances. Here, we analyse the neutrality of duplications in different functional classes of signalling proteins based on their effects on response dynamics. We find that duplications involving intermediary proteins in a signalling network are neutral more often than those involving receptors. Although the fraction of neutral duplications in all functional classes increase with decreasing population size and selective pressure on dynamics, this effect is most pronounced for receptors, indicating a possible expansion of receptors in species with small population size. In line with such an expectation, we found a statistically significant increase in the number of receptors as a fraction of genome size in eukaryotes compared with prokaryotes. Although not confirmative, these results indicate that neutral processes can be a significant factor in shaping signalling networks and affect proteins from different functional classes differently. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. Signal transforms in dynamic measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Layer, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the analysis of measurement signals which requires specific mathematical operations like Convolution, Deconvolution, Laplace, Fourier, Hilbert, Wavelet or Z transform which are all presented in the present book. The different problems refer to the modulation of signals, filtration of disturbance as well as to the orthogonal signals and their use in digital form for the measurement of current, voltage, power and frequency are also widely discussed. All the topics covered in this book are presented in detail and illustrated by means of examples in MathCad and LabVIEW. This book provides a useful source for researchers, scientists and engineers who in their daily work are required to deal with problems of measurement and signal processing and can also be helpful to undergraduate students of electrical engineering.    

  3. Discrete dynamic modeling of cellular signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Réka; Wang, Rui-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Understanding signal transduction in cellular systems is a central issue in systems biology. Numerous experiments from different laboratories generate an abundance of individual components and causal interactions mediating environmental and developmental signals. However, for many signal transduction systems there is insufficient information on the overall structure and the molecular mechanisms involved in the signaling network. Moreover, lack of kinetic and temporal information makes it difficult to construct quantitative models of signal transduction pathways. Discrete dynamic modeling, combined with network analysis, provides an effective way to integrate fragmentary knowledge of regulatory interactions into a predictive mathematical model which is able to describe the time evolution of the system without the requirement for kinetic parameters. This chapter introduces the fundamental concepts of discrete dynamic modeling, particularly focusing on Boolean dynamic models. We describe this method step-by-step in the context of cellular signaling networks. Several variants of Boolean dynamic models including threshold Boolean networks and piecewise linear systems are also covered, followed by two examples of successful application of discrete dynamic modeling in cell biology.

  4. Dynamic decomposition of spatiotemporal neural signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ambrogioni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neural signals are characterized by rich temporal and spatiotemporal dynamics that reflect the organization of cortical networks. Theoretical research has shown how neural networks can operate at different dynamic ranges that correspond to specific types of information processing. Here we present a data analysis framework that uses a linearized model of these dynamic states in order to decompose the measured neural signal into a series of components that capture both rhythmic and non-rhythmic neural activity. The method is based on stochastic differential equations and Gaussian process regression. Through computer simulations and analysis of magnetoencephalographic data, we demonstrate the efficacy of the method in identifying meaningful modulations of oscillatory signals corrupted by structured temporal and spatiotemporal noise. These results suggest that the method is particularly suitable for the analysis and interpretation of complex temporal and spatiotemporal neural signals.

  5. Modulation of β-catenin signaling by glucagon receptor activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyuan Ke

    Full Text Available The glucagon receptor (GCGR is a member of the class B G protein-coupled receptor family. Activation of GCGR by glucagon leads to increased glucose production by the liver. Thus, glucagon is a key component of glucose homeostasis by counteracting the effect of insulin. In this report, we found that in addition to activation of the classic cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA pathway, activation of GCGR also induced β-catenin stabilization and activated β-catenin-mediated transcription. Activation of β-catenin signaling was PKA-dependent, consistent with previous reports on the parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 (PTH1R and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1R receptors. Since low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5 is an essential co-receptor required for Wnt protein mediated β-catenin signaling, we examined the role of Lrp5 in glucagon-induced β-catenin signaling. Cotransfection with Lrp5 enhanced the glucagon-induced β-catenin stabilization and TCF promoter-mediated transcription. Inhibiting Lrp5/6 function using Dickkopf-1(DKK1 or by expression of the Lrp5 extracellular domain blocked glucagon-induced β-catenin signaling. Furthermore, we showed that Lrp5 physically interacted with GCGR by immunoprecipitation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays. Together, these results reveal an unexpected crosstalk between glucagon and β-catenin signaling, and may help to explain the metabolic phenotypes of Lrp5/6 mutations.

  6. Functionally biased signalling properties of 7TM receptors - opportunities for drug development for the ghrelin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsen, B; Holliday, N; Madsen, A N

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The ghrelin receptor is a 7 transmembrane (7TM) receptor involved in a variety of physiological functions including growth hormone secretion, increased food intake and fat accumulation as well as modulation of reward and cognitive functions. Because of its important role in metabolism...... and energy expenditure, the ghrelin receptor has become an important therapeutic target for drug design and the development of anti-obesity compounds. However, none of the compounds developed so far have been approved for commercial use. Interestingly, the ghrelin receptor is able to signal through several...... review, we have described how ligands and mutations in the 7TM receptor may bias the receptors to favour either one G-protein over another or to promote G-protein independent signalling pathways rather than G-protein-dependent pathways. For the ghrelin receptor, both agonist and inverse agonists have...

  7. Protein kinase C alpha controls erythropoietin receptor signaling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. von Lindern (Marieke); M. Parren-Van Amelsvoort (Martine); T.B. van Dijk (Thamar); E. Deiner; B. Löwenberg (Bob); E. van den Akker (Emile); S. van Emst-de Vries (Sjenet); P.J. Willems (Patrick); H. Beug (Hartmut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProtein kinase C (PKC) is implied in the activation of multiple targets of erythropoietin (Epo) signaling, but its exact role in Epo receptor (EpoR) signal transduction and in the regulation of erythroid proliferation and differentiation remained elusive. We

  8. Protein kinase C alpha controls erythropoietin receptor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Lindern, M.; Parren-van Amelsvoort, M.; van Dijk, T.; Deiner, E.; van den Akker, E.; van Emst-de Vries, S.; Willems, P.; Beug, H.; Löwenberg, B.

    2000-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is implied in the activation of multiple targets of erythropoietin (Epo) signaling, but its exact role in Epo receptor (EpoR) signal transduction and in the regulation of erythroid proliferation and differentiation remained elusive. We analyzed the effect of PKC inhibitors

  9. Cocaine Inhibits Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling via Sigma-1-D2 Receptor Heteromers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Bonaventura, Jordi; Brugarolas, Marc; Farré, Daniel; Aguinaga, David; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carmen; Ferre, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Under normal conditions the brain maintains a delicate balance between inputs of reward seeking controlled by neurons containing the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and inputs of aversion coming from neurons containing the D2-like family of dopamine receptors. Cocaine is able to subvert these balanced inputs by altering the cell signaling of these two pathways such that D1 reward seeking pathway dominates. Here, we provide an explanation at the cellular and biochemical level how cocaine may achieve this. Exploring the effect of cocaine on dopamine D2 receptors function, we present evidence of σ1 receptor molecular and functional interaction with dopamine D2 receptors. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, we discovered that D2 receptors (the long isoform of the D2 receptor) can complex with σ1 receptors, a result that is specific to D2 receptors, as D3 and D4 receptors did not form heteromers. We demonstrate that the σ1-D2 receptor heteromers consist of higher order oligomers, are found in mouse striatum and that cocaine, by binding to σ1 -D2 receptor heteromers, inhibits downstream signaling in both cultured cells and in mouse striatum. In contrast, in striatum from σ1 knockout animals these complexes are not found and this inhibition is not seen. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which the initial exposure to cocaine can inhibit signaling via D2 receptor containing neurons, destabilizing the delicate signaling balance influencing drug seeking that emanates from the D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons in the brain. PMID:23637801

  10. Cysteinyl-Leukotriene Receptors and Cellular Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Enrico Rovati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs exert a range of proinflammatory effects, such as constriction of airways and vascular smooth muscle, increase of endothelial cell permeability leading to plasma exudation and edema, and enhanced mucus secretion. They have proved to be important mediators in asthma, allergic rhinitis, and other inflammatory conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria. The classification into subtypes of the cysteinyl-LT receptors (CysLTRs was based initially on binding and functional data, obtained using the natural agonists and a wide range of antagonists. CysLTRs have proved remarkably resistant to cloning. However, in 1999 and 2000, the CysLT1R and CysLT2R were successfully cloned and both shown to be members of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs superfamily. Molecular cloning has confirmed most of the previous pharmacological characterization and identified distinct expression patterns only partially overlapping. Recombinant CysLTRs couple to the Gq/11 pathway that modulates inositol phospholipids hydrolysis and calcium mobilization, whereas in native systems, they often activate a pertussis toxin-insensitive Gi/o-protein, or are coupled promiscuously to both G-proteins. Interestingly, recent data provide evidence for the existence of an additional receptor subtype that seems to respond to both cysteinyl-LTs and uracil nucleosides, and of an intracellular pool of CysLTRs that may have roles different from those of plasma membrane receptors. Finally, a cross-talk between the cysteinyl-LT and the purine systems is being delineated. This review will summarize recent data derived from studies on the molecular and cellular pharmacology of CysLTRs.

  11. Signal transduction through the IL-4 and insulin receptor families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L M; Keegan, A; Frankel, M; Paul, W E; Pierce, J H

    1995-07-01

    Activation of tyrosine kinase-containing receptors and intracellular tyrosine kinases by ligand stimulation is known to be crucial for mediating initial and subsequent events involved in mitogenic signal transduction. Receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) contain cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains that undergo autophosphorylation upon ligand stimulation. Activation of these receptors also leads to pronounced and rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in cells of connective tissue origin. A related substrate, designated 4PS, is similarly phosphorylated by insulin and IGF-1 stimulation in many hematopoietic cell types. IRS-1 and 4PS possess a number of tyrosine phosphorylation sites that are within motifs that bind specific SH2-containing molecules known to be involved in mitogenic signaling such as PI-3 kinase, SHPTP-2 (Syp) and Grb-2. Thus, they appear to act as docking substrates for a variety of signaling molecules. The majority of hematopoietic cytokines bind to receptors that do not possess intrinsic kinase activity, and these receptors have been collectively termed as members of the hematopoietin receptor superfamily. Despite their lack of tyrosine kinase domains, stimulation of these receptors has been demonstrated to activate intracellular kinases leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple substrates. Recent evidence has demonstrated that activation of different members of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases is involved in mediating tyrosine phosphorylation events by specific cytokines. Stimulation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) receptor, a member of the hematopoietin receptor superfamily, is thought to result in activation of Jak1, Jak3, and/or Fes tyrosine kinases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. CSF-1 Receptor Signaling in Myeloid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, E. Richard; Chitu, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    The CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) is activated by the homodimeric growth factors colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34). It plays important roles in development and in innate immunity by regulating the development of most tissue macrophages and osteoclasts, of Langerhans cells of the skin, of Paneth cells of the small intestine, and of brain microglia. It also regulates the differentiation of neural progenitor cells and controls functions of oocytes and trophoblastic cells in the female reproductive tract. Owing to this broad tissue expression pattern, it plays a central role in neoplastic, inflammatory, and neurological diseases. In this review we summarize the evolution, structure, and regulation of expression of the CSF-1R gene. We review, the structures of CSF-1, IL-34, and the CSF-1R and the mechanism of ligand binding to and activation of the receptor. We further describe the pathways regulating macrophage survival, proliferation, differentiation, and chemotaxis downstream from the CSF-1R. PMID:24890514

  13. Signal transduction by the platelet-derived growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.T.; Escobedo, J.A.; Keating, M.T.; Coughlin, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The mitogenic effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are mediated by the PDGF receptor. The mouse PDGF receptor was recently purified on the basis of its ability to become tyrosine phosphorylated in response to the A-B human platelet form of PDGF, and the receptor amino acid sequence was determined from a full-length cDNA clone. Both the human and mouse receptor cDNA sequences have been expressed in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblast (CHO) cells that normally lack PDGF receptors. This paper summarizes recent results using this system to study signal transduction by the PDGF receptor. Some of the findings show that the KI domain of the PDGF receptor plays an important role in the stimulation of DNA synthesis by PDGF. Surprisingly, the kinase insert region is not essential for PDGF stimulation of PtdIns turnover, pH change, increase in cellular calcium, and receptor autophosphorylation. In addition, PDGF stimulates a conformational change in the receptor

  14. Signal Diversity of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Kinoshita, Rie; Putranto, Endy Widya; Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Sumardika, I Wayan; Youyi, Chen; Tomonobu, Naoko; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Murata, Hitoshi

    2017-12-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in inflammatory pathogenesis. It functions as a receptor to multiple ligands such as AGEs, HMGB1 and S100 proteins, activating multiple intracellular signaling pathways with each ligand binding. The molecular events by which ligand-activated RAGE controls diverse signaling are not well understood, but some progress was made recently. Accumulating evidence revealed that RAGE has multiple binding partners within the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. It was first pointed out in 2008 that RAGE's cytoplasmic tail is able to recruit Diaphanous-1 (Dia-1), resulting in the acquisition of increased cellular motility through Rac1/Cdc42 activation. We also observed that within the cytosol, RAGE's cytoplasmic tail behaves similarly to a Toll-like receptor (TLR4)-TIR domain, interacting with TIRAP and MyD88 adaptor molecules that in turn activate multiple downstream signals. Subsequent studies demonstrated the presence of an alternative adaptor molecule, DAP10, on the plasma membrane. The coupling of RAGE with DAP10 is critical for enhancing the RAGE-mediated survival signal. Interestingly, RAGE interaction on the membrane was not restricted to DAP10 alone. The chemotactic G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) formyl peptide receptors1 and 2 (FPR1 and FPR2) also interacted with RAGE on the plasma membrane. Binding interaction between leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1) and RAGE was also demonstrated. All of the interactions affected the RAGE signal polarity. These findings indicate that functional interactions between RAGE and various molecules within the cytoplasmic area or on the membrane area coordinately regulate multiple ligand-mediated RAGE responses, leading to typical cellular phenotypes in several pathological settings. Here we review RAGE's signaling diversity, to contribute to the understanding of the elaborate functions of RAGE in physiological and pathological contexts.

  15. Hindbrain ghrelin receptor signaling is sufficient to maintain fasting glucose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Scott

    Full Text Available The neuronal coordination of metabolic homeostasis requires the integration of hormonal signals with multiple interrelated central neuronal circuits to produce appropriate levels of food intake, energy expenditure and fuel availability. Ghrelin, a peripherally produced peptide hormone, circulates at high concentrations during nutrient scarcity. Ghrelin promotes food intake, an action lost in ghrelin receptor null mice and also helps maintain fasting blood glucose levels, ensuring an adequate supply of nutrients to the central nervous system. To better understand mechanisms of ghrelin action, we have examined the roles of ghrelin receptor (GHSR expression in the mouse hindbrain. Notably, selective hindbrain ghrelin receptor expression was not sufficient to restore ghrelin-stimulated food intake. In contrast, the lowered fasting blood glucose levels observed in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice were returned to wild-type levels by selective re-expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hindbrain. Our results demonstrate the distributed nature of the neurons mediating ghrelin action.

  16. Vitamin D Receptor Signaling and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Moray J; Trump, Donald L

    2017-12-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) binds the secosteroid hormone 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 with high affinity and regulates gene programs that control a serum calcium levels, as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. A significant focus has been to exploit the VDR in cancer settings. Although preclinical studies have been strongly encouraging, to date clinical trials have delivered equivocal findings that have paused the clinical translation of these compounds. However, it is entirely possible that mining of genomic data will help to refine precisely what are the key anticancer actions of vitamin D compounds and where these can be used most effectively. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Receptor downregulation and desensitization enhance the information processing ability of signalling receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resat Haluk

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to initiating signaling events, the activation of cell surface receptors also triggers regulatory processes that restrict the duration of signaling. Acute attenuation of signaling can be accomplished either via ligand-induced internalization of receptors (endocytic downregulation or via ligand-induced receptor desensitization. These phenomena have traditionally been viewed in the context of adaptation wherein the receptor system enters a refractory state in the presence of sustained ligand stimuli and thereby prevents the cell from over-responding to the ligand. Here we use the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR as model systems to respectively examine the effects of downregulation and desensitization on the ability of signaling receptors to decode time-varying ligand stimuli. Results Using a mathematical model, we show that downregulation and desensitization mechanisms can lead to tight and efficient input-output coupling thereby ensuring synchronous processing of ligand inputs. Frequency response analysis indicates that upstream elements of the EGFR and GPCR networks behave like low-pass filters with the system being able to faithfully transduce inputs below a critical frequency. Receptor downregulation and desensitization increase the filter bandwidth thereby enabling the receptor systems to decode inputs in a wider frequency range. Further, system-theoretic analysis reveals that the receptor systems are analogous to classical mechanical over-damped systems. This analogy enables us to metaphorically describe downregulation and desensitization as phenomena that make the systems more resilient in responding to ligand perturbations thereby improving the stability of the system resting state. Conclusion Our findings suggest that in addition to serving as mechanisms for adaptation, receptor downregulation and desensitization can play a critical role in temporal information

  18. The Cannabinoid Receptor CB1 Modulates the Signaling Properties of the Lysophosphatidylinositol Receptor GPR55*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargl, Julia; Balenga, Nariman; Parzmair, Gerald P.; Brown, Andrew J.; Heinemann, Akos; Waldhoer, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) 55 (GPR55) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) are co-expressed in many tissues, predominantly in the central nervous system. Seven transmembrane spanning (7TM) receptors/GPCRs can form homo- and heteromers and initiate distinct signaling pathways. Recently, several synthetic CB1 receptor inverse agonists/antagonists, such as SR141716A, AM251, and AM281, were reported to activate GPR55. Of these, SR141716A was marketed as a promising anti-obesity drug, but was withdrawn from the market because of severe side effects. Here, we tested whether GPR55 and CB1 receptors are capable of (i) forming heteromers and (ii) whether such heteromers could exhibit novel signaling patterns. We show that GPR55 and CB1 receptors alter each others signaling properties in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. We demonstrate that the co-expression of FLAG-CB1 receptors in cells stably expressing HA-GPR55 specifically inhibits GPR55-mediated transcription factor activation, such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells and serum response element, as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) activation. GPR55 and CB1 receptors can form heteromers, but the internalization of both receptors is not affected. In addition, we observe that the presence of GPR55 enhances CB1R-mediated ERK1/2 and nuclear factor of activated T-cell activation. Our data provide the first evidence that GPR55 can form heteromers with another 7TM/GPCR and that this interaction with the CB1 receptor has functional consequences in vitro. The GPR55-CB1R heteromer may play an important physiological and/or pathophysiological role in tissues endogenously co-expressing both receptors. PMID:23161546

  19. Imaging of persistent cAMP signaling by internalized G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calebiro, Davide; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Lohse, Martin J

    2010-07-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of plasma membrane receptors. They mediate the effects of several endogenous cues and serve as important pharmacological targets. Although many biochemical events involved in GPCR signaling have been characterized in great detail, little is known about their spatiotemporal dynamics in living cells. The recent advent of optical methods based on fluorescent resonance energy transfer allows, for the first time, to directly monitor GPCR signaling in living cells. Utilizing these methods, it has been recently possible to show that the receptors for two protein/peptide hormones, the TSH and the parathyroid hormone, continue signaling to cAMP after their internalization into endosomes. This type of intracellular signaling is persistent and apparently triggers specific cellular outcomes. Here, we review these recent data and explain the optical methods used for such studies. Based on these findings, we propose a revision of the current model of the GPCR-cAMP signaling pathway to accommodate receptor signaling at endosomes.

  20. New insights into how trafficking regulates T cell receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Lou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is emerging evidence that exocytosis plays an important role in regulating T cell receptor (TCR signaling. The trafficking molecules involved in lytic granule (LG secretion in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL have been well studied due to the immune disorder known as familial hemophagocytic lymphohisiocytosis (FHLH. However, the knowledge of trafficking machineries regulating the exocytosis of receptors and signaling molecules remains quite limited. In this review, we summarize the reported trafficking molecules involved in the transport of the TCR and downstream signaling molecules to the cell surface. By combining this information with the known knowledge of LG exocytosis and general exocytic trafficking machinery, we attempt to draw a more complete picture of how the TCR signaling network and exocytic trafficking matrix are interconnected to facilitate T cell activation. This also highlights how membrane compartmentalization facilitates the spatiotemporal organization of cellular responses that are essential for immune functions.

  1. The Janus face of death receptor signalling during tumour immunoediting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear O' Reilly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immune-surveillance is essential for the inhibition of carcinogenesis. Malignantly transformed cells can be recognised by both the innate and adaptive immune systems through different mechanisms. Immune effector cells induce extrinsic cell death in the identified tumour cells by expressing death ligand cytokines of the tumour necrosis factor ligand family. However, some tumour cells can escape immune elimination and progress. Acquisition of resistance to the death-ligand induced apoptotic pathway can be obtained through cleavage of effector-cell expressed death-ligands into a poorly active form, mutations or silencing of the death receptors or overexpression of decoy receptors and pro-survival proteins. Although the immune system is highly effective in the elimination of malignantly transformed cells, abnormal/ dysfunctional death-ligand signalling curbs its cytotoxicity. Moreover, death receptors can also transmit pro-survival and pro-migratory signals. Consequently, dysfunctional death receptor-mediated apoptosis/necroptosis signalling does not only give a passive resistance against cell death, but actively drives tumour cell motility, invasion and contributes to consequent metastasis. This dual contribution of the death ligand-death receptor signalling in both the early, elimination phase and then in the late, escape phase of the tumour immunoediting process is discussed in this review. Death receptor agonists still hold potential for cancer therapy since they can execute the tumour-eliminating immune-effector function even in the absence of activation of the immune system against the tumour. The opportunities and challenges of developing death receptor agonists into effective cancer therapeutics are also discussed.

  2. Mechanism of inhibition of growth hormone receptor signaling by suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J A; Lindberg, K; Hilton, D J

    1999-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins in GH receptor-mediated signaling. GH-induced transcription was inhibited by SOCS-1 and SOCS-3, while SOCS-2 and cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) had no effect By using chimeric SOCS pro...

  3. Diverse FGF receptor signaling controls astrocyte specification and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyungjun [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi-Ryoung, E-mail: msong@gist.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Bioimaging Research Center and Cell Dynamics Research Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-07

    During CNS development, pluripotency neuronal progenitor cells give rise in succession to neurons and glia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a major signal that maintains neural progenitors in the undifferentiated state, is also thought to influence the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we present evidence that FGF receptors and underlying signaling pathways transmit the FGF-2 signals that regulate astrocyte specification aside from its mitogenic activity. Application of FGF-2 to cortical progenitors suppressed neurogenesis whereas treatment with an FGFR antagonist in vitro promoted neurogenesis. Introduction of chimeric FGFRs with mutated tyrosine residues into cortical progenitors and drug treatments to specifically block individual downstream signaling pathways revealed that the overall activity of FGFR rather than individual autophosphorylation sites is important for delivering signals for glial specification. In contrast, a signal for cell proliferation by FGFR was mainly delivered by MAPK pathway. Together our findings indicate that FGFR activity promotes astrocyte specification in the developing CNS.

  4. Diverse FGF receptor signaling controls astrocyte specification and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyungjun; Song, Mi-Ryoung

    2010-01-01

    During CNS development, pluripotency neuronal progenitor cells give rise in succession to neurons and glia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a major signal that maintains neural progenitors in the undifferentiated state, is also thought to influence the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we present evidence that FGF receptors and underlying signaling pathways transmit the FGF-2 signals that regulate astrocyte specification aside from its mitogenic activity. Application of FGF-2 to cortical progenitors suppressed neurogenesis whereas treatment with an FGFR antagonist in vitro promoted neurogenesis. Introduction of chimeric FGFRs with mutated tyrosine residues into cortical progenitors and drug treatments to specifically block individual downstream signaling pathways revealed that the overall activity of FGFR rather than individual autophosphorylation sites is important for delivering signals for glial specification. In contrast, a signal for cell proliferation by FGFR was mainly delivered by MAPK pathway. Together our findings indicate that FGFR activity promotes astrocyte specification in the developing CNS.

  5. Microwave signal processing with photorefractive dynamic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotheringham, Edeline B.

    Have you ever found yourself listening to the music playing from the closest stereo rather than to the bromidic (uninspiring) person speaking to you? Your ears receive information from two sources but your brain listens to only one. What if your cell phone could distinguish among signals sharing the same bandwidth too? There would be no "full" channels to stop you from placing or receiving a call. This thesis presents a nonlinear optical circuit capable of distinguishing uncorrelated signals that have overlapping temporal bandwidths. This so called autotuning filter is the size of a U.S. quarter dollar and requires less than 3 mW of optical power to operate. It is basically an oscillator in which the losses are compensated with dynamic holographic gain. The combination of two photorefractive crystals in the resonator governs the filter's winner-take-all dynamics through signal-competition for gain. This physical circuit extracts what is mathematically referred to as the largest principal component of its spatio-temporal input space. The circuit's practicality is demonstrated by its incorporation in an RF-photonic system. An unknown mixture of unknown microwave signals, received by an antenna array, constitutes the input to the system. The output electronically returns one of the original microwave signals. The front-end of the system down converts the 10 GHz microwave signals and amplifies them before the signals phase modulate optical beams. The optical carrier is suppressed from these beams so that it may not be considered as a signal itself to the autotuning filter. The suppression is achieved with two-beam coupling in a single photorefractive crystal. The filter extracts the more intense of the signals present on the carrier-suppressed input beams. The detection of the extracted signal restores the microwave signal to an electronic form. The system, without the receiving antenna array, is packaged in a 13 x 18 x 6″ briefcase. Its power consumption equals that

  6. Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: shaping immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.

    2009-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) expressed by dendritic cells are crucial for tailoring immune responses to pathogens. Following pathogen binding, CLRs trigger distinct signalling pathways that induce the expression of specific cytokines which determine T cell polarization fates. Some CLRs can induce

  7. Quantitative Microscopic Analysis of Plasma Membrane Receptor Dynamics in Living Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Russinova, Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    Plasma membrane-localized receptors are essential for cellular communication and signal transduction. In Arabidopsis thaliana, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) is one of the receptors that is activated by binding to its ligand, the brassinosteroid (BR) hormone, at the cell surface to regulate diverse plant developmental processes. The availability of BRI1 in the plasma membrane is related to its signaling output and is known to be controlled by the dynamic endomembrane trafficking. Advances in fluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy techniques enabled us to gain a better understanding of plasma membrane receptor dynamics in living cells. Here we describe different quantitative microscopy methods to monitor the relative steady-state levels of the BRI1 protein in the plasma membrane of root epidermal cells and its relative exocytosis and recycling rates. The methods can be applied also to analyze similar dynamics of other plasma membrane-localized receptors.

  8. Role of Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.S.; Vadlamudi, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is a life-threatening stage of cancer and is the leading cause of death in advanced breast cancer patients. Estrogen signaling and the estrogen receptor (ER) are implicated in breast cancer progression, and the majority of the human breast cancers start out as estrogen dependent. Accumulating evidence suggests that ER signaling is complex, involving coregulatory proteins and extranuclear actions. ER-coregualtory proteins are tightly regulated under normal conditions with miss expression primarily reported in cancer. Deregulation of ER coregualtors or ER extranuclear signaling has potential to promote metastasis in ER-positive breast cancer cells. This review summarizes the emerging role of ER signaling in promoting metastasis of breast cancer cells, discusses the molecular mechanisms by which ER signaling contributes to metastasis, and explores possible therapeutic targets to block ER-driven metastasis

  9. 14-3-3 Proteins Buffer Intracellular Calcium Sensing Receptors to Constrain Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Grant

    Full Text Available Calcium sensing receptors (CaSR interact with 14-3-3 binding proteins at a carboxyl terminal arginine-rich motif. Mutations identified in patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, autosomal dominant hypocalcemia, pancreatitis or idiopathic epilepsy support the functional importance of this motif. We combined total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and biochemical approaches to determine the mechanism of 14-3-3 protein regulation of CaSR signaling. Loss of 14-3-3 binding caused increased basal CaSR signaling and plasma membrane levels, and a significantly larger signaling-evoked increase in plasma membrane receptors. Block of core glycosylation with tunicamycin demonstrated that changes in plasma membrane CaSR levels were due to differences in exocytic rate. Western blotting to quantify time-dependent changes in maturation of expressed wt CaSR and a 14-3-3 protein binding-defective mutant demonstrated that signaling increases synthesis to maintain constant levels of the immaturely and maturely glycosylated forms. CaSR thus operates by a feed-forward mechanism, whereby signaling not only induces anterograde trafficking of nascent receptors but also increases biosynthesis to maintain steady state levels of net cellular CaSR. Overall, these studies suggest that 14-3-3 binding at the carboxyl terminus provides an important buffering mechanism to increase the intracellular pool of CaSR available for signaling-evoked trafficking, but attenuates trafficking to control the dynamic range of responses to extracellular calcium.

  10. Neurotransmitter receptors as signaling platforms in anterior pituitary cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 463, C (2018), s. 49-64 ISSN 0303-7207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12695S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : pituitary * ligand-gated receptor channels * G protein -coupled receptors * neurotransmitters * action potentials * calcium signaling * hormone secretion Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.754, year: 2016

  11. Physiological Signaling and Structure of the HGF Receptor MET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Baldanzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The “hepatocyte growth factor” also known as “scatter factor”, is a multifunctional cytokine with the peculiar ability of simultaneously triggering epithelial cell proliferation, movement and survival. The combination of those proprieties results in the induction of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in target cells, fundamental for embryogenesis but also exploited by tumor cells during metastatization. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor, MET, is a proto-oncogene and a prototypical transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor. Inhere we discuss the MET molecular structure and the hepatocyte growth factor driven physiological signaling which coordinates epithelial proliferation, motility and morphogenesis.

  12. Rapid phospho-turnover by receptor tyrosine kinases impacts downstream signaling and drug binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Laura B; Maiwald, Thomas; Conzelmann, Holger; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Sorger, Peter K

    2011-09-02

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (ErbB1-4) are oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that regulate diverse cellular processes. In this study, we combine measurement and mathematical modeling to quantify phospho-turnover at ErbB receptors in human cells and to determine the consequences for signaling and drug binding. We find that phosphotyrosine residues on ErbB1 have half-lives of a few seconds and therefore turn over 100-1000 times in the course of a typical immediate-early response to ligand. Rapid phospho-turnover is also observed for EGF-activated ErbB2 and ErbB3, unrelated RTKs, and multiple intracellular adaptor proteins and signaling kinases. Thus, the complexes formed on the cytoplasmic tail of active receptors and the downstream signaling kinases they control are highly dynamic and antagonized by potent phosphatases. We develop a kinetic scheme for binding of anti-ErbB1 drugs to receptors and show that rapid phospho-turnover significantly impacts their mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bicaudal-D1 regulates the intracellular sorting and signalling of neurotrophin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenzio, Marco; Golding, Matthew; Russell, Matthew R G; Wicher, Krzysztof B; Rosewell, Ian; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Ish-Horowicz, David; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2014-07-17

    We have identified a new function for the dynein adaptor Bicaudal D homolog 1 (BICD1) by screening a siRNA library for genes affecting the dynamics of neurotrophin receptor-containing endosomes in motor neurons (MNs). Depleting BICD1 increased the intracellular accumulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-activated TrkB and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) by disrupting the endosomal sorting, reducing lysosomal degradation and increasing the co-localisation of these neurotrophin receptors with retromer-associated sorting nexin 1. The resulting re-routing of active receptors increased their recycling to the plasma membrane and altered the repertoire of signalling-competent TrkB isoforms and p75(NTR) available for ligand binding on the neuronal surface. This resulted in attenuated, but more sustained, AKT activation in response to BDNF stimulation. These data, together with our observation that Bicd1 expression is restricted to the developing nervous system when neurotrophin receptor expression peaks, indicate that BICD1 regulates neurotrophin signalling by modulating the endosomal sorting of internalised ligand-activated receptors. © 2014 The Authors.

  14. CD147 is a signaling receptor for cyclophilin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, V; O'Connor, M; Dai, W W; Guo, H; Toole, B; Sherry, B; Bukrinsky, M

    2001-11-09

    Cyclophilins A and B (CyPA and CyPB) are cyclosporin A binding proteins that can be secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli. We recently identified CD147 as a cell-surface receptor for CyPA and demonstrated that CD147 is an essential component in the CyPA-initiated signaling cascade that culminates in ERK activation and chemotaxis. Here we demonstrate that CD147 also serves as a receptor for CyPB. CyPB induced Ca(2+) flux and chemotaxis of CD147-transfected, but not control, CHO cells, and the chemotactic response of primary human neutrophils to CyPB was blocked by antibodies to CD147. These results suggest that CD147 serves as a receptor for extracellular cyclophilins. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Nuclear receptor TLX inhibits TGF-β signaling in glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Erik; Zhai, Qiwei [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Zeng, Zhao-jun [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Molecular Biology Research Center, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, 110, Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410078 (China); Yoshida, Takeshi [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Funa, Keiko, E-mail: keiko.funa@gu.se [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-05-01

    TLX (also called NR2E1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that maintains stemness of neuronal stem cells. TLX is highly expressed in the most malignant form of glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is important for the proliferation and maintenance of the stem/progenitor cells of the tumor. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine regulating many different cellular processes such as differentiation, migration, adhesion, cell death and proliferation. TGF-β has an important function in cancer where it can work as either a tumor suppressor or oncogene, depending on the cancer type and stage of tumor development. Since glioblastoma often have dysfunctional TGF-β signaling we wanted to find out if there is any interaction between TLX and TGF-β in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that knockdown of TLX enhances the canonical TGF-β signaling response in glioblastoma cell lines. TLX physically interacts with and stabilizes Smurf1, which can ubiquitinate and target TGF-β receptor II for degradation, whereas knockdown of TLX leads to stabilization of TGF-β receptor II, increased nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and enhanced expression of TGF-β target genes. The interaction between TLX and TGF-β may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of glioblastoma cells. - Highlights: • TLX knockdown enhances TGF-β dependent Smad signaling in glioblastoma cells • TLX knockdown increases the protein level of TGF-β receptor II. • TLX stabilizes and retains Smurf1 in the cytoplasm. • TLX enhances Smurf1-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of TGF-β receptor II.

  16. Nuclear receptor TLX inhibits TGF-β signaling in glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Erik; Zhai, Qiwei; Zeng, Zhao-jun; Yoshida, Takeshi; Funa, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    TLX (also called NR2E1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that maintains stemness of neuronal stem cells. TLX is highly expressed in the most malignant form of glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is important for the proliferation and maintenance of the stem/progenitor cells of the tumor. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine regulating many different cellular processes such as differentiation, migration, adhesion, cell death and proliferation. TGF-β has an important function in cancer where it can work as either a tumor suppressor or oncogene, depending on the cancer type and stage of tumor development. Since glioblastoma often have dysfunctional TGF-β signaling we wanted to find out if there is any interaction between TLX and TGF-β in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that knockdown of TLX enhances the canonical TGF-β signaling response in glioblastoma cell lines. TLX physically interacts with and stabilizes Smurf1, which can ubiquitinate and target TGF-β receptor II for degradation, whereas knockdown of TLX leads to stabilization of TGF-β receptor II, increased nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and enhanced expression of TGF-β target genes. The interaction between TLX and TGF-β may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of glioblastoma cells. - Highlights: • TLX knockdown enhances TGF-β dependent Smad signaling in glioblastoma cells • TLX knockdown increases the protein level of TGF-β receptor II. • TLX stabilizes and retains Smurf1 in the cytoplasm. • TLX enhances Smurf1-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of TGF-β receptor II.

  17. The role of insulin receptor signaling in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plum, Leona; Schubert, Markus; Brüning, Jens C

    2005-03-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) is expressed in various regions of the developing and adult brain, and its functions have become the focus of recent research. Insulin enters the central nervous system (CNS) through the blood-brain barrier by receptor-mediated transport to regulate food intake, sympathetic activity and peripheral insulin action through the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and reproductive endocrinology. On a molecular level, some of the effects of insulin converge with those of the leptin signaling machinery at the point of activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), resulting in the regulation of ATP-dependent potassium channels. Furthermore, insulin inhibits neuronal apoptosis via activation of protein kinase B in vitro, and it regulates phosphorylation of tau, metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein and clearance of beta-amyloid from the brain in vivo. These findings indicate that neuronal IR signaling has a direct role in the link between energy homeostasis, reproduction and the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Assembly of Oligomeric Death Domain Complexes during Toll Receptor Signaling*

    OpenAIRE

    Moncrieffe, Martin C.; Grossmann, J. Günter; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila Toll receptor is activated by the endogenous protein ligand Spätzle in response to microbial stimuli in immunity and spatial cues during embryonic development. Downstream signaling is mediated by the adaptor proteins Tube, the kinase Pelle, and the Drosophila homologue of myeloid differentiation primary response protein (dMyD88). Here we have characterized heterodimeric (dMyD88-Tube) and heterotrimeric (dMyD88-Tube-Pelle) death domain complexes. We show ...

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Vitamin D Receptor Signaling Pathways in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Kitagishi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. Like other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation, but also by cross-talk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, PPARs and vitamin D receptor (VDR signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes that are of importance for cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Interaction of the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways has been shown at the level of molecular cross-regulation of their transcription factor. A variety of ligands influencing the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways have been shown to reveal chemopreventive potential by mediating tumor suppressive activities in human cancers. Use of these compounds may represent a potential novel strategy to prevent cancers. This review summarizes the roles of the PPARs and the VDR in pathogenesis and progression of cancer.

  20. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Vitamin D Receptor Signaling Pathways in Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Satoru, E-mail: smatsuda@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp; Kitagishi, Yasuko [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women’s University, Kita-Uoya Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)

    2013-10-21

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. Like other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation, but also by cross-talk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, PPARs and vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes that are of importance for cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Interaction of the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways has been shown at the level of molecular cross-regulation of their transcription factor. A variety of ligands influencing the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways have been shown to reveal chemopreventive potential by mediating tumor suppressive activities in human cancers. Use of these compounds may represent a potential novel strategy to prevent cancers. This review summarizes the roles of the PPARs and the VDR in pathogenesis and progression of cancer.

  1. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Vitamin D Receptor Signaling Pathways in Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Satoru; Kitagishi, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. Like other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation, but also by cross-talk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, PPARs and vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes that are of importance for cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Interaction of the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways has been shown at the level of molecular cross-regulation of their transcription factor. A variety of ligands influencing the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways have been shown to reveal chemopreventive potential by mediating tumor suppressive activities in human cancers. Use of these compounds may represent a potential novel strategy to prevent cancers. This review summarizes the roles of the PPARs and the VDR in pathogenesis and progression of cancer

  2. The Growth Hormone Receptor: Mechanism of Receptor Activation, Cell Signaling, and Physiological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Dehkhoda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth hormone receptor (GHR, although most well known for regulating growth, has many other important biological functions including regulating metabolism and controlling physiological processes related to the hepatobiliary, cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, and reproductive systems. In addition, growth hormone signaling is an important regulator of aging and plays a significant role in cancer development. Growth hormone activates the Janus kinase (JAK–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT signaling pathway, and recent studies have provided a new understanding of the mechanism of JAK2 activation by growth hormone binding to its receptor. JAK2 activation is required for growth hormone-mediated activation of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5, and the negative regulation of JAK–STAT signaling comprises an important step in the control of this signaling pathway. The GHR also activates the Src family kinase signaling pathway independent of JAK2. This review covers the molecular mechanisms of GHR activation and signal transduction as well as the physiological consequences of growth hormone signaling.

  3. Design principles of nuclear receptor signaling: how complex networking improves signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodkin, Alexey N; Bruggeman, Frank J; Plant, Nick; Moné, Martijn J; Bakker, Barbara M; Campbell, Moray J; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Carlberg, Carsten; Snoep, Jacky L; Westerhoff, Hans V

    2010-01-01

    The topology of nuclear receptor (NR) signaling is captured in a systems biological graphical notation. This enables us to identify a number of ‘design' aspects of the topology of these networks that might appear unnecessarily complex or even functionally paradoxical. In realistic kinetic models of increasing complexity, calculations show how these features correspond to potentially important design principles, e.g.: (i) cytosolic ‘nuclear' receptor may shuttle signal molecules to the nucleus, (ii) the active export of NRs may ensure that there is sufficient receptor protein to capture ligand at the cytoplasmic membrane, (iii) a three conveyor belts design dissipating GTP-free energy, greatly aids response, (iv) the active export of importins may prevent sequestration of NRs by importins in the nucleus and (v) the unspecific nature of the nuclear pore may ensure signal-flux robustness. In addition, the models developed are suitable for implementation in specific cases of NR-mediated signaling, to predict individual receptor functions and differential sensitivity toward physiological and pharmacological ligands. PMID:21179018

  4. Differential modulation of Beta-adrenergic receptor signaling by trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Kleinau

    Full Text Available Trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR are rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. TAAR are involved in modulation of neuronal, cardiac and vascular functions and they are potentially linked with neurological disorders like schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Subtype TAAR1, the best characterized TAAR so far, is promiscuous for a wide set of ligands and is activated by trace amines tyramine (TYR, phenylethylamine (PEA, octopamine (OA, but also by thyronamines, dopamine, and psycho-active drugs. Unfortunately, effects of trace amines on signaling of the two homologous β-adrenergic receptors 1 (ADRB1 and 2 (ADRB2 have not been clarified yet in detail. We, therefore, tested TAAR1 agonists TYR, PEA and OA regarding their effects on ADRB1/2 signaling by co-stimulation studies. Surprisingly, trace amines TYR and PEA are partial allosteric antagonists at ADRB1/2, whereas OA is a partial orthosteric ADRB2-antagonist and ADRB1-agonist. To specify molecular reasons for TAAR1 ligand promiscuity and for observed differences in signaling effects on particular aminergic receptors we compared TAAR, tyramine (TAR octopamine (OAR, ADRB1/2 and dopamine receptors at the structural level. We found especially for TAAR1 that the remarkable ligand promiscuity is likely based on high amino acid similarity in the ligand-binding region compared with further aminergic receptors. On the other hand few TAAR specific properties in the ligand-binding site might determine differences in ligand-induced effects compared to ADRB1/2. Taken together, this study points to molecular details of TAAR1-ligand promiscuity and identified specific trace amines as allosteric or orthosteric ligands of particular β-adrenergic receptor subtypes.

  5. Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Sen, Ganes C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a wealth of knowledge about how different Ser/Thr protein kinases participate in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. In many cases, we know the identities of the Ser/Thr residues of various components of the TLR-signaling pathways that are phosphorylated, the functional consequences of the phosphorylation and the responsible protein kinases. In contrast, the analysis of Tyr-phosphorylation of TLRs and their signaling proteins is currently incomplete, because several existing analyses are not systematic or they do not rely on robust experimental data. Nevertheless, it is clear that many TLRs require, for signaling, ligand-dependent phosphorylation of specific Tyr residues in their cytoplasmic domains; the list includes TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR8 and TLR9. In this article, we discuss the current status of knowledge on the effect of Tyr-phosphorylation of TLRs and their signaling proteins on their biochemical and biological functions, the possible identities of the relevant protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and the nature of regulations of PTK-mediated activation of TLR signaling pathways. PMID:25022196

  6. Postoperative ileus involves interleukin-1 receptor signaling in enteric glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, Burkhard; Hupa, Kristof Johannes; Snoek, Susanne A; van Bree, Sjoerd; Stein, Kathy; Schwandt, Timo; Vilz, Tim O; Lysson, Mariola; Veer, Cornelis Van't; Kummer, Markus P; Hornung, Veit; Kalff, Joerg C; de Jonge, Wouter J; Wehner, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common consequence of abdominal surgery that increases the risk of postoperative complications and morbidity. We investigated the cellular mechanisms and immune responses involved in the pathogenesis of POI. We studied a mouse model of POI in which intestinal manipulation leads to inflammation of the muscularis externa and disrupts motility. We used C57BL/6 (control) mice as well as mice deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokine signaling components (TLR-2(-/-), TLR-4(-/-), TLR-2/4(-/-), MyD88(-/-), MyD88/TLR adaptor molecule 1(-/-), interleukin-1 receptor [IL-1R1](-/-), and interleukin (IL)-18(-/-) mice). Bone marrow transplantation experiments were performed to determine which cytokine receptors and cell types are involved in the pathogenesis of POI. Development of POI did not require TLRs 2, 4, or 9 or MyD88/TLR adaptor molecule 2 but did require MyD88, indicating a role for IL-1R1. IL-1R1(-/-) mice did not develop POI; however, mice deficient in IL-18, which also signals via MyD88, developed POI. Mice given injections of an IL-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) or antibodies to deplete IL-1α and IL-1β before intestinal manipulation were protected from POI. Induction of POI activated the inflammasome in muscularis externa tissues of C57BL6 mice, and IL-1α and IL-1β were released in ex vivo organ bath cultures. In bone marrow transplantation experiments, the development of POI required activation of IL-1 receptor in nonhematopoietic cells. IL-1R1 was expressed by enteric glial cells in the myenteric plexus layer, and cultured primary enteric glia cells expressed IL-6 and the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 1 in response to IL-1β stimulation. Immunohistochemical analysis of human small bowel tissue samples confirmed expression of IL-1R1 in the ganglia of the myenteric plexus. IL-1 signaling, via IL-1R1 and MyD88, is required for development of POI after intestinal manipulation in mice. Agents that interfere with

  7. Assembly of Oligomeric Death Domain Complexes during Toll Receptor Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieffe, Martin C.; Grossmann, J. Günter; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila Toll receptor is activated by the endogenous protein ligand Spätzle in response to microbial stimuli in immunity and spatial cues during embryonic development. Downstream signaling is mediated by the adaptor proteins Tube, the kinase Pelle, and the Drosophila homologue of myeloid differentiation primary response protein (dMyD88). Here we have characterized heterodimeric (dMyD88-Tube) and heterotrimeric (dMyD88-Tube-Pelle) death domain complexes. We show that both the heterodimeric and heterotrimeric complexes form kidney-shaped structures and that Tube is bivalent and has separate high affinity binding sites for dMyD88 and Pelle. Additionally we found no interaction between the isolated death domains of Pelle and dMyD88. These results indicate that the mode of assembly of the heterotrimeric dMyD88-Tube-Pelle complex downstream of the activated Toll receptor is unique. The measured dissociation constants for the interaction between the death domains of dMyD88 and Tube and of Pelle and a preformed dMyD88-Tube complex are used to propose a model of the early postreceptor events in Drosophila Toll receptor signaling. PMID:18829464

  8. Assembly of oligomeric death domain complexes during Toll receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieffe, Martin C; Grossmann, J Günter; Gay, Nicholas J

    2008-11-28

    The Drosophila Toll receptor is activated by the endogenous protein ligand Spätzle in response to microbial stimuli in immunity and spatial cues during embryonic development. Downstream signaling is mediated by the adaptor proteins Tube, the kinase Pelle, and the Drosophila homologue of myeloid differentiation primary response protein (dMyD88). Here we have characterized heterodimeric (dMyD88-Tube) and heterotrimeric (dMyD88-Tube-Pelle) death domain complexes. We show that both the heterodimeric and heterotrimeric complexes form kidney-shaped structures and that Tube is bivalent and has separate high affinity binding sites for dMyD88 and Pelle. Additionally we found no interaction between the isolated death domains of Pelle and dMyD88. These results indicate that the mode of assembly of the heterotrimeric dMyD88-Tube-Pelle complex downstream of the activated Toll receptor is unique. The measured dissociation constants for the interaction between the death domains of dMyD88 and Tube and of Pelle and a preformed dMyD88-Tube complex are used to propose a model of the early postreceptor events in Drosophila Toll receptor signaling.

  9. Nuclear receptor TLX inhibits TGF-β signaling in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik; Zhai, Qiwei; Zeng, Zhao-Jun; Yoshida, Takeshi; Funa, Keiko

    2016-05-01

    TLX (also called NR2E1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that maintains stemness of neuronal stem cells. TLX is highly expressed in the most malignant form of glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is important for the proliferation and maintenance of the stem/progenitor cells of the tumor. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine regulating many different cellular processes such as differentiation, migration, adhesion, cell death and proliferation. TGF-β has an important function in cancer where it can work as either a tumor suppressor or oncogene, depending on the cancer type and stage of tumor development. Since glioblastoma often have dysfunctional TGF-β signaling we wanted to find out if there is any interaction between TLX and TGF-β in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that knockdown of TLX enhances the canonical TGF-β signaling response in glioblastoma cell lines. TLX physically interacts with and stabilizes Smurf1, which can ubiquitinate and target TGF-β receptor II for degradation, whereas knockdown of TLX leads to stabilization of TGF-β receptor II, increased nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and enhanced expression of TGF-β target genes. The interaction between TLX and TGF-β may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of glioblastoma cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Dynamic mobility of functional GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Philip; Mortensen, Martin; Hosie, Alastair M; Smart, Trevor G

    2005-07-01

    Importing functional GABAA receptors into synapses is fundamental for establishing and maintaining inhibitory transmission and for controlling neuronal excitability. By introducing a binding site for an irreversible inhibitor into the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit channel lining region that can be accessed only when the receptor is activated, we have determined the dynamics of receptor mobility between synaptic and extrasynaptic locations in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We demonstrate that the cell surface GABAA receptor population shows no fast recovery after irreversible inhibition. In contrast, after selective inhibition, the synaptic receptor population rapidly recovers by the import of new functional entities within minutes. The trafficking pathways that promote rapid importation of synaptic receptors do not involve insertion from intracellular pools, but reflect receptor diffusion within the plane of the membrane. This process offers the synapse a rapid mechanism to replenish functional GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses and a means to control synaptic efficacy.

  11. Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor signalling 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Antosz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of innate immunity is based on the pattern recognition receptors (PRR that recognize molecular patterns associated with pathogens (PAMPs. Among PRR receptors Toll-like receptors (TLR are distinguished. As a result of contact with pathogens, TLRs activate specific intracellular signaling pathways. It happens through proteins such as adaptor molecules, e.g. MyD88, TIRAP, TRIF, TRAM, and IPS-1, which participate in the cascade activation of kinases (IKK, MAP, RIP-1, TBK-1 as well as transcription factors (NF-κB, AP-1 and regulatory factor (IRF3. The result of this activation is the production of active proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, interferons and enzymes. The PRR pathways are controlled by extra – and intracellular molecules to prevent overexpression of PRR. They include soluble receptors (sTLR, transmembrane proteins (ST2, SIGIRR, RP105, TRAIL-R and intracellular inhibitors (SOCS-1, SOCS-3, sMyD88, TOLLIP, IRAK-M, SARM, A20, β-arrestin, CYLD, SHP. These molecules maintain the balance between activation and inhibition and ensure balancing of the beneficial and adverse effects of antigen recognition.

  12. Metazoan-like signaling in a unicellular receptor tyrosine kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultheiss Kira P

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs are crucial components of signal transduction systems in multicellular animals. Surprisingly, numerous RTKs have been identified in the genomes of unicellular choanoflagellates and other protists. Here, we report the first biochemical study of a unicellular RTK, namely RTKB2 from Monosiga brevicollis. Results We cloned, expressed, and purified the RTKB2 kinase, and showed that it is enzymatically active. The activity of RTKB2 is controlled by autophosphorylation, as in metazoan RTKs. RTKB2 possesses six copies of a unique domain (designated RM2 in its C-terminal tail. An isolated RM2 domain (or a synthetic peptide derived from the RM2 sequence served as a substrate for RTKB2 kinase. When phosphorylated, the RM2 domain bound to the Src homology 2 domain of MbSrc1 from M. brevicollis. NMR structural studies of the RM2 domain indicated that it is disordered in solution. Conclusions Our results are consistent with a model in which RTKB2 activation stimulates receptor autophosphorylation within the RM2 domains. This leads to recruitment of Src-like kinases (and potentially other M. brevicollis proteins and further phosphorylation, which may serve to increase or dampen downstream signals. Thus, crucial features of signal transduction circuitry were established prior to the evolution of metazoans from their unicellular ancestors.

  13. Signaling flux redistribution at toll-like receptor pathway junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Selvarajoo

    Full Text Available Various receptors on cell surface recognize specific extracellular molecules and trigger signal transduction altering gene expression in the nucleus. Gain or loss-of-function mutations of one molecule have shown to affect alternative signaling pathways with a poorly understood mechanism. In Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 signaling, which branches into MyD88- and TRAM-dependent pathways upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation, we investigated the gain or loss-of-function mutations of MyD88. We predict, using a computational model built on the perturbation-response approach and the law of mass conservation, that removal and addition of MyD88 in TLR4 activation, enhances and impairs, respectively, the alternative TRAM-dependent pathway through signaling flux redistribution (SFR at pathway branches. To verify SFR, we treated MyD88-deficient macrophages with LPS and observed enhancement of TRAM-dependent pathway based on increased IRF3 phosphorylation and induction of Cxcl10 and Ifit2. Furthermore, increasing the amount of MyD88 in cultured cells showed decreased TRAM binding to TLR4. Investigating another TLR4 pathway junction, from TRIF to TRAF6, RIP1 and TBK1, the removal of MyD88-dependent TRAF6 increased expression of TRAM-dependent Cxcl10 and Ifit2. Thus, we demonstrate that SFR is a novel mechanism for enhanced activation of alternative pathways when molecules at pathway junctions are removed. Our data suggest that SFR may enlighten hitherto unexplainable intracellular signaling alterations in genetic diseases where gain or loss-of-function mutations are observed.

  14. Crammed signaling motifs in the T-cell receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto, Aldo; Abia, David; Alarcón, Balbino

    2014-09-01

    Although the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is long known to contain multiple signaling subunits (CD3γ, CD3δ, CD3ɛ and CD3ζ), their role in signal transduction is still not well understood. The presence of at least one immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in each CD3 subunit has led to the idea that the multiplication of such elements essentially serves to amplify signals. However, the evolutionary conservation of non-ITAM sequences suggests that each CD3 subunit is likely to have specific non-redundant roles at some stage of development or in mature T cell function. The CD3ɛ subunit is paradigmatic because in a relatively short cytoplasmic sequence (∼55 amino acids) it contains several docking sites for proteins involved in intracellular trafficking and signaling, proteins whose relevance in T cell activation is slowly starting to be revealed. In this review we will summarize our current knowledge on the signaling effectors that bind directly to the TCR and we will propose a hierarchy in their response to TCR triggering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-Time G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Imaging to Understand and Quantify Receptor Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Aymerich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and their regulation by agonists and antagonists is fundamental to develop more effective drugs. Optical methods using fluorescent-tagged receptors and spinning disk confocal microscopy are useful tools to investigate membrane receptor dynamics in living cells. The aim of this study was to develop a method to characterize receptor dynamics using this system which offers the advantage of very fast image acquisition with minimal cell perturbation. However, in short-term assays photobleaching was still a problem. Thus, we developed a procedure to perform a photobleaching-corrected image analysis. A study of short-term dynamics of the long isoform of the dopamine type 2 receptor revealed an agonist-induced increase in the mobile fraction of receptors with a rate of movement of 0.08 μm/s For long-term assays, the ratio between the relative fluorescence intensity at the cell surface versus that in the intracellular compartment indicated that receptor internalization only occurred in cells co-expressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. These results indicate that the lateral movement of receptors and receptor internalization are not directly coupled. Thus, we believe that live imaging of GPCRs using spinning disk confocal image analysis constitutes a powerful tool to study of receptor dynamics.

  16. Magnetoencephalography from signals to dynamic cortical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Aine, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    "Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides a time-accurate view into human brain function. The concerted action of neurons generates minute magnetic fields that can be detected---totally noninvasively---by sensitive multichannel magnetometers. The obtained millisecond accuracycomplements information obtained by other modern brain-imaging tools. Accurate timing is quintessential in normal brain function, often distorted in brain disorders. The noninvasiveness and time-sensitivityof MEG are great assets to developmental studies, as well. This multiauthored book covers an ambitiously wide range of MEG research from introductory to advanced level, from sensors to signals, and from focal sources to the dynamics of cortical networks. Written by active practioners of this multidisciplinary field, the book contains tutorials for newcomers and chapters of new challenging methods and emerging technologies to advanced MEG users. The reader will obtain a firm grasp of the possibilities of MEG in the study of audition, vision...

  17. Role of Ubiquitination in IGF-1 Receptor Signaling and Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Sehat, Bita; Andersson, Sandra; Vasilcanu, Radu; Girnita, Leonard; Larsson, Olle

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays numerous crucial roles in cancer biology. The majority of knowledge on IGF-1R signaling is concerned with its role in the activation of the canonical phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways. However, the role of IGF-1R ubiquitination in modulating IGF-1R function is an area of current research. In light of this we sought to determine the relationship between IGF-1R phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and...

  18. Kinetics in Signal Transduction Pathways Involving Promiscuous Oligomerizing Receptors Can Be Determined by Receptor Specificity : Apoptosis Induction by TRAIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szegezdi, Eva; van der Sloot, Almer M.; Mahalingam, Devalingam; O'Leary, Lynda; Cool, Robbert H.; Munoz, Ines G.; Montoya, Guillermo; Quax, Wim J.; de Jong, Steven; Samali, Afshin; Serrano, Luis

    Here we show by computer modeling that kinetics and outcome of signal transduction in case of hetero-oligomerizing receptors of a promiscuous ligand largely depend on the relative amounts of its receptors. Promiscuous ligands can trigger the formation of nonproductive receptor complexes, which slows

  19. Novel method for the study of receptor Ca2+ signalling exemplified by the NK1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heding, A; Elling, C E; Schwartz, T W

    2002-01-01

    We have used a novel technology (NovoStar from BMG Labtechnologies) for the study of the Ca2+ signalling of the human tackykinin NK1 (hNK-I receptor). The NovoStar is a microplate reader based on fluorescence and luminescence. The instrument implements a robotic pipettor arm and two microplate...... carriers, typically one for samples and one for cells. The robotic pipettor arm can transfer sample (agonist or antagonist) from the sample plate or other liquid containers to the cell plate, facilitating the study of Ca2+ signalling to such a degree that the instrument can be used for Medium Throughput...

  20. TSH Receptor Signaling Abrogation by a Novel Small Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rauf; Realubit, Ronald B; Karan, Charles; Mezei, Mihaly; Davies, Terry F

    2016-01-01

    Pathological activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is caused by thyroid-stimulating antibodies in patients with Graves' disease (GD) or by somatic and rare genomic mutations that enhance constitutive activation of the receptor influencing both G protein and non-G protein signaling. Potential selective small molecule antagonists represent novel therapeutic compounds for abrogation of such abnormal TSHR signaling. In this study, we describe the identification and in vitro characterization of a novel small molecule antagonist by high-throughput screening (HTS). The identification of the TSHR antagonist was performed using a transcription-based TSH-inhibition bioassay. TSHR-expressing CHO cells, which also expressed a luciferase-tagged CRE response element, were optimized using bovine TSH as the activator, in a 384 well plate format, which had a Z score of 0.3-0.6. Using this HTS assay, we screened a diverse library of ~80,000 compounds at a final concentration of 16.7 μM. The selection criteria for a positive hit were based on a mean signal threshold of ≥50% inhibition of control TSH stimulation. The screening resulted in 450 positive hits giving a hit ratio of 0.56%. A secondary confirmation screen against TSH and forskolin - a post receptor activator of adenylyl cyclase - confirmed one TSHR-specific candidate antagonist molecule (named VA-K-14). This lead molecule had an IC 50 of 12.3 μM and a unique chemical structure. A parallel analysis for cell viability indicated that the lead inhibitor was non-cytotoxic at its effective concentrations. In silico docking studies performed using a TSHR transmembrane model showed the hydrophobic contact locations and the possible mode of inhibition of TSHR signaling. Furthermore, this molecule was capable of inhibiting TSHR stimulation by GD patient sera and monoclonal-stimulating TSHR antibodies. In conclusion, we report the identification of a novel small molecule TSHR inhibitor, which has the

  1. Ligand-Induced Dynamics of Neurotrophin Receptors Investigated by Single-Molecule Imaging Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Laura; Luin, Stefano; Bonsignore, Fulvio; de Nadai, Teresa; Beltram, Fabio; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Neurotrophins are secreted proteins that regulate neuronal development and survival, as well as maintenance and plasticity of the adult nervous system. The biological activity of neurotrophins stems from their binding to two membrane receptor types, the tropomyosin receptor kinase and the p75 neurotrophin receptors (NRs). The intracellular signalling cascades thereby activated have been extensively investigated. Nevertheless, a comprehensive description of the ligand-induced nanoscale details of NRs dynamics and interactions spanning from the initial lateral movements triggered at the plasma membrane to the internalization and transport processes is still missing. Recent advances in high spatio-temporal resolution imaging techniques have yielded new insight on the dynamics of NRs upon ligand binding. Here we discuss requirements, potential and practical implementation of these novel approaches for the study of neurotrophin trafficking and signalling, in the framework of current knowledge available also for other ligand-receptor systems. We shall especially highlight the correlation between the receptor dynamics activated by different neurotrophins and the respective signalling outcome, as recently revealed by single-molecule tracking of NRs in living neuronal cells. PMID:25603178

  2. Retinoid receptor signaling and autophagy in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orfali, Nina [Cork Cancer Research Center, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. (United States); McKenna, Sharon L. [Cork Cancer Research Center, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Cahill, Mary R. [Department of Hematology, Cork University Hospital, Cork (Ireland); Gudas, Lorraine J., E-mail: ljgudas@med.cornell.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. (United States); Mongan, Nigel P., E-mail: nigel.mongan@nottingham.ac.uk [Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Department of Pharmacology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Retinoids are a family of signaling molecules derived from vitamin A with well established roles in cellular differentiation. Physiologically active retinoids mediate transcriptional effects on cells through interactions with retinoic acid (RARs) and retinoid-X (RXR) receptors. Chromosomal translocations involving the RARα gene, which lead to impaired retinoid signaling, are implicated in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), alone and in combination with arsenic trioxide (ATO), restores differentiation in APL cells and promotes degradation of the abnormal oncogenic fusion protein through several proteolytic mechanisms. RARα fusion-protein elimination is emerging as critical to obtaining sustained remission and long-term cure in APL. Autophagy is a degradative cellular pathway involved in protein turnover. Both ATRA and ATO also induce autophagy in APL cells. Enhancing autophagy may therefore be of therapeutic benefit in resistant APL and could broaden the application of differentiation therapy to other cancers. Here we discuss retinoid signaling in hematopoiesis, leukemogenesis, and APL treatment. We highlight autophagy as a potential important regulator in anti-leukemic strategies. - Highlights: • Normal and aberrant retinoid signaling in hematopoiesis and leukemia is reviewed. • We suggest a novel role for RARα in the development of X-RARα gene fusions in APL. • ATRA therapy in APL activates transcription and promotes onco-protein degradation. • Autophagy may be involved in both onco-protein degradation and differentiation. • Pharmacologic autophagy induction may potentiate ATRA's therapeutic effects.

  3. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX regulates astrogenesis by modulating BMP signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song eQin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs are self-renewing multipotent progenitors that generate both neurons and glia. The precise control of NSC behavior is fundamental to the architecture and function of the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for postnatal NSC activation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic niche. Here, we show that TLX modulates BMP-SMAD signaling to control the timing of postnatal astrogenesis. Genes involved in the BMP signaling pathway, such as Bmp4, Hes1, and Id3, are upregulated in postnatal brains lacking Tlx. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that TLX can directly bind the enhancer region of Bmp4. In accordance with elevated BMP signaling, the downstream effectors SMAD1/5/8 are activated by phosphorylation in Tlx mutant mice. Consequently, Tlx mutant brains exhibit an early appearance and increased number of astrocytes with marker expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and S100B. Taken together, these results suggest that TLX tightly controls postnatal astrogenesis through the modulation of BMP-SMAD signaling pathway activity.

  4. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX regulates astrogenesis by modulating BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Niu, Wenze; Iqbal, Nida; Smith, Derek K; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing multipotent progenitors that generate both neurons and glia. The precise control of NSC behavior is fundamental to the architecture and function of the central nervous system. We previously demonstrated that the orphan nuclear receptor TLX is required for postnatal NSC activation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic niche. Here, we show that TLX modulates bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-SMAD signaling to control the timing of postnatal astrogenesis. Genes involved in the BMP signaling pathway, such as Bmp4, Hes1, and Id3, are upregulated in postnatal brains lacking Tlx. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays reveal that TLX can directly bind the enhancer region of Bmp4. In accordance with elevated BMP signaling, the downstream effectors SMAD1/5/8 are activated by phosphorylation in Tlx mutant mice. Consequently, Tlx mutant brains exhibit an early appearance and increased number of astrocytes with marker expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B. Taken together, these results suggest that TLX tightly controls postnatal astrogenesis through the modulation of BMP-SMAD signaling pathway activity.

  5. Retinoid receptor signaling and autophagy in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orfali, Nina; McKenna, Sharon L.; Cahill, Mary R.; Gudas, Lorraine J.; Mongan, Nigel P.

    2014-01-01

    Retinoids are a family of signaling molecules derived from vitamin A with well established roles in cellular differentiation. Physiologically active retinoids mediate transcriptional effects on cells through interactions with retinoic acid (RARs) and retinoid-X (RXR) receptors. Chromosomal translocations involving the RARα gene, which lead to impaired retinoid signaling, are implicated in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), alone and in combination with arsenic trioxide (ATO), restores differentiation in APL cells and promotes degradation of the abnormal oncogenic fusion protein through several proteolytic mechanisms. RARα fusion-protein elimination is emerging as critical to obtaining sustained remission and long-term cure in APL. Autophagy is a degradative cellular pathway involved in protein turnover. Both ATRA and ATO also induce autophagy in APL cells. Enhancing autophagy may therefore be of therapeutic benefit in resistant APL and could broaden the application of differentiation therapy to other cancers. Here we discuss retinoid signaling in hematopoiesis, leukemogenesis, and APL treatment. We highlight autophagy as a potential important regulator in anti-leukemic strategies. - Highlights: • Normal and aberrant retinoid signaling in hematopoiesis and leukemia is reviewed. • We suggest a novel role for RARα in the development of X-RARα gene fusions in APL. • ATRA therapy in APL activates transcription and promotes onco-protein degradation. • Autophagy may be involved in both onco-protein degradation and differentiation. • Pharmacologic autophagy induction may potentiate ATRA's therapeutic effects

  6. Epigenetics of Estrogen Receptor Signaling: Role in Hormonal Cancer Progression and Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Monica; Cortez, Valerie; Vadlamudi, Ratna K.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ERα) signaling plays a key role in hormonal cancer progression. ERα is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that modulates gene transcription via recruitment to the target gene chromatin. Emerging evidence suggests that ERα signaling has the potential to contribute to epigenetic changes. Estrogen stimulation is shown to induce several histone modifications at the ERα target gene promoters including acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation via dynamic interactions with histone modifying enzymes. Deregulation of enzymes involved in the ERα -mediated epigenetic pathway could play a vital role in ERα driven neoplastic processes. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic changes are reversible, and hence offer novel therapeutic opportunities to reverse ERα driven epigenetic changes. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on mechanisms by which ERα signaling potentiates epigenetic changes in cancer cells via histone modifications

  7. Epigenetics of Estrogen Receptor Signaling: Role in Hormonal Cancer Progression and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Monica; Cortez, Valerie [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UTHSCSA, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Vadlamudi, Ratna K., E-mail: vadlamudi@uthscsa.edu [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, UTHSCSA, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)

    2011-03-29

    Estrogen receptor (ERα) signaling plays a key role in hormonal cancer progression. ERα is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that modulates gene transcription via recruitment to the target gene chromatin. Emerging evidence suggests that ERα signaling has the potential to contribute to epigenetic changes. Estrogen stimulation is shown to induce several histone modifications at the ERα target gene promoters including acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation via dynamic interactions with histone modifying enzymes. Deregulation of enzymes involved in the ERα -mediated epigenetic pathway could play a vital role in ERα driven neoplastic processes. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic changes are reversible, and hence offer novel therapeutic opportunities to reverse ERα driven epigenetic changes. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on mechanisms by which ERα signaling potentiates epigenetic changes in cancer cells via histone modifications.

  8. Regulation of dopamine D1 receptor dynamics within the postsynaptic density of hippocampal glutamate synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Ladepeche

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptor potently modulates glutamate signalling, synaptic plasticity and neuronal network adaptations in various pathophysiological processes. Although key intracellular signalling cascades have been identified, the cellular mechanism by which dopamine and glutamate receptor-mediated signalling interplay at glutamate synapse remain poorly understood. Among the cellular mechanisms proposed to aggregate D1R in glutamate synapses, the direct interaction between D1R and the scaffold protein PSD95 or the direct interaction with the glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR have been proposed. To tackle this question we here used high-resolution single nanoparticle imaging since it provides a powerful way to investigate at the sub-micron resolution the dynamic interaction between these partners in live synapses. We demonstrate in hippocampal neuronal networks that dopamine D1 receptors (D1R laterally diffuse within glutamate synapses, in which their diffusion is reduced. Disrupting the interaction between D1R and PSD95, through genetical manipulation and competing peptide, did not affect D1R dynamics in glutamatergic synapses. However, preventing the physical interaction between D1R and the GluN1 subunit of NMDAR abolished the synaptic stabilization of diffusing D1R. Together, these data provide direct evidence that the interaction between D1R and NMDAR in synapses participate in the building of the dopamine-receptor-mediated signalling, and most likely to the glutamate-dopamine cross-talk.

  9. Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling inhibits prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu; Shao, Longjiang; Yu, Wendong; Gavine, Paul; Ittmann, Michael

    2012-07-15

    Extensive correlative studies in human prostate cancer as well as studies in vitro and in mouse models indicate that fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling plays an important role in prostate cancer progression. In this study, we used a probe compound for an FGFR inhibitor, which potently inhibits FGFR-1-3 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4. The purpose of this study is to determine whether targeting FGFR signaling from all four FGFRs will have in vitro activities consistent with inhibition of tumor progression and will inhibit tumor progression in vivo. Effects of AZ8010 on FGFR signaling and invasion were analyzed using immortalized normal prostate epithelial (PNT1a) cells and PNT1a overexpressing FGFR-1 or FGFR-4. The effect of AZ8010 on invasion and proliferation in vitro was also evaluated in prostate cancer cell lines. Finally, the impact of AZ8010 on tumor progression in vivo was evaluated using a VCaP xenograft model. AZ8010 completely inhibits FGFR-1 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4 signaling at 100 nmol/L, which is an achievable in vivo concentration. This results in marked inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and invasion in PNT1a cells expressing FGFR-1 and FGFR-4 and all prostate cancer cell lines tested. Treatment in vivo completely inhibited VCaP tumor growth and significantly inhibited angiogenesis and proliferation and increased cell death in treated tumors. This was associated with marked inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in treated tumors. Targeting FGFR signaling is a promising new approach to treating aggressive prostate cancer.

  10. A dynamic view of molecular switch behavior at serotonin receptors: implications for functional selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Martí-Solano

    Full Text Available Functional selectivity is a property of G protein-coupled receptors that allows them to preferentially couple to particular signaling partners upon binding of biased agonists. Publication of the X-ray crystal structure of serotonergic 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors in complex with ergotamine, a drug capable of activating G protein coupling and β-arrestin signaling at the 5-HT1B receptor but clearly favoring β-arrestin over G protein coupling at the 5-HT2B subtype, has recently provided structural insight into this phenomenon. In particular, these structures highlight the importance of specific residues, also called micro-switches, for differential receptor activation. In our work, we apply classical molecular dynamics simulations and enhanced sampling approaches to analyze the behavior of these micro-switches and their impact on the stabilization of particular receptor conformational states. Our analysis shows that differences in the conformational freedom of helix 6 between both receptors could explain their different G protein-coupling capacity. In particular, as compared to the 5-HT1B receptor, helix 6 movement in the 5-HT2B receptor can be constrained by two different mechanisms. On the one hand, an anchoring effect of ergotamine, which shows an increased capacity to interact with the extracellular part of helices 5 and 6 and stabilize them, hinders activation of a hydrophobic connector region at the center of the receptor. On the other hand, this connector region in an inactive conformation is further stabilized by unconserved contacts extending to the intracellular part of the 5-HT2B receptor, which hamper opening of the G protein binding site. This work highlights the importance of considering receptor capacity to adopt different conformational states from a dynamic perspective in order to underpin the structural basis of functional selectivity.

  11. Signal interaction of Hedgehog/GLI and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberl, M.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this PhD thesis is based on the cooperation of Hedgehog (HH)/GLI with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling synergistically promoting oncogenic transformation and cancer growth. In previous studies we have demonstrated that the HH/GLI and EGFR signaling pathways interact synergistically resulting not only in selective induction of HH/GLI-EGFR target genes, but also in the onset of oncogenic transformation and tumor formation (Kasper, Schnidar et al. 2006; Schnidar, Eberl et al. 2009). However, the molecular key mediators acting downstream of HH/GLI and EGFR signal cooperation were largely unknown and the in vivo evidence for the therapeutic relevance of HH/GLI and EGFR signal cooperation in HH-associated cancers was lacking. During my PhD thesis I could demonstrate that the integration of EGFR and HH/GLI signaling involves activation of RAS/MEK/ERK and JUN/AP1 signaling in response to EGFR activation. Furthermore I succeeded in identifying genes, including stem cell- (SOX2, SOX9), tumor growth- (JUN, TGFA, FGF19) and metastasis-associated genes (SPP1/osteopontin, CXCR4) that showed synergistic transcriptional activation by HH/GLI-EGFR signal integration. Importantly, I could demonstrate that these genes arrange themselves within a stable interdependent signaling network, which is required for in vivo growth of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and tumor-initiating pancreatic cancer cells. These data validate EGFR signaling as additional drug target in HH/GLI driven cancers and provide new therapeutic strategies based on combined targeting of cooperative HH/GLI-EGFR signaling and selected downstream target genes (Eberl, Klingler et al. 2012). (author) [de

  12. Human GH Receptor-IGF-1 Receptor Interaction: Implications for GH Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yujun; Buckels, Ashiya; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Paterson, Andrew J.; Jiang, Jing; Zinn, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    GH signaling yields multiple anabolic and metabolic effects. GH binds the transmembrane GH receptor (GHR) to activate the intracellular GHR-associated tyrosine kinase, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and downstream signals, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation and IGF-1 gene expression. Some GH effects are partly mediated by GH-induced IGF-1 via IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), a tyrosine kinase receptor. We previously demonstrated in non-human cells that GH causes formation of a GHR-JAK2-IGF-1R complex and that presence of IGF-1R (even without IGF-1 binding) augments proximal GH signaling. In this study, we use human LNCaP prostate cancer cells as a model system to further study the IGF-1R's role in GH signaling. GH promoted JAK2 and GHR tyrosine phosphorylation and STAT5 activation in LNCaP cells. By coimmunoprecipitation and a new split luciferase complementation assay, we find that GH augments GHR/IGF-1R complex formation, which is inhibited by a Fab of an antagonistic anti-GHR monoclonal antibody. Short hairpin RNA-mediated IGF-1R silencing in LNCaP cells reduced GH-induced GHR, JAK2, and STAT5 phosphorylation. Similarly, a soluble IGF-1R extracellular domain fragment (sol IGF-1R) interacts with GHR in response to GH and blunts GH signaling. Sol IGF-1R also markedly inhibits GH-induced IGF-1 gene expression in both LNCaP cells and mouse primary osteoblast cells. On the basis of these and other findings, we propose a model in which IGF-1R augments GH signaling by allowing a putative IGF-1R-associated molecule that regulates GH signaling to access the activated GHR/JAK2 complex and envision sol IGF-1R as a dominant-negative inhibitor of this IGF-1R-mediated augmentation. Physiological implications of this new model are discussed. PMID:25211187

  13. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Culhane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs.

  14. Retinoid receptor signaling and autophagy in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Orfali, Nina

    2014-05-15

    Retinoids are a family of signaling molecules derived from vitamin A with well established roles in cellular differentiation. Physiologically active retinoids mediate transcriptional effects on cells through interactions with retinoic acid (RARs) and retinoid-X (RXR) receptors. Chromosomal translocations involving the RARα gene, which lead to impaired retinoid signaling, are implicated in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), alone and in combination with arsenic trioxide (ATO), restores differentiation in APL cells and promotes degradation of the abnormal oncogenic fusion protein through several proteolytic mechanisms. RARα fusion-protein elimination is emerging as critical to obtaining sustained remission and long-term cure in APL. Autophagy is a degradative cellular pathway involved in protein turnover. Both ATRA and ATO also induce autophagy in APL cells. Enhancing autophagy may therefore be of therapeutic benefit in resistant APL and could broaden the application of differentiation therapy to other cancers. Here we discuss retinoid signaling in hematopoiesis, leukemogenesis, and APL treatment. We highlight autophagy as a potential important regulator in anti-leukemic strategies.

  15. Dynamic ubiquitin signaling in cell cycle regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto, Samuel; Peter, Matthias

    2017-08-07

    The cell division cycle is driven by a collection of enzymes that coordinate DNA duplication and separation, ensuring that genomic information is faithfully and perpetually maintained. The activity of the effector proteins that perform and coordinate these biological processes oscillates by regulated expression and/or posttranslational modifications. Ubiquitylation is a cardinal cellular modification and is long known for driving cell cycle transitions. In this review, we emphasize emerging concepts of how ubiquitylation brings the necessary dynamicity and plasticity that underlie the processes of DNA replication and mitosis. New studies, often focusing on the regulation of chromosomal proteins like DNA polymerases or kinetochore kinases, are demonstrating that ubiquitylation is a versatile modification that can be used to fine-tune these cell cycle events, frequently through processes that do not involve proteasomal degradation. Understanding how the increasing variety of identified ubiquitin signals are transduced will allow us to develop a deeper mechanistic perception of how the multiple factors come together to faithfully propagate genomic information. Here, we discuss these and additional conceptual challenges that are currently under study toward understanding how ubiquitin governs cell cycle regulation. © 2017 Gilberto and Peter.

  16. Tyrosine 769 of the keratinocyte growth factor receptor is required for receptor signaling but not endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceridono, Mara; Belleudi, Francesca; Ceccarelli, Simona; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria

    2005-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor receptor (KGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed on epithelial cells which belongs to the family of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). Following ligand binding, KGFR is rapidly autophosphorylated on specific tyrosine residues in the intracellular domain, recruits substrate proteins, and is rapidly internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The role of different autophosphorylation sites in FGFRs, and in particular the role of the tyrosine 766 in FGFR1, first identified as PLCγ binding site, has been extensively studied. We analyzed here the possible role of the tyrosine 769 in KGFR, corresponding to tyrosine 766 in FGFR1, in the regulation of KGFR signal transduction and MAPK activation as well as in the control of the endocytic process of KGFR. A mutant KGFR in which tyrosine 769 was substituted by phenylalanine was generated and transfected in NIH3T3 and HeLa cells. Our results indicate that tyrosine 769 is required for the binding to KGFR and tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCγ as well as for the full activation of MAPKs and for cell proliferation through the regulation of FRS2 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that this residue represents a key regulator of KGFR signal transduction. Our data also show that tyrosine 769 is not involved in the regulation of the endocytic process of KGFR

  17. The transcriptomics of glucocorticoid receptor signaling in developing zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinushan Nesan

    Full Text Available Cortisol is the primary corticosteroid in teleosts that is released in response to stressor activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis. The target tissue action of this hormone is primarily mediated by the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor (GR, a ligand-bound transcription factor. In developing zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos, GR transcripts and cortisol are maternally deposited into the oocyte prior to fertilization and influence early embryogenesis. To better understand of the molecular mechanisms involved, we investigated changes in the developmental transcriptome prior to hatch, in response to morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown of GR using the Agilent zebrafish microarray platform. A total of 1313 and 836 mRNA transcripts were significantly changed at 24 and 36 hours post fertilization (hpf, respectively. Functional analysis revealed numerous developmental processes under GR regulation, including neurogenesis, eye development, skeletal and cardiac muscle formation. Together, this study underscores a critical role for glucocorticoid signaling in programming molecular events essential for zebrafish development.

  18. Current Views of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On microbial invasion, the host immediately evokes innate immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs play crucial roles in innate responses that lead not only to the clearance of pathogens but also to the efficient establishment of acquired immunity by directly detecting molecules from microbes. In terms of intracellular TLR-mediated signaling pathways, cytoplasmic adaptor molecules containing Toll/IL-1R (TIR domains play important roles in inflammatory immune responses through the production of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and type I interferon, and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. In this paper, we will describe our current understanding of the relationship between TLRs and their ligands derived from pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Moreover, we will review the historical and current literature to describe the mechanisms behind TLR-mediated activation of innate immune responses.

  19. Progesterone receptors (PR) mediate STAT actions: PR and prolactin receptor signaling crosstalk in breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehy, Katherine A; Truong, Thu H; Mauro, Laura J; Lange, Carol A

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen is the major mitogenic stimulus of mammary gland development during puberty wherein ER signaling acts to induce abundant PR expression. PR signaling, in contrast, is the primary driver of mammary epithelial cell proliferation in adulthood. The high circulating levels of progesterone during pregnancy signal through PR, inducing expression of the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Cooperation between PR and prolactin (PRL) signaling, via regulation of downstream components in the PRL signaling pathway including JAKs and STATs, facilitates the alveolar morphogenesis observed during pregnancy. Indeed, these pathways are fully integrated via activation of shared signaling pathways (i.e. JAKs, MAPKs) as well as by the convergence of PRs and STATs at target genes relevant to both mammary gland biology and breast cancer progression (i.e. proliferation, stem cell outgrowth, tissue cell type heterogeneity). Thus, rather than a single mediator such as ER, transcription factor cascades (ER>PR>STATs) are responsible for rapid proliferative and developmental programming in the normal mammary gland. It is not surprising that these same mediators typify uncontrolled proliferation in a majority of breast cancers, where ER and PR are most often co-expressed and may cooperate to drive malignant tumor progression. This review will primarily focus on the integration of PR and PRL signaling in breast cancer models and the importance of this cross-talk in cancer progression in the context of mammographic density. Components of these PR/PRL signaling pathways could offer alternative drug targets and logical complements to anti-ER or anti-estrogen-based endocrine therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Pseudo signal peptide of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2A prevents receptor oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Anke; Rutz, Claudia; Kreuchwig, Annika; Krause, Gerd; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2012-08-03

    N-terminal signal peptides mediate the interaction of native proteins with the translocon complex of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and are cleaved off during early protein biogenesis. The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a (CRF(2(a))R) possesses an N-terminal pseudo signal peptide, which represents a so far unique domain within the large protein family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In contrast to a conventional signal peptide, the pseudo signal peptide remains uncleaved and consequently forms a hydrophobic extension at the N terminus of the receptor. The functional consequence of the presence of the pseudo signal peptide is not understood. Here, we have analyzed the significance of this domain for receptor dimerization/oligomerization in detail. To this end, we took the CRF(2(a))R and the homologous corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF(1)R) possessing a conventional cleaved signal peptide and conducted signal peptide exchange experiments. Using single cell and single molecule imaging methods (fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, respectively) as well as biochemical experiments, we obtained two novel findings; we could show that (i) the CRF(2(a))R is expressed exclusively as a monomer, and (ii) the presence of the pseudo signal peptide prevents its oligomerization. Thus, we have identified a novel functional domain within the GPCR protein family, which plays a role in receptor oligomerization and which may be useful to study the functional significance of this process in general.

  1. B cell antigen receptor signaling and internalization are mutually exclusive events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hou

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Engagement of the B cell antigen receptor initiates two concurrent processes, signaling and receptor internalization. While both are required for normal humoral immune responses, the relationship between these two processes is unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that following receptor ligation, a small subpopulation of B cell antigen receptors are inductively phosphorylated and selectively retained at the cell surface where they can serve as scaffolds for the assembly of signaling molecules. In contrast, the larger population of non-phosphorylated receptors is rapidly endocytosed. Each receptor can undergo only one of two mutually exclusive fates because the tyrosine-based motifs that mediate signaling when phosphorylated mediate internalization when not phosphorylated. Mathematical modeling indicates that the observed competition between receptor phosphorylation and internalization enhances signaling responses to low avidity ligands.

  2. Biased signaling of G protein-coupled receptors - From a chemokine receptor CCR7 perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Astrid Sissel; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Hjortø, Gertrud M

    2018-01-01

    of CCL21 displays an extraordinarily strong glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding, CCR7 plays a central role in coordinating the meeting between mature antigen presenting DCs and naïve T-cells which normally takes place in the lymph nodes (LNs). This process is a prerequisite for the initiation of an antigen...... the cell-based immune system is controlled. Bias comes in three forms; ligand-, receptor- and tissue-bias. Biased signaling is increasingly being recognized as playing an important role in contributing to the fine-tuned coordination of immune cell chemotaxis. In the current review we discuss the recent...

  3. Signaling and Adaptation Modulate the Dynamics of the Photosensoric Complex of Natronomonas pharaonis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp S Orekhov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Motile bacteria and archaea respond to chemical and physical stimuli seeking optimal conditions for survival. To this end transmembrane chemo- and photoreceptors organized in large arrays initiate signaling cascades and ultimately regulate the rotation of flagellar motors. To unravel the molecular mechanism of signaling in an archaeal phototaxis complex we performed coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of a trimer of receptor/transducer dimers, namely NpSRII/NpHtrII from Natronomonas pharaonis. Signaling is regulated by a reversible methylation mechanism called adaptation, which also influences the level of basal receptor activation. Mimicking two extreme methylation states in our simulations we found conformational changes for the transmembrane region of NpSRII/NpHtrII which resemble experimentally observed light-induced changes. Further downstream in the cytoplasmic domain of the transducer the signal propagates via distinct changes in the dynamics of HAMP1, HAMP2, the adaptation domain and the binding region for the kinase CheA, where conformational rearrangements were found to be subtle. Overall these observations suggest a signaling mechanism based on dynamic allostery resembling models previously proposed for E. coli chemoreceptors, indicating similar properties of signal transduction for archaeal photoreceptors and bacterial chemoreceptors.

  4. Receptor activity-independent recruitment of βarrestin2 reveals specific signalling modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrillon, Sonia; Bouvier, Michel

    2004-01-01

    The roles of βarrestins in regulating G protein coupling and receptor endocytosis following agonist stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors are well characterised. However, their ability to act on their own as direct modulators or activators of signalling remains poorly characterised. Here, βarrestin2 intrinsic signalling properties were assessed by forcing the recruitment of this accessory protein to vasopressin V1a or V2 receptors independently of agonist-promoted activation of the receptors. Such induction of a stable interaction with βarrestin2 initiated receptor endocytosis leading to intracellular accumulation of the βarrestin/receptor complexes. Interestingly, βarrestin2 association to a single receptor protomer was sufficient to elicit receptor dimer internalisation. In addition to recapitulating βarrestin2 classical actions on receptor trafficking, the receptor activity-independent recruitment of βarrestin2 activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinases. In the latter case, recruitment to the receptor itself was not required since kinase activation could be mediated by βarrestin2 translocation to the plasma membrane in the absence of any interacting receptor. These data demonstrate that βarrestin2 can act as a ‘bonafide' signalling molecule even in the absence of activated receptor. PMID:15385966

  5. Receptor Activity-modifying Protein-directed G Protein Signaling Specificity for the Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide Family of Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Cathryn; Winfield, Ian; Harris, Matthew; Hodgson, Rose; Shah, Archna; Dowell, Simon J; Mobarec, Juan Carlos; Woodlock, David A; Reynolds, Christopher A; Poyner, David R; Watkins, Harriet A; Ladds, Graham

    2016-10-14

    The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is formed through the association of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). Binding of one of the three peptide ligands, CGRP, adrenomedullin (AM), and intermedin/adrenomedullin 2 (AM2), is well known to result in a Gα s -mediated increase in cAMP. Here we used modified yeast strains that couple receptor activation to cell growth, via chimeric yeast/Gα subunits, and HEK-293 cells to characterize the effect of different RAMP and ligand combinations on this pathway. We not only demonstrate functional couplings to both Gα s and Gα q but also identify a Gα i component to CLR signaling in both yeast and HEK-293 cells, which is absent in HEK-293S cells. We show that the CGRP family of receptors displays both ligand- and RAMP-dependent signaling bias among the Gα s , Gα i , and Gα q/11 pathways. The results are discussed in the context of RAMP interactions probed through molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations of the RAMP-GPCR-G protein complexes. This study further highlights the importance of RAMPs to CLR pharmacology and to bias in general, as well as identifying the importance of choosing an appropriate model system for the study of GPCR pharmacology. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. β1-adrenergic receptor stimulation by agonist Compound 49b restores insulin receptor signal transduction in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Youde; Zhang, Qiuhua; Ye, Eun-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Determine whether Compound 49b treatment ameliorates retinal changes due to the lack of β2-adrenergic receptor signaling. Methods Using retinas from 3-month-old β2-adrenergic receptor-deficient mice, we treated mice with our novel β1-/β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, Compound 49b, to assess the effects of adrenergic agonists acting only on β1-adrenergic receptors due to the absence of β2-adrenergic receptors. Western blotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analyses were performed for β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors, as well as key insulin resistance proteins, including TNF-α, SOCS3, IRS-1Ser307, and IRTyr960. Analyses were also performed on key anti- and proapoptotic proteins: Akt, Bcl-xL, Bax, and caspase 3. Electroretinogram analyses were conducted to assess functional changes, while histological assessment was conducted for changes in retinal thickness. Results A 2-month treatment of β2-adrenergic receptor-deficient mice with daily eye drops of 1 mM Compound 49b, a novel β1- and β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, reversed the changes in insulin resistance markers (TNF-α and SOCS3) observed in untreated β2-adrenergic receptor-deficient mice, and concomitantly increased morphological integrity (retinal thickness) and functional responses (electroretinogram amplitude). These results suggest that stimulating β1-adrenergic receptors on retinal endothelial cells or Müller cells can compensate for the loss of β2-adrenergic receptor signaling on Müller cells, restore insulin signal transduction, reduce retinal apoptosis, and enhance retinal function. Conclusions Since our previous studies with β1-adrenergic receptor knockout mice confirmed that the reverse also occurs (β2-adrenergic receptor stimulation can compensate for the loss of β1-adrenergic receptor activity), it appears that increased activity in either of these pathways alone is sufficient to block insulin resistance–based retinal cell apoptosis. PMID:24966659

  7. Spatio-temporal dependence of the signaling response in immune-receptor trafficking networks regulated by cell density: a theoretical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar García-Peñarrubia

    Full Text Available Cell signaling processes involve receptor trafficking through highly connected networks of interacting components. The binding of surface receptors to their specific ligands is a key factor for the control and triggering of signaling pathways. In most experimental systems, ligand concentration and cell density vary within a wide range of values. Dependence of the signal response on cell density is related with the extracellular volume available per cell. This dependence has previously been studied using non-spatial models which assume that signaling components are well mixed and uniformly distributed in a single compartment. In this paper, a mathematical model that shows the influence exerted by cell density on the spatio-temporal evolution of ligands, cell surface receptors, and intracellular signaling molecules is developed. To this end, partial differential equations were used to model ligand and receptor trafficking dynamics through the different domains of the whole system. This enabled us to analyze several interesting features involved with these systems, namely: a how the perturbation caused by the signaling response propagates through the system; b receptor internalization dynamics and how cell density affects the robustness of dose-response curves upon variation of the binding affinity; and c that enhanced correlations between ligand input and system response are obtained under conditions that result in larger perturbations of the equilibrium ligand + surface receptor [Please see text] ligand - receptor complex. Finally, the results are compared with those obtained by considering that the above components are well mixed in a single compartment.

  8. Distinct Phosphorylation Clusters Determine the Signaling Outcome of Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4/G Protein-Coupled Receptor 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prihandoko, Rudi; Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Hudson, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    of these phosphoacceptor sites to alanine completely prevented phosphorylation of mFFA4 but did not limit receptor coupling to extracellular signal regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation. Rather, an inhibitor of Gq/11proteins completely prevented receptor signaling to ERK1/2. By contrast, the recruitment...... activation. These unique observations define differential effects on signaling mediated by phosphorylation at distinct locations. This hallmark feature supports the possibility that the signaling outcome of mFFA4 activation can be determined by the pattern of phosphorylation (phosphorylation barcode...

  9. Receptor density balances signal stimulation and attenuation in membrane-assembled complexes of bacterial chemotaxis signaling proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besschetnova, Tatiana Y.; Montefusco, David J.; Asinas, Abdalin E.; Shrout, Anthony L.; Antommattei, Frances M.; Weis, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    All cells possess transmembrane signaling systems that function in the environment of the lipid bilayer. In the Escherichia coli chemotaxis pathway, the binding of attractants to a two-dimensional array of receptors and signaling proteins simultaneously inhibits an associated kinase and stimulates receptor methylation—a slower process that restores kinase activity. These two opposing effects lead to robust adaptation toward stimuli through a physical mechanism that is not understood. Here, we provide evidence of a counterbalancing influence exerted by receptor density on kinase stimulation and receptor methylation. Receptor signaling complexes were reconstituted over a range of defined surface concentrations by using a template-directed assembly method, and the kinase and receptor methylation activities were measured. Kinase activity and methylation rates were both found to vary significantly with surface concentration—yet in opposite ways: samples prepared at high surface densities stimulated kinase activity more effectively than low-density samples, whereas lower surface densities produced greater methylation rates than higher densities. FRET experiments demonstrated that the cooperative change in kinase activity coincided with a change in the arrangement of the membrane-associated receptor domains. The counterbalancing influence of density on receptor methylation and kinase stimulation leads naturally to a model for signal regulation that is compatible with the known logic of the E. coli pathway. Density-dependent mechanisms are likely to be general and may operate when two or more membrane-related processes are influenced differently by the two-dimensional concentration of pathway elements. PMID:18711126

  10. Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signalling: focus on the cardiovascular system and regulator of G protein signalling proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks-Balk, Mariëlle C.; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Michel, Martin C.; Alewijnse, Astrid E.

    2008-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in many biological processes. Therefore, GPCR function is tightly controlled both at receptor level and at the level of signalling components. Well-known mechanisms by which GPCR function can be regulated comprise desensitization/resensitization

  11. ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES SRC-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING REQUIRES Src-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE EGF RECEPTOR ON TYROSINE 845 (Y845)Weidong Wu1, Lee M. Graves2, Gordon N. Gill3 and James M. Samet4 1Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology; 2Department of Pharmacology, University o...

  12. Dynamics of Corticosteroid Receptors: Lessons from Live Cell Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Mayumi

    2011-01-01

    Adrenal corticosteroids (cortisol in humans or corticosterone in rodents) exert numerous effects on the central nervous system that regulates the stress response, mood, learning and memory, and various neuroendocrine functions. Corticosterone (CORT) actions in the brain are mediated via two receptor systems: the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). It has been shown that GR and MR are highly colocalized in the hippocampus. These receptors are mainly distributed in the cytoplasm without hormones and translocated into the nucleus after treatment with hormones to act as transcriptional factors. Thus the subcellular dynamics of both receptors are one of the most important issues. Given the differential action of MR and GR in the central nervous system, it is of great consequence to clarify how these receptors are trafficked between cytoplasm and nucleus and their interactions are regulated by hormones and/or other molecules to exert their transcriptional activity. In this review, we focus on the nucleocytoplasmic and subnuclear trafficking of GR and MR in neural cells and non-neural cells analyzed by using molecular imaging techniques with green fluorescent protein (GFP) including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and discuss various factors affecting the dynamics of these receptors. Furthermore, we discuss the future directions of in vivo molecular imaging of corticosteroid receptors at the whole brain level

  13. A threshold model for receptor tyrosine kinase signaling specificity and cell fate determination [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Zinkle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Upon ligand engagement, the single-pass transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs dimerize to transmit qualitatively and quantitatively different intracellular signals that alter the transcriptional landscape and thereby determine the cellular response. The molecular mechanisms underlying these fundamental events are not well understood. Considering recent insights into the structural biology of fibroblast growth factor signaling, we propose a threshold model for RTK signaling specificity in which quantitative differences in the strength/longevity of ligand-induced receptor dimers on the cell surface lead to quantitative differences in the phosphorylation of activation loop (A-loop tyrosines as well as qualitative differences in the phosphorylation of tyrosines mediating substrate recruitment. In this model, quantitative differences on A-loop tyrosine phosphorylation result in gradations in kinase activation, leading to the generation of intracellular signals of varying amplitude/duration. In contrast, qualitative differences in the pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation on the receptor result in the recruitment/activation of distinct substrates/intracellular pathways. Commensurate with both the dynamics of the intracellular signal and the types of intracellular pathways activated, unique transcriptional signatures are established. Our model provides a framework for engineering clinically useful ligands that can tune receptor dimerization stability so as to bias the cellular transcriptome to achieve a desired cellular output.

  14. Real-time trafficking and signaling of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Sarah Noerklit; Wismann, Pernille; Underwood, Christina Rye

    2014-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 incretin receptor (GLP-1R) of family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a major drug target in type-2-diabetes due to its regulatory effect on post-prandial blood-glucose levels. The mechanism(s) controlling GLP-1R mediated signaling are far from fully understood....... A fundamental mechanism controlling the signaling capacity of GPCRs is the post-endocytic trafficking of receptors between recycling and degradative fates. Here, we combined microscopy with novel real-time assays to monitor both receptor trafficking and signaling in living cells. We find that the human GLP-1R...

  15. Social costs enforce honesty of a dynamic signal of motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Russell A; McGraw, Kevin J

    2016-10-26

    Understanding the processes that promote signal reliability may provide important insights into the evolution of diverse signalling strategies among species. The signals that animals use to communicate must comprise mechanisms that prohibit or punish dishonesty, and social costs of dishonesty have been demonstrated for several fixed morphological signals (e.g. colour badges of birds and wasps). The costs maintaining the honesty of dynamic signals, which are more flexible and potentially cheatable, are unknown. Using an experimental manipulation of the dynamic visual signals used by male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) during aggressive interactions, we tested the idea that the honesty of rapid colour change signals is maintained by social costs. Our results reveal that social costs are an important mechanism maintaining the honesty of these dynamic colour signals-'dishonest' chameleons whose experimentally manipulated coloration was incongruent with their contest behaviour received more physical aggression than 'honest' individuals. This is the first demonstration, to the best our knowledge, that the honesty of a dynamic signal of motivation-physiological colour change-can be maintained by the social costliness of dishonesty. Behavioural responses of signal receivers, irrespective of any specific detection mechanisms, therefore prevent chameleon cheaters from prospering. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. The Role of Cgrp-Receptor Component Protein (Rcp in Cgrp-Mediated Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Prado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP is a 17-kDa intracellular peripheral membrane protein required for signal transduction at CGRP receptors. To determine the role of RCP in CGRP-mediated signal transduction, RCP was depleted from NIH3T3 cells using antisense strategy. Loss of RCP protein correlated with loss of cAMP production by CGRP in the antisense cells. In contrast, loss of RCP had no effect on CGRP-mediated binding; therefore RCP is not acting as a chaperone for the CGRP receptor. Instead, RCP is a novel signal transduction molecule that couples the CGRP receptor to the cellular signal transduction machinery. RCP thus represents a prototype for a new class of signal transduction proteins that are required for regulation of G protein-coupled receptors.

  17. Cocaine Disrupts Histamine H3 Receptor Modulation of Dopamine D1 Receptor Signaling: σ1-D1-H3 Receptor Complexes as Key Targets for Reducing Cocaine's Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Estefanía; Moreno-Delgado, David; Navarro, Gemma; Hoffmann, Hanne M.; Fuentes, Silvia; Rosell-Vilar, Santi; Gasperini, Paola; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Mar; Medrano, Mireia; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Ferré, Sergi; Ortiz, Jordi; Canela, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The general effects of cocaine are not well understood at the molecular level. What is known is that the dopamine D1 receptor plays an important role. Here we show that a key mechanism may be cocaine's blockade of the histamine H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of D1 receptor function. This blockade requires the σ1 receptor and occurs upon cocaine binding to σ1-D1-H3 receptor complexes. The cocaine-mediated disruption leaves an uninhibited D1 receptor that activates Gs, freely recruits β-arrestin, increases p-ERK 1/2 levels, and induces cell death when over activated. Using in vitro assays with transfected cells and in ex vivo experiments using both rats acutely treated or self-administered with cocaine along with mice depleted of σ1 receptor, we show that blockade of σ1 receptor by an antagonist restores the protective H3 receptor-mediated brake on D1 receptor signaling and prevents the cell death from elevated D1 receptor signaling. These findings suggest that a combination therapy of σ1R antagonists with H3 receptor agonists could serve to reduce some effects of cocaine. PMID:24599455

  18. Innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 signalling in neuropsychiatric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Bueno, B; Caso, J R; Madrigal, J L M; Leza, J C

    2016-05-01

    The innate immunity is a stereotyped first line of defense against pathogens and unspecified damage signals. One of main actors of innate immunity are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and one of the better characterized members of this family is TLR-4, that it is mainly activated by Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide. In brain, TLR-4 organizes innate immune responses against infections or cellular damage, but also possesses other physiological functions. In the last years, some evidences suggest a role of TLR-4 in stress and stress-related neuropsychiatric diseases. Peripheral and brain TLR-4 activation triggers sickness behavior, and its expression is a risk factor of depression. Some elements of the TLR-4 signaling pathway are up-regulated in peripheral samples and brain post-mortem tissue from depressed and suicidal patients. The "leaky gut" hypothesis of neuropsychiatric diseases is based on the existence of an increase of the intestinal permeability which results in bacterial translocation able to activate TLR-4. Enhanced peripheral TLR-4 expression/activity has been described in subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and in autistic children. A role for TLR-4 in drugs abuse has been also proposed. The therapeutic potential of pharmacological/genetic modulation of TLRs signaling pathways in neuropsychiatry is promising, but a great preclinical/clinical scientific effort is still needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SGIP1 alters internalization and modulates signaling of activated cannabinoid receptor 1 in a biased manner

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Alena; Techlovská, Šárka; Dvořáková, Michaela; Chambers, Jayne Nicole; Kumpošt, Jiří; Hubálková, Pavla; Prezeau, L.; Blahoš, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 107, léto (2016), s. 201-214 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/12/2408 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Seven transmembrane receptors * G-protein coupled receptors * Cannabinoid receptor 1 * Protein-protein interactions * Bias signaling * Receptor endocytosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.012, year: 2016

  20. Dynamic interpretation of hedgehog signaling in the Drosophila wing disc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Nahmad

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphogens are classically defined as molecules that control patterning by acting at a distance to regulate gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, secreted Hedgehog (Hh forms an extracellular gradient that organizes patterning along the anterior-posterior axis and specifies at least three different domains of gene expression. Although the prevailing view is that Hh functions in the Drosophila wing disc as a classical morphogen, a direct correspondence between the borders of these patterns and Hh concentration thresholds has not been demonstrated. Here, we provide evidence that the interpretation of Hh signaling depends on the history of exposure to Hh and propose that a single concentration threshold is sufficient to support multiple outputs. Using mathematical modeling, we predict that at steady state, only two domains can be defined in response to Hh, suggesting that the boundaries of two or more gene expression patterns cannot be specified by a static Hh gradient. Computer simulations suggest that a spatial "overshoot" of the Hh gradient occurs, i.e., a transient state in which the Hh profile is expanded compared to the Hh steady-state gradient. Through a temporal examination of Hh target gene expression, we observe that the patterns initially expand anteriorly and then refine, providing in vivo evidence for the overshoot. The Hh gene network architecture suggests this overshoot results from the Hh-dependent up-regulation of the receptor, Patched (Ptc. In fact, when the network structure was altered such that the ptc gene is no longer up-regulated in response to Hh-signaling activation, we found that the patterns of gene expression, which have distinct borders in wild-type discs, now overlap. Our results support a model in which Hh gradient dynamics, resulting from Ptc up-regulation, play an instructional role in the establishment of patterns of gene expression.

  1. Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand–receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Gastroenterology, The Tenth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Yang, Yong, E-mail: yyang@houstonmethodist.org [Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quercetin inhibits insulin ligand–receptor interactions. • Quercetin reduces downstream insulin receptor signaling. • Quercetin blocks insulin induced glucose uptake. • Quercetin suppresses insulin stimulated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. - Abstract: Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand–receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers.

  2. Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand–receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Yang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quercetin inhibits insulin ligand–receptor interactions. • Quercetin reduces downstream insulin receptor signaling. • Quercetin blocks insulin induced glucose uptake. • Quercetin suppresses insulin stimulated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. - Abstract: Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand–receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers

  3. Social costs enforce honesty of a dynamic signal of motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes that promote signal reliability may provide important insights into the evolution of diverse signalling strategies among species. The signals that animals use to communicate must comprise mechanisms that prohibit or punish dishonesty, and social costs of dishonesty have been demonstrated for several fixed morphological signals (e.g. colour badges of birds and wasps). The costs maintaining the honesty of dynamic signals, which are more flexible and potentially cheatable, are unknown. Using an experimental manipulation of the dynamic visual signals used by male veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) during aggressive interactions, we tested the idea that the honesty of rapid colour change signals is maintained by social costs. Our results reveal that social costs are an important mechanism maintaining the honesty of these dynamic colour signals—‘dishonest’ chameleons whose experimentally manipulated coloration was incongruent with their contest behaviour received more physical aggression than ‘honest’ individuals. This is the first demonstration, to the best our knowledge, that the honesty of a dynamic signal of motivation—physiological colour change—can be maintained by the social costliness of dishonesty. Behavioural responses of signal receivers, irrespective of any specific detection mechanisms, therefore prevent chameleon cheaters from prospering. PMID:27798310

  4. Comprehensive logic based analyses of Toll-like receptor 4 signal transduction pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar Padwal

    Full Text Available Among the 13 TLRs in the vertebrate systems, only TLR4 utilizes both Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 and Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR-domain-containing adapter interferon-β-inducing Factor (TRIF adaptors to transduce signals triggering host-protective immune responses. Earlier studies on the pathway combined various experimental data in the form of one comprehensive map of TLR signaling. But in the absence of adequate kinetic parameters quantitative mathematical models that reveal emerging systems level properties and dynamic inter-regulation among the kinases/phosphatases of the TLR4 network are not yet available. So, here we used reaction stoichiometry-based and parameter independent logical modeling formalism to build the TLR4 signaling network model that captured the feedback regulations, interdependencies between signaling kinases and phosphatases and the outcome of simulated infections. The analyses of the TLR4 signaling network revealed 360 feedback loops, 157 negative and 203 positive; of which, 334 loops had the phosphatase PP1 as an essential component. The network elements' interdependency (positive or negative dependencies in perturbation conditions such as the phosphatase knockout conditions revealed interdependencies between the dual-specific phosphatases MKP-1 and MKP-3 and the kinases in MAPK modules and the role of PP2A in the auto-regulation of Calmodulin kinase-II. Our simulations under the specific kinase or phosphatase gene-deficiency or inhibition conditions corroborated with several previously reported experimental data. The simulations to mimic Yersinia pestis and E. coli infections identified the key perturbation in the network and potential drug targets. Thus, our analyses of TLR4 signaling highlights the role of phosphatases as key regulatory factors in determining the global interdependencies among the network elements; uncovers novel signaling connections; identifies potential drug targets for

  5. Towards the systematic discovery of signal transduction networks using phosphorylation dynamics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachie Nozomu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorylation is a ubiquitous and fundamental regulatory mechanism that controls signal transduction in living cells. The number of identified phosphoproteins and their phosphosites is rapidly increasing as a result of recent mass spectrometry-based approaches. Results We analyzed time-course phosphoproteome data obtained previously by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with the stable isotope labeling using amino acids in cell culture (SILAC method. This provides the relative phosphorylation activities of digested peptides at each of five time points after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF. We initially calculated the correlations between the phosphorylation dynamics patterns of every pair of peptides and connected the strongly correlated pairs to construct a network. We found that peptides extracted from the same intracellular fraction (nucleus vs. cytoplasm tended to be close together within this phosphorylation dynamics-based network. The network was then analyzed using graph theory and compared with five known signal-transduction pathways. The dynamics-based network was correlated with known signaling pathways in the NetPath and Phospho.ELM databases, and especially with the EGF receptor (EGFR signaling pathway. Although the phosphorylation patterns of many proteins were drastically changed by the EGF stimulation, our results suggest that only EGFR signaling transduction was both strongly activated and precisely controlled. Conclusions The construction of a phosphorylation dynamics-based network provides a useful overview of condition-specific intracellular signal transduction using quantitative time-course phosphoproteome data under specific experimental conditions. Detailed prediction of signal transduction based on phosphoproteome dynamics remains challenging. However, since the phosphorylation profiles of kinase-substrate pairs on the specific pathway were localized in the dynamics

  6. Acute inhibition of selected membrane-proximal mouse T cell receptor signaling by mitochondrial antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangmi Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available T cells absorb nanometric membrane vesicles, prepared from plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells, via dual receptor/ligand interactions of T cell receptor (TCR with cognate peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC plus lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1 with intercellular adhesion molecule 1. TCR-mediated signaling for LFA-1 activation is also required for the vesicle absorption. Exploiting those findings, we had established a high throughput screening (HTS platform and screened a library for isolation of small molecules inhibiting the vesicle absorption. Follow-up studies confirmed that treatments (1 hour with various mitochondrial antagonists, including a class of anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., Metformin and Phenformin, resulted in ubiquitous inhibition of the vesicle absorption without compromising viability of T cells. Further studies revealed that the mitochondrial drug treatments caused impairment of specific membrane-proximal TCR signaling event(s. Thus, activation of Akt and PLC-gamma1 and entry of extracellular Ca(2+ following TCR stimulation were attenuated while polymerization of monomeric actins upon TCR triggering progressed normally after the treatments. Dynamic F-actin rearrangement concurring with the vesicle absorption was also found to be impaired by the drug treatments, implying that the inhibition by the drug treatments of downstream signaling events (and the vesicle absorption could result from lack of directional relocation of signaling and cell surface molecules. We also assessed the potential application of mitochondrial antagonists as immune modulators by probing effects of the long-term drug treatments (24 hours on viability of resting primary T cells and cell cycle progression of antigen-stimulated T cells. This study unveils a novel regulatory mechanism for T cell immunity in response to environmental factors having effects on mitochondrial function.

  7. Signaling properties and pharmacological analysis of two sulfakinin receptors from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Zels

    Full Text Available Sulfakinin is an insect neuropeptide that constitutes an important component of the complex network of hormonal and neural factors that regulate feeding and digestion. The key modulating functions of sulfakinin are mediated by binding and signaling via G-protein coupled receptors. Although a substantial amount of functional data have already been reported on sulfakinins in different insect species, only little information is known regarding the properties of their respective receptors. In this study, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of two sulfakinin receptors in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both receptor open reading frames show extensive sequence similarity with annotated sulfakinin receptors from other insects. Comparison of the sulfakinin receptor sequences with homologous vertebrate cholecystokinin receptors reveals crucial conserved regions for ligand binding and receptor activation. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR shows that transcripts of both receptors are primarily expressed in the central nervous system of the beetle. Pharmacological characterization using 29 different peptide ligands clarified the essential requirements for efficient activation of these sulfakinin receptors. Analysis of the signaling pathway in multiple cell lines disclosed that the sulfakinin receptors of T. castaneum can stimulate both the Ca²⁺ and cyclic AMP second messenger pathways. This in depth characterization of two insect sulfakinin receptors may provide useful leads for the further development of receptor ligands with a potential applicability in pest control and crop protection.

  8. Signaling properties and pharmacological analysis of two sulfakinin receptors from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zels, Sven; Verlinden, Heleen; Dillen, Senne; Vleugels, Rut; Nachman, Ronald J; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Sulfakinin is an insect neuropeptide that constitutes an important component of the complex network of hormonal and neural factors that regulate feeding and digestion. The key modulating functions of sulfakinin are mediated by binding and signaling via G-protein coupled receptors. Although a substantial amount of functional data have already been reported on sulfakinins in different insect species, only little information is known regarding the properties of their respective receptors. In this study, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of two sulfakinin receptors in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both receptor open reading frames show extensive sequence similarity with annotated sulfakinin receptors from other insects. Comparison of the sulfakinin receptor sequences with homologous vertebrate cholecystokinin receptors reveals crucial conserved regions for ligand binding and receptor activation. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR shows that transcripts of both receptors are primarily expressed in the central nervous system of the beetle. Pharmacological characterization using 29 different peptide ligands clarified the essential requirements for efficient activation of these sulfakinin receptors. Analysis of the signaling pathway in multiple cell lines disclosed that the sulfakinin receptors of T. castaneum can stimulate both the Ca²⁺ and cyclic AMP second messenger pathways. This in depth characterization of two insect sulfakinin receptors may provide useful leads for the further development of receptor ligands with a potential applicability in pest control and crop protection.

  9. Ric-8A, a Gα protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor potentiates taste receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Fenech

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Taste receptors for sweet, bitter and umami tastants are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. While much effort has been devoted to understanding G-protein-receptor interactions and identifying the components of the signalling cascade downstream of these receptors, at the level of the G-protein the modulation of receptor signal transduction remains relatively unexplored. In this regard a taste-specific regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS, RGS21, has recently been identified. To study whether guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs are involved in the transduction of the signal downstream of the taste GPCRs we investigated the expression of Ric-8A and Ric-8B in mouse taste cells and their interaction with G-protein subunits found in taste buds. Mammalian Ric-8 proteins were initially identified as potent GEFs for a range of Gα subunits and Ric-8B has recently been shown to amplify olfactory signal transduction. We find that both Ric-8A and Ric-8B are expressed in a large portion of taste bud cells and that most of these cells contain IP3R-3 a marker for sweet, umami and bitter taste receptor cells. Ric-8A interacts with Gα-gustducin and Gαi2 through which it amplifies the signal transduction of hTas2R16, a receptor for bitter compounds. Overall, these findings are consistent with a role for Ric-8 in mammalian taste signal transduction.

  10. Functional connectivity change as shared signal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W.; Yang, Genevieve J.; Murray, John D.; Repovš, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing number of neuroscientific studies gain insights by focusing on differences in functional connectivity – between groups, individuals, temporal windows, or task conditions. We found using simulations that additional insights into such differences can be gained by forgoing variance normalization, a procedure used by most functional connectivity measures. Simulations indicated that these functional connectivity measures are sensitive to increases in independent fluctuations (unshared signal) in time series, consistently reducing functional connectivity estimates (e.g., correlations) even though such changes are unrelated to corresponding fluctuations (shared signal) between those time series. This is inconsistent with the common notion of functional connectivity as the amount of inter-region interaction. New Method Simulations revealed that a version of correlation without variance normalization – covariance – was able to isolate differences in shared signal, increasing interpretability of observed functional connectivity change. Simulations also revealed cases problematic for non-normalized methods, leading to a “covariance conjunction” method combining the benefits of both normalized and non-normalized approaches. Results We found that covariance and covariance conjunction methods can detect functional connectivity changes across a variety of tasks and rest in both clinical and non-clinical functional MRI datasets. Comparison with Existing Method(s) We verified using a variety of tasks and rest in both clinical and non-clinical functional MRI datasets that it matters in practice whether correlation, covariance, or covariance conjunction methods are used. Conclusions These results demonstrate the practical and theoretical utility of isolating changes in shared signal, improving the ability to interpret observed functional connectivity change. PMID:26642966

  11. The Role of (BETA)-Catenin in Androgen Receptor Signaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhowmick, Neil A

    2006-01-01

    .... Our preliminary data seem indicate stromally derived paracrine Wnt family members activate theepithelial frizzled receptor to enable prostate epithelial survival in an androgen deficient environment...

  12. Phenobarbital indirectly activates the constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR) by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Shingo; Sobhany, Mack; Moore, Rick; Perera, Lalith; Pedersen, Lee; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Negishi, Masahiko

    2013-05-07

    Phenobarbital is a central nervous system depressant that also indirectly activates nuclear receptor constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR), which promotes drug and energy metabolism, as well as cell growth (and death), in the liver. We found that phenobarbital activated CAR by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Phenobarbital bound to EGFR and potently inhibited the binding of EGF, which prevented the activation of EGFR. This abrogation of EGFR signaling induced the dephosphorylation of receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) at Tyr(52), which then promoted the dephosphorylation of CAR at Thr(38) by the catalytic core subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. The findings demonstrated that the phenobarbital-induced mechanism of CAR dephosphorylation and activation is mediated through its direct interaction with and inhibition of EGFR.

  13. Testin, a novel binding partner of the calcium-sensing receptor, enhances receptor-mediated Rho-kinase signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magno, Aaron L.; Ingley, Evan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Ratajczak, Thomas; Ward, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A yeast two-hybrid screen revealed testin bound to the calcium-sensing receptor. → The second zinc finger of LIM domain 1 of testin is critical for interaction. → Testin bound to a region of the receptor tail important for cell signalling. → Testin and receptor interaction was confirmed in mammalian (HEK293) cells. → Overexpression of testin enhanced receptor-mediated Rho signalling in HEK293 cells. -- Abstract: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) plays an integral role in calcium homeostasis and the regulation of other cellular functions including cell proliferation and cytoskeletal organisation. The multifunctional nature of the CaR is manifested through ligand-dependent stimulation of different signalling pathways that are also regulated by partner binding proteins. Following a yeast two-hybrid library screen using the intracellular tail of the CaR as bait, we identified several novel binding partners including the focal adhesion protein, testin. Testin has not previously been shown to interact with cell surface receptors. The sites of interaction between the CaR and testin were mapped to the membrane proximal region of the receptor tail and the second zinc-finger of LIM domain 1 of testin, the integrity of which was found to be critical for the CaR-testin interaction. The CaR-testin association was confirmed in HEK293 cells by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies. Ectopic expression of testin in HEK293 cells stably expressing the CaR enhanced CaR-stimulated Rho activity but had no effect on CaR-stimulated ERK signalling. These results suggest an interplay between the CaR and testin in the regulation of CaR-mediated Rho signalling with possible effects on the cytoskeleton.

  14. The orphan receptor ALK7 and the Activin receptor ALK4 mediate signaling by Nodal proteins during vertebrate development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissmann, Eva; Jörnvall, Henrik; Blokzijl, Andries; Andersson, Olov; Chang, Chenbei; Minchiotti, Gabriella; Persico, M. Graziella; Ibáñez, Carlos F.; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2001-01-01

    Nodal proteins have crucial roles in mesendoderm formation and left–right patterning during vertebrate development. The molecular mechanisms of signal transduction by Nodal and related ligands, however, are not fully understood. In this paper, we present biochemical and functional evidence that the orphan type I serine/threonine kinase receptor ALK7 acts as a receptor for mouse Nodal and Xenopus Nodal-related 1 (Xnr1). Receptor reconstitution experiments indicate that ALK7 collaborates with ActRIIB to confer responsiveness to Xnr1 and Nodal. Both receptors can independently bind Xnr1. In addition, Cripto, an extracellular protein genetically implicated in Nodal signaling, can independently interact with both Xnr1 and ALK7, and its expression greatly enhances the ability of ALK7 and ActRIIB to respond to Nodal ligands. The Activin receptor ALK4 is also able to mediate Nodal signaling but only in the presence of Cripto, with which it can also interact directly. A constitutively activated form of ALK7 mimics the mesendoderm-inducing activity of Xnr1 in Xenopus embryos, whereas a dominant-negative ALK7 specifically blocks the activities of Nodal and Xnr1 but has little effect on other related ligands. In contrast, a dominant-negative ALK4 blocks all mesoderm-inducing ligands tested, including Nodal, Xnr1, Xnr2, Xnr4, and Activin. In agreement with a role in Nodal signaling, ALK7 mRNA is localized to the ectodermal and organizer regions of Xenopus gastrula embryos and is expressed during early stages of mouse embryonic development. Therefore, our results indicate that both ALK4 and ALK7 can mediate signal transduction by Nodal proteins, although ALK7 appears to be a receptor more specifically dedicated to Nodal signaling. PMID:11485994

  15. Molecular and functional profiling of histamine receptor-mediated calcium ion signals in different cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenberg, Annika; Kaschuba, Dagmar; Balfanz, Sabine; Jordan, Nadine; Baumann, Arnd

    2015-10-01

    Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play a pivotal role in cellular physiology. Often Ca(2+)-dependent processes are studied in commonly available cell lines. To induce Ca(2+) signals on demand, cells may need to be equipped with additional proteins. A prominent group of membrane proteins evoking Ca(2+) signals are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). These proteins register external signals such as photons, odorants, and neurotransmitters and convey ligand recognition into cellular responses, one of which is Ca(2+) signaling. To avoid receptor cross-talk or cross-activation with introduced proteins, the repertoire of cell-endogenous receptors must be known. Here we examined the presence of histamine receptors in six cell lines frequently used as hosts to study cellular signaling processes. In a concentration-dependent manner, histamine caused a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) in HeLa, HEK 293, and COS-1 cells. The concentration for half-maximal activation (EC50) was in the low micromolar range. In individual cells, transient Ca(2+) signals and Ca(2+) oscillations were uncovered. The results show that (i) HeLa, HEK 293, and COS-1 cells express sufficient amounts of endogenous receptors to study cellular Ca(2+) signaling processes directly and (ii) these cell lines are suitable for calibrating Ca(2+) biosensors in situ based on histamine receptor evoked responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying novel targets of oncogenic EGF receptor signaling in lung cancer through global phosphoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Belkina, Natalya; Jacob, Harrys Kishore Charles; Maity, Tapan; Biswas, Romi; Venugopalan, Abhilash; Shaw, Patrick G; Kim, Min-Sik; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Pandey, Akhilesh; Guha, Udayan

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain occur in 10-30% of lung adenocarcinoma and are associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) sensitivity. We sought to identify the immediate direct and indirect phosphorylation targets of mutant EGFRs in lung adenocarcinoma. We undertook SILAC strategy, phosphopeptide enrichment, and quantitative MS to identify dynamic changes of phosphorylation downstream of mutant EGFRs in lung adenocarcinoma cells harboring EGFR(L858R) and EGFR(L858R/T790M) , the TKI-sensitive, and TKI-resistant mutations, respectively. Top canonical pathways that were inhibited upon erlotinib treatment in sensitive cells, but not in the resistant cells include EGFR, insulin receptor, hepatocyte growth factor, mitogen-activated protein kinase, mechanistic target of rapamycin, ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta 1, and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling. We identified phosphosites in proteins of the autophagy network, such as ULK1 (S623) that is constitutively phosphorylated in these lung adenocarcinoma cells; phosphorylation is inhibited upon erlotinib treatment in sensitive cells, but not in resistant cells. Finally, kinase-substrate prediction analysis from our data indicated that substrates of basophilic kinases from, AGC and Calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinase groups, as well as STE group kinases were significantly enriched and those of proline-directed kinases from, CMGC and Casein kinase groups were significantly depleted among substrates that exhibited increased phosphorylation upon EGF stimulation and reduced phosphorylation upon TKI inhibition. This is the first study to date to examine global phosphorylation changes upon erlotinib treatment of lung adenocarcinoma cells and results from this study provide new insights into signaling downstream of mutant EGFRs in lung adenocarcinoma. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001101 (http

  17. Glycosylation as a Main Regulator of Growth and Death Factor Receptors Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Gomes Ferreira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is a very frequent and functionally important post-translational protein modification that undergoes profound changes in cancer. Growth and death factor receptors and plasma membrane glycoproteins, which upon activation by extracellular ligands trigger a signal transduction cascade, are targets of several molecular anti-cancer drugs. In this review, we provide a thorough picture of the mechanisms bywhich glycosylation affects the activity of growth and death factor receptors in normal and pathological conditions. Glycosylation affects receptor activity through three non-mutually exclusive basic mechanisms: (1 by directly regulating intracellular transport, ligand binding, oligomerization and signaling of receptors; (2 through the binding of receptor carbohydrate structures to galectins, forming a lattice thatregulates receptor turnover on the plasma membrane; and (3 by receptor interaction with gangliosides inside membrane microdomains. Some carbohydrate chains, for example core fucose and β1,6-branching, exert a stimulatory effect on all receptors, while other structures exert opposite effects on different receptors or in different cellular contexts. In light of the crucial role played by glycosylation in the regulation of receptor activity, the development of next-generation drugs targeting glyco-epitopes of growth factor receptors should be considered a therapeutically interesting goal.

  18. Cross-talk between an activator of nuclear receptors-mediated transcription and the D1 dopamine receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Azriel; Vogel, Robert; Rutledge, Su Jane; Opas, Evan E; Rodan, Gideon A; Friedman, Eitan

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that usually interact, in a ligand-dependent manner, with specific DNA sequences located within promoters of target genes. The nuclear receptors can also be controlled in a ligand-independent manner via the action of membrane receptors and cellular signaling pathways. 5-Tetradecyloxy-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA) was shown to stimulate transcription from the MMTV promoter via chimeric receptors that consist of the DNA binding domain of GR and the ligand binding regions of the PPARbeta or LXRbeta nuclear receptors (GR/PPARbeta and GR/LXRbeta). TOFA and hydroxycholesterols also modulate transcription from NF-kappaB- and AP-1-controlled reporter genes and induce neurite differentiation in PC12 cells. In CV-1 cells that express D(1) dopamine receptors, D(1) dopamine receptor stimulation was found to inhibit TOFA-stimulated transcription from the MMTV promoter that is under the control of chimeric GR/PPARbeta and GR/LXRbeta receptors. Treatment with the D(1) dopamine receptor antagonist, SCH23390, prevented dopamine-mediated suppression of transcription, and by itself increased transcription controlled by GR/LXRbeta. Furthermore, combined treatment of CV-1 cells with TOFA and SCH23390 increased transcription controlled by the GR/LXRbeta chimeric receptor synergistically. The significance of this in vitro synergy was demonstrated in vivo, by the observation that SCH23390 (but not haloperidol)-mediated catalepsy in rats was potentiated by TOFA, thus showing that an agent that mimics the in vitro activities of compounds that activate members of the LXR and PPAR receptor families can influence D1 dopamine receptor elicited responses.

  19. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha enhances rheumatoid synovial fibroblast signaling and promotes arthritis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanford, Stephanie M; Svensson, Mattias N D; Sacchetti, Cristiano; Pilo, Caila A; Wu, Dennis J; Kiosses, William B; Hellvard, Annelie; Bergum, Brith; Aleman Muench, German R; Elly, Christian; Liu, Yun-Cai; den Hertog, Jeroen; Elson, Ari; Sap, Jan; Mydel, Piotr; Boyle, David L; Corr, Maripat; Firestein, Gary S; Bottini, Nunzio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During rheumatoid arthritis (RA), fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) critically promote disease pathogenesis by aggressively invading the joint extracellular matrix. The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway is emerging as a contributor to RA FLS anomalous behavior. The receptor

  20. The Role of Stat3 Activation in Androgen Receptor Signaling and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Allen C

    2006-01-01

    .... The experiments proposed in this application are based upon the hypothesis that Stat3 activation alters androgen receptor signaling pathways which in turn results in the loss of growth control in prostate cancer cells...

  1. The Role of Stat3 Activation in Androgen Receptor Signaling and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Allen

    2004-01-01

    .... The experiments proposed in this application are based upon the hypothesis that stat3 activation alters androgen receptor signaling pathways, that in turn results in the loss of growth control in prostate cancer cells...

  2. The Role of Stat3 Activation in Androgen Receptor Signaling and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Allen

    2002-01-01

    .... The experiments proposed in this application are based upon the hypothesis that Stat3 activation alters androgen receptor signaling pathways, that in turn results in the loss of growth control in prostate cancer cells...

  3. The Role of Stat3 Activation in Androgen Receptor Signaling and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Allen C

    2005-01-01

    .... The experiments proposed in this application are based upon the hypothesis that Stat3 activation alters androgen receptor signaling pathways, that in turn results in the loss of growth control in prostate cancer cells...

  4. The Role of Stat3 Activation in Androgen Receptor Signaling and Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Allen

    2003-01-01

    .... The experiments proposed in this application are based upon the hypothesis that Stat3 activation alters androgen receptor signaling pathways, that in turn results in the loss of growth control in prostate cancer cells...

  5. Regulation of EGF Receptor Signaling by Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-Mediated Reversible Acetylation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovacs, Jeffrey J

    2005-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of cancer is uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation. In cells, a group of proteins called growth factor receptors are responsible for responding to the signals that trigger proliferation...

  6. β1-adrenergic receptors activate two distinct signaling pathways in striatal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitzen, John; Luoma, Jessie I.; Stern, Christopher M.; Mermelstein, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Monoamine action in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens plays essential roles in striatal physiology. Although research often focuses on dopamine and its receptors, norepinephrine and adrenergic receptors are also crucial in regulating striatal function. While noradrenergic neurotransmission has been identified in the striatum, little is known regarding the signaling pathways activated by β-adrenergic receptors in this brain region. Using cultured striatal neurons, we characterized a novel signaling pathway by which activation of β1-adrenergic receptors leads to the rapid phosphorylation of cAMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB), a transcription-factor implicated as a molecular switch underlying long-term changes in brain function. Norepinephrine-mediated CREB phosphorylation requires β1-adrenergic receptor stimulation of a receptor tyrosine kinase, ultimately leading to the activation of a Ras/Raf/MEK/MAPK/MSK signaling pathway. Activation of β1-adrenergic receptors also induces CRE-dependent transcription and increased c-fos expression. In addition, stimulation of β1-adrenergic receptors produces cAMP production, but surprisingly, β1-adrenergic receptor activation of adenylyl cyclase was not functionally linked to rapid CREB phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that activation of β1-adrenergic receptors on striatal neurons can stimulate two distinct signaling pathways. These adrenergic actions can produce long-term changes in gene expression, as well as rapidly modulate cellular physiology. By elucidating the mechanisms by which norepinephrine and β1-adrenergic receptor activation affects striatal physiology, we provide the means to more fully understand the role of monoamines in modulating striatal function, specifically how norepinephrine and β1-adrenergic receptors may affect striatal physiology. PMID:21143600

  7. ITAM-like signalling for efficient phagocytosis : The paradigm of the granulocyte receptor CEACAM3

    OpenAIRE

    Pils, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Human CEACAM3 is a tailor-made receptor of the innate immune system to fight pathogens exploiting epithelial CEACAM-family members for colonisation and invasion of their host. Previous studies established CEACAM3 as the receptor facilitating rapid phagocytosis and elimination of N. gonorrhoeae by human granulocytes. The studies reported here set out to shed light on the evolution of this highly specialised receptor and the associated signalling machinery.CEACAM3 arose from exon shuffling afte...

  8. Analysis of receptor signaling pathways by mass spectrometry: identification of vav-2 as a substrate of the epidermal and platelet-derived growth factor receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, A; Podtelejnikov, A V; Blagoev, B

    2000-01-01

    Oligomerization of receptor protein tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by their cognate ligands leads to activation of the receptor. Transphosphorylation of the receptor subunits is followed by the recruitment of signaling molecules containing src homology 2 (SH2...

  9. The role of Ryk and Ror receptor tyrosine kinases in Wnt signal transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, J.; Nusse, R.; van Amerongen, R.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases of the Ryk and Ror families were initially classified as orphan receptors because their ligands were unknown. They are now known to contain functional extracellular Wnt-binding domains and are implicated in Wnt-signal transduction in multiple species. Although their

  10. PKCζ regulates Notch receptor routing and activity in a Notch signaling-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjöqvist, M.; Antfolk, D.; Ferraris, S.; Rraklli, V.; Haga, C.; Antila, C.; Mutvei, A.; Imanishi, S.Y.; Holmberg, J.; Jin, S.; Eriksson, J.E.; Lendahl, U.; Sahlgren, C.M.

    Activation of Notch signaling requires intracellular routing of the receptor, but the mechanisms controlling the distinct steps in the routing process is poorly understood. We identify PKCζ as a key regulator of Notch receptor intracellular routing. When PKCζ was inhibited in the developing chick

  11. In vivo characterization of high Basal signaling from the ghrelin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Steen; Woldbye, David P D; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The receptor for the orexigenic peptide, ghrelin, is one of the most constitutively active 7TM receptors known, as demonstrated under in vitro conditions. Change in expression of a constitutively active receptor is associated with change in signaling independent of the endogenous ligand. In the f......The receptor for the orexigenic peptide, ghrelin, is one of the most constitutively active 7TM receptors known, as demonstrated under in vitro conditions. Change in expression of a constitutively active receptor is associated with change in signaling independent of the endogenous ligand....... In the following study, we found that the expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hypothalamus was up-regulated approximately 2-fold in rats both during 48-h fasting and by streptozotocin-induced hyperphagia. In a separate experiment, to probe for the effect of the high basal signaling of the ghrelin receptor...... in vivo, we used intracerebroventricular administration by osmotic pumps of a peptide [D-Arg(1), D-Phe(5), D-Trp(7,9), Leu(11)]-substance P. This peptide selectively displays inverse agonism at the ghrelin receptor as compared with an inactive control peptide with just a single amino acid substitution...

  12. Dynamic regulation of Drosophila nuclear receptor activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Laura; Necakov, Aleksandar S; Sampson, Heidi M; Ni, Ruoyu; Hu, Chun; Thummel, Carl S; Krause, Henry M

    2006-09-01

    Nuclear receptors are a large family of transcription factors that play major roles in development, metamorphosis, metabolism and disease. To determine how, where and when nuclear receptors are regulated by small chemical ligands and/or protein partners, we have used a 'ligand sensor' system to visualize spatial activity patterns for each of the 18 Drosophila nuclear receptors in live developing animals. Transgenic lines were established that express the ligand binding domain of each nuclear receptor fused to the DNA-binding domain of yeast GAL4. When combined with a GAL4-responsive reporter gene, the fusion proteins show tissue- and stage-specific patterns of activation. We show that these responses accurately reflect the presence of endogenous and exogenously added hormone, and that they can be modulated by nuclear receptor partner proteins. The amnioserosa, yolk, midgut and fat body, which play major roles in lipid storage, metabolism and developmental timing, were identified as frequent sites of nuclear receptor activity. We also see dynamic changes in activation that are indicative of sweeping changes in ligand and/or co-factor production. The screening of a small compound library using this system identified the angular psoralen angelicin and the insect growth regulator fenoxycarb as activators of the Ultraspiracle (USP) ligand-binding domain. These results demonstrate the utility of this system for the functional dissection of nuclear receptor pathways and for the development of new receptor agonists and antagonists that can be used to modulate metabolism and disease and to develop more effective means of insect control.

  13. Dynamics of optical signals in a nematic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. Adrian

    2001-03-01

    We study the modes in a nonlinear nematic waveguide above the Frederickz transition and calculate each of the thresholds associated with different optical and orientational modes. Then, we exhibit the presence of kink-like solutions for the orientational equation under the action of optical fields and study its propagation. Finally, we analyse the dynamics of optical signal in the presence of orientational kinks for different modes and type of signals.

  14. P2X receptor-mediated ATP purinergic signaling in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lin-Hua JiangSchool of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United KingdomAbstract: Purinergic P2X receptors are plasma membrane proteins present in a wide range of mammalian cells where they act as a cellular sensor, enabling cells to detect and respond to extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP, an important signaling molecule. P2X receptors function as ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable cationic channels that open upon ATP binding to elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and cause membrane depolarization. In response to sustained activation, P2X receptors induce formation of a pore permeable to large molecules. P2X receptors also interact with distinct functional proteins and membrane lipids to form specialized signaling complexes. Studies have provided compelling evidence to show that such P2X receptor-mediated ATP-signaling mechanisms determine and regulate a growing number and diversity of important physiological processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and cytokine release. There is accumulating evidence to support strong causative relationships of altered receptor expression and function with chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, cancers, and other pathologies or diseases. Numerous high throughput screening drug discovery programs and preclinical studies have thus far demonstrated the proof of concepts that the P2X receptors are druggable targets and selective receptor antagonism is a promising therapeutics approach. This review will discuss the recent progress in understanding the mammalian P2X receptors with respect to the ATP-signaling mechanisms, physiological and pathophysiological roles, and development and preclinical studies of receptor antagonists.Keywords: extracellular ATP, ion channel, large pore, signaling complex, chronic pain, inflammatory diseases

  15. Ethylene Regulates Levels of Ethylene Receptor/CTR1 Signaling Complexes in Arabidopsis thaliana*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Samina N.; Gao, Zhiyong; Amir, Madiha; Chen, Yi-Feng; Rai, Muneeza Iqbal; Haq, Noor Ul; Schaller, G. Eric

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is perceived by a five-member family of receptors in Arabidopsis thaliana. The receptors function in conjunction with the Raf-like kinase CTR1 to negatively regulate ethylene signal transduction. CTR1 interacts with multiple members of the receptor family based on co-purification analysis, interacting more strongly with receptors containing a receiver domain. Levels of membrane-associated CTR1 vary in response to ethylene, doing so in a post-transcriptional manner that correlates with ethylene-mediated changes in levels of the ethylene receptors ERS1, ERS2, EIN4, and ETR2. Interactions between CTR1 and the receptor ETR1 protect ETR1 from ethylene-induced turnover. Kinetic and dose-response analyses support a model in which two opposing factors control levels of the ethylene receptor/CTR1 complexes. Ethylene stimulates the production of new complexes largely through transcriptional induction of the receptors. However, ethylene also induces turnover of receptors, such that levels of ethylene receptor/CTR1 complexes decrease at higher ethylene concentrations. Implications of this model for ethylene signaling are discussed. PMID:25814663

  16. Quantitative phosphoproteomics dissection of seven-transmembrane receptor signaling using full and biased agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte L; Kelstrup, Christian D; Lyngsø, Christina

    2010-01-01

    (q)-dependent and -independent AT(1)R signaling. This study provides substantial novel insight into angiotensin II signal transduction and is the first study dissecting the differences between a full agonist and a biased agonist from a 7TMR on a systems-wide scale. Importantly, it reveals a previously unappreciated diversity......Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) signal through the well described heterotrimeric G proteins but can also activate G protein-independent signaling pathways of which the impact and complexity are less understood. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) is a prototypical 7TMR...... and quantity of Galpha(q) protein-independent signaling and uncovers novel signaling pathways. We foresee that the amount and diversity of G protein-independent signaling may be more pronounced than previously recognized for other 7TMRs as well. Quantitative mass spectrometry is a promising tool for evaluation...

  17. Dynamic Testing of Signal Transduction Deregulation During Breast Cancer Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Std. Z39.18 Victoria Seewaldt, M.D. Dynamic Testing of Signal Transduction Deregulation During Breast Cancer Initiation Duke University Durham...attomole- zeptomole range. Internal dilution curves insure a high-dynamic calibration range. DU -26 8L DU -26 6L DU -29 5R DU -22 9.2 L DU...3: Nanobiosensor technology is translated to test for pathway deregulation in RPFNA cytology obtained from 10 high-risk women with cytological

  18. Molecular, pharmacological, and signaling properties of octopamine receptors from honeybee (Apis mellifera) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Sabine; Jordan, Nadine; Langenstück, Teresa; Breuer, Johanna; Bergmeier, Vera; Baumann, Arnd

    2014-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are important regulators of cellular signaling processes. Within the large family of rhodopsin-like receptors, those binding to biogenic amines form a discrete subgroup. Activation of biogenic amine receptors leads to transient changes of intracellular Ca²⁺-([Ca²⁺](i)) or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate ([cAMP](i)) concentrations. Both second messengers modulate cellular signaling processes and thereby contribute to long-lasting behavioral effects in an organism. In vivo pharmacology has helped to reveal the functional effects of different biogenic amines in honeybees. The phenolamine octopamine is an important modulator of behavior. Binding of octopamine to its receptors causes elevation of [Ca²⁺](i) or [cAMP](i). To date, only one honeybee octopamine receptor that induces Ca²⁺ signals has been molecularly and pharmacologically characterized. Here, we examined the pharmacological properties of four additional honeybee octopamine receptors. When heterologously expressed, all receptors induced cAMP production after binding to octopamine with EC₅₀(s) in the nanomolar range. Receptor activity was most efficiently blocked by mianserin, a substance with antidepressant activity in vertebrates. The rank order of inhibitory potency for potential receptor antagonists was very similar on all four honeybee receptors with mianserin > cyproheptadine > metoclopramide > chlorpromazine > phentolamine. The subroot of octopamine receptors activating adenylyl cyclases is the largest that has so far been characterized in arthropods, and it should now be possible to unravel the contribution of individual receptors to the physiology and behavior of honeybees. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Recruitment of SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase and signalling by a chimeric T-cell receptor-killer inhibitory receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M D; Geisler, C

    2000-01-01

    Receptors expressing the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in their cytoplasmic tail play an important role in the negative regulation of natural killer and B-cell activation. A subpopulation of T cells expresses the ITIM containing killer cell inhibitory receptor (KIR), which...... recognize MHC class I molecules. Following coligation of KIR with an activating receptor, the tyrosine in the ITIM is phosphorylated and the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 is recruited to the ITIM via its SH2 domains. It is still not clear how SHP-1 affects T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling...... regarding total protein tyrosine phosphorylation, TCR down-regulation, mobilization of intracellular free calcium, or induction of the activation markers CD69 and CD25....

  20. Lipoprotein receptor LRP1 regulates leptin signaling and energy homeostasis in the adult central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Juan; Zerbinatti, Celina; Zhan, Yan; Kolber, Benedict J; Herz, Joachim; Muglia, Louis J; Bu, Guojun

    2011-01-11

    Obesity is a growing epidemic characterized by excess fat storage in adipocytes. Although lipoprotein receptors play important roles in lipid uptake, their role in controlling food intake and obesity is not known. Here we show that the lipoprotein receptor LRP1 regulates leptin signaling and energy homeostasis. Conditional deletion of the Lrp1 gene in the brain resulted in an obese phenotype characterized by increased food intake, decreased energy consumption, and decreased leptin signaling. LRP1 directly binds to leptin and the leptin receptor complex and is required for leptin receptor phosphorylation and Stat3 activation. We further showed that deletion of the Lrp1 gene specifically in the hypothalamus by Cre lentivirus injection is sufficient to trigger accelerated weight gain. Together, our results demonstrate that the lipoprotein receptor LRP1, which is critical in lipid metabolism, also regulates food intake and energy homeostasis in the adult central nervous system.

  1. Lipoprotein receptor LRP1 regulates leptin signaling and energy homeostasis in the adult central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a growing epidemic characterized by excess fat storage in adipocytes. Although lipoprotein receptors play important roles in lipid uptake, their role in controlling food intake and obesity is not known. Here we show that the lipoprotein receptor LRP1 regulates leptin signaling and energy homeostasis. Conditional deletion of the Lrp1 gene in the brain resulted in an obese phenotype characterized by increased food intake, decreased energy consumption, and decreased leptin signaling. LRP1 directly binds to leptin and the leptin receptor complex and is required for leptin receptor phosphorylation and Stat3 activation. We further showed that deletion of the Lrp1 gene specifically in the hypothalamus by Cre lentivirus injection is sufficient to trigger accelerated weight gain. Together, our results demonstrate that the lipoprotein receptor LRP1, which is critical in lipid metabolism, also regulates food intake and energy homeostasis in the adult central nervous system.

  2. Receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMPs) interact with the VPAC1 receptor: evidence for differential RAMP modulation of multiple signalling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopoulos, G.; Morfis, M.; Sexton, P.M.; Christopoulos, A.; Laburthe, M.; Couvineau, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMP) constitute a family of three accessory proteins that affect the expression and/or phenotype of the calcitonin receptor (CTR) or CTR-like receptor (CRLR). In this study we screened a range of class II G protein-coupled receptors (PTH1, PTH2, GHRH, VPAC1, VPAC2 receptors) for possible RAMP interactions by measurement of receptor-induced translocation of c-myc tagged RAMP1 or HA tagged RAMP3. Of these, only the VPAC1 receptor caused significant translocation of c-myc-RAMP1 or HA-RAMP3 to the cell surface. Co-transfection of VPAC1 and RAMPs did not alter 125 I-VIP binding and specificity. VPAC1 receptor function was subsequently analyzed through parallel determinations of cAMP accumulation and phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in the presence and absence of each of the three RAMPs. In contrast to CTR-RAMP interaction, where there was an increase in cAMP Pharmacologisand a decrease in PI hydrolysis, VPAC1-RAMP interaction was characterized by a specific increase in agonist-mediated PI hydrolysis when co-transfected with RAMP2. This change was due to an enhancement of Emax with no change in EC 50 value for VIP. No significant change in cAMP accumulation was observed. This is the first demonstration of an interaction of RAMPs with a G protein-coupled receptor outside the CTR family and may suggest a more generalized role for RAMPs in modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists

  3. ß-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling and Modulation of Long-Term Potentiation in the Mammalian Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Thomas J.; Connor, Steven A.; Guglietta, Ryan; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2015-01-01

    Encoding new information in the brain requires changes in synaptic strength. Neuromodulatory transmitters can facilitate synaptic plasticity by modifying the actions and expression of specific signaling cascades, transmitter receptors and their associated signaling complexes, genes, and effector proteins. One critical neuromodulator in the…

  4. MicroRNAs regulate B-cell receptor signaling-induced apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, J. L.; Chen, C-Z

    Apoptosis induced by B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is critical for antigen-driven selection, a process critical to tolerance and immunity. Here, we examined the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in BCR signaling-induced apoptosis using the widely applied WEHI-231 model. Comparison of miRNA levels in

  5. β-Adrenergic receptor signaling and modulation of long-term potentiation in the mammalian hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dell, Thomas J.; Connor, Steven A.; Guglietta, Ryan; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2015-01-01

    Encoding new information in the brain requires changes in synaptic strength. Neuromodulatory transmitters can facilitate synaptic plasticity by modifying the actions and expression of specific signaling cascades, transmitter receptors and their associated signaling complexes, genes, and effector proteins. One critical neuromodulator in the mammalian brain is norepinephrine (NE), which regulates multiple brain functions such as attention, perception, arousal, sleep, learning, and memory. The m...

  6. Dopamine D1 signaling organizes network dynamics underlying working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, Joshua L; Tanner, Alexandra S; Eryilmaz, Hamdi; Rodriguez-Thompson, Anais; Silverstein, Noah J; Ho, New Fei; Nitenson, Adam Z; Chonde, Daniel B; Greve, Douglas N; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Buckner, Randy L; Manoach, Dara S; Rosen, Bruce R; Hooker, Jacob M; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-06-01

    Local prefrontal dopamine signaling supports working memory by tuning pyramidal neurons to task-relevant stimuli. Enabled by simultaneous positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI), we determined whether neuromodulatory effects of dopamine scale to the level of cortical networks and coordinate their interplay during working memory. Among network territories, mean cortical D1 receptor densities differed substantially but were strongly interrelated, suggesting cross-network regulation. Indeed, mean cortical D1 density predicted working memory-emergent decoupling of the frontoparietal and default networks, which respectively manage task-related and internal stimuli. In contrast, striatal D1 predicted opposing effects within these two networks but no between-network effects. These findings specifically link cortical dopamine signaling to network crosstalk that redirects cognitive resources to working memory, echoing neuromodulatory effects of D1 signaling on the level of cortical microcircuits.

  7. Signaling by purinergic receptors and channels in the pituitary gland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojilkovic, S. S.; He, M. L.; Koshimizu, T.; Balík, A.; Zemková, Hana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 314, č. 2 (2010), s. 184-191 ISSN 0303-7207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : purinergic receptors * ATP * anterior pituitary Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.119, year: 2010

  8. A multiscale computational approach to dissect early events in the Erb family receptor mediated activation, differential signaling, and relevance to oncogenic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingting; Purvis, Jeremy; Shih, Andrew; Weinstein, Joshua; Agrawal, Neeraj; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2007-06-01

    We describe a hierarchical multiscale computational approach based on molecular dynamics simulations, free energy-based molecular docking simulations, deterministic network-based kinetic modeling, and hybrid discrete/continuum stochastic dynamics protocols to study the dimer-mediated receptor activation characteristics of the Erb family receptors, specifically the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Through these modeling approaches, we are able to extend the prior modeling of EGF-mediated signal transduction by considering specific EGFR tyrosine kinase (EGFRTK) docking interactions mediated by differential binding and phosphorylation of different C-terminal peptide tyrosines on the RTK tail. By modeling signal flows through branching pathways of the EGFRTK resolved on a molecular basis, we are able to transcribe the effects of molecular alterations in the receptor (e.g., mutant forms of the receptor) to differing kinetic behavior and downstream signaling response. Our molecular dynamics simulations show that the drug sensitizing mutation (L834R) of EGFR stabilizes the active conformation to make the system constitutively active. Docking simulations show preferential characteristics (for wildtype vs. mutant receptors) in inhibitor binding as well as preferential enhancement of phosphorylation of particular substrate tyrosines over others. We find that in comparison to the wildtype system, the L834R mutant RTK preferentially binds the inhibitor erlotinib, as well as preferentially phosphorylates the substrate tyrosine Y1068 but not Y1173. We predict that these molecular level changes result in preferential activation of the Akt signaling pathway in comparison to the Erk signaling pathway for cells with normal EGFR expression. For cells with EGFR over expression, the mutant over activates both Erk and Akt pathways, in comparison to wildtype. These results are consistent with qualitative experimental measurements reported in the literature. We discuss these

  9. Pattern-recognition receptors: signaling pathways and dysregulation in canine chronic enteropathies-brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Romy M; Allenspach, Karin

    2017-11-01

    Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are expressed by innate immune cells and recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. With a large potential for synergism or convergence between their signaling pathways, PRRs orchestrate a complex interplay of cellular mediators and transcription factors, and thus play a central role in homeostasis and host defense. Aberrant activation of PRR signaling, mutations of the receptors and/or their downstream signaling molecules, and/or DAMP/PAMP complex-mediated receptor signaling can potentially lead to chronic auto-inflammatory diseases or development of cancer. PRR signaling pathways appear to also present an interesting new avenue for the modulation of inflammatory responses and to serve as potential novel therapeutic targets. Evidence for a dysregulation of the PRR toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD)2, and the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) exists in dogs with chronic enteropathies. We describe the TLR, NOD2, and RAGE signaling pathways and evaluate the current veterinary literature-in comparison to human medicine-to determine the role of TLRs, NOD2, and RAGE in canine chronic enteropathies.

  10. Intercellular calcium signaling occurs between human osteoblasts and osteoclasts and requires activation of osteoclast P2X7 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Henriksen, Zanne; Sørensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    that human osteoclasts expressed functional P2Y1 receptors, but, unexpectedly, desensitization of P2Y1 did not block calcium signaling to osteoclasts. We also found that osteoclasts expressed functional P2X7 receptors and showed that pharmacological inhibition of these receptors blocked calcium signaling...

  11. Purinergic receptors have different effects in rat exocrine pancreas. Calcium signals monitored by fura-2 using confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Nitschke, Roland; Amstrup, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic ducts have several types of purinergic P2 receptors, however, nothing is known about P2 receptors in acini. The aim was to establish whether acini express functional P2 receptors coupled to intracellular Ca2+ signals and to measure the signals ratiometrically in a confocal laser scanning...

  12. Dynamic multiprotein assemblies shape the spatial structure of cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Jang, Hyunbum

    2014-01-01

    Cell signaling underlies critical cellular decisions. Coordination, efficiency as well as fail-safe mechanisms are key elements. How the cell ensures that these hallmarks are at play are important questions. Cell signaling is often viewed as taking place through discrete and cross-talking pathways; oftentimes these are modularized to emphasize distinct functions. While simple, convenient and clear, such models largely neglect the spatial structure of cell signaling; they also convey inter-modular (or inter-protein) spatial separation that may not exist. Here our thesis is that cell signaling is shaped by a network of multiprotein assemblies. While pre-organized, the assemblies and network are loose and dynamic. They contain transiently-associated multiprotein complexes which are often mediated by scaffolding proteins. They are also typically anchored in the membrane, and their continuum may span the cell. IQGAP1 scaffolding protein which binds proteins including Raf, calmodulin, Mek, Erk, actin, and tens more, with actin shaping B-cell (and likely other) membrane-anchored nanoclusters and allosterically polymerizing in dynamic cytoskeleton formation, and Raf anchoring in the membrane along with Ras, provides a striking example. The multivalent network of dynamic proteins and lipids, with specific interactions forming and breaking, can be viewed as endowing gel-like properties. Collectively, this reasons that efficient, productive and reliable cell signaling takes place primarily through transient, preorganized and cooperative protein-protein interactions spanning the cell rather than stochastic, diffusion-controlled processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative phosphoproteomics dissection of 7TM receptor signaling using full and biased agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gitte L; Kelstrup, Christian D; Lyngsø, Christina

    2010-01-01

    only activates the Gaq protein-independent signaling.e quantified more than ten thousand phosphorylation sites of which 1183 were regulated by Angiotensin II or its analogue SII Angiotensin II. 36% of the AT1R regulated phosphorylations were regulated by SII Angiotensin II. Analysis of phosphorylation...... into Angiotensin II signal transduction and is the first study dissecting the differences between a full agonist and a biased agonist from a 7TMR on a systems-wide scale. Importantly, it reveals a previously unappreciated diversity and quantity of Gaq protein-independent signaling and uncovers novel signaling......Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) signal through the well described heterotrimeric G proteins, but can also activate G protein-independent signaling pathways of which the impact and complexity are less understood. The Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) is a prototypical 7TMR and an important...

  14. Dynamic Modeling of Indole Glucosinolate Hydrolysis and Its Impact on Auxin Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants release chemicals to deter attackers. Arabidopsis thaliana relies on multiple defense compounds, including indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate (I3G, which upon hydrolysis initiated by myrosinase enzymes releases a multitude of bioactive compounds, among others, indole-3-acetonitrile and indole-3-acetoisothiocyanate. The highly unstable isothiocyanate rapidly reacts with other molecules. One of the products, indole-3-carbinol, was reported to inhibit auxin signaling through binding to the TIR1 auxin receptor. On the contrary, the nitrile product of I3G hydrolysis can be converted by nitrilase enzymes to form the primary auxin molecule, indole-3-acetic acid, which activates TIR1. This suggests that auxin signaling is subject to both antagonistic and protagonistic effects of I3G hydrolysis upon attack. We hypothesize that I3G hydrolysis and auxin signaling form an incoherent feedforward loop and we build a mathematical model to examine the regulatory network dynamics. We use molecular docking to investigate the possible antagonistic properties of different I3G hydrolysis products by competitive binding to the TIR1 receptor. Our simulations reveal an uncoupling of auxin concentration and signaling, and we determine that enzyme activity and antagonist binding affinity are key parameters for this uncoupling. The molecular docking predicts that several I3G hydrolysis products strongly antagonize auxin signaling. By comparing a tissue disrupting attack – e.g., by chewing insects or necrotrophic pathogens that causes rapid release of I3G hydrolysis products – to sustained cell-autonomous I3G hydrolysis, e.g., upon infection by biotrophic pathogens, we find that each scenario gives rise to distinct auxin signaling dynamics. This suggests that plants have different defense versus growth strategies depending on the nature of the attack.

  15. Drosophila motor neuron retraction during metamorphosis is mediated by inputs from TGF-β/BMP signaling and orphan nuclear receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Boulanger

    Full Text Available Larval motor neurons remodel during Drosophila neuro-muscular junction dismantling at metamorphosis. In this study, we describe the motor neuron retraction as opposed to degeneration based on the early disappearance of β-Spectrin and the continuing presence of Tubulin. By blocking cell dynamics with a dominant-negative form of Dynamin, we show that phagocytes have a key role in this process. Importantly, we show the presence of peripheral glial cells close to the neuro-muscular junction that retracts before the motor neuron. We show also that in muscle, expression of EcR-B1 encoding the steroid hormone receptor required for postsynaptic dismantling, is under the control of the ftz-f1/Hr39 orphan nuclear receptor pathway but not the TGF-β signaling pathway. In the motor neuron, activation of EcR-B1 expression by the two parallel pathways (TGF-β signaling and nuclear receptor triggers axon retraction. We propose that a signal from a TGF-β family ligand is produced by the dismantling muscle (postsynapse compartment and received by the motor neuron (presynaptic compartment resulting in motor neuron retraction. The requirement of the two pathways in the motor neuron provides a molecular explanation for the instructive role of the postsynapse degradation on motor neuron retraction. This mechanism insures the temporality of the two processes and prevents motor neuron pruning before postsynaptic degradation.

  16. Drosophila motor neuron retraction during metamorphosis is mediated by inputs from TGF-β/BMP signaling and orphan nuclear receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Ana; Farge, Morgane; Ramanoudjame, Christophe; Wharton, Kristi; Dura, Jean-Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Larval motor neurons remodel during Drosophila neuro-muscular junction dismantling at metamorphosis. In this study, we describe the motor neuron retraction as opposed to degeneration based on the early disappearance of β-Spectrin and the continuing presence of Tubulin. By blocking cell dynamics with a dominant-negative form of Dynamin, we show that phagocytes have a key role in this process. Importantly, we show the presence of peripheral glial cells close to the neuro-muscular junction that retracts before the motor neuron. We show also that in muscle, expression of EcR-B1 encoding the steroid hormone receptor required for postsynaptic dismantling, is under the control of the ftz-f1/Hr39 orphan nuclear receptor pathway but not the TGF-β signaling pathway. In the motor neuron, activation of EcR-B1 expression by the two parallel pathways (TGF-β signaling and nuclear receptor) triggers axon retraction. We propose that a signal from a TGF-β family ligand is produced by the dismantling muscle (postsynapse compartment) and received by the motor neuron (presynaptic compartment) resulting in motor neuron retraction. The requirement of the two pathways in the motor neuron provides a molecular explanation for the instructive role of the postsynapse degradation on motor neuron retraction. This mechanism insures the temporality of the two processes and prevents motor neuron pruning before postsynaptic degradation.

  17. Stat5 signaling specifies basal versus stress erythropoietic responses through distinct binary and graded dynamic modalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermelinda Porpiglia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (Epo-induced Stat5 phosphorylation (p-Stat5 is essential for both basal erythropoiesis and for its acceleration during hypoxic stress. A key challenge lies in understanding how Stat5 signaling elicits distinct functions during basal and stress erythropoiesis. Here we asked whether these distinct functions might be specified by the dynamic behavior of the Stat5 signal. We used flow cytometry to analyze Stat5 phosphorylation dynamics in primary erythropoietic tissue in vivo and in vitro, identifying two signaling modalities. In later (basophilic erythroblasts, Epo stimulation triggers a low intensity but decisive, binary (digital p-Stat5 signal. In early erythroblasts the binary signal is superseded by a high-intensity graded (analog p-Stat5 response. We elucidated the biological functions of binary and graded Stat5 signaling using the EpoR-HM mice, which express a "knocked-in" EpoR mutant lacking cytoplasmic phosphotyrosines. Strikingly, EpoR-HM mice are restricted to the binary signaling mode, which rescues these mice from fatal perinatal anemia by promoting binary survival decisions in erythroblasts. However, the absence of the graded p-Stat5 response in the EpoR-HM mice prevents them from accelerating red cell production in response to stress, including a failure to upregulate the transferrin receptor, which we show is a novel stress target. We found that Stat5 protein levels decline with erythroblast differentiation, governing the transition from high-intensity graded signaling in early erythroblasts to low-intensity binary signaling in later erythroblasts. Thus, using exogenous Stat5, we converted later erythroblasts into high-intensity graded signal transducers capable of eliciting a downstream stress response. Unlike the Stat5 protein, EpoR expression in erythroblasts does not limit the Stat5 signaling response, a non-Michaelian paradigm with therapeutic implications in myeloproliferative disease. Our findings show how the

  18. Plant immune and growth receptors share common signalling components but localise to distinct plasma membrane nanodomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücherl, Christoph A; Jarsch, Iris K; Schudoma, Christian; Segonzac, Cécile; Mbengue, Malick; Robatzek, Silke; MacLean, Daniel; Ott, Thomas; Zipfel, Cyril

    2017-03-06

    Cell surface receptors govern a multitude of signalling pathways in multicellular organisms. In plants, prominent examples are the receptor kinases FLS2 and BRI1, which activate immunity and steroid-mediated growth, respectively. Intriguingly, despite inducing distinct signalling outputs, both receptors employ common downstream signalling components, which exist in plasma membrane (PM)-localised protein complexes. An important question is thus how these receptor complexes maintain signalling specificity. Live-cell imaging revealed that FLS2 and BRI1 form PM nanoclusters. Using single-particle tracking we could discriminate both cluster populations and we observed spatiotemporal separation between immune and growth signalling platforms. This finding was confirmed by visualising FLS2 and BRI1 within distinct PM nanodomains marked by specific remorin proteins and differential co-localisation with the cytoskeleton. Our results thus suggest that signalling specificity between these pathways may be explained by the spatial separation of FLS2 and BRI1 with their associated signalling components within dedicated PM nanodomains.

  19. Evaluation of Intracellular Signaling Downstream Chimeric Antigen Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Karlsson

    Full Text Available CD19-targeting CAR T cells have shown potency in clinical trials targeting B cell leukemia. Although mainly second generation (2G CARs carrying CD28 or 4-1BB have been investigated in patients, preclinical studies suggest that third generation (3G CARs with both CD28 and 4-1BB have enhanced capacity. However, little is known about the intracellular signaling pathways downstream of CARs. In the present work, we have analyzed the signaling capacity post antigen stimulation in both 2G and 3G CARs. 3G CAR T cells expanded better than 2G CAR T cells upon repeated stimulation with IL-2 and autologous B cells. An antigen-driven accumulation of CAR+ cells was evident post antigen stimulation. The cytotoxicity of both 2G and 3G CAR T cells was maintained by repeated stimulation. The phosphorylation status of intracellular signaling proteins post antigen stimulation showed that 3G CAR T cells had a higher activation status than 2G. Several proteins involved in signaling downstream the TCR were activated, as were proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell adhesion and exocytosis. In conclusion, 3G CAR T cells had a higher degree of intracellular signaling activity than 2G CARs which may explain the increased proliferative capacity seen in 3G CAR T cells. The study also indicates that there may be other signaling pathways to consider when designing or evaluating new generations of CARs.

  20. Discrete dynamic modeling of T cell survival signaling networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ranran

    2009-03-01

    Biochemistry-based frameworks are often not applicable for the modeling of heterogeneous regulatory systems that are sparsely documented in terms of quantitative information. As an alternative, qualitative models assuming a small set of discrete states are gaining acceptance. This talk will present a discrete dynamic model of the signaling network responsible for the survival and long-term competence of cytotoxic T cells in the blood cancer T-LGL leukemia. We integrated the signaling pathways involved in normal T cell activation and the known deregulations of survival signaling in leukemic T-LGL, and formulated the regulation of each network element as a Boolean (logic) rule. Our model suggests that the persistence of two signals is sufficient to reproduce all known deregulations in leukemic T-LGL. It also indicates the nodes whose inactivity is necessary and sufficient for the reversal of the T-LGL state. We have experimentally validated several model predictions, including: (i) Inhibiting PDGF signaling induces apoptosis in leukemic T-LGL. (ii) Sphingosine kinase 1 and NFκB are essential for the long-term survival of T cells in T-LGL leukemia. (iii) T box expressed in T cells (T-bet) is constitutively activated in the T-LGL state. The model has identified potential therapeutic targets for T-LGL leukemia and can be used for generating long-term competent CTL necessary for tumor and cancer vaccine development. The success of this model, and of other discrete dynamic models, suggests that the organization of signaling networks has an determining role in their dynamics. Reference: R. Zhang, M. V. Shah, J. Yang, S. B. Nyland, X. Liu, J. K. Yun, R. Albert, T. P. Loughran, Jr., Network Model of Survival Signaling in LGL Leukemia, PNAS 105, 16308-16313 (2008).

  1. Arabidopsis CPR5 regulates ethylene signaling via molecular association with the ETR1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Wang, Lijuan; Qiao, Longfei; Chen, Jiacai; Pappa, Maria Belen; Pei, Haixia; Zhang, Tao; Chang, Caren; Dong, Chun-Hai

    2017-11-01

    The plant hormone ethylene plays various functions in plant growth, development and response to environmental stress. Ethylene is perceived by membrane-bound ethylene receptors, and among the homologous receptors in Arabidopsis, the ETR1 ethylene receptor plays a major role. The present study provides evidence demonstrating that Arabidopsis CPR5 functions as a novel ETR1 receptor-interacting protein in regulating ethylene response and signaling. Yeast split ubiquitin assays and bi-fluorescence complementation studies in plant cells indicated that CPR5 directly interacts with the ETR1 receptor. Genetic analyses indicated that mutant alleles of cpr5 can suppress ethylene insensitivity in both etr1-1 and etr1-2, but not in other dominant ethylene receptor mutants. Overexpression of Arabidopsis CPR5 either in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, or ectopically in tobacco, significantly enhanced ethylene sensitivity. These findings indicate that CPR5 plays a critical role in regulating ethylene signaling. CPR5 is localized to endomembrane structures and the nucleus, and is involved in various regulatory pathways, including pathogenesis, leaf senescence, and spontaneous cell death. This study provides evidence for a novel regulatory function played by CPR5 in the ethylene receptor signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Signal classification using global dynamical models, Part I: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadtke, J.; Kremliovsky, M.

    1996-01-01

    Detection and classification of signals is one of the principal areas of signal processing, and the utilization of nonlinear information has long been considered as a way of improving performance beyond standard linear (e.g. spectral) techniques. Here, we develop a method for using global models of chaotic dynamical systems theory to define a signal classification processing chain, which is sensitive to nonlinear correlations in the data. We use it to demonstrate classification in high noise regimes (negative SNR), and argue that classification probabilities can be directly computed from ensemble statistics in the model coefficient space. We also develop a modification for non-stationary signals (i.e. transients) using non-autonomous ODEs. In Part II of this paper, we demonstrate the analysis on actual open ocean acoustic data from marine biologics. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. Insulin signaling inhibits the 5-HT2C receptor in choroid plexus via MAP kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Kunliang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs interact with heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins to modulate acute changes in intracellular messenger levels and ion channel activity. In contrast, long-term changes in cellular growth, proliferation and differentiation are often mediated by tyrosine kinase receptors and certain GPCRs by activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases. Complex interactions occur between these signaling pathways, but the specific mechanisms of such regulatory events are not well-understood. In particular it is not clear whether GPCRs are modulated by tyrosine kinase receptor-MAP kinase pathways. Results Here we describe tyrosine kinase receptor regulation of a GPCR via MAP kinase. Insulin reduced the activity of the 5-HT2C receptor in choroid plexus cells which was blocked by the MAP kinase kinase (MEK inhibitor, PD 098059. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1 on the 5-HT2C receptor is dependent on tyrosine kinase, RAS and MAP kinase. The effect may be receptor-specific: insulin had no effect on another GPCR that shares the same G protein signaling pathway as the 5-HT2C receptor. This effect is also direct: activated MAP kinase mimicked the effect of insulin, and removing a putative MAP kinase site from the 5-HT2C receptor abolished the effect of insulin. Conclusion These results show that insulin signaling can inhibit 5-HT2C receptor activity and suggest that MAP kinase may play a direct role in regulating the function of a specific GPCR.

  4. Interplay between TGF-β signaling and receptor tyrosine kinases in tumor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiaoni; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2017-10-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and death, and plays a critical role in embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Its deregulation results in various diseases including tumor formation. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), also play key roles in the development and progression of many types of tumors. It has been realized that TGF-β signaling and RTK pathways interact with each other and their interplay is important for cancer development. They are mutually regulated and cooperatively modulate cell survival and migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and tumor microenvironment to accelerate tumorigenesis and tumor metastasis. RTKs can modulate Smad-dependent transcription or cooperate with TGF-β to potentiate its oncogenic activity, while TGF-β signaling can in turn control RTK signaling by regulating their activities or expression. This review summarizes current understandings of the interplay between TGF-β signaling and RTKs and its influence on tumor development.

  5. A model for the biosynthesis and transport of plasma membrane-associated signaling receptors to the cell surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Claudia Popescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular protein transport is emerging as critical in determining the outcome of receptor-activated signal transduction pathways. In plants, relatively little is known about the nature of the molecular components and mechanisms involved in coordinating receptor synthesis and transport to the cell surface. Recent advances in this field indicate that signaling pathways and intracellular transport machinery converge and coordinate to render receptors competent for signaling at their plasma membrane activity sites. The biogenesis and transport to the cell surface of signaling receptors appears to require both general trafficking and receptor-specific factors. Several molecular determinants, residing or associated with compartments of the secretory pathway and known to influence aspects in receptor biogenesis, are discussed and integrated into a predictive cooperative model for the functional expression of signaling receptors at the plasma membrane.

  6. Association of cannabis use during adolescence, prefrontal CB1 receptor signaling and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eCaballero

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R is the G-protein coupled receptor responsible for the majority of the endocannabinoid signaling in the human brain. It is widely distributed in the limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebellum, which are areas responsible for cognition, memory, and motor control. Because of this widespread distribution, it is not surprising that drugs that co-opt CB1R have expected behavioral outcomes consistent with dysregulated signaling from these areas (e.g. memory loss, cognitive deficits, etc. In the context of this review, we present evidence for the role of CB1R signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC, an area involved in executive functions, with emphasis on the developmental regulation of CB1R signaling in the acquisition of mature PFC function. We further hypothesize how alterations of CB1R signaling specifically during adolescent maturation might confer liability to psychiatric disorders.

  7. Evidence for cooperative signal triggering at the extracellular loops of the TSH receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Jaeschke, Holger; Mueller, Sandra; Raaka, Bruce M; Neumann, Susanne; Paschke, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2008-08-01

    The mechanisms governing transition of the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR) from basal to active conformations are poorly understood. Considering that constitutively activating mutations (CAMs) and inactivating mutations in each of the extracellular loops (ECLs) trigger only partial TSHR activation or inactivation, respectively, we hypothesized that full signaling occurs via multiple extracellular signal propagation events. Therefore, individual CAMs in the extracellular region were combined to create double and triple mutants. In support of our hypothesis, combinations of mutants in the ECLs are in some cases additive, while in others they are even synergistic, with triple mutant I486A/I568V/V656F exhibiting a 70-fold increase in TSH-independent signaling. The proximity but likely different spatial orientation of the residues of activating and inactivating mutations in each ECL supports a dual functionality to facilitate signal induction and conduction, respectively. This is the first report for G-protein coupled receptors, suggesting that multiple and cooperative signal propagating events at all three ECLs are required for full receptor activation. Our findings provide new insights concerning molecular signal transmission from extracellular domains toward the transmembrane helix bundle of the glycoprotein hormone receptors.

  8. ATAR, a novel tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, signals through TRAF2 and TRAF5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H; Solovyev, I; Colombero, A; Elliott, R; Kelley, M; Boyle, W J

    1997-05-23

    Members of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family signal largely through interactions with death domain proteins and TRAF proteins. Here we report the identification of a novel TNFR family member ATAR. Human and mouse ATAR contain 283 and 276 amino acids, respectively, making them the shortest known members of the TNFR superfamily. The receptor is expressed mainly in spleen, thymus, bone marrow, lung, and small intestine. The intracellular domains of human and mouse ATAR share only 25% identity, yet both interact with TRAF5 and TRAF2. This TRAF interaction domain resides at the C-terminal 20 amino acids. Like most other TRAF-interacting receptors, overexpression of ATAR activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Co-expression of ATAR with TRAF5, but not TRAF2, results in synergistic activation of NF-kappaB, suggesting potentially different roles for TRAF2 and TRAF5 in post-receptor signaling.

  9. Age-related changes in expression and signaling of TAM receptor inflammatory regulators in monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Malawista, Anna; Qian, Feng; Ramsey, Christine; Allore, Heather G; Montgomery, Ruth R

    2018-02-09

    The multifactorial immune deterioration in aging--termed "inflamm-aging"--is comprised of a state of low-grade, chronic inflammation and complex dysregulation of responses to immune stimulation. The TAM family (Tyro 3, Axl, and Mer) of receptor tyrosine kinases are negative regulators of Toll like receptor-mediated immune responses that broadly inhibit cytokine receptor cascades to inhibit inflammation. Here we demonstrate elevated expression of TAM receptors in monocytes of older adults, and an age-dependent difference in signaling mediator AKT resulting in dysregulated responses to signaling though Mer. Our results may be especially significant in tissue, where levels of Mer are highest, and may present avenues for modulation of chronic tissue inflammation noted in aging.

  10. Dynamics of Receptor-Mediated Nanoparticle Internalization into Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles offer a promising medical tool for targeted drug delivery, for example to treat inflamed endothelial cells during the development of atherosclerosis. To inform the design of such therapeutic strategies, we develop a computational model of nanoparticle internalization into endothelial cells, where internalization is driven by receptor-ligand binding and limited by the deformation of the cell membrane and cytoplasm. We specifically consider the case of nanoparticles targeted against ICAM-1 receptors, of relevance for treating atherosclerosis. The model computes the kinetics of the internalization process, the dynamics of binding, and the distribution of stresses exerted between the nanoparticle and the cell membrane. The model predicts the existence of an optimal nanoparticle size for fastest internalization, consistent with experimental observations, as well as the role of bond characteristics, local cell mechanical properties, and external forces in the nanoparticle internalization process. PMID:25901833

  11. NMDA Receptor Signaling Is Important for Neural Tube Formation and for Preventing Antiepileptic Drug-Induced Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequerra, Eduardo B; Goyal, Raman; Castro, Patricio A; Levin, Jacqueline B; Borodinsky, Laura N

    2018-05-16

    Failure of neural tube closure leads to neural tube defects (NTDs), which can have serious neurological consequences or be lethal. Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy increases the incidence of NTDs in offspring by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that during Xenopus laevis neural tube formation, neural plate cells exhibit spontaneous calcium dynamics that are partially mediated by glutamate signaling. We demonstrate that NMDA receptors are important for the formation of the neural tube and that the loss of their function induces an increase in neural plate cell proliferation and impairs neural cell migration, which result in NTDs. We present evidence that the AED valproic acid perturbs glutamate signaling, leading to NTDs that are rescued with varied efficacy by preventing DNA synthesis, activating NMDA receptors, or recruiting the NMDA receptor target ERK1/2. These findings may prompt mechanistic identification of AEDs that do not interfere with neural tube formation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neural tube defects are one of the most common birth defects. Clinical investigations have determined that the use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy increases the incidence of these defects in the offspring by unknown mechanisms. This study discovers that glutamate signaling regulates neural plate cell proliferation and oriented migration and is necessary for neural tube formation. We demonstrate that the widely used antiepileptic drug valproic acid interferes with glutamate signaling and consequently induces neural tube defects, challenging the current hypotheses arguing that they are side effects of this antiepileptic drug that cause the increased incidence of these defects. Understanding the mechanisms of neurotransmitter signaling during neural tube formation may contribute to the identification and development of antiepileptic drugs that are safer during pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 the authors 0270-6474/18/384762-12$15.00/0.

  12. Recent Advances on the Role of G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Hypoxia-Mediated Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Lappano, Rosamaria; Rigiracciolo, Damiano; De Marco, Paola; Avino, Silvia; Cappello, Anna Rita; Rosano, Camillo; Maggiolini, Marcello; De Francesco, Ernestina Marianna

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cell surface proteins mainly involved in signal transmission; however, they play a role also in several pathophysiological conditions. Chemically heterogeneous molecules like peptides, hormones, lipids, and neurotransmitters activate second messengers and induce several biological responses by binding to these seven transmembrane receptors, which are coupled to heterotrimeric G proteins. Recently, additional molecular mechanisms have been involved in GP...

  13. Signal Transduction of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate G Protein—Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Young

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P is a bioactive lipid capable of eliciting dramatic effects in a variety of cell types. Signaling by this molecule is by a family of five G protein—coupled receptors named S1P1–5 that signal through a variety of pathways to regulate cell proliferation, migration, cytoskeletal organization, and differentiation. These receptors are expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell types, and their cellular effects contribute to important biological and pathological functions of S1P in many processes, including angiogenesis, vascular development, lymphocyte trafficking, and cancer. This review will focus on the current progress in the field of S1P receptor signaling and biology.

  14. Non-genomic actions of aldosterone: From receptors and signals to membrane targets.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    In tissues which express the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), aldosterone modulates the expression of membrane targets such as the subunits of the epithelial Na(+) channel, in combination with important signalling intermediates such as serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1. In addition, the rapid \\'non-genomic\\' activation of protein kinases and secondary messenger signalling cascades has also been detected in aldosterone-sensitive tissues of the nephron, distal colon and cardiovascular system. These rapid actions are variously described as being coupled to MR or to an as yet unidentified, membrane-associated aldosterone receptor. The rapidly activated signalling cascades add a level of fine-tuning to the activity of aldosterone-responsive membrane transporters and also modulate the aldosterone-induced changes in gene expression through receptor and transcription factor phosphorylation.

  15. Non-genomic actions of aldosterone: From receptors and signals to membrane targets.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2011-07-26

    In tissues which express the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), aldosterone modulates the expression of membrane targets such as the subunits of the epithelial Na(+) channel, in combination with important signalling intermediates such as serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1. In addition, the rapid \\'non-genomic\\' activation of protein kinases and secondary messenger signalling cascades has also been detected in aldosterone-sensitive tissues of the nephron, distal colon and cardiovascular system. These rapid actions are variously described as being coupled to MR or to an as yet unidentified, membrane-associated aldosterone receptor. The rapidly activated signalling cascades add a level of fine-tuning to the activity of aldosterone-responsive membrane transporters and also modulate the aldosterone-induced changes in gene expression through receptor and transcription factor phosphorylation.

  16. Entropy for the Complexity of Physiological Signal Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the rapid development of large data storage technologies, mobile network technology, and portable medical devices makes it possible to measure, record, store, and track analysis of biological dynamics. Portable noninvasive medical devices are crucial to capture individual characteristics of biological dynamics. The wearable noninvasive medical devices and the analysis/management of related digital medical data will revolutionize the management and treatment of diseases, subsequently resulting in the establishment of a new healthcare system. One of the key features that can be extracted from the data obtained by wearable noninvasive medical device is the complexity of physiological signals, which can be represented by entropy of biological dynamics contained in the physiological signals measured by these continuous monitoring medical devices. Thus, in this chapter I present the major concepts of entropy that are commonly used to measure the complexity of biological dynamics. The concepts include Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov entropy, Renyi entropy, approximate entropy, sample entropy, and multiscale entropy. I also demonstrate an example of using entropy for the complexity of glucose dynamics.

  17. Delineation of the GPRC6A Receptor Signaling Pathways Using a Mammalian Cell Line Stably Expressing the Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Engesgaard; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Lenea; Thomsen, Alex Rojas Bie

    2013-01-01

    receptor has been suggested to couple to multiple G protein classes albeit via indirect methods. Thus, the exact ligand preferences and signaling pathways are yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we generated a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that stably expresses mouse GPRC6A. In an effort...... and divalent cations, and for the first time, we conclusively show that these responses are mediated through the Gq pathway. We were not able to confirm previously published data demonstrating Gi- and Gs-mediated signaling; neither could we detect agonistic activity of testosterone and osteocalcin. Generation...... of the stable CHO cell line with robust receptor responsiveness and optimization of the highly sensitive homogeneous time resolved fluorescence technology allow fast assessment of Gq activation without previous manipulations like cotransfection of mutated G proteins. This cell-based assay system for GPRC6A...

  18. Activation of GABAB receptors inhibits protein kinase B /Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Frances Fangjia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accumulated evidence has suggested that potentiation of cortical GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission may be a key mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the downstream molecular mechanisms related to GABA potentiation remain unexplored. Recent studies have suggested that dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, which are used in the clinical treatment of schizophrenia, modulate protein kinase B (Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3 signaling. Here we report that activation of GABAB receptors significantly inhibits Akt/GSK-3 signaling in a β-arrestin-dependent pathway. Agonist stimulation of GABAB receptors enhances the phosphorylation of Akt (Thr-308 and enhances the phosphorylation of GSK-3α (Ser-21/β (Ser-9 in both HEK-293T cells expressing GABAB receptors and rat hippocampal slices. Furthermore, knocking down the expression of β-arrestin2 using siRNA abolishes the GABAB receptor-mediated modulation of GSK-3 signaling. Our data may help to identify potentially novel targets through which GABAB receptor agents may exert therapeutic effects in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  19. Phytomelatonin receptor PMTR1-mediated signaling regulates stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian; Li, Dong-Xu; Zhang, Jia-Rong; Shan, Chi; Rengel, Zed; Song, Zhong-Bang; Chen, Qi

    2018-04-27

    Melatonin has been detected in plants in 1995; however, the function and signaling pathway of this putative phytohormone are largely undetermined due to a lack of knowledge about its receptor. Here, we discovered the first phytomelatonin receptor (CAND2/PMTR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that melatonin governs the receptor-dependent stomatal closure. The application of melatonin induced stomatal closure through the heterotrimeric G protein α subunit-regulated H 2 O 2 and Ca 2+ signals. The Arabidopsis mutant lines lacking AtCand2 that encodes a candidate G protein-coupled receptor were insensitive to melatonin-induced stomatal closure. Accordingly, the melatonin-induced H 2 O 2 production and Ca 2+ influx were completely abolished in cand2. CAND2 is a membrane protein that interacts with GPA1 and the expression of AtCand2 was tightly regulated by melatonin in various organs and guard cells. CAND2 showed saturable and specific 125 I-melatonin binding, with apparent K d (dissociation constant) of 0.73 ± 0.10 nmol/L (r 2  = .99), demonstrating this protein is a phytomelatonin receptor (PMTR1). Our results suggest that the phytomelatonin regulation of stomatal closure is dependent on its receptor CAND2/PMTR1-mediated H 2 O 2 and Ca 2+ signaling transduction cascade. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Quantitative properties and receptor reserve of the IP(3) and calcium branch of G(q)-coupled receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Eamonn J; Falkenburger, Björn H; Hille, Bertil

    2013-05-01

    Gq-coupled plasma membrane receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC), which hydrolyzes membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into the second messengers inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). This leads to calcium release, protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and sometimes PIP2 depletion. To understand mechanisms governing these diverging signals and to determine which of these signals is responsible for the inhibition of KCNQ2/3 (KV7.2/7.3) potassium channels, we monitored levels of PIP2, IP3, and calcium in single living cells. DAG and PKC are monitored in our companion paper (Falkenburger et al. 2013. J. Gen. Physiol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201210887). The results extend our previous kinetic model of Gq-coupled receptor signaling to IP3 and calcium. We find that activation of low-abundance endogenous P2Y2 receptors by a saturating concentration of uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP; 100 µM) leads to calcium release but not to PIP2 depletion. Activation of overexpressed M1 muscarinic receptors by 10 µM Oxo-M leads to a similar calcium release but also depletes PIP2. KCNQ2/3 channels are inhibited by Oxo-M (by 85%), but not by UTP (calcium responses can be elicited even after PIP2 was partially depleted by overexpressed inducible phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatases, suggesting that very low amounts of IP3 suffice to elicit a full calcium release. Hence, weak PLC activation can elicit robust calcium signals without net PIP2 depletion or KCNQ2/3 channel inhibition.

  1. Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Increased Ghrelin Receptor Signaling in the Amygdala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten; Ratner, Cecilia; Rudenko, Olga

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Besides the well-known effects of ghrelin on adiposity and food intake regulation, the ghrelin system has been shown to regulate aspects of behavior including anxiety and stress. However, the effect of virus-mediated overexpression of the ghrelin receptor in the amygdala has...... not previously been addressed directly. METHOD: First, we examined the acute effect of peripheral ghrelin administration on anxiety- and depression-like behavior using the open field, elevated plus maze, forced swim and tail suspension tests. Next, we examined the effect of peripheral ghrelin administration...... and ghrelin receptor deficiency on stress in a familiar and social environment using the Intellicage system. Importantly, we also used a novel approach to study ghrelin receptor signaling in the brain by overexpressing the ghrelin receptor in the amygdala. We examined the effect of ghrelin receptor...

  2. A single amino acid residue controls Ca2+ signaling by an octopamine receptor from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Max; Balfanz, Sabine; Ehling, Petra; Gensch, Thomas; Baumann, Arnd

    2011-07-01

    Rhythmic activity of cells and cellular networks plays an important role in physiology. In the nervous system oscillations of electrical activity and/or second messenger concentrations are important to synchronize neuronal activity. At the molecular level, rhythmic activity can be initiated by different routes. We have recently shown that an octopamine-activated G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR; DmOctα1Rb, CG3856) from Drosophila initiates Ca(2+) oscillations. Here, we have unraveled the molecular basis of cellular Ca(2+) signaling controlled by the DmOctα1Rb receptor using a combination of pharmacological intervention, site-directed mutagenesis, and functional cellular Ca(2+) imaging on heterologously expressed receptors. Phosphorylation of a single amino acid residue in the third intracellular loop of the GPCR by PKC is necessary and sufficient to desensitize the receptor. From its desensitized state, DmOctα1Rb is resensitized by dephosphorylation, and a new Ca(2+) signal occurs on octopamine stimulation. Our findings show that transient changes of the receptor's surface profile have a strong effect on its physiological signaling properties. We expect that the detailed knowledge of DmOctα1Rb-dependent signal transduction fosters the identification of specific drugs that can be used for GPCR-mediated pest control, since octopamine serves important physiological and behavioral functions in arthropods.

  3. Negative Regulation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK Signaling: A Developing Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ledda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ophic factors control cellular physiology by activating specific receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs. While the over activation of RTK signaling pathways is associated with cell growth and cancer, recent findings support the concept that impaired down-regulation or deactivation of RTKs may also be a mechanism involved in tumor formation. Under this perspective, the molecular determinants of RTK signaling inhibition may act as tumor-suppressor genes and have a potential role as tumor markers to monitor and predict disease progression. Here, we review the current understanding of the physiological mechanisms that attenuate RTK signaling and discuss evidence that implicates deregulation of these events in cancer.Abbreviations: BDP1: Brain-derived phosphatase 1; Cbl: Casitas B-lineage lymphoma; CIN-85: Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa; DER: Drosophila EGFR; EGFR: Epidermal growth factor receptor; ERK 1/2: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2; Grb2: Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2; HER2: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; LRIG: Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domain 1; MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase; Mig 6: Mitogen-inducible gene 6; PTEN: Phosphatase and tensin homologue; RET: Rearranged in transformation; RTK: Receptor tyrosine kinase. SH2 domain: Src-homology 2 domain; SH3 domain: Src-homology 3 domain; Spry: Sprouty.

  4. Death receptor Fas (CD95) signaling in the central nervous system: tuning neuroplasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Arno; Spering, Christopher; Schulz, Jörg B

    2008-09-01

    For over a decade, neuroscientific research has focused on processes of apoptosis and its contribution to the pathophysiology of neurological diseases. In the central nervous system, the degree of intrinsic mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling expresses a cell's individual metabolic stress, whereas activation of the extrinsic death receptor-induced cascade is regarded as a sign of imbalanced cellular networks. Under physiological conditions, most neurons possess death receptors without being sensitive to receptor-mediated apoptosis. This paradox raises two questions: what is the evolutionary advantage of expressing potentially harmful proteins? How is their signaling controlled? This review summarizes the functional relevance of FasL-Fas signaling--a quintessential death ligand/receptor system--in different neurological disease models ranging from traumatic, inflammatory and ischemic to neurodegenerative processes. Furthermore, it outlines alternative non-apoptotic Fas signaling, shedding new light on its neuroplastic capacity. Finally, receptor-proximal regulatory proteins are introduced and identified as potential protagonists of disease-modifying neurological therapies.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of SH2- and PTB-Domain-Containing Proteins in Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Melany J.; Stacey, Melissa M.; Liu, Bernard A.; Pawson, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular signaling is mediated by reversible posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation, among others. In response to extracellular stimuli such as growth factors, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) typically dimerize and initiate signaling through phosphorylation of their cytoplasmic tails and downstream scaffolds. Signaling effectors are recruited to these phosphotyrosine (pTyr) sites primarily through Src homology 2 (SH2) domains and pTyr-binding (PTB) domains. This review describes how these conserved domains specifically recognize pTyr residues and play a major role in mediating precise downstream signaling events. PMID:24296166

  6. Molecular mechanisms of SH2- and PTB-domain-containing proteins in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Melany J; Stacey, Melissa M; Liu, Bernard A; Pawson, Tony

    2013-12-01

    Intracellular signaling is mediated by reversible posttranslational modifications (PTMs) that include phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation, among others. In response to extracellular stimuli such as growth factors, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) typically dimerize and initiate signaling through phosphorylation of their cytoplasmic tails and downstream scaffolds. Signaling effectors are recruited to these phosphotyrosine (pTyr) sites primarily through Src homology 2 (SH2) domains and pTyr-binding (PTB) domains. This review describes how these conserved domains specifically recognize pTyr residues and play a major role in mediating precise downstream signaling events.

  7. Rapid Phospho-Turnover by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases Impacts Downstream Signaling and Drug Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiman, Laura B.; Maiwald, Thomas; Conzelmann, Holger; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Sorger, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (ErbB1–4) are oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that regulate diverse cellular processes. In this study, we combine measurement and mathematical modeling to quantify phospho-turnover at ErbB receptors in human cells and to determine the consequences for signaling and drug binding. We find that phosphotyrosine residues on ErbB1 have half-lives of a few seconds and therefore turn over 100–1000 times in the course of a typical immediate-early response t...

  8. Heterotrimeric G Protein-coupled Receptor Signaling in Yeast Mating Pheromone Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Christopher G; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-04-08

    The DNAs encoding the receptors that respond to the peptide mating pheromones of the budding yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiaewere isolated in 1985, and were the very first genes for agonist-binding heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to be cloned in any organism. Now, over 30 years later, this yeast and its receptors continue to provide a pathfinding experimental paradigm for investigating GPCR-initiated signaling and its regulation, as described in this retrospective overview. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Operating regimes of signaling cycles: statics, dynamics, and noise filtering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gomez-Uribe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A ubiquitous building block of signaling pathways is a cycle of covalent modification (e.g., phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in MAPK cascades. Our paper explores the kind of information processing and filtering that can be accomplished by this simple biochemical circuit. Signaling cycles are particularly known for exhibiting a highly sigmoidal (ultrasensitive input-output characteristic in a certain steady-state regime. Here, we systematically study the cycle's steady-state behavior and its response to time-varying stimuli. We demonstrate that the cycle can actually operate in four different regimes, each with its specific input-output characteristics. These results are obtained using the total quasi-steady-state approximation, which is more generally valid than the typically used Michaelis-Menten approximation for enzymatic reactions. We invoke experimental data that suggest the possibility of signaling cycles operating in one of the new regimes. We then consider the cycle's dynamic behavior, which has so far been relatively neglected. We demonstrate that the intrinsic architecture of the cycles makes them act--in all four regimes--as tunable low-pass filters, filtering out high-frequency fluctuations or noise in signals and environmental cues. Moreover, the cutoff frequency can be adjusted by the cell. Numerical simulations show that our analytical results hold well even for noise of large amplitude. We suggest that noise filtering and tunability make signaling cycles versatile components of more elaborate cell-signaling pathways.

  10. Cross-regulation of cytokine signalling: pro-inflammatory cytokines restrict IL-6 signalling through receptor internalisation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Simone; Wüller, Stefan; Yang, Xiang-ping; Lippok, Barbara E; Mütze, Barbara; Mais, Christine; de Leur, Hildegard Schmitz-Van; Bode, Johannes G; Gaestel, Matthias; Heinrich, Peter C; Behrmann, Iris; Schaper, Fred; Hermanns, Heike M

    2010-03-15

    The inflammatory response involves a complex interplay of different cytokines which act in an auto- or paracrine manner to induce the so-called acute phase response. Cytokines are known to crosstalk on multiple levels, for instance by regulating the mRNA stability of targeted cytokines through activation of the p38-MAPK pathway. In our study we discovered a new mechanism that answers the long-standing question how pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress restrict immediate signalling of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines. We show that p38, activated by IL-1beta, TNFalpha or environmental stress, impairs IL-6-induced JAK/STAT signalling through phosphorylation of the common cytokine receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent internalisation and degradation. We identify MK2 as the kinase that phosphorylates serine 782 in the cytoplasmic part of gp130. Consequently, inhibition of p38 or MK2, deletion of MK2 or mutation of crucial amino acids within the MK2 target site or the di-leucine internalisation motif blocks receptor depletion and restores IL-6-dependent STAT activation as well as gene induction. Hence, a novel negative crosstalk mechanism for cytokine signalling is described, where cytokine receptor turnover is regulated in trans by pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress stimuli to coordinate the inflammatory response.

  11. Normalization of TAM post-receptor signaling reveals a cell invasive signature for Axl tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, Stanley G; Kumar, Sushil; Davra, Viralkumar; Chang, Yun-Juan; Kasikara, Canan; Geng, Ke; Tsou, Wen-I; Wang, Shenyan; Hoque, Mainul; Boháč, Andrej; Lewis-Antes, Anita; De Lorenzo, Mariana S; Kotenko, Sergei V; Birge, Raymond B

    2016-09-06

    Tyro3, Axl, and Mertk (TAMs) are a family of three conserved receptor tyrosine kinases that have pleiotropic roles in innate immunity and homeostasis and when overexpressed in cancer cells can drive tumorigenesis. In the present study, we engineered EGFR/TAM chimeric receptors (EGFR/Tyro3, EGFR/Axl, and EGF/Mertk) with the goals to interrogate post-receptor functions of TAMs, and query whether TAMs have unique or overlapping post-receptor activation profiles. Stable expression of EGFR/TAMs in EGFR-deficient CHO cells afforded robust EGF inducible TAM receptor phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling. Using a series of unbiased screening approaches, that include kinome-view analysis, phosphor-arrays, RNAseq/GSEA analysis, as well as cell biological and in vivo readouts, we provide evidence that each TAM has unique post-receptor signaling platforms and identify an intrinsic role for Axl that impinges on cell motility and invasion compared to Tyro3 and Mertk. These studies demonstrate that TAM show unique post-receptor signatures that impinge on distinct gene expression profiles and tumorigenic outcomes.

  12. Targeting CB2-GPR55 Receptor Heteromers Modulates Cancer Cell Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Estefanía; Andradas, Clara; Medrano, Mireia; Caffarel, María M.; Pérez-Gómez, Eduardo; Blasco-Benito, Sandra; Gómez-Cañas, María; Pazos, M. Ruth; Irving, Andrew J.; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I.; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Guzmán, Manuel; McCormick, Peter J.; Sánchez, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptors CB2 (CB2R) and GPR55 are overexpressed in cancer cells and human tumors. Because a modulation of GPR55 activity by cannabinoids has been suggested, we analyzed whether this receptor participates in cannabinoid effects on cancer cells. Here we show that CB2R and GPR55 form heteromers in cancer cells, that these structures possess unique signaling properties, and that modulation of these heteromers can modify the antitumoral activity of cannabinoids in vivo. These findings unveil the existence of previously unknown signaling platforms that help explain the complex behavior of cannabinoids and may constitute new targets for therapeutic intervention in oncology. PMID:24942731

  13. Unveiling Hidden Dynamics of Hippo Signalling: A Systems Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Young Shin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hippo signalling pathway has recently emerged as an important regulator of cell apoptosis and proliferation with significant implications in human diseases. In mammals, the pathway contains the core kinases MST1/2, which phosphorylate and activate LATS1/2 kinases. The pro-apoptotic function of the MST/LATS signalling axis was previously linked to the Akt and ERK MAPK pathways, demonstrating that the Hippo pathway does not act alone but crosstalks with other signalling pathways to coordinate network dynamics and cellular outcomes. These crosstalks were characterised by a multitude of complex regulatory mechanisms involving competitive protein-protein interactions and phosphorylation mediated feedback loops. However, how these different mechanisms interplay in different cellular contexts to drive the context-specific network dynamics of Hippo-ERK signalling remains elusive. Using mathematical modelling and computational analysis, we uncovered that the Hippo-ERK network can generate highly diverse dynamical profiles that can be clustered into distinct dose-response patterns. For each pattern, we offered mechanistic explanation that defines when and how the observed phenomenon can arise. We demonstrated that Akt displays opposing, dose-dependent functions towards ERK, which are mediated by the balance between the Raf-1/MST2 protein interaction module and the LATS1 mediated feedback regulation. Moreover, Ras displays a multi-functional role and drives biphasic responses of both MST2 and ERK activities; which are critically governed by the competitive protein interaction between MST2 and Raf-1. Our study represents the first in-depth and systematic analysis of the Hippo-ERK network dynamics and provides a concrete foundation for future studies.

  14. Interaction Dynamics Determine Signaling and Output Pathway Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Stojanovski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of interaction dynamics in signaling pathways can shed light on pathway architecture and provide insights into targets for intervention. Here, we explored the relevance of kinetic rate constants of a key upstream osmosensor in the yeast high-osmolarity glycerol-mitogen-activated protein kinase (HOG-MAPK pathway to signaling output responses. We created mutant pairs of the Sln1-Ypd1 complex interface that caused major compensating changes in the association (kon and dissociation (koff rate constants (kinetic perturbations but only moderate changes in the overall complex affinity (Kd. Yeast cells carrying a Sln1-Ypd1 mutant pair with moderate increases in kon and koff displayed a lower threshold of HOG pathway activation than wild-type cells. Mutants with higher kon and koff rates gave rise to higher basal signaling and gene expression but impaired osmoadaptation. Thus, the kon and koff rates of the components in the Sln1 osmosensor determine proper signaling dynamics and osmoadaptation.

  15. Resolving dynamics of cell signaling via real-time imaging of the immunological synapse.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Pfeiffer, Janet R. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wilson, Bridget S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomas, James L. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lidke, Keith A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Spendier, Kathrin (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Janet M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Carroll-Portillo, Amanda (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Aaron, Jesse S.; Mirijanian, Dina T.; Carson, Bryan D.; Burns, Alan Richard; Rebeil, Roberto

    2009-10-01

    This highly interdisciplinary team has developed dual-color, total internal reflection microscopy (TIRF-M) methods that enable us to optically detect and track in real time protein migration and clustering at membrane interfaces. By coupling TIRF-M with advanced analysis techniques (image correlation spectroscopy, single particle tracking) we have captured subtle changes in membrane organization that characterize immune responses. We have used this approach to elucidate the initial stages of cell activation in the IgE signaling network of mast cells and the Toll-like receptor (TLR-4) response in macrophages stimulated by bacteria. To help interpret these measurements, we have undertaken a computational modeling effort to connect the protein motion and lipid interactions. This work provides a deeper understanding of the initial stages of cellular response to external agents, including dynamics of interaction of key components in the signaling network at the 'immunological synapse,' the contact region of the cell and its adversary.

  16. Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor signaling and activation of human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina Rode; Kongsbak-Wismann, Martin; Schjerling, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes are key signaling proteins downstream of many extracellular stimuli. Here we show that naive human T cells had very low expression of PLC-gamma1 and that this correlated with low T cell antigen receptor (TCR) responsiveness in naive T cells. However, TCR triggering...... led to an upregulation of approximately 75-fold in PLC-gamma1 expression, which correlated with greater TCR responsiveness. Induction of PLC-gamma1 was dependent on vitamin D and expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Naive T cells did not express VDR, but VDR expression was induced by TCR...... signaling via the alternative mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 pathway. Thus, initial TCR signaling via p38 leads to successive induction of VDR and PLC-gamma1, which are required for subsequent classical TCR signaling and T cell activation....

  17. ABA receptors: The START of a new paradigm in phytohormone signalling

    KAUST Repository

    Klingler, John

    2010-06-03

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in plant development and in plant adaptation to both biotic and abiotic stressors. In recent years, knowledge of ABA metabolism and signal transduction has advanced rapidly to provide detailed glimpses of the hormone\\'s activities at the molecular level. Despite this progress, many gaps in understanding have remained, particularly at the early stages of ABA perception by the plant cell. The search for an ABA receptor protein has produced multiple candidates, including GCR2, GTG1, and GTG2, and CHLH. In addition to these candidates, in 2009 several research groups converged on a novel family of Arabidopsis proteins that bind ABA, and thereby interact directly with a class of protein phosphatases that are well known as critical players in ABA signal transduction. The PYR/PYL/RCAR receptor family is homologous to the Bet v 1-fold and START domain proteins. It consists of 14 members, nearly all of which appear capable of participating in an ABA receptor-signal complex that responds to the hormone by activating the transcription of ABA-responsive genes. Evidence is provided here that PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors can also drive the phosphorylation of the slow anion channel SLAC1 to provide a fast and timely response to the ABA signal. Crystallographic studies have vividly shown the mechanics of ABA binding to PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, presenting a model that bears some resemblance to the binding of gibberellins to GID1 receptors. Since this ABA receptor family is highly conserved in crop species, its discovery is likely to usher a new wave of progress in the elucidation and manipulation of plant stress responses in agricultural settings. © 2010 The Author(s).

  18. Heparanase augments insulin receptor signaling in breast carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Rachel; Sonnenblick, Amir; Hermano, Esther; Hamburger, Tamar; Meirovitz, Amichay; Peretz, Tamar; Elkin, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Recently, growing interest in the potential link between metabolic disorders (i.e., diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome) and breast cancer has mounted, including studies which indicate that diabetic/hyperinsulinemic women have a significantly higher risk of bearing breast tumors that are more aggressive and associated with higher death rates. Insulin signaling is regarded as a major contributor to this phenomenon; much less is known about the role of heparan sulfate-degrading enzyme heparanase in the link between metabolic disorders and cancer. In the present study we analyzed clinical samples of breast carcinoma derived from diabetic/non-diabetic patients, and investigated effects of heparanase on insulin signaling in breast carcinoma cell lines, as well as insulin-driven growth of breast tumor cells. We demonstrate that heparanase activity leads to enhanced insulin signaling and activation of downstream tumor-promoting pathways in breast carcinoma cells. In agreement, heparanase enhances insulin-induced proliferation of breast tumor cells in vitro. Moreover, analyzing clinical data from diabetic breast carcinoma patients, we found that concurrent presence of both diabetic state and heparanase in tumor tissue (as opposed to either condition alone) was associated with more aggressive phenotype of breast tumors in the patient cohort analyzed in our study (two-sided Fisher's exact test; p=0.04). Our findings highlight the emerging role of heparanase in powering effect of hyperinsulinemic state on breast tumorigenesis and imply that heparanase targeting, which is now under intensive development/clinical testing, could be particularly efficient in a growing fraction of breast carcinoma patients suffering from metabolic disorders. PMID:28038446

  19. Signaling-sensitive amino acids surround the allosteric ligand binding site of the thyrotropin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Haas, Ann-Karin; Neumann, Susanne; Worth, Catherine L; Hoyer, Inna; Furkert, Jens; Rutz, Claudia; Gershengorn, Marvin C; Schülein, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2010-07-01

    The thyrotropin receptor [thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR)], a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is endogenously activated by thyrotropin, which binds to the extracellular region of the receptor. We previously identified a low-molecular-weight (LMW) agonist of the TSHR and predicted its allosteric binding pocket within the receptor's transmembrane domain. Because binding of the LMW agonist probably disrupts interactions or leads to formation of new interactions among amino acid residues surrounding the pocket, we tested whether mutation of residues at these positions would lead to constitutive signaling activity. Guided by molecular modeling, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 24 amino acids in this spatial region, followed by functional characterization of the mutant receptors in terms of expression and signaling, measured as cAMP accumulation. We found that mutations V421I, Y466A, T501A, L587V, M637C, M637W, S641A, Y643F, L645V, and Y667A located in several helices exhibit constitutive activity. Of note is mutation M637W at position 6.48 in transmembrane helix 6, which has a significant effect on the interaction of the receptor with the LMW agonist. In summary, we found that a high proportion of residues in several helices surrounding the allosteric binding site of LMW ligands in the TSHR when mutated lead to constitutively active receptors. Our findings of signaling-sensitive residues in this region of the transmembrane bundle may be of general importance as this domain appears to be evolutionarily retained among GPCRs.

  20. E3 Ubiquitin Ligase RNF125 Activates Interleukin-36 Receptor Signaling and Contributes to Its Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Siddhartha S; Caviness, Gary; Yi, Guanghui; Raymond, Ernest L; Mbow, M Lamine; Kao, C Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Signaling by the interleukin-36 receptor (IL-36R) is linked to inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. However, the regulation of IL-36R signaling is poorly understood. Activation of IL-36R signaling in cultured cells results in an increased polyubiquitination of the receptor subunit, IL-1Rrp2. Treatment with deubiquitinases shows that the receptor subunit of IL-36R, IL-1Rrp2, is primarily polyubiquitinated at the K63 position, which is associated with endocytic trafficking and signal transduction. A minor amount of ubiquitination is at the K48 position that is associated with protein degradation. A focused siRNA screen identified RNF125, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, to ubiquitinate IL-1Rrp2 upon activation of IL-36R signaling while not affecting the activated IL-1 receptor. Knockdown of RNF125 decreases signal transduction by the IL-36R. Overexpression of RNF125 in HEK293T cells activates IL-36R signaling and increases the ubiquitination of IL-1Rrp2 and its subsequent turnover. RNF125 can coimmunoprecipitate with the IL-36R, and it traffics with IL-1Rrp2 from the cell surface to lysosomes. Mutations of Lys568 and Lys569 in the C-terminal tail of IL-1Rrp2 decrease ubiquitination by RNF125 and increase the steady-state levels of IL-1Rrp2. These results demonstrate that RNF125 has multiple regulatory roles in the signaling, trafficking, and turnover of the IL-36R. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Subcellular Localization of Patched and Smoothened, the Receptors for Sonic Hedgehog Signaling, in the Hippocampal Neuron

    OpenAIRE

    Petralia, Ronald S.; Schwartz, Catherine M.; Wang, Ya-Xian; Mattson, Mark P.; Yao, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative evidence suggests that, aside from patterning the embryonic neural tube, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays important roles in the mature nervous system. In this study, we investigate the expression and localization of the Shh signaling receptors, Patched (Ptch) and Smoothened (Smo), in the hippocampal neurons of young and mature rats. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses show that the expression of Ptch and Smo remains at a moderate level i...

  2. DESENSITIZATION PROPERTIES OF P2X3 RECEPTORS SHAPING PAIN SIGNALLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid eGiniatullin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ATP-gated P2X3 receptors are mostly expressed by nociceptive sensory neurons and participate in transduction of pain signals. P2X3 receptors show a combination of fast desensitization onset and slow recovery. Moreover, even low nanomolar agonist concentrations unable to evoke a response, can induce desensitization via a phenomenon called ‘high affinity desensitization’. We have also observed that recovery from desensitization is agonist-specific and can range from seconds to minutes. The recovery process displays unusually high temperature dependence. Likewise, recycling of P2X3 receptors in peri-membrane regions shows unexpectedly large temperature sensitivity. By applying kinetic modeling, we have previously shown that desensitization characteristics of P2X3 receptor are best explained with a cyclic model of receptor operation involving three agonist molecules binding a single receptor and that desensitization is primarily developing from the open receptor state. Mutagenesis experiments suggested that desensitization depends on a certain conformation of the ATP binding pocket and on the structure of the transmembrane domains forming the ion pore. Further molecular determinants of desensitization have been identified by mutating the intracellular N- and C-termini of P2X3 receptor. Unlike other P2X receptors, the P2X3 subtype is facilitated by extracellular calcium that acts via specific sites in the ectodomain neighboring the ATP binding pocket. Thus, substitution of serine275 in this region (called ‘left flipper’ converts the natural facilitation induced by extracellular calcium to receptor inhibition. Given such their strategic location in nociceptive neurons and unique desensitization properties, P2X3 receptors represent an attractive target for development of new analgesic drugs via promotion of desensitization aimed at suppressing chronic pain.

  3. Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in Renal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis can be induced in different renal diseases, but ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. Although the pathophysiologic process of renal fibrosis have not been fully elucidated, it is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and/or tubular interstitial fibrosis, and is believed to be caused by the proliferation of renal inherent cells, including glomerular epithelial cells, mesangial cells, and endothelial cells, along with defective kidney repair, renal interstitial fibroblasts activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs regulate a variety of cell physiological processes, including metabolism, growth, differentiation, and survival. Many studies from in vitro and animal models have provided evidence that RTKs play important roles in the pathogenic process of renal fibrosis. It is also showed that tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs have anti-fibrotic effects in basic research and clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the evidence for involvement of specific RTKs in renal fibrosis process and the employment of TKIs as a therapeutic approach for renal fibrosis.

  4. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kourouniotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF to EGF receptor (EGFR stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis.

  5. The receptor kinase CERK1 has dual functions in symbiosis and immunity signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Dong, Wentao; Sun, Jongho; Feng, Feng; Deng, Yiwen; He, Zuhua; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Wang, Ertao

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of symbiotic interactions between mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobial bacteria and their legume hosts involves a common symbiosis signalling pathway. This signalling pathway is activated by Nod factors produced by rhizobia and these are recognised by the Nod factor receptors NFR1/LYK3 and NFR5/NFP. Mycorrhizal fungi produce lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) similar to Nod factors, as well as short-chain chitin oligomers (CO4/5), implying commonalities in signalling during mycorrhizal and rhizobial associations. Here we show that NFR1/LYK3, but not NFR5/NFP, is required for the establishment of the mycorrhizal interaction in legumes. NFR1/LYK3 is necessary for the recognition of mycorrhizal fungi and the activation of the symbiosis signalling pathway leading to induction of calcium oscillations and gene expression. Chitin oligosaccharides also act as microbe associated molecular patterns that promote plant immunity via similar LysM receptor-like kinases. CERK1 in rice has the highest homology to NFR1 and we show that this gene is also necessary for the establishment of the mycorrhizal interaction as well as for resistance to the rice blast fungus. Our results demonstrate that NFR1/LYK3/OsCERK1 represents a common receptor for chitooligosaccharide-based signals produced by mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobial bacteria (in legumes) and fungal pathogens. It would appear that mycorrhizal recognition has been conserved in multiple receptors across plant species, but additional diversification in certain plant species has defined other signals that this class of receptors can perceive. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist Losartan binds and activates bradykinin B2 receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marie Mi; Olsen, Kristine Boisen; Erikstrup, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker (ARB) Losartan has cardioprotective effects during ischemia-reperfusion injury and inhibits reperfusion arrhythmias -effects that go beyond the benefits of lowering blood pressure. The renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems are intricately...

  7. Role of ERK/MAPK in endothelin receptor signaling in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qing-wen; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2009-01-01

    muscle cells (VSMCs) through activation of endothelin type A (ETA) and type B (ETB) receptors. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are involved in ET-1-induced VSMC contraction and proliferation. This study was designed to investigat...

  8. Legume receptors perceive the rhizobial lipochitin oligosaccharide signal molecules by direct binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broghammer, Angelique; Krusell, Lene; Blaise, Mickael

    2012-01-01

    Lipochitin oligosaccharides called Nod factors function as primary rhizobial signal molecules triggering legumes to develop new plant organs: root nodules that host the bacteria as nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Here, we show that the Lotus japonicus Nod factor receptor 5 (NFR5) and Nod factor recep...

  9. In Vivo Phosphoproteomics Analysis Reveals the Cardiac Targets of β-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Andersen, Martin N; Steffensen, Annette B

    2013-01-01

    β-Blockers are widely used to prevent cardiac arrhythmias and to treat hypertension by inhibiting β-adrenergic receptors (βARs) and thus decreasing contractility and heart rate. βARs initiate phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascades, but only a small number of the target proteins are known. We...

  10. Fluorescence analysis of the Hansenula polymorpha peroxisomal targeting signal-1 receptor, Pex5p

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boteva, R.; Koek, A.; Visser, N.V.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Krieger, E.; Zlateva, T.; Veenhuis, M.; Klei, van der I.

    2003-01-01

    Correct sorting of newly synthesized peroxisomal matrix proteins is dependent on a peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS). So far two PTSs are known. PTS1 consists of a tripeptide that is located at the extreme C terminus of matrix proteins and is specifically recognized by the PTS1-receptor Pex5p. We

  11. What do we really know about 5-HT1A receptor signaling in neuronal cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNY LUCY FIEDLER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in neuronal plasticity. Variations in the levels of 5-HT at the synaptic cleft, expression or dysfunction of serotonin receptors may alter brain development and predispose to various mental diseases. Here, we review the transduction pathways described in various cell types transfected with recombinant 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR, specially contrasting with those findings obtained in neuronal cells. The 5-HT1AR is detected in early stages of neural development and is located in the soma, dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons. The 5-HT1AR differs from other serotonin receptors because it is coupled to different pathways, depending on the targeted cell. The signaling pathway associated with this receptor is determined by Gα isoforms and some cascades involve βγ signaling. The activity of 5-HT1AR usually promotes a reduction in neuronal excitability and firing, provokes a variation in cAMP and Ca2+, levels which may be linked to specific types of behavior and cognition. Furthermore, evidence indicates that 5-HT1AR induces neuritogesis and synapse formation, probably by modulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton through MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Advances in understanding the actions of 5-HT1AR and its association with different signaling pathways in the central nervous system will reveal their pivotal role in health and disease.

  12. Activation of Toll-like receptors nucleates assembly of the MyDDosome signaling hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latty, Sarah Louise; Sakai, Jiro; Hopkins, Lee; Verstak, Brett; Paramo, Teresa; Berglund, Nils A; Cammorota, Eugenia; Cicuta, Pietro; Gay, Nicholas J; Bond, Peter J; Klenerman, David; Bryant, Clare E

    2018-01-24

    Infection and tissue damage induces assembly of supramolecular organizing centres (SMOCs)), such as the Toll-like receptor (TLR) MyDDosome, to co-ordinate inflammatory signaling. SMOC assembly is thought to drive digital all-or-none responses, yet TLR activation by diverse microbes induces anything from mild to severe inflammation. Using single-molecule imaging of TLR4-MyDDosome signaling in living macrophages, we find that MyDDosomes assemble within minutes of TLR4 stimulation. TLR4/MD2 activation leads only to formation of TLR4/MD2 heterotetramers, but not oligomers, suggesting a stoichiometric mismatch between activated receptors and MyDDosomes. The strength of TLR4 signalling depends not only on the number and size of MyDDosomes formed but also how quickly these structures assemble. Activated TLR4, therefore, acts transiently nucleating assembly of MyDDosomes, a process that is uncoupled from receptor activation. These data explain how the oncogenic mutation of MyD88 (L265P) assembles MyDDosomes in the absence of receptor activation to cause constitutive activation of pro-survival NF-κB signalling. © 2018, Latty et al.

  13. Growth Hormone Receptor Signaling Pathways and its Negative Regulation by SOCS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández Pérez, Leandro; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Guerra, Borja

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a critical regulator of linear body growth during childhood but continues to have important metabolic actions throughout life. The GH receptor (GHR) is ubiquitously expressed, and deficiency of GHR signaling causes a dramatic impact on normal physiology during somatic devel...

  14. Sortilin Associates with Trk Receptors to Enhance Anterograde Transport and Signaling by Neurotrophins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard

      Neurotrophins (NT) are neuronal growth factors essential for development and maintenance of the nervous system. They are released in two forms with opposing biological functions. The proforms induce apoptosis by engaging a death signaling complex comprising the p75NTR neurotrophin receptor...

  15. Integration of Nuclear- and Extranuclear-Initiated Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madak Erdogan, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    Estrogenic hormones exert their effects through binding to Estrogen Receptors (ERs), which work in concert with coregulators and extranuclear signaling pathways to control gene expression in normal as well as cancerous states, including breast tumors. In this thesis, we have used multiple genome-wide analysis tools to elucidate various ways that…

  16. Disruption of glucagon receptor signaling causes hyperaminoacidemia exposing a possible liver - alpha-cell axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galsgaard, Katrine D; Winther-Sørensen, Marie; Ørskov, Cathrine

    2018-01-01

    Glucagon secreted from the pancreatic alpha-cells is essential for regulation of blood glucose levels. However, glucagon may play an equally important role in the regulation of amino acid metabolism by promoting ureagenesis. We hypothesized that disruption of glucagon receptor signaling would lead...

  17. High constitutive signaling of the ghrelin receptor--identification of a potent inverse agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Cygankiewicz, Adam; Jensen, Tine Halkjaer

    2003-01-01

    Ghrelin is a GH-releasing peptide that also has an important role as an orexigenic hormone-stimulating food intake. By measuring inositol phosphate turnover or by using a reporter assay for transcriptional activity controlled by cAMP-responsive elements, the ghrelin receptor showed strong, ligand......-independent signaling in transfected COS-7 or human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Ghrelin and a number of the known nonpeptide GH secretagogues acted as agonists stimulating inositol phosphate turnover further. In contrast, the low potency ghrelin antagonist, [D-Arg1,D-Phe5,D-Trp7,9,Leu11]-substance P was surprisingly...... found to be a high potency (EC50 = 5.2 nm) full inverse agonist as it decreased the constitutive signaling of the ghrelin receptor down to that observed in untransfected cells. The homologous motilin receptor functioned as a negative control as it did not display any sign of constitutive activity...

  18. Role of Cbl-associated protein/ponsin in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Tikkanen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cbl-associated protein/ponsin (CAP is an adaptor protein that contains a so-called Sorbin homology (SoHo domain and three Src homology 3 (SH3 domains which are engaged in diverse protein-protein interactions. CAP has been shown to function in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion and to be involved in the differentiation of muscle cells and adipocytes. In addition, it participates in signaling pathways through several receptor tyrosine kinases such as insulin and neurotrophin receptors. In the last couple of years, several studies have shed light on the details of these processes and identified novel interaction partners of CAP. In this review, we summarize these recent findings and provide an overview on the function of CAP especially in cell adhesion and membrane receptor signaling.

  19. Vitamin D receptor–retinoid X receptor heterodimer signaling regulates oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Alerie Guzman; Errea, Oihana; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Gonzalez, Ginez A.; Kerninon, Christophe; Jarjour, Andrew A.; Lewis, Hilary J.; Jones, Clare A.; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim; Zhao, Chao; Huang, Jeffrey K.; ffrench-Constant, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms regulating differentiation of oligodendrocyte (OLG) progenitor cells (OPCs) into mature OLGs are key to understanding myelination and remyelination. Signaling via the retinoid X receptor γ (RXR-γ) has been shown to be a positive regulator of OPC differentiation. However, the nuclear receptor (NR) binding partner of RXR-γ has not been established. In this study we show that RXR-γ binds to several NRs in OPCs and OLGs, one of which is vitamin D receptor (VDR). Using pharmacological and knockdown approaches we show that RXR–VDR signaling induces OPC differentiation and that VDR agonist vitamin D enhances OPC differentiation. We also show expression of VDR in OLG lineage cells in multiple sclerosis. Our data reveal a role for vitamin D in the regenerative component of demyelinating disease and identify a new target for remyelination medicines. PMID:26644513

  20. Hypocretin/Orexin regulation of dopamine signaling and cocaine self-administration is mediated predominantly by hypocretin receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Courtney D; Rau, Andrew R; Yorgason, Jordan T; España, Rodrigo A

    2015-01-21

    Extensive evidence suggests that the hypocretins/orexins influence cocaine reinforcement and dopamine signaling via actions at hypocretin receptor 1. By comparison, the involvement of hypocretin receptor 2 in reward and reinforcement processes has received relatively little attention. Thus, although there is some evidence that hypocretin receptor 2 regulates intake of some drugs of abuse, it is currently unclear to what extent hypocretin receptor 2 participates in the regulation of dopamine signaling or cocaine self-administration, particularly under high effort conditions. To address this, we examined the effects of hypocretin receptor 1, and/or hypocretin receptor 2 blockade on dopamine signaling and cocaine reinforcement. We used in vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry to test the effects of hypocretin antagonists on dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core and a progressive ratio schedule to examine the effects of these antagonists on cocaine self-administration. Results demonstrate that blockade of either hypocretin receptor 1 or both hypocretin receptor 1 and 2 significantly reduces the effects of cocaine on dopamine signaling and decreases the motivation to take cocaine. In contrast, blockade of hypocretin receptor 2 alone had no significant effects on dopamine signaling or self-administration. These findings suggest a differential involvement of the two hypocretin receptors, with hypocretin receptor 1 appearing to be more involved than hypocretin receptor 2 in the regulation of dopamine signaling and cocaine self-administration. When considered with the existing literature, these data support the hypothesis that hypocretins exert a permissive influence on dopamine signaling and motivated behavior via preferential actions on hypocretin receptor 1.

  1. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) displays sustained S1P1 receptor agonism and signaling through S1P lyase-dependent receptor recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatfield, John; Monnier, Lucile; Studer, Rolf; Bolli, Martin H; Steiner, Beat; Nayler, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) type 1 receptor (S1P1R) is a novel therapeutic target in lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune diseases. S1P1 receptor desensitization caused by synthetic S1P1 receptor agonists prevents T-lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid organs into the circulation. The selective S1P1 receptor agonist ponesimod, which is in development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, efficiently reduces peripheral lymphocyte counts and displays efficacy in animal models of autoimmune disease. Using ponesimod and the natural ligand S1P, we investigated the molecular mechanisms leading to different signaling, desensitization and trafficking behavior of S1P1 receptors. In recombinant S1P1 receptor-expressing cells, ponesimod and S1P triggered Gαi protein-mediated signaling and β-arrestin recruitment with comparable potency and efficiency, but only ponesimod efficiently induced intracellular receptor accumulation. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), ponesimod and S1P triggered translocation of the endogenous S1P1 receptor to the Golgi compartment. However, only ponesimod treatment caused efficient surface receptor depletion, receptor accumulation in the Golgi and degradation. Impedance measurements in HUVEC showed that ponesimod induced only short-lived Gαi protein-mediated signaling followed by resistance to further stimulation, whereas S1P induced sustained Gαi protein-mediated signaling without desensitization. Inhibition of S1P lyase activity in HUVEC rendered S1P an efficient S1P1 receptor internalizing compound and abrogated S1P-mediated sustained signaling. This suggests that S1P lyase - by facilitating S1P1 receptor recycling - is essential for S1P-mediated sustained signaling, and that synthetic agonists are functional antagonists because they are not S1P lyase substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Possible signals of vacuum dynamics in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peracaula, Joan Solà; de Cruz Pérez, Javier; Gómez-Valent, Adrià

    2018-05-01

    We study a generic class of time-evolving vacuum models which can provide a better phenomenological account of the overall cosmological observations as compared to the ΛCDM. Among these models, the running vacuum model (RVM) appears to be the most motivated and favored one, at a confidence level of ˜3σ. We further support these results by computing the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria. Our analysis also shows that we can extract fair signals of dynamical dark energy (DDE) by confronting the same set of data to the generic XCDM and CPL parametrizations. In all cases we confirm that the combined triad of modern observations on Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations, Large Scale Structure formation, and the Cosmic Microwave Background, provide the bulk of the signal sustaining a possible vacuum dynamics. In the absence of any of these three crucial data sources, the DDE signal can not be perceived at a significant confidence level. Its possible existence could be a cure for some of the tensions existing in the ΛCDM when confronted to observations.

  3. Effect of spatial inhomogeneities on the membrane surface on receptor dimerization and signal initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romica Kerketta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Important signal transduction pathways originate on the plasma membrane, where microdomains may transiently entrap diffusing receptors. This results in a non-random distribution of receptors even in the resting state, which can be visualized as clusters by high resolution imaging methods. Here, we explore how spatial in-homogeneities in the plasma membrane might influence the dimerization and phosphorylation status of ErbB2 and ErbB3, two receptor tyrosine kinases that preferentially heterodimerize and are often co-expressed in cancer. This theoretical study is based upon spatial stochastic simulations of the two-dimensional membrane landscape, where variables include differential distributions and overlap of transient confinement zones (domains for the two receptor species. The in silico model is parameterized and validated using data from single particle tracking experiments. We report key differences in signaling output based on the degree of overlap between domains and the relative retention of receptors in such domains, expressed as escape probability. Results predict that a high overlap of domains, which favors transient co-confinement of both receptor species, will enhance the rate of hetero-interactions. Where domains do not overlap, simulations confirm expectations that homo-interactions are favored. Since ErbB3 is uniquely dependent on ErbB2 interactions for activation of its catalytic activity, variations in domain overlap or escape probability markedly alter the predicted patterns and time course of ErbB3 and ErbB2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results implicate membrane domain organization as an important modulator of signal initiation, motivating the design of novel experimental approaches to measure these important parameters across a wider range of receptor systems.

  4. Signaling Properties of Chemerin Receptors CMKLR1, GPR1 and CCRL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Henau, Olivier; Degroot, Gaetan-Nagim; Imbault, Virginie; Robert, Virginie; De Poorter, Cédric; Mcheik, Saria; Galés, Céline; Parmentier, Marc; Springael, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a small chemotactic protein originally identified as the natural ligand of CMKLR1. More recently, two other receptors, GPR1 and CCRL2, have been reported to bind chemerin but their functional relevance remains poorly understood. In this study, we compared the binding and signaling properties of the three human chemerin receptors and showed differences in mode of chemerin binding and receptor signaling. Chemerin binds to all three receptors with low nanomolar affinities. However, the contribution of the chemerin C-terminus to binding efficiency varies greatly amongst receptors. By using BRET-based biosensors monitoring the activation of various G proteins, we showed that binding of chemerin and the chemerin 9 nonapeptide (149YFPGQFAFS157) to CMKLR1 activates the three Gαi subtypes (Gαi1, Gαi2 and Gαi3) and the two Gαo isoforms (Gαoa and Gαob) with potencies correlated to binding affinities. In contrast, no significant activation of G proteins was detected upon binding of chemerin to GPR1 or CCRL2. Binding of chemerin and the chemerin 9 peptide also induced the recruitment of β-arrestin1 and 2 to CMKLR1 and GPR1, though to various degree, but not to CCRL2. However, the propensity of chemerin 9 to activate β-arrestins relative to chemerin is higher when bound to GPR1. Finally, we showed that binding of chemerin to CMKLR1 and GPR1 promotes also the internalization of the two receptors and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases, although with a different efficiency, and that phosphorylation of ERK1/2 requires both Gαi/o and β-arrestin2 activation but not β-arrestin1. Collectively, these data support a model in which each chemerin receptor displays selective signaling properties.

  5. δ-opioid receptor and somatostatin receptor-4 heterodimerization: possible implications in modulation of pain associated signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi K Somvanshi

    Full Text Available Pain relief is the principal action of opioids. Somatostatin (SST, a growth hormone inhibitory peptide is also known to alleviate pain even in cases when opioids fail. Recent studies have shown that mice are prone to sustained pain and devoid of analgesic effect in the absence of somatostatin receptor 4 (SSTR4. In the present study, using brain slices, cultured neurons and HEK-293 cells, we showed that SSTR4 and δ-Opioid receptor (δOR exist in a heteromeric complex and function in synergistic manner. SSTR4 and δOR co-expressed in cortical/striatal brain regions and spinal cord. Using cultured neuronal cells, we describe the heterogeneous complex formation of SSTR4 and δOR at neuronal cell body and processes. Cotransfected cells display inhibition of cAMP/PKA and co-activation of SSTR4 and δOR oppose receptor trafficking induced by individual receptor activation. Furthermore, downstream signaling pathways either associated with withdrawal or pain relief are modulated synergistically with a predominant role of SSTR4. Inhibition of cAMP/PKA and activation of ERK1/2 are the possible cellular adaptations to prevent withdrawal induced by chronic morphine use. Our results reveal direct intra-membrane interaction between SSTR4 and δOR and provide insights for the molecular mechanism for the anti-nociceptive property of SST in combination with opioids as a potential therapeutic approach to avoid undesirable withdrawal symptoms.

  6. UDP/P2Y6 receptor signaling regulates IgE-dependent degranulation in human basophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Nakano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that UDP/P2Y6 receptor signaling is involved in the regulation of IgE-dependent degranulation in basophils, which might stimulate the P2Y6 receptor via the autocrine secretion of UTP. Thus, this receptor represents a potential target to regulate IgE-dependent degranulation in basophils during allergic diseases.

  7. Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Reveals Shp-2 Phosphatase-Dependent Regulators of Pdgf Receptor Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Papetti, Moreno; Pfeiffer, Anamarija

    2018-01-01

    Despite its low cellular abundance, phosphotyrosine (pTyr) regulates numerous cell signaling pathways in health and disease. We applied comprehensive phosphoproteomics to unravel differential regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-initiated signaling networks upon activation by Pdgf-ββ, Fgf-2...... of Pdgfr pTyr signaling. Application of a recently introduced allosteric Shp-2 inhibitor revealed global regulation of the Pdgf-dependent tyrosine phosphoproteome, which significantly impaired cell migration. In addition, we present a list of hundreds of Shp-2-dependent targets and putative substrates...

  8. S1P receptor signalling and RGS proteins; expression and function in vascular smooth muscle cells and transfected CHO cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks-Balk, Mariëlle C.; van Loenen, Pieter B.; Hajji, Najat; Michel, Martin C.; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Alewijnse, Astrid E.

    2009-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signalling via G protein-coupled receptors is important for the regulation of cell function and differentiation. Specific Regulators of G protein Signalling (RGS) proteins modulate the function of these receptors in many cell types including vascular smooth muscle cells

  9. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  10. Connexins and M3 Muscarinic Receptors Contribute to Heterogeneous Ca2+ Signaling in Mouse Aortic Endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Boittin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Smooth muscle tone is controlled by Ca2+ signaling in the endothelial layer. Mouse endothelial cells are interconnected by gap junctions made of Connexin40 (Cx40 and Cx37, which allow the exchange of signaling molecules to coordinate their activity. Here, we investigated the role of Cx40 in the endothelial Ca2+ signaling of the mouse aorta. Methods: Ca2+ imaging was performed on intact aortic endothelium from both wild type (Cx40+/+ and Connexin40-deficient (Cx40 -/- mice. Results: Acetylcholine (ACh induced early fast and high amplitude Ca2+ transients in a fraction of endothelial cells expressing the M3 muscarinic receptors. Inhibition of intercellular communication using carbenoxolone or octanol fully blocked the propagation of ACh-induced Ca2+ transients toward adjacent cells in WT and Cx40-/- mice. As compared to WT, Cx40-/- mice displayed a reduced propagation of ACh-induced Ca2+ waves, indicating that Cx40 contributes to the spreading of Ca2+ signals. The propagation of those Ca2+ responses was not blocked by suramin, a blocker of purinergic ATP receptors, indicating that there is no paracrine effect of ATP release on the Ca2+ waves. Conclusions: Altogether our data show that Cx40 and Cx37 contribute to the propagation and amplification of the Ca2+ signaling triggered by ACh in endothelial cells expressing the M3 muscarinic receptors.

  11. Expression of G(alpha)(s) proteins and TSH receptor signalling in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules with TSH receptor mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Hans-Peter; Bergner, Beate; Wonerow, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2002-07-01

    Constitutively activating mutations of the thyrotrophin receptor (TSHR) are the main molecular cause of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HTNs). The G protein coupling is an important and critical step in the TSHR signalling which mainly includes G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins. We investigated the in vitro consequences of overexpressing G(alpha) proteins on signalling of the wild-type (WT) or mutated TSHR. Moreover, we investigated whether changes in G(alpha) protein expression are pathophysiologically relevant in HTNs or cold thyroid nodules (CTNs). Wild-type TSH receptor and mutated TSH receptors were coexpressed with G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) or G(alpha)(q)/11, and cAMP and inositol phosphate (IP) production was measured after stimulation with TSH. The expression of G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins was examined by Western blotting in 28 HTNs and 14 CTNs. Coexpression of G(alpha)(s) with the WT TSH receptor in COS 7 cells significantly increased the basal and TSH-stimulated cAMP accumulation while coexpression of the G(alpha)(q) or G(alpha)11 protein significantly increased the production of cAMP and inositol triphosphate (IP(3)). The coexpression of the TSH receptor mutants (I486F, DEL613-621), known to couple constitutively to G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q) with G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q)/11, significantly increased the basal and stimulated cAMP and IP(3) accumulation. Coexpression of the TSH receptor mutant V556F with G(alpha)(s) only increased the basal and stimulated cAMP production while its coexpression with G(alpha)(q)/11 increased the basal and stimulated IP(3) signalling. The expression of G(alpha)(s) protein subunits determined by Western blotting was significantly decreased in 14 HTNs with a constitutively activating TSH receptor mutation in comparison with the corresponding surrounding tissue, while in 14 HTNs without TSH receptor or G(alpha)(s) protein mutation and in 14 CTNs the expression of G

  12. Signaling by myeloid C-type lectin receptors in immunity and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, David; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid cells are key drivers of physiological responses to pathogen invasion or tissue damage. Members of the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family stand out among the specialized receptors utilized by myeloid cells to orchestrate these responses. CLR ligands include carbohydrate, protein, and lipid components of both pathogens and self, which variably trigger endocytic, phagocytic, proinflammatory, or anti-inflammatory reactions. These varied outcomes rely on a versatile system for CLR signaling that includes tyrosine-based motifs that recruit kinases, phosphatases, or endocytic adaptors as well as nontyrosine-based signals that modulate the activation of other pathways or couple to the uptake machinery. Here, we review the signaling properties of myeloid CLRs and how they impact the role of myeloid cells in innate and adaptive immunity.

  13. Dopamine receptors modulate cytotoxicity of natural killer cells via cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter in the nervous system, has been shown to modulate immune function. We have previously reported that five subtypes of DA receptors, including D1R, D2R, D3R, D4R and D5R, are expressed in T lymphocytes and they are involved in regulation of T cells. However, roles of these DA receptor subtypes and their coupled signal-transduction pathway in modulation of natural killer (NK cells still remain to be clarified. The spleen of mice was harvested and NK cells were isolated and purified by negative selection using magnetic activated cell sorting. After NK cells were incubated with various drugs for 4 h, flow cytometry measured cytotoxicity of NK cells against YAC-1 lymphoma cells. NK cells expressed the five subtypes of DA receptors at mRNA and protein levels. Activation of D1-like receptors (including D1R and D5R with agonist SKF38393 enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity, but activation of D2-like receptors (including D2R, D3R and D4R with agonist quinpirole attenuated NK cells. Simultaneously, SKF38393 elevated D1R and D5R expression, cAMP content, and phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding (CREB level in NK cells, while quinpirole reduced D3R and D4R expression, cAMP content, and phosphorylated CREB level in NK cells. These effects of SKF38393 were blocked by SCH23390, an antagonist of D1-like receptors, and quinpirole effects were abolished by haloperidol, an antagonist of D2-like receptors. In support these results, H89, an inhibitor of phosphokinase A (PKA, prevented the SKF38393-dependent enhancement of NK cells and forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC, counteracted the quinpirole-dependent suppression of NK cells. These findings show that DA receptor subtypes are involved in modulation of NK cells and suggest that D1-like receptors facilitate NK cells by stimulating D1R/D5R-cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway and D2-like receptors suppress NK cells by inhibiting D3R/D4R-cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway. The

  14. FEL small signal dynamics and electron beam prebunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.

    1993-01-01

    A seed signal and/or a pre-bunched electron beam may provide the start up of a free electron laser (FEL). Recently, interest has grown around FEL's operating with pre-bunched electron beams; this paper is, therefore, devoted to the analysis of the dynamic features of FEL's operating in such a configuration. It exploits a slightly modified form of the FEL high gain equation to derive quantities of practical interest like the dependence of the system growth rate on the bunching coefficients

  15. Estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT1A receptor signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is independent of estrogen receptor-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Dania V; Dai, Ying; Thomas, Peter; Carrasco, Gonzalo A; DonCarlos, Lydia L; Muma, Nancy A; Li, Qian

    2010-08-01

    Estradiol regulates serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor signaling. Since desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptors may be an underlying mechanism by which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) mediate their therapeutic effects and combining estradiol with SSRIs enhances the efficacy of the SSRIs, it is important to determine which estrogen receptors are capable of desensitizating 5-HT(1A) receptor function. We previously demonstrated that selective activation of the estrogen receptor, GPR30, desensitizes 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling in rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). However, since estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta), is highly expressed in the PVN, we investigated the role of ERbeta in estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling. We first showed that a selective ERbeta agonist, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) has a 100-fold lower binding affinity than estradiol for GPR30. Administration of DPN did not desensitize 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling in rat PVN as demonstrated by agonist-stimulated hormone release. Second, we used a recombinant adenovirus containing ERbeta siRNAs to decrease ERbeta expression in the PVN. Reductions in ERbeta did not alter the estradiol-induced desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling in oxytocin cells. In contrast, in animals with reduced ERbeta, estradiol administration, instead of producing desensitization, augmented the ACTH response to a 5-HT(1A) agonist. Combined with the results from the DPN treatment experiments, desensitization of 5-HT(1A) receptor signaling does not appear to be mediated by ERbeta in oxytocin cells, but that ERbeta, together with GPR30, may play a complex role in central regulation of 5-HT(1A)-mediated ACTH release. Determining the mechanisms by which estrogens induce desensitization may aid in the development of better treatments for mood disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Serpentine Way to Signaling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    the cell. The receptor transfers the signal to intracellular proteins ... and molecular mechanisms of GPCR signaling and how this discovery impacts ..... stabilize GPCR–G-protein interaction and resolve dynamics of ... elucidation stages. Kobilka.

  17. Analysis of a dynamic model of guard cell signaling reveals the stability of signal propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiao; Albert, RéKa

    Analyzing the long-term behaviors (attractors) of dynamic models of biological systems can provide valuable insight into biological phenotypes and their stability. We identified the long-term behaviors of a multi-level, 70-node discrete dynamic model of the stomatal opening process in plants. We reduce the model's huge state space by reducing unregulated nodes and simple mediator nodes, and by simplifying the regulatory functions of selected nodes while keeping the model consistent with experimental observations. We perform attractor analysis on the resulting 32-node reduced model by two methods: 1. converting it into a Boolean model, then applying two attractor-finding algorithms; 2. theoretical analysis of the regulatory functions. We conclude that all nodes except two in the reduced model have a single attractor; and only two nodes can admit oscillations. The multistability or oscillations do not affect the stomatal opening level in any situation. This conclusion applies to the original model as well in all the biologically meaningful cases. We further demonstrate the robustness of signal propagation by showing that a large percentage of single-node knockouts does not affect the stomatal opening level. Thus, we conclude that the complex structure of this signal transduction network provides multiple information propagation pathways while not allowing extensive multistability or oscillations, resulting in robust signal propagation. Our innovative combination of methods offers a promising way to analyze multi-level models.

  18. New twist on neuronal insulin receptor signaling in health, disease, and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Akihiko; Yokoo, Hiroki; Yanagita, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Hideyuki

    2005-10-01

    Long after the pioneering studies documenting the existence of insulin (year 1967) and insulin receptor (year 1978) in brain, the last decade has witnessed extraordinary progress in the understanding of brain region-specific multiple roles of insulin receptor signalings in health and disease. In the hypothalamus, insulin regulates food intake, body weight, peripheral fat deposition, hepatic gluconeogenesis, reproductive endocrine axis, and compensatory secretion of counter-regulatory hormones to hypoglycemia. In the hippocampus, insulin promotes learning and memory, independent of the glucoregulatory effect of insulin. Defective insulin receptor signalings are associated with the dementia in normal aging and patients with age-related neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease); the cognitive impairment can be reversed with systemic administration of insulin in the euglycemic condition. Intranasal administration of insulin enhances memory and mood and decreases body weight in healthy humans, without causing hypoglycemia. In the hypothalamus, insulin-induced activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway followed by opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channel has been shown to be related to multiple effects of insulin. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of insulin's pleiotropic effects still remain obscure. More importantly, much remains unknown about the quality control mechanisms ensuring correct conformational maturation of the insulin receptor, and the cellular mechanisms regulating density of cell surface functional insulin receptors.

  19. Signal transduction by VEGF receptors in regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Masabumi; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2006-01-01

    The VEGF/VPF (vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor) ligands and receptors are crucial regulators of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and vascular permeability in vertebrates. VEGF-A, the prototype VEGF ligand, binds and activates two tyrosine kinase receptors: VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk-1). VEGFR1, which occurs in transmembrane and soluble forms, negatively regulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during early embryogenesis, but it also acts as a positive regulator of angiogenesis and inflammatory responses, playing a role in several human diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. The soluble VEGFR1 is overexpressed in placenta in preeclampsia patients. VEGFR2 has critical functions in physiological and pathological angiogenesis through distinct signal transduction pathways regulating proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. VEGFR3, a receptor for the lymphatic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D, but not for VEGF-A, regulates vascular and lymphatic endothelial cell function during embryogenesis. Loss-of-function variants of VEGFR3 have been identified in lymphedema. Formation of tumor lymphatics may be stimulated by tumor-produced VEGF-C, allowing increased spread of tumor metastases through the lymphatics. Mapping the signaling system of these important receptors may provide the knowledge necessary to suppress specific signaling pathways in major human diseases

  20. N-wasp is essential for the negative regulation of B cell receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohong Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using genetically manipulated mouse models and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP, which is coexpressed with WASP in all immune cells, is a critical negative regulator of B-cell signaling. B-cell-specific N-WASP gene deletion causes enhanced and prolonged BCR signaling and elevated levels of autoantibodies in the mouse serum. The increased signaling in N-WASP knockout B cells is concurrent with increased accumulation of F-actin at the B-cell surface, enhanced B-cell spreading on the antigen-presenting membrane, delayed B-cell contraction, inhibition in the merger of signaling active BCR microclusters into signaling inactive central clusters, and a blockage of BCR internalization. Upon BCR activation, WASP is activated first, followed by N-WASP in mouse and human primary B cells. The activation of N-WASP is suppressed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase-induced WASP activation, and is restored by the activation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase that inhibits WASP activation. Our results reveal a new mechanism for the negative regulation of BCR signaling and broadly suggest an actin-mediated mechanism for signaling down-regulation.

  1. Hypocretin/Orexin Regulation of Dopamine Signaling and Cocaine Self-Administration Is Mediated Predominantly by Hypocretin Receptor 1

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Courtney D.; Rau, Andrew R.; Yorgason, Jordan T.; Espa?a, Rodrigo A.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive evidence suggests that the hypocretins/orexins influence cocaine reinforcement and dopamine signaling via actions at hypocretin receptor 1. By comparison, the involvement of hypocretin receptor 2 in reward and reinforcement processes has received relatively little attention. Thus, although there is some evidence that hypocretin receptor 2 regulates intake of some drugs of abuse, it is currently unclear to what extent hypocretin receptor 2 participates in the regulation of dopamine s...

  2. Endogenous GAS6 and Mer receptor signaling regulate prostate cancer stem cells in bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghun; Decker, Ann M; Wang, Jingcheng; Lee, Eunsohl; Kana, Lulia A; Yumoto, Kenji; Cackowski, Frank C; Rhee, James; Carmeliet, Peter; Buttitta, Laura; Morgan, Todd M; Taichman, Russell S

    2016-05-03

    GAS6 and its receptors (Tryo 3, Axl, Mer or "TAM") are known to play a role in regulating tumor progression in a number of settings. Previously we have demonstrated that GAS6 signaling regulates invasion, proliferation, chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer (PCa) cells. We have also demonstrated that GAS6 secreted from osteoblasts in the bone marrow environment plays a critical role in establishing prostate tumor cell dormancy. Here we investigated the role that endogenous GAS6 and Mer receptor signaling plays in establishing prostate cancer stem cells in the bone marrow microenvironment.We first observed that high levels of endogenous GAS6 are expressed by disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow, whereas relatively low levels of endogenous GAS6 are expressed in PCa tumors grown in a s.c. Interestingly, elevated levels of endogenous GAS6 were identified in putative cancer stem cells (CSCs, CD133+/CD44+) compared to non-CSCs (CD133-/CD44-) isolated from PCa/osteoblast cocultures in vitro and in DTCs isolated from the bone marrow 24 hours after intracardiac injection. Moreover, we found that endogenous GAS6 expression is associated with Mer receptor expression in growth arrested (G1) PCa cells, which correlates with the increase of the CSC populations. Importantly, we found that overexpression of GAS6 activates phosphorylation of Mer receptor signaling and subsequent induction of the CSC phenotype in vitro and in vivo.Together these data suggest that endogenous GAS6 and Mer receptor signaling contribute to the establishment of PCa CSCs in the bone marrow microenvironment, which may have important implications for targeting metastatic disease.

  3. Estrogen receptor signaling in prostate cancer: Implications for carcinogenesis and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkhoff, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the classical target for prostate cancer prevention and treatment, but more recently estrogens and their receptors have also been implicated in prostate cancer development and tumor progression. Recent experimental and clinical data were reviewed to elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms how estrogens and their receptors may affect prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression. The estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is the most prevalent ER in the human prostate, while the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is restricted to basal cells of the prostatic epithelium and stromal cells. In high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), the ERα is up-regulated and most likely mediates carcinogenic effects of estradiol as demonstrated in animal models. The partial loss of the ERβ in HGPIN indicates that the ERβ acts as a tumor suppressor. The tumor promoting function of the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, a major driver of prostate carcinogenesis, is triggered by the ERα and repressed by the ERβ. The ERβ is generally retained in hormone naïve and metastatic prostate cancer, but is partially lost in castration resistant disease. The progressive emergence of the ERα and ERα-regulated genes (eg, progesterone receptor (PR), PS2, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion, and NEAT1) during prostate cancer progression and hormone refractory disease suggests that these tumors can bypass the AR by using estrogens and progestins for their growth. In addition, nongenomic estrogen signaling pathways mediated by orphan receptors (eg, GPR30 and ERRα) has also been implicated in prostate cancer progression. Increasing evidences demonstrate that local estrogen signaling mechanisms are required for prostate carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Despite the recent progress in this research topic, the translation of the current information into potential therapeutic applications remains highly challenging and clearly warrants further investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Wnt signalling via the epidermal growth factor receptor: a role in breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, Elizabeth A

    2004-01-01

    Recent data have suggested the epidermal-growth-factor receptor (EGFR) as a point of convergence for several different classes of receptor. Civenni and colleagues have now demonstrated crosstalk between Wnt signalling and the EGFR, showing that in breast epithelial cells Wnts activate downstream targets of the EGFR, including cyclin D1. Given the role of members of these pathways in the aetiology of breast cancer and as markers of outcome and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer, this observation has a number of potential implications important for both the basic biology of breast cancer and the clinical management of the disease

  5. Inter-domain tagging implicates caveolin-1 in insulin receptor trafficking and Erk signaling bias in pancreatic beta-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Boothe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The role and mechanisms of insulin receptor internalization remain incompletely understood. Previous trafficking studies of insulin receptors involved fluorescent protein tagging at their termini, manipulations that may be expected to result in dysfunctional receptors. Our objective was to determine the trafficking route and molecular mechanisms of functional tagged insulin receptors and endogenous insulin receptors in pancreatic beta-cells. Methods: We generated functional insulin receptors tagged with pH-resistant fluorescent proteins between domains. Confocal, TIRF and STED imaging revealed a trafficking pattern of inter-domain tagged insulin receptors and endogenous insulin receptors detected with antibodies. Results: Surprisingly, interdomain-tagged and endogenous insulin receptors in beta-cells bypassed classical Rab5a- or Rab7-mediated endocytic routes. Instead, we found that removal of insulin receptors from the plasma membrane involved tyrosine-phosphorylated caveolin-1, prior to trafficking within flotillin-1-positive structures to lysosomes. Multiple methods of inhibiting caveolin-1 significantly reduced Erk activation in vitro or in vivo, while leaving Akt signaling mostly intact. Conclusions: We conclude that phosphorylated caveolin-1 plays a role in insulin receptor internalization towards lysosomes through flotillin-1-positive structures and that caveolin-1 helps bias physiological beta-cell insulin signaling towards Erk activation. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Insulin receptor internalization, Insulin resistance, Pancreatic islet beta-cells, Autocrine insulin signaling

  6. Modulating Neurotrophin Receptor Signaling as a Therapeutic Strategy for Huntington’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Danielle A.

    2017-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansions in the IT15 gene which encodes the huntingtin (HTT) protein. Currently, no treatments capable of preventing or slowing disease progression exist. Disease modifying therapeutics for HD would be expected to target a comprehensive set of degenerative processes given the diverse mechanisms contributing to HD pathogenesis including neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity, and transcription dysregulation. A major contributor to HD-related degeneration is mutant HTT-induced loss of neurotrophic support. Thus, neurotrophin (NT) receptors have emerged as therapeutic targets in HD. The considerable overlap between NT signaling networks and those dysregulated by mutant HTT provides strong theoretical support for this approach. This review will focus on the contributions of disrupted NT signaling in HD-related neurodegeneration and how targeting NT receptors to augment pro-survival signaling and/or to inhibit degenerative signaling may combat HD pathologies. Therapeutic strategies involving NT delivery, peptidomimetics, and the targeting of specific NT receptors (e.g., Trks or p75NTR), particularly with small molecule ligands, are discussed. PMID:29254102

  7. Collagen Type I as a Ligand for Receptor-Mediated Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Boraschi-Diaz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Collagens form the fibrous component of the extracellular matrix in all multi-cellular animals. Collagen type I is the most abundant collagen present in skin, tendons, vasculature, as well as the organic portion of the calcified tissue of bone and teeth. This review focuses on numerous receptors for which collagen acts as a ligand, including integrins, discoidin domain receptors DDR1 and 2, OSCAR, GPVI, G6b-B, and LAIR-1 of the leukocyte receptor complex (LRC and mannose family receptor uPARAP/Endo180. We explore the process of collagen production and self-assembly, as well as its degradation by collagenases and gelatinases in order to predict potential temporal and spatial sites of action of different collagen receptors. While the interactions of the mature collagen matrix with integrins and DDR are well-appreciated, potential signals from immature matrix as well as collagen degradation products are possible but not yet described. The role of multiple collagen receptors in physiological processes and their contribution to pathophysiology of diseases affecting collagen homeostasis require further studies.

  8. Two signaling molecules share a phosphotyrosine-containing binding site in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, R; Li, W; Kashishian, A; Mondino, A; Zhou, M; Cooper, J; Schlessinger, J

    1993-01-01

    Autophosphorylation sites of growth factor receptors with tyrosine kinase activity function as specific binding sites for Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of signaling molecules. This interaction appears to be a crucial step in a mechanism by which receptor tyrosine kinases relay signals to downstream signaling pathways. Nck is a widely expressed protein consisting exclusively of SH2 and SH3 domains, the overexpression of which causes cell transformation. It has been shown that various growth fac...

  9. Dynamic shaping of dopamine signals during probabilistic Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Andrew S; Clark, Jeremy J; Phillips, Paul E M

    2015-01-01

    Cue- and reward-evoked phasic dopamine activity during Pavlovian and operant conditioning paradigms is well correlated with reward-prediction errors from formal reinforcement learning models, which feature teaching signals in the form of discrepancies between actual and expected reward outcomes. Additionally, in learning tasks where conditioned cues probabilistically predict rewards, dopamine neurons show sustained cue-evoked responses that are correlated with the variance of reward and are maximal to cues predicting rewards with a probability of 0.5. Therefore, it has been suggested that sustained dopamine activity after cue presentation encodes the uncertainty of impending reward delivery. In the current study we examined the acquisition and maintenance of these neural correlates using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in rats implanted with carbon fiber electrodes in the nucleus accumbens core during probabilistic Pavlovian conditioning. The advantage of this technique is that we can sample from the same animal and recording location throughout learning with single trial resolution. We report that dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core contains correlates of both expected value and variance. A quantitative analysis of these signals throughout learning, and during the ongoing updating process after learning in probabilistic conditions, demonstrates that these correlates are dynamically encoded during these phases. Peak CS-evoked responses are correlated with expected value and predominate during early learning while a variance-correlated sustained CS signal develops during the post-asymptotic updating phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TRPM5, a taste-signaling transient receptor potential ion-channel, is a ubiquitous signaling component in chemosensory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of TRP channels have been identified as key players in the sensation of smell, temperature, mechanical forces and taste. TRPM5 is known to be abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells where it participates in sweet, amino acid and bitter perception. A role of TRPM5 in other sensory systems, however, has not been studied so far. Results Here, we systematically investigated the expression of TRPM5 in rat and mouse tissues. Apart from taste buds, where we found TRPM5 to be predominantly localized on the basolateral surface of taste receptor cells, TRPM5 immunoreactivity was seen in other chemosensory organs – the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. Most strikingly, we found solitary TRPM5-enriched epithelial cells in all parts of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Based on their tissue distribution, the low cell density, morphological features and co-immunostaining with different epithelial markers, we identified these cells as brush cells (also known as tuft, fibrillovesicular, multivesicular or caveolated cells. In terms of morphological characteristics, brush cells resemble taste receptor cells, while their origin and biological role are still under intensive debate. Conclusion We consider TRPM5 to be an intrinsic signaling component of mammalian chemosensory organs, and provide evidence for brush cells being an important cellular correlate in the periphery.

  11. Elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signaling induces antiestrogen resistance through the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Moerkens, M.; Ramaiahgari, S.; Bont, de H.J.G.M.; Price, L.; Meerman, J.H.N.; Water, van de B.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor (IGF-1R) is phosphorylated in all breast cancer subtypes. Past findings have shown that IGF-1R mediates antiestrogen resistance through cross-talk with estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and via its action upstream of the epidermal growth

  12. Two signaling molecules share a phosphotyrosine-containing binding site in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, R; Li, W; Kashishian, A; Mondino, A; Zhou, M; Cooper, J; Schlessinger, J

    1993-11-01

    Autophosphorylation sites of growth factor receptors with tyrosine kinase activity function as specific binding sites for Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of signaling molecules. This interaction appears to be a crucial step in a mechanism by which receptor tyrosine kinases relay signals to downstream signaling pathways. Nck is a widely expressed protein consisting exclusively of SH2 and SH3 domains, the overexpression of which causes cell transformation. It has been shown that various growth factors stimulate the phosphorylation of Nck and its association with autophosphorylated growth factor receptors. A panel of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor mutations at tyrosine residues has been used to identify the Nck binding site. Here we show that mutation at Tyr-751 of the PDGF beta-receptor eliminates Nck binding both in vitro and in living cells. Moreover, the Y751F PDGF receptor mutant failed to mediate PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Nck in intact cells. A phosphorylated Tyr-751 is also required for binding of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase to the PDGF receptor. Hence, the SH2 domains of p85 and Nck share a binding site in the PDGF receptor. Competition experiments with different phosphopeptides derived from the PDGF receptor suggest that binding of Nck and p85 is influenced by different residues around Tyr-751. Thus, a single tyrosine autophosphorylation site is able to link the PDGF receptor to two distinct SH2 domain-containing signaling molecules.

  13. Dynamic Characteristics of Buildings from Signal Processing of Ambient Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Daniela; Sorin Dragomir, Claudiu

    2017-10-01

    The experimental technique used to determine the dynamic characteristics of buildings is based on records of low intensity oscillations of the building produced by various natural factors, such as permanent agitation type microseismic motions, city traffic, wind etc. The possibility of recording these oscillations is provided by the latest seismic stations (Geosig and Kinemetrics digital accelerographs). The permanent microseismic agitation of the soil is a complex form of stationary random oscillations. The building filters the soil excitation, selects and increases the components of disruptive vibrations corresponding to its natural vibration periods. For some selected buildings, with different instrumentation schemes for the location of sensors (in free-field, at basement, ground floor, roof level), a correlation between the dynamic characteristics resulted from signal processing of ambient vibration and from a theoretical analysis will be presented. The interpretation of recording results could highlight the behavior of the whole structure. On the other hand, these results are compared with those from strong motions, or obtained from a complex dynamic analysis, and they are quite different, but they are explicable.

  14. GnRH receptor activation competes at a low level with growth signaling in stably transfected human breast cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Kevin; Meyer, Colette; Miller, Nicola; Sims, Andrew H; Cagnan, Ilgin; Faratian, Dana; Harrison, David J; Millar, Robert P; Langdon, Simon P

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs lower estrogen levels in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients. GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) activation also directly inhibits the growth of certain cells. The applicability of GnRH anti-proliferation to breast cancer was therefore analyzed. GnRH-R expression in 298 primary breast cancer samples was measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Levels of functional GnRH-R in breast-derived cell lines were assessed using 125 I-ligand binding and stimulation of 3 H-inositol phosphate production. Elevated levels of GnRH-R were stably expressed in cells by transfection. Effects of receptor activation on in vitro cell growth were investigated in comparison with IGF-I and EGF receptor inhibition, and correlated with intracellular signaling using western blotting. GnRH-R immunoscoring was highest in hormone receptor (triple) negative and grade 3 breast tumors. However prior to transfection, functional endogenous GnRH-R were undetectable in four commonly studied breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, T47D and MDA-MB-231). After transfection with GnRH-R, high levels of cell surface GnRH-R were detected in SVCT and MDA-MB-231 clones while low-moderate levels of GnRH-R occurred in MCF-7 clones and ZR-75-1 clones. MCF-7 sub-clones with high levels of GnRH-R were isolated following hygromycin phosphotransferase transfection. High level cell surface GnRH-R enabled induction of high levels of 3 H-inositol phosphate and modest growth-inhibition in SVCT cells. In contrast, growth of MCF-7, ZR-75-1 or MDA-MB-231 clones was unaffected by GnRH-R activation. Cell growth was inhibited by IGF-I or EGF receptor inhibitors. IGF-I receptor inhibitor lowered levels of p-ERK1/2 in MCF-7 clones. Washout of IGF-I receptor inhibitor resulted in transient hyper-elevation of p-ERK1/2, but co-addition of GnRH-R agonist did not alter the dynamics of ERK1/2 re-phosphorylation. Breast cancers exhibit a range of GnRH-R immunostaining, with higher levels of

  15. Lenalidomide induces lipid raft assembly to enhance erythropoietin receptor signaling in myelodysplastic syndrome progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Kathy L; Basiorka, Ashley A; Johnson, Joseph O; Clark, Justine; Caceres, Gisela; Padron, Eric; Heaton, Ruth; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Wei, Sheng; Sokol, Lubomir; List, Alan F

    2014-01-01

    Anemia remains the principal management challenge for patients with lower risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). Despite appropriate cytokine production and cellular receptor display, erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) signaling is impaired. We reported that EpoR signaling is dependent upon receptor localization within lipid raft microdomains, and that disruption of raft integrity abolishes signaling capacity. Here, we show that MDS erythroid progenitors display markedly diminished raft assembly and smaller raft aggregates compared to normal controls (p = 0.005, raft number; p = 0.023, raft size). Because lenalidomide triggers raft coalescence in T-lymphocytes promoting immune synapse formation, we assessed effects of lenalidomide on raft assembly in MDS erythroid precursors and UT7 cells. Lenalidomide treatment rapidly induced lipid raft formation accompanied by EpoR recruitment into raft fractions together with STAT5, JAK2, and Lyn kinase. The JAK2 phosphatase, CD45, a key negative regulator of EpoR signaling, was displaced from raft fractions. Lenalidomide treatment prior to Epo stimulation enhanced both JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation in UT7 and primary MDS erythroid progenitors, accompanied by increased STAT5 DNA binding in UT7 cells, and increased erythroid colony forming capacity in both UT7 and primary cells. Raft induction was associated with F-actin polymerization, which was blocked by Rho kinase inhibition. These data indicate that deficient raft integrity impairs EpoR signaling, and provides a novel strategy to enhance EpoR signal fidelity in non-del(5q) MDS.

  16. Correlated cone noise decreases rod signal contributions to the post-receptoral pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathibelagal, Amithavikram R; Feigl, Beatrix; Zele, Andrew J

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated how invisible extrinsic temporal white noise that correlates with the activity of one of the three [magnocellular (MC), parvocellular (PC), or koniocellular (KC)] post-receptoral pathways alters mesopic rod signaling. A four-primary photostimulator provided independent control of the rod and three cone photoreceptor excitations. The rod contributions to the three post-receptoral pathways were estimated by perceptually matching a 20% contrast rod pulse by independently varying the LMS (MC pathway), +L-M (PC pathway), and S-cone (KC pathway) excitations. We show that extrinsic cone noise caused a predominant decrease in the overall magnitude and ratio of the rod contributions to each pathway. Thus, the relative cone activity in the post-receptoral pathways determines the relative mesopic rod inputs to each pathway.

  17. A2A adenosine receptor ligand binding and signalling is allosterically modulated by adenosine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Eduard; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Moreno, Estefanía; Barkešová, Jana; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I

    2011-05-01

    A2ARs (adenosine A2A receptors) are highly enriched in the striatum, which is the main motor control CNS (central nervous system) area. BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer) assays showed that A2AR homomers may act as cell-surface ADA (adenosine deaminase; EC 3.5.4.4)-binding proteins. ADA binding affected the quaternary structure of A2ARs present on the cell surface. ADA binding to adenosine A2ARs increased both agonist and antagonist affinity on ligand binding to striatal membranes where these proteins are co-expressed. ADA also increased receptor-mediated ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) phosphorylation. Collectively, the results of the present study show that ADA, apart from regulating the concentration of extracellular adenosine, may behave as an allosteric modulator that markedly enhances ligand affinity and receptor function. This powerful regulation may have implications for the physiology and pharmacology of neuronal A2ARs.

  18. Building tolerance by dismantling synapses: inhibitory receptor signaling in natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huse, Morgan; Catherine Milanoski, S; Abeyweera, Thushara P

    2013-01-01

    Cell surface receptors bearing immunotyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) maintain natural killer (NK) cell tolerance to normal host tissues. These receptors are difficult to analyze mechanistically because they block activating responses in a rapid and comprehensive manner. The advent of high-resolution single cell imaging techniques has enabled investigators to explore the cell biological basis of the inhibitory response. Recent studies using these approaches indicate that ITIM-containing receptors function at least in part by structurally undermining the immunological synapse between the NK cell and its target. In this review, we discuss these new advances and how they might relate to what is known about the biochemistry of inhibitory signaling in NK cells and other cell types. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Functional requirements for inhibitory signal transmission by the immunomodulatory receptor CD300a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, Karen E; Simhadri, Venkateswara R; Mariano, John L; Borrego, Francisco

    2012-04-26

    Activation signals can be negatively regulated by cell surface receptors bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). CD300a, an ITIM bearing type I transmembrane protein, is expressed on many hematopoietic cells, including subsets of lymphocytes. We have taken two approaches to further define the mechanism by which CD300a acts as an inhibitor of immune cell receptor signaling. First, we have expressed in Jurkat T cells a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domains of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)2DL2 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic segments of CD300a (KIR-CD300a) to explore surrogate ligand-stimulated inhibition of superantigen stimulated T cell receptor (TCR) mediated cell signaling. We found that intact CD300a ITIMs were essential for inhibition and that the tyrosine phosphorylation of these ITIMs required the src tyrosine kinase Lck. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the CD300a ITIMs created docking sites for both src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 and SHP-2. Suppression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 expression in KIR-CD300a Jurkat T cells with siRNA and the use of DT40 chicken B cell lines expressing CD300a and deficient in several phosphatases revealed that SHP-1, but not SHP-2 or the src homology 2 domain containing inositol 5' phosphatase SHIP, was utilized by CD300a for its inhibitory activity. These studies provide new insights into the function of CD300a in tuning T and B cell responses.

  20. Apo-ghrelin receptor (apo-GHSR1a Regulates Dopamine Signaling in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras eKern

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The orexigenic peptide hormone ghrelin is synthesized in the stomach and its receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR1a is expressed mainly in the central nervous system (CNS. In this review we confine our discussion to the physiological role of GHSR1a in the brain. Paradoxically, despite broad expression of GHSR1a in the CNS, other than trace amounts in the hypothalamus, ghrelin is undetectable in the brain. In our efforts to elucidate the function of the ligand-free ghrelin receptor (apo-GHSR1a we identified subsets of neurons that co-express GHSR1a and dopamine receptors. In this review we focus on interactions between apo-GHSR1a and dopamine-2 receptor (DRD2 and formation of GHSR1a:DRD2 heteromers in hypothalamic neurons that regulate appetite, and discuss implications for the treatment of Prader-Willi syndrome. GHSR1a antagonists of distinct chemical structures, a quinazolinone and a triazole, respectively enhance and inhibit dopamine signaling through GHSR1a:DRD2 heteromers by an allosteric mechanism. This finding illustrates a potential strategy for designing the next generation of drugs for treating eating disorders as well as psychiatric disorders caused by abnormal dopamine signaling. Treatment with a GHSR1a antagonist that enhances dopamine/DRD2 activity in GHSR1a:DRD2 expressing hypothalamic neurons has the potential to inhibit the uncontrollable hyperphagia associated with Prader-Willi syndrome. DRD2 antagonists are prescribed for treating schizophrenia, but these block dopamine signaling in all DRD2 expressing neurons and are associated with adverse side effects, including enhanced appetite and excessive weight gain. A GHSR1a antagonist of structural class that allosterically blocks dopamine/DRD2 action in GHSR1a:DRD2 expressing neurons would have no effect on neurons expressing DRD2 alone; therefore, the side effects of DRD2 antagonists would potentially be reduced thereby enhancing patient compliance.

  1. Binding of the Ras activator son of sevenless to insulin receptor substrate-1 signaling complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltensperger, K; Kozma, L M; Cherniack, A D; Klarlund, J K; Chawla, A; Banerjee, U; Czech, M P

    1993-06-25

    Signal transmission by insulin involves tyrosine phosphorylation of a major insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) and exchange of Ras-bound guanosine diphosphate for guanosine triphosphate. Proteins containing Src homology 2 and 3 (SH2 and SH3) domains, such as the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), bind tyrosine phosphate sites on IRS-1 through their SH2 regions. Such complexes in COS cells were found to contain the heterologously expressed putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor encoded by the Drosophila son of sevenless gene (dSos). Thus, GRB2, p85, or other proteins with SH2-SH3 adapter sequences may link Sos proteins to IRS-1 signaling complexes as part of the mechanism by which insulin activates Ras.

  2. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jennifer R; Wang, Jenny Yingzi

    2016-05-11

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large superfamily of cell-surface signaling proteins that bind extracellular ligands and transduce signals into cells via heterotrimeric G proteins. GPCRs are highly tractable drug targets. Aberrant expression of GPCRs and G proteins has been observed in various cancers and their importance in cancer stem cells has begun to be appreciated. We have recently reported essential roles for G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) and G protein subunit Gαq in the maintenance of cancer stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia. This review will discuss how GPCRs and G proteins regulate stem cells with a focus on cancer stem cells, as well as their implications for the development of novel targeted cancer therapies.

  3. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in Stem Cells and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Lynch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are a large superfamily of cell-surface signaling proteins that bind extracellular ligands and transduce signals into cells via heterotrimeric G proteins. GPCRs are highly tractable drug targets. Aberrant expression of GPCRs and G proteins has been observed in various cancers and their importance in cancer stem cells has begun to be appreciated. We have recently reported essential roles for G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84 and G protein subunit Gαq in the maintenance of cancer stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia. This review will discuss how GPCRs and G proteins regulate stem cells with a focus on cancer stem cells, as well as their implications for the development of novel targeted cancer therapies.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling in human sperm physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Li; Xian, Hua; Cao, Jing-Chen; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Miao-Miao; Qian, Yi; Jiang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the PPARs, which are transcription factors of the steroid receptor superfamily. PPARγ acts as an important molecule for regulating energy homeostasis, modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and is reciprocally regulated by HPG. In the human, PPARγ protein is highly expressed in ejaculated spermatozoa, implying a possible role of PPARγ signaling in regulating sperm energy dissipation. PPARγ protein is also expressed in Sertoli cells and germ cells (spermatocytes). Its activation can be induced during capacitation and the acrosome reaction. This mini-review will focus on how PPARγ signaling may affect fertility and sperm quality and the potential reversibility of these adverse effects.

  5. The Androgen Receptor Bridges Stem Cell-Associated Signaling Nodes in Prostate Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair H. Davies

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of stem cells relies on dissecting the complex signaling networks that are thought to regulate their pluripotency and self-renewal. Until recently, attention has focused almost exclusively on a small set of “core” transcription factors for maintaining the stem cell state. It is now clear that stem cell regulatory networks are far more complex. In this review, we examine the role of the androgen receptor (AR in coordinating interactions between signaling nodes that govern the balance of cell fate decisions in prostate stem cells.

  6. Role of type I interferon receptor signaling on NK cell development and functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Guan

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN are unique cytokines transcribed from intronless genes. They have been extensively studied because of their anti-viral functions. The anti-viral effects of type I IFN are mediated in part by natural killer (NK cells. However, the exact contribution of type I IFN on NK cell development, maturation and activation has been somewhat difficult to assess. In this study, we used a variety of approaches to define the consequences of the lack of type I interferon receptor (IFNAR signaling on NK cells. Using IFNAR deficient mice, we found that type I IFN affect NK cell development at the pre-pro NK stage. We also found that systemic absence of IFNAR signaling impacts NK cell maturation with a significant increase in the CD27+CD11b+ double positive (DP compartment in all organs. However, there is tissue specificity, and only in liver and bone marrow is the maturation defect strictly dependent on cell intrinsic IFNAR signaling. Finally, using adoptive transfer and mixed bone marrow approaches, we also show that cell intrinsic IFNAR signaling is not required for NK cell IFN-γ production in the context of MCMV infection. Taken together, our studies provide novel insights on how type I IFN receptor signaling regulates NK cell development and functions.

  7. Identification of potential pathway mediation targets in Toll-like receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Li

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in reconstruction and analytical methods for signaling networks have spurred the development of large-scale models that incorporate fully functional and biologically relevant features. An extended reconstruction of the human Toll-like receptor signaling network is presented herein. This reconstruction contains an extensive complement of kinases, phosphatases, and other associated proteins that mediate the signaling cascade along with a delineation of their associated chemical reactions. A computational framework based on the methods of large-scale convex analysis was developed and applied to this network to characterize input-output relationships. The input-output relationships enabled significant modularization of the network into ten pathways. The analysis identified potential candidates for inhibitory mediation of TLR signaling with respect to their specificity and potency. Subsequently, we were able to identify eight novel inhibition targets through constraint-based modeling methods. The results of this study are expected to yield meaningful avenues for further research in the task of mediating the Toll-like receptor signaling network and its effects.

  8. Enhanced NMDA receptor-mediated intracellular calcium signaling in magnocellular neurosecretory neurons in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Javier E; Potapenko, Evgeniy S

    2013-08-15

    An enhanced glutamate excitatory function within the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricluar nuclei is known to contribute to increased neurosecretory and presympathetic neuronal activity, and hence, neurohumoral activation, during heart failure (HF). Still, the precise mechanisms underlying enhanced glutamate-driven neuronal activity in HF remain to be elucidated. Here, we performed simultaneous electrophysiology and fast confocal Ca²⁺ imaging to determine whether altered N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ levels (NMDA-ΔCa²⁺) occurred in hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in HF rats. We found that activation of NMDA receptors resulted in a larger ΔCa²⁺ in MNCs from HF when compared with sham rats. The enhanced NMDA-ΔCa²⁺ was neither dependent on the magnitude of the NMDA-mediated current (voltage clamp) nor on the degree of membrane depolarization or firing activity evoked by NMDA (current clamp). Differently from NMDA receptor activation, firing activity evoked by direct membrane depolarization resulted in similar changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ in sham and HF rats. Taken together, our results support a relatively selective alteration of intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis and signaling following activation of NMDA receptors in MNCs during HF. The downstream functional consequences of such altered ΔCa²⁺ signaling during HF are discussed.

  9. The LDL Receptor-Related Protein 1: At the Crossroads of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Insulin Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianaly T. Au

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is an escalating worldwide public health concern. Defined by a combination of physiological, metabolic, and biochemical factors, the metabolic syndrome is used as a clinical guideline to identify individuals with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have been known for decades, the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases and their interrelationship remain unclear. The LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 is a large endocytic and signaling receptor that is widely expressed in several tissues. As a member of the LDL receptor family, LRP1 is involved in the clearance of chylomicron remnants from the circulation and has been demonstrated to be atheroprotective. Recently, studies have shown that LRP1 is involved in insulin receptor trafficking and regulation and glucose metabolism. This review summarizes the role of tissue-specific LRP1 in insulin signaling and its potential role as a link between lipoprotein and glucose metabolism in diabetes.

  10. Differential Role of Insulin/IGF-1 Receptor Signaling in Muscle Growth and Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. O’Neill

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 are major regulators of muscle protein and glucose homeostasis. To determine how these pathways interact, we generated mice with muscle-specific knockout of IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R and insulin receptor (IR. These MIGIRKO mice showed >60% decrease in muscle mass. Despite a complete lack of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in muscle, MIGIRKO mice displayed normal glucose and insulin tolerance. Indeed, MIGIRKO mice showed fasting hypoglycemia and increased basal glucose uptake. This was secondary to decreased TBC1D1 resulting in increased Glut4 and Glut1 membrane localization. Interestingly, overexpression of a dominant-negative IGF1R in muscle induced glucose intolerance in MIGIRKO animals. Thus, loss of insulin/IGF-1 signaling impairs muscle growth, but not whole-body glucose tolerance due to increased membrane localization of glucose transporters. Nonetheless, presence of a dominant-negative receptor, even in the absence of functional IR/IGF1R, induces glucose intolerance, indicating that interactions between these receptors and other proteins in muscle can impair glucose homeostasis.

  11. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in intracerebral hemorrhage-induced inflammation and injury

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Huang; Wang, Peng-Fei; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Yan-Chun; Yang, Qing-Wu

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common type of fatal stroke, accounting for about 15% to 20% of all strokes. Hemorrhagic strokes are associated with high mortality and morbidity, and increasing evidence shows that innate immune responses and inflammatory injury play a critical role in ICH-induced neurological deficits. However, the signaling pathways involved in ICH-induced inflammatory responses remain elusive. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) belongs to a large family of pattern recognition ...

  12. Steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 mediate fetal-to-maternal signaling that initiates parturition

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Lu; Rabbitt, Elizabeth H.; Condon, Jennifer C.; Renthal, Nora E.; Johnston, John M.; Mitsche, Matthew A.; Chambon, Pierre; Xu, Jianming; O’Malley, Bert W.; Mendelson, Carole R.

    2015-01-01

    The precise mechanisms that lead to parturition are incompletely defined. Surfactant protein-A (SP-A), which is secreted by fetal lungs into amniotic fluid (AF) near term, likely provides a signal for parturition; however, SP-A–deficient mice have only a relatively modest delay (~12 hours) in parturition, suggesting additional factors. Here, we evaluated the contribution of steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 (SRC-1 and SRC-2), which upregulate SP-A transcription, to the parturition process...

  13. Dynamic time warping and machine learning for signal quality assessment of pulsatile signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q; Clifford, G D

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we describe a beat-by-beat method for assessing the clinical utility of pulsatile waveforms, primarily recorded from cardiovascular blood volume or pressure changes, concentrating on the photoplethysmogram (PPG). Physiological blood flow is nonstationary, with pulses changing in height, width and morphology due to changes in heart rate, cardiac output, sensor type and hardware or software pre-processing requirements. Moreover, considerable inter-individual and sensor-location variability exists. Simple template matching methods are therefore inappropriate, and a patient-specific adaptive initialization is therefore required. We introduce dynamic time warping to stretch each beat to match a running template and combine it with several other features related to signal quality, including correlation and the percentage of the beat that appeared to be clipped. The features were then presented to a multi-layer perceptron neural network to learn the relationships between the parameters in the presence of good- and bad-quality pulses. An expert-labeled database of 1055 segments of PPG, each 6 s long, recorded from 104 separate critical care admissions during both normal and verified arrhythmic events, was used to train and test our algorithms. An accuracy of 97.5% on the training set and 95.2% on test set was found. The algorithm could be deployed as a stand-alone signal quality assessment algorithm for vetting the clinical utility of PPG traces or any similar quasi-periodic signal. (paper)

  14. Dynamic time warping and machine learning for signal quality assessment of pulsatile signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Clifford, G D

    2012-09-01

    In this work, we describe a beat-by-beat method for assessing the clinical utility of pulsatile waveforms, primarily recorded from cardiovascular blood volume or pressure changes, concentrating on the photoplethysmogram (PPG). Physiological blood flow is nonstationary, with pulses changing in height, width and morphology due to changes in heart rate, cardiac output, sensor type and hardware or software pre-processing requirements. Moreover, considerable inter-individual and sensor-location variability exists. Simple template matching methods are therefore inappropriate, and a patient-specific adaptive initialization is therefore required. We introduce dynamic time warping to stretch each beat to match a running template and combine it with several other features related to signal quality, including correlation and the percentage of the beat that appeared to be clipped. The features were then presented to a multi-layer perceptron neural network to learn the relationships between the parameters in the presence of good- and bad-quality pulses. An expert-labeled database of 1055 segments of PPG, each 6 s long, recorded from 104 separate critical care admissions during both normal and verified arrhythmic events, was used to train and test our algorithms. An accuracy of 97.5% on the training set and 95.2% on test set was found. The algorithm could be deployed as a stand-alone signal quality assessment algorithm for vetting the clinical utility of PPG traces or any similar quasi-periodic signal.

  15. Combinatory annotation of cell membrane receptors and signalling pathways of Bombyx mori prothoracic glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulos, Panagiotis; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Dedos, Skarlatos G.

    2016-01-01

    The cells of prothoracic glands (PG) are the main site of synthesis and secretion of ecdysteroids, the biochemical products of cholesterol conversion to steroids that shape the morphogenic development of insects. Despite the availability of genome sequences from several insect species and the extensive knowledge of certain signalling pathways that underpin ecdysteroidogenesis, the spectrum of signalling molecules and ecdysteroidogenic cascades is still not fully comprehensive. To fill this gap and obtain the complete list of cell membrane receptors expressed in PG cells, we used combinatory bioinformatic, proteomic and transcriptomic analysis and quantitative PCR to annotate and determine the expression profiles of genes identified as putative cell membrane receptors of the model insect species, Bombyx mori, and subsequently enrich the repertoire of signalling pathways that are present in its PG cells. The genome annotation dataset we report here highlights modules and pathways that may be directly involved in ecdysteroidogenesis and aims to disseminate data and assist other researchers in the discovery of the role of such receptors and their ligands. PMID:27576083

  16. Elabela-apelin receptor signaling pathway is functional in mammalian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Yu, Daozhan; Wang, Mengqiao; Wang, Qilong; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Yang, Rongze; Qian, Kun; Wu, Wenjun; Shuldiner, Alan; Sztalryd, Carole; Zou, Minghui; Zheng, Wei; Gong, Da-Wei

    2015-02-02

    Elabela (ELA) or Toddler is a recently discovered hormone which is required for normal development of heart and vasculature through activation of apelin receptor (APJ), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), in zebrafish. The present study explores whether the ELA-APJ signaling pathway is functional in the mammalian system. Using reverse-transcription PCR, we found that ELA is restrictedly expressed in human pluripotent stem cells and adult kidney whereas APJ is more widely expressed. We next studied ELA-APJ signaling pathway in reconstituted mammalian cell systems. Addition of ELA to HEK293 cells over-expressing GFP-AJP fusion protein resulted in rapid internalization of the fusion receptor. In Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells over-expressing human APJ, ELA suppresses cAMP production with EC50 of 11.1 nM, stimulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation with EC50 of 14.3 nM and weakly induces intracellular calcium mobilization. Finally, we tested ELA biological function in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells and showed that ELA induces angiogenesis and relaxes mouse aortic blood vessel in a dose-dependent manner through a mechanism different from apelin. Collectively, we demonstrate that the ELA-AJP signaling pathways are functional in mammalian systems, indicating that ELA likely serves as a hormone regulating the circulation system in adulthood as well as in embryonic development.

  17. Detecting signals of seasonal influenza severity through age dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Elizabeth C.; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone

    2015-01-01

    stages of an outbreak. To address the limitations of traditional indicators, we propose a novel severity index based on influenza age dynamics estimated from routine physician diagnosis data that can be used retrospectively and for early warning. METHODS: We developed a quantitative 'ground truth......' severity benchmark that synthesizes multiple traditional severity indicators from publicly available influenza surveillance data in the United States. Observing that the age distribution of cases may signal severity early in an epidemic, we constructed novel retrospective and early warning severity indexes....... The retrospective index was well correlated with the severity benchmark and correctly identified the two most severe seasons. The early warning index performance varied, but it projected 2007-08 as relatively severe 10 weeks prior to the epidemic peak. Influenza severity varied significantly among states within...

  18. A gate-latch-lock mechanism for hormone signalling by abscisic acid receptors

    KAUST Repository

    Melcher, Karsten

    2009-12-03

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitous hormone that regulates plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. Its action is mediated by the PYR/PYL/RCAR family of START proteins, but it remains unclear how these receptors bind ABA and, in turn, how hormone binding leads to inhibition of the downstream type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) effectors. Here we report crystal structures of apo and ABA-bound receptors as well as a ternary PYL2-ABA-PP2C complex. The apo receptors contain an open ligand-binding pocket flanked by a gate that closes in response to ABA by way of conformational changes in two highly conserved ?-loops that serve as a gate and latch. Moreover, ABA-induced closure of the gate creates a surface that enables the receptor to dock into and competitively inhibit the PP2C active site. A conserved tryptophan in the PP2C inserts directly between the gate and latch, which functions to further lock the receptor in a closed conformation. Together, our results identify a conserved gate-latch-lock mechanism underlying ABA signalling. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Reverting doxorubicin resistance in colon cancer by targeting a key signaling protein, steroid receptor coactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Sang; Xiao, Gong-Wei

    2018-04-01

    Although there have been notable improvements in treatments against cancer, further research is required. In colon cancer, nearly all patients eventually experience drug resistance and stop responding to the approved drugs, making treatment difficult. Steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) is an oncogenic nuclear receptor coactivator that serves an important role in drug resistance. The present study generated a doxorubicin-resistant colon cancer cell line, in which the upregulation/activation of SRC was responsible for drug resistance, which in turn activated AKT. Overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinase-like epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor also induced SRC expression. It was observed that doxorubicin resistance in colon cancer also induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition, a decrease in expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the expression of mesenchymal markers, including N-cadherin and vimentin. Additionally, the present study indicated that SRC acts as a common signaling node, and inhibiting SRC in combination with doxorubicin treatment in doxorubicin-resistant cells aids in reversing the resistance. Thus, the present study suggests that activation of SRC is responsible for doxorubicin resistance in colon cancer. However, further research is required to understand the complete mechanism of how drug resistance occurs and how it may be tackled to treat patients.

  20. A gate-latch-lock mechanism for hormone signalling by abscisic acid receptors

    KAUST Repository

    Melcher, Karsten; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Xu, Yong; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Park, Sang-Youl; Weiner, Joshua J.; Fujii, Hiroaki; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Kovach, Amanda; Li, Jun; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Jiayang; Peterson, Francis C.; Jensen, Davin R.; Yong, Eu-Leong; Volkman, Brian F.; Cutler, Sean R.; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H. Eric

    2009-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitous hormone that regulates plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. Its action is mediated by the PYR/PYL/RCAR family of START proteins, but it remains unclear how these receptors bind ABA and, in turn, how hormone binding leads to inhibition of the downstream type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C) effectors. Here we report crystal structures of apo and ABA-bound receptors as well as a ternary PYL2-ABA-PP2C complex. The apo receptors contain an open ligand-binding pocket flanked by a gate that closes in response to ABA by way of conformational changes in two highly conserved ?-loops that serve as a gate and latch. Moreover, ABA-induced closure of the gate creates a surface that enables the receptor to dock into and competitively inhibit the PP2C active site. A conserved tryptophan in the PP2C inserts directly between the gate and latch, which functions to further lock the receptor in a closed conformation. Together, our results identify a conserved gate-latch-lock mechanism underlying ABA signalling. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of Notch1 antibodies that inhibit signaling of both normal and mutated Notch1 receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aste-Amézaga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Notch receptors normally play a key role in guiding a variety of cell fate decisions during development and differentiation of metazoan organisms. On the other hand, dysregulation of Notch1 signaling is associated with many different types of cancer as well as tumor angiogenesis, making Notch1 a potential therapeutic target.Here we report the in vitro activities of inhibitory Notch1 monoclonal antibodies derived from cell-based and solid-phase screening of a phage display library. Two classes of antibodies were found, one directed against the EGF-repeat region that encompasses the ligand-binding domain (LBD, and the second directed against the activation switch of the receptor, the Notch negative regulatory region (NRR. The antibodies are selective for Notch1, inhibiting Jag2-dependent signaling by Notch1 but not by Notch 2 and 3 in reporter gene assays, with EC(50 values as low as 5+/-3 nM and 0.13+/-0.09 nM for the LBD and NRR antibodies, respectively, and fail to recognize Notch4. While more potent, NRR antibodies are incomplete antagonists of Notch1 signaling. The antagonistic activity of LBD, but not NRR, antibodies is strongly dependent on the activating ligand. Both LBD and NRR antibodies bind to Notch1 on human tumor cell lines and inhibit the expression of sentinel Notch target genes, including HES1, HES5, and DTX1. NRR antibodies also strongly inhibit ligand-independent signaling in heterologous cells transiently expressing Notch1 receptors with diverse NRR "class I" point mutations, the most common type of mutation found in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL. In contrast, NRR antibodies failed to antagonize Notch1 receptors bearing rare "class II" or "class III" mutations, in which amino acid insertions generate a duplicated or constitutively sensitive metalloprotease cleavage site. Signaling in T-ALL cell lines bearing class I mutations is partially refractory to inhibitory antibodies as compared to cell

  2. Sphingosine Kinases and Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptors: Signaling and Actions in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cannavo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1 and 2 catalyze the phosphorylation of the lipid, sphingosine, generating the signal transmitter, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P. The activation of such kinases and the subsequent S1P generation and secretion in the blood serum of mammals represent a major checkpoint in many cellular signaling cascades. In fact, activating the SphK/S1P system is critical for cell motility and proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, cell growth, survival, and response to stress. In the cardiovascular system, the physiological effects of S1P intervene through the binding and activation of a family of five highly selective G protein-coupled receptors, called S1PR1-5. Importantly, SphK/S1P signal is present on both vascular and myocardial cells. S1P is a well-recognized survival factor in many tissues. Therefore, it is not surprising that the last two decades have seen a flourishing of interest and investigative efforts directed to obtain additional mechanistic insights into the signaling, as well as the biological activity of this phospholipid, and of its receptors, especially in the cardiovascular system. Here, we will provide an up-to-date account on the structure and function of sphingosine kinases, discussing the generation, release, and function of S1P. Keeping the bull’s eye on the cardiovascular system, we will review the structure and signaling cascades and biological actions emanating from the stimulation of different S1P receptors. We will end this article with a summary of the most recent, experimental and clinical observations targeting S1PRs and SphKs as possible new therapeutic avenues for cardiovascular disorders, such as heart failure.

  3. Coronin-1A links cytoskeleton dynamics to TCR alpha beta-induced cell signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Mugnier

    Full Text Available Actin polymerization plays a critical role in activated T lymphocytes both in regulating T cell receptor (TCR-induced immunological synapse (IS formation and signaling. Using gene targeting, we demonstrate that the hematopoietic specific, actin- and Arp2/3 complex-binding protein coronin-1A contributes to both processes. Coronin-1A-deficient mice specifically showed alterations in terminal development and the survival of alpha beta T cells, together with defects in cell activation and cytokine production following TCR triggering. The mutant T cells further displayed excessive accumulation yet reduced dynamics of F-actin and the WASP-Arp2/3 machinery at the IS, correlating with extended cell-cell contact. Cell signaling was also affected with the basal activation of the stress kinases sAPK/JNK1/2; and deficits in TCR-induced Ca2+ influx and phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB (I kappa B. Coronin-1A therefore links cytoskeleton plasticity with the functioning of discrete TCR signaling components. This function may be required to adjust TCR responses to selecting ligands accounting in part for the homeostasis defect that impacts alpha beta T cells in coronin-1A deficient mice, with the exclusion of other lympho/hematopoietic lineages.

  4. The effect of CD4 receptor downregulation and its downstream signaling molecules on HIV-1 latency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-Chang; Kim, Hyeon Guk; Roh, Tae-Young; Park, Jihwan; Jung, Kyung-Min; Lee, Joo-Shil; Choi, Sang-Yun; Kim, Sung Soon; Choi, Byeong-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → CD4 receptors were downregulated on the surface of HIV-1 latently infected cells. → CD4 downstream signaling molecules were suppressed in HIV-1 latently infected cells. → HIV-1 progeny can be reactivated by induction of T-cell activation signal molecules. → H3K4me3 and H3K9ac were highly enriched in CD4 downstream signaling molecules. → HIV-1 latency can be maintained by the reduction of downstream signaling molecules. -- Abstract: HIV-1 can establish a latent infection in memory CD4 + T cells to evade the host immune response. CD4 molecules can act not only as the HIV-1 receptor for entry but also as the trigger in an intracellular signaling cascade for T-cell activation and proliferation via protein tyrosine kinases. Novel chronic HIV-1-infected A3.01-derived (NCHA) cells were used to examine the involvement of CD4 downstream signaling in HIV-1 latency. CD4 receptors in NCHA cells were dramatically downregulated on its surface but were slightly decreased in whole-cell lysates. The expression levels of CD4 downstream signaling molecules, including P56 Lck , ZAP-70, LAT, and c-Jun, were sharply decreased in NCHA cells. The lowered histone modifications of H3K4me3 and H3K9ac correlated with the downregulation of P56 Lck , ZAP-70, and LAT in NCHA cells. AP-1 binding activity was also reduced in NCHA cells. LAT and c-Jun suppressed in NCHA cells were highly induced after PMA treatment. In epigenetic analysis, other signal transduction molecules which are associated with active and/or latent HIV-1 infection showed normal states in HIV-1 latently infected cells compared to A3.01 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the HIV-1 latent state is sustained by the reduction of downstream signaling molecules via the downregulation of CD4 and the attenuated activity of transcription factor as AP-1. The HIV-1 latency model via T-cell deactivation may provide some clues for the development of the new antireservoir therapy.

  5. The effect of CD4 receptor downregulation and its downstream signaling molecules on HIV-1 latency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Chang [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Guk [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Tae-Young [Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jihwan [Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyung-Min; Lee, Joo-Shil [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang-Yun [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Soon [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byeong-Sun, E-mail: byeongsun@korea.kr [National Institute of Health, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} CD4 receptors were downregulated on the surface of HIV-1 latently infected cells. {yields} CD4 downstream signaling molecules were suppressed in HIV-1 latently infected cells. {yields} HIV-1 progeny can be reactivated by induction of T-cell activation signal molecules. {yields} H3K4me3 and H3K9ac were highly enriched in CD4 downstream signaling molecules. {yields} HIV-1 latency can be maintained by the reduction of downstream signaling molecules. -- Abstract: HIV-1 can establish a latent infection in memory CD4 + T cells to evade the host immune response. CD4 molecules can act not only as the HIV-1 receptor for entry but also as the trigger in an intracellular signaling cascade for T-cell activation and proliferation via protein tyrosine kinases. Novel chronic HIV-1-infected A3.01-derived (NCHA) cells were used to examine the involvement of CD4 downstream signaling in HIV-1 latency. CD4 receptors in NCHA cells were dramatically downregulated on its surface but were slightly decreased in whole-cell lysates. The expression levels of CD4 downstream signaling molecules, including P56{sup Lck}, ZAP-70, LAT, and c-Jun, were sharply decreased in NCHA cells. The lowered histone modifications of H3K4me3 and H3K9ac correlated with the downregulation of P56{sup Lck}, ZAP-70, and LAT in NCHA cells. AP-1 binding activity was also reduced in NCHA cells. LAT and c-Jun suppressed in NCHA cells were highly induced after PMA treatment. In epigenetic analysis, other signal transduction molecules which are associated with active and/or latent HIV-1 infection showed normal states in HIV-1 latently infected cells compared to A3.01 cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the HIV-1 latent state is sustained by the reduction of downstream signaling molecules via the downregulation of CD4 and the attenuated activity of transcription factor as AP-1. The HIV-1 latency model via T-cell deactivation may provide some clues for the development of the new

  6. Signaling cross-talk between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor/retinoid X receptor and estrogen receptor through estrogen response elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H; Givel, F; Perroud, M; Wahli, W

    1995-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and 9-cis-retinoic acid, respectively. PPARs and RXRs form heterodimers that activate transcription by binding to PPAR response elements (PPREs) in the promoter of target genes. The PPREs described thus far consist of a direct tandem repeat of the AGGTCA core element with one intervening nucleotide. We show here that the vitellogenin A2 estrogen response element (ERE) can also function as a PPRE and is bound by a PPAR/RXR heterodimer. Although this heterodimer can bind to several other ERE-related palindromic response elements containing AGGTCA half-sites, only the ERE is able to confer transactivation of test reporter plasmids, when the ERE is placed either close to or at a distance from the transcription initiation site. Examination of natural ERE-containing promoters, including the pS2, very-low-density apolipoprotein II and vitellogenin A2 genes, revealed considerable differences in the binding of PPAR/RXR heterodimers to these EREs. In their natural promoter context, these EREs did not allow transcriptional activation by PPARs/RXRs. Analysis of this lack of stimulation of the vitellogenin A2 promoter demonstrated that PPARs/RXRs bind to the ERE but cannot transactivate due to a nonpermissive promoter structure. As a consequence, PPARs/RXRs inhibit transactivation by the estrogen receptor through competition for ERE binding. This is the first example of signaling cross-talk between PPAR/RXR and estrogen receptor.

  7. Kidins220/ARMS as a functional mediator of multiple receptor signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrand, Veronika E; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2012-04-15

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that several membrane receptors--in addition to activating distinct signalling cascades--also engage in substantial crosstalk with each other, thereby adjusting their signalling outcome as a function of specific input information. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control their coordination and integration of downstream signalling. A protein that is likely to have a role in this process is kinase-D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa [Kidins220, also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), hereafter referred to as Kidins220/ARMS]. Kidins220/ARMS is a conserved membrane protein that is preferentially expressed in the nervous system and interacts with the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. It interacts with neurotrophin, ephrin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glutamate receptors, and is a common downstream target of several trophic stimuli. Kidins220/ARMS is required for neuronal differentiation and survival, and its expression levels modulate synaptic plasticity. Kidins220/ARMS knockout mice show developmental defects mainly in the nervous and cardiovascular systems, suggesting a crucial role for this protein in modulating the cross talk between different signalling pathways. In this Commentary, we summarise existing knowledge regarding the physiological functions of Kidins220/ARMS, and highlight some interesting directions for future studies on the role of this protein in health and disease.

  8. Regulation of G-protein coupled receptor traffic by an evolutionary conserved hydrophobic signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelotti, Tim; Daunt, David; Shcherbakova, Olga G; Kobilka, Brian; Hurt, Carl M

    2010-04-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) expression of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is required for activation by extracellular ligands; however, mechanisms that regulate PM expression of GPCRs are poorly understood. For some GPCRs, such as alpha2c-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2c)-ARs), heterologous expression in non-native cells results in limited PM expression and extensive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention. Recently, ER export/retentions signals have been proposed to regulate cellular trafficking of several GPCRs. By utilizing a chimeric alpha(2a)/alpha(2c)-AR strategy, we identified an evolutionary conserved hydrophobic sequence (ALAAALAAAAA) in the extracellular amino terminal region that is responsible in part for alpha(2c)-AR subtype-specific trafficking. To our knowledge, this is the first luminal ER retention signal reported for a GPCR. Removal or disruption of the ER retention signal dramatically increased PM expression and decreased ER retention. Conversely, transplantation of this hydrophobic sequence into alpha(2a)-ARs reduced their PM expression and increased ER retention. This evolutionary conserved hydrophobic trafficking signal within alpha(2c)-ARs serves as a regulator of GPCR trafficking.

  9. Nonmuscle Myosin II Is Required for Internalization of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Modulation of Downstream Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Wang, Aibing; Conti, Mary Anne; Adelstein, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Ligand-induced internalization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important process for regulating signal transduction, cellular dynamics, and cell-cell communication. Here, we demonstrate that nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) is required for the internalization of the EGFR and to trigger the EGFR-dependent activation of ERK and AKT. The EGFR was identified as a protein that interacts with NM II by co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis. This interaction requires both the regulatory light chain 20 (RLC20) of NM II and the kinase domain of the EGFR. Two paralogs of NM II, NM II-A, and NM II-B can act to internalize the EGFR, depending on the cell type and paralog content of the cell line. Loss (siRNA) or inhibition (25 μm blebbistatin) of NM II attenuates the internalization of the EGFR and impairs EGFR-dependent activation of ERK and AKT. Both internalization of the EGFR and downstream signaling to ERK and AKT can be partially restored in siRNA-treated cells by introduction of wild type (WT) GFP-NM II, but cannot be restored by motor mutant NM II. Taken together, these results suggest that NM II plays a role in the internalization of the EGFR and EGFR-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:22718763

  10. DMPD: Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16920490 Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macroph...tml) (.csml) Show Signal integration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in macrophages. PubmedID 16920490 Title Signal inte...gration between IFNgamma and TLR signalling pathways in

  11. Observation of Wetland Dynamics with Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffada, C.; Shah, R.; Nghiem, S. V.; Cardellach, E.; Chew, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland dynamics is crucial to changes in both atmospheric methane and terrestrial water storage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC AR5) highlights the role of wetlands as a key driver of methane (CH4) emission, which is more than one order of magnitude stronger than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas in the centennial time scale. Among the multitude of methane emission sources (hydrates, livestock, rice cultivation, freshwaters, landfills and waste, fossil fuels, biomass burning, termites, geological sources, and soil oxidation), wetlands constitute the largest contributor with the widest uncertainty range of 177-284 Tg(CH4) yr-1 according to the IPCC estimate. Wetlands are highly susceptible to climate change that might lead to wetland collapse. Such wetland destruction would decrease the terrestrial water storage capacity and thus contribute to sea level rise, consequently exacerbating coastal flooding problems. For both methane change and water storage change, wetland dynamics is a crucial factor with the largest uncertainty. Nevertheless, a complete and consistent map of global wetlands still needs to be obtained as the Ramsar Convention calls for a wetlands inventory and impact assessment. We develop a new method for observations of wetland change using Global Navigation Satellite Signals Reflectometry (GNSS-R) signatures for global wetland mapping in synergy with the existing capability, not only as a static inventory but also as a temporal dataset, to advance the capability for monitoring the dynamics of wetland extent relevant to addressing the science issues of CH4 emission change and terrestrial water storage change. We will demonstrate the capability of the new GNSS-R method over a rice field in the Ebro Delta wetland in Spain.

  12. Dynamics Determine Signaling in a Multicomponent System Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Cecilia; Tyagi, Mohit; Viljanen, Johan; Toms, Johannes; Ge, Changrong; Zhang, Naru; Holmdahl, Rikard; Kihlberg, Jan; Linusson, Anna

    2018-05-24

    Strategies that target multiple components are usually required for treatment of diseases originating from complex biological systems. The multicomponent system consisting of the DR4 major histocompatibility complex type II molecule, the glycopeptide CII259-273 from type II collagen, and a T-cell receptor is associated with development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We introduced non-native amino acids and amide bond isosteres into CII259-273 and investigated the effect on binding to DR4 and the subsequent T-cell response. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that complexes between DR4 and derivatives of CII259-273 were highly dynamic. Signaling in the overall multicomponent system was found to depend on formation of an appropriate number of dynamic intramolecular hydrogen bonds between DR4 and CII259-273, together with the positioning of the galactose moiety of CII259-273 in the DR4 binding groove. Interestingly, the system tolerated modifications at several positions in CII259-273, indicating opportunities to use analogues to increase our understanding of how rheumatoid arthritis develops and for evaluation as vaccines to treat RA.

  13. Mu and delta opioid receptors oppositely regulate motor impulsivity in the signaled nose poke task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Olmstead

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is a primary feature of many psychiatric disorders, most notably attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction. Impulsivity includes a number of processes such as the inability to delay gratification, the inability to withhold a motor response, or acting before all of the relevant information is available. These processes are mediated by neural systems that include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, glutamate and cannabinoids. We examine, for the first time, the role of opioid systems in impulsivity by testing whether inactivation of the mu- (Oprm1 or delta- (Oprd1 opioid receptor gene alters motor impulsivity in mice. Wild-type and knockout mice were examined on either a pure C57BL6/J (BL6 or a hybrid 50% C57Bl/6J-50% 129Sv/pas (HYB background. Mice were trained to respond for sucrose in a signaled nose poke task that provides independent measures of associative learning (responses to the reward-paired cue and motor impulsivity (premature responses. Oprm1 knockout mice displayed a remarkable decrease in motor impulsivity. This was observed on the two genetic backgrounds and did not result from impaired associative learning, as responses to the cue signaling reward did not differ across genotypes. Furthermore, mutant mice were insensitive to the effects of ethanol, which increased disinhibition and decreased conditioned responding in wild-type mice. In sharp contrast, mice lacking the Oprd1 gene were more impulsive than controls. Again, mutant animals showed no deficit in associative learning. Ethanol completely disrupted performance in these animals. Together, our results suggest that mu-opioid receptors enhance, whereas delta-opioid receptors inhibit, motor impulsivity. This reveals an unanticipated contribution of endogenous opioid receptor activity to disinhibition. In a broader context, these data suggest that alterations in mu- or delta-opioid receptor function may contribute to impulse control disorders.

  14. Astrocyte reactivity to unconjugated bilirubin requires TNF-α and IL-1β receptor signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Adelaide; Barateiro, Andreia; Falcão, Ana Sofia; Silva, Sandra Leit-Ao; Vaz, Ana Rita; Brito, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Rui Fernando Marques; Brites, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Jaundice and sepsis are common neonatal conditions that can lead to neurodevelopment sequelae, namely if present at the same time. We have reported that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β are produced by cultured neurons and mainly by glial cells exposed to unconjugated bilirubin (UCB). The effects of these cytokines are mediated by cell surface receptors through a nuclear factor (NF)-κB-dependent pathway that we have showed to be activated by UCB. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of TNF-α and IL-1β signaling on astrocyte reactivity to UCB in rat cortical astrocytes. Exposure of astrocytes to UCB increased the expression of both TNF-α receptor (TNFR)1 and IL-1β receptor (IL-1R)1, but not TNFR2, as well as their activation, observed by augmented binding of receptors' molecular adaptors, TRAF2 and TRAF6, respectively. Silencing of TNFR1, using siRNA technology, or blockade of IL-1β cascade, using its endogenous antagonist, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), prevented UCB-induced cytokine release and NF-κB activation. Interestingly, lack of TNF-α signal transduction reduced UCB-induced cell death for short periods of incubation, although an increase was observed after extended exposure; in contrast, inhibition of IL-1β cascade produced a sustained blockade of astrocyte injury by UCB. Together, our data show that inflammatory pathways are activated during in vitro exposure of rat cortical astrocytes to UCB and that this activation is prolonged in time. This supports the concept that inflammatory pathways play a role in brain damage by UCB, and that they may represent important pharmacological targets. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Distinct Signaling Cascades Elicited by Different Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 (FPR2 Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cattaneo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2 is a remarkably versatile transmembrane protein belonging to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR family. FPR2 is activated by an array of ligands, which include structurally unrelated lipids and peptide/proteins agonists, resulting in different intracellular responses in a ligand-specific fashion. In addition to the anti-inflammatory lipid, lipoxin A4, several other endogenous agonists also bind FPR2, including serum amyloid A, glucocorticoid-induced annexin 1, urokinase and its receptor, suggesting that the activation of FPR2 may result in potent pro- or anti-inflammatory responses. Other endogenous ligands, also present in biological samples, include resolvins, amyloidogenic proteins, such as beta amyloid (Aβ-42 and prion protein (Prp106–126, the neuroprotective peptide, humanin, antibacterial peptides, annexin 1-derived peptides, chemokine variants, the neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP-27, and mitochondrial peptides. Upon activation, intracellular domains of FPR2 mediate signaling to G-proteins, which trigger several agonist-dependent signal transduction pathways, including activation of phospholipase C (PLC, protein kinase C (PKC isoforms, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway, p38MAPK, as well as the phosphorylation of cytosolic tyrosine kinases, tyrosine kinase receptor transactivation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of regulatory transcriptional factors, release of calcium and production of oxidants. FPR2 is an attractive therapeutic target, because of its involvement in a range of normal physiological processes and pathological diseases. Here, we review and discuss the most significant findings on the intracellular pathways and on the cross-communication between FPR2 and tyrosine kinase receptors triggered by different FPR2

  16. The plant natriuretic peptide receptor is a guanylyl cyclase and enables cGMP-dependent signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Turek, Ilona

    2016-03-05

    The functional homologues of vertebrate natriuretic peptides (NPs), the plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs), are a novel class of peptidic hormones that signal via guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and systemically affect plant salt and water balance and responses to biotrophic plant pathogens. Although there is increasing understanding of the complex roles of PNPs in plant responses at the systems level, little is known about the underlying signaling mechanisms. Here we report isolation and identification of a novel Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) protein that directly interacts with A. thaliana PNP, AtPNP-A. In vitro binding studies revealed that the Arabidopsis AtPNP-A binds specifically to the LRR protein, termed AtPNP-R1, and the active region of AtPNP-A is sufficient for the interaction to occur. Importantly, the cytosolic part of the AtPNP-R1, much like in some vertebrate NP receptors, harbors a catalytic center diagnostic for guanylyl cyclases and the recombinant AtPNP-R1 is capable of catalyzing the conversion of guanosine triphosphate to cGMP. In addition, we show that AtPNP-A causes rapid increases of cGMP levels in wild type (WT) leaf tissue while this response is significantly reduced in the atpnp-r1 mutants. AtPNP-A also causes cGMP-dependent net water uptake into WT protoplasts, and hence volume increases, whereas responses of the protoplasts from the receptor mutant are impaired. Taken together, our results suggest that the identified LRR protein is an AtPNP-A receptor essential for the PNP-dependent regulation of ion and water homeostasis in plants and that PNP- and vertebrate NP-receptors and their signaling mechanisms share surprising similarities. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  17. Signaling by Kit protein-tyrosine kinase--the stem cell factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2005-11-11

    Signaling by stem cell factor and Kit, its receptor, plays important roles in gametogenesis, hematopoiesis, mast cell development and function, and melanogenesis. Moreover, human and mouse embryonic stem cells express Kit transcripts. Stem cell factor exists as both a soluble and a membrane-bound glycoprotein while Kit is a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. The complete absence of stem cell factor or Kit is lethal. Deficiencies of either produce defects in red and white blood cell production, hypopigmentation, and sterility. Gain-of-function mutations of Kit are associated with several human neoplasms including acute myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and mastocytomas. Kit consists of an extracellular domain, a transmembrane segment, a juxtamembrane segment, and a protein kinase domain that contains an insert of about 80 amino acid residues. Binding of stem cell factor to Kit results in receptor dimerization and activation of protein kinase activity. The activated receptor becomes autophosphorylated at tyrosine residues that serve as docking sites for signal transduction molecules containing SH2 domains. The adaptor protein APS, Src family kinases, and Shp2 tyrosyl phosphatase bind to phosphotyrosine 568. Shp1 tyrosyl phosphatase and the adaptor protein Shc bind to phosphotyrosine 570. C-terminal Src kinase homologous kinase and the adaptor Shc bind to both phosphotyrosines 568 and 570. These residues occur in the juxtamembrane segment of Kit. Three residues in the kinase insert domain are phosphorylated and attract the adaptor protein Grb2 (Tyr703), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Tyr721), and phospholipase Cgamma (Tyr730). Phosphotyrosine 900 in the distal kinase domain binds phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which in turn binds the adaptor protein Crk. Phosphotyrosine 936, also in the distal kinase domain, binds the adaptor proteins APS, Grb2, and Grb7. Kit has the potential to participate in multiple signal transduction pathways as a result of

  18. G Protein and β-arrestin signaling bias at the ghrelin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evron, Tama; Peterson, Sean M; Urs, Nikhil M; Bai, Yushi; Rochelle, Lauren K; Caron, Marc G; Barak, Larry S

    2014-11-28

    The G protein-coupled ghrelin receptor GHSR1a is a potential pharmacological target for treating obesity and addiction because of the critical role ghrelin plays in energy homeostasis and dopamine-dependent reward. GHSR1a enhances growth hormone release, appetite, and dopamine signaling through G(q/11), G(i/o), and G(12/13) as well as β-arrestin-based scaffolds. However, the contribution of individual G protein and β-arrestin pathways to the diverse physiological responses mediated by ghrelin remains unknown. To characterize whether a signaling bias occurs for GHSR1a, we investigated ghrelin signaling in a number of cell-based assays, including Ca(2+) mobilization, serum response factor response element, stress fiber formation, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and β-arrestin translocation, utilizing intracellular second loop and C-tail mutants of GHSR1a. We observed that GHSR1a and β-arrestin rapidly form metastable plasma membrane complexes following exposure to an agonist, but replacement of the GHSR1a C-tail by the tail of the vasopressin 2 receptor greatly stabilizes them, producing complexes observable on the plasma membrane and also in endocytic vesicles. Mutations of the contiguous conserved amino acids Pro-148 and Leu-149 in the GHSR1a intracellular second loop generate receptors with a strong bias to G protein and β-arrestin, respectively, supporting a role for conformation-dependent signaling bias in the wild-type receptor. Our results demonstrate more balance in GHSR1a-mediated ERK signaling from G proteins and β-arrestin but uncover an important role for β-arrestin in RhoA activation and stress fiber formation. These findings suggest an avenue for modulating drug abuse-associated changes in synaptic plasticity via GHSR1a and indicate the development of GHSR1a-biased ligands as a promising strategy for selectively targeting downstream signaling events. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. An Evaluation of Explicit Receptor Flexibility in Molecular Docking Using Molecular Dynamics and Torsion Angle Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armen, Roger S; Chen, Jianhan; Brooks, Charles L

    2009-10-13

    Incorporating receptor flexibility into molecular docking should improve results for flexible proteins. However, the incorporation of explicit all-atom flexibility with molecular dynamics for the entire protein chain may also introduce significant error and "noise" that could decrease docking accuracy and deteriorate the ability of a scoring function to rank native-like poses. We address this apparent paradox by comparing the success of several flexible receptor models in cross-docking and multiple receptor ensemble docking for p38α mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Explicit all-atom receptor flexibility has been incorporated into a CHARMM-based molecular docking method (CDOCKER) using both molecular dynamics (MD) and torsion angle molecular dynamics (TAMD) for the refinement of predicted protein-ligand binding geometries. These flexible receptor models have been evaluated, and the accuracy and efficiency of TAMD sampling is directly compared to MD sampling. Several flexible receptor models are compared, encompassing flexible side chains, flexible loops, multiple flexible backbone segments, and treatment of the entire chain as flexible. We find that although including side chain and some backbone flexibility is required for improved docking accuracy as expected, docking accuracy also diminishes as additional and unnecessary receptor flexibility is included into the conformational search space. Ensemble docking results demonstrate that including protein flexibility leads to to improved agreement with binding data for 227 active compounds. This comparison also demonstrates that a flexible receptor model enriches high affinity compound identification without significantly increasing the number of false positives from low affinity compounds.

  20. Role of Neurokinin 3 Receptor Signaling in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Kyoichi; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Okui, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Takada, Hiroyuki; Takabatake, Kiyofumi; Kunisada, Yuki; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Yoshioka, Norie; Kishimoto, Koji; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Akira

    2017-11-01

    The neurokinin 3 receptor (NK-3R) is differentially expressed in the central nervous system including cases of human oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role of NK-3R signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma is not well known. NK-3R expression in surgically resected oral squamous cell carcinoma was examined immunohistochemically and the strength of the expression was quantified. We evaluated the function of NK-3R signaling using NK-3R antagonist in human oral squamous cell carcinoma bone invasion mouse model. NK-3R was significantly expressed in tumor cells that had invaded the bone matrix compared to the oral side tumor cells. SB222200, a selective antagonist of NK-3R, significantly suppressed the radiographic osteolytic lesion and tumorigenesis. NK-3R signaling is a potential target for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma in cases of bone destruction. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Disabled is a putative adaptor protein that functions during signaling by the sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, N; Simon, M A

    1998-08-01

    DRK, the Drosophila homolog of the SH2-SH3 domain adaptor protein Grb2, is required during signaling by the sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase (SEV). One role of DRK is to provide a link between activated SEV and the Ras1 activator SOS. We have investigated the possibility that DRK performs other functions by identifying additional DRK-binding proteins. We show that the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain-containing protein Disabled (DAB) binds to the DRK SH3 domains. DAB is expressed in the ommatidial clusters, and loss of DAB function disrupts ommatidial development. Moreover, reduction of DAB function attenuates signaling by a constitutively activated SEV. Our biochemical analysis suggests that DAB binds SEV directly via its PTB domain, becomes tyrosine phosphorylated upon SEV activation, and then serves as an adaptor protein for SH2 domain-containing proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that DAB is a novel component of the SEV signaling pathway.

  2. Signal Peptide and Denaturing Temperature are Critical Factors for Efficient Mammalian Expression and Immunoblotting of Cannabinoid Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Chenyun; WANG, Yingying; WANG, Miao; CHEN, Jiankui; YU, Nong; SONG, Shiping; KAMINSKI, Norbert E.; ZHANG, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Summary Many researchers employed mammalian expression system to artificially express cannabinoid receptors, but immunoblot data that directly prove efficient protein expression can hardly be seen in related research reports. In present study, we demonstrated cannabinoid receptor protein was not able to be properly expressed with routine mammalian expression system. This inefficient expression was rescued by endowing an exogenous signal peptide ahead of cannabinoid receptor peptide. In addition, the artificially synthesized cannabinoid receptor was found to aggregate under routine sample denaturing temperatures (i.e., ≥95°C), forming a large molecular weight band when analyzed by immunoblotting. Only denaturing temperatures ≤75°C yielded a clear band at the predicted molecular weight. Collectively, we showed that efficient mammalian expression of cannabinoid receptors need a signal peptide sequence, and described the requirement for a low sample denaturing temperature in immunoblot analysis. These findings provide very useful information for efficient mammalian expression and immunoblotting of membrane receptors. PMID:22528237

  3. Enhanced Androgen Signaling With Androgen Receptor Overexpression in the Osteoblast Lineage Controls Skeletal Turnover, Matrix Quality and Bone Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiren, Kristine M; Jepsen, Karl

    2006-01-01

    .... We genetically engineered transgenic mice in which androgen receptor (AR) overexpression is skeletally targeted in two separate models to better understand the role of androgen signaling directly in bone...

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor signalling in human breast cancer cells operates parallel to estrogen receptor α signalling and results in tamoxifen insensitive proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerkens, Marja; Zhang, Yinghui; Wester, Lynn; Water, Bob van de; Meerman, John HN

    2014-01-01

    Tamoxifen resistance is a major problem in the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER) α -positive breast cancer patients. Although the mechanisms behind tamoxifen resistance are still not completely understood, clinical data suggests that increased expression of receptor tyrosine kinases is involved. Here, we studied the estrogen and anti-estrogen sensitivity of human breast cancer MCF7 cells that have a moderate, retroviral-mediated, ectopic expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (MCF7-EGFR). Proliferation of MCF7-EGFR and parental cells was induced by 17β-estradiol (E2), epidermal growth factor (EGF) or a combination of these. Inhibition of proliferation under these conditions was investigated with 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (TAM) or fulvestrant at 10 -12 to 10 -6 M. Cells were lysed at different time points to determine the phosphorylation status of EGFR, MAPK 1/3 , AKT and the expression of ERα. Knockdown of target genes was established using smartpool siRNAs. Transcriptomics analysis was done 6 hr after stimulation with growth factors using Affymetrix HG-U133 PM array plates. While proliferation of parental MCF7 cells could only be induced by E2, proliferation of MCF7-EGFR cells could be induced by either E2 or EGF. Treatment with TAM or fulvestrant did significantly inhibit proliferation of MCF7-EGFR cells stimulated with E2 alone. EGF treatment of E2/TAM treated cells led to a marked cell proliferation thereby overruling the anti-estrogen-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation. Under these conditions, TAM however did still inhibit ERα- mediated transcription. While siRNA-mediated knock-down of EGFR inhibited the EGF- driven proliferation under TAM/E2/EGF condition, knock down of ERα did not. The TAM resistant cell proliferation mediated by the conditional EGFR-signaling may be dependent on the PI3K/Akt pathway but not the MEK/MAPK pathway, since a MEK inhibitor (U0126), did not block the proliferation. Transcriptomic analysis under the various E2/TAM

  5. Embelin and its derivatives unravel the signaling, proinflammatory and antiatherogenic properties of GPR84 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidarov, Ibragim; Anthony, Todd; Gatlin, Joel; Chen, Xiaohua; Mills, David; Solomon, Michelle; Han, Sangdon; Semple, Graeme; Unett, David J

    2018-05-01

    GPR84 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor, expressed on monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils and is significantly upregulated by inflammatory stimuli. The physiological role of GPR84 remains largely unknown. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) activate the receptor and have been proposed to be its endogenous ligands, although the high concentrations of MCFAs required for receptor activation generally exceed normal physiological levels. We identified the natural product embelin as a highly potent and selective surrogate GPR84 agonist (originally disclosed in patent application WO2007027661A2, 2007) and synthesized close structural analogs with widely varying receptor activities. These tools were used to perform a comprehensive study of GPR84 signaling and function in recombinant cells and in primary human macrophages and neutrophils. Activation of recombinant GPR84 by embelin in HEK293 cells results in G i/o as well as G12/13-Rho signaling. In human macrophages, GPR84 initiates PTX sensitive Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, PI-3 kinase activation, calcium flux, and release of prostaglandin E2. In addition, GPR84 signaling in macrophages elicits G i Gβγ-mediated augmentation of intracellular cAMP, rather than the decrease expected from G iα engagement. GPR84 activation drives human neutrophil chemotaxis and primes them for amplification of oxidative burst induced by FMLP and C5A. Loss of GPR84 is associated with attenuated LPS-induced release of proinflammatory mediators IL-6, KC-GROα, VEGF, MIP-2 and NGAL from peritoneal exudates. While initiating numerous proinflammatory activities in macrophages and neutrophils, GPR84 also possesses GPR109A-like antiatherosclerotic properties in macrophages. Macrophage receptor activation leads to upregulation of cholesterol transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 and stimulates reverse cholesterol transport. These data suggest that GPR84 may be a target of therapeutic value and that distinct modes of receptor modulation (inhibition vs

  6. Agmatine produces antidepressant-like effects by activating AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neis, Vivian Binder; Moretti, Morgana; Bettio, Luis Eduardo B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila Batista; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Lopes, Mark William; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-06-01

    The activation of AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling has been reported as mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of fast-acting agents, specially the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. In the present study, oral administration of agmatine (0.1mg/kg), a neuromodulator that has been reported to modulate NMDA receptors, caused a significant reduction in the immobility time of mice submitted to the tail suspension test (TST), an effect prevented by the administration of DNQX (AMPA receptor antagonist, 2.5μg/site, i.c.v.), BDNF antibody (1μg/site, i.c.v.), K-252a (TrkB receptor antagonist, 1μg/site, i.c.v.), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor, 10nmol/site, i.c.v.) or rapamycin (selective mTOR inhibitor, 0.2nmol/site, i.c.v.). Moreover, the administration of lithium chloride (non-selective GSK-3β inhibitor, 10mg/kg, p.o.) or AR-A014418 (selective GSK-3β inhibitor, 0.01μg/site, i.c.v.) in combination with a sub-effective dose of agmatine (0.0001mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the immobility time in the TST when compared with either drug alone. Furthermore, increased immunocontents of BDNF, PSD-95 and GluA1 were found in the prefrontal cortex of mice just 1h after agmatine administration. These results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in the TST may be dependent on the activation of AMPA and TrkB receptors, PI3K and mTOR signaling as well as inhibition of GSK-3β, and increase in synaptic proteins. The results contribute to elucidate the complex signaling pathways involved in the antidepressant effect of agmatine and reinforce the pivotal role of these molecular targets for antidepressant responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. NMDA receptors mediate neuron-to-glia signaling in mouse cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalo, Ulyana; Pankratov, Yuri; Kirchhoff, Frank; North, R Alan; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2006-03-08

    Chemical transmission between neurons and glial cells is an important element of integration in the CNS. Here, we describe currents activated by NMDA in cortical astrocytes, identified in transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein under control of the human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. Astrocytes were studied by whole-cell voltage clamp either in slices or after gentle nonenzymatic mechanical dissociation. Acutely isolated astrocytes showed a three-component response to glutamate. The initial rapid component was blocked by 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX), which is an antagonist of AMPA receptors (IC50, 2 microM), and the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP-5 blocked the later sustained component (IC50, 0.6 microM). The third component of glutamate application response was sensitive to D,L-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate, a glutamate transporter blocker. Fast application of NMDA evoked concentration-dependent inward currents (EC50, 0.3 microM); these showed use-dependent block by (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801). These NMDA-evoked currents were linearly dependent on membrane potential and were not affected by extracellular magnesium at concentrations up to 10 mM. Electrical stimulation of axons in layer IV-VI induced a complex inward current in astrocytes situated in the cortical layer II, part of which was sensitive to MK-801 at holding potential -80 mV and was not affected by the AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist NBQX. The fast miniature spontaneous currents were observed in cortical astrocytes in slices as well. These currents exhibited both AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated components. We conclude that cortical astrocytes express functional NMDA receptors that are devoid of Mg2+ block, and these receptors are involved in neuronal-glial signal transmission.

  8. Molecular Basis of the Extracellular Ligands Mediated Signaling by the Calcium Sensing Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+-sensing receptors (CaSRs play a central role in regulating extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o homeostasis and many (pathophysiological processes in multiple organs. This regulation is orchestrated by a cooperative response to extracellular stimuli such as small changes in Ca2+, Mg2+, amino acids and other ligands. In addition, CaSR is a pleiotropic receptor regulating several intracellular signaling pathways, including calcium mobilization and intracellular calcium oscillation. Nearly 200 mutations and polymorphisms have been found in CaSR in relation to a variety of human disorders associated with abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis. In this review, we summarize efforts directed at identifying binding sites for calcium and amino acids. Both homotropic cooperativity among multiple calcium binding sites and heterotropic cooperativity between calcium and amino acid were revealed using computational modeling, predictions, and site-directed mutagenesis coupled with functional assays. The hinge region of the bilobed Venus flytrap (VFT domain of CaSR plays a pivotal role in coordinating multiple extracellular stimuli, leading to cooperative responses from the receptor. We further highlight the extensive number of disease-associated mutations that have also been shown to affect CaSR’s cooperative action via several types of mechanisms. These results provide insights into the molecular bases of the structure and functional cooperativity of this receptor and other members of family C of the G protein-coupled receptors (cGPCRs in health and disease states, and may assist in the prospective development of novel receptor-based therapeutics.

  9. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 negatively regulates chemokine signaling at a level downstream from G protein subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Sainz, MC; Murga, C; Kavelaars, A; Jurado-Pueyo, M; Krakstad, BF; Heijnen, CJ; Mayor, F; Aragay, AM

    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates and desensitizes ligand-activated G protein-coupled-receptors. Here, evidence is shown for a novel role of GRK2 in regulating chemokine-mediated signals. The presence of increased levels of GRK2 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells

  10. Distinct Signaling Mechanisms in Multiple Developmental Pathways by the SCRAMBLED Receptor of Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Woo, Sooah; Lee, Myeong Min; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    SCRAMBLED (SCM), a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is required for positional signaling in the root epidermis and for tissue/organ development in the shoot. To further understand SCM action, we generated a series of kinase domain variants and analyzed their ability to complement scm mutant defects. We found that the SCM kinase domain, but not kinase activity, is required for its role in root epidermal patterning, supporting the view that SCM is an atypical receptor kinase. We also describe a previously uncharacterized role for SCM in fruit dehiscence, because mature siliques from scm mutants fail to open properly. Interestingly, the kinase domain of SCM appears to be dispensable for this developmental process. Furthermore, we found that most of the SCM kinase domain mutations dramatically inhibit inflorescence development. Because this process is not affected in scm null mutants, it is likely that SCM acts redundantly to regulate inflorescence size. The importance of distinct kinase residues for these three developmental processes provides an explanation for the maintenance of the conserved kinase domain in the SCM protein, and it may generally explain its conservation in other atypical kinases. Furthermore, these results indicate that individual leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases may participate in multiple pathways using distinct signaling mechanisms to mediate diverse cellular communication events. PMID:25136062

  11. Distinct signaling mechanisms in multiple developmental pathways by the SCRAMBLED receptor of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Su-Hwan; Woo, Sooah; Lee, Myeong Min; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-10-01

    SCRAMBLED (SCM), a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is required for positional signaling in the root epidermis and for tissue/organ development in the shoot. To further understand SCM action, we generated a series of kinase domain variants and analyzed their ability to complement scm mutant defects. We found that the SCM kinase domain, but not kinase activity, is required for its role in root epidermal patterning, supporting the view that SCM is an atypical receptor kinase. We also describe a previously uncharacterized role for SCM in fruit dehiscence, because mature siliques from scm mutants fail to open properly. Interestingly, the kinase domain of SCM appears to be dispensable for this developmental process. Furthermore, we found that most of the SCM kinase domain mutations dramatically inhibit inflorescence development. Because this process is not affected in scm null mutants, it is likely that SCM acts redundantly to regulate inflorescence size. The importance of distinct kinase residues for these three developmental processes provides an explanation for the maintenance of the conserved kinase domain in the SCM protein, and it may generally explain its conservation in other atypical kinases. Furthermore, these results indicate that individual leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases may participate in multiple pathways using distinct signaling mechanisms to mediate diverse cellular communication events. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Sigma-1 receptor enhances neurite elongation of cerebellar granule neurons via TrkB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuriko; Fujita, Yuki; Shibata, Kumi; Mori, Megumi; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2013-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is an integral membrane protein predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Sig-1R demonstrates a high affinity to various synthetic compounds including well-known psychotherapeutic drugs in the central nervous system (CNS). For that, it is considered as an alternative target for psychotherapeutic drugs. On the cellular level, when Sig-1R is activated, it is known to play a role in neuroprotection and neurite elongation. These effects are suggested to be mediated by its ligand-operated molecular chaperone activity, and/or upregulation of various Ca(2+) signaling. In addition, recent studies show that Sig-1R activation induces neurite outgrowth via neurotrophin signaling. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Sig-1R activation promotes neurite elongation through activation of tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk), a family of neurotrophin receptors. We found that 2-(4-morpholinethyl)1-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylate (PRE-084), a selective Sig-1R agonist, significantly promoted neurite outgrowth, and K252a, a Trk inhibitor, attenuated Sig-1R-mediated neurite elongation in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Moreover, we revealed that Sig-1R interacts with TrkB, and PRE-084 treatment enhances phosphorylation of Y515, but not Y706. Thus, our results indicate that Sig-1R activation promotes neurite outgrowth in CGNs through Y515 phosphorylation of TrkB.

  13. Cannabinoid Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System: Signaling and Function in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglong Zou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of cannabinoids, the major constituents of the ancient medicinal plant Cannabis sativa (marijuana are mediated by two members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1R and 2. The CB1R is the prominent subtype in the central nervous system (CNS and has drawn great attention as a potential therapeutic avenue in several pathological conditions, including neuropsychological disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, cannabinoids also modulate signal transduction pathways and exert profound effects at peripheral sites. Although cannabinoids have therapeutic potential, their psychoactive effects have largely limited their use in clinical practice. In this review, we briefly summarized our knowledge of cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, focusing on the CB1R and the CNS, with emphasis on recent breakthroughs in the field. We aim to define several potential roles of cannabinoid receptors in the modulation of signaling pathways and in association with several pathophysiological conditions. We believe that the therapeutic significance of cannabinoids is masked by the adverse effects and here alternative strategies are discussed to take therapeutic advantage of cannabinoids.

  14. Toll-like receptor 3 signalling up-regulates expression of the HIV co-receptor G-protein coupled receptor 15 on human CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kiene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many HIV-2 and SIV isolates, as well as some HIV-1 strains, can use the orphan 7-transmembrane receptor GPR15 as co-receptor for efficient entry into host cells. GPR15 is expressed on central memory and effector memory CD4(+ T cells in healthy individuals and a subset of these cells is susceptible to HIV-1 and SIV infection. However, it has not been determined whether GPR15 expression is altered in the context of HIV-1 infection. RESULTS: Here, we show that GPR15 expression in CD4(+ T cells is markedly up-regulated in some HIV-1 infected individuals compared to the rest of the infected patients and to healthy controls. Infection of the PM1 T cell line with primary HIV-1 isolates was found to up-regulate GPR15 expression on the infected cells, indicating that viral components can induce GPR15 expression. Up-regulation of GPR15 expression on CD4(+ T cells was induced by activation of Toll-like receptor 3 signalling via TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF and was more prominent on gut-homing compared to lymph node-homing CD4(+ T cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that infection-induced up-regulation of GPR15 expression could increase susceptibility of CD4(+ T cells to HIV infection and target cell availability in the gut in some infected individuals.

  15. The insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 pleckstrin homology domain functions in downstream signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, I; Kovacina, K S; Roth, R A

    2001-03-16

    The pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) plays a role in directing this molecule to the insulin receptor, thereby regulating its tyrosine phosphorylation. In this work, the role of the PH domain in subsequent signaling was studied by constructing constitutively active forms of IRS-1 in which the inter-SH2 domain of the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was fused to portions of the IRS-1 molecule. Chimeric molecules containing the PH domain were found to activate the downstream response of stimulating the Ser/Thr kinase Akt. A chimera containing point mutations in the PH domain that abolished the ability of this domain to bind phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate prevented these molecules from activating Akt. These mutations also decreased by about 70% the amount of the constructs present in a particulate fraction of the cells. These results indicate that the PH domain of IRS-1, in addition to directing this protein to the receptor for tyrosine phosphorylation, functions in the ability of this molecule to stimulate subsequent responses. Thus, compromising the function of the PH domain, e.g. in insulin-resistant states, could decrease both the ability of IRS-1 to be tyrosine phosphorylated by the insulin receptor and to link to subsequent downstream targets.

  16. Dopamine D2L receptor-interacting proteins regulate dopaminergic signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norifumi Shioda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptor family proteins include seven transmembrane and trimeric GTP-binding protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Among them, the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R is most extensively studied. All clinically used antipsychotic drugs serve as D2R antagonists in the mesolimbic dopamine system, and their ability to block D2R signaling is positively correlated with antipsychotic efficiency. Human genetic studies also show a significant association of DRD2 polymorphisms with disorders including schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. D2R exists as two alternatively spliced isoforms, the long isoform (D2LR and the short isoform (D2SR, which differ in a 29-amino acid (AA insert in the third cytoplasmic loop. Importantly, previous reports demonstrate functional diversity between the two isoforms in humans. In this review, we focus on binding proteins that specifically interact with the D2LR 29AA insert. We discuss how D2R activities are mediated not only by heterotrimeric G proteins but by D2LR-interacting proteins, which in part regulate diverse D2R activities. Keywords: Dopamine D2L receptor, Antipsychotic drugs, DRD2 polymorphisms, Alternatively spliced isoforms, D2LR-interacting proteins

  17. Synaptically released zinc triggers metabotropic signaling via a zinc-sensing receptor in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Limor; Chorin, Ehud; Sekler, Israel; Silverman, William F; Atkin, Stan; Russell, James T; Hershfinkel, Michal

    2009-03-04

    Zn(2+) is coreleased with glutamate from mossy fiber terminals and can influence synaptic function. Here, we demonstrate that synaptically released Zn(2+) activates a selective postsynaptic Zn(2+)-sensing receptor (ZnR) in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. ZnR activation induced intracellular release of Ca(2+), as well as phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase and Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase II. Blockade of synaptic transmission by tetrodotoxin or CdCl inhibited the ZnR-mediated Ca(2+) rises. The responses mediated by ZnR were largely attenuated by the extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, CaEDTA, and in slices from mice lacking vesicular Zn(2+), suggesting that synaptically released Zn(2+) triggers the metabotropic activity. Knockdown of the expression of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) attenuated ZnR activity in a neuronal cell line. Importantly, we observed widespread GPR39 labeling in CA3 neurons, suggesting a role for this receptor in mediating ZnR signaling in the hippocampus. Our results describe a unique role for synaptic Zn(2+) acting as the physiological ligand of a metabotropic receptor and provide a novel pathway by which synaptic Zn(2+) can regulate neuronal function.

  18. Downstream reporter gene imaging for signal transduction pathway of dopamine type 2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Uyenchi N.; Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Bom, Hee Seung

    2004-01-01

    The Dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) signal pathway regulates gene expression by phosphorylation of proteins including cAMP reponse element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor. In this study, we developed a reporter strategy using the GAL4 fusion CREB to assess the phosphorylation of CREB, one of the targets of the D2R signal transduction pathway. We used three plasmids: GAL4 fusion transactivator (pCMV-CREB), firefly luciferase reporter with GAL4 binding sites (pG5-FLUC), and D2R plasmid (pCMV-D2R). Group 1 293T cells were transiently transfected with pCMV-CREB and pG5-FLUC, and group 2 cells were transfected with all three plasmids. Transfected cells were stimulated with different concentrations of dopamine (0-200 M). For animal studies, group 1 and 2 cells (1x10 6 ) were subcutaneously injected on the left and right thigh of six nude mice, respectively. Dopamine stimiulation was performed with intraperitoneal injection of L-DOPA incombination with carbidopa, a peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor. Bioluminescence optical imaging studies were performed before and after L-DOPA injection. In cell culture studies, group 1 cells showed strong luciferase activity which implies direct activation of the signaling pathway due to growth factors contained in culture medium. Group 2 cells showed strong luciferase activity and a further increase after administration of dopamine. In animal studies, group 1 and 2 cells showed bioluminescence signal before L-DOPA injection, but signal from group 2 cells significantly increased 12 h after L-DOPA injection. The signal from group 1 cells disappeared thereafter, but group 2 cells continued to show signal until 36 h of L-DOPA injection. This study demonstrates imaging of the D2R signal transduction pathway and should be useful for noninvasive imaging of downstream effects of G-coupled protein pathways

  19. Rictor positively regulates B cell receptor signaling by modulating actin reorganization via ezrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As the central hub of the metabolism machinery, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2 has been well studied in lymphocytes. As an obligatory component of mTORC2, the role of Rictor in T cells is well established. However, the role of Rictor in B cells still remains elusive. Rictor is involved in B cell development, especially the peripheral development. However, the role of Rictor on B cell receptor (BCR signaling as well as the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism is still unknown. This study used B cell-specfic Rictor knockout (KO mice to investigate how Rictor regulates BCR signaling. We found that the key positive and negative BCR signaling molecules, phosphorylated Brutons tyrosine kinase (pBtk and phosphorylated SH2-containing inositol phosphatase (pSHIP, are reduced and enhanced, respectively, in Rictor KO B cells. This suggests that Rictor positively regulates the early events of BCR signaling. We found that the cellular filamentous actin (F-actin is drastically increased in Rictor KO B cells after BCR stimulation through dysregulating the dephosphorylation of ezrin. The high actin-ezrin intensity area restricts the lateral movement of BCRs upon stimulation, consequently reducing BCR clustering and BCR signaling. The reduction in the initiation of BCR signaling caused by actin alteration is associated with a decreased humoral immune response in Rictor KO mice. The inhibition of actin polymerization with latrunculin in Rictor KO B cells rescues the defects of BCR signaling and B cell differentiation. Overall, our study provides a new pathway linking cell metablism to BCR activation, in which Rictor regulates BCR signaling via actin reorganization.

  20. Resveratrol inhibits PDGF receptor mitogenic signaling in mesangial cells: role of PTP1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Balachandar; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Das, Falguni; Mahimainathan, Lenin; Kamat, Amrita; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Abboud, Hanna E.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2008-01-01

    Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis is associated with overactive PDGF receptor signal transduction. We show that the phytoalexin resveratrol dose dependently inhibits PDGF-induced DNA synthesis in mesangial cells with an IC50 of 10 μM without inducing apoptosis. Remarkably, the increased SIRT1 deacetylase activity induced by resveratrol was not necessary for this inhibitory effect. Resveratrol significantly blocked PDGF-stimulated c-Src and Akt kinase activation, resulting in reduced cyclin D1 expression and attenuated pRb phosphorylation and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) activity. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited PDGFR phosphorylation at the PI 3 kinase and Grb-2 binding sites tyrosine-751 and tyrosine-716, respectively. This deficiency in PDGFR phosphorylation resulted in significant inhibition of PI 3 kinase and Erk1/2 MAPK activity. Interestingly, resveratrol increased the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B, which dephosphorylates PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation at tyrosine-751 and tyrosine-716 on PDGFR with concomitant reduction in Akt and Erk1/2 kinase activity. PTP1B significantly inhibited PDGF-induced DNA synthesis without inducing apoptosis. These results for the first time provide evidence that the stilbene resveratrol targets PTP1B to inhibit PDGFR mitogenic signaling.—Venkatesan, B., Ghosh-Choudhury, N., Das, F., Mahimainathan, L., Kamat, A., Kasinath, B. S., Abboud, H. E., Choudhury, G. G. Resveratrol inhibits PDGF receptor mitogenic signaling in mesangial cells: role of PTP1B. PMID:18567737

  1. Desipramine inhibits histamine H1 receptor-induced Ca2+ signaling in rat hypothalamic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ah Kang

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus in the brain is the main center for appetite control and integrates signals from adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract. Antidepressants are known to modulate the activities of hypothalamic neurons and affect food intake, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which antidepressants modulate hypothalamic function remain unclear. Here we have investigated how hypothalamic neurons respond to treatment with antidepressants, including desipramine and sibutramine. In primary cultured rat hypothalamic cells, desipramine markedly suppressed the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ evoked by histamine H1 receptor activation. Desipramine also inhibited the histamine-induced Ca(2+ increase and the expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in hypothalamic GT1-1 cells. The effect of desipramine was not affected by pretreatment with prazosin or propranolol, excluding catecholamine reuptake activity of desipramine as an underlying mechanism. Sibutramine which is also an antidepressant but decreases food intake, had little effect on the histamine-induced Ca(2+ increase or AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Our results reveal that desipramine and sibutramine have different effects on histamine H1 receptor signaling in hypothalamic cells and suggest that distinct regulation of hypothalamic histamine signaling might underlie the differential regulation of food intake between antidepressants.

  2. Optimal experimental design in an epidermal growth factor receptor signalling and down-regulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, F P; Baird, D; Feng, Q; Gutenkunst, R N; Waterfall, J J; Myers, C R; Brown, K S; Cerione, R A; Sethna, J P

    2007-05-01

    We apply the methods of optimal experimental design to a differential equation model for epidermal growth factor receptor signalling, trafficking and down-regulation. The model incorporates the role of a recently discovered protein complex made up of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Cbl, the guanine exchange factor (GEF), Cool-1 (beta -Pix) and the Rho family G protein Cdc42. The complex has been suggested to be important in disrupting receptor down-regulation. We demonstrate that the model interactions can accurately reproduce the experimental observations, that they can be used to make predictions with accompanying uncertainties, and that we can apply ideas of optimal experimental design to suggest new experiments that reduce the uncertainty on unmeasurable components of the system.

  3. Purinergic receptors and calcium signalling in human pancreatic duct cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette R; Krabbe, Simon; Novak, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    pancreatic duct cell lines PANC-1 and CFPAC-1. Expression of P2 receptors was examined using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Both cell lines, and also Capan-1 cells, express RNA transcripts for the following receptors: P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11-14 and P2X1, P2X2, P2X4, P2X5, P2X6 and P2X7. Using Fura-2...... and single-cell imaging we tested effects of various nucleotide analogues on intracellular Ca(2+) signals in PANC-1 and CFPAC-1 cells. The cell lines responded to all nucleotides with the following efficiency: UTP >or= ATP = ATPgammaS > BzATP. ATP, UTP and ATPgammaS elicited oscillatory responses. Bz...

  4. Metal-ion induced amplification of three receptors from dynamic combinatorial libraries of peptide-hydrazones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, Sarah L.; Furlan, Ricardo L.E.; Otto, Sijbren; Sanders, Jeremy K.M.

    2003-01-01

    Three building blocks of general structure (MeO)2CH–aromatic linker–Pro–amino acid–NHNH2 have been prepared and tested in acid-catalysed dynamic combinatorial libraries. Exposure of these libraries to LiI and NaI led to the amplification of three macrocyclic pseudopeptide receptors. The receptors

  5. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR): pharmacological properties and signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conigrave, Arthur D; Ward, Donald T

    2013-06-01

    In this article we consider the mechanisms by which the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) induces its cellular responses via the control (activation or inhibition) of signaling pathways. We consider key features of CaSR-mediated signaling including its control of the heterotrimeric G-proteins Gq/11, Gi/o and G12/13 and the downstream consequences recognizing that very few CaSR-mediated cell phenomena have been fully described. We also consider the manner in which the CaSR contributes to the formation of specific signaling scaffolds via peptide recognition sequences in its intracellular C-terminal along with the origins of its high level of cooperativity, particularly for Ca(2+)o, and its remarkable resistance to desensitization. We also consider the nature of the mechanisms by which the CaSR controls oscillatory and sustained Ca(2+)i mobilizing responses and inhibits or elevates cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels dependent on the cellular and signaling context. Finally, we consider the diversity of the receptor's ligands, ligand binding sites and broader compartment-dependent physiological roles leading to the identification of pronounced ligand-biased signaling for agonists including Sr(2+) and modulators including l-amino acids and the clinically effective calcimimetic cinacalcet. We note the implications of these findings for the development of new designer drugs that might target the CaSR in pathophysiological contexts beyond those established for the treatment of disorders of calcium metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Signal transduction by normal isoforms and W mutant variants of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, A D; Ellis, C; Lyman, S D; Anderson, D M; Williams, D E; Bernstein, A; Pawson, T

    1991-09-01

    Germline mutations at the Dominant White Spotting (W) and Steel (Sl) loci have provided conclusive genetic evidence that c-kit mediated signal transduction pathways are essential for normal mouse development. We have analysed the interactions of normal and mutant W/c-kit gene products with cytoplasmic signalling proteins, using transient c-kit expression assays in COS cells. In addition to the previously identified c-kit gene product (Kit+), a second normal Kit isoform (KitA+) containing an in-frame insertion, Gly-Asn-Asn-Lys, within the extracellular domain, was detected in murine mast cell cultures and mid-gestation placenta. Both Kit+ and KitA+ isoforms showed increased autophosphorylation and enhanced association with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3' kinase and PLC gamma 1, when stimulated with recombinant soluble Steel factor. No association or increase in phosphorylation of GAP and two GAP-associated proteins, p62 and p190, was observed. The two isoforms had distinct activities in the absence of exogenous soluble Steel factor; Kit+, but not KitA+, showed constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation that was accompanied by a low constitutive level of association with PI-3' kinase and PLC gamma 1. Introduction of the point substitutions associated with W37 (Glu582----Lys) or W41 (Val831----Met) mutant alleles into c-kit expression constructs abolished (W37) or reduced (W41) the Steel factor-induced association of the Kit receptor with signalling proteins in a manner proportional to the overall severity of the corresponding W mutant phenotype. These data suggest a diversity of normal Kit signalling pathways and indicate that W mutant phenotypes result from primary defects in the Kit receptor that affect its interaction with cytoplasmic signalling proteins.

  7. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yuting; Zhou, Lubing; Gunnet, Joseph W.; Wines, Pamela G.; Cryan, Ellen V.; Demarest, Keith T.

    2006-01-01

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 )/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca 2+ -mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca 2+ -mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs

  8. Enhancement of arachidonic acid signaling pathway by nicotinic acid receptor HM74A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yuting [Endocrine Therapeutics and Metabolic Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 1000 Rt. 202, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Zhou, Lubing [Endocrine Therapeutics and Metabolic Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 1000 Rt. 202, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Gunnet, Joseph W [Endocrine Therapeutics and Metabolic Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 1000 Rt. 202, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Wines, Pamela G [Endocrine Therapeutics and Metabolic Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 1000 Rt. 202, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Cryan, Ellen V [Endocrine Therapeutics and Metabolic Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 1000 Rt. 202, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Demarest, Keith T [Endocrine Therapeutics and Metabolic Disorders, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., 1000 Rt. 202, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States)

    2006-06-23

    HM74A is a G protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid (niacin), which has been used clinically to treat dyslipidemia for decades. The molecular mechanisms whereby niacin exerts its pleiotropic effects on lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In addition, the most common side effect in niacin therapy is skin flushing that is caused by prostaglandin release, suggesting that the phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2})/arachidonic acid (AA) pathway is involved. Various eicosanoids have been shown to activate peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) that play a diverse array of roles in lipid metabolism. To further elucidate the potential roles of HM74A in mediating the therapeutic effects and/or side effects of niacin, we sought to explore the signaling events upon HM74A activation. Here we demonstrated that HM74A synergistically enhanced UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner in A431 cells. Activation of HM74A also led to Ca{sup 2+}-mobilization and enhanced bradykinin-promoted Ca{sup 2+}-mobilization through Gi protein. While HM74A increased ERK1/2 activation by the bradykinin receptor, it had no effects on UTP-promoted ERK1/2 activation.Furthermore, UTP- and bradykinin-mediated AA release was significantly decreased in the presence of both MAPK kinase inhibitor PD 098059 and PKC inhibitor GF 109203X. However, the synergistic effects of HM74A were not dramatically affected by co-treatment with both inhibitors, indicating the cross-talk occurred at the receptor level. Finally, stimulation of A431 cells transiently transfected with PPRE-luciferase with AA significantly induced luciferase activity, mimicking the effects of PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that alteration of AA signaling pathway can regulate gene expression via endogenous PPARs.

  9. Analyzing machupo virus-receptor binding by molecular dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin G. Meyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In many biological applications, we would like to be able to computationally predict mutational effects on affinity in protein–protein interactions. However, many commonly used methods to predict these effects perform poorly in important test cases. In particular, the effects of multiple mutations, non alanine substitutions, and flexible loops are difficult to predict with available tools and protocols. We present here an existing method applied in a novel way to a new test case; we interrogate affinity differences resulting from mutations in a host–virus protein–protein interface. We use steered molecular dynamics (SMD to computationally pull the machupo virus (MACV spike glycoprotein (GP1 away from the human transferrin receptor (hTfR1. We then approximate affinity using the maximum applied force of separation and the area under the force-versus-distance curve. We find, even without the rigor and planning required for free energy calculations, that these quantities can provide novel biophysical insight into the GP1/hTfR1 interaction. First, with no prior knowledge of the system we can differentiate among wild type and mutant complexes. Moreover, we show that this simple SMD scheme correlates well with relative free energy differences computed via free energy perturbation. Second, although the static co-crystal structure shows two large hydrogen-bonding networks in the GP1/hTfR1 interface, our simulations indicate that one of them may not be important for tight binding. Third, one viral site known to be critical for infection may mark an important evolutionary suppressor site for infection-resistant hTfR1 mutants. Finally, our approach provides a framework to compare the effects of multiple mutations, individually and jointly, on protein–protein interactions.

  10. Analyzing machupo virus-receptor binding by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Sara L.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Wilke, Claus O.

    2014-01-01

    In many biological applications, we would like to be able to computationally predict mutational effects on affinity in protein–protein interactions. However, many commonly used methods to predict these effects perform poorly in important test cases. In particular, the effects of multiple mutations, non alanine substitutions, and flexible loops are difficult to predict with available tools and protocols. We present here an existing method applied in a novel way to a new test case; we interrogate affinity differences resulting from mutations in a host–virus protein–protein interface. We use steered molecular dynamics (SMD) to computationally pull the machupo virus (MACV) spike glycoprotein (GP1) away from the human transferrin receptor (hTfR1). We then approximate affinity using the maximum applied force of separation and the area under the force-versus-distance curve. We find, even without the rigor and planning required for free energy calculations, that these quantities can provide novel biophysical insight into the GP1/hTfR1 interaction. First, with no prior knowledge of the system we can differentiate among wild type and mutant complexes. Moreover, we show that this simple SMD scheme correlates well with relative free energy differences computed via free energy perturbation. Second, although the static co-crystal structure shows two large hydrogen-bonding networks in the GP1/hTfR1 interface, our simulations indicate that one of them may not be important for tight binding. Third, one viral site known to be critical for infection may mark an important evolutionary suppressor site for infection-resistant hTfR1 mutants. Finally, our approach provides a framework to compare the effects of multiple mutations, individually and jointly, on protein–protein interactions. PMID:24624315

  11. The essential role of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in regulating T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dashan

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the critical role of GPCR signaling in T cell immunity. The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most common targets in current pharmaceutical industry, and represent the largest and most versatile family of cell surface communicating molecules. GPCRs can be activated by a diverse array of ligands including neurotransmitters, chemokines as well as sensory stimuli. Therefore, GPCRs are involved in many key cellular and physiological processes, such as sense of light, taste and smell, neurotransmission, metabolism, endocrine and exocrine secretion. In recent years, GPCRs have been found to play an important role in immune system. T cell is an important type of immune cell, which plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. A variety of GPCRs and their signaling mediators (RGS proteins, GRKs and β-arrestin) have been found to express in T cells and involved T cell-mediated immunity. We will summarize the role of GPCR signaling and their regulatory molecules in T cell activation, homeostasis and function in this article. GPCR signaling plays an important role in T cell activation, homeostasis and function. GPCR signaling is critical in regulating T cell immunity.

  12. Structure of the EGF receptor transactivation circuit integrates multiple signals with cell context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslin, Elizabeth J.; Shankaran, Harish; Opresko, Lee K.; Bollinger, Nikki; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Wiley, H. S.

    2010-05-10

    Transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been proposed to be a mechanism by which a variety of cellular inputs can be integrated into a single signaling pathway, but the regulatory topology of this important system is unclear. To understand the transactivation circuit, we first created a “non-binding” reporter for ligand shedding. We then quantitatively defined how signals from multiple agonists were integrated both upstream and downstream of the EGFR into the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) cascade in human mammary epithelial cells. We found that transactivation is mediated by a recursive autocrine circuit where ligand shedding drives EGFR-stimulated ERK that in turn drives further ligand shedding. The time from shedding to ERK activation is fast (<5 min) whereas the recursive feedback is slow (>15 min). Simulations showed that this delay in positive feedback greatly enhanced system stability and robustness. Our results indicate that the transactivation circuit is constructed so that the magnitude of ERK signaling is governed by the sum of multiple direct inputs, while recursive, autocrine ligand shedding controls signal duration.

  13. Neomycin is a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) antagonist that allows discrimination of PDGF alpha- and beta-receptor signals in cells expressing both receptor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Ostman, A; Siegbahn, A; Holmsen, H; Heldin, C H

    1992-08-05

    The aminoglycoside neomycin has recently been found to affect certain platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) responses in C3H/10T1/2 C18 fibroblasts. Using porcine aortic endothelial cells transfected with PDGF alpha- or beta-receptors, we explored the possibility that neomycin interferes with the interaction between the different PDGF isoforms and their receptors. We found that neomycin (5 mM) inhibited the binding of 125I-PDGF-BB to the alpha-receptor with only partial effect on the binding of 125I-PDGF-AA; in contrast, the binding of 125I-PDGF-BB to the beta-receptor was not affected by the aminoglycoside. Scatchard analyses showed that neomycin (5 mM) decreased the number of binding sites for PDGF-BB on alpha-receptor-expressing cells by 87%. Together with cross-competition studies with 125I-labeled PDGF homodimers, the effect of neomycin indicates that PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB bind to both common and unique structures on the PDGF alpha-receptor. Neomycin specifically inhibited the autophosphorylation of the alpha-receptor by PDGF-BB, with less effect on the phosphorylation induced by PDGF-AA and no effect on the phosphorylation of the beta-receptor by PDGF-BB. Thus, neomycin is a PDGF isoform- and receptor-specific antagonist that provides a possibility to compare the signal transduction pathways of alpha- and beta-receptors in cells expressing both receptor types. This approach was used to show that activation of PDGF beta-receptors by PDGF-BB mediated a chemotactic response in human fibroblasts, whereas activation of alpha-receptors by the same ligand inhibited chemotaxis.

  14. Extracellular Ca2+ is a danger signal activating the NLRP3 inflammasome through G protein-coupled calcium sensing receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossol, Manuela; Pierer, Matthias; Raulien, Nora

    2012-01-01

    calcium activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via stimulation of G protein-coupled calcium sensing receptors. Activation is mediated by signalling through the calcium-sensing receptor and GPRC6A via the phosphatidyl inositol/Ca(2+) pathway. The resulting increase in the intracellular calcium concentration......, and this effect was inhibited in GPRC6A(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate that G-protein-coupled receptors can activate the inflammasome, and indicate that increased extracellular calcium has a role as a danger signal and amplifier of inflammation....

  15. Ethylene Receptors Signal via a Noncanonical Pathway to Regulate Abscisic Acid Responses1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Arkadipta; Fernandez, Jessica C.

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone perceived by a family of receptors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) including ETHYLENE RESPONSE1 (ETR1) and ETR2. Previously we showed that etr1-6 loss-of-function plants germinate better and etr2-3 loss-of-function plants germinate worse than wild-type under NaCl stress and in response to abscisic acid (ABA). In this study, we expanded these results by showing that ETR1 and ETR2 have contrasting roles in the control of germination under a variety of inhibitory conditions for seed germination such as treatment with KCl, CuSO4, ZnSO4, and ethanol. Pharmacological and molecular biology results support a model where ETR1 and ETR2 are indirectly affecting the expression of genes encoding ABA signaling proteins to affect ABA sensitivity. The receiver domain of ETR1 is involved in this function in germination under these conditions and controlling the expression of genes encoding ABA signaling proteins. Epistasis analysis demonstrated that these contrasting roles of ETR1 and ETR2 do not require the canonical ethylene signaling pathway. To explore the importance of receptor-protein interactions, we conducted yeast two-hybrid screens using the cytosolic domains of ETR1 and ETR2 as bait. Unique interacting partners with either ETR1 or ETR2 were identified. We focused on three of these proteins and confirmed the interactions with receptors. Loss of these proteins led to faster germination in response to ABA, showing that they are involved in ABA responses. Thus, ETR1 and ETR2 have both ethylene-dependent and -independent roles in plant cells that affect responses to ABA. PMID:29158332

  16. A method for the quantification of biased signalling at constitutively active receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David A; Giraldo, Jesús

    2018-06-01

    Biased agonism, the ability of an agonist to differentially activate one of several signal transduction pathways when acting at a given receptor, is an increasingly recognized phenomenon at many receptors. The Black and Leff operational model lacks a way to describe constitutive receptor activity and hence inverse agonism. Thus, it is impossible to analyse the biased signalling of inverse agonists using this model. In this theoretical work, we develop and illustrate methods for the analysis of biased inverse agonism. Methods were derived for quantifying biased signalling in systems that demonstrate constitutive activity using the modified operational model proposed by Slack and Hall. The methods were illustrated using Monte Carlo simulations. The Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated that, with an appropriate experimental design, the model parameters are 'identifiable'. The method is consistent with methods based on the measurement of intrinsic relative activity (RA i ) (ΔΔlogR or ΔΔlog(τ/K a )) proposed by Ehlert and Kenakin and their co-workers but has some advantages. In particular, it allows the quantification of ligand bias independently of 'system bias' removing the requirement to normalize to a standard ligand. In systems with constitutive activity, the Slack and Hall model provides methods for quantifying the absolute bias of agonists and inverse agonists. This provides an alternative to methods based on RA i and is complementary to the ΔΔlog(τ/K a ) method of Kenakin et al. in systems where use of that method is inappropriate due to the presence of constitutive activity. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. High fructose-mediated attenuation of insulin receptor signaling does not affect PDGF-induced proliferative signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Islam; Poulose, Ninu; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Segar, Lakshman

    2016-11-15

    Insulin resistance is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Although high fructose is known to induce insulin resistance, it remains unclear as to how fructose regulates insulin receptor signaling and proliferative phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which play a major role in atherosclerosis. Using human aortic VSMCs, we investigated the effects of high fructose treatment on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine phosphorylation, insulin versus platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced phosphorylation of Akt, S6 ribosomal protein, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cell cycle proteins. In comparison with PDGF (a potent mitogen), neither fructose nor insulin enhanced VSMC proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. d-[ 14 C(U)]fructose uptake studies revealed a progressive increase in fructose uptake in a time-dependent manner. Concentration-dependent studies with high fructose (5-25mM) showed marked increases in IRS-1 serine phosphorylation, a key adapter protein in insulin receptor signaling. Accordingly, high fructose treatment led to significant diminutions in insulin-induced phosphorylation of downstream signaling components including Akt and S6. In addition, high fructose significantly diminished insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation. Nevertheless, high fructose did not affect PDGF-induced key proliferative signaling events including phosphorylation of Akt, S6, and ERK and expression of cyclin D1 protein. Together, high fructose dysregulates IRS-1 phosphorylation state and proximal insulin receptor signaling in VSMCs, but does not affect PDGF-induced proliferative signaling. These findings suggest that systemic insulin resistance rather than VSMC-specific dysregulation of insulin receptor signaling by high fructose may play a major role in enhancing atherosclerosis and neointimal hyperplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Drug addiction: targeting dynamic neuroimmune receptor interactions as a potential therapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Jonathan Henry W; Hutchinson, Mark R; Mustafa, Sanam

    2016-02-01

    Drug addiction and dependence have proven to be difficult psychiatric disorders to treat. The limited efficacy of neuronally acting medications, such as acamprosate and naltrexone, highlights the need to identify novel targets. Recent research has underscored the importance of the neuroimmune system in many behavioural manifestations of drug addiction. In this review, we propose that our appreciation for complex phenotypes such as drug addiction and dependence will come with a greater understanding that these disorders are the result of intricate, interconnected signalling pathways that are, if only partially, determined at the receptor level. The idea of receptor heteromerisation and receptor mosaics will be introduced to explain cross talk between the receptors and signalling molecules implicated in neuroimmune signalling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. TGFβ activated kinase 1 (TAK1 at the crossroad of B cell receptor and Toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathways in human B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Szili

    Full Text Available B cell development and activation are regulated by combined signals mediated by the B cell receptor (BCR, receptors for the B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF-R and the innate receptor, Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9. However, the underlying mechanisms by which these signals cooperate in human B cells remain unclear. Our aim was to elucidate the key signaling molecules at the crossroads of BCR, BAFF-R and TLR9 mediated pathways and to follow the functional consequences of costimulation.Therefore we stimulated purified human B cells by combinations of anti-Ig, B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF and the TLR9 agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Phosphorylation status of various signaling molecules, B cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, plasma blast generation and the frequency of IgG producing cells were investigated. We have found that BCR induced signals cooperate with BAFF-R- and TLR9-mediated signals at different levels of cell activation. BCR and BAFF- as well as TLR9 and BAFF-mediated signals cooperate at NFκB activation, while BCR and TLR9 synergistically costimulate mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs, ERK, JNK and p38. We show here for the first time that the MAP3K7 (TGF beta activated kinase, TAK1 is responsible for the synergistic costimulation of B cells by BCR and TLR9, resulting in an enhanced cell proliferation, plasma blast generation, cytokine and antibody production. Specific inhibitor of TAK1 as well as knocking down TAK1 by siRNA abrogates the synergistic signals. We conclude that TAK1 is a key regulator of receptor crosstalk between BCR and TLR9, thus plays a critical role in B cell development and activation.

  20. Activation of Brain Somatostatin Signaling Suppresses CRF Receptor-Mediated Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stengel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF is the hallmark brain peptide triggering the response to stress and mediates—in addition to the stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis—other hormonal, behavioral, autonomic and visceral components. Earlier reports indicate that somatostatin-28 injected intracerebroventricularly counteracts the acute stress-induced ACTH and catecholamine release. Mounting evidence now supports that activation of brain somatostatin signaling exerts a broader anti-stress effect by blunting the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral (with a focus on food intake and visceral gastrointestinal motor responses through the involvement of distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes.

  1. Activation of Brain Somatostatin Signaling Suppresses CRF Receptor-Mediated Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette F

    2017-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the hallmark brain peptide triggering the response to stress and mediates-in addition to the stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-other hormonal, behavioral, autonomic and visceral components. Earlier reports indicate that somatostatin-28 injected intracerebroventricularly counteracts the acute stress-induced ACTH and catecholamine release. Mounting evidence now supports that activation of brain somatostatin signaling exerts a broader anti-stress effect by blunting the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral (with a focus on food intake) and visceral gastrointestinal motor responses through the involvement of distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes.

  2. The role of protease-activated receptor type 2 in nociceptive signaling and pain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrózková, Petra; Paleček, Jiří; Špicarová, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2016), s. 357-367 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH12058; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11138S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15279; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : protease-activated receptor (PAR2) * signaling pathways * nociception * pain * spinal cord Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  3. Central GLP-1 receptor activation modulates cocaine-evoked phasic dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2017-07-01

    Drugs of abuse increase the frequency and magnitude of brief (1-3s), high concentration (phasic) dopamine release events in terminal regions. These are thought to be a critical part of drug reinforcement and ultimately the development of addiction. Recently, metabolic regulatory peptides, including the satiety signal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been shown to modulate cocaine reward-driven behavior and sustained dopamine levels after cocaine administration. Here, we use fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to explore GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) modulation of dynamic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) during cocaine administration. We analyzed dopamine release events in both the NAc shell and core, as these two subregions are differentially affected by cocaine and uniquely contribute to motivated behavior. We found that central delivery of the GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 suppressed the induction of phasic dopamine release events by intravenous cocaine. This effect was selective for dopamine signaling in the NAc core. Suppression of phasic signaling in the core by Exendin-4 could not be attributed to interference with cocaine binding to one of its major substrates, the dopamine transporter, as cocaine-induced increases in reuptake were unaffected. The results suggest that GLP-1R activation, instead, exerts its suppressive effects by altering dopamine release - possibly by suppressing the excitability of dopamine neurons. Given the role of NAc core dopamine in the generation of conditioned responses based on associative learning, suppression of cocaine-induced dopamine signaling in this subregion by GLP-1R agonism may decrease the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Thus, GLP-1Rs remain viable targets for the treatment and prevention of cocaine seeking, taking and relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Conformational analysis of g protein-coupled receptor signaling by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Lee, Su Youn; Chung, Ka Young

    2015-01-01

    Conformational change and protein-protein interactions are two major mechanisms of membrane protein signal transduction, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Upon agonist binding, GPCRs change conformation, resulting in interaction with downstream signaling molecules such as G proteins. To understand the precise signaling mechanism, studies have investigated the structural mechanism of GPCR signaling using X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or electron paramagnetic resonance. In addition to these techniques, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has recently been used in GPCR studies. HDX-MS measures the rate at which peptide amide hydrogens exchange with deuterium in the solvent. Exposed or flexible regions have higher exchange rates and excluded or ordered regions have lower exchange rates. Therefore, HDX-MS is a useful tool for studying protein-protein interfaces and conformational changes after protein activation or protein-protein interactions. Although HDX-MS does not give high-resolution structures, it analyzes protein conformations that are difficult to study with X-ray crystallography or NMR. Furthermore, conformational information from HDX-MS can help in the crystallization of X-ray crystallography by suggesting highly flexible regions. Interactions between GPCRs and downstream signaling molecules are not easily analyzed by X-ray crystallography or NMR because of the large size of the GPCR-signaling molecule complexes, hydrophobicity, and flexibility of GPCRs. HDX-MS could be useful for analyzing the conformational mechanism of GPCR signaling. In this chapter, we discuss details of HDX-MS for analyzing GPCRs using the β2AR-G protein complex as a model system. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Entamoeba histolytica: a beta 1 integrin-like fibronectin receptor assembles a signaling complex similar to those of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Robles, Donaciano; Rosales, Carlos; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    During tissue invasion, Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites interact with endothelial cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as fibronectin (FN), collagen, and laminin. It has been demonstrated that trophozoites interact with FN through a beta1 integrin-like FN receptor (beta 1EhFNR), activating tyrosine kinases. In order to characterize the signaling process triggered by the amoebic receptor, activation, and association of tyrosine kinases and structural proteins were determined. As a result of FN binding by the beta 1EhFNR, the receptor itself, FAK, and paxillin were phosphorylated in tyrosine. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that a multimolecular signaling complex was formed by the amoebic FN receptor, FAK, paxillin, and vinculin. These results strongly suggest that a signaling pathway, similar to the one used in mammalian cells, is activated when E. histolytica trophozoites adhere to FN.

  6. rigor mortis encodes a novel nuclear receptor interacting protein required for ecdysone signaling during Drosophila larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Julie; Lam, Geanette; Ortiz, José A; Losson, Régine; Thummel, Carl S

    2004-01-01

    Pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone trigger the major developmental transitions in Drosophila, including molting and puparium formation. The ecdysone signal is transduced by the EcR/USP nuclear receptor heterodimer that binds to specific response elements in the genome and directly regulates target gene transcription. We describe a novel nuclear receptor interacting protein encoded by rigor mortis (rig) that is required for ecdysone responses during larval development. rig mutants display defects in molting, delayed larval development, larval lethality, duplicated mouth parts, and defects in puparium formation--phenotypes that resemble those seen in EcR, usp, E75A and betaFTZ-F1 mutants. Although the expression of these nuclear receptor genes is essentially normal in rig mutant larvae, the ecdysone-triggered switch in E74 isoform expression is defective. rig encodes a protein with multiple WD-40 repeats and an LXXLL motif, sequences that act as specific protein-protein interaction domains. Consistent with the presence of these elements and the lethal phenotypes of rig mutants, Rig protein interacts with several Drosophila nuclear receptors in GST pull-down experiments, including EcR, USP, DHR3, SVP and betaFTZ-F1. The ligand binding domain of betaFTZ-F1 is sufficient for this interaction, which can occur in an AF-2-independent manner. Antibody stains reveal that Rig protein is present in the brain and imaginal discs of second and third instar larvae, where it is restricted to the cytoplasm. In larval salivary gland and midgut cells, however, Rig shuttles between the cytoplasm and nucleus in a spatially and temporally regulated manner, at times that correlate with the major lethal phase of rig mutants and major switches in ecdysone-regulated gene expression. Taken together, these data indicate that rig exerts essential functions during larval development through gene-specific effects on ecdysone-regulated transcription, most likely as a cofactor for one or more

  7. The Syk protein tyrosine kinase can function independently of CD45 or Lck in T cell antigen receptor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, D. H.; Spits, H.; Peyron, J. F.; Rowley, R. B.; Bolen, J. B.; Weiss, A.

    1996-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 is a critical component of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling pathway, acting as a positive regulator of Src family protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) such as Lck. Most CD45-deficient human and murine T cell lines are unable to signal through their TCRs.

  8. Differential expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes in Jurkat cells and their signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alea, Mileidys Perez; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Fuxe, Kjell; Garriga, Pere

    2011-08-15

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors expression and signaling in the human Jurkat T cell line were investigated. Semiquantitative real-time PCR and radioligand binding studies, using a wide set of antagonist compounds, showed the co-existence of M(3), M(4), and M(5) subtypes. Stimulation of these subpopulations caused a concentration and time- dependent activation of second messengers and ERK signaling pathways, with a major contribution of the M(3) subtype in a G(q/11)-mediated response. In addition, we found that T-cell stimulation leads to increased expression of M(3) and M(5) both at transcriptional and protein levels in a PLC/PKCθ dependent manner. Our data clarifies the functional role of AChR subtypes in Jurkat cells and pave the way to future studies on the potential cross-talk among these subpopulations and their regulation of T lymphocytes immune function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PRMT1-mediated methylation of the EGF receptor regulates signaling and cetuximab response

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Hsin-Wei

    2015-11-16

    Posttranslational modifications to the intracellular domain of the EGFR are known to regulate EGFR functions; however, modifications to the extracellular domain and their effects remain relatively unexplored. Here, we determined that methylation at R198 and R200 of the EGFR extracellular domain by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) enhances binding to EGF and subsequent receptor dimerization and signaling activation. In a mouse orthotopic colorectal cancer xenograft model, expression of a methylation-defective EGFR reduced tumor growth. Moreover, increased EGFR methylation sustained signaling activation and cell proliferation in the presence of the therapeutic EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab. In colorectal cancer patients, EGFR methylation level also correlated with a higher recurrence rate after cetuximab treatment and reduced overall survival. Together, these data indicate that R198/R200 methylation of the EGFR plays an important role in regulating EGFR functionality and resistance to cetuximab treatment.

  10. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heizmann, Beate; Sellars, MacLean; Macias-Garcia, Alejandra; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  11. PRMT1-mediated methylation of the EGF receptor regulates signaling and cetuximab response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsin-Wei; Hsu, Jung-Mao; Xia, Weiya; Wang, Hung-Ling; Wang, Ying-Nai; Chang, Wei-Chao; Arold, Stefan T.; Chou, Chao-Kai; Tsou, Pei-Hsiang; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Fang, Yueh-Fu; Lee, Hong-Jen; Lee, Heng-Huan; Tai, Shyh-Kuan; Yang, Mhu-Hwa; Morelli, Maria P.; Sen, Malabika; Ladbury, John E.; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Kopetz, Scott; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications to the intracellular domain of the EGFR are known to regulate EGFR functions; however, modifications to the extracellular domain and their effects remain relatively unexplored. Here, we determined that methylation at R198 and R200 of the EGFR extracellular domain by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) enhances binding to EGF and subsequent receptor dimerization and signaling activation. In a mouse orthotopic colorectal cancer xenograft model, expression of a methylation-defective EGFR reduced tumor growth. Moreover, increased EGFR methylation sustained signaling activation and cell proliferation in the presence of the therapeutic EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab. In colorectal cancer patients, EGFR methylation level also correlated with a higher recurrence rate after cetuximab treatment and reduced overall survival. Together, these data indicate that R198/R200 methylation of the EGFR plays an important role in regulating EGFR functionality and resistance to cetuximab treatment. PMID:26571401

  12. PRMT1-mediated methylation of the EGF receptor regulates signaling and cetuximab response

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Hsin-Wei; Hsu, Jung-Mao; Xia, Weiya; Wang, Hung-Ling; Wang, Ying-Nai; Chang, Wei-Chao; Arold, Stefan T.; Chou, Chao-Kai; Tsou, Pei-Hsiang; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Fang, Yueh-Fu; Lee, Hong-Jen; Lee, Heng-Huan; Tai, Shyh-Kuan; Yang, Mhu-Hwa; Morelli, Maria P.; Sen, Malabika; Ladbury, John E.; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Kopetz, Scott; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications to the intracellular domain of the EGFR are known to regulate EGFR functions; however, modifications to the extracellular domain and their effects remain relatively unexplored. Here, we determined that methylation at R198 and R200 of the EGFR extracellular domain by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) enhances binding to EGF and subsequent receptor dimerization and signaling activation. In a mouse orthotopic colorectal cancer xenograft model, expression of a methylation-defective EGFR reduced tumor growth. Moreover, increased EGFR methylation sustained signaling activation and cell proliferation in the presence of the therapeutic EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab. In colorectal cancer patients, EGFR methylation level also correlated with a higher recurrence rate after cetuximab treatment and reduced overall survival. Together, these data indicate that R198/R200 methylation of the EGFR plays an important role in regulating EGFR functionality and resistance to cetuximab treatment.

  13. Racial Variations in Prostate Cancer Molecular Subtypes and Androgen Receptor Signaling Reflect Anatomic Tumor Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Farzana A; Sundi, Debasish; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Choeurng, Voleak; Alshalalfa, Mohammed; Ross, Ashley E; Klein, Eric; Den, Robert; Dicker, Adam; Erho, Nicholas; Davicioni, Elai; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M

    2016-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) subtypes based on ETS gene expression have been described. Recent studies suggest there are racial differences in tumor location, with PCa located anteriorly more often among African-American (AA) compared to Caucasian-American (CA) men. In this retrospective analysis of a multi-institutional cohort treated by radical prostatectomy (179 CA, 121 AA), we evaluated associations among molecular subtype, race, anatomic tumor location, and androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Subtype (m-ERG(+), m-ETS(+), m-SPINK1(+), or triple-negative) was determined using distribution-based outlier analysis. AR signaling was investigated using gene expression profiling of canonical AR targets. m-ERG(+) was more common in CA than AA men (47% vs 22%, pprostate cancer molecular subtypes, and tumor location. Location-specific differences in androgen regulation may further underlie these relationships. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Induction of farnesoid X receptor signaling in germ-free mice colonized with a human microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Annika; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota influences the development and progression of metabolic diseases partly by metabolism of bile acids (BAs) and modified signaling through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). In this study, we aimed to determine how the human gut microbiota metabolizes murine BAs and affects FXR...... signaling in colonized mice. We colonized germ-free mice with cecal content from a mouse donor or feces from a human donor and euthanized the mice after short-term (2 weeks) or long-term (15 weeks) colonization. We analyzed the gut microbiota and BA composition and expression of FXR target genes in ileum...... and liver. We found that cecal microbiota composition differed between mice colonized with mouse and human microbiota and was stable over time. Human and mouse microbiota reduced total BA levels similarly, but the humanized mice produced less secondary BAs. The human microbiota was able to reduce the levels...

  15. Chemogenetic Modulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signalling in Visual Attention Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren H; Fitzpatrick, Ciarán Martin; Gether, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs). The DREADD technology is an emerging and transformative method that allows selective manipulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling, and its broad-ranging usefulness in attention research is now beginning to emerge. We first describe......Attention is a fundamental cognitive process involved in nearly all aspects of life. Abnormal attentional control is a symptom of many neurological disorders, most notably recognized in ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Although attentional performance and its malfunction has been...... the different DREADDs available and explain how unprecedented specificity of neuronal signalling can be achieved using DREADDs. We next discuss various studies performed in animal models of visual attention, where different brain regions and neuronal populations have been probed by DREADDs. We highlight...

  16. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heizmann, Beate [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Sellars, MacLean [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Macias-Garcia, Alejandra [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Institute for Medical Engineering and Science at MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chan, Susan, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Kastner, Philippe, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2016-02-12

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  17. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus: basis for morphology modulation of nuclear calcium signaling and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Gillian; Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons.

  18. Serotonin receptor 2B signaling with interstitial cell activation and leaflet remodeling in degenerative mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesbaugh, Kathryn H; Branchetti, Emanuela; Grau, Juan B; Keeney, Samuel J; Glass, Kimberly; Oyama, Mark A; Rioux, Nancy; Ayoub, Salma; Sacks, Michael S; Quackenbush, John; Levy, Robert J; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Mitral valve interstitial cells (MVIC) play an important role in the pathogenesis of degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) due to mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Numerous clinical studies have observed serotonin (5HT) dysregulation in cardiac valvulopathies; however, the impact of 5HT-mediated signaling on MVIC activation and leaflet remodeling in MVP have been investigated to a limited extent. Here we test the hypothesis that 5HT receptors (5HTRs) signaling contributes to MVP pathophysiology. Diseased human MV leaflets were obtained during cardiac surgery for MVP; normal MV leaflets were obtained from heart transplants. MV RNA was used for microarray analysis of MVP patients versus control, highlighting genes that indicate the involvement of 5HTR pathways and extracellular matrix remodeling in MVP. Human MV leaflets were also studied in vitro and ex vivo with biomechanical testing to assess remodeling in the presence of a 5HTR2B antagonist (LY272015). MVP leaflets from Cavalier King Charles Spaniels were used as a naturally acquired in vivo model of MVP. These canine MVP leaflets (N=5/group) showed 5HTR2B upregulation. This study also utilized CB57.1ML/6 mice in order to determine the effect of Angiotensin II infusion on MV remodeling. Histological analysis showed that MV thickening due to chronic Angiotensin II remodeling is mitigated by a 5HTR2B antagonist (LY272015) but not by 5HTR2A inhibitors. In humans, MVP is associated with an upregulation in 5HTR2B expression and increased 5HT receptor signaling in the leaflets. Antagonism of 5HTR2B mitigates MVIC activation in vitro and MV remodeling in vivo. These observations support the view that 5HTR signaling is involved not only in previously reported 5HT-related valvulopathies, but it is also involved in the pathological remodeling of MVP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Piperlongumine inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by suppressing PDGF receptor signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Ju [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Soo Yeon [Division of Life Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seong Su [University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kim, Chan Woo [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Bioinspired Science, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Sandeep [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Park, Byeoung Soo [Nanotoxtech Co., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Eun [Division of Applied Biology and Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeo Pyo [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hanjoong, E-mail: hjo@emory.edu [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Bioinspired Science, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Hyun, E-mail: pyh012@sch.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Natural Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-atherogenic effect of PL was examined using partial carotid ligation model in ApoE KO mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL prevented atherosclerotic plaque development, VSMCs proliferation, and NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Piperlongumine reduced vascular smooth muscle cell activation through PDGF-R{beta} and NF-{kappa}B-signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for atherosclerosis treatment. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (piplartine, PL) is an alkaloid found in the long pepper (Piper longum L.) and has well-documented anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, the role of PL in prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic potential of PL in an in vivo murine model of accelerated atherosclerosis and defined its mechanism of action in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Local treatment with PL significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation as well as proliferation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation in an in vivo setting. PL treatment in VSMCs in vitro showed inhibition of migration and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation to the in vivo findings. We further identified that PL inhibited PDGF-BB-induced PDGF receptor beta activation and suppressed downstream signaling molecules such as phospholipase C{gamma}1, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt. Lastly, PL significantly attenuated activation of NF-{kappa}B-a downstream transcriptional regulator in PDGF receptor signaling, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a novel, therapeutic mechanism by which PL suppresses atherosclerosis plaque formation in vivo.

  20. WNT4 mediates estrogen receptor signaling and endocrine resistance in invasive lobular carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Matthew J; Jacobsen, Britta M; Levine, Kevin; Chen, Jian; Davidson, Nancy E; Lee, Adrian V; Alexander, Caroline M; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2016-09-20

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast typically presents with clinical biomarkers consistent with a favorable response to endocrine therapies, and over 90 % of ILC cases express the estrogen receptor (ER). However, a subset of ILC cases may be resistant to endocrine therapies, suggesting that ER biology is unique in ILC. Using ILC cell lines, we previously demonstrated that ER regulates a distinct gene expression program in ILC cells, and we hypothesized that these ER-driven pathways modulate the endocrine response in ILC. One potential novel pathway is via the Wnt ligand WNT4, a critical signaling molecule in mammary gland development regulated by the progesterone receptor. The ILC cell lines MDA-MB-134-VI, SUM44PE, and BCK4 were used to assess WNT4 gene expression and regulation, as well as the role of WNT4 in estrogen-regulated proliferation. To assess these mechanisms in the context of endocrine resistance, we developed novel ILC endocrine-resistant long-term estrogen-deprived (ILC-LTED) models. ILC and ILC-LTED cell lines were used to identify upstream regulators and downstream signaling effectors of WNT4 signaling. ILC cells co-opted WNT4 signaling by placing it under direct ER control. We observed that ER regulation of WNT4 correlated with use of an ER binding site at the WNT4 locus, specifically in ILC cells. Further, WNT4 was required for endocrine response in ILC cells, as WNT4 knockdown blocked estrogen-induced proliferation. ILC-LTED cells remained dependent on WNT4 for proliferation, by either maintaining ER function and WNT4 regulation or uncoupling WNT4 from ER and upregulating WNT4 expression. In the latter case, WNT4 expression was driven by activated nuclear factor kappa-B signaling in ILC-LTED cells. In ILC and ILC-LTED cells, WNT4 led to suppression of CDKN1A/p21, which is critical for ILC cell proliferation. CDKN1A knockdown partially reversed the effects of WNT4 knockdown. WNT4 drives a novel signaling pathway in ILC cells, with a

  1. Cholesterol depletion induces dynamic confinement of the G-protein coupled serotonin(1A) receptor in the plasma membrane of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucadyil, Thomas J; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2007-03-01

    Cholesterol is an essential constituent of eukaryotic membranes and plays a crucial role in membrane organization, dynamics, function, and sorting. It is often found distributed non-randomly in domains or pools in biological and model membranes and is thought to contribute to a segregated distribution of membrane constituents. Signal transduction events mediated by seven transmembrane domain G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the primary means by which cells communicate with and respond to their external environment. We analyzed the role of cholesterol in the plasma membrane organization of the G-protein coupled serotonin(1A) receptor by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) measurements with varying bleach spot sizes. Our results show that lateral diffusion parameters of serotonin(1A) receptors in normal cells are consistent with models describing diffusion of molecules in a homogenous membrane. Interestingly, these characteristics are altered in cholesterol-depleted cells in a manner that is consistent with dynamic confinement of serotonin(1A) receptors in the plasma membrane. Importantly, analysis of ligand binding and downstream signaling of the serotonin(1A) receptor suggests that receptor function is affected in a significantly different manner when intact cells or isolated membranes are depleted of cholesterol. These results assume significance in the context of interpreting effects of cholesterol depletion on diffusion characteristics of membrane proteins in particular, and cholesterol-dependent cellular processes in general.

  2. Honey bee dopamine and octopamine receptors linked to intracellular calcium signaling have a close phylogenetic and pharmacological relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle T Beggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Three dopamine receptor genes have been identified that are highly conserved among arthropod species. One of these genes, referred to in honey bees as Amdop2, shows a close phylogenetic relationship to the a-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor family. In this study we examined in parallel the functional and pharmacological properties of AmDOP2 and the honey bee octopamine receptor, AmOA1. For comparison, pharmacological properties of the honey bee dopamine receptors AmDOP1 and AmDOP3, and the tyramine receptor AmTYR1, were also examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using HEK293 cells heterologously expressing honey bee biogenic amine receptors, we found that activation of AmDOP2 receptors, like AmOA1 receptors, initiates a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels. We found no evidence of calcium signaling via AmDOP1, AmDOP3 or AmTYR1 receptors. AmDOP2- and AmOA1-mediated increases in intracellular calcium were inhibited by 10 µM edelfosine indicating a requirement for phospholipase C-β activity in this signaling pathway. Edelfosine treatment had no effect on AmDOP2- or AmOA1-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP. The synthetic compounds mianserin and epinastine, like cis-(Z-flupentixol and spiperone, were found to have significant antagonist activity on AmDOP2 receptors. All 4 compounds were effective antagonists also on AmOA1 receptors. Analysis of putative ligand binding sites offers a possible explanation for why epinastine acts as an antagonist at AmDOP2 receptors, but fails to block responses mediated via AmDOP1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that AmDOP2, like AmOA1, is coupled not only to cAMP, but also to calcium-signalling and moreover, that the two signalling pathways are independent upstream of phospholipase C-β activity. The striking similarity between the pharmacological properties of these 2 receptors suggests an underlying conservation of structural properties related to receptor

  3. Cholesterol activates the G-protein coupled receptor Smoothened to promote Hedgehog signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Giovanni; Sircar, Ria; Kong, Jennifer H; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Sagner, Andreas; Byrne, Eamon FX; Covey, Douglas F; Siebold, Christian; Rohatgi, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is necessary for the function of many G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). We find that cholesterol is not just necessary but also sufficient to activate signaling by the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, a prominent cell-cell communication system in development. Cholesterol influences Hh signaling by directly activating Smoothened (SMO), an orphan GPCR that transmits the Hh signal across the membrane in all animals. Unlike many GPCRs, which are regulated by cholesterol through their heptahelical transmembrane domains, SMO is activated by cholesterol through its extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD). Residues shown to mediate cholesterol binding to the CRD in a recent structural analysis also dictate SMO activation, both in response to cholesterol and to native Hh ligands. Our results show that cholesterol can initiate signaling from the cell surface by engaging the extracellular domain of a GPCR and suggest that SMO activity may be regulated by local changes in cholesterol abundance or accessibility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20304.001 PMID:27705744

  4. Disruption of estrogen receptor signaling enhances intestinal neoplasia in ApcMin/+ mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Alicia G.; Oikarinen, Seija I.; Bynoté, Kimberly K.; Marttinen, Maija; Rafter, Joseph J.; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Roy, Shyamal K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Mutanen, Marja; Gould, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) [ERα (Esr1) and ERβ (Esr2)] are expressed in the human colon, but during the multistep process of colorectal carcinogenesis, expression of both ERα and ERβ is lost, suggesting that loss of ER function might promote colorectal carcinogenesis. Through crosses between an ERα knockout and ApcMin mouse strains, we demonstrate that ERα deficiency is associated with a significant increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity, size and burden in ApcMin/+ mice. Within the normal intestinal epithelium of ApcMin/+ mice, ERα deficiency is associated with an accumulation of nuclear β-catenin, an indicator of activation of the Wnt–β-catenin-signaling pathway, which is known to play a critical role in intestinal cancers. Consistent with the hypothesis that ERα deficiency is associated with activation of Wnt–β-catenin signaling, ERα deficiency in the intestinal epithelium of ApcMin/+ mice also correlated with increased expression of Wnt–β-catenin target genes. Through crosses between an ERβ knockout and ApcMin mouse strains, we observed some evidence that ERβ deficiency is associated with an increased incidence of colon tumors in ApcMin/+ mice. This effect of ERβ deficiency does not involve modulation of Wnt–β-catenin signaling. Our studies suggest that ERα and ERβ signaling modulate colorectal carcinogenesis, and ERα does so, at least in part, by regulating the activity of the Wnt–β-catenin pathway. PMID:19520794

  5. Optogenetic control of chemokine receptor signal and T-cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuexin; Hyun, Young-Min; Lim, Kihong; Lee, Hyunwook; Cummings, Ryan J.; Gerber, Scott A.; Bae, Seyeon; Cho, Thomas Yoonsang; Lord, Edith M.; Kim, Minsoo

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer of ex vivo-generated immune-promoting or tolerogenic T cells to either enhance immunity or promote tolerance in patients has been used with some success. However, effective trafficking of the transferred cells to the target tissue sites is the main barrier to achieving successful clinical outcomes. Here we developed a strategy for optically controlling T-cell trafficking using a photoactivatable (PA) chemokine receptor. Photoactivatable-chemokine C-X-C motif receptor 4 (PA-CXCR4) transmitted intracellular CXCR4 signals in response to 505-nm light. Localized activation of PA-CXCR4 induced T-cell polarization and directional migration (phototaxis) both in vitro and in vivo. Directing light onto the melanoma was sufficient to recruit PA-CXCR4–expressing tumor-targeting cytotoxic T cells and improved the efficacy of adoptive T-cell transfer immunotherapy, with a significant reduction in tumor growth in mice. These findings suggest that the use of photoactivatable chemokine receptors allows remotely controlled leukocyte trafficking with outstanding spatial resolution in tissues and may be feasible in other cell transfer therapies. PMID:24733886

  6. A macrophage inflammatory protein homolog encoded by guinea pig cytomegalovirus signals via CC chemokine receptor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, Mark; Miao Zhenhua; Wang Yu; Haggerty, Shannon; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses encode homologs of cellular immune effector proteins, including chemokines (CKs) and CK receptor-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Sequence of the guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) genome identified an open reading frame (ORF) which predicted a 101 amino acid (aa) protein with homology to the macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) subfamily of CC (β) CKs, designated GPCMV-MIP. To assess functionality of this CK, recombinant GPCMV-MIP was expressed in HEK293 cells and assayed for its ability to bind to and functionally interact with a variety of GPCRs. Specific signaling was observed with the hCCR1 receptor, which could be blocked with hMIP -1α in competition experiments. Migration assays revealed that GPCMV-MIP was able to induce chemotaxis in hCCR1-L1.2 cells. Antisera raised against a GST-MIP fusion protein immunoprecipitated species of ∼12 and 10 kDa from GPCMV-inoculated tissue culture lysates, and convalescent antiserum from GPCMV-infected animals was immunoreactive with GST-MIP by ELISA assay. These results represent the first substantive in vitro characterization of a functional CC CK encoded by a cytomegalovirus

  7. Modulation of BCR Signaling by the Induced Dimerization of Receptor-Associated SYK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Westbroek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clustering of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR by polyvalent antigens is transmitted through the SYK tyrosine kinase to the activation of multiple intracellular pathways that determine the physiological consequences of receptor engagement. To explore factors that modulate the quantity and quality of signals sent by the crosslinked BCR, we developed a novel chemical mediator of dimerization to induce clustering of receptor-associated SYK. To accomplish this, we fused SYK with E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (eDHFR, which binds the small molecule trimethoprim (TMP with high affinity and selectivity and synthesized a dimer of TMP with a flexible linker. The TMP dimer is able to induce the aggregation of eDHFR-linked SYK in live cells. The induced dimerization of SYK bound to the BCR differentially regulates the activation of downstream transcription factors, promoting the activation of Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT without affecting the activation of NFκB. The dimerization of SYK enhances the duration but not the amplitude of calcium mobilization by enhancing the extent and duration of its interaction with the crosslinked BCR at the plasma membrane.

  8. Polysaccharide of Dendrobium huoshanense activates macrophages via toll-like receptor 4-mediated signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Song-Zi; Hao, Ran; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Pan, Li-Hua; Liu, Jian; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2016-08-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and immunostimulatory mechanism of a purified Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide (DHP). We found that DHP could bind to the surface of macrophages and stimulate macrophages to secrete NO, TNF-α and IL-1β. To unravel the mechanism for the binding of DHP to macrophages, flow cytometry, confocal laser-scanning microscopy, affinity electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were employed to verify the type of PRR responsible for the recognition of DHP by RAW264.7 macrophages and peritoneal macrophages of C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ macrophages. Results showed that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was an essential receptor for macrophages to directly bind DHP. Further, the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, Akt and p38 were observed to be time-dependently promoted by DHP, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. These results suggest that DHP activates macrophages via its direct binding to TLR4 to trigger TLR4 signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Generation of signaling specificity in Arabidopsis by spatially restricted buffering of ligand-receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrash, Emily B; Davies, Kelli A; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2011-08-01

    Core signaling pathways function in multiple programs during multicellular development. The mechanisms that compartmentalize pathway function or confer process specificity, however, remain largely unknown. In Arabidopsis thaliana, ERECTA (ER) family receptors have major roles in many growth and cell fate decisions. The ER family acts with receptor TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) and several ligands of the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR LIKE (EPFL) family, which play distinct yet overlapping roles in patterning of epidermal stomata. Here, our examination of EPFL genes EPFL6/CHALLAH (CHAL), EPFL5/CHALLAH-LIKE1, and EPFL4/CHALLAH-LIKE2 (CLL2) reveals that this family may mediate additional ER-dependent processes. chal cll2 mutants display growth phenotypes characteristic of er mutants, and genetic interactions are consistent with CHAL family molecules acting as ER family ligands. We propose that different classes of EPFL genes regulate different aspects of ER family function and introduce a TMM-based discriminatory mechanism that permits simultaneous, yet compartmentalized and distinct, function of the ER family receptors in growth and epidermal patterning.

  10. Andrographolide suppresses TRIF-dependent signaling of toll-like receptors by targeting TBK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah-Yeon; Shim, Hyun-Jin; Shin, Hyeon-Myeong; Lee, Yoo Jung; Nam, Hyeonjeong; Kim, Su Yeon; Youn, Hyung-Sun

    2018-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in danger recognition and induction of innate immune response against bacterial and viral infections. The TLR adaptor molecule, toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter inducing interferon-β (TRIF), facilitates TLR3 and TLR4 signaling, leading to the activation of the transcription factor, NF-κB and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Andrographolide, the active component of Andrographis paniculata, exerts anti-inflammatory effects; however, the principal molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of andrographolide in TLR signaling pathways. Andrographolide suppressed NF-κB activation as well as COX-2 expression induced by TLR3 or TLR4 agonists. Andrographolide also suppressed the activation of IRF3 and the expression of interferon inducible protein-10 (IP-10) induced by TLR3 or TLR4 agonists. Andrographolide attenuated ligand-independent activation of IRF3 following overexpression of TRIF, TBK1, or IRF3. Furthermore, andrographolide inhibited TBK1 kinase activity in vitro. These results indicate that andrographolide modulates the TRIF-dependent pathway of TLRs by targeting TBK1 and represents a potential new anti-inflammatory candidate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent Advances in Nicotinic Receptor Signaling in Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic-cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Vitamin D receptor signaling is required for heart development in zebrafish embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hye-Joo, E-mail: hjkwon@pnu.edu.sa [Biology Department, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX77843-3258 (United States); Biology Department, Princess Nourah University, Riyadh 11671 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-02-12

    Vitamin D has been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of vitamin D in heart development during embryonic period is largely unknown. Vitamin D induces its genomic effects through its nuclear receptor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The present study investigated the role of VDR on heart development by antisense-mediated knockdown approaches in zebrafish model system. In zebrafish embryos, two distinct VDR genes (vdra and vdrb) have been identified. Knockdown of vdra has little effect on heart development, whereas disrupting vdrb gene causes various cardiac phenotypes, characterized by pericardial edema, slower heart rate and laterality defects. Depletion of both vdra and vdrb (vdra/b) produce additive, but not synergistic effects. To determine whether atrioventricular (AV) cardiomyocytes are properly organized in these embryos, the expression of bmp4, which marks the developing AV boundary at 48 h post-fertilization, was examined. Notably, vdra/b-deficient embryos display ectopic expression of bmp4 towards the ventricle or throughout atrial and ventricular chambers. Taken together, these results suggest that VDR signaling plays an essential role in heart development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in embryonic heart development. • Knockdown of vdrb, but not vdra, causes decreased heart rate in zebrafish embryo. • Loss of vdr results in cardiac laterality defects. • Loss of vdra/b alters atrioventricular boundary formation. • Loss of vdra/b causes abnormal cardiac looping.

  13. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AXOLOTL NPDC-1 AND ITS EFFECTS ON RETINOIC ACID RECEPTOR SIGNALING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou, Maria; Monaghan, James R; Spencer, Michael L; Voss, S Randal; Noonan, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Retinoic acid, a key morphogen in early vertebrate development and tissue regeneration, mediates its effects through the binding of receptors that act as ligand-induced transcription factors. These binding events function to recruit an array of transcription co-regulatory proteins to specific gene promoters. One such co-regulatory protein, neuronal proliferation and differentiation control-1 (NPDC-1), is broadly expressed during mammalian development and functions as an in vitro repressor of retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-mediated transcription. To obtain comparative and developmental insights about NPDC-1 function, we cloned the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) orthologue and measured transcript abundances among tissues sampled during the embryonic and juvenile phases of development, and also during spinal cord regeneration. Structurally, the axolotl orthologue of NPDC-1 retained sequence identity to mammalian sequences in all functional domains. Functionally, we observed that axolotl NPDC-1 mRNA expression peaked late in embryogenesis, with highest levels of expression occurring during the time of limb development, a process regulated by retinoic acid signaling. Also similar to what has been observed in mammals, axolotl NPDC-1 directly interacts with axolotl RAR, modulates axolotl RAR DNA binding, and represses cell proliferation and axolotl RAR-mediated gene transcription. These data justify axolotl as a model to further investigate NPDC-1 and its role in regulating retinoic acid signaling. PMID:17331771

  14. Subcellular localization of Patched and Smoothened, the receptors for Sonic hedgehog signaling, in the hippocampal neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, Ronald S; Schwartz, Catherine M; Wang, Ya-Xian; Mattson, Mark P; Yao, Pamela J

    2011-12-15

    Cumulative evidence suggests that, aside from patterning the embryonic neural tube, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays important roles in the mature nervous system. In this study, we investigate the expression and localization of the Shh signaling receptors, Patched (Ptch) and Smoothened (Smo), in the hippocampal neurons of young and mature rats. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses show that the expression of Ptch and Smo remains at a moderate level in young postnatal and adult brains. By using immunofluorescence light microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy, we examine the spatial distribution of Ptch and Smo within the hippocampal neurons. In young developing neurons, Ptch and Smo are present in the processes and are clustered at their growth cones. In mature neurons, Ptch and Smo are concentrated in dendrites, spines, and postsynaptic sites. Synaptic Ptch and Smo often co-exist with unusual structures-synaptic spinules and autophagosomes. Our results reveal the anatomical organization of the Shh receptors within both the young and the mature hippocampal neurons. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Vitamin D receptor signaling is required for heart development in zebrafish embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D has been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of vitamin D in heart development during embryonic period is largely unknown. Vitamin D induces its genomic effects through its nuclear receptor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The present study investigated the role of VDR on heart development by antisense-mediated knockdown approaches in zebrafish model system. In zebrafish embryos, two distinct VDR genes (vdra and vdrb) have been identified. Knockdown of vdra has little effect on heart development, whereas disrupting vdrb gene causes various cardiac phenotypes, characterized by pericardial edema, slower heart rate and laterality defects. Depletion of both vdra and vdrb (vdra/b) produce additive, but not synergistic effects. To determine whether atrioventricular (AV) cardiomyocytes are properly organized in these embryos, the expression of bmp4, which marks the developing AV boundary at 48 h post-fertilization, was examined. Notably, vdra/b-deficient embryos display ectopic expression of bmp4 towards the ventricle or throughout atrial and ventricular chambers. Taken together, these results suggest that VDR signaling plays an essential role in heart development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in embryonic heart development. • Knockdown of vdrb, but not vdra, causes decreased heart rate in zebrafish embryo. • Loss of vdr results in cardiac laterality defects. • Loss of vdra/b alters atrioventricular boundary formation. • Loss of vdra/b causes abnormal cardiac looping.

  16. G protein-coupled receptor 91 signaling in diabetic retinopathy and hypoxic retinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianyan; Li, Tingting; Du, Xinhua; Wu, Qiang; Le, Yun-Zheng

    2017-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 91 (GPR91) is a succinate-specific receptor and activation of GPR91 could initiate a complex signal transduction cascade and upregulate inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokines. In the retina, GPR91 is predominately expressed in ganglion cells, a major cellular entity involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and other hypoxic retinal diseases. During the development of DR and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), chronic hypoxia causes an increase in the levels of local succinate. Succinate-mediated GPR91 activation upregulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through ERK1/2-C/EBP β (c-Fos) and/or ERK1/2-COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathways, which in turn, leads to the breakdown of blood-retina barriers in these disorders. In this review, we will have a brief introduction of GPR91 and its biological functions and a more detailed discussion about the role and mechanisms of GPR91 in DR and ROP. A better understanding of GPR91 regulation may be of great significance in identifying new biomarkers and drug targets for the prediction and treatment of DR, ROP, and hypoxic retinal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulation of EGF receptor signaling by the MARVEL domain-containing protein CKLFSF8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Caining; Ding, Peiguo; Wang, Ying; Ma, Dalong

    2005-11-21

    It is known that chemokine-like factor superfamily 8 (CKLFSF8), a member of the CKLF superfamily, has four putative transmembrane regions and a MARVEL domain. Its structure is similar to TM4SF11 (plasmolipin) and widely distributed in normal tissue. However, its function is not yet known. We show here that CKLFSF8 is associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and that ectopic expression of CKLFSF8 in several cell lines suppresses EGF-induced cell proliferation, whereas knockdown of CKLFSF8 by siRNA promotes cell proliferation. In cells overexpressing CKLFSF8, the initial activation of EGFR was not affected, but subsequent desensitization of EGF-induced signaling occurred rapidly. This attenuation was correlated with an increased rate of receptor endocytosis. In contrast, knockdown of CKLFSF8 by siCKLFSF8 delayed EGFR endocytosis. These results identify CKLFSF8 as a novel regulator of EGF-induced signaling and indicate that the association of EGFR with four transmembrane proteins is critical for EGFR desensitization.

  18. Vitamin D receptor signaling and its therapeutic implications: Genome-wide and structural view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Carsten; Molnár, Ferdinand

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D3 is one of the few natural compounds that has, via its metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR), a direct effect on gene regulation. For efficiently applying the therapeutic and disease-preventing potential of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its synthetic analogs, the key steps in vitamin D signaling need to be understood. These are the different types of molecular interactions with the VDR, such as (i) the complex formation of VDR with genomic DNA, (ii) the interaction of VDR with its partner transcription factors, (iii) the binding of 1,25(OH)2D3 or its synthetic analogs within the ligand-binding pocket of the VDR, and (iv) the resulting conformational change on the surface of the VDR leading to a change of the protein-protein interaction profile of the receptor with other proteins. This review will present the latest genome-wide insight into vitamin D signaling, and will discuss its therapeutic implications.

  19. Norepinephrine signaling through β-adrenergic receptors is critical for expression of cocaine-induced anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, Jesse R.; Liles, L. Cameron; Weinshenker, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Cocaine is a widely abused psychostimulant that has both rewarding and aversive properties. While the mechanisms underlying cocaine’s rewarding effects have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to the unpleasant behavioral states induced by cocaine, such as anxiety. Methods In this study we evaluated the performance of dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh −/−) mice, which lack norepinephrine (NE), in the elevated plus maze (EPM) to examine the contribution of noradrenergic signaling to cocaine-induced anxiety. Results We found that cocaine dose-dependently increased anxiety-like behavior in control (Dbh +/−) mice, as measured by a decrease in open arm exploration. Dbh −/− mice had normal baseline performance in the EPM, but were completely resistant to the anxiogenic effects of cocaine. Cocaine-induced anxiety was also attenuated in Dbh +/− mice following administration of disulfiram, a DBH inhibitor. In experiments using specific adrenergic antagonists, we found that pretreatment with the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol blocked cocaine-induced anxiety-like behavior in Dbh +/− and wild-type C57BL6/J mice, while the α1 antagonist prazosin and the α2 antagonist yohimbine had no effect. Conclusions These results indicate that noradrenergic signaling via β-adrenergic receptors is required for cocaine-induced anxiety in mice. PMID:18083142

  20. Norepinephrine signaling through beta-adrenergic receptors is critical for expression of cocaine-induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, Jesse R; Liles, L Cameron; Weinshenker, David

    2008-06-01

    Cocaine is a widely abused psychostimulant that has both rewarding and aversive properties. While the mechanisms underlying cocaine's rewarding effects have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to the unpleasant behavioral states induced by cocaine, such as anxiety. In this study, we evaluated the performance of dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice, which lack norepinephrine (NE), in the elevated plus maze (EPM) to examine the contribution of noradrenergic signaling to cocaine-induced anxiety. We found that cocaine dose-dependently increased anxiety-like behavior in control (Dbh +/-) mice, as measured by a decrease in open arm exploration. The Dbh -/- mice had normal baseline performance in the EPM but were completely resistant to the anxiogenic effects of cocaine. Cocaine-induced anxiety was also attenuated in Dbh +/- mice following administration of disulfiram, a dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor. In experiments using specific adrenergic antagonists, we found that pretreatment with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol blocked cocaine-induced anxiety-like behavior in Dbh +/- and wild-type C57BL6/J mice, while the alpha(1) antagonist prazosin and the alpha(2) antagonist yohimbine had no effect. These results indicate that noradrenergic signaling via beta-adrenergic receptors is required for cocaine-induced anxiety in mice.

  1. Helix 11 Dynamics is Critical for Constitutive Androstane Receptor Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Edward; Busby, Scott A.; Wisecarver, Sarah; Vincent, Jeremy; Griffin, Patrick R.; Fernandez, Elias J.

    2011-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) transactivation can occur in the absence of exogenous ligand and this activity is enhanced by agonists TCPOBOP and meclizine. We use biophysical and cell-based assays to show that increased activity of CAR(TCPOBOP) relative to CAR(meclizine) corresponds to a higher affinity of CAR(TCPOBOP) for the steroid receptor coactivator-1. Additionally, steady-state fluorescence spectra suggest conformational differences between CAR(TCPOBOP):RXR and CAR(meclizi...

  2. Structure, signaling mechanism and regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor guanylate cyclase.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misono, K. S.; Philo, J. S.; Arakawa, T.; Ogata, C. M.; Qiu, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Young, H. S. (Biosciences Division); (Univ. of Nevada); (Alliance Protein Labs.)

    2011-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the homologous B-type natriuretic peptide are cardiac hormones that dilate blood vessels and stimulate natriuresis and diuresis, thereby lowering blood pressure and blood volume. ANP and B-type natriuretic peptide counterbalance the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and neurohormonal systems, and play a central role in cardiovascular regulation. These activities are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA), a single transmembrane segment, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-linked receptor that occurs as a homodimer. Here, we present an overview of the structure, possible chloride-mediated regulation and signaling mechanism of NPRA and other receptor GCs. Earlier, we determined the crystal structures of the NPRA extracellular domain with and without bound ANP. Their structural comparison has revealed a novel ANP-induced rotation mechanism occurring in the juxtamembrane region that apparently triggers transmembrane signal transduction. More recently, the crystal structures of the dimerized catalytic domain of green algae GC Cyg12 and that of cyanobacterium GC Cya2 have been reported. These structures closely resemble that of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic domain, consisting of a C1 and C2 subdomain heterodimer. Adenylyl cyclase is activated by binding of G{sub s}{alpha} to C2 and the ensuing 7{sup o} rotation of C1 around an axis parallel to the central cleft, thereby inducing the heterodimer to adopt a catalytically active conformation. We speculate that, in NPRA, the ANP-induced rotation of the juxtamembrane domains, transmitted across the transmembrane helices, may induce a similar rotation in each of the dimerized GC catalytic domains, leading to the stimulation of the GC catalytic activity.

  3. Study on non-linear bistable dynamics model based EEG signal discrimination analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Lin, Han; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations generating from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. EEG signal is looked as one of the most important factors that will be focused in the next 20 years. In this paper, EEG signal discrimination based on non-linear bistable dynamical model was proposed. EEG signals were processed by non-linear bistable dynamical model, and features of EEG signals were characterized by coherence index. Experimental results showed that the proposed method could properly extract the features of different EEG signals.

  4. Dissection of Signaling Events Downstream of the c-Mpl Receptor in Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells Via Motif-Engineered Chimeric Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Koichiro; Lai, Chen-Yi; Nojima, Masanori; Kawahara, Masahiro; Otsu, Makoto; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2018-02-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a valuable resource in transplantation medicine. Cytokines are often used to culture HSCs aiming at better clinical outcomes through enhancement of HSC reconstitution capability. Roles for each signal molecule downstream of receptors in HSCs, however, remain puzzling due to complexity of the cytokine-signaling network. Engineered receptors that are non-responsive to endogenous cytokines represent an attractive tool for dissection of signaling events. We here tested a previously developed chimeric receptor (CR) system in primary murine HSCs, target cells that are indispensable for analysis of stem cell activity. Each CR contains tyrosine motifs that enable selective activation of signal molecules located downstream of the c-Mpl receptor upon stimulation by an artificial ligand. Signaling through a control CR with a wild-type c-Mpl cytoplasmic tail sufficed to enhance HSC proliferation and colony formation in cooperation with stem cell factor (SCF). Among a series of CRs, only one compatible with selective Stat5 activation showed similar positive effects. The HSCs maintained ex vivo in these environments retained long-term reconstitution ability following transplantation. This ability was also demonstrated in secondary recipients, indicating effective transmission of stem cell-supportive signals into HSCs via these artificial CRs during culture. Selective activation of Stat5 through CR ex vivo favored preservation of lymphoid potential in long-term reconstituting HSCs, but not of myeloid potential, exemplifying possible dissection of signals downstream of c-Mpl. These CR systems therefore offer a useful tool to scrutinize complex signaling pathways in HSCs.

  5. Severe energy deficit upregulates leptin receptors, leptin signaling, and PTP1B in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Ponce-González, Jesús Gustavo; de La Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Losa-Reyna, Jose; Martin-Rincon, Marcos; Morales-Alamo, David; Santana, Alfredo; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Calbet, Jose A L

    2017-11-01

    In obesity, leptin receptors (OBR) and leptin signaling in skeletal muscle are downregulated. To determine whether OBR and leptin signaling are upregulated with a severe energy deficit, 15 overweight men were assessed before the intervention (PRE), after 4 days of caloric restriction (3.2 kcal·kg body wt -1 ·day -1 ) in combination with prolonged exercise (CRE; 8 h walking + 45 min single-arm cranking/day) to induce an energy deficit of ~5,500 kcal/day, and following 3 days of control diet (isoenergetic) and reduced exercise (CD). During CRE, the diet consisted solely of whey protein ( n = 8) or sucrose ( n = 7; 0.8 g·kg body wt -1 ·day -1 ). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the exercised and the nonexercised deltoid muscles and from the vastus lateralis. From PRE to CRE, serum glucose, insulin, and leptin were reduced. OBR expression was augmented in all examined muscles associated with increased maximal fat oxidation. Compared with PRE, after CD, phospho-Tyr 1141 OBR, phospho-Tyr 985 OBR, JAK2, and phospho-Tyr 1007/1008 JAK2 protein expression were increased in all muscles, whereas STAT3 and phospho-Tyr 705 STAT3 were increased only in the arms. The expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in skeletal muscle was increased by 18 and 45% after CRE and CD, respectively ( P < 0.05). Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) tended to increase in the legs and decrease in the arm muscles (ANOVA interaction: P < 0.05). Myosin heavy chain I isoform was associated with OBR protein expression ( r  = -0.75), phospho-Tyr 985 OBR ( r  = 0.88), and phospho-Tyr 705 STAT3/STAT3 ( r = 0.74). In summary, despite increased PTP1B expression, skeletal muscle OBR and signaling are upregulated by a severe energy deficit with greater response in the arm than in the legs likely due to SOCS3 upregulation in the leg muscles. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows that the skeletal muscle leptin receptors and their corresponding signaling cascade are upregulated in

  6. Effects of histamine H1 receptor signaling on glucocorticoid receptor activity. Role of canonical and non-canonical pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zappia, C.D.; Granja-Galeano, G.; Fernández, N.; Shayo, C.; Davio, C.; Fitzsimons, C.P.; Monczor, F.

    2015-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) antagonists and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists are used to treat inflammatory conditions such as allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis and asthma. Consistent with the high morbidity levels of such inflammatory conditions, these receptors are the targets of a vast

  7. A receptor-based model for dopamine-induced fMRI signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Joseph. B.; Sander, Christin Y. M.; Jenkins, Bruce G.; Hooker, Jacob M.; Catana, Ciprian; Vanduffel, Wim; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Normandin, Marc D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a multi-receptor physiological model of the fMRI temporal response and signal magnitude evoked by drugs that elevate synaptic dopamine in basal ganglia. The model is formulated as a summation of dopamine’s effects at D1-like and D2-like receptor families, which produce functional excitation and inhibition, respectively, as measured by molecular indicators like adenylate cyclase or neuroimaging techniques like fMRI. Functional effects within the model are described in terms of relative changes in receptor occupancies scaled by receptor densities and neuro-vascular coupling constants. Using literature parameters, the model reconciles many discrepant observations and interpretations of pre-clinical data. Additionally, we present data showing that amphetamine stimulation produces fMRI inhibition at low doses and a biphasic response at higher doses in the basal ganglia of non-human primates (NHP), in agreement with model predictions based upon the respective levels of evoked dopamine. Because information about dopamine release is required to inform the fMRI model, we simultaneously acquired PET 11C-raclopride data in several studies to evaluate the relationship between raclopride displacement and assumptions about dopamine release. At high levels of dopamine release, results suggest that refinements of the model will be required to consistently describe the PET and fMRI data. Overall, the remarkable success of the model in describing a wide range of preclinical fMRI data indicate that this approach will be useful for guiding the design and analysis of basic science and clinical investigations and for interpreting the functional consequences of dopaminergic stimulation in normal subjects and in populations with dopaminergic neuroadaptations. PMID:23466936

  8. Adiponectin receptors form homomers and heteromers exhibiting distinct ligand binding and intracellular signaling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almabouada, Farid; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana; Peinado, Juan R; Vazquez-Martinez, Rafael; Malagon, Maria M

    2013-02-01

    Adiponectin binds to two widely expressed receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) that contain seven transmembrane domains but, unlike G-protein coupled receptors, present an extracellular C terminus and a cytosolic N terminus. Recently, AdipoR1 was found to associate in high order complexes. However, it is still unknown whether AdipoR2 may also form homomers or heteromers with AdipoR1 or if such interactions may be functionally relevant. Herein, we have analyzed the oligomerization pattern of AdipoRs by FRET and immunoprecipitation and evaluated both the internalization of AdipoRs in response to various adiponectin isoforms and the effect of adiponectin binding to different AdipoR combinations on AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α activation. Transfection of HEK293AD cells with AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 showed that both receptors colocalize at both the plasma membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum. Co-transfection with the different AdipoR pairs yielded high FRET efficiencies in non-stimulated cells, which indicates that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromeric complexes under resting conditions. Live FRET imaging suggested that both homo- and heteromeric AdipoR complexes dissociate in response to adiponectin, but heteromers separate faster than homomers. Finally, phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in response to adiponectin was delayed in cells wherein heteromer formation was favored. In sum, our findings indicate that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 form homo- and heteromers that present unique interaction behaviors and signaling properties. This raises the possibility that the pleiotropic, tissue-dependent functions of adiponectin depend on the expression levels of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and, therefore, on the steady-state proportion of homo- and heteromeric complexes.

  9. Phospho-kinase profile of triple negative breast cancer and androgen receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuenca-López, María D; Montero, Juan C; Morales, Jorge C; Prat, Aleix; Pandiella, Atanasio; Ocana, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the oncogenesis of different tumors, as is the case in prostate cancer. In triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) a gene expression classification has described different subgroups including a luminal androgen subtype. The AR can be controlled by several mechanisms like the activation of membrane tyrosine kinases and downstream signaling pathways. However little is known in TNBC about how the AR is modulated by these mechanisms and the potential therapeutic strategists to inhibit its expression. We used human samples to evaluate the expression of AR by western-blot and phospho-proteomic kinase arrays that recognize membrane tyrosine kinase receptors and downstream mediators. Western-blots in human cell lines were carried out to analyze the expression and activation of individual proteins. Drugs against these kinases in different conditions were used to measure the expression of the androgen receptor. PCR experiments were performed to assess changes in the AR gene after therapeutic modulation of these pathways. AR is present in a subset of TNBC and its expression correlates with activated membrane receptor kinases-EGFR and PDGFRβ in human samples and cell lines. Inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR pathway in TNBC cell lines decreased notably the expression of the AR. Concomitant administration of the anti-androgen bicalutamide with the EGFR, PDGFRβ and Erk1/2 inhibitors, decreased the amount of AR compared to each agent given alone, and had an additive anti-proliferative effect. Administration of dihydrotestosterone augmented the expression of AR that was not modified by the inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR or Erk1/2 pathways. AR expression was posttranscriptionally regulated by PI3K or Erk1/2 inhibition. Our results describe the expression of the AR in TNBC as a druggable target and further suggest the combination of bicalutamide with inhibitors of EGFR, PDGFRβ or Erk1/2 for future development

  10. Inhibitory effects of two G protein-coupled receptor kinases on the cell surface expression and signaling of the human adrenomedullin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwasako, Kenji, E-mail: kuwasako@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Toshio [Noto Marine Laboratory, Division of Marine Environmental Studies, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, 927-0553 (Japan); Nagata, Sayaka [Division of Circulatory and Body Fluid Regulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan); Jiang, Danfeng; Hayashi, Hidetaka [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan); Murakami, Manabu [Department of Pharmacology, Hirosaki University, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 036-8562 (Japan); Hattori, Yuichi [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, 930-0194 (Japan); Kitamura, Kazuo [Division of Circulatory and Body Fluid Regulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan); Kato, Johji [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan)

    2016-02-19

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a family B GPCR) to form the type 1 adrenomedullin receptor (AM{sub 1} receptor). Here, we investigated the effects of the five non-visual GPCR kinases (GRKs 2 through 6) on the cell surface expression of the human (h)AM{sub 1} receptor by cotransfecting each of these GRKs into HEK-293 cells that stably expressed hRAMP2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that when coexpressed with GRK4 or GRK5, the cell surface expression of the AM{sub 1} receptor was markedly decreased prior to stimulation with AM, thereby attenuating both the specific [{sup 125}I]AM binding and AM-induced cAMP production. These inhibitory effects of both GRKs were abolished by the replacement of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of CLR with that of the calcitonin receptor (a family B GPCR) or β{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor (a family A GPCR). Among the sequentially truncated CLR C-tail mutants, those lacking the five residues 449–453 (Ser-Phe-Ser-Asn-Ser) abolished the inhibition of the cell surface expression of CLR via the overexpression of GRK4 or GRK5. Thus, we provided new insight into the function of GRKs in agonist-unstimulated GPCR trafficking using a recombinant AM{sub 1} receptor and further determined the region of the CLR C-tail responsible for this GRK function. - Highlights: • We discovered a novel function of GRKs in GPCR trafficking using human CLR/RAMP2. • GRKs 4 and 5 markedly inhibited the cell surface expression of human CLR/RAMP2. • Both GRKs exhibited highly significant receptor signaling inhibition. • Five residues of the C-terminal tail of CLR govern this function of GRKs.

  11. Inhibitory effects of two G protein-coupled receptor kinases on the cell surface expression and signaling of the human adrenomedullin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Nagata, Sayaka; Jiang, Danfeng; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Murakami, Manabu; Hattori, Yuichi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kato, Johji

    2016-01-01

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a family B GPCR) to form the type 1 adrenomedullin receptor (AM_1 receptor). Here, we investigated the effects of the five non-visual GPCR kinases (GRKs 2 through 6) on the cell surface expression of the human (h)AM_1 receptor by cotransfecting each of these GRKs into HEK-293 cells that stably expressed hRAMP2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that when coexpressed with GRK4 or GRK5, the cell surface expression of the AM_1 receptor was markedly decreased prior to stimulation with AM, thereby attenuating both the specific ["1"2"5I]AM binding and AM-induced cAMP production. These inhibitory effects of both GRKs were abolished by the replacement of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of CLR with that of the calcitonin receptor (a family B GPCR) or β_2-adrenergic receptor (a family A GPCR). Among the sequentially truncated CLR C-tail mutants, those lacking the five residues 449–453 (Ser-Phe-Ser-Asn-Ser) abolished the inhibition of the cell surface expression of CLR via the overexpression of GRK4 or GRK5. Thus, we provided new insight into the function of GRKs in agonist-unstimulated GPCR trafficking using a recombinant AM_1 receptor and further determined the region of the CLR C-tail responsible for this GRK function. - Highlights: • We discovered a novel function of GRKs in GPCR trafficking using human CLR/RAMP2. • GRKs 4 and 5 markedly inhibited the cell surface expression of human CLR/RAMP2. • Both GRKs exhibited highly significant receptor signaling inhibition. • Five residues of the C-terminal tail of CLR govern this function of GRKs.

  12. Differential actions of orexin receptors in brainstem cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons revealed by receptor knockouts: implications for orexinergic signaling in arousal and narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi A Kohlmeier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orexin neuropeptides influence multiple homeostatic functions and play an essential role in the expression of normal sleep-wake behavior. While their two known receptors (OX1 and OX2 are targets for novel pharmacotherapeutics, the actions mediated by each receptor remain largely unexplored. Using brain slices from mice constitutively lacking either receptor, we used whole-cell and Ca2+ imaging methods to delineate the cellular actions of each receptor within cholinergic (laterodorsal tegmental nucleus; LDT and monoaminergic (dorsal raphe; DR and locus coeruleus; LC brainstem nuclei – where orexins promote arousal and suppress REM sleep. In slices from OX2-/- mice, orexin-A (300 nM elicited wild-type responses in LDT, DR and LC neurons consisting of a depolarizing current and augmented voltage-dependent Ca2+ transients. In slices from OX1-/- mice, the depolarizing current was absent in LDT and LC neurons and was attenuated in DR neurons, although Ca2+-transients were still augmented. Since orexin-A produced neither of these actions in slices lacking both receptors, our findings suggest that orexin-mediated depolarization is mediated by both receptors in DR, but is exclusively mediated by OX1 in LDT and LC neurons, even though OX2 is present and OX2 mRNA appears elevated in brainstems from OX1-/- mice. Considering published behavioral data, these findings support a model in which orexin-mediated excitation of mesopontine cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons contributes little to stabilizing spontaneous waking and sleep bouts, but functions in context-dependent arousal and helps restrict muscle atonia to REM sleep. The augmented Ca2± transients mediated by both receptors appeared mediated by influx via L-type Ca2+ channels, which is often linked to transcriptional signaling. This could provide an adaptive signal to compensate for receptor loss or prolonged antagonism and may contribute to the reduced severity of narcolepsy in single receptor

  13. Aripiprazole Increases the PKA Signalling and Expression of the GABAA Receptor and CREB1 in the Nucleus Accumbens of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bo; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-05-01

    The GABAA receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and regulated by PKA signalling. Current antipsychotics bind with D2-like receptors, but not the GABAA receptor. The cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) is also associated with PKA signalling and may be related to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This study investigated the effects of antipsychotics in modulating D2-mediated PKA signalling and its downstream GABAA receptors and CREB1. Rats were treated orally with aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, ter in die (t.i.d.)), bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, t.i.d.), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) or vehicle for 1 week. The levels of PKA-Cα and p-PKA in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate putamen (CPu) were detected by Western blots. The mRNA levels of Gabrb1, Gabrb2, Gabrb3 and Creb1, and their protein expression were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blots, respectively. Aripiprazole elevated the levels of p-PKA and the ratio of p-PKA/PKA in the NAc, but not the PFC and CPu. Correlated with this elevated PKA signalling, aripiprazole elevated the mRNA and protein expression of the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc. While haloperidol elevated the levels of p-PKA and the ratio of p-PKA/PKA in both NAc and CPu, it only tended to increase the expression of the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc, but not the CPu. Bifeprunox had no effects on PKA signalling in these brain regions. These results suggest that aripiprazole has selective effects on upregulating the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc, probably via activating PKA signalling.

  14. Adenosine A(2A) receptor dynamics studied with the novel fluorescent agonist Alexa488-APEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Frank; Klutz, Athena M; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Fredholm, Bertil B; Schulte, Gunnar

    2008-08-20

    G protein-coupled receptors, such as the adenosine A(2A) receptor, are dynamic proteins, which undergo agonist-dependent redistribution from the cell surface to intracellular membranous compartments, such as endosomes. In order to study the kinetics of adenosine A(2A) receptor redistribution in living cells, we synthesized a novel fluorescent agonist, Alexa488-APEC. Alexa488-APEC binds to adenosine A(2A) (K(i)=149+/-27 nM) as well as A(3) receptors (K(i)=240+/-160 nM) but not to adenosine A(1) receptors. Further, we characterized the dose-dependent increase in Alexa488-APEC-induced cAMP production as well as cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation, verifying the ligand's functionality at adenosine A(2A) but not A(2B) receptors. In live-cell imaging studies, Alexa488-APEC-induced adenosine A(2A) receptor internalization, which was blocked by the competitive reversible antagonist ZM 241385 and hyperosmolaric sucrose. Further, internalized adenosine A(2A) receptors co-localized with clathrin and Rab5, indicating that agonist stimulation promotes adenosine A(2A) receptor uptake through a clathrin-dependent mechanism to Rab5-positive endosomes. The basic characterization of Alexa488-APEC described here showed that it provides a useful tool for tracing adenosine A(2A) receptors in vitro.

  15. PTP1B Inhibition Causes Rac1 Activation by Enhancing Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Tsuchiya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study investigated the signaling pathway underlying Rac1 activation induced by the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA. Methods: Activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B was assayed under cell-free conditions. Western blot was carried out to quantify phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and Akt in PC-12 cells. Rac1 activity was monitored in the föerster resonance energy transfer (FRET analysis using living and fixed PC-12 cells. Results: DCP-LA markedly suppressed PTP1B activity in a concentration (100 pM-100 µM-dependent manner. In the DCP-LA binding assay, fluorescein-conjugated DCP-LA produced a single fluorescent signal band at 60 kDa, corresponding to the molecule of PTP1B, and the signal was attenuated or abolished by co-treatment or pretreatment with non-conjugated DCP-LA. DCP-LA significantly enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Tyr1222 and Akt1/2 at Thr308/309 and Ser473/474 in PC-12 cells. In the FRET analysis, DCP-LA significantly enhanced NGF-stimulated Rac1 activation, which is abrogated by the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1 inhibitor BX912, or the Akt inhibitor MK2206. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that DCP-LA-induced PTP1B inhibition, possibly through its direct binding, causes Rac1 activation by enhancing a pathway along a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK/IRS-1/PI3K/Akt/Rac1 axis.

  16. Orexin/hypocretin receptor 1 signaling mediates Pavlovian cue-food conditioning and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Sara E; Cole, Sindy; Petrovich, Gorica D

    2016-08-01

    Learned food cues can drive feeding in the absence of hunger, and orexin/hypocretin signaling is necessary for this type of overeating. The current study examined whether orexin also mediates cue-food learning during the acquisition and extinction of these associations. In Experiment 1, rats underwent two sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning, consisting of tone-food presentations. Prior to each session, rats received either the orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB) or vehicle systemically. SB treatment did not affect conditioned responses during the first conditioning session, measured as food cup behavior during the tone and latency to approach the food cup after the tone onset, compared to the vehicle group. During the second conditioning session, SB treatment attenuated learning. All groups that received SB, prior to either the first or second conditioning session, displayed significantly less food cup behavior and had longer latencies to approach the food cup after tone onset compared to the vehicle group. These findings suggest orexin signaling at the 1 receptor mediates the consolidation and recall of cue-food acquisition. In Experiment 2, another group of rats underwent tone-food conditioning sessions (drug free), followed by two extinction sessions under either SB or vehicle treatment. Similar to Experiment 1, SB did not affect conditioned responses during the first session. During the second extinction session, the group that received SB prior to the first extinction session, but vehicle prior to the second, expressed conditioned food cup responses longer after tone offset, when the pellets were previously delivered during conditioning, and maintained shorter latencies to approach the food cup compared to the other groups. The persistence of these conditioned behaviors indicates impairment in extinction consolidation due to SB treatment during the first extinction session. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for orexin

  17. HER/ErbB Receptor Interactions and Signaling Patterns in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi; Opresko, Lee K.; Shankaran, Harish; Chrisler, William B.; Wiley, H. S.; Resat, Haluk

    2009-10-31

    Knowledge about signaling pathways is typically compiled based on data gathered using different cell lines. This approach implicitly assumes that cell line dependence is not important, which can be misleading because different cell lines do not always respond to a particular stimulus in the same way. The lack of coherent data collected from closely related cellular systems can be detrimental to the efforts to understand the regulation of biological processes. In this study, we report the development of a library of human mammary epithelial (HME) cell lines which express endogenous levels of the cell surface receptor EGFR/HER1, and different levels of HER2 and HER3. Using our clone library, we have quantified the interactions among the HER1-3 receptors and systematically investigated the existing hypotheses about their interaction patterns. Contrary to earlier suggestions, we find that lateral interactions with HER2 do not lead to strong transactivation between EGFR and HER3. Our study identified HER2 as the dominant dimerization partner for both EGFR and HER3, and revealed that EGFR and HER3 activations are only weakly linked in HME cells. We have also quantified the time-dependent activation patterns of the downstream effectors Erk and Akt. We found that HER3 signaling makes the strongest contribution to Akt activation and that, stimulation of either EGFR or HER3 pathways activate Erk at significant levels. Our study shows that cell libraries formed from closely related clones can be a powerful resource for pursuing the quantitative investigations that are necessary for developing a systems level understanding of cell signaling.

  18. Gambogic acid inhibits multiple myeloma mediated osteoclastogenesis through suppression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj K; Kale, Vijay P; Song, Chunhua; Sung, Shen-shu; Sharma, Arun K; Talamo, Giampaolo; Dovat, Sinisa; Amin, Shantu G

    2014-10-01

    Bone disease, characterized by the presence of lytic lesions and osteoporosis is the hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM). Stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) and its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), has been implicated as a regulator of bone resorption, suggesting that agents that can suppress SDF1α/CXCR4 signaling might inhibit osteoclastogenesis, a process closely linked to bone resorption. We, therefore, investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone, could inhibit CXCR4 signaling and suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by MM cells. Through docking studies we predicted that GA directly interacts with CXCR4. This xanthone down-regulates the expression of CXCR4 on MM cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CXCR4 was not due to proteolytic degradation, but rather GA suppresses CXCR4 mRNA expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) DNA binding. This was further confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, as GA inhibits p65 binding at the CXCR4 promoter. GA suppressed SDF-1α-induced chemotaxis of MM cells and downstream signaling of CXCR4 by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt, p38, and Erk1/2 in MM cells. GA abrogated the RANKL-induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, we found that MM cells induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts, and that GA suppressed this process. Importantly, suppression of osteoclastogenesis by GA was mediated through IL-6 inhibition. Overall, our results show that GA is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression and has a strong potential to suppress osteoclastogenesis mediated by MM cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. D2 receptor genotype and striatal dopamine signaling predict motor cortical activity and behavior in humans.

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    Fazio, Leonardo; Blasi, Giuseppe; Taurisano, Paolo; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Romano, Raffaella; Gelao, Barbara; Ursini, Gianluca; Quarto, Tiziana; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Mancini, Marina; Popolizio, Teresa; Rubini, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2011-02-14

    Pre-synaptic D2 receptors regulate striatal dopamine release and DAT activity, key factors for modulation of motor pathways. A functional SNP of DRD2 (rs1076560 G>T) is associated with alternative splicing such that the relative expression of D2S (mainly pre-synaptic) vs. D2L (mainly post-synaptic) receptor isoforms is decreased in subjects with the T allele with a putative increase of striatal dopamine levels. To evaluate how DRD2 genotype and striatal dopamine signaling predict motor cortical activity and behavior in humans, we have investigated the association of rs1076560 with BOLD fMRI activity during a motor task. To further evaluate the relationship of this circuitry with dopamine signaling, we also explored the correlation between genotype based differences in motor brain activity and pre-synaptic striatal DAT binding measured with [(123)I] FP-CIT SPECT. Fifty healthy subjects, genotyped for DRD2 rs1076560 were studied with BOLD-fMRI at 3T while performing a visually paced motor task with their right hand; eleven of these subjects also underwent [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT. SPM5 random-effects models were used for statistical analyses. Subjects carrying the T allele had greater BOLD responses in left basal ganglia, thalamus, supplementary motor area, and primary motor cortex, whose activity was also negatively correlated with reaction time at the task. Moreover, left striatal DAT binding and activity of left supplementary motor area were negatively correlated. The present results suggest that DRD2 genetic variation was associated with focusing of responses in the whole motor network, in which activity of predictable nodes was correlated with reaction time and with striatal pre-synaptic dopamine signaling. Our results in humans may help shed light on genetic risk for neurobiological mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of disorders with dysregulation of striatal dopamine like Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Androgen receptor signalling in Vascular Endothelial cells is dispensable for spermatogenesis and male fertility

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    O'Hara Laura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen signalling is essential both for male development and function of the male reproductive system in adulthood. Within the adult testis, Germ cells (GC do not express androgen receptor (AR suggesting androgen-mediated promotion of spermatogenesis must act via AR-expressing somatic cell-types. Several recent studies have exploited the Cre/lox system of conditional gene-targeting to ablate AR function from key somatic cell-types in order to establish the cell-specific role of AR in promotion of male fertility. In this study, we have used a similar approach to specifically ablate AR-signalling from Vascular Endothelial (VE cells, with a view to defining the significance of androgen signalling within this cell-type on spermatogenesis. Findings AR expression in VE cells of the testicular vasculature was confirmed using an antibody against AR. A Cre-inducible fluorescent reporter line was used to empirically establish the utility of a mouse line expressing Cre Recombinase driven by the Tie2-Promoter, for targeting VE cells. Immunofluorescent detection revealed expression of YFP (and therefore Cre Recombinase function limited to VE cells and an interstitial population of cells, believed to be macrophages, that did not express AR. Mating of Tie2-Cre males to females carrying a floxed AR gene produced Vascular Endothelial Androgen Receptor Knockout (VEARKO mice and littermate controls. Ablation of AR from all VE cells was confirmed; however, no significant differences in bodyweight or reproductive tissue weights could be detected in VEARKO animals and spermatogenesis and fertility was unaffected. Conclusions We demonstrate the successful generation and empirical validation of a cell-specific knockout of AR from VE cells, and conclude that AR expression in VE cells is not essential for spermatogenesis or male fertility.

  1. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based subcellular visualization of pathogen-induced host receptor signaling

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    Zimmermann Timo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria-triggered signaling events in infected host cells are key elements in shaping the host response to pathogens. Within the eukaryotic cell, signaling complexes are spatially organized. However, the investigation of protein-protein interactions triggered by bacterial infection in the cellular context is technically challenging. Here, we provide a methodological approach to exploit fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET to visualize pathogen-initiated signaling events in human cells. Results Live-cell microscopy revealed the transient recruitment of the Src family tyrosine kinase Hck upon bacterial engagement of the receptor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3 (CEACAM3. In cells expressing a CEACAM3 variant lacking the cytoplasmic domain, the Src homology 2 (SH2 domain of Hck (Hck-SH2 was not recruited, even though bacteria still bound to the receptor. FRET measurements on the basis of whole cell lysates revealed intimate binding between Hck-SH2 (using enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YPet-Hck-SH2 and the tyrosine-phosphorylated enhanced cyan fluorescent protein-labeled cytoplasmic domain of wild-type CEACAM3 (CEACAM3 WT-CyPet and a flow cytometry-based FRET approach verified this association in intact cells. Using confocal microscopy and acceptor photobleaching, FRET between Hck-SH2 and CEACAM3 was localized to the sites of bacteria-host cell contact. Conclusion These data demonstrate not only the intimate binding of the SH2 domain of Hck to the tyrosine-phosphorylated cytoplasmic domain of CEACAM3 in intact cells, but furthermore, FRET measurements allow the subcellular localization of this process during bacterial infection. FRET-based assays are valuable tools to resolve bacteria-induced protein-protein interactions in the context of the intact host cell.

  2. Orexin/hypocretin receptor 1 signaling mediates Pavlovian cue-food conditioning and extinction

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    Keefer, Sara E.; Cole, Sindy; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2016-01-01

    Learned food cues can drive feeding in the absence of hunger, and orexin/hypocretin signaling is necessary for this type of overeating. The current study examined whether orexin also mediates cue-food learning during the acquisition and extinction of these associations. In Experiment 1, rats underwent two sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning, consisting of tone-food presentations. Prior to each session, rats received either the orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB) or vehicle systemically. SB treatment did not affect conditioned responses during the first conditioning session, measured as food cup behavior during the tone and latency to approach the food cup after the tone onset, compared to the vehicle group. During the second conditioning session, SB treatment attenuated learning. All groups that received SB, prior to either the first or second conditioning session, displayed significantly less food cup behavior and had longer latencies to approach the food cup after tone onset compared to the vehicle group. These findings suggest orexin signaling at the 1 receptor mediates the consolidation and recall of cue-food acquisition. In Experiment 2, another group of rats underwent tone-food conditioning sessions (drug free), followed by two extinction sessions under either SB or vehicle treatment. Similar to Experiment 1, SB did not affect conditioned responses during the first session. During the second extinction session, the group that received SB prior to the first extinction session, but vehicle prior to the second, expressed conditioned food cup responses longer after tone offset, when the pellets were previously delivered during conditioning, and maintained shorter latencies to approach the food cup compared to the other groups. The persistence of these conditioned behaviors indicates impairment in extinction consolidation due to SB treatment during the first extinction session. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for orexin

  3. On a possible mechanism of the brain for responding to dynamical features extracted from input signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zengrong; Chen Guanrong

    2003-01-01

    Based on the general theory of nonlinear dynamical systems, a possible mechanism for responding to some dynamical features extracted from input signals in brain activities is described and discussed. This mechanism is first converted to a nonlinear dynamical configuration--a generalized synchronization of complex dynamical systems. Then, some general conditions for achieving such synchronizations are derived. It is shown that dynamical systems have potentials of producing different responses for different features extracted from various input signals, which may be used to describe brain activities. For illustration, some numerical examples are given with simulation figures

  4. B-cell receptor signaling as a driver of lymphoma development and evolution.

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    Niemann, Carsten U; Wiestner, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    The B-cell receptor (BCR) is essential for normal B-cell development and maturation. In an increasing number of B-cell malignancies, BCR signaling is implicated as a pivotal pathway in tumorigenesis. Mechanisms of BCR activation are quite diverse and range from chronic antigenic drive by microbial or viral antigens to autostimulation of B-cells by self-antigens to activating mutations in intracellular components of the BCR pathway. Hepatitis C virus infection can lead to the development of splenic marginal zone lymphoma, while Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. In some of these cases, successful treatment of the infection removes the inciting antigen and results in resolution of the lymphoma. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia has been recognized for decades as a malignancy of auto-reactive B-cells and its clinical course is in part determined by the differential response of the malignant cells to BCR activation. In a number of B-cell malignancies, activating mutations in signal transduction components of the BCR pathway have been identified; prominent examples are activated B-cell-like (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) that carry mutations in CD79B and CARD11 and display chronic active BCR signaling resulting in constitutive activation of the NF-κB pathway. Despite considerable heterogeneity in biology and clinical course, many mature B-cell malignancies are highly sensitive to kinase inhibitors that disrupt BCR signaling. Thus, targeted therapy through inhibition of BCR signaling is emerging as a new treatment paradigm for many B-cell malignancies. Here, we review the role of the BCR in the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies and summarize clinical results of the emerging class of kinase inhibitors that target this pathway. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Elevated toll-like receptor 4 expression and signaling in muscle from insulin-resistant subjects.

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    Reyna, Sara M; Ghosh, Sangeeta; Tantiwong, Puntip; Meka, C S Reddy; Eagan, Phyllis; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Defronzo, Ralph A; Coletta, Dawn K; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Musi, Nicolas

    2008-10-01

    OBJECTIVE- Tall-like receptor (TLR)4 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of free fatty acid (FFA)-induced insulin resistance by activating inflammatory pathways, including inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB)/nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB). However, it is not known whether insulin-resistant subjects have abnormal TLR4 signaling. We examined whether insulin-resistant subjects have abnormal TLR4 expression and TLR4-driven (IkappaB/NFkappaB) signaling in skeletal muscle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- TLR4 gene expression and protein content were measured in muscle biopsies in 7 lean, 8 obese, and 14 type 2 diabetic subjects. A primary human myotube culture system was used to examine whether FFAs stimulate IkappaB/NFkappaB via TLR4 and whether FFAs increase TLR4 expression/content in muscle. RESULTS- Obese and type 2 diabetic subjects had significantly elevated TLR4 gene expression and protein content in muscle. TLR4 muscle protein content correlated with the severity of insulin resistance. Obese and type 2 diabetic subjects also had lower IkappaBalpha content, an indication of elevated IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling. The increase in TLR4 and NFkappaB signaling was accompanied by elevated expression of the NFkappaB-regulated genes interleukin (IL)-6 and superoxide dismutase (SOD)2. In primary human myotubes, acute palmitate treatment stimulated IkappaB/NFkappaB, and blockade of TLR4 prevented the ability of palmitate to stimulate the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. Increased TLR4 content and gene expression observed in muscle from insulin-resistant subjects were reproduced by treating myotubes from lean, normal-glucose-tolerant subjects with palmitate. Palmitate also increased IL-6 and SOD2 gene expression, and this effect was prevented by inhibiting NFkappaB. CONCLUSIONS- Abnormal TLR4 expression and signaling, possibly caused by elevated plasma FFA levels, may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in humans.

  6. Nudging oligodendrocyte intrinsic signaling to remyelinate and repair: Estrogen receptor ligand effects.

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    Khalaj, Anna J; Hasselmann, Jonathan; Augello, Catherine; Moore, Spencer; Tiwari-Woodruff, Seema K

    2016-06-01

    Demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) leads to significant, progressive axonal and neuronal degeneration. Currently existing immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies alleviate MS symptoms and slow, but fail to prevent or reverse, disease progression. Restoration of damaged myelin sheath by replenishment of mature oligodendrocytes (OLs) should not only restore saltatory axon conduction, but also provide a major boost to axon survival. Our previous work has shown that therapeutic treatment with the modestly selective generic estrogen receptor (ER) β agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) confers functional neuroprotection in a chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS by stimulating endogenous remyelination. Recently, we found that the more potent, selective ERβ agonist indazole-chloride (Ind-Cl) improves clinical disease and motor performance. Importantly, electrophysiological measures revealed improved corpus callosal conduction and reduced axon refractoriness. This Ind-Cl treatment-induced functional remyelination was attributable to increased OL progenitor cell (OPC) and mature OL numbers. At the intracellular signaling level, transition of early to late OPCs requires ERK1/2 signaling, and transition of immature to mature OLs requires mTOR signaling; thus, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway plays a major role in the late stages of OL differentiation and myelination. Indeed, therapeutic treatment of EAE mice with various ERβ agonists results in increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated (p) Akt and p-mTOR levels. It is notable that while DPN's neuroprotective effects occur in the presence of peripheral and central inflammation, Ind-Cl is directly neuroprotective, as demonstrated by remyelination effects in the cuprizone-induced demyelination model, as well as immunomodulatory. Elucidating the mechanisms by which ER agonists and other directly remyelinating agents modulate endogenous OPC and OL regulatory

  7. Regulation of protease-activated receptor 1 signaling by the adaptor protein complex 2 and R4 subfamily of regulator of G protein signaling proteins.

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    Chen, Buxin; Siderovski, David P; Neubig, Richard R; Lawson, Mark A; Trejo, Joann

    2014-01-17

    The G protein-coupled protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is irreversibly proteolytically activated by thrombin. Hence, the precise regulation of PAR1 signaling is important for proper cellular responses. In addition to desensitization, internalization and lysosomal sorting of activated PAR1 are critical for the termination of signaling. Unlike most G protein-coupled receptors, PAR1 internalization is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) and epsin-1, rather than β-arrestins. However, the function of AP-2 and epsin-1 in the regulation of PAR1 signaling is not known. Here, we report that AP-2, and not epsin-1, regulates activated PAR1-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis via two different mechanisms that involve, in part, a subset of R4 subfamily of "regulator of G protein signaling" (RGS) proteins. A significantly greater increase in activated PAR1 signaling was observed in cells depleted of AP-2 using siRNA or in cells expressing a PAR1 (420)AKKAA(424) mutant with defective AP-2 binding. This effect was attributed to AP-2 modulation of PAR1 surface expression and efficiency of G protein coupling. We further found that ectopic expression of R4 subfamily members RGS2, RGS3, RGS4, and RGS5 reduced activated PAR1 wild-type signaling, whereas signaling by the PAR1 AKKAA mutant was minimally affected. Intriguingly, siRNA-mediated depletion analysis revealed a function for RGS5 in the regulation of signaling by the PAR1 wild type but not the AKKAA mutant. Moreover, activation of the PAR1 wild type, and not the AKKAA mutant, induced Gαq association with RGS3 via an AP-2-dependent mechanism. Thus, AP-2 regulates activated PAR1 signaling by altering receptor surface expression and through recruitment of RGS proteins.

  8. Estrogen receptor beta signaling inhibits PDGF induced human airway smooth muscle proliferation.

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    Ambhore, Nilesh Sudhakar; Katragadda, Rathnavali; Raju Kalidhindi, Rama Satyanarayana; Thompson, Michael A; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S; Sathish, Venkatachalem

    2018-04-20

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell hyperplasia driven by persistent inflammation is a hallmark feature of remodeling in asthma. Sex steroid signaling in the lungs is of considerable interest, given epidemiological data showing more asthma in pre-menopausal women and aging men. Our previous studies demonstrated that estrogen receptor (ER) expression increases in asthmatic human ASM; however, very limited data are available regarding differential roles of ERα vs. ERβ isoforms in human ASM cell proliferation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of selective ERα and ERβ modulators on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated ASM proliferation and the mechanisms involved. Asthmatic and non-asthmatic primary human ASM cells were treated with PDGF, 17β-estradiol, ERα-agonist and/or ERβ-agonist and/or G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30/GPER) agonist and proliferation was measured using MTT and CyQuant assays followed by cell cycle analysis. Transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) ERα and ERβ significantly altered the human ASM proliferation. The specificity of siRNA transfection was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Gene and protein expression of cell cycle-related antigens (PCNA and Ki67) and C/EBP were measured by RT-PCR and Western analysis, along with cell signaling proteins. PDGF significantly increased ASM proliferation in non-asthmatic and asthmatic cells. Treatment with PPT showed no significant effect on PDGF-induced proliferation, whereas WAY interestingly suppressed proliferation via inhibition of ERK1/2, Akt, and p38 signaling. PDGF-induced gene expression of PCNA, Ki67 and C/EBP in human ASM was significantly lower in cells pre-treated with WAY. Furthermore, WAY also inhibited PDGF-activated PCNA, C/EBP, cyclin-D1, and cyclin-E. Overall, we demonstrate ER isoform-specific signaling in the context of ASM proliferation. Activation of ERβ can diminish remodeling in human ASM by inhibiting pro-proliferative signaling pathways

  9. Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid receptor signaling Mecanismos moleculares de señalización del receptor de glucocorticoides

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    Marta Labeur

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the most recent findings on the molecular mechanisms of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. Most effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by the intracellular GR which is present in almost every tissue and controls transcriptional activation via direct and indirect mechanisms. Nevertheless the glucocorticoid responses are tissue -and gene- specific. GR associates selectively with corticosteroid ligands produced in the adrenal gland in response to changes of humoral homeostasis. Ligand interaction with GR promotes either GR binding to genomic glucocorticoid response elements, in turn modulating gene transcription, or interaction of GR monomers with other transcription factors activated by other signalling pathways leading to transrepression. The GR regulates a broad spectrum of physiological functions, including cell differentiation, metabolism and inflammatory responses. Thus, disruption or dysregulation of GR function will result in severe impairments in the maintenance of homeostasis and the control of adaptation to stress.Esta revisión destaca los más recientes hallazgos sobre los mecanismos moleculares del receptor de glucocorticoides (GR. La mayoría de los efectos de los glucocorticoides son mediados por los GR intracelulares presentes en casi todos los tejidos y controlan la activación transcripcional por mecanismos directos e indirectos. Las respuestas a los glucocorticoides son específicas para cada gen y tejido. Los GR se asocian en forma selectiva con ligandos producidos en la glándula adrenal, corticosteroides, en respuesta a cambios neuroendocrinos. La interacción del ligando con el GR promueve: a la unión del GR a elementos genómicos de respuesta a glucocorticoides, modulando la transcripción; b la interacción de monómeros del GR con otros factores de transcripción activados por otras vías, llevando a la transrepresión. El GR regula un amplio espectro de funciones fisiológicas, incluyendo la

  10. Functional analysis and molecular dynamics simulation of LOX-1 K167N polymorphism reveal alteration of receptor activity.

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    Silvia Biocca

    Full Text Available The human lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 LOX-1, encoded by the ORL1 gene, is the major scavenger receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein in endothelial cells. Here we report on the functional effects of a coding SNP, c.501G>C, which produces a single amino acid change (K>N at codon 167. Our study was aimed at elucidating whether the c.501G>C polymorphism changes the binding affinity of LOX-1 receptor altering its function. The presence of p.K167N mutation reduces ox-LDL binding and uptake. Ox-LDL activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2 is inhibited. Furthermore, ox-LDL induced biosynthesis of LOX-1 receptors</