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Sample records for receptor mark quiescent

  1. Calcitonin Receptor Signaling Inhibits Muscle Stem Cells from Escaping the Quiescent State and the Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Yamaguchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcitonin receptor (Calcr is expressed in adult muscle stem cells (muscle satellite cells [MuSCs]. To elucidate the role of Calcr, we conditionally depleted Calcr from adult MuSCs and found that impaired regeneration after muscle injury correlated with the decreased number of MuSCs in Calcr-conditional knockout (cKO mice. Calcr signaling maintained MuSC dormancy via the cAMP-PKA pathway but had no impact on myogenic differentiation of MuSCs in an undifferentiated state. The abnormal quiescent state in Calcr-cKO mice resulted in a reduction of the MuSC pool by apoptosis. Furthermore, MuSCs were found outside their niche in Calcr-cKO mice, demonstrating cell relocation. This emergence from the sublaminar niche was prevented by the Calcr-cAMP-PKA and Calcr-cAMP-Epac pathways downstream of Calcr. Altogether, the findings demonstrated that Calcr exerts its effect specifically by keeping MuSCs in a quiescent state and in their location, maintaining the MuSC pool.

  2. Tissue Factor-Expressing Tumor-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Activate Quiescent Endothelial Cells via Protease-Activated Receptor-1

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    Sara P. Y. Che

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF-expressing tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs can promote metastasis and pre-metastatic niche formation, but the mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that generation of activated factor X (FXa by TF expressed on tumor-derived EV could activate protease-activated receptors (PARs on non-activated endothelial cells to induce a pro-adhesive and pro-inflammatory phenotype. We obtained EV from TF-expressing breast (MDA-MB-231 and pancreatic (BxPC3 and Capan-1 tumor cell lines. We measured expression of E-selectin and secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells after exposure to EV and various immunologic and chemical inhibitors of TF, FXa, PAR-1, and PAR-2. After 6 h of exposure to tumor-derived EV (pretreated with factor VIIa and FX in vitro, endothelial cells upregulated E-selectin expression and secreted IL-8. These changes were decreased with an anti-TF antibody, FXa inhibitors (FPRCK and EGRCK, and PAR-1 antagonist (E5555, demonstrating that FXa generated by TF-expressing tumor-derived EV was signaling through endothelial PAR-1. Due to weak constitutive PAR-2 expression, these endothelial responses were not induced by a PAR-2 agonist peptide (SLIGKV and were not inhibited by a PAR-2 antagonist (FSLLRY after exposure to tumor-derived EV. In conclusion, we found that TF-expressing cancer-derived EVs activate quiescent endothelial cells, upregulating E-selectin and inducing IL-8 secretion through generation of FXa and cleavage of PAR-1. Conversion of resting endothelial cells to an activated phenotype by TF-expressing cancer-derived EV could promote cancer metastases.

  3. Opposing Effects of α2- and β-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation on Quiescent Neural Precursor Cell Activity and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosper, Boris W.; Marathe, Swanand; Husain, Basma F. A.; Kernie, Steven G.; Bartlett, Perry F.; Vaidya, Vidita A.

    2014-01-01

    Norepinephrine regulates latent neural stem cell activity and adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and has an important role in modulating hippocampal functions such as learning, memory and mood. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a multi-stage process, spanning from the activation and proliferation of hippocampal stem cells, to their differentiation into neurons. However, the stage-specific effects of noradrenergic receptors in regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we used transgenic Nestin-GFP mice and neurosphere assays to show that modulation of α2- and β-adrenergic receptor activity directly affects Nestin-GFP/GFAP-positive precursor cell population albeit in an opposing fashion. While selective stimulation of α2-adrenergic receptors decreases precursor cell activation, proliferation and immature neuron number, stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors activates the quiescent precursor pool and enhances their proliferation in the adult hippocampus. Furthermore, our data indicate no major role for α1-adrenergic receptors, as we did not observe any change in either the activation and proliferation of hippocampal precursors following selective stimulation or blockade of α1-adrenergic receptors. Taken together, our data suggest that under physiological as well as under conditions that lead to enhanced norepinephrine release, the balance between α2- and β-adrenergic receptor activity regulates precursor cell activity and hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:24922313

  4. Rapid desensitization and resensitization of 5-HT2 receptor mediated phosphatidyl inositol hydrolysis by serotonin agonists in quiescent calf aortic smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, P.J.; Van Gompel, P.; Leysen, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Agonist regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine 2 (5-HT 2 ) receptors was studied in calf aortic smooth muscle cultures incubated in a quiescent, defined synthetic medium that does not stimulate cell proliferation, but that provides cells with supplements that maintain cell viability. In these cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced [ 3 H]inositol phosphates accumulation showed the characteristics of a 5-HT 2 receptor coupled transducing system according to the inhibition of the response by 5-HT 2 antagonists at nanomolar concentrations. The 5-HT 2 receptor coupled response became rapidly desensitized during continued incubation with 5-HT and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOM); nearly full desensitization was obtained in two hours with 10 μM 5-HT and DOM pretreatment. The recovery of the response had a half-live of 5 hours after 2 hours pretreatment and of 9.5 to 12.5 hours after 24 to 96 hours agonist pretreatment. The DOM-induced desensitization of the 5-HT 2 receptor coupled response was fully blocked by 0.1 μM cinanserin. Cinanserin alone did not induce desensitization or up-regulation of the 5-HT 2 receptor coupled response at 0.1 μM

  5. Blocking oxytocin receptors inhibits vaginal marking to male odors in female Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A; Albers, H Elliott; Petrulis, Aras

    2010-12-02

    In Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), precopulatory behaviors such as vaginal scent marking are essential for attracting a suitable mate. Vaginal marking is dependent on forebrain areas implicated in the neural regulation of reproductive behaviors in rodents, including the medial preoptic/anterior hypothalamus (MPOA-AH). Within MPOA-AH, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts to facilitate copulation (lordosis), as well as ultrasonic vocalizations towards males. It is not known, however, if OT in this area also facilitates vaginal marking. In the present study, a specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) was injected into MPOA-AH of intact female Syrian hamsters to determine if oxytocin receptor-dependent signaling is critical for the normal expression of vaginal marking elicited by male, female, and clean odors. OTA injections significantly inhibited vaginal marking in response to male odors compared with vehicle injections. There was no effect of OTA on marking in response to either female or clean odors. When injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a nearby region to MPOA-AH, OTA was equally effective in decreasing marking. Finally, the effects of OTA appear to be specific to vaginal marking, as OTA injections in MPOA-AH or BNST did not alter general locomotor activity, flank marking, or social odor investigation. Considered together, these results suggest that OT in MPOA-AH and/or BNST normally facilitates male odor-induced vaginal marking, providing further evidence that OT generally supports prosocial interactions among conspecifics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism.

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    Laura P Bernard

    Full Text Available The Par1 kinases, also known as microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARKs, are important for the establishment of cell polarity from worms to mammals. Dysregulation of these kinases has been implicated in autism, Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Despite their important function in health and disease, it has been unclear how the activity of MARK/Par1 is regulated by signals from cell surface receptors. Here we show that MARK/Par1 is activated downstream of NMDA receptors in primary hippocampal neurons. Further, we show that this activation is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA, through the phosphorylation of Ser431 of Par4/LKB1, the major upstream kinase of MARK/Par1. Together, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which MARK/Par1 is activated at the neuronal synapse.

  7. VEGF receptor blockade markedly reduces retinal microglia/macrophage infiltration into laser-induced CNV.

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    Hu Huang

    Full Text Available Although blocking VEGF has a positive effect in wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the effect of blocking its receptors remains unclear. This was an investigation of the effect of VEGF receptor (VEGFR 1 and/or 2 blockade on retinal microglia/macrophage infiltration in laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV, a model of wet AMD. CNV lesions were isolated by laser capture microdissection at 3, 7, and 14 days after laser and analyzed by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining for mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Neutralizing antibodies for VEGFR1 or R2 and the microglia inhibitor minocycline were injected intraperitoneally (IP. Anti-CD11b, CD45 and Iba1 antibodies were used to confirm the cell identity of retinal microglia/macrophage, in the RPE/choroidal flat mounts or retinal cross sections. CD11b(+, CD45(+ or Iba1(+ cells were counted. mRNA of VEGFR1 and its three ligands, PlGF, VEGF-A (VEGF and VEGF-B, were expressed at all stages, but VEGFR2 were detected only in the late stage. PlGF and VEGF proteins were expressed at 3 and 7 days after laser. Anti-VEGFR1 (MF1 delivered IP 3 days after laser inhibited infiltration of leukocyte populations, largely retinal microglia/macrophage to CNV, while anti-VEGFR2 (DC101 had no effect. At 14 days after laser, both MF1 and DC101 antibodies markedly inhibited retinal microglia/macrophage infiltration into CNV. Therefore, VEGFR1 and R2 play differential roles in the pathogenesis of CNV: VEGFR1 plays a dominant role at 3 days after laser; but both receptors play pivotal roles at 14 days after laser. In vivo imaging demonstrated accumulation of GFP-expressing microglia into CNV in both CX3CR1(gfp/gfp and CX3CR1(gfp/+ mice. Minocycline treatment caused a significant increase in lectin(+ cells in the sub-retinal space anterior to CNV and a decrease in dextran-perfused neovessels compared to controls. Targeting the chemoattractant molecules that regulate trafficking of retinal microglia

  8. The Nuclear Receptor, Nor-1, Markedly Increases Type II Oxidative Muscle Fibers and Resistance to Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Pearen, Michael A.; Eriksson, Natalie A.; Fitzsimmons, Rebecca L.; Goode, Joel M.; Martel, Nick; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Muscat, George E. O.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NR) have been implicated as regulators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The orphan NR4A subgroup has emerged as regulators of metabolic function. Targeted silencing of neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (Nor-1)/NR4A3 in skeletal muscle cells suggested that this NR was necessary for oxidative metabolism in vitro. To investigate the in vivo role of Nor-1, we have developed a mouse model with preferential expression of activated Nor-1 in skeletal muscle. In skeletal...

  9. The Cell Surface Estrogen Receptor, G Protein- Coupled Receptor 30 (GPR30, is Markedly Down Regulated During Breast Tumorigenesis

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    Indira Poola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: GPR30 is a cell surface estrogen receptor that has been shown to mediate a number of non-genomic rapid effects of estrogen and appear to balance the signaling of estrogen and growth factors. In addition, progestins appear to use GPR30 for their actions. Therefore, GPR30 could play a critical role in hormonal regulation of breast epithelial cell integrity. Deregulation of the events mediated by GPR30 could contribute to tumorigenesis.Methods: To understand the role of GPR30 in the deregulation of estrogen signaling processes during breast carcinogenesis, we have undertaken this study to investigate its expression at mRNA levels in tumor tissues and their matched normal tissues. We compared its expression at mRNA levels by RT quantitative real-time PCR relative to GAPDH in ERα”—positive (n = 54 and ERα”—negative (n = 45 breast cancer tissues to their matched normal tissues.Results: We report here, for the first time, that GPR30 mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated in cancer tissues in comparison with their matched normal tissues (p 0.0001 by two sided paired t-test. The GPR30 expression levels were significantly lower in tumor tissues from patients (n = 29 who had lymph node metastasis in comparison with tumors from patients (n = 53 who were negative for lymph node metastasis (two sample t-test, p 0.02, but no association was found with ERα, PR and other tumor characteristics.Conclusions: Down-regulation of GPR30 could contribute to breast tumorigenesis and lymph node metastasis.

  10. Loss of receptor on tuberculin-reactive T-cells marks active pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Mathias Streitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculin-specific T-cell responses have low diagnostic specificity in BCG vaccinated populations. While subunit-antigen (e.g. ESAT-6, CFP-10 based tests are useful for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection, there is no reliable immunological test for active pulmonary tuberculosis. Notably, all existing immunological tuberculosis-tests are based on T-cell response size, whereas the diagnostic potential of T-cell response quality has never been explored. This includes surface marker expression and functionality of mycobacterial antigen specific T-cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flow-cytometry was used to examine over-night antigen-stimulated T-cells from tuberculosis patients and controls. Tuberculin and/or the relatively M. tuberculosis specific ESAT-6 protein were used as stimulants. A set of classic surface markers of T-cell naïve/memory differentiation was selected and IFN-gamma production was used to identify T-cells recognizing these antigens. The percentage of tuberculin-specific T-helper-cells lacking the surface receptor CD27, a state associated with advanced differentiation, varied considerably between individuals (from less than 5% to more than 95%. Healthy BCG vaccinated individuals had significantly fewer CD27-negative tuberculin-reactive CD4 T-cells than patients with smear and/or culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis, discriminating these groups with high sensitivity and specificity, whereas individuals with latent tuberculosis infection exhibited levels in between. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Smear and/or culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis can be diagnosed by a rapid and reliable immunological test based on the distribution of CD27 expression on peripheral blood tuberculin specific T-cells. This test works very well even in a BCG vaccinated population. It is simple and will be of great utility in situations where sputum specimens are difficult to obtain or sputum-smear is negative. It will also help

  11. Quiescent plasma machine for plasma investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A large volume quiescent plasma device is being developed at INPE to study Langmuir waves and turbulence generated by electron beams (E b ≤ 500 e V) interacting with plasma. This new quiescent plasma machine was designed to allow the performance of several experiments specially those related with laboratory space plasma simulation experiments. Current-driven instabilities and related phenomena such as double-layers along magnetic field lines are some of the many experiments planned for this machine. (author)

  12. Decorin expression in quiescent myogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Takanori; Nozu, Kenjiro; Kishioka, Yasuhiro; Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Hattori, Akihito

    2008-01-01

    Satellite cells are quiescent muscle stem cells that promote postnatal muscle growth and repair. When satellite cells are activated by myotrauma, they proliferate, migrate, differentiate, and ultimately fuse to existing myofibers. The remainder of these cells do not differentiate, but instead return to quiescence and remain in a quiescent state until activation begins the process again. This ability to maintain their own population is important for skeletal muscle to maintain the capability to repair during postnatal life. However, the mechanisms by which satellite cells return to quiescence and maintain the quiescent state are still unclear. Here, we demonstrated that decorin mRNA expression was high in cell cultures containing a higher ratio of quiescent satellite cells when satellite cells were stimulated with various concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor. This result suggests that quiescent satellite cells express decorin at a high level compared to activated satellite cells. Furthermore, we examined the expression of decorin in reserve cells, which were undifferentiated myoblasts remaining after induction of differentiation by serum-deprivation. Decorin mRNA levels in reserve cells were higher than those in differentiated myotubes and growing myoblasts. These results suggest that decorin participates in the quiescence of myogenic cells

  13. Hydrolysis of cytectrene marked by the technetium 99m by acetylcholinesterase in the rat brain and confirmation of fixing the cytectrene on brain receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejri, N.; Barhoumi, M.C.; Mekni, A.; Coulais, Y.; Amri, M.; Masmoudi, O.; Saidi, M

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative neurological disorder that causes progressive and irreversible loss of mental functions. It is the most common form of dementia and is characterized by a decrease in serotonergic neurons that carry the 5HT1A receptors. We showed that the use of cytectrene for the quantitative measurement of the activity of the Acetylcholinesterase in the brain depends on the rate of hydrolysis and the enzymatic specificity. The results showed that the cytectrene can be used as a substrate for a precise and quantitative determination of the activity of this enzyme. We have made hippocampal and cortical neuron cultures in the brain from young rats. After the differentiation of these neurons, some cell cultures are incubated with 8 OH DPAT, a receptor 5HT1A agonist of the serotonin, which are located on the surface of neurons. The neurons are then incubated with a molecule marked with radioactive technetium 99m Tc. These neurons are crushed and radioactivity is read. The results show that for growing neurons in the hippocampus, we have levels of radioactivity cells treated with agonist, below the level of radioactivity of cells treated with the radioactive molecules. The cortical neurons show the same level of radioactivity in the cells treated with agonist for cells treated only with the molecule marked. Our results show a decrease of fixing the molecule marked on 5HT1A receptor neurons in the hippocampus compared to neurons in the cortex. This work will enable us to prove the decrease of neurons in neuronal diseases and to make the diagnosis of these diseases. (author)

  14. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor marks and regulates a fetal myeloid-primed B-cell progenitor in mice.

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    Zriwil, Alya; Böiers, Charlotta; Wittmann, Lilian; Green, Joanna C A; Woll, Petter S; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W; Sitnicka, Ewa

    2016-07-14

    Although it is well established that unique B-cell lineages develop through distinct regulatory mechanisms during embryonic development, much less is understood about the differences between embryonic and adult B-cell progenitor cells, likely to underpin the genetics and biology of infant and childhood PreB acute lymphoblastic leukemia (PreB-ALL), initiated by distinct leukemia-initiating translocations during embryonic development. Herein, we establish that a distinct subset of the earliest CD19(+) B-cell progenitors emerging in the E13.5 mouse fetal liver express the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R), previously thought to be expressed, and play a lineage-restricted role in development of myeloid lineages, and macrophages in particular. These early embryonic CSF1R(+)CD19(+) ProB cells also express multiple other myeloid genes and, in line with this, possess residual myeloid as well as B-cell, but not T-cell lineage potential. Notably, these CSF1R(+) myeloid-primed ProB cells are uniquely present in a narrow window of embryonic fetal liver hematopoiesis and do not persist in adult bone marrow. Moreover, analysis of CSF1R-deficient mice establishes a distinct role of CSF1R in fetal B-lymphopoiesis. CSF1R(+) myeloid-primed embryonic ProB cells are relevant for infant and childhood PreB-ALLs, which frequently have a bi-phenotypic B-myeloid phenotype, and in which CSF1R-rearrangements have recently been reported. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Production of a large, quiescent, magnetized plasma

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    Landt, D. L.; Ajmera, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental device is described which produces a large homogeneous quiescent magnetized plasma. In this device, the plasma is created in an evacuated brass cylinder by ionizing collisions between electrons emitted from a large-diameter electron gun and argon atoms in the chamber. Typical experimentally measured values of the electron temperature and density are presented which were obtained with a glass-insulated planar Langmuir probe. It is noted that the present device facilitates the study of phenomena such as waves and diffusion in magnetized plasmas.

  16. Measles virus envelope pseudotyped lentiviral vectors transduce quiescent human HSCs at an efficiency without precedent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Camille; Amirache, Fouzia; Girard-Gagnepain, Anais; Frecha, Cecilia; Roman-Rodríguez, Francisco J; Bernadin, Ornellie; Costa, Caroline; Nègre, Didier; Gutierrez-Guerrero, Alejandra; Vranckx, Lenard S; Clerc, Isabelle; Taylor, Naomi; Thielecke, Lars; Cornils, Kerstin; Bueren, Juan A; Rio, Paula; Gijsbers, Rik; Cosset, François-Loïc; Verhoeyen, Els

    2017-10-24

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-based gene therapy trials are now moving toward the use of lentiviral vectors (LVs) with success. However, one challenge in the field remains: efficient transduction of HSCs without compromising their stem cell potential. Here we showed that measles virus glycoprotein-displaying LVs (hemagglutinin and fusion protein LVs [H/F-LVs]) were capable of transducing 100% of early-acting cytokine-stimulated human CD34 + (hCD34 + ) progenitor cells upon a single application. Strikingly, these H/F-LVs also allowed transduction of up to 70% of nonstimulated quiescent hCD34 + cells, whereas conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G)-LVs reached 5% at the most with H/F-LV entry occurring exclusively through the CD46 complement receptor. Importantly, reconstitution of NOD/SCIDγc -/- (NSG) mice with H/F-LV transduced prestimulated or resting hCD34 + cells confirmed these high transduction levels in all myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Remarkably, for resting CD34 + cells, secondary recipients exhibited increasing transduction levels of up to 100%, emphasizing that H/F-LVs efficiently gene-marked HSCs in the resting state. Because H/F-LVs promoted ex vivo gene modification of minimally manipulated CD34 + progenitors that maintained stemness, we assessed their applicability in Fanconi anemia, a bone marrow (BM) failure with chromosomal fragility. Notably, only H/F-LVs efficiently gene-corrected minimally stimulated hCD34 + cells in unfractionated BM from these patients. These H/F-LVs improved HSC gene delivery in the absence of cytokine stimulation while maintaining their stem cell potential. Thus, H/F-LVs will facilitate future clinical applications requiring HSC gene modification, including BM failure syndromes, for which treatment has been very challenging up to now.

  17. Starburst to Quiescent from HST/ALMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Guijarro, C.; Toft, S.; Karim, A.

    2018-01-01

    Dust-enshrouded, starbursting, submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at z ≥ 3 have been proposed as progenitors of z ≥ 2 compact quiescent galaxies (cQGs). To test this connection, we present a detailed spatially resolved study of the stars, dust, and stellar mass in a sample of six submillimeter...... (β) maps with the FIR dust continuum to study the infrared excess (IRX = L IR/L UV)–β relation. The SMGs display systematically higher IRX values than expected from the nominal trend, demonstrating that the FIR and UV emissions are spatially disconnected. Finally, we show that the SMGs fall...... on the mass–size plane at smaller stellar masses and sizes than the cQGs at z = 2. Taking into account the expected evolution in stellar mass and size between z = 4.5 and z = 2 due to the ongoing starburst and mergers with minor companions, this is in agreement with a direct evolutionary connection between...

  18. EUV observations of quiescent prominences from Skylab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, O.K.

    1979-01-01

    The authors report measurements of line intensities and line widths for three quiescent prominences observed with the Naval Research Laboratory slit spectrograph on ATM/Skylab. The wavelengths of the observed lines cover the range 1175 A to 1960 A. The measured intensities have been calibrated to within approximately a factor 2 and are average intensities over a 2 arc sec by 60 arc set slit. Nonthermal velocities are derived from the measured line widths. The nonthermal velocity is found to increase with temperature in the prominence transition zone. Electron densities and pressures are derived from density sensitive line ratios. Electron pressures for two of the prominences are found to lie in the range 0.04-0.08 dyn cm -2 , while values for the third and most intense and active of the three prominences are in the range 0.07-0.22 dyn cm -2 . (Auth.)

  19. Coexistence of Quiescent and Active Adult Stem Cells in Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Linheng; Clevers, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Adult stem cells are crucial for physiological tissue renewal and regeneration after injury. Prevailing models assume the existence of a single quiescent population of stem cells residing in a specialized niche of a given tissue. Emerging evidence indicates that both quiescent (out of cell cycle and

  20. Stretch Marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... completely without the help of a dermatologist or plastic surgeon. These doctors may use one of many types of treatments — from actual surgery to techniques like microdermabrasion and laser treatment — to reduce the appearance of stretch marks. These techniques are ...

  1. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Fre, Silvia

    2013-10-14

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive "triple negative" human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2(SAT) transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells.

  2. Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) in Mice Results in Maintained Biliary Excretion of Bile Acids Despite a Marked Decrease of Bile Acids in Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickteig, Andrew J; Csanaky, Iván L; Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2016-06-01

    Activation of Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) protects against bile acid (BA)-induced liver injury. This study was performed to determine the effect of CAR activation on bile flow, BA profile, as well as expression of BA synthesis and transport genes. Synthetic CAR ligand 1,4-bis-[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) was administered to mice for 4 days. BAs were quantified by UPLC-MS/MS (ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). CAR activation decreases total BAs in livers of male (49%) and female mice (26%), largely attributable to decreases of the 12α-hydroxylated BA taurocholic acid (T-CA) (males (M) 65%, females (F) 45%). Bile flow in both sexes was increased by CAR activation, and the increases were BA-independent. CAR activation did not alter biliary excretion of total BAs, but overall BA composition changed. Excretion of muricholic (6-hydroxylated) BAs was increased in males (101%), and the 12α-OH proportion of biliary BAs was decreased in both males (37%) and females (28%). The decrease of T-CA in livers of males and females correlates with the decreased mRNA of the sterol 12α-hydroxylase Cyp8b1 in males (71%) and females (54%). As a response to restore BAs to physiologic concentrations in liver, mRNA of Cyp7a1 is upregulated following TCPOBOP (males 185%, females 132%). In ilea, mRNA of the negative feedback regulator Fgf15 was unaltered by CAR activation, indicating biliary BA excretion was sufficient to maintain concentrations of total BAs in the small intestine. In summary, the effects of CAR activation on BAs in male and female mice are quite similar, with a marked decrease in the major BA T-CA in the liver. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Prayer marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanmi, Abdullah A; Al Zouman, Abdulrahman Y; Al Hussaini, Husa; Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman

    2002-07-01

    Prayer marks (PMs) are asymptomatic, chronic skin changes that consist mainly of thickening, lichenification, and hyperpigmentation, and develop over a long period of time as a consequence of repeated, extended pressure on bony prominences during prayer. Three hundred and forty-nine Muslims and 24 non-Muslims were examined for the appearance of PMs at different body sites. The prospective study of 349 Muslims (both males and females) with regular praying habits showed the occurrence of PMs on specific locations, such as the forehead, knees, ankles, and dorsa of the feet, leading to dermatologic changes consisting of lichenification and hyperpigmentation. The incidence of PMs was significantly higher in males than in females. Older subjects (over 50 years of age) demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of lichenification and hyperpigmentation, suggesting that repeated pressure and friction for prolonged periods are the causative factors for the development of PMs. Histologic examination of skin biopsies from the affected sites showed compact orthokeratosis, hypergranulosis, dermal papillary fibrosis, and dermal vascularization. PMs were not associated with any risk of secondary complications, such as erythema, bullous formation, and infections. PMs are commonly occurring dermatologic changes in Muslims who pray for prolonged periods.

  4. Gene expression changes in diapause or quiescent potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, eggs after hydration or exposure to tomato root diffusate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, Juan Emilio; Hedley, Pete; Cock, Peter J A; Morris, Jenny A; Jones, John T; Blok, Vivian C

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) need to be adapted to survive in the absence of a suitable host or in hostile environmental conditions. Various forms of developmental arrest including hatching inhibition and dauer stages are used by PPN in order to survive these conditions and spread to other areas. Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) (Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis) are frequently in an anhydrobiotic state, with unhatched nematode persisting for extended periods of time inside the cyst in the absence of the host. This paper shows fundamental changes in the response of quiescent and diapaused eggs of G. pallida to hydration and following exposure to tomato root diffusate (RD) using microarray gene expression analysis encompassing a broad set of genes. For the quiescent eggs, 547 genes showed differential expression following hydration vs. hydratation and RD (H-RD) treatment whereas 708 genes showed differential regulation for the diapaused eggs following these treatments. The comparison between hydrated quiescent and diapaused eggs showed marked differences, with 2,380 genes that were differentially regulated compared with 987 genes following H-RD. Hydrated quiescent and diapaused eggs were markedly different indicating differences in adaptation for long-term survival. Transport activity is highly up-regulated following H-RD and few genes were coincident between both kinds of eggs. With the quiescent eggs, the majority of genes were related to ion transport (mainly sodium), while the diapaused eggs showed a major diversity of transporters (amino acid transport, ion transport, acetylcholine or other molecules).

  5. Gene expression changes in diapause or quiescent potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida, eggs after hydration or exposure to tomato root diffusate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Emilio Palomares-Rius

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN need to be adapted to survive in the absence of a suitable host or in hostile environmental conditions. Various forms of developmental arrest including hatching inhibition and dauer stages are used by PPN in order to survive these conditions and spread to other areas. Potato cyst nematodes (PCN (Globodera pallida and G. rostochiensis are frequently in an anhydrobiotic state, with unhatched nematode persisting for extended periods of time inside the cyst in the absence of the host. This paper shows fundamental changes in the response of quiescent and diapaused eggs of G. pallida to hydration and following exposure to tomato root diffusate (RD using microarray gene expression analysis encompassing a broad set of genes. For the quiescent eggs, 547 genes showed differential expression following hydration vs. hydratation and RD (H-RD treatment whereas 708 genes showed differential regulation for the diapaused eggs following these treatments. The comparison between hydrated quiescent and diapaused eggs showed marked differences, with 2,380 genes that were differentially regulated compared with 987 genes following H-RD. Hydrated quiescent and diapaused eggs were markedly different indicating differences in adaptation for long-term survival. Transport activity is highly up-regulated following H-RD and few genes were coincident between both kinds of eggs. With the quiescent eggs, the majority of genes were related to ion transport (mainly sodium, while the diapaused eggs showed a major diversity of transporters (amino acid transport, ion transport, acetylcholine or other molecules.

  6. Genetic background can result in a marked or minimal effect of gene knockout (GPR55 and CB2 receptor in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models of multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Sisay

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids and some phytocannabinoids bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid one (TRPV1 receptor and the orphan G protein receptor fifty-five (GPR55. Studies using C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 (Cnr2 (tm1Zim CB2 cannabinoid receptor knockout mice have demonstrated an immune-augmenting effect in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE models of multiple sclerosis. However, other EAE studies in Biozzi ABH mice often failed to show any treatment effect of either CB2 receptor agonism or antagonism on inhibition of T cell autoimmunity. The influence of genetic background on the induction of EAE in endocannabinoid system-related gene knockout mice was examined. It was found that C57BL/6.GPR55 knockout mice developed less severe disease, notably in female mice, following active induction with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide. In contrast C57BL/6.CB2 (Cnr2 (Dgen receptor knockout mice developed augmented severity of disease consistent with the genetically and pharmacologically-distinct, Cnr2 (tm1Zim mice. However, when the knockout gene was bred into the ABH mouse background and EAE induced with spinal cord autoantigens the immune-enhancing effect of CB2 receptor deletion was lost. Likewise CB1 receptor and transient receptor potential vanilloid one knockout mice on the ABH background demonstrated no alteration in immune-susceptibility, in terms of disease incidence and severity of EAE, in contrast to that reported in some C57BL/6 mouse studies. Furthermore the immune-modulating influence of GPR55 was marginal on the ABH mouse background. Whilst sedative doses of tetrahydrocannabinol could induce immunosuppression, this was associated with a CB1 receptor rather than a CB2 receptor-mediated effect. These data support the fact that non-psychoactive doses of medicinal cannabis have a marginal influence on the immune response in MS. Importantly, it adds a note of caution for the translational

  7. Detection of Quiescent Radioresistant Epithelial Progenitors in the Adult Thymus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Dumont-Lagacé

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thymic aging precedes that of other organs and is initiated by the gradual loss of thymic epithelial cells (TECs. Based on in vitro culture and transplantation assays, recent studies have reported on the presence of thymic epithelial progenitor cells (TEPCs in young adult mice. However, the physiological role and properties of TEPC populations reported to date remain unclear. Using an in vivo label-retention assay, we previously identified a population of quiescent but non-senescent TECs. The goals of this study were therefore (i to evaluate the contribution of these quiescent TECs to thymic regeneration following irradiation-induced acute thymic injury and (ii to characterize their phenotypic and molecular profiles using flow cytometry, immunohistology, and transcriptome sequencing. We report that while UEA1+ cells cycle the most in steady state, they are greatly affected by irradiation, leading to cell loss and proliferative arrest following acute thymic involution. On the opposite, the UEA1– subset of quiescent TECs is radioresistant and proliferate in situ following acute thymic involution, thereby contributing to thymic regeneration in 28- to 30-week-old mice. UEA1– quiescent TECs display an undifferentiated phenotype (co-expression of K8 and K5 cytokeratins and express high levels of genes that regulate stem cell activity in different tissues (e.g., Podxl and Ptprz1. In addition, two features suggest that UEA1– quiescent TECs occupy discrete stromal niches: (i their preferential location in clusters adjacent to the cortico-medullary junction and (ii their high expression of genes involved in cross talk with mesenchymal cells. The ability of UEA1– quiescent TECs to participate to TEC regeneration qualifies them as in vivo progenitor cells particularly relevant in the context of regeneration following acute thymic injury.

  8. Early events elicited by Bombesin and structurally related peptides in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. I. Activation of protein kinase C and inhibition of epidermal growth factor binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachary, I.; Sinnett-Smith, J.W.; Rozengurt, E.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of bombesin to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells caused a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of an M/sub r/ 80,000 cellular protein (designated 80k). The effect was both concentration and time dependent. The 80k phosphoproteins generated in response to bombesin and to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate were identical as judged by one- and two-dimensional PAGE and by peptide mapping after partial proteolysis with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. In addition, prolonged pretreatment of 3T3 cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, which leads to the disappearance of protein kinase C activity, blocked the ability of bombesin to stimulate 80k. Bombesin also caused a rapid (1 min) inhibition of 125 I-labeled epidermal growth factor ( 125 I-EGF) binding to Swiss 3T3 cells. The inhibition was both concentration and temperature dependent and resulted from a marked decrease in the affinity of the EGF receptor for its ligand. These results strongly suggest that these responses are mediated by specific high-affinity receptors that recognize the peptides of the bombesin family in Swiss 3T3 cells. While an increase in cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration does not mediate the bombesin inhibition of 125 I-EGF binding, the activation of protein kinase C in intact Swiss 3T3 cells by peptides of the bombesin family may lead to rapid inhibition of the binding of 125 I-EGF to its cellular receptor

  9. Distinct cell stress responses induced by ATP restriction in quiescent human fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Yalamanchili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Quiescence is the prevailing state of many cell types under homeostatic conditions. Yet, surprisingly little is known about how quiescent cells respond to energetic and metabolic challenges. To better understand compensatory responses of quiescent cells to metabolic stress, we established, in human primary dermal fibroblasts, an experimental ‘energy restriction’ model. Quiescence was achieved by short-term culture in serum-deprived media and ATP supply restricted using a combination of glucose transport inhibitors and mitochondrial uncouplers. In aggregate, these measures led to markedly reduced intracellular ATP levels while not compromising cell viability over the observation period of 48 h. Analysis of the transcription factor landscape induced by this treatment revealed alterations in several signal transduction nodes beyond the expected biosynthetic adaptations. These included increased abundance of NF-κB regulated transcription factors and altered transcription factor subsets regulated by Akt and p53. The observed changes in gene regulation and corresponding alterations in key signaling nodes are likely to contribute to cell survival at intracellular ATP concentrations substantially below those achieved by growth factor deprivation alone. This experimental model provides a benchmark for the investigation of cell survival pathways and related molecular targets that are associated with restricted energy supply associated with biological aging and metabolic diseases.

  10. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined

  11. Multi-Wavelength Eclipse Observations of a Quiescent Prominence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jejčič, S.; Heinzel, Petr; Zapiór, M.; Druckmüller, M.; Gunár, Stanislav; Kotrč, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 7 (2014), s. 2487-2501 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0906 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : eclipse observations * prominences * quiescent Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014

  12. Electron densities in quiescent prominences derived from eclipse observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jejčič, S.; Heinzel, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 1 (2009), s. 89-100 ISSN 0038-0938 Grant - others:EU(XE) ESA-PECS project No. 98030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : prominences quiescent * eclipse observations * visible spectrum Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.628, year: 2009

  13. Marked cortisol production by intracrine ACTH in GIP-treated cultured adrenal cells in which the GIP receptor was exogenously introduced.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Fujii

    Full Text Available The ectopic expression of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR in the human adrenal gland causes significant hypercortisolemia after ingestion of each meal and leads to Cushing's syndrome, implying that human GIPR activation is capable of robustly activating adrenal glucocorticoid secretion. In this study, we transiently transfected the human GIPR expression vector into cultured human adrenocortical carcinoma cells (H295R and treated them with GIP to examine the direct link between GIPR activation and steroidogenesis. Using quantitative RT-PCR assay, we examined gene expression of steroidogenic related proteins, and carried out immunofluorescence analysis to prove that forced GIPR overexpression directly promotes production of steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 at the single cell level. Immunofluorescence showed that the transfection efficiency of the GIPR gene in H295R cells was approximately 5%, and GIP stimulation enhanced CYP21A2 and CYP17A1 expression in GIPR-introduced H295R cells (H295R-GIPR. Interestingly, these steroidogenic enzymes were also expressed in the GIPR (- cells adjacent to the GIPR (+ cells. The mRNA levels of a cholesterol transport protein required for all steroidogenesis, StAR, and steroidogenic enzymes, HSD3β2, CYP11A1, CYP21A2, and CYP17A1 increased 1.2-2.1-fold in GIP-stimulated H295R-GIPR cells. These changes were reflected in the culture medium in which 1.5-fold increase in the cortisol concentration was confirmed. Furthermore, the levels of adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH receptor and ACTH precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC mRNA were upregulated 2- and 1.5-fold, respectively. Immunofluorescence showed that ACTH expression was detected in GIP-stimulated H295R-GIPR cells. An ACTH-receptor antagonist significantly inhibited steroidogenic gene expression and cortisol production. Immunostaining for both CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 was attenuated in cells treated with ACTH receptor antagonists

  14. Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor in bladder cancer cells treated with the DNA-damaging drug etoposide markedly increases apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Mathias; Memon, Ashfaque Ahmed; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    : The bladder cancer cell lines RT4 and T24, representing low- and high-malignancy grades respectively, were treated with VP16 (10 or 50 microM) and the level of apoptosis determined using a commercial kit. EGFR receptor activity was determined by western blotting using antibodies against phosphorylated EGFR....... The EGFR was either activated by heparin-binding (HB)-EGF (1 nM) or inhibited with the specific EGFR inhibitor gefitinib (1 or 5 microM). The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD (30 microM) was used to test the involvement of caspase activity. RESULTS: Treatment of T24 bladder cancer cells with VP16 (50 micro...... suggest that activation of the EGFR induced a cell-survival function when bladder cancer cells were treated with the DNA-damaging drug VP16, and that combined treatment with VP16 and the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib might improve the efficacy of treatment. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan...

  15. Identification of quiescent, stem-like cells in the distal female reproductive tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyi Wang

    Full Text Available In fertile women, the endometrium undergoes regular cycles of tissue build-up and regression. It is likely that uterine stem cells are involved in this remarkable turn over. The main goal of our current investigations was to identify slow-cycling (quiescent endometrial stem cells by means of a pulse-chase approach to selectively earmark, prospectively isolate, and characterize label-retaining cells (LRCs. To this aim, transgenic mice expressing histone2B-GFP (H2B-GFP in a Tet-inducible fashion were administered doxycycline (pulse which was thereafter withdrawn from the drinking water (chase. Over time, dividing cells progressively loose GFP signal whereas infrequently dividing cells retain H2B-GFP expression. We evaluated H2B-GFP retaining cells at different chase time points and identified long-term (LT; >12 weeks LRCs. The LT-LRCs are negative for estrogen receptor-α and express low levels of progesterone receptors. LRCs sorted by FACS are able to form spheroids capable of self-renewal and differentiation. Upon serum stimulation spheroid cells are induced to differentiate and form glandular structures which express markers of mature műllerian epithelial cells. Overall, the results indicate that quiescent cells located in the distal oviduct have stem-like properties and can differentiate into distinct cell lineages specific of endometrium, proximal and distal oviduct. Future lineage-tracing studies will elucidate the role played by these cells in homeostasis, tissue injury and cancer of the female reproductive tract in the mouse and eventually in man.

  16. An EPIC Tale of the Quiescent Particle Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, S.L.; Kuntz, K.D.

    2017-01-01

    Extended Source Analysis Software Use Based Empirical Investigation: (1) Builds quiescent particle background (QPB) spectra and images for observations of extended sources that fill (or mostly fill) the FOV i.e., annular background subtraction won't work. (2) Uses a combination of Filter Wheel Closed (FWC) and corner data to capture the spectral, spatial, and temporal variation of the quiescent particle background. New Work: (1) Improved understanding of the QPB (aided by adding a whole lot of data since 2008). (2) Significantly improved statistics (did I mention a LOT more data?). (3) Better characterization and identification of anomalous states. (4) Builds backgrounds for some anomalous state. (5) New efficient method for non-anomalous states.

  17. Amplification and high-level expression of heat shock protein 90 marks aggressive phenotypes of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qing; Chang, Jeffrey T; Geradts, Joseph; Neckers, Leonard M; Haystead, Timothy; Spector, Neil L; Lyerly, H Kim

    2012-04-17

    Although human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive or estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancers are treated with clinically validated anti-HER2 or anti-estrogen therapies, intrinsic and acquired resistance to these therapies appears in a substantial proportion of breast cancer patients and new therapies are needed. Identification of additional molecular factors, especially those characterized by aggressive behavior and poor prognosis, could prioritize interventional opportunities to improve the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. We compiled a collection of 4,010 breast tumor gene expression data derived from 23 datasets that have been posted on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. We performed a genome-scale survival analysis using Cox-regression survival analyses, and validated using Kaplan-Meier Estimates survival and Cox Proportional-Hazards Regression survival analyses. We conducted a genome-scale analysis of chromosome alteration using 481 breast cancer samples obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), from which combined expression and copy number data were available. We assessed the correlation between somatic copy number alterations and gene expression using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Increased expression of each of the heat shock protein (HSP) 90 isoforms, as well as HSP transcriptional factor 1 (HSF1), was correlated with poor prognosis in different subtypes of breast cancer. High-level expression of HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1, two cytoplasmic HSP90 isoforms, was driven by chromosome coding region amplifications and were independent factors that led to death from breast cancer among patients with triple-negative (TNBC) and HER2-/ER+ subtypes, respectively. Furthermore, amplification of HSF1 was correlated with higher HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1 mRNA expression among the breast cancer cells without amplifications of these two genes. A collection of HSP90AA1, HSP90AB1 and HSF

  18. Jet meandering by a foil pitching in quiescent fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Sachin Y.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2013-04-01

    The flow produced by a rigid symmetric NACA0015 airfoil purely pitching at a fixed location in quiescent fluid (the limiting case of infinite Strouhal number) is studied using visualizations and particle image velocimetry. A weak jet is generated whose inclination changes continually with time. This meandering is observed to be random and independent of the initial conditions, over a wide range of pitching parameters.

  19. Study of discharge in quiescent plasma machine of the INPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.G.; Ferreira, J.L.; Ludwig, G.O.; Maciel, H.S.

    1988-12-01

    Measurements of principal plasma parameters produced by quiescent plasma machine of the Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) for current of 500 mA and several values of pressure and discharge power are presented. A qualitative interpretation for obtained results is done and a simple model for plasma density is compared with experimental values. The conditions of cathode operation are also investigated. (M.C.K.)

  20. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor I receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells by growth factors and phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, J J; Ku, L; Delafontaine, P

    1993-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) is an important mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells. To characterize regulation of vascular IGF I receptors, we performed radioligand displacement experiments using rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMs). Serum deprivation for 48 hours caused a 40% decrease in IGF I receptor number. Exposure of quiescent RASMs to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), or angiotensin II (Ang II) caused a 1.5-2.0-fold increase in IGF I receptors per cell. After FGF exposure, there was a marked increase in the mitogenic response to IGF I. IGF I downregulated its receptors in the presence of platelet-poor plasma. Stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by exposure of quiescent RASMs to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate caused a biphasic response in IGF I binding; there was a 42% decrease in receptor number at 45 minutes and a 238% increase at 24 hours. To determine the role of PKC in growth factor-induced regulation of IGF I receptors, we downregulated PKC by exposing RASMs to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) for 48 hours. PDGF- and FGF- but not Ang II-mediated upregulation of IGF I receptors was completely inhibited in PDBu-treated cells. Thus, acute PKC activation by phorbol esters inhibits IGF I binding, whereas chronic PKC activation increases IGF I binding. PDGF and FGF but not Ang II regulate vascular IGF I receptors through a PKC-dependent pathway. These data provide new insights into the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell IGF I receptors in vitro and are of potential importance in characterizing vascular proliferative responses in vivo.

  1. Quiescent gastric stem cells maintain the adult Drosophila stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Marie; Micchelli, Craig A

    2011-10-25

    The adult Drosophila copper cell region or "stomach" is a highly acidic compartment of the midgut with pH stem cells (GSSCs) produces the acid-secreting copper cells, interstitial cells, and enteroendocrine cells of the stomach. Our assays demonstrate that GSSCs are largely quiescent but can be induced to regenerate the gastric epithelium in response to environmental challenge. Finally, genetic analysis reveals that adult GSSC maintenance depends on Wnt signaling. Characterization of the GSSC lineage in Drosophila, with striking similarities to mammals, will advance the study of both homeostatic and pathogenic processes in the stomach.

  2. ICES IN THE QUIESCENT IC 5146 DENSE CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiar, J. E.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Ennico, K.; Greene, T. P.; Roellig, T. L.; Sandford, S. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Geballe, T. R.; Mason, R. E.; Keane, J. V.; Lada, C. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Werner, M. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Decin, L.; Eriksson, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents spectra in the 2 to 20 μm range of quiescent cloud material located in the IC 5146 cloud complex. The spectra were obtained with NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX instrument and the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrometer. We use these spectra to investigate dust and ice absorption features in pristine regions of the cloud that are unaltered by embedded stars. We find that the H 2 O-ice threshold extinction is 4.03 ± 0.05 mag. Once foreground extinction is taken into account, however, the threshold drops to 3.2 mag, equivalent to that found for the Taurus dark cloud, generally assumed to be the touchstone quiescent cloud against which all other dense cloud and embedded young stellar object observations are compared. Substructure in the trough of the silicate band for two sources is attributed to CH 3 OH and NH 3 in the ices, present at the ∼2% and ∼5% levels, respectively, relative to H 2 O-ice. The correlation of the silicate feature with the E(J - K) color excess is found to follow a much shallower slope relative to lines of sight that probe diffuse clouds, supporting the previous results by Chiar et al.

  3. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS IN A QUIESCENT PROMINENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillier, A. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Morton, R. J. [Mathematics and Information Science, Northumbria University, Pandon Building, Camden Street, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Erdélyi, R., E-mail: andrew@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-20

    The launch of the Hinode satellite has allowed for seeing-free observations at high-resolution and high-cadence making it well suited to study the dynamics of quiescent prominences. In recent years it has become clear that quiescent prominences support small-amplitude transverse oscillations, however, sample sizes are usually too small for general conclusions to be drawn. We remedy this by providing a statistical study of transverse oscillations in vertical prominence threads. Over a 4 hr period of observations it was possible to measure the properties of 3436 waves, finding periods from 50 to 6000 s with typical velocity amplitudes ranging between 0.2 and 23 km s{sup –1}. The large number of observed waves allows the determination of the frequency dependence of the wave properties and derivation of the velocity power spectrum for the transverse waves. For frequencies less than 7 mHz, the frequency dependence of the velocity power is consistent with the velocity power spectra generated from observations of the horizontal motions of magnetic elements in the photosphere, suggesting that the prominence transverse waves are driven by photospheric motions. However, at higher frequencies the two distributions significantly diverge, with relatively more power found at higher frequencies in the prominence oscillations. These results highlight that waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in prominences, and that a significant amount of the wave energy is found at higher frequency.

  4. The fraction of quiescent massive galaxies in the early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, A.; Santini, P.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L.; Fiore, F.; Castellano, M.; Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Salimbeni, S.; Cristiani, S.; Nonino, M.; Vanzella, E.

    2009-07-01

    Aims: We attempt to compile a complete, mass-selected sample of galaxies with low specific star-formation rates, and compare their properties with theoretical model predictions. Methods: We use the f(24 μ m})/f(K) flux ratio and the SED fitting to the 0.35-8.0 μm spectral distribution, to select quiescent galaxies from z≃ 0.4 to z≃ 4 in the GOODS-MUSIC sample. Our observational selection can be translated into thresholds in specific star-formation rate dot{M}/M_*, which can be compared with theoretical predictions. Results: In the framework of the well-known global decline in quiescent galaxy fraction with redshift, we find that a non-negligible fraction {≃ 15-20% of massive galaxies with low specific star-formation rate exists up to z≃ 4, including a tail of “red and dead” galaxies with dot{M}/M_*<10-11 yr-1. Theoretical models vary to a large extent in their predictions for the fraction of galaxies with low specific star-formation rates, but are unable to provide a global match to our data.

  5. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS IN A QUIESCENT PROMINENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, A.; Morton, R. J.; Erdélyi, R.

    2013-01-01

    The launch of the Hinode satellite has allowed for seeing-free observations at high-resolution and high-cadence making it well suited to study the dynamics of quiescent prominences. In recent years it has become clear that quiescent prominences support small-amplitude transverse oscillations, however, sample sizes are usually too small for general conclusions to be drawn. We remedy this by providing a statistical study of transverse oscillations in vertical prominence threads. Over a 4 hr period of observations it was possible to measure the properties of 3436 waves, finding periods from 50 to 6000 s with typical velocity amplitudes ranging between 0.2 and 23 km s –1 . The large number of observed waves allows the determination of the frequency dependence of the wave properties and derivation of the velocity power spectrum for the transverse waves. For frequencies less than 7 mHz, the frequency dependence of the velocity power is consistent with the velocity power spectra generated from observations of the horizontal motions of magnetic elements in the photosphere, suggesting that the prominence transverse waves are driven by photospheric motions. However, at higher frequencies the two distributions significantly diverge, with relatively more power found at higher frequencies in the prominence oscillations. These results highlight that waves over a large frequency range are ubiquitous in prominences, and that a significant amount of the wave energy is found at higher frequency

  6. Incidencia de infecciones quiescentes de Botrytis cinerea en flores y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MolinaG. Gilma Sandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se aisló Botrytis cinerea de flores y frutos asintomáticos de mora de castilla ( Rubus glaucus Benth. en  seis estados fenológicos desde botón cerrado hasta fruto maduro. Estas infecciones quiescentes ocurrieron raramente en botones florales cerrados, pero cuando éstos abren las estructuras florales aparecen colonizadas. La alta frecuencia de infecciones quiescentes en frutos en desarrollo y frutos maduros es atribuible a infecciones tempranas en estructuras florales. Inoculaciones hechas con conidias de B. cinerea marcadas con calcofluor produjeron infecciones en todos los estados fenológicos; la germinación de conidias en los seis estados fenológicos se inició a las 10 horas después de

  7. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  8. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  9. Experimental studies on the surface confined quiescent plasma at INPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.; Ferreira, J.G.; Sandonato, G.M.; Alves, M.V.; Ludwig, G.O.; Montes, A.

    1988-06-01

    Quiescent plasma machines are being used in several experiments at the Associated Plasma Laboratory in INPE. The research activities comprises particle simulation studies on ion acoustic double Layers, and studies on the plasma production and loss in surface confined magnetic multidipole thermionic discharges. Recent results from these studies have shown a non-maxwellian plasma formed in most of the discharge conditions. The plasma leakage through the multidipole fields shows an anomalous diffusion process driven by ion acoustic turbulence in the magnetic sheath. The information derived from these studies are being used in the construction and characterization of ion sources for shallow ion implantation in semiconductors, in ion thruster for space propulsion and in the development of powerful ion sources for future use in neutral beam injection systems. (author) [pt

  10. Experimental studies on the surface confined quiescent plasma at INPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.; Ferreira, J.G.; Sandonato, G.M.; Alves, M.V.; Ludwig, G.O.; Montes, A.

    1988-01-01

    The quiescent plasma machines used in several experiments at the Associated Plasma Laboratory in INPE are presented. The research activities comprise particle simulation studies on ion acoustic double layers, and studies on the plasma production and loss in surface confined magnetic multidipole thermionic discharges. Recent results from these studies have shown a non-maxwellian plasma formed in most of the discharge conditions. The plasma leakage through the multidipole fields shows an anomalous diffusion process driven by ion acoustic turbulence in the magnetic sheath. The information derived from these studies are being used in the construction and characterization of ion sources for shallow ion implantation in semiconductors, in ion thruster for space propulsion and in the development of powerful ion sources for future use in neutral beam injection systems. (author) [pt

  11. MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN STELLAR SYSTEMS: 'QUIESCENT' ACCRETION AND LUMINOSITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volonteri, M.; Campbell, D.; Mateo, M.; Dotti, M.

    2011-01-01

    Only a small fraction of local galaxies harbor an accreting black hole, classified as an active galactic nucleus. However, many stellar systems are plausibly expected to host black holes, from globular clusters to nuclear star clusters, to massive galaxies. The mere presence of stars in the vicinity of a black hole provides a source of fuel via mass loss of evolved stars. In this paper, we assess the expected luminosities of black holes embedded in stellar systems of different sizes and properties, spanning a large range of masses. We model the distribution of stars and derive the amount of gas available to a central black hole through a geometrical model. We estimate the luminosity of the black holes under simple, but physically grounded, assumptions on the accretion flow. Finally, we discuss the detectability of 'quiescent' black holes in the local universe.

  12. On the Evolution of the Central Density of Quiescent Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacchella, Sandro; Carollo, C. Marcella; Woo, Joanna [Department of Physics, Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Cibinel, Anna [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Renzini, Alvio, E-mail: sandro.tacchella@phys.ethz.ch [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2017-07-20

    We investigate the origin of the evolution of the population-averaged central stellar mass density (Σ{sub 1}) of quiescent galaxies (QGs) by probing the relation between stellar age and Σ{sub 1} at z ∼ 0. We use the Zurich ENvironmental Study (ZENS), which is a survey of galaxy groups with a large fraction of satellite galaxies. QGs shape a narrow locus in the Σ{sub 1}– M {sub ⋆} plane, which we refer to as Σ{sub 1} ridgeline. Colors of ( B − I ) and ( I − J ) are used to divide QGs into three age categories: young (<2 Gyr), intermediate (2–4 Gyr), and old (>4 Gyr). At fixed stellar mass, old QGs on the Σ{sub 1} ridgeline have higher Σ{sub 1} than young QGs. This shows that galaxies landing on the Σ{sub 1} ridgeline at later epochs arrive with lower Σ{sub 1}, which drives the zeropoint of the ridgeline down with time. We compare the present-day zeropoint of the oldest population at z = 0 with the zeropoint of the quiescent population 4 Gyr back in time, at z = 0.37. These zeropoints are identical, showing that the intrinsic evolution of individual galaxies after they arrive on the Σ{sub 1} ridgeline must be negligible, or must evolve parallel to the ridgeline during this interval. The observed evolution of the global zeropoint of 0.07 dex over the last 4 Gyr is thus largely due to the continuous addition of newly quenched galaxies with lower Σ{sub 1} at later times (“progenitor bias”). While these results refer to the satellite-rich ZENS sample as a whole, our work suggests a similar age–Σ{sub 1} trend for central galaxies.

  13. On the Evolution of the Central Density of Quiescent Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacchella, Sandro; Carollo, C. Marcella; Woo, Joanna; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Cibinel, Anna; Dekel, Avishai; Renzini, Alvio

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the origin of the evolution of the population-averaged central stellar mass density (Σ_1) of quiescent galaxies (QGs) by probing the relation between stellar age and Σ_1 at z ∼ 0. We use the Zurich ENvironmental Study (ZENS), which is a survey of galaxy groups with a large fraction of satellite galaxies. QGs shape a narrow locus in the Σ_1– M _⋆ plane, which we refer to as Σ_1 ridgeline. Colors of ( B − I ) and ( I − J ) are used to divide QGs into three age categories: young ( 4 Gyr). At fixed stellar mass, old QGs on the Σ_1 ridgeline have higher Σ_1 than young QGs. This shows that galaxies landing on the Σ_1 ridgeline at later epochs arrive with lower Σ_1, which drives the zeropoint of the ridgeline down with time. We compare the present-day zeropoint of the oldest population at z = 0 with the zeropoint of the quiescent population 4 Gyr back in time, at z = 0.37. These zeropoints are identical, showing that the intrinsic evolution of individual galaxies after they arrive on the Σ_1 ridgeline must be negligible, or must evolve parallel to the ridgeline during this interval. The observed evolution of the global zeropoint of 0.07 dex over the last 4 Gyr is thus largely due to the continuous addition of newly quenched galaxies with lower Σ_1 at later times (“progenitor bias”). While these results refer to the satellite-rich ZENS sample as a whole, our work suggests a similar age–Σ_1 trend for central galaxies.

  14. Mark Tompkins Canaccord

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Tompkins Canaccord

    2018-01-01

    Mark Tompkins Canaccord is a senior technologist for ecosystem and water resources management in SEC SAID Oakland, California office. In his career which lasts over fifteen years Mark has worked on project involving lake restorations, clean water engineering, ecological engineering and management, hydrology, hydraulics, sediment transport and other projects for environmental planning all over the country. Mark Tompkins Canaccord tries to blend his skills of planning and engineering with s...

  15. Silent Waters Run Deep. Quiescent stem cells in homeostasis and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Roth (Sabrina)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Introduction summarizes the current literature on quiescence in adult stem cell niches and the various methods for the isolation of quiescent stem cells, outlines the complexity of the intestinal stem cell niche, and formulates the hypothesis that quiescent

  16. Lujan Mark-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michael Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavorka, Lukas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    This is a review of Mark-IV target neutronics design. It involved the major redesign of the upper tier, offering harder neutron spectra for upper-tier FPs; a redesign of the high-resolution (HR) moderator; and a preservation of the rest of Mark-III features.

  17. Mark Stock | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock Mark Stock Scientific Visualization Specialist Mark.Stock@nrel.gov | 303-275-4174 Dr. Stock , virtual reality, parallel computing, and manipulation of large spatial data sets. As an artist, he creates . Stock built the SUNLIGHT artwork that is installed on the Webb Building in downtown Denver. In addition

  18. Giant quiescent solar filament observed with high-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckein, C.; Verma, M.; Denker, C.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: An extremely large filament was studied in various layers of the solar atmosphere. The inferred physical parameters and the morphological aspects are compared with smaller quiescent filaments. Methods: A giant quiet-Sun filament was observed with the high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain, on 2011 November 15. A mosaic of spectra (ten maps of 100″ × 182″) was recorded simultaneously in the chromospheric absorption lines Hα and Na I D2. Physical parameters of the filament plasma were derived using cloud model (CM) inversions and line core fits. The spectra were complemented with full-disk filtergrams (He I λ10830 Å, Hα, and Ca II K) of the Chromospheric Telescope (ChroTel) and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Results: The filament had extremely large linear dimensions (~817 arcsec), which corresponds to about 658 Mm along a great circle on the solar surface. A total amount of 175119 Hα contrast profiles were inverted using the CM approach. The inferred mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity, Doppler width, and source function were similar to previous works of smaller quiescent filaments. However, the derived optical thickness was higher. LOS velocity trends inferred from the Hα line core fits were in accord but weaker than those obtained with CM inversions. Signatures of counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The largest brightening conglomerates in the line core of Na I D2 coincided well with small-scale magnetic fields as seen by HMI. Mixed magnetic polarities were detected close to the ends of barbs. The computation of photospheric horizontal flows based on HMI magnetograms revealed flow kernels with a size of 5-8 Mm and velocities of 0.30-0.45 km s-1 at the ends of the filament. Conclusions: The physical properties of extremely large filaments are similar to their smaller counterparts, except for the optical thickness, which in

  19. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  20. Mark Raidpere portreefotod Kielis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Kieli Linnagaleriis avatud 2. Ars Baltica fototriennaalil 'Can You Hear Me?' esindab Eestit Mark Raidpere seeriaga 'Portreed 1998'. Näituse Eesti-poolne kuraator Anu Liivak, kataloogiteksti kirjutas Anders Härm. Tuntumaid osalejaid triennaalil Wolfgang Tillmans

  1. Marks of Metal Copenhell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet.......Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet....

  2. Bubble entrapment during sphere impact onto quiescent liquid surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, Jeremy

    2011-06-20

    We report observations of air bubble entrapment when a solid sphere impacts a quiescent liquid surface. Using high-speed imaging, we show that a small amount of air is entrapped at the bottom tip of the impacting sphere. This phenomenon is examined across a broad range of impact Reynolds numbers, 0.2 a Re = (DU0/Il) a 1.2\\' 105. Initially, a thin air pocket is formed due to the lubrication pressure in the air layer between the sphere and the liquid surface. As the liquid surface deforms, the liquid contacts the sphere at a finite radius, producing a thin sheet of air which usually contracts to a nearly hemispherical bubble at the bottom tip of the sphere depending on the impact parameters and liquid properties. When a bubble is formed, the final bubble size increases slightly with the sphere diameter, decreases with impact speed but appears independent of liquid viscosity. In contrast, for the largest viscosities tested herein, the entrapped air remains in the form of a sheet, which subsequently deforms upon close approach to the base of the tank. The initial contact diameter is found to conform to scalings based on the gas Reynolds number whilst the initial thickness of the air pocket or adimplea scales with a Stokes\\' number incorporating the influence of the air viscosity, sphere diameter and impact speed and liquid density. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

  3. Microwave structure of quiescent solar filaments at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution very low altitude maps of a quiescent filament at three frequencies are presented. The spatial resolution (approx. 15'' at 1.45 GHz, approx. 6'' at 4.9 GHz, and approx. 2'' at 15 GHz) is several times better than previously attained. At each frequency, the filament appears as a depression in the quiet Sun background. The depression is measurably wider and longer in extent than the corresponding H alpha filament at 1.45 GHz and 4.9 GHz, indicating that the depression is due in large part to a deficit in coronal density associated with the filament channel. In contrast, the shape of the radio depression at 15 CHz closely matches that of the H alpha filament. In addition, the 15 GHz map shows enhanced emission along both sides of the radio depression. A similar enhancement is seen in an observation of a second filament 4 days later, which suggests that the enhancement is a general feature of filaments. Possible causes of the enhanced emission are explored

  4. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  5. Cytokinetically quiescent (G0/G1) human multiple myeloma cells are susceptible to simultaneous inhibition of Chk1 and MEK1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xin-Yan; Dai, Yun; Youssefian, Leena E; Chen, Shuang; Bodie, Wesley W; Takabatake, Yukie; Felthousen, Jessica; Almenara, Jorge A; Kramer, Lora B; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven

    2011-11-10

    Effects of Chk1 and MEK1/2 inhibition were investigated in cytokinetically quiescent multiple myeloma (MM) and primary CD138(+) cells. Coexposure to the Chk1 and MEK1/2 inhibitors AZD7762 and selumetinib (AZD6244) robustly induced apoptosis in various MM cells and CD138(+) primary samples, but spared normal CD138(-) and CD34(+) cells. Furthermore, Chk1/MEK1/2 inhibitor treatment of asynchronized cells induced G(0)/G(1) arrest and increased apoptosis in all cell-cycle phases, including G(0)/G(1). To determine whether this regimen is active against quiescent G(0)/G(1) MM cells, cells were cultured in low-serum medium to enrich the G(0)/G(1) population. G(0)/G(1)-enriched cells exhibited diminished sensitivity to conventional agents (eg, Taxol and VP-16) but significantly increased susceptibility to Chk1 ± MEK1/2 inhibitors or Chk1 shRNA knock-down. These events were associated with increased γH2A.X expression/foci formation and Bim up-regulation, whereas Bim shRNA knock-down markedly attenuated lethality. Immunofluorescent analysis of G(0)/G(1)-enriched or primary MM cells demonstrated colocalization of activated caspase-3 and the quiescent (G(0)) marker statin, a nuclear envelope protein. Finally, Chk1/MEK1/2 inhibition increased cell death in the Hoechst-positive (Hst(+)), low pyronin Y (PY)-staining (2N Hst(+)/PY(-)) G(0) population and in sorted small side-population (SSP) MM cells. These findings provide evidence that cytokinetically quiescent MM cells are highly susceptible to simultaneous Chk1 and MEK1/2 inhibition.

  6. Comparison of multiple transcriptomes exposes unified and divergent features of quiescent and activated skeletal muscle stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietrosemoli, Natalia; Mella, Sébastien; Yennek, Siham

    2017-01-01

    of identifying quiescent markers. Here, we focused on the quiescent cell state and generated new transcriptome profiles that include subfractionations of adult satellite cell populations, and an artificially induced prenatal quiescent state, to identify core signatures for quiescent and proliferating. Methods......Background: Skeletal muscle satellite (stem) cells are quiescent in adult mice and can undergo multiple rounds of proliferation and self-renewal following muscle injury. Several labs have profiled transcripts of myogenic cells during the developmental and adult myogenesis with the aim...... with true in vivo quiescence from those that are first responding genes due to disruption of the stem cell niche....

  7. Observations of current flow to a positively polarized electrode in a quiescent magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.; Urrutia, J.M.; Stenzel, R.L.

    1988-05-01

    This work reports experimental studies on the current flow to an electrode immersed in a quiescent magnetized plasma. The observed intense current driven instabilities during the current flow were found to be related with an anomalous current transport. (author)

  8. A global downregulation of microRNAs occurs in human quiescent satellite cells during myogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Merel; Werker, Paul M N; van Luyn, Marja J A; Krenning, Guido; Harmsen, Martin C

    2012-01-01

    During myogenesis, human satellite cells differentiate and form multinucleated myotubes, while a fraction of the human satellite cells enter quiescence. These quiescent satellite cells are able to activate, proliferate and contribute to muscle regeneration. Post-transcriptional regulation of

  9. STAR FORMATION SIGNATURES IN OPTICALLY QUIESCENT EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, Samir; Rich, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, an argument has been made that a high fraction of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the local universe experience low levels (∼ sun yr -1 ) of star formation (SF) that causes strong excess in UV flux, yet leaves the optical colors red. Many of these studies were based on Galaxy Evolution Explorer imaging of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies (z ∼ 0.1), and were thus limited by its 5'' FWHM. Poor UV resolution left other possibilities for UV excess open, such as the old populations or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Here, we study high-resolution far-ultraviolet HST/ACS images of optically quiescent early-type galaxies with strong UV excess. The new images show that three-quarters of these moderately massive (∼5 x 10 10 M sun ) ETGs shows clear evidence of extended SF, usually in form of wide or concentric UV rings, and in some cases, striking spiral arms. SDSS spectra probably miss these features due to small fiber size. UV-excess ETGs have on average less dust and larger UV sizes (D > 40 kpc) than other green-valley galaxies, which argues for an external origin for the gas that is driving the SF. Thus, most of these galaxies appear 'rejuvenated' (e.g., through minor gas-rich mergers or intergalactic medium accretion). For a smaller subset of the sample, the declining SF (from the original internal gas) cannot be ruled out. SF is rare in very massive early-types (M * > 10 11 M sun ), a possible consequence of AGN feedback. In addition to extended UV emission, many galaxies show a compact central source, which may be a weak, optically inconspicuous AGN.

  10. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  11. Identification markings for gemstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described of providing permanent identification markings to gemstones such as diamond crystals by irradiating the cooled gemstone with protons in the desired pattern. The proton bombardment results in a reaction limited to a defined plane and converting the bombarded area of the plane into a different crystal lattice from that of the preirradiated stone. (author)

  12. Premalignant quiescent melanocytic nevi do not express the MHC class I chain-related protein A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes B. Fuertes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA is an inducible molecule almost not expressed by normal cells but strongly up-regulated in tumor cells. MICA-expressing cells are recognized by natural killer (NK cells, CD8+ aßTCR and ?dTCR T lymphocytes through the NKG2D receptor. Engagement of NKG2D by MICA triggers IFN-? secretion and cytotoxicity against malignant cells. Although most solid tumors express MICA and this molecule is a target during immune surveillance against tumors, it has been observed that high grade tumors from different histotypes express low amounts of cell surface MICA due to a metalloprotease- induced shedding. Also, melanomas develop after a complex process of neotransformation of normal melanocytes. However, the expression of MICA in premalignant stages (primary human quiescent melanocytic nevi remains unknown. Here, we assessed expression of MICA by flow cytometry using cell suspensions from 15 primary nevi isolated from 11 patients. When collected material was abundant, cell lysates were prepared and MICA expression was also analyzed by Western blot. We observed that MICA was undetectable in the 15 primary nevi (intradermic, junction, mixed, lentigo and congenital samples as well as in normal skin, benign lesions (seborrheic keratosis, premalignant lesions (actinic keratosis and benign basocellular cancer. Conversely, a primary recently diagnosed melanoma showed intense cell surface MICA. We conclude that the onset of MICA expression is a tightly regulated process that occurs after melanocytes trespass the stage of malignant transformation. Thus, analysis of MICA expression in tissue sections of skin samples may constitute a useful marker to differentiate between benign and malignant nevi.

  13. Interview with Mark Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Shaw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Watson is a British comedian and novelist. His five novels to date – 'Bullet Points' (2004, 'A Light-Hearted Look At Murder' (2007, 'Eleven' (2010, 'The Knot' (2012 and 'Hotel Alpha' (2014 – explore human relationships and communities in contemporary society. His latest novel Hotel Alpha tells the story of an extraordinary hotel in London and two mysterious disappearances that raise questions no one seems willing to answer. External to the novel, readers can also discover more about the hotel and its inhabitants in one hundred extra stories that expand the world of the novel and can be found at http://www.hotelalphastories.com. In conversation here with Dr Katy Shaw, Mark offers some reflections on his writing process, the field of contemporary literature, and the vitality of the novel form in the twenty-first century.

  14. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): The mechanisms for quiescent galaxy formation at z < 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, K.; Wild, V.; Bourne, N.; Bremer, M.; Brough, S.; Driver, S. P.; Hopkins, A. M.; Owers, M. S.; Phillipps, S.; Pimbblet, K.; Sansom, A. E.; Wang, L.; Alpaslan, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Colless, M.; Holwerda, B. W.; Taylor, E. N.

    2018-01-01

    One key problem in astrophysics is understanding how and why galaxies switch off their star formation, building the quiescent population that we observe in the local Universe. From the Galaxy And Mass Assembly and VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph Public Extragalactic Redshift surveys, we use spectroscopic indices to select quiescent and candidate transition galaxies. We identify potentially rapidly transitioning post-starburst (PSB) galaxies and slower transitioning green-valley galaxies. Over the last 8 Gyr, the quiescent population has grown more slowly in number density at high masses ({M}_\\ast >10^{11}{M_{⊙}) than at intermediate masses ({M}_\\ast >10^{10.6}{M_{⊙}). There is evolution in both the PSB and green-valley stellar mass functions, consistent with higher mass galaxies quenching at earlier cosmic times. At intermediate masses ({M}_\\ast >10^{10.6}{M_{⊙}), we find a green-valley transition time-scale of 2.6 Gyr. Alternatively, at z ∼ 0.7, the entire growth rate could be explained by fast-quenching PSB galaxies, with a visibility time-scale of 0.5 Gyr. At lower redshift, the number density of PSBs is so low that an unphysically short visibility window would be required for them to contribute significantly to the quiescent population growth. The importance of the fast-quenching route may rapidly diminish at z 10^{11}{M_{⊙}), there is tension between the large number of candidate transition galaxies compared to the slow growth of the quiescent population. This could be resolved if not all high-mass PSB and green-valley galaxies are transitioning from star forming to quiescent, for example if they rejuvenate out of the quiescent population following the accretion of gas and triggering of star formation, or if they fail to completely quench their star formation.

  15. Relationship between heart rate and quiescent interval of the cardiac cycle in children using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Texas Children' s Hospital, E. B. Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Bogale, Saivivek [Baylor University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Golriz, Farahnaz [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnamurthy, Rajesh [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Imaging the heart in children comes with the challenge of constant cardiac motion. A prospective electrocardiography-triggered CT scan allows for scanning during a predetermined phase of the cardiac cycle with least motion. This technique requires knowing the optimal quiescent intervals of cardiac cycles in a pediatric population. To evaluate high-temporal-resolution cine MRI of the heart in children to determine the relationship of heart rate to the optimal quiescent interval within the cardiac cycle. We included a total of 225 consecutive patients ages 0-18 years who had high-temporal-resolution cine steady-state free-precession sequence performed as part of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetic resonance angiography study of the heart. We determined the location and duration of the quiescent interval in systole and diastole for heart rates ranging 40-178 beats per minute (bpm). We performed the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the duration of quiescent interval in systole and diastole for each heart rate group. The duration of the quiescent interval at heart rates <80 bpm and >90 bpm was significantly longer in diastole and systole, respectively (P<.0001 for all ranges, except for 90-99 bpm [P=.02]). For heart rates 80-89 bpm, diastolic interval was longer than systolic interval, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=.06). We created a chart depicting optimal quiescent intervals across a range of heart rates that could be applied for prospective electrocardiography-triggered CT imaging of the heart. The optimal quiescent interval at heart rates <80 bpm is in diastole and at heart rates ≥90 bpm is in systole. The period of quiescence at heart rates 80-89 bpm is uniformly short in systole and diastole. (orig.)

  16. Isotopic marking and tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1997-01-01

    The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers in biology has been developed thanks to the economic generation of the required isotopes in accelerators and nuclear reactors, and to the multiple applications of tracers in the life domain; the most usual isotopes employed in biology are carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur isotopes, because these elements are present in most of organic molecules. Most of the life science knowledge appears to be dependent to the extensive use of nuclear tools and radioactive tracers; the example of the utilization of radioactive phosphorus marked ATP to study the multiple reactions with proteins, nucleic acids, etc., is given

  17. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  18. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  19. Structural organization of the quiescent core region in a turbulent channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jongmin; Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The structural organization of the quiescent core region in a turbulent channel flow is explored. • The quiescent core region is the uniform momentum zone located at the center of the channel. • The boundary of the quiescent core region can be identified from the probability density function of the streamwise modal velocity. • The prograde and retrograde vortices form a counter-rotating vortex pair at the boundary of the core region. - Abstract: The structural organization of the quiescent core region in a turbulent channel flow was explored using direct numerical simulation data at Re_τ = 930. The quiescent core region is the uniform momentum zone located at the center of the channel, and contains the highest momentum with a low level of turbulence. The boundary of the quiescent core region can be identified from the probability density function of the streamwise modal velocity. The streamwise velocity changes abruptly near the boundary of the core region. The abrupt jump leads the increase of the velocity gradient, which is similar to the vorticity thickness of the laminar superlayer at the turbulent/non-turbulent interface. The strong shear induced from the abrupt change is originated from the vortical structure lying on the boundary of the core region. The spanwise population densities of the prograde and retrograde vortices have a local maximum near the boundary of the core region. The prograde vortex dominantly contributes to the total mean shear near the core boundary and the contribution to the total mean shear rapidly decreases within the core region. The prograde and retrograde vortices form a counter-rotating vortex pair at the boundary of the core region associated with the nibbling mechanism. The boundary of the core region contains large-scale concave and convex features. The concave (convex) core interface is organized by the negative-u (positive-u) regions which induce the ejections (sweeps) around the core boundary.

  20. SLARette Mark 2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The SLAR (Spacer Location and Repositioning) program has developed the technology and tooling necessary to locate and reposition the fuel channel spacers that separate the pressure tube from the calandria tube in a CANDU reactor. The in-channel SLAR tool contains all the inspection probes, and is capable of moving spacers under remote control. The SLAR inspection computer system translates all eddy currents and ultrasonic signals from the in-channel tool into various graphic displays. The in-channel SLAR tool can be delivered and manipulated in a fuel channel by either a SLAR delivery machine or a SLARette delivery machine. The SLAR delivery machine consists of a modified fuelling machine, and is capable of operating under totally remote control in automatic or semi-automatic mode. The SLARette delivery machine is a smaller less automated version, which was designed to be quickly installed, operated, and removed from a limited number of fuel channels during regular annual maintenance outages. This paper describes the design and operation of the SLARette Mark 2 system. 5 figs

  1. Regrowth and radiation sensitivity of quiescent cells isolated from EMT6/Ro-fed plateau monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, C.K.; Keng, P.C.; Sutherland, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    A quiescent [denoted as Q(G0/G1)] subpopulation was isolated from EMT6/Ro-fed plateau monolayers by centrifugal elutriation. The median Coulter volume of these cells was significantly smaller than that of the original population from which they were elutriated. Using two-step acridine orange staining and dual parameter flow cytometric analysis, over 95% of quiescent cells were found to have G1 DNA content, and 80% of the cells had a decreased RNA content as compared to rapidly proliferating exponential G1 cells. After labeling for 24 hr (two doubling times) with [ 3 H]thymidine, less than 2% of the quiescent cells incorporated [3H]thymidine as measured by autoradiography. The colony-forming efficiency of these cells was not significantly different from that of exponential cells. When such Q(G0/G1) cells were replated in fresh medium at a lower density, there was a lag time of 30 hr before any increase in cell number was detected, after which the cell-doubling rate matched that of exponential culture. Results obtained from the radiation dose-response curves showed that quiescent (G0/G1) cells were more radiosensitive than exponential G1 or unseparated fed plateau cells

  2. Ordered mesoporous silica prepared by quiescent interfacial growth method - effects of reaction chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Acidic interfacial growth can provide a number of industrially important mesoporous silica morphologies including fibers, spheres, and other rich shapes. Studying the reaction chemistry under quiescent (no mixing) conditions is important for understanding and for the production of the desired shapes. The focus of this work is to understand the effect of a number of previously untested conditions: acid type (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4), acid content, silica precursor type (TBOS and TEOS), and surfactant type (CTAB, Tween 20, and Tween 80) on the shape and structure of products formed under quiescent two-phase interfacial configuration. Results show that the quiescent growth is typically slow due to the absence of mixing. The whole process of product formation and pore structuring becomes limited by the slow interfacial diffusion of silica source. TBOS-CTAB-HCl was the typical combination to produce fibers with high order in the interfacial region. The use of other acids (HNO3 and H2SO4), a less hydrophobic silica source (TEOS), and/or a neutral surfactant (Tweens) facilitate diffusion and homogenous supply of silica source into the bulk phase and give spheres and gyroids with low mesoporous order. The results suggest two distinct regions for silica growth (interfacial region and bulk region) in which the rate of solvent evaporation and local concentration affect the speed and dimension of growth. A combined mechanism for the interfacial bulk growth of mesoporous silica under quiescent conditions is proposed. PMID:24237719

  3. Unique Organization of the Nuclear Envelope in the Post-natal Quiescent Neural Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantxa Cebrián-Silla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (B1 astrocytes; NSCs in the adult ventricular-subventricular-zone (V-SVZ originate in the embryo. Surprisingly, recent work has shown that B1 cells remain largely quiescent. They are reactivated postnatally to function as primary progenitors for neurons destined for the olfactory bulb and some corpus callosum oligodendrocytes. The cellular and molecular properties of quiescent B1 cells remain unknown. Here we found that a subpopulation of B1 cells has a unique nuclear envelope invagination specialization similar to envelope-limited chromatin sheets (ELCS, reported in certain lymphocytes and some cancer cells. Using molecular markers, [3H]thymidine birth-dating, and Ara-C, we found that B1 cells with ELCS correspond to quiescent NSCs. ELCS begin forming in embryonic radial glia cells and represent a specific nuclear compartment containing particular epigenetic modifications and telomeres. These results reveal a unique nuclear compartment in quiescent NSCs, which is useful for identifying these primary progenitors and study their gene regulation.

  4. The Lgr5 intestinal stem cell signature: robust expression of proposed quiescent '+4' cell markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz, Javier; Stange, Daniel E.; Schepers, Arnout G.; van de Wetering, Marc; Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Volckmann, Richard; Kung, Kevin S.; Koster, Jan; Radulescu, Sorina; Myant, Kevin; Versteeg, Rogier; Sansom, Owen J.; van Es, Johan H.; Barker, Nick; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J. R.; Clevers, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Two types of stem cells are currently defined in small intestinal crypts: cycling crypt base columnar (CBC) cells and quiescent '+4' cells. Here, we combine transcriptomics with proteomics to define a definitive molecular signature for Lgr5(+) CBC cells. Transcriptional profiling of FACS-sorted

  5. Quiescent plasma machine for beam-plasma interaction and wave studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A quiescent double plasma machine for beam-plasma interaction wave studies is described. A detailed description of several plasma diagnostics used for plasma and wave excitation detection is given. A beam-plasma wave dispersion relation is used to compare theoretical values with the experimentally measured Langmuir wave frequencies and wavelengths. (author). 14 refs, 10 figs

  6. Ionic responses rapidly elicited by activation of protein kinase C in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vara, F.; Schneider, J.A.; Rozengurt, E.

    1985-01-01

    Diacylglycerol and phorbol esters activate protein kinase C in intact cells. The authors report here that addition of the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG) to quiescent cultures of Swiss 3T3 cells caused a marked increase in the rate of ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake, a measure of the activity of the Na + /K + pump. The effect was dose-dependent and could be detected after 1 min of exposure to the diacylglycerol. OAG stimulated Na + influx via an amiloride-sensitive pathway and increased intracellular pH by 0.15 pH unit. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PBt 2 ) also enhanced ouabain sensitive 86 Rb + uptake and amiloride-sensitive 22 Na + influx. Prolonged treatment (40 hr) of 3T3 cells with PBt 2 at a saturating dose, which reduces the number of PBt 2 binding sites and protein kinase C activity, abolished the ionic response of the cells to a subsequent addition of either OAG or PBt 2 . They suggest that activation of protein kinase C elicits, either directly or indirectly, enhanced Na + /H + antiport activity, which, in turn, leads to Na + influx, intracellular pH modulation, and stimulation of the Na + /K + pump

  7. Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond; Bundy, Kevin; Cappellari, Michele; Peirani, Sébastien; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Renbin; Bershady, Matthew; Greene, Jenny E; Heckman, Timothy M; Drory, Niv; Law, David R; Masters, Karen L; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Rubin, Kate; Belfiore, Francesco; Vulcani, Benedetta; Chen, Yan-mei; Zhang, Kai; Gelfand, Joseph D; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Roman-Lopes, A; Schneider, Donald P

    2016-05-26

    Quiescent galaxies with little or no ongoing star formation dominate the population of galaxies with masses above 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun; the number of quiescent galaxies has increased by a factor of about 25 over the past ten billion years (refs 1-4). Once star formation has been shut down, perhaps during the quasar phase of rapid accretion onto a supermassive black hole, an unknown mechanism must remove or heat the gas that is subsequently accreted from either stellar mass loss or mergers and that would otherwise cool to form stars. Energy output from a black hole accreting at a low rate has been proposed, but observational evidence for this in the form of expanding hot gas shells is indirect and limited to radio galaxies at the centres of clusters, which are too rare to explain the vast majority of the quiescent population. Here we report bisymmetric emission features co-aligned with strong ionized-gas velocity gradients from which we infer the presence of centrally driven winds in typical quiescent galaxies that host low-luminosity active nuclei. These galaxies are surprisingly common, accounting for as much as ten per cent of the quiescent population with masses around 2 × 10(10) times that of the Sun. In a prototypical example, we calculate that the energy input from the galaxy's low-level active supermassive black hole is capable of driving the observed wind, which contains sufficient mechanical energy to heat ambient, cooler gas (also detected) and thereby suppress star formation.

  8. EVIDENCE FOR WIDESPREAD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY AMONG MASSIVE QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Karen P.; Rasmussen, Jesper; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    We quantify the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in a mass-complete (M * > 5 × 10 10 M ☉ ) sample of 123 star-forming and quiescent galaxies at 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.5, using X-ray data from the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey. 41% ± 7% of the galaxies are detected directly in X-rays, 22% ± 5% with rest-frame 0.5-8 keV luminosities consistent with hosting luminous AGNs (L 0.5-8keV > 3 × 10 42 erg s –1 ). The latter fraction is similar for star-forming and quiescent galaxies, and does not depend on galaxy stellar mass, suggesting that perhaps luminous AGNs are triggered by external effects such as mergers. We detect significant mean X-ray signals in stacked images for both the individually non-detected star-forming and quiescent galaxies, with spectra consistent with star formation only and/or a low-luminosity AGN in both cases. Comparing star formation rates inferred from the 2-10 keV luminosities to those from rest-frame IR+UV emission, we find evidence for an X-ray excess indicative of low-luminosity AGNs. Among the quiescent galaxies, the excess suggests that as many as 70%-100% of these contain low- or high-luminosity AGNs, while the corresponding fraction is lower among star-forming galaxies (43%-65%). Our discovery of the ubiquity of AGNs in massive, quiescent z ∼ 2 galaxies provides observational support for the importance of AGNs in impeding star formation during galaxy evolution.

  9. Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody (TRAb)-IgM Levels Are Markedly Higher Than TRAb-IgG Levels in Graves' Disease Patients and Controls, and TRAb-IgM Production Is Related to Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumata, Keisuke; Nagata, Keiko; Matsushita, Michiko; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masako; Murakami, Ichiro; Fukata, Shuji; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder that mainly presents as hyperthyroidism and is caused by thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAbs) that stimulate thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors. We previously reported that Graves' disease patients and healthy controls both had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected TRAb-positive B cells and the EBV-reactivated induction of these B cells in cultures may induce the production of TRAbs. In the present study, we quantified serum TRAb-IgG and TRAb-IgM levels in 34 Graves' disease patients and 15 controls using ELISA to elucidate the mechanisms underlying EBV-related antibody production. As expected, TRAb-IgG and TRAb-IgM levels were higher in Graves' disease patients than in controls; however, TRAb-IgM levels were significantly higher than those of TRAb-IgG levels, whereas total IgM levels were lower than total IgG levels. On the other hand, the enhanced production of TRAb-IgM was frequently observed in patients with EBV reactivation. These results are consistent with the fact that the percentage of autoreactive IgM B cells are higher than that of autoreactive IgG B cells, and support the EBV-related polyclonal B cell activation. It is necessary to clarify the biological characteristics of TRAb-IgM and the relationship between TRAb isotypes and the biology of Graves' disease.

  10. Radiobiologic significance of apoptosis and micronucleation in quiescent cells within solid tumors following γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Suzuki, Minoru; Kinashi, Yuko; Takagaki, Masao

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency of apoptosis in quiescent (Q) cells within solid tumors following γ-ray irradiation, using four different tumor cell lines. In addition, to assess the significance of detecting apoptosis in these cell lines. Methods and Materials: C3H/He mice bearing SCC VII or FM3A tumors, Balb/c mice bearing EMT6/KU tumors, and C57BL mice bearing EL4 tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days via implanted mini-osmotic pumps to label all proliferating (P) cells. The mice then received γ-ray irradiation at a dose of 4-25 Gy while alive or after tumor clamping. Immediately after irradiation, the tumors were excised, minced, and trypsinized. The tumor cell suspensions thus obtained were incubated with cytochalasin-B (a cytokinesis blocker), and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (=Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, 6 hours after irradiation, tumor cell suspensions obtained in the same manner were fixed. The apoptosis frequency in Q cells was also determined with immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN and apoptosis frequency in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. Results: In total cells, SCC VII, FM3A, and EMT6/KU cells showed reasonable relationships between MN frequency and surviving fraction (SF). However, fewer micronuclei were induced in EL4 cells than the other cell lines. In contrast, a comparatively close relationship between apoptosis frequency and SF was found in total cells of EL4 cell line. Less apoptosis was observed in the other cell lines. Quiescent tumor cells exhibited significantly lower values of MN and apoptosis frequency probably due to their large hypoxic fraction, similar to total tumor cells on clamped irradiation. Conclusion: γ-ray irradiation induced MN formation in SCC VII, FM3A, and EMT6/KU tumor cells, and the apoptosis was marked in EL4 cells compared with

  11. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  12. THE MID-INFRARED AND NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET EXCESS EMISSIONS OF QUIESCENT GALAXIES ON THE RED SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2013-01-01

    We study the mid-infrared (IR) and near-ultraviolet (UV) excess emissions of spectroscopically selected quiescent galaxies on the optical red sequence. We use the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR and Galaxy Evolution Explorer near-UV data for a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 to study the possible connection between quiescent red-sequence galaxies with and without mid-IR/near-UV excess. Among 648 12 μm detected quiescent red-sequence galaxies without Hα emission, 26% and 55% show near-UV and mid-IR excess emissions, respectively. When we consider only bright (M r n 4000 than those without mid-IR and near-UV excess emissions. We also find that mid-IR weighted mean stellar ages of quiescent red-sequence galaxies with mid-IR excess are larger than those with near-UV excess, and smaller than those without mid-IR and near-UV excess. The environmental dependence of the fraction of quiescent red-sequence galaxies with mid-IR and near-UV excess seems strong even though the trends of quiescent red-sequence galaxies with near-UV excess differ from those with mid-IR excess. These results indicate that the recent star formation traced by near-UV (∼< 1 Gyr) and mid-IR (∼< 2 Gyr) excess is not negligible among nearby, quiescent, red, early-type galaxies. We suggest a possible evolutionary scenario of quiescent red-sequence galaxies from quiescent red-sequence galaxies with near-UV excess to those with mid-IR excess to those without near-UV and mid-IR excess.

  13. NotaMark industrial laser marking system: a new security marking technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Vincent G.

    2004-06-01

    Up until now, the only variable alphanumeric data which could be added to banknotes was the number, applied by means of impact typographical numbering boxes. As an additional process or an alternative to this mechanical method, a non-contact laser marking process can be used offering high quality and greater levels of flexibility. For this purpose KBA-GIORI propose an exclusive laser marking solution called NotaMark. The laser marking process NotaMark is the ideal solution for applying variable data and personalizing banknotes (or any other security documents) with a very high resolution, for extremely large production volumes. A completely integrated solution has been developed comprised of laser light sources, marking head units, and covers and extraction systems. NotaMark allows the marking of variable data by removing locally and selectively, specific printed materials leaving the substrate itself untouched. A wide range of materials has already been tested extensively. NotaMark is a new security feature which is easy to identify and difficult to counterfeit, and which complies with the standard mechanical and chemical resistance tests in the security printing industry as well as with other major soiling tests. The laser marking process opens up a whole new range of design possibilities and can be used to create a primary security feature such as numbering, or to enhance the value of existing features.

  14. Edge stability and performance of the ELM-free quiescent H-mode and the quiescent double barrier mode on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, W.P.; Burrell, K.H.; Snyder, P.B.; Gohil, P.; Lao, L.L.; Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H.; Thomas, D.M.; Casper, T.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Doyle, E.J.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.; Nave, M.F.F.

    2005-01-01

    The quiescent H (QH) mode, an edge localized mode (ELM)-free, high-confinement mode, combines well with an internal transport barrier to form quiescent double barrier (QDB) stationary state, high performance plasmas. The QH-mode edge pedestal pressure is similar to that seen in ELMing phases of the same discharge, with similar global energy confinement. The pedestal density in early ELMing phases of strongly pumped counter injection discharges drops and a transition to QH-mode occurs, leading to lower calculated edge bootstrap current. Plasmas current ramp experiment and ELITE code modeling of edge stability suggest that QHmodes lie near an edge current stabilty boundary. At high triangularity, QH-mode discharges operate at higher pedestal density and pressure, and have achieved ITER level values of β PED and ν*. The QDB achieves performance of β N H 89 ∼ 7 in quasi-stationary conditions for a duration of 10 τ E , limited by hardware. Recently we demonstrated stationary state QDB discharges with little change in kinetic and q profiles (q 0 > 1) for 2 s, comparable to ELMing 'hybrid scenarios', yet without the debilitating effects of ELMs. Plasma profile control tools, including electron cyclotron heating and current drive and neutral beam heating, have been demonstrated to control simultaneously the q profile development, the density peaking, impurity accumulation and plasma beta. (author)

  15. Deep absorption line studies of quiescent galaxies at z similar z ~ 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Sune; Gallazzi, Anna Rita; Zirm, Andrew Wasmuth

    2012-01-01

    the majority of its stars at z > 3 and currently has little or no ongoing star formation. We compile a sample of three other z similar to 2 quiescent galaxies with measured velocity dispersions, two of which are also post-starburst like. Their dynamical-mass-size relation is offset significantly less than...... the stellar-mass-size relation from the local early-type relations, which we attribute to a lower central dark matter fraction. Recent cosmological merger simulations agree qualitatively with the data, but cannot fully account for the evolution in the dark matter fraction. The z similar to 2 FP requires......We present dynamical and structural scaling relations of quiescent galaxies at z = 2, including the dynamical-mass-size relation and the first constraints on the fundamental plane (FP). The backbone of the analysis is a new, very deep Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectrum of a massive, compact...

  16. Probing the Build-Up of Quiescent Galaxies at z>3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven

    We propose to perform the most robust investigation to date into the evolution of massive quiescent and star-forming galaxies at z > 3, at a time when the universe was less than two billion years old. The build-up of quiescent galaxies in particular is poorly understood, primarily due to large Poisson and cosmic variance issues that have plagued previous studies that probed small volumes, leading to a disagreement on the quiescent fraction by a factor of >3 in the literature. Our proposed work is only now possible due to a new legacy survey led by our team: the Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large Area Survey (SHELA), which is imaging a 23 deg^2 area of the sky at optical, and near, mid and far-infrared, and X-ray wavelengths. In particular, the wide area coverage of the Spitzer/IRAC data allows us to be sensitive to massive galaxies at very high redshifts, the Herschel data allows us to rule out lower-redshift counterparts, and the XMM-Newton data allows us to remove quasar contaminants from our sample. This survey covers a volume >14X that of the largest previous survey for quiescent galaxies at z=3.5, and ~6X larger than that of the largest previous survey for star-forming galaxies at z=4. All of these data exist in the region soon to be observed by the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), which will provide high-precision measures of halo masses and local density at z~3. Using this exquisite multi-wavelength dataset, we will measure the abundance of massive quiescent galaxies at z ~ 3-5, and, combining with measures of the halo masses and environment, compare properties of quiescent galaxies to star-forming galaxies to investigate the physical cause behind the quenching. We will also investigate the onset of quenching in star-forming galaxies in two ways, first by studying the relation between star formation rate and stellar mass, to search for a break in the typically-linear relation at high masses, and second by constraining the feedback

  17. Growth and decay of runaway electrons above the critical electric field under quiescent conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Eidietis, N. W.; Wesley, J. C.; Granetz, R.; Hollmann, E. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Zhang, J.; Crocker, N. A.; Austin, M. E.; Wingen, A.; Zhu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Extremely low density operation free of error field penetration supports the excitation of trace-level quiescent runaway electron (RE) populations during the flat-top of DIII-D Ohmic discharges. Operation in the quiescent regime allows accurate measurement of all key parameters important to RE excitation, including the internal broadband magnetic fluctuation level. RE onset is characterized and found to be consistent with primary (Dreicer) generation rates. Impurity-free collisional suppression of the RE population is investigated by stepping the late-time main-ion density, until RE decay is observed. The transition from growth to decay is found to occur 3–5 times above the theoretical critical electric field for avalanche growth and is thus indicative of anomalous RE loss. This suggests that suppression of tokamak RE avalanches can be achieved at lower density than previously expected, though extrapolation requires predictive understanding of the RE loss mechanism and magnitude

  18. Stellar Velocity Dispersion: Linking Quiescent Galaxies to their Dark Matter Halos

    OpenAIRE

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Sohn, Jubee; Geller, Margaret J.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the Illustris-1 hydrodynamical cosmological simulation to explore the stellar velocity dispersion of quiescent galaxies as an observational probe of dark matter halo velocity dispersion and mass. Stellar velocity dispersion is proportional to dark matter halo velocity dispersion for both central and satellite galaxies. The dark matter halos of central galaxies are in virial equilibrium and thus the stellar velocity dispersion is also proportional to dark matter halo mass. This prop...

  19. Harmonic oscillations of a circular cylinder moving with constant velocity in a quiescent fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Novaes Recica; Luiz Antonio Alcântara Pereira; Miguel Hiroo Hirata

    2008-01-01

    The flow around an oscillating circular cylinder which moves with constant velocity in a quiescent Newtonian fluid with constant properties is analyzed. The influences of the frequency and amplitude oscillation on the aerodynamic loads and on the Strouhal number are presented. For the numerical simulation, a cloud of discrete Lamb vortices are utilized. For each time step of the simulation, a number of discrete vortices are placed close to the body surface; the intensity of theirs is determin...

  20. FREQUENCY OF QUIESCENT FUNGI AND POST-HARVEST ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT OF STEM END ROT IN PAPAYA

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA DAMBROS AMARAL; ANA LETICIA ROCHA MONTEIRO; ELIAS INÁCIO DA SILVA; SEVERINA RODRIGUES DE OLIVEIRA LINS; SONIA MARIA ALVES DE OLIVEIRA

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of quiescent fungi and the effect of phosphites under modified atmosphere on Lasiodiplodia theobromae in papaya. The fruits were treated with a range of doses of phosphites and their actions evaluated under conditions of ambient and modified atmosphere. Of the eight fungal genera found, Lasiodiplodia was the most common. No interaction was observed between the evaluated factors and only atmosphere and dose were independently significant. The...

  1. FREQUENCY OF QUIESCENT FUNGI AND POST-HARVEST ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT OF STEM END ROT IN PAPAYA

    OpenAIRE

    AMARAL, DANIELA DAMBROS; MONTEIRO, ANA LETICIA ROCHA; SILVA, ELIAS INÁCIO DA; LINS, SEVERINA RODRIGUES DE OLIVEIRA; OLIVEIRA, SONIA MARIA ALVES DE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of quiescent fungi and the effect of phosphites under modified atmosphere on Lasiodiplodia theobromae in papaya. The fruits were treated with a range of doses of phosphites and their actions evaluated under conditions of ambient and modified atmosphere. Of the eight fungal genera found, Lasiodiplodia was the most common. No interaction was observed between the evaluated factors and only atmosphere and dose were independently signifi...

  2. Comparison of the phosphorylation events in membranes prepared from proliferating versus quiescent endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazlauskas, A.; DiColeto, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Little is known of the intracellular events which regulate the proliferation of endothelial cells (EC). Triton-solubilized membranes from proliferating (sparse) and quiescent (confluent) EC were incubated at pH 6.5 in the presence of divalent cations and [ 32 P]ATP. Membrane proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The overall kinase activity per mg protein was slightly greater in membranes prepared from proliferating versus quiescent cells. They found four proteins labeled in sparse cells to a dramatically greater extent having the following approximate molecular masses: 180, 100, 97 and 55 kilodalton (kd). The first two phosphoproteins were phosphorylated on serine residues exclusively; the 97 kd phosphoprotein contained 39% phosphoserine (p-ser) and 61% phosphothreonine (p-thr); and the 55 kd phosphoprotein contained 62% p-ser, 16% p-thr, and 22% phosphotyrosine (p-tyr). The kinases acting on all four phosphoproteins were independent of Ca 2+ , cAMP, cGMP, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The observed differences in phosphorylation events between sparse and confluent membranes occurred in membranes from two EC lines - pig aortic and bovine aortic - but were not apparent in membranes prepared from human foreskin fibroblasts or 3T3 cells. Sparse endothelial cells made quiescent by serum deprivation were found to resemble confluent cells in the kinase activity; therefore, the enhanced kinase activity in sparse membranes may be growth dependent

  3. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF MARKARIAN 501: QUIESCENT STATE VERSUS EXTREME OUTBURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boettcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finnegan, G.

    2011-01-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Mrk 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 was coordinated in 2009 March, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including γ-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Mrk 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of 1997 April 16, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between the two states. The derived broadband SED shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina (KN) regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied KN effects are explored.

  4. Spectral Energy Distribution of Markarian 501: Quiescent State Versus Extreme Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huang, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Paneque, D.; Hayashida, M.

    2011-03-01

    The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 (Mrk 501) has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Mrk 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Mrk 501 was coordinated in 2009 March, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including γ-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Mrk 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of 1997 April 16, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution (SED) between the two states. The derived broadband SED shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina (KN) regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied KN effects are explored.

  5. SCA-1 Expression Level Identifies Quiescent Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina N.F. Morcos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood cell generation depends on continuous cellular output by the sequential hierarchy of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC and progenitor populations that all contain quiescent and actively cycling cells. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs express the surface molecule Stem cell antigen 1 (SCA-1/LY6A. Using histone 2B-red fluorescent fusion protein label retention and cell-cycle reporter mice, we demonstrate that high SCA-1 expression (SCA-1hi identifies not only quiescent HSCs but quiescent cells on all hierarchical levels within the lineage−SCA-1+KIT+ (LSK population. Each transplanted SCA-1hi HSPC population also displayed self-renewal potential superior to that of the respective SCA-1lo population. SCA-1 expression is inducible by type I interferon (IFN. We show, however, that quiescence and high self-renewal capacity of cells with brighter SCA-1 expression at steady state were independent of type I IFN signaling. We conclude that SCA-1 expression levels can be used to prospectively isolate functionally heterogeneous HSPC subpopulations.

  6. The assembly histories of quiescent galaxies since z = 0.7 from absorption line spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jieun; Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12110 (United States); Graves, Genevieve J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Holden, Bradford P. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We present results from modeling the optical spectra of a large sample of quiescent galaxies between 0.1 < z < 0.7 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). We examine how the stellar ages and abundance patterns of galaxies evolve over time as a function of stellar mass from 10{sup 9.6}-10{sup 11.8} M {sub ☉}. Galaxy spectra are stacked in bins of mass and redshift and modeled over a wavelength range from 4000 Å to 5500 Å. Full spectrum stellar population synthesis modeling provides estimates of the age and the abundances of the elements Fe, Mg, C, N, and Ca. We find negligible evolution in elemental abundances at fixed stellar mass over roughly 7 Gyr of cosmic time. In addition, the increase in stellar ages with time for massive galaxies is consistent with passive evolution since z = 0.7. Taken together, these results favor a scenario in which the inner ∼0.3-3 R {sub e} of massive quiescent galaxies have been passively evolving over the last half of cosmic time. Interestingly, the derived stellar ages are considerably younger than the age of the universe at all epochs, consistent with an equivalent single-burst star formation epoch of z ≲ 1.5. These young stellar population ages coupled with the existence of massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1 indicate the inhomogeneous nature of the z ≲ 0.7 quiescent population. The data also permit the addition of newly quenched galaxies at masses below ∼10{sup 10.5} M {sub ☉} at z < 0.7. Additionally, we analyze very deep Keck DEIMOS spectra of the two brightest quiescent galaxies in a cluster at z = 0.83. There is tentative evidence that these galaxies are older than their counterparts in low-density environments. In the Appendix, we demonstrate that our full spectrum modeling technique allows for accurate and reliable modeling of galaxy spectra to low S/N (∼20 Å{sup –1}) and/or low spectral resolution (R ∼ 500).

  7. Role of wall-attached structures in the interface of the quiescent core region in turbulent pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jongmin; Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2017-11-01

    The effects of low- and high-speed structures on the interface of the quiescent core region are explored using direct numerical simulation data of turbulent pipe flow. The quiescent core region is a uniform momentum zone located at the center of the pipe flow, which contains the highest streamwise momentum with a low level of turbulence. The interface of the quiescent core region can be identified from the probability density function of the streamwise modal velocity. In the vicinity of the interface of the quiescent core region, the streamwise velocity changes abruptly. The abrupt jump in velocity causes an increase of the velocity gradient. The interface of the quiescent core region is similar to the laminar superlayer in turbulent/non-turbulent interface. The interface of the quiescent core region contains the low- and high-speed structures. They can be classified into wall-attached and detached structures depending on the distance between the structures and the wall. The influence of the detached structures accounted for most of the number of detected structures is negligible due to its small volume. Conversely, the wall-attached structures adjacent to the interface have a huge influence on the statistical amount of the interface, such as entrainment characteristics. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2017-013369) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  8. Civilsamfundets ABC: M for Marked

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til M for Marked.......Bogstaveligt talt: Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til M for Marked....

  9. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  10. Quiescent Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1972-01-01

    The Conference was sponsored by the European Physical Society and by the Danish Atomic Energy Commission. The latter also gave financial support. The meeting was organized by members of the Q-machine group at Risø in collaboration with an international advisory committee consisting of Dr. N. D'An...

  11. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: bench mark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations representative of the wetwell of Mark I BWR's have predicted pressures and related phenomena. However, calculational predictions for purposes of engineering decision will be possible only if the code can be verified, i.e., shown to compute in accord with measured values. Described in the report is a set of single downcomer spherical flask bench mark experiments designed to produce quantitative data to validate various air-water dynamic computations; the experiments were performed since relevant bench mark data were not available from outside sources. Secondary purposes of the study were to provide a test bed for the instrumentation and post-experiment data processing techniques to be used in the Laboratory's reactor safety research program and to provide additional masurements for the air-water scaling study

  12. A massive, quiescent galaxy at a redshift of 3.717

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, Karl; Schreiber, Corentin; Labbé, Ivo; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Oesch, Pascal A.; Papovich, Casey; Spitler, Lee R.; Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Yuan, Tiantian

    2017-04-01

    Finding massive galaxies that stopped forming stars in the early Universe presents an observational challenge because their rest-frame ultraviolet emission is negligible and they can only be reliably identified by extremely deep near-infrared surveys. These surveys have revealed the presence of massive, quiescent early-type galaxies appearing as early as redshift z ≈ 2, an epoch three billion years after the Big Bang. Their age and formation processes have now been explained by an improved generation of galaxy-formation models, in which they form rapidly at z ≈ 3-4, consistent with the typical masses and ages derived from their observations. Deeper surveys have reported evidence for populations of massive, quiescent galaxies at even higher redshifts and earlier times, using coarsely sampled photometry. However, these early, massive, quiescent galaxies are not predicted by the latest generation of theoretical models. Here we report the spectroscopic confirmation of one such galaxy at redshift z = 3.717, with a stellar mass of 1.7 × 1011 solar masses. We derive its age to be nearly half the age of the Universe at this redshift and the absorption line spectrum shows no current star formation. These observations demonstrate that the galaxy must have formed the majority of its stars quickly, within the first billion years of cosmic history in a short, extreme starburst. This ancestral starburst appears similar to those being found by submillimetre-wavelength surveys. The early formation of such massive systems implies that our picture of early galaxy assembly requires substantial revision.

  13. THE IMPACT OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE INHOMOGENEITIES ON QUIESCENT NEUTRON STAR RADIUS MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshamouty, K. G.; Heinke, C. O.; Morsink, S. M.; Stevens, A. L. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-181, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bogdanov, S., E-mail: alshamou@ualberta.ca [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, NY 10027 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Fitting the thermal X-ray spectra of neutron stars (NSs) in quiescent X-ray binaries can constrain the masses and radii of NSs. The effect of undetected hot spots on the spectrum, and thus on the inferred NS mass and radius, has not yet been explored for appropriate atmospheres and spectra. A hot spot would harden the observed spectrum, so that spectral modeling tends to infer radii that are too small. However, a hot spot may also produce detectable pulsations. We simulated the effects of a hot spot on the pulsed fraction and spectrum of the quiescent NSs X5 and X7 in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using appropriate spectra and beaming for hydrogen atmosphere models, incorporating special and general relativistic effects, and sampling a range of system angles. We searched for pulsations in archival Chandra HRC-S observations of X5 and X7, placing 90% confidence upper limits on their pulsed fractions below 16%. We use these pulsation limits to constrain the temperature differential of any hot spots, and to then constrain the effects of possible hot spots on the X-ray spectrum and the inferred radius from spectral fitting. We find that hot spots below our pulsation limit could bias the spectroscopically inferred radius downward by up to 28%. For Cen X-4 (which has deeper published pulsation searches), an undetected hot spot could bias its inferred radius downward by up to 10%. Improving constraints on pulsations from quiescent LMXBs may be essential for progress in constraining their radii.

  14. THE IMPACT OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE INHOMOGENEITIES ON QUIESCENT NEUTRON STAR RADIUS MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshamouty, K. G.; Heinke, C. O.; Morsink, S. M.; Stevens, A. L.; Bogdanov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Fitting the thermal X-ray spectra of neutron stars (NSs) in quiescent X-ray binaries can constrain the masses and radii of NSs. The effect of undetected hot spots on the spectrum, and thus on the inferred NS mass and radius, has not yet been explored for appropriate atmospheres and spectra. A hot spot would harden the observed spectrum, so that spectral modeling tends to infer radii that are too small. However, a hot spot may also produce detectable pulsations. We simulated the effects of a hot spot on the pulsed fraction and spectrum of the quiescent NSs X5 and X7 in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using appropriate spectra and beaming for hydrogen atmosphere models, incorporating special and general relativistic effects, and sampling a range of system angles. We searched for pulsations in archival Chandra HRC-S observations of X5 and X7, placing 90% confidence upper limits on their pulsed fractions below 16%. We use these pulsation limits to constrain the temperature differential of any hot spots, and to then constrain the effects of possible hot spots on the X-ray spectrum and the inferred radius from spectral fitting. We find that hot spots below our pulsation limit could bias the spectroscopically inferred radius downward by up to 28%. For Cen X-4 (which has deeper published pulsation searches), an undetected hot spot could bias its inferred radius downward by up to 10%. Improving constraints on pulsations from quiescent LMXBs may be essential for progress in constraining their radii.

  15. Distinct transcriptional networks in quiescent myoblasts: a role for Wnt signaling in reversible vs. irreversible arrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Subramaniam

    Full Text Available Most cells in adult mammals are non-dividing: differentiated cells exit the cell cycle permanently, but stem cells exist in a state of reversible arrest called quiescence. In damaged skeletal muscle, quiescent satellite stem cells re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate and subsequently execute divergent programs to regenerate both post-mitotic myofibers and quiescent stem cells. The molecular basis for these alternative programs of arrest is poorly understood. In this study, we used an established myogenic culture model (C2C12 myoblasts to generate cells in alternative states of arrest and investigate their global transcriptional profiles. Using cDNA microarrays, we compared G0 myoblasts with post-mitotic myotubes. Our findings define the transcriptional program of quiescent myoblasts in culture and establish that distinct gene expression profiles, especially of tumour suppressor genes and inhibitors of differentiation characterize reversible arrest, distinguishing this state from irreversibly arrested myotubes. We also reveal the existence of a tissue-specific quiescence program by comparing G0 C2C12 myoblasts to isogenic G0 fibroblasts (10T1/2. Intriguingly, in myoblasts but not fibroblasts, quiescence is associated with a signature of Wnt pathway genes. We provide evidence that different levels of signaling via the canonical Wnt pathway characterize distinct cellular states (proliferation vs. quiescence vs. differentiation. Moderate induction of Wnt signaling in quiescence is associated with critical properties such as clonogenic self-renewal. Exogenous Wnt treatment subverts the quiescence program and negatively affects clonogenicity. Finally, we identify two new quiescence-induced regulators of canonical Wnt signaling, Rgs2 and Dkk3, whose induction in G0 is required for clonogenic self-renewal. These results support the concept that active signal-mediated regulation of quiescence contributes to stem cell properties, and have implications for

  16. Distinct transcriptional networks in quiescent myoblasts: a role for Wnt signaling in reversible vs. irreversible arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sindhu; Sreenivas, Prethish; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Reddy, Vatrapu Rami; Shashidhara, Lingadahalli Subrahmanya; Chilukoti, Ravi Kumar; Mylavarapu, Madhavi; Dhawan, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Most cells in adult mammals are non-dividing: differentiated cells exit the cell cycle permanently, but stem cells exist in a state of reversible arrest called quiescence. In damaged skeletal muscle, quiescent satellite stem cells re-enter the cell cycle, proliferate and subsequently execute divergent programs to regenerate both post-mitotic myofibers and quiescent stem cells. The molecular basis for these alternative programs of arrest is poorly understood. In this study, we used an established myogenic culture model (C2C12 myoblasts) to generate cells in alternative states of arrest and investigate their global transcriptional profiles. Using cDNA microarrays, we compared G0 myoblasts with post-mitotic myotubes. Our findings define the transcriptional program of quiescent myoblasts in culture and establish that distinct gene expression profiles, especially of tumour suppressor genes and inhibitors of differentiation characterize reversible arrest, distinguishing this state from irreversibly arrested myotubes. We also reveal the existence of a tissue-specific quiescence program by comparing G0 C2C12 myoblasts to isogenic G0 fibroblasts (10T1/2). Intriguingly, in myoblasts but not fibroblasts, quiescence is associated with a signature of Wnt pathway genes. We provide evidence that different levels of signaling via the canonical Wnt pathway characterize distinct cellular states (proliferation vs. quiescence vs. differentiation). Moderate induction of Wnt signaling in quiescence is associated with critical properties such as clonogenic self-renewal. Exogenous Wnt treatment subverts the quiescence program and negatively affects clonogenicity. Finally, we identify two new quiescence-induced regulators of canonical Wnt signaling, Rgs2 and Dkk3, whose induction in G0 is required for clonogenic self-renewal. These results support the concept that active signal-mediated regulation of quiescence contributes to stem cell properties, and have implications for pathological

  17. THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF MASSIVE QUIESCENT GALAXIES OUT TO z ∼ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Sande, Jesse; Franx, Marijn [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kriek, Mariska [Astronomy Department, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bezanson, Rachel [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Fundamental Plane (FP) of early-type galaxies, relating the effective radius, velocity dispersion, and surface brightness, has long been recognized as a unique tool for analyzing galaxy structure and evolution. With the discovery of distant quiescent galaxies and the introduction of high sensitivity near-infrared spectrographs, it is now possible to explore the FP out to z ∼ 2. In this Letter we study the evolution of the FP out to z ∼ 2 using kinematic measurements of massive quiescent galaxies (M {sub *} > 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}). We find preliminary evidence for the existence of an FP out to z ∼ 2. The scatter of the FP, however, increases from z ∼ 0 to z ∼ 2, even when taking into account the larger measurement uncertainties at higher redshifts. We find a strong evolution of the zero point from z ∼ 2 to z ∼ 0: Δlog{sub 10} M/L{sub g} ∝(– 0.49 ± 0.03)z. In order to assess whether our spectroscopic sample is representative of the early-type galaxy population at all redshifts, we compare their rest-frame g – z colors with those from a larger mass complete sample of quiescent galaxies. At z > 1 we find that the spectroscopic sample is bluer. We use the color offsets to estimate a mass-to-light ratio (M/L) correction. The implied FP zero point evolution after correction is significantly smaller: Δlog{sub 10} M/L{sub g} ∝(– 0.39 ± 0.02)z. This is consistent with an apparent formation redshift of z{sub form}=6.62{sub −1.44}{sup +3.19} for the underlying population, ignoring the effects of progenitor bias. A more complete spectroscopic sample is required at z ∼ 2 to properly measure the M/L evolution from the FP evolution.

  18. Energy Utilization for Survival and Fertilization-Parsimonious Quiescent Sperm Turn Extravagant on Motility Activation in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Yadav, Santosh K; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Pandey, Aastha; Sharma, Vikas; Verma, Vikas; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Rajender, Singh; Sharma, Vishnu L; Gupta, Gopal

    2016-04-01

    Quiescent sperm survive in cauda epididymis for long periods of time under extreme crowding conditions and with a very limited energy substrate, while after ejaculation, motile sperm live for a much shorter period with an unlimited energy resource and without crowding. Thus, the energy metabolism in relation to the energy requirement of the two may be quite different. A simple physiological technique was evolved to collect viable quiescent sperm from rat cauda epididymis to compare its energy metabolism with motile sperm. Quiescent sperm exhibited 40%-60% higher activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I-IV and ATP synthase in comparison to motile sperm and accumulated Ca(2+) in the midpiece mitochondria to enhance oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). In contrast, motile sperm displayed up to 75% higher activities of key glycolytic enzymes and secreted more than two times the lactate than quiescent sperm. Quiescent sperm phosphorylated AMPK and MAPK-p38, while motile sperm phosphorylated AKT and MAPK/ERK. Glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetamide prevented motility activation of quiescent rat sperm and inhibited conception in rabbits more effectively than OxPhos uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol. Apparently, quiescent sperm employ the most energy efficient OxPhos to survive for extended periods of time under extreme conditions of nutrition and crowding. However, on motility initiation, sperm switch predominantly to glycolysis to cater to their high- and quick-energy requirement of much shorter periods. This study also presents a proof of concept for targeting sperm energy metabolism for contraception. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  19. The first X-ray imaging spectroscopy of quiescent solar active regions with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannah, Iain G.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Smith, David M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first observations of quiescent active regions (ARs) using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), a focusing hard X-ray telescope capable of studying faint solar emission from high-temperature and non-thermal sources. We analyze the first directly imaged and spectrally...... resolved X-rays above 2 keV from non-flaring ARs, observed near the west limb on 2014 November 1. The NuSTAR X-ray images match bright features seen in extreme ultraviolet and soft X-rays. The NuSTAR imaging spectroscopy is consistent with isothermal emission of temperatures 3.1-4.4 MK and emission...

  20. Adenovirus type 5 induces progression of quiescent rat cells into S phase without polyamine accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, B F; Shaw, D C; Bellett, A J

    1982-01-01

    Adenovirus type 5 induces cellular DNA synthesis and thymidine kinase in quiescent rat cells but does not induce ornithine decarboxylase. We now show that unlike serum, adenovirus type 5 fails to induce S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase or polyamine accumulation. The inhibition by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) of the induction of thymidine kinase by adenovirus type 5 is probably unrelated to its effects on polyamine biosynthesis. Thus, induction of cellular thymidine kinase and DNA replication by adenovirus type 5 is uncoupled from polyamine accumulation. PMID:7177112

  1. Harmonic oscillations of a circular cylinder moving with constant velocity in a quiescent fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Novaes Recica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow around an oscillating circular cylinder which moves with constant velocity in a quiescent Newtonian fluid with constant properties is analyzed. The influences of the frequency and amplitude oscillation on the aerodynamic loads and on the Strouhal number are presented. For the numerical simulation, a cloud of discrete Lamb vortices are utilized. For each time step of the simulation, a number of discrete vortices are placed close to the body surface; the intensity of theirs is determined such as to satisfy the no-slip boundary condition.

  2. Quiescent H-mode plasmas with strong edge rotation in the cocurrent direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, K H; Osborne, T H; Snyder, P B; West, W P; Fenstermacher, M E; Groebner, R J; Gohil, P; Leonard, A W; Solomon, W M

    2009-04-17

    For the first time in any tokamak, quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) plasmas have been created with strong edge rotation in the direction of the plasma current. This confirms the theoretical prediction that the QH mode should exist with either sign of the edge rotation provided the magnitude of the shear in the edge rotation is sufficiently large and demonstrates that counterinjection and counteredge rotation are not essential for the QH mode. Accordingly, the present work demonstrates a substantial broadening of the QH-mode operating space and represents a significant confirmation of the theory.

  3. FREQUENCY OF QUIESCENT FUNGI AND POST-HARVEST ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT OF STEM END ROT IN PAPAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA DAMBROS AMARAL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of quiescent fungi and the effect of phosphites under modified atmosphere on Lasiodiplodia theobromae in papaya. The fruits were treated with a range of doses of phosphites and their actions evaluated under conditions of ambient and modified atmosphere. Of the eight fungal genera found, Lasiodiplodia was the most common. No interaction was observed between the evaluated factors and only atmosphere and dose were independently significant. The usage of phosphites and modified atmosphere reduced the severity of the disease, and did not affect the chemical properties of the fruits.

  4. Transport of gaseous pollutants around a human body in quiescent indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mioduszewski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    (CBL) to transport the pollution in quiescent indoor environment. A human body is resembled by a thermal manikin with a body shape and surface temperature distribution of a real person. The objective of the study is to examine the impact of the pollutant location around the human body on the pollution...... concentration levels in the breathing zone. The results show that the location of the pollution source has a considerable influence of the breathing zone concentrations. This is contributed to the human CBL, as it pulls the pollution emitted close to the human body and transports it to the breathing zone...... the human body should be recognized in ventilation design practice....

  5. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  6. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  7. Percentage Retail Mark-Ups

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas von Ungern-Sternberg

    1999-01-01

    A common assumption in the literature on the double marginalization problem is that the retailer can set his mark-up only in the second stage of the game after the producer has moved. To the extent that the sequence of moves is designed to reflect the relative bargaining power of the two parties it is just as plausible to let the retailer move first. Furthermore, retailers frequently calculate their selling prices by adding a percentage mark-up to their wholesale prices. This allows a retaile...

  8. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  9. Better marking means cheaper pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth R. Eversole

    1953-01-01

    Careful selection of trees to be pruned can make the difference between profit and loss on the pruning investment, especially in stands where no thinning is contemplated. Expert marking is required to make sure that the pruned trees will grow rapidly. The most important variable influencing the cost of clear wood produced by pruning is growth rate. For example, at 3...

  10. Laser marking method and device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Yuki; Aoki, Nobutada; Mukai, Narihiko; Sano, Yuji; Yamamoto, Seiji.

    1997-01-01

    An object is disposed in laser beam permeating liquid or gaseous medium. Laser beams such as CW laser or pulse laser oscillated from a laser device are emitted to the object to apply laser markings with less degradation of identification and excellent corrosion resistance on the surface of the object simply and easily. Upon applying the laser markings, a liquid or gas as a laser beam permeating medium is blown onto the surface of the object, or the liquid or gas in the vicinity of the object is sucked, the laser beam-irradiated portion on the surface can be cooled positively. Accordingly, the laser marking can be formed on the surface of the object with less heat affection to the object. In addition, if the content of a nitrogen gas in the laser beam permeating liquid medium is reduced by degassing to lower than a predetermined value, or the laser beam permeating gaseous medium is formed by an inert gas, a laser marking having high corrosion resistance and reliability can be formed on the surface of the objective member. (N.H.)

  11. PRE-ERUPTION OSCILLATIONS IN THIN AND LONG FEATURES IN A QUIESCENT FILAMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anand D.; Hanaoka, Yoichiro; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Morita, Satoshi; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the eruption of a quiescent filament located close to an active region. Large-scale activation was observed in only half of the filament in the form of pre-eruption oscillations. Consequently only this half erupted nearly 30 hr after the oscillations commenced. Time-slice diagrams of 171 Å images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly were used to study the oscillations. These were observed in several thin and long features connecting the filament spine to the chromosphere below. This study traces the origin of such features and proposes their possible interpretation. Small-scale magnetic flux cancellation accompanied by a brightening was observed at the footpoint of the features shortly before their appearance, in images recorded by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. A slow rise of the filament was detected in addition to the oscillations, indicating a gradual loss of equilibrium. Our analysis indicates that a change in magnetic field connectivity between two neighbouring active regions and the quiescent filament resulted in a weakening of the overlying arcade of the filament, leading to its eruption. It is also suggested that the oscillating features are filament barbs, and the oscillations are a manifestation during the pre-eruption phase of the filaments.

  12. PRE-ERUPTION OSCILLATIONS IN THIN AND LONG FEATURES IN A QUIESCENT FILAMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anand D.; Hanaoka, Yoichiro; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Morita, Satoshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Cho, Kyung-Suk, E-mail: anand.joshi@nao.ac.jp [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    We investigate the eruption of a quiescent filament located close to an active region. Large-scale activation was observed in only half of the filament in the form of pre-eruption oscillations. Consequently only this half erupted nearly 30 hr after the oscillations commenced. Time-slice diagrams of 171 Å images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly were used to study the oscillations. These were observed in several thin and long features connecting the filament spine to the chromosphere below. This study traces the origin of such features and proposes their possible interpretation. Small-scale magnetic flux cancellation accompanied by a brightening was observed at the footpoint of the features shortly before their appearance, in images recorded by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. A slow rise of the filament was detected in addition to the oscillations, indicating a gradual loss of equilibrium. Our analysis indicates that a change in magnetic field connectivity between two neighbouring active regions and the quiescent filament resulted in a weakening of the overlying arcade of the filament, leading to its eruption. It is also suggested that the oscillating features are filament barbs, and the oscillations are a manifestation during the pre-eruption phase of the filaments.

  13. A robust low quiescent current power receiver for inductive power transmission in bio implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helalian, Hamid; Pasandi, Ghasem; Jafarabadi Ashtiani, Shahin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a robust low quiescent current complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) power receiver for wireless power transmission is presented. This power receiver consists of three main parts including rectifier, switch capacitor DC-DC converter and low-dropout regulator (LDO) without output capacitor. The switch capacitor DC-DC converter has variable conversion ratios and synchronous controller that lets the DC-DC converter to switch among five different conversion ratios to prevent output voltage drop and LDO regulator efficiency reduction. For all ranges of output current (0-10 mA), the voltage regulator is compensated and is stable. Voltage regulator stabilisation does not need the off-chip capacitor. In addition, a novel adaptive biasing frequency compensation method for low dropout voltage regulator is proposed in this paper. This method provides essential minimum current for compensation and reduces the quiescent current more effectively. The power receiver was designed in a 180-nm industrial CMOS technology, and the voltage range of the input is from 0.8 to 2 V, while the voltage range of the output is from 1.2 to 1.75 V, with a maximum load current of 10 mA, the unregulated efficiency of 79.2%, and the regulated efficiency of 64.4%.

  14. Quiescent and Eruptive Prominences at Solar Minimum: A Statistical Study via an Automated Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, I. P.; Bogachev, S. A.

    2015-07-01

    We employ an automated detection algorithm to perform a global study of solar prominence characteristics. We process four months of TESIS observations in the He II 304Å line taken close to the solar minimum of 2008-2009 and mainly focus on quiescent and quiescent-eruptive prominences. We detect a total of 389 individual features ranging from 25×25 to 150×500 Mm2 in size and obtain distributions of many of their spatial characteristics, such as latitudinal position, height, size, and shape. To study their dynamics, we classify prominences as either stable or eruptive and calculate their average centroid velocities, which are found to rarely exceed 3 km/s. In addition, we give rough estimates of mass and gravitational energy for every detected prominence and use these values to estimate the total mass and gravitational energy of all simultaneously existing prominences (1012 - 1014 kg and 1029 - 1031 erg). Finally, we investigate the form of the gravitational energy spectrum of prominences and derive it to be a power-law of index -1.1 ± 0.2.

  15. The radius of the quiescent neutron star in the globular cluster M13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A. W.; Heinke, C. O.; Steiner, A. W.; Campana, S.; Cohn, H. N.; Ho, W. C. G.; Lugger, P. M.; Servillat, M.

    2018-06-01

    X-ray spectra of quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries containing neutron stars can be fit with atmosphere models to constrain the mass and the radius. Mass-radius constraints can be used to place limits on the equation of state of dense matter. We perform fits to the X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star in the globular cluster M13, utilizing data from ROSAT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton, and constrain the mass-radius relation. Assuming an atmosphere composed of hydrogen and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star, we find the radius to be R_NS=12.2^{+1.5}_{-1.1} km, a significant improvement in precision over previous measurements. Incorporating an uncertainty on the distance to M13 relaxes the radius constraints slightly and we find R_NS=12.3^{+1.9}_{-1.7} km (for a 1.4M⊙ neutron star with a hydrogen atmosphere), which is still an improvement in precision over previous measurements, some of which do not consider distance uncertainty. We also discuss how the composition of the atmosphere affects the derived radius, finding that a helium atmosphere implies a significantly larger radius.

  16. The unexpectedly large dust and gas content of quiescent galaxies at z > 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Magdis, G.; Bournaud, F.; Sargent, M.; Martig, M.; Jin, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Béthermin, M.; Hwang, H. S.; Renzini, A.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Yun, M.; Strazzullo, V.; Valentino, F.

    2018-03-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) contain most of the stars present in the local Universe and, above a stellar mass content of 5 × 1010 solar masses, vastly outnumber spiral galaxies such as the Milky Way. These massive spheroidal galaxies have, in the present day, very little gas or dust in proportion to their mass1, and their stellar populations have been evolving passively for over 10 billion years. The physical mechanisms that led to the termination of star formation in these galaxies and depletion of their interstellar medium remain largely conjectural. In particular, there are currently no direct measurements of the amount of residual gas that might still be present in newly quiescent spheroidals at high redshift2. Here we show that quiescent ETGs at redshift z 1.8, close to their epoch of quenching, contained at least two orders of magnitude more dust at a fixed stellar mass compared with local ETGs. This implies the presence of substantial amounts of gas (5-10%), which has been consumed less efficiently than in more active galaxies, probably due to their spheroidal morphology, consistent with our simulations. This lower star formation efficiency, combined with an extended hot gas halo possibly maintained by persistent feedback from an active galactic nucleus, keep ETGs mostly passive throughout cosmic time.

  17. Tracking and Finding Slow-Proliferating/Quiescent Cancer Stem Cells with Fluorescent Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lee, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Ruey-Jen; Huang, Chih-Wei; Liao, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yit-Tsong; Fang, Jim-Min; Lee, Te-Chang; Yu, Alice L; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2015-09-09

    Quiescent cancer stem cells (CSCs) have long been considered to be a source of tumor initiation. However, identification and isolation of these cells have been hampered by the fact that commonly used fluorescent markers are not sufficiently stable, both chemically and photophysically, to allow tracking over an extended period of time. Here, it is shown that fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) are well suited for this application. Genotoxicity tests of FNDs with comet and micronucleus assays for human fibroblasts and breast cancer cells indicate that the nanoparticles neither cause DNA damage nor impair cell growth. Using AS-B145-1R breast cancer cells as the model cell line for CSC, it is found that the FND labeling outperforms 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) in regards to its long-term tracking capability (>20 d). Moreover, through a quantification of their stem cell activity by measuring mammosphere-forming efficiencies (MFEs) and self-renewal rates, the FND-positive cells are identified to have an MFE twice as high as that of the FND-negative cells isolated from the same dissociated mammospheres. Thus, the nanoparticle-based labeling technique provides an effective new tool for tracking and finding slow-proliferating/quiescent CSCs in cancer research. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Automated road marking recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, R. R.; Shigabiev, R. R.; Talipov, D. N.

    2017-09-01

    Development of the automated road marking recognition systems in existing and future vehicles control systems is an urgent task. One way to implement such systems is the use of neural networks. To test the possibility of using neural network software has been developed with the use of a single-layer perceptron. The resulting system based on neural network has successfully coped with the task both when driving in the daytime and at night.

  19. Mark Twain: inocente ou pecador? = Mark Twain: innocent or sinner?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helou Doca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A leitura cuidadosa do texto do “Tratado de Paris”, em 1900, leva Mark Twain a concluir que a intenção política norte-americana era, claramente, a de subjugação. Declara-se, abertamente, antiimperialista, nesse momento, apesar das inúmeras críticasrecebidas por antagonistas políticos que defendiam o establishment dos Estados Unidos. Após viajar para a Europa e Oriente, em 1867, como correspondente do jornal Daily Alta Califórnia, Mark Twain publica, em 1869, seu relato de viagem, The Innocents Abroad or TheNew Pilgrim’s Progress. Nosso estudo demonstra que o autor, apesar das diversas máscaras usadas em seus relatos, narra histórias, culturas e tradições, tanto da Europa quanto do Oriente, já com os olhos bem abertos pelo viés antiimperialista. Faz uso da paródia, sátira, ironia e humor para dessacralizar impérios, monarcas e a Igreja que subjugavam os mais fracos, iluminando, desde então, os estudos sobre culturas. Nosso estudo, outrossim, faz uma reflexão sobre cultura, tradição e o olhar do viajante, justificando o “olhar inocente” do narrador em seu relato.After carefully reading the Treaty of Paris in 1900, Mark Twain concluded that the goal of U.S. policy was clearly one ofsubjugation. He openly declared himself an anti-imperialist at that time, in spite of the numerous criticisms he received from political opponents who supported the United States status quo. After traveling to Europe and the East in 1867 as a correspondent for The DailyAlta California newspaper, Mark Twain published his travel report, The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrim’s Progress in 1869. Our study demonstrates that the author, in spite of using different guises in his reports, narrated histories, cultures and traditions – from both Europe and the East – with a viewpoint already imbued by his anti-imperialistic ideals. Twain made use of parody, satire, irony and humor within his texts in order to desecrate empires,monarchs and

  20. Novel Slope Source Term Treatment for Preservation of Quiescent Steady States in Shallow Water Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawar Rehman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a robust method for modeling shallow-water flows and near shore tsunami propagation, applicable for both simple and complex geometries with uneven beds. The novel aspect of the model includes the introduction of a new method for slope source terms treatment to preserve quiescent equilibrium over uneven topographies, applicable to both structured and unstructured mesh systems with equal accuracy. Our model is based on the Godunov-type finite volume numerical approximation. Second-order spatial and temporal accuracy is achieved through high resolution gradient reconstruction and the predictor-corrector method, respectively. The approximate Riemann solver of Harten, Lax, and van Leer with contact wave restoration (HLLC is used to compute fluxes. Comparisons of the model’s results with analytical, experimental, and published numerical solutions show that the proposed method is capable of accurately predicting experimental and real-time tsunami propagation/inundation, and dam-break flows over varying topographies.

  1. 3D structure of eukaryotic flagella in a quiescent state revealed by cryo-electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Daniela; McIntosh, J. Richard; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    We have used cryo-electron tomography to investigate the 3D structure and macromolecular organization of intact, frozen-hydrated sea urchin sperm flagella in a quiescent state. The tomographic reconstructions provide information at a resolution better than 6 nm about the in situ arrangements of macromolecules that are key for flagellar motility. We have visualized the heptameric rings of the motor domains in the outer dynein arm complex and determined that they lie parallel to the plane that contains the axes of neighboring flagellar microtubules. Both the material associated with the central pair of microtubules and the radial spokes display a plane of symmetry that helps to explain the planar beat pattern of these flagella. Cryo-electron tomography has proven to be a powerful technique for helping us understand the relationships between flagellar structure and function and the design of macromolecular machines in situ. PMID:16246999

  2. Comparisons of Force Measurement Methods for DBD Plasma Actuators in Quiescent Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Alan R.; Hershkowitz, Noah; Ashpis, David E.

    2009-01-01

    We have performed measurements of the force induced by both single (one electrode insulated) and double (both electrodes insulated) dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators in quiescent air. We have shown that, for single barrier actuators with cylindrical exposed electrodes, as the electrode diameter decrease the force efficiencies increase much faster than a previously reported linear trend. This behavior has been experimentally verified using two different measurement techniques: stagnation probe measurements of the induced flow velocity and direct measurement of the force using an electronic balance. Actuators with rectangular cross-section exposed electrodes do not show the same rapid increase at small thicknesses. We have also shown that the induced force is independent of the material used for the exposed electrode. The same techniques have shown that the induced force of a double barrier actuator increases with decreasing narrow electrode diameter.

  3. Macroscopic anatomy of the reproductive tract of the reproductively quiescent female emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert B; Cope, Lee A; Blackford, James T

    2011-04-01

    Three reproductively quiescent female emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) were embalmed with 10% formalin solution. The reproductive tract was dissected and described. The reproductive tract consists of an ovary and oviduct situated on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The left ovary is dark brown to black in colour with follicles covering the ventral surface. The ovary is located medial to the spleen and closely associated with the ventral surface of the cranial and middle lobes of the left kidney. The oviduct is a relatively straight tube that extends from the level of the cranial extent of the left ilium to the caudal border of the left pubic bone. The oviduct is grossly divided into the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus and vagina using variations in the mucosal fold pattern. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Particle simulation of pedestal buildup and study of pedestal scaling law in a quiescent plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.; Ku, S.; Weitzner, H.; Groebner, R.; Osborne, T.

    2005-01-01

    A discrete guiding-center particle code XGC (X-point included Guiding Center code) is used to study pedestal buildup and sheared E r formation in a quiescent plasma edge of a diverted tokamak. A neoclassical pedestal scaling law has been deduced, which shows that the density pedestal width is proportional to T i 1/2 M 1/2 /B t where T i is the ion temperature, M is ion mass and B t is the toroidal magnetic field. Dependence on the pedestal density or the poloidal magnetic field is found to be much weaker. Ion temperature pedestal is not as well defined as the density pedestal. Neoclassical electron transport rate, including the collisional heat exchange rate with ions, is too slow to be considered in the time scale of simulation (∼ 10 ms). (author)

  5. Stellar Velocity Dispersion: Linking Quiescent Galaxies to Their Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Sohn, Jubee; Geller, Margaret J.

    2018-06-01

    We analyze the Illustris-1 hydrodynamical cosmological simulation to explore the stellar velocity dispersion of quiescent galaxies as an observational probe of dark matter halo velocity dispersion and mass. Stellar velocity dispersion is proportional to dark matter halo velocity dispersion for both central and satellite galaxies. The dark matter halos of central galaxies are in virial equilibrium and thus the stellar velocity dispersion is also proportional to dark matter halo mass. This proportionality holds even when a line-of-sight aperture dispersion is calculated in analogy to observations. In contrast, at a given stellar velocity dispersion, the dark matter halo mass of satellite galaxies is smaller than virial equilibrium expectations. This deviation from virial equilibrium probably results from tidal stripping of the outer dark matter halo. Stellar velocity dispersion appears insensitive to tidal effects and thus reflects the correlation between stellar velocity dispersion and dark matter halo mass prior to infall. There is a tight relation (≲0.2 dex scatter) between line-of-sight aperture stellar velocity dispersion and dark matter halo mass suggesting that the dark matter halo mass may be estimated from the measured stellar velocity dispersion for both central and satellite galaxies. We evaluate the impact of treating all objects as central galaxies if the relation we derive is applied to a statistical ensemble. A large fraction (≳2/3) of massive quiescent galaxies are central galaxies and systematic uncertainty in the inferred dark matter halo mass is ≲0.1 dex thus simplifying application of the simulation results to currently available observations.

  6. The link between negative affect, vagal tone, and visceral sensitivity in quiescent Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, A; Pellissier, S; Picot, A; Dantzer, C; Bonaz, B

    2014-08-01

    Autonomic dysfunction and mood disorders are frequently described in Crohn's disease (CD) and are known to influence visceral sensitivity. We addressed the link between vagal tone, negative affect, and visceral sensitivity in CD patients without concomitant features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Rectal distensions to a discomfort threshold of 70% and onset of pain were performed in nine CD patients in remission and eight healthy controls. Autonomic parameters were evaluated with heart rate variability and electrodermal reactivity. We showed that CD patients had (i) higher scores of depressive symptomatology (12 ± 3 in patients vs 4 ± 1 in controls on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; p = 0.038), (ii) reduced vagal tone (HF 257 ± 84 ms(2) vs 1607 ± 1032 ms(2) , p = 0.043; LF 455 ± 153 ms(2) vs 1629 ± 585 ms(2) , p = 0.047), (iii) decreased sympathetic reactivity during an aversive stimulus, and (iv) higher tolerance to rectal distension pressures (43 ± 3 mmHg vs 30 ± 2 mmHg, p = 0.002) and low sensitivity index scores. In conclusion, our results provide preliminary evidence that patients with quiescent CD, in the absence of IBS, are hyposensate to experimental rectal distension. These data provide further evidence that anxiety and depressive symptomatology in addition to autonomic dysfunction modulate visceral pain perception in quiescent CD patients in the absence of IBS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Opposite Effects of Soluble Factors Secreted by Adipose Tissue on Proliferating and Quiescent Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Pierre; Duteille, Franck; Ridel, Perrine; Heymann, Marie-Françoise; De Pinieux, Gonzague; Rédini, Françoise; Blanchard, Frédéric; Heymann, Dominique; Trichet, Valérie; Perrot, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Autologous adipose tissue transfer may be performed for aesthetic needs following resection of osteosarcoma, the most frequent primary malignant tumor of bone, excluding myeloma. The safety of autologous adipose tissue transfer regarding the potential risk of cancer recurrence must be addressed. Adipose tissue injection was tested in a human osteosarcoma preclinical model induced by MNNG-HOS cells. Culture media without growth factors from fetal bovine serum were conditioned with adipose tissue samples and added to two osteosarcoma cell lines (MNNG-HOS and MG-63) that were cultured in monolayer or maintained in nonadherent spheres, favoring a proliferation or quiescent stage, respectively. Proliferation and cell cycle were analyzed. Adipose tissue injection increased local growth of osteosarcoma in mice but was not associated with aggravation of lung metastasis or osteolysis. Adipose tissue-derived soluble factors increased the in vitro proliferation of osteosarcoma cells up to 180 percent. Interleukin-6 and leptin were measured in higher concentrations in adipose tissue-conditioned medium than in osteosarcoma cell-conditioned medium, but the authors' results indicated that they were not implicated alone. Furthermore, adipose tissue-derived soluble factors did not favor a G0-to-G1 phase transition of MNNG-HOS cells in nonadherent oncospheres. This study indicates that adipose tissue-soluble factors activate osteosarcoma cell cycle from G1 to mitosis phases, but do not promote the transition from quiescent G0 to G1 phases. Autologous adipose tissue transfer may not be involved in the activation of dormant tumor cells or cancer stem cells.

  8. CANDELS: THE PROGENITORS OF COMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barro, Guillermo; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Mozena, Mark; McGrath, Elizabeth; Cheung, Edmond; Fang, Jerome; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Williams, Christina C.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F.; Croton, Darren J.; Ceverino, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Ashby, M. L. N.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fontana, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    We combine high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 images with multi-wavelength photometry to track the evolution of structure and activity of massive (M * > 10 10 M ☉ ) galaxies at redshifts z = 1.4-3 in two fields of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. We detect compact, star-forming galaxies (cSFGs) whose number densities, masses, sizes, and star formation rates (SFRs) qualify them as likely progenitors of compact, quiescent, massive galaxies (cQGs) at z = 1.5-3. At z ∼> 2, cSFGs present SFR = 100-200 M ☉ yr –1 , yet their specific star formation rates (sSFR ∼ 10 –9 yr –1 ) are typically half that of other massive SFGs at the same epoch, and host X-ray luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) 30 times (∼30%) more frequently. These properties suggest that cSFGs are formed by gas-rich processes (mergers or disk-instabilities) that induce a compact starburst and feed an AGN, which, in turn, quench the star formation on dynamical timescales (few 10 8 yr). The cSFGs are continuously being formed at z = 2-3 and fade to cQGs down to z ∼ 1.5. After this epoch, cSFGs are rare, thereby truncating the formation of new cQGs. Meanwhile, down to z = 1, existing cQGs continue to enlarge to match local QGs in size, while less-gas-rich mergers and other secular mechanisms shepherd (larger) SFGs as later arrivals to the red sequence. In summary, we propose two evolutionary tracks of QG formation: an early (z ∼> 2), formation path of rapidly quenched cSFGs fading into cQGs that later enlarge within the quiescent phase, and a late-arrival (z ∼< 2) path in which larger SFGs form extended QGs without passing through a compact state.

  9. Self-propelled heaving and pitching flexible fin in a quiescent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Boyoung; Park, Sung Goon; Huang, Weixi; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A self-propelled flexible fin with heaving and pitching motions in a quiescent flow has been simulated by using the penalty immersed boundary method. • The cruising speed and the swimming efficiency of the self-propelled fin were determined as functions of the bending coefficient (γ), the heaving amplitude (A_h). • We optimized the cruising speed and the swimming efficiency with respect to γ, f, A_h, A_p, and Δϕ. - Abstract: A self-propelled flexible fin with heaving and pitching motions in a quiescent flow has been simulated by using the penalty immersed boundary method. The flexible fin can move freely in the horizontal direction and the body of the flexible fin moves passively along with the active head motion. The position of the head of the fin was described as a harmonic heaving oscillation in the vertical direction, while the inclination angle of the head was prescribed as a harmonic oscillation with a moving clamped condition for the heaving and pitching fin. The cruising speed and the swimming efficiency of the self-propelled fin were determined as functions of the bending stiffness (γ), the heaving amplitude (A_h), the pitching amplitude (A_p), the flapping frequency (f) and the phase difference (Δϕ) between A_h and A_p. We optimized the cruising speed and the swimming efficiency with respect to γ, f, A_h, A_p and Δϕ. For a certain range of A_p, the swimming efficiency of the heaving and pitching fin is larger than that of a heaving-only fin.

  10. 1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine is cytotoxic in quiescent normal lymphocytes undergoing DNA excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kawai, Yasukazu; Ueda, Takanori [Fukui Medical Univ., Matsuoka (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We have sought to clarify the potential activity of the S-phase-specific antileukemic agent 1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C), an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, in quiescent cells that are substantially non-sensitive to nucleoside analogues. It was hypothesized that the combination of ara-C with DNA damaging agents that initiate DNA repair will expand ara-C cytotoxicity to non-cycling cells. The repair kinetics, which included incision of damaged DNA, gap-filling by DNA synthesis and rejoining by ligation, were evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay and the thymidine incorporation assay. When normal lymphocytes were treated with ultraviolet C or with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), the processes of DNA excision repair were promptly initiated and rapidly completed. When the cells were incubated with ara-C prior to irradiation or BCNU treatment, the steps of DNA synthesis and rejoining in the repair processes were both inhibited. The ara-C-mediated inhibition of the repair processes was concentration-dependent, with the effect peaking at 10{mu}M. The combination of ara-C with these DNA repair initiators exerted subsequent cytotoxicity, which was proportional to the extent of the repair inhibition in the presence of ara-C. In conclusion, ara-C was cytotoxic in quiescent cells undergoing DNA repair. This might be attributed to unrepaired DNA damage that remained in the cells, thereby inducing lethal cytotoxicity. Alternatively, ara-C might exert its own cytotoxicity by inhibiting DNA synthesis in the repair processes. Such a strategy may be effective against a dormant subpopulation in acute leukemia that survives chemotherapy. (author)

  11. 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine is cytotoxic in quiescent normal lymphocytes undergoing DNA excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Takahiro; Kawai, Yasukazu; Ueda, Takanori

    2002-01-01

    We have sought to clarify the potential activity of the S-phase-specific antileukemic agent 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C), an inhibitor of DNA synthesis, in quiescent cells that are substantially non-sensitive to nucleoside analogues. It was hypothesized that the combination of ara-C with DNA damaging agents that initiate DNA repair will expand ara-C cytotoxicity to non-cycling cells. The repair kinetics, which included incision of damaged DNA, gap-filling by DNA synthesis and rejoining by ligation, were evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay and the thymidine incorporation assay. When normal lymphocytes were treated with ultraviolet C or with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), the processes of DNA excision repair were promptly initiated and rapidly completed. When the cells were incubated with ara-C prior to irradiation or BCNU treatment, the steps of DNA synthesis and rejoining in the repair processes were both inhibited. The ara-C-mediated inhibition of the repair processes was concentration-dependent, with the effect peaking at 10μM. The combination of ara-C with these DNA repair initiators exerted subsequent cytotoxicity, which was proportional to the extent of the repair inhibition in the presence of ara-C. In conclusion, ara-C was cytotoxic in quiescent cells undergoing DNA repair. This might be attributed to unrepaired DNA damage that remained in the cells, thereby inducing lethal cytotoxicity. Alternatively, ara-C might exert its own cytotoxicity by inhibiting DNA synthesis in the repair processes. Such a strategy may be effective against a dormant subpopulation in acute leukemia that survives chemotherapy. (author)

  12. Recent results for Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brient, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents recent results from the Mark III detector at SPEAR, in the open charm sector. The first topic discussed is the reanalysis of the direct measurement of the D hadronic branching fractions, where a detailed study has been made of the Cabibbo suppressed and multi-π 0 's D decays backgrounds in the double tag sample. Next, the Dalitz plot analysis of the D decays to Kππ is presented, leading to the relative fractions of three-body versus pseudoscalarvector decays. 7 refs., 5 figs

  13. The Mark III vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Bolton, T.; Bunnell, K.

    1987-07-01

    The design and construction of the new Mark III vertex chamber is described. Initial tests with cosmic rays prove the ability of track reconstruction and yield triplet resolutions below 50 μm at 3 atm using argon/ethane (50:50). Also performed are studies using a prototype of a pressurized wire vertex chamber with 8 mm diameter straw geometry. Spatial resolution of 35mm was obtained using dimethyl ether (DME) at 1 atm and 30 μm using argon/ethane (50/50 mixture) at 4 atm. Preliminary studies indicate the DME to adversely affect such materials as aluminized Mylar and Delrin

  14. 46 CFR 185.602 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 185.602 Section 185.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67...

  15. 27 CFR 28.193 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.193... Drawback Filing of Notice and Removal § 28.193 Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required... chapter, the exporter shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of each case or Government head...

  16. 27 CFR 28.103 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.103... Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.103 Export marks. (a) General. In addition to the marks and brands required... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  17. 27 CFR 28.144 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.144... § 28.144 Export marks. (a) General Requirement. In addition to the marks and brands required to be... brewer shall mark the word “Export” on each container or case of beer, or the words “Beer concentrate for...

  18. 27 CFR 28.154 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.154..., for Exportation or Transfer to a Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.154 Export marks. In addition to the marks... provisions of part 19 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on the Government side of...

  19. Genome-wide Gene Expression Analysis of Mucosal Colonic Biopsies and Isolated Colonocytes Suggests a Continuous Inflammatory State in the Lamina Propria of Patients with Quiescent Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Hansen, Morten; Olsen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    colonocytes from UC patients and controls in order to identify the cell types responsible for the continuous inflammatory state. Methods: Adjacent mucosal colonic biopsies were obtained endoscopically from the descending colon in patients with active UC (n = 8), quiescent UC (n = 9), and with irritable bowel......Background: Genome-wide gene expression (GWGE) profiles of mucosal colonic biopsies have suggested the existence of a continuous inflammatory state in quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this study was to use DNA microarray-based GWGE profiling of mucosal colonic biopsies and isolated......-discriminant analysis using the SIMCA-P 11 software (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden). Results: A clear separation between active UC, quiescent UC, and control biopsies were found, whereas the model for the colonocytes was unable to distinguish between quiescent UC and controls. The differentiation between quiescent UC...

  20. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007).

  1. Premalignant quiescent melanocytic nevi do not express the MHC class I chain-related protein A Los nevos melanocíticos premalignos quiescentes no expresan la molécula MHC class I chain-related protein A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes B. Fuertes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA is an inducible molecule almost not expressed by normal cells but strongly up-regulated in tumor cells. MICA-expressing cells are recognized by natural killer (NK cells, CD8+ aßTCR and ?dTCR T lymphocytes through the NKG2D receptor. Engagement of NKG2D by MICA triggers IFN-? secretion and cytotoxicity against malignant cells. Although most solid tumors express MICA and this molecule is a target during immune surveillance against tumors, it has been observed that high grade tumors from different histotypes express low amounts of cell surface MICA due to a metalloprotease- induced shedding. Also, melanomas develop after a complex process of neotransformation of normal melanocytes. However, the expression of MICA in premalignant stages (primary human quiescent melanocytic nevi remains unknown. Here, we assessed expression of MICA by flow cytometry using cell suspensions from 15 primary nevi isolated from 11 patients. When collected material was abundant, cell lysates were prepared and MICA expression was also analyzed by Western blot. We observed that MICA was undetectable in the 15 primary nevi (intradermic, junction, mixed, lentigo and congenital samples as well as in normal skin, benign lesions (seborrheic keratosis, premalignant lesions (actinic keratosis and benign basocellular cancer. Conversely, a primary recently diagnosed melanoma showed intense cell surface MICA. We conclude that the onset of MICA expression is a tightly regulated process that occurs after melanocytes trespass the stage of malignant transformation. Thus, analysis of MICA expression in tissue sections of skin samples may constitute a useful marker to differentiate between benign and malignant nevi.MHC class I chain-related protein A (MICA es una molécula casi ausente en células normales pero sobre-expresada por células tumorales, que promueve el reconocimiento por células citotóxicas naturales (natural killer o NK y por

  2. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Trifonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  3. Cavernous hemangioma presenting marked hyperostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobata, Hitoshi; Miyake, Hiroji; Kitamura, Junji; Kajikawa, Hiroshi; Ohta, Tomio

    1988-01-01

    The authors report here a case of hemangioma of the left parietal bone which presented headache and papilledema. This patient is a 37-year-old female who had, prior to admission, complained of increasing headache for one year and blurred vision for three months. She had no history of head injury. Local physical examinations revealed a slight bulging in her left parietal region which was insensitive to palpation and not adherent to the overlying scalp. Neurological examinations revealed bilateral papilledema and an incongruous bitemporal upper quadrant defect in the visual field. All the other neurological and laboratory data were normal. A plain skull roentogenogram showed a 9 x 9 cm osteolytic and characteristic honeycomb lesion in the parietal region. Systemic bone survey revealed a similar lesion in the right tibia which was not histologically examined. A marked accumulation of isotopes was detected on the bone scintigrams at both lesions. Selective external carotid angiograms demonstrated a tumor stain fed by the superficial temporal, occipital, and middle meningial arteries. CT scans of the brain and skull clearly showed a local thickening of and structural changes in the skull bone and also a mass effect on the brain and lateral ventricle. The lesioned bone was removed en bloc and replaced by an artificial bone. It was highly vascular, but not adherent to the overlying dura. The post-operative course was uneventful, and the headache and papilledema disappeared. Hemangioma of the skull presenting marked hyperostosis, as reported above, seems to be rare. In addition, in this case, skeletal angioma without any clinical manifestation was detected. Clinical and radiological pictures of the hemangioma of the skull and other bones were briefly discussed. (author)

  4. QUIESCENT PROMINENCE DYNAMICS OBSERVED WITH THE HINODE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE. I. TURBULENT UPFLOW PLUMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Lites, Bruce W.; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) observations reveal two new dynamic modes in quiescent solar prominences: large-scale (20-50 Mm) 'arches' or 'bubbles' that 'inflate' from below into prominences, and smaller-scale (2-6 Mm) dark turbulent upflows. These novel dynamics are related in that they are always dark in visible-light spectral bands, they rise through the bright prominence emission with approximately constant speeds, and the small-scale upflows are sometimes observed to emanate from the top of the larger bubbles. Here we present detailed kinematic measurements of the small-scale turbulent upflows seen in several prominences in the SOT database. The dark upflows typically initiate vertically from 5 to 10 Mm wide dark cavities between the bottom of the prominence and the top of the chromospheric spicule layer. Small perturbations on the order of 1 Mm or less in size grow on the upper boundaries of cavities to generate plumes up to 4-6 Mm across at their largest widths. All plumes develop highly turbulent profiles, including occasional Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex 'roll-up' of the leading edge. The flows typically rise 10-15 Mm before decelerating to equilibrium. We measure the flowfield characteristics with a manual tracing method and with the Nonlinear Affine Velocity Estimator (NAVE) 'optical flow' code to derive velocity, acceleration, lifetime, and height data for several representative plumes. Maximum initial speeds are in the range of 20-30 km s -1 , which is supersonic for a ∼10,000 K plasma. The plumes decelerate in the final few Mm of their trajectories resulting in mean ascent speeds of 13-17 km s -1 . Typical lifetimes range from 300 to 1000 s (∼5-15 minutes). The area growth rate of the plumes (observed as two-dimensional objects in the plane of the sky) is initially linear and ranges from 20,000 to 30,000 km 2 s -1 reaching maximum projected areas from 2 to 15 Mm 2 . Maximum contrast of the dark flows relative to the bright prominence plasma in

  5. Quiescent Prominence Dynamics Observed with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope. I. Turbulent Upflow Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas E.; Slater, Gregory; Hurlburt, Neal; Shine, Richard; Tarbell, Theodore; Title, Alan; Lites, Bruce W.; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Katsukawa, Yukio; Magara, Tetsuya; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2010-06-01

    Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) observations reveal two new dynamic modes in quiescent solar prominences: large-scale (20-50 Mm) "arches" or "bubbles" that "inflate" from below into prominences, and smaller-scale (2-6 Mm) dark turbulent upflows. These novel dynamics are related in that they are always dark in visible-light spectral bands, they rise through the bright prominence emission with approximately constant speeds, and the small-scale upflows are sometimes observed to emanate from the top of the larger bubbles. Here we present detailed kinematic measurements of the small-scale turbulent upflows seen in several prominences in the SOT database. The dark upflows typically initiate vertically from 5 to 10 Mm wide dark cavities between the bottom of the prominence and the top of the chromospheric spicule layer. Small perturbations on the order of 1 Mm or less in size grow on the upper boundaries of cavities to generate plumes up to 4-6 Mm across at their largest widths. All plumes develop highly turbulent profiles, including occasional Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex "roll-up" of the leading edge. The flows typically rise 10-15 Mm before decelerating to equilibrium. We measure the flowfield characteristics with a manual tracing method and with the Nonlinear Affine Velocity Estimator (NAVE) "optical flow" code to derive velocity, acceleration, lifetime, and height data for several representative plumes. Maximum initial speeds are in the range of 20-30 km s-1, which is supersonic for a ~10,000 K plasma. The plumes decelerate in the final few Mm of their trajectories resulting in mean ascent speeds of 13-17 km s-1. Typical lifetimes range from 300 to 1000 s (~5-15 minutes). The area growth rate of the plumes (observed as two-dimensional objects in the plane of the sky) is initially linear and ranges from 20,000 to 30,000 km2 s-1 reaching maximum projected areas from 2 to 15 Mm2. Maximum contrast of the dark flows relative to the bright prominence plasma in SOT images

  6. Modeling quiescent phase transport of air bubbles induced by breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fengyan; Kirby, James T.; Ma, Gangfeng

    Simultaneous modeling of both the acoustic phase and quiescent phase of breaking wave-induced air bubbles involves a large range of length scales from microns to meters and time scales from milliseconds to seconds, and thus is computational unaffordable in a surfzone-scale computational domain. In this study, we use an air bubble entrainment formula in a two-fluid model to predict air bubble evolution in the quiescent phase in a breaking wave event. The breaking wave-induced air bubble entrainment is formulated by connecting the shear production at the air-water interface and the bubble number intensity with a certain bubble size spectra observed in laboratory experiments. A two-fluid model is developed based on the partial differential equations of the gas-liquid mixture phase and the continuum bubble phase, which has multiple size bubble groups representing a polydisperse bubble population. An enhanced 2-DV VOF (Volume of Fluid) model with a k - ɛ turbulence closure is used to model the mixture phase. The bubble phase is governed by the advection-diffusion equations of the gas molar concentration and bubble intensity for groups of bubbles with different sizes. The model is used to simulate air bubble plumes measured in laboratory experiments. Numerical results indicate that, with an appropriate parameter in the air entrainment formula, the model is able to predict the main features of bubbly flows as evidenced by reasonable agreement with measured void fraction. Bubbles larger than an intermediate radius of O(1 mm) make a major contribution to void fraction in the near-crest region. Smaller bubbles tend to penetrate deeper and stay longer in the water column, resulting in significant contribution to the cross-sectional area of the bubble cloud. An underprediction of void fraction is found at the beginning of wave breaking when large air pockets take place. The core region of high void fraction predicted by the model is dislocated due to use of the shear

  7. A SUBSTANTIAL POPULATION OF MASSIVE QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT z ∼ 4 FROM ZFOURGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Labbé, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Allen, Rebecca; Glazebrook, Karl; Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Altieri, Bruno [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)/ESA, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28691, Madrid (Spain); Brammer, Gabriel B. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Dickinson, Mark; Inami, Hanae [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Kawinwanichakij, Lalit; Mehrtens, Nicola; Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kelson, Daniel D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Monson, Andy; Murphy, David; Persson, S. Eric; Quadri, Ryan, E-mail: straatman@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2014-03-01

    We report the likely identification of a substantial population of massive M ∼ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} galaxies at z ∼ 4 with suppressed star formation rates (SFRs), selected on rest-frame optical to near-IR colors from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). The observed spectral energy distributions show pronounced breaks, sampled by a set of near-IR medium-bandwidth filters, resulting in tightly constrained photometric redshifts. Fitting stellar population models suggests large Balmer/4000 Å breaks, relatively old stellar populations, large stellar masses, and low SFRs, with a median specific SFR of 2.9 ± 1.8 × 10{sup –11} yr{sup –1}. Ultradeep Herschel/PACS 100 μm, 160 μm and Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm data reveal no dust-obscured SFR activity for 15/19(79%) galaxies. Two far-IR detected galaxies are obscured QSOs. Stacking the far-IR undetected galaxies yields no detection, consistent with the spectral energy distribution fit, indicating independently that the average specific SFR is at least 10 × smaller than that of typical star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 4. Assuming all far-IR undetected galaxies are indeed quiescent, the volume density is 1.8 ± 0.7 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup –3} to a limit of log{sub 10} M/M {sub ☉} ≥ 10.6, which is 10 × and 80 × lower than at z = 2 and z = 0.1. They comprise a remarkably high fraction (∼35%) of z ∼ 4 massive galaxies, suggesting that suppression of star formation was efficient even at very high redshift. Given the average stellar age of 0.8 Gyr and stellar mass of 0.8 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, the galaxies likely started forming stars before z = 5, with SFRs well in excess of 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, far exceeding that of similarly abundant UV-bright galaxies at z ≥ 4. This suggests that most of the star formation in the progenitors of quiescent z ∼ 4 galaxies was obscured by dust.

  8. Identification of markers for quiescent pancreatic stellate cells in the normal human pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Michael Friberg Bruun; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2017-10-01

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a central role as source of fibrogenic cells in pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. In contrast to quiescent hepatic stellate cells (qHSCs), a specific marker for quiescent PSCs (qPSCs) that can be used in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) normal human pancreatic tissue has not been identified. The aim of this study was to identify a marker enabling the identification of qPSCs in normal human FFPE pancreatic tissue. Immunohistochemical (IHC), double-IHC, immunofluorescence (IF) and double-IF analyses were carried out using a tissue microarray consisting of cores with normal human pancreatic tissue. Cores with normal human liver served as control. Antibodies directed against adipophilin, α-SMA, CD146, CRBP-1, cytoglobin, desmin, GFAP, nestin, S100A4 and vinculin were examined, with special emphasis on their expression in periacinar cells in the normal human pancreas and perisinusoidal cells in the normal human liver. The immunolabelling capacity was evaluated according to a semiquantitative scoring system. Double-IF of the markers of interest together with markers for other periacinar cells was performed. Moreover, the utility of histochemical stains for the identification of human qPSCs was examined, and their ultrastructure was revisited by electron microscopy. Adipophilin, CRBP-1, cytoglobin and vinculin were expressed in qHSCs in the liver, whereas cytoglobin and adipophilin were expressed in qPSCs in the pancreas. Adipophilin immunohistochemistry was highly dependent on the preanalytical time interval (PATI) from removal of the tissue to formalin fixation. Cytoglobin, S100A4 and vinculin were expressed in periacinar fibroblasts (FBs). The other examined markers were negative in human qPSCs. Our data indicate that cytoglobin and adipophilin are markers of qPSCs in the normal human pancreas. However, the use of adipophilin as a qPSC marker may be limited due to its high dependence on optimal PATI

  9. Insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, C.R.; Harrison, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on insulin receptors. Part A: Methods for the study of structure and function. Topics covered include: Method for purification and labeling of insulin receptors, the insulin receptor kinase, and insulin receptors on special tissues

  10. Targeted folate receptor β fluorescence imaging as a measure of inflammation to estimate vulnerability within human atherosclerotic carotid plaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Nynke A.; Westra, Johanna; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Teteloshvili, Nato; Tio, Rene A.; Breek, Jan-Cees; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Low, Phillip S.; Bijl, Marc; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    UNLABELLED: The probability of atherosclerotic plaque rupture and its thrombotic sequelae are thought to be increased at sites of macrophage accumulation. Folate receptor β (FR-β) is present on activated macrophages but not on quiescent macrophages or other immune cells. By conjugating the ligand

  11. Cooperative Shark Mark Recapture Database (MRDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shark Mark Recapture Database is a Cooperative Research Program database system used to keep multispecies mark-recapture information in a common format for...

  12. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  13. Serviceable pavement marking retroreflectivity levels : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This research addressed an array of issues related to measuring pavement markings retroreflectivity, factors : related to pavement marking performance, subjective evaluation process, best practices for using mobile : retroreflectometers, sampling pav...

  14. THE AGE SPREAD OF QUIESCENT GALAXIES WITH THE NEWFIRM MEDIUM-BAND SURVEY: IDENTIFICATION OF THE OLDEST GALAXIES OUT TO z ∼ 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Bezanson, Rachel; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Muzzin, Adam; Wake, David A.; Kriek, Mariska; Franx, Marijn; Quadri, Ryan F.; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Illingworth, Garth D.; Rudnick, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    With a complete, mass-selected sample of quiescent galaxies from the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, we study the stellar populations of the oldest and most massive galaxies (>10 11 M sun ) to high redshift. The sample includes 570 quiescent galaxies selected based on their extinction-corrected U - V colors out to z = 2.2, with accurate photometric redshifts, σ z /(1 + z) ∼ 2%, and rest-frame colors, σ U-V ∼ 0.06 mag. We measure an increase in the intrinsic scatter of the rest-frame U - V colors of quiescent galaxies with redshift. This scatter in color arises from the spread in ages of the quiescent galaxies, where we see both relatively quiescent red, old galaxies and quiescent blue, younger galaxies toward higher redshift. The trends between color and age are consistent with the observed composite rest-frame spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these galaxies. The composite SEDs of the reddest and bluest quiescent galaxies are fundamentally different, with remarkably well-defined 4000 A and Balmer breaks, respectively. Some of the quiescent galaxies may be up to four times older than the average age and up to the age of the universe, if the assumption of solar metallicity is correct. By matching the scatter predicted by models that include growth of the red sequence by the transformation of blue galaxies to the observed intrinsic scatter, the data indicate that most early-type galaxies formed their stars at high redshift with a burst of star formation prior to migrating to the red sequence. The observed U - V color evolution with redshift is weaker than passive evolution predicts; possible mechanisms to slow the color evolution include increasing amounts of dust in quiescent galaxies toward higher redshift, red mergers at z ∼< 1, and a frosting of relatively young stars from star formation at later times.

  15. [Marked hemosiderosis in myelodysplastic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinz, C

    1999-01-29

    A 68-year-old man was admitted because of symptoms of lumbar pain. He was known to have chronic anemia with ring sideroblasts and diabetes melitus and to be in heart failure. Three months before he had been given 7 units of red cell concentrate. On admission the outstanding features were brown discoloration of the skin, absent body hair, tachycardia, hepatomegaly and small testicles. He had a normocytic anemia, hyperglycemia and raised transaminases, hypogonadism and vitamin D3 deficiency. The serum levels of iron, transferrin saturation and feritin were markedly elevated. Liver iron content/g dried liver was 4.2 g (by biomagnetometer). Radiology of the lumbar vertebrae showed osteoporosis and sonography confirmed hepatomegaly. The known myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) had fed to secondary hemosiderosis with heart failure, liver involvement, diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and osteoporosis. Symptomatic treatment was unsuccessfully complemented by desferoxamine (up to 4 g/12 h) to release iron. But very good iron excretion was then achieved with deferiprone (3 x 1 g/d). The patient later died of the sequelae of hemosiderosis. Even when they have not required transfusions, patients with long-standing MDS should be examined regularly for the possible development of secondary hemosiderosis so that iron-chelating agents can be administered as needed.

  16. EDMS - Reaching the Million Mark

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    When Christophe Seith from the company Cegelec sat down to work on 14 May 2009 at 10:09 a.m. to create the EDMS document entitled "Rapport tournée PH semaine 20", little did he know that he would be the proud creator of the millionth EDMS document and the happy prize winner of a celebratory bottle of champagne to mark the occasion. In the run up to the creation of the millionth EDMS document the EDMS team had been closely monitoring the steady rise in the EDMS number generator, so as to ensure the switch from the six figured i.d. to seven figures would run smoothly and of course, to be able to congratulate the creator of the millionth EDMS document. From left to right: Stephan Petit (GS-ASE- EDS Section Leader), Christophe Delamare (GS- ASE Group Leader), Christophe Seith, creator of the millionth EDMS document, David Widegren, (GS-ASE- EPS Section Leader). The millionth EDMS document. For t...

  17. Three-dimensional effects of curved plasma actuators in quiescent air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chincheng; Durscher, Ryan; Roy, Subrata

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results on a new class of curved plasma actuators for the inducement of three-dimensional vortical structures. The nature of the fluid flow inducement on a flat plate, in quiescent conditions, due to four different shapes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators is numerically investigated. The three-dimensional plasma kinetic equations are solved using our in-house, finite element based, multiscale ionized gas (MIG) flow code. Numerical results show electron temperature and three dimensional plasma force vectors for four shapes, which include linear, triangular, serpentine, and square actuators. Three-dimensional effects such as pinching and spreading the neighboring fluid are observed for serpentine and square actuators. The mechanisms of vorticity generation for DBD actuators are discussed. Also the influence of geometric wavelength (λ) and amplitude (Λ) of the serpentine and square actuators on vectored thrust inducement is predicted. This results in these actuators producing significantly better flow mixing downstream as compared to the standard linear actuator. Increasing the wavelengths of serpentine and square actuators in the spanwise direction is shown to enhance the pinching effect giving a much higher vertical velocity. On the contrary, changing the amplitude of the curved actuator varies the streamwise velocity significantly influencing the near wall jet. Experimental data for a serpentine actuator are also reported for validation purpose.

  18. BCL-2 inhibition targets oxidative phosphorylation and selectively eradicates quiescent human leukemia stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadinou, Eleni D.; Sach, Alexander; Callahan, Kevin; Rossi, Randall M.; Neering, Sarah J.; Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Ashton, John M.; Pei, Shanshan; Grose, Valerie; O’Dwyer, Kristen M.; Liesveld, Jane L.; Brookes, Paul S.; Becker, Michael W.; Jordan, Craig T.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most forms of chemotherapy employ mechanisms involving induction of oxidative stress, a strategy that can be effective due to the elevated oxidative state commonly observed in cancer cells. However, recent studies have shown that relative redox levels in primary tumors can be heterogeneous, suggesting that regimens dependent on differential oxidative state may not be uniformly effective. To investigate this issue in hematological malignancies, we evaluated mechanisms controlling oxidative state in primary specimens derived from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients. Our studies demonstrate three striking findings. First, the majority of functionally-defined leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are characterized by relatively low levels of reactive oxygen species (termed “ROS-low”). Second, ROS-low LSCs aberrantly over-express BCL-2. Third, BCL-2 inhibition reduced oxidative phosphorylation and selectively eradicated quiescent LSCs. Based on these findings, we propose a model wherein the unique physiology of ROS-low LSCs provides an opportunity for selective targeting via disruption of BCL-2-dependent oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:23333149

  19. Targeting Mitochondrial Function to Treat Quiescent Tumor Cells in Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The disorganized nature of tumor vasculature results in the generation of microenvironments characterized by nutrient starvation, hypoxia and accumulation of acidic metabolites. Tumor cell populations in such areas are often slowly proliferating and thus refractory to chemotherapeutical drugs that are dependent on an active cell cycle. There is an urgent need for alternative therapeutic interventions that circumvent growth dependency. The screening of drug libraries using multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS or glucose-starved tumor cells has led to the identification of several compounds with promising therapeutic potential and that display activity on quiescent tumor cells. Interestingly, a common theme of these drug screens is the recurrent identification of agents that affect mitochondrial function. Such data suggest that, contrary to the classical Warburg view, tumor cells in nutritionally-compromised microenvironments are dependent on mitochondrial function for energy metabolism and survival. These findings suggest that mitochondria may represent an “Achilles heel” for the survival of slowly-proliferating tumor cells and suggest strategies for the development of therapy to target these cell populations.

  20. DNA supercoiling in proliferating and quiescent 67 murine mammary tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran-Sandhu, L.; Warters, R.L.; Dethlefsen, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The nucleoid sedimentation assay, which is a measure of DNA ''compactness'' or supercoiling, was used to evaluate the supercoiling state of proliferating (P) and quiescent (Q) murine mammary tumor cells. Two day old cultures are referred to as P cells, whereas 7 day old cultures maintained without media replenishment are referred to as Q cells (>95% arrested in G/sub 1/). Q nucleoids sedimented significantly less far into neutral sucrose gradients than P nucleoids, suggesting a less compact DNA structure. This was further confirmed by the utilization of two other probes of DNA supercoiling: ionizing radiation and sedimentation through gradients containing the intercalator ethidium bromide (EtBr). Whereas nucleoids from P cells showed a decrease in sedimentation following ionizing radiation and an initial decrease, followed by an increase, in sedimentation through gradients containing increasing concentrations of EtBr, the sedimentation of nucleoids from Q cells did not change following either treatment. These data indicate that the DNA of nucleoids isolated from Q cells is in a ''relaxed'' state. The potential significance of these results is discussed

  1. Observaciones del disco solar y de una protuberancia quiescente en radiación ultravioleta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirigliano, D.; Vial, J.-C.; Rovira, M.

    Observaciones del disco solar y de una protuberancia quiescente en el rango de longitudes de onda ultravioleta fueron obtenidas con el instrumento CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrograph) y SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of emitted radiation) a bordo de la sonda SOHO. El propósito es investigar las velocidades macroscópicas de varias especies metálicas que se observan tanto en el disco solar como en el plasma de las protuberancias. Para calcular las velocidades del disco solar aplicamos una técnica mixta para modelar la distribución de estructuras en UV en el Sol quieto. Las velocidades macroscópicas en las protuberancias se calcularon a partir de los corrimientos Doppler en cada línea espectral y luego se tomaron las del disco solar como referencia. Obtuvimos valores absolutos para las velocidades macroscópicas entre 5 y 40 km/seg. También detectamos comportamientos diferentes en las velocidades de las protuberancias en el centro con respecto a los bordes.

  2. A Quiescent Phase in Human Mortality? Exploring the Ages of Least Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Michal; Seplaki, Christopher L; Varadhan, Ravi

    2017-06-01

    Demographic studies of mortality often emphasize the two ends of the lifespan, focusing on the declining hazard after birth or the increasing risk of death at older ages. We call attention to the intervening phase, when humans are least vulnerable to the force of mortality, and consider its features in both evolutionary and historical perspectives. We define this quiescent phase (Q-phase) formally, estimate its bounds using life tables for Swedish cohorts born between 1800 and 1920, and describe changes in the morphology of the Q-phase. We show that for cohorts aging during Sweden's demographic and epidemiological transitions, the Q-phase became longer and more pronounced, reflecting the retreat of infections and maternal mortality as key causes of death. These changes revealed an underlying hazard trajectory that remains relatively low and constant during the prime ages for reproduction and investment in both personal capital and relationships with others. Our characterization of the Q-phase highlights it as a unique, dynamic, and historically contingent cohort feature, whose increased visibility was made possible by the rapid pace of survival improvements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This visibility may be reduced or sustained under subsequent demographic regimes.

  3. EVIDENCE FOR ROTATIONAL MOTIONS IN THE FEET OF A QUIESCENT SOLAR PROMINENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present observational evidence of apparent plasma rotational motions in the feet of a solar prominence. Our study is based on spectroscopic observations taken in the He I 1083.0 nm multiplet with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter attached to the German Vacuum Tower Telescope. We recorded a time sequence of spectra with 34 s cadence placing the slit of the spectrograph almost parallel to the solar limb and crossing two feet of an intermediate size, quiescent hedgerow prominence. The data show opposite Doppler shifts, ±6 km s –1 , at the edges of the prominence feet. We argue that these shifts may be interpreted as prominence plasma rotating counterclockwise around the vertical axis to the solar surface as viewed from above. The evolution of the prominence seen in EUV images taken with the Solar Dynamics Observatory provided us with clues to interpret the results as swirling motions. Moreover, time-distance images taken far from the central wavelength show plasma structures moving parallel to the solar limb with velocities of about 10-15 km s –1 . Finally, the shapes of the observed intensity profiles suggest the presence of, at least, two components at some locations at the edges of the prominence feet. One of them is typically Doppler shifted (up to ∼20 km s –1 ) with respect to the other, thus suggesting the existence of supersonic counter-streaming flows along the line of sight.

  4. Force acting on a spherical bubble rising through a quiescent liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    1996-01-01

    The direct numerical simulation is performed on the spherical bubble unsteadily rising through a quiescent liquid. The method is based on a finite-volume solution of the equations on an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. The calculations are performed for a bubble rising through a clean liquid and contaminated one. Following the former experimental results, the tangential stress free condition is given for a clean bubble, and no-slip condition for contaminated one. The numerical results are compared with those of the model equation of the translational motion of the bubble, which is often used in numerical models of a bubbly flow. The steady drag, added mass and history terms are checked up by the comparison. It is revealed that the history force effect is negligible for a bubble rising through the clean liquid beyond Re=O(50). From the numerical point of view, the fact that the history force is negligible is quite important, because it reduces the calculation time and memory for a bubbly flow model. For a contaminated bubble, history force effect is not negligible even though the Reynolds number is high enough. It is found that the expression of the history force by Basset kernel gives an over-estimation of the history force for the bubble rising at moderate Reynolds number. This error becomes larger with increasing Reynolds number and it reduces the accuracy to calculate the bubble motion by the model equation. (author)

  5. FINE MAGNETIC STRUCTURE AND ORIGIN OF COUNTER-STREAMING MASS FLOWS IN A QUIESCENT SOLAR PROMINENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Zhong; Liu, Ying D.; Chen, P. F.; Su, Jiangtao

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of a quiescent solar prominence that consists of a vertical and a horizontal foot encircled by an overlying spine and has ubiquitous counter-streaming mass flows. While the horizontal foot and the spine were connected to the solar surface, the vertical foot was suspended above the solar surface and was supported by a semicircular bubble structure. The bubble first collapsed, then reformed at a similar height, and finally started to oscillate for a long time. We find that the collapse and oscillation of the bubble boundary were tightly associated with a flare-like feature located at the bottom of the bubble. Based on the observational results, we propose that the prominence should be composed of an overlying horizontal spine encircling a low-lying horizontal and vertical foot, in which the horizontal foot consists of shorter field lines running partially along the spine and has ends connected to the solar surface, while the vertical foot consists of piling-up dips due to the sagging of the spine fields and is supported by a bipolar magnetic system formed by parasitic polarities (i.e., the bubble). The upflows in the vertical foot were possibly caused by the magnetic reconnection at the separator between the bubble and the overlying dips, which intruded into the persistent downflow field and formed the picture of counter-streaming mass flows. In addition, the counter-streaming flows in the horizontal foot were possibly caused by the imbalanced pressure at the both ends

  6. Long-term survival of quiescent left atrial myxoma in an elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jay F L; Chow, Wing Hing

    2002-01-01

    Left atrial myxoma, if left untreated, is inexorably progressive and usually fatal. The classical management of this disease is prompt surgical removal. However, there may be exceptions to this traditional dogma. The authors report an 85-year-old man who presented with features of chronic obstructive airway disease and congestive heart failure 15 years previously. Auscultation of the heart showed a pansystolic murmur. Two-dimensional echocardiography revealed a nonobstructive, calcified, and well circumscribed mass in the left atrium, with a pedicle attached to the interatrial septum. Because the patient refused high-risk cardiac surgery related to his comorbidity, he was managed medically with a bronchodilator, diuretics, and digoxin. There have been no features of embolism or intracardiac obstruction, and serial echocardiography demonstrates no disease progression over this long period of time. This case illustrates that calcified left atrial myxoma may exhibit a quiescent phase. Tumor calcification, slow growth potential, and the absence of intracardiac obstruction may correlate with a better outcome in the elderly patient. (c)2002 CVRR, Inc.

  7. The effect of chordwise flexibility on flapping foil propulsion in quiescent fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Sachin; Arakeri, Jaywant

    2010-11-01

    Motivated to understand the role of wing flexibility of flying creatures during hovering, we experimentally study the effect of chordwise flexibility on the flow generated in quiescent fluid by a sinusoidally pitching rigid symmetrical foil with a flexible flap attached at the trailing edge. This foil produces a narrow, coherent jet containing reverse Karman vortex street, and a corresponding thrust. The thrust and flow is similar to that produced by a hovering bird or insect, however the mechanism seems to be different from known hovering mechanisms. Novelty of the present hovering mechanism is that the thrust generation is due to the coordinated pushing action of rigid foil and flexible flap. We identify the flow and vortex generation mechanism. This foil produces jet flows over a range of flapping frequencies and amplitudes. In contrast, the foil without flap i.e. with rigid trailing edge produces a weak, divergent jet that meanders randomly. Appending a flexible flap to the foil suppresses jet-meandering and strengthens the jet. Flexibility of flap is crucial in determining the flow structure. This study is useful in designing MAVs and thrusters.

  8. Canonical Wnt signaling maintains the quiescent stage of hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordes, Claus; Sawitza, Iris; Haeussinger, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that hepatic stellate cells (HSC) develop into cells, which are thought to contribute to liver fibrogenesis. Recent data suggest that HSC are progenitor cells with the capacity to differentiate into cells of endothelial and hepatocyte lineages. The present study shows that β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling is active in freshly isolated HSC of rats. Mimicking of the canonical Wnt pathway in cultured HSC by TWS119, an inhibitor of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β, led to reduced β-catenin phosphorylation, induced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, elevated glutamine synthetase production, impeded synthesis of α-smooth muscle actin and Wnt5a, but promoted the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, Wnt10b, and paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2c. In addition, canonical Wnt signaling lowered DNA synthesis and hindered HSC from entering the cell cycle. The findings demonstrate that β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling maintains the quiescent state of HSC and, similar to stem and progenitor cells, influences their developmental fate

  9. Gut-directed hypnotherapy significantly augments clinical remission in quiescent ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie; Taft, Tiffany H; Kiebles, Jennifer L; Martinovich, Zoran; Barrett, Terrence A; Palsson, Olafur S

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Psychotherapy is not routinely recommended for in ulcerative colitis (UC). Gut-directed hypnotherapy (HYP) has been linked to improved function in the gastrointestinal tract and may operate through immune-mediated pathways in chronic diseases. Aims To determine the feasibility and acceptability of hypnotherapy and estimate the impact of hypnotherapy on clinical remission status over a 1 year period in patients with an historical flare rate of 1.3 times per year. Methods 54 patients were randomized at a single site to 7 sessions of gut-directed hypnotherapy (N = 26) or attention control (CON; N = 29) and followed for 1 year. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants in each condition that had remained clinically asymptomatic (clinical remission) through 52 weeks post-treatment. Results One-way ANOVA comparing hypnotherapy and control subjects on number of days to clinical relapse favored the hypnotherapy condition [F = 4.8 (1, 48), p = .03] by 78 days. Chi square analysis comparing the groups on proportion maintaining remission at 1 year was also significant [X2(1) = 3.9, p = .04], with 68% of hypnotherapy and 40% of control patients maintaining remission for 1 year. There were no significant differences between groups over time in quality of life, medication adherence, perceived stress or psychological factors. Conclusions This is the first prospective study that has demonstrated a significant effect of a psychological intervention on prolonging clinical remission in patients with quiescent UC. Clinical Trial # NCT00798642 PMID:23957526

  10. Double plasma system with inductively coupled source plasma and quasi-quiescent target plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massi, M.; Maciel, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Cold plasmas have successfully been used in the plasma-assisted material processing industry. An understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms involved in the plasma-surface interaction is needed for a proper description of deposition and etching processes at material surfaces. Since these mechanisms are dependent on the plasma properties, the development of diagnostic techniques is strongly desirable for determination of the plasma parameters as well as the characterization of the electromagnetic behaviour of the discharge. In this work a dual discharge chamber, was specially designed to study the deposition of thin films via plasma polymerization process. In the Pyrex chamber an inductively coupled plasma can be excited either in the diffuse low density E-mode or in the high density H-mode. This plasma diffuses into the cylindrical stainless steel chamber which is covered with permanent magnets to produce a multidipole magnetic field configuration at the surface. By that means a double plasma is established consisting of a RF source plasma coupled to a quasi-quiescent target plasma. The preliminary results presented here refer to measurements of the profiles of plasma parameters along the central axis of the double plasma apparatus. Additionally a spectrum analysis performed by means of a Rogowski coil probe immersed into the source plasma is also presented. The discharge is made in argon with pressure varying from 10 -2 to 1 torr, and the rf from 10 to 150 W

  11. Intensity of emission lines of the quiescent solar corona: comparison between calculated and observed values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissinel, Boris

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports the results of calculations of the center-to-limb intensity of optically thin line emission in EUV and FUV wavelength ranges. The calculations employ a multicomponent model for the quiescent solar corona. The model includes a collection of loops of various sizes, spicules, and free (inter-loop) matter. Theoretical intensity values are found from probabilities of encountering parts of loops in the line of sight with respect to the probability of absence of other coronal components. The model uses 12 loops with sizes from 3200 to 210000 km with different values of rarefaction index and pressure at the loop base and apex. The temperature at loop apices is 1 400 000 K. The calculations utilize the CHIANTI database. The comparison between theoretical and observed emission intensity values for coronal and transition region lines obtained by the SUMER, CDS, and EIS telescopes shows quite satisfactory agreement between them, particularly for the solar disk center. For the data acquired above the limb, the enhanced discrepancies after the analysis refer to errors in EIS measurements.

  12. 46 CFR 122.602 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 122.602 Section 122.602 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150....602 Hull markings. (a) Each vessel must be marked as required by part 67, subpart I, of this chapter...

  13. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking containers. 160.32 Section 160.32 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have been...

  14. 46 CFR 160.176-23 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the vessel. (2) The type of vessel. (3) Specific purpose or limitation approved by the Coast Guard...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Inflatable Lifejackets § 160.176-23 Marking. (a) General. Each inflatable lifejacket must be marked with the information required by this section. Each marking must be...

  15. 27 CFR 28.123 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.123..., or Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.123 Export marks. (a) General. In addition... filled under the provisions of part 24 of this chapter, the proprietor shall mark the word “Export” on...

  16. 27 CFR 28.223 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.223... Export marks. In addition to the marks and brands required to be placed on kegs, barrels, cases, crates... “Export” on each container or case before removal for export, for use on vessels or aircraft, or for...

  17. CURRENT DRIVE AND PRESSURE PROFILE MODIFICATION WITH ELECTRON CYCLOTRON POWER IN DIII-D QUIESCENT DOUBLE BARRIER EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CASPER, TA; BURRELL, KH; DOYLE, EJ; GOHIL, P; GREENFIELD, CM; GROEBNER, RJ; JAYAKUMAR, RJ; MAKOWSKI, MA; RHODES, TL; WEST, WP

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 High confinement mode (H-mode) operation is a leading scenario for burning plasma devices due to its inherently high energy-confinement characteristics. The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) offers these same advantages with the additional attraction of more steady edge conditions where the highly transient power loads due to edge localized mode (ELM) activity is replaced by the steadier power and particle losses associated with an edge harmonic oscillation (EHO). With the addition of an internal transport barrier (ITB), the capability is introduced for independent control of both the edge conditions and the core confinement region giving potential control of fusion power production for an advanced tokamak configuration. The quiescent double barrier (QDB) conditions explored in DIII-D experiments exhibit these characteristics and have resulted in steady plasma conditions for several confinement times (∼ 26 τ E ) with moderately high stored energy, β N H 89 ∼ 7 for 10 τ E

  18. Massive quiescent galaxies at z > 3 in the Millennium simulation populated by a semi-analytic galaxy formation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yu; Jing, Yingjie; Gao, Liang; Guo, Qi; Wang, Jie; Sun, Shuangpeng; Wang, Lin; Pan, Jun

    2017-10-01

    We take advantage of the statistical power of the large-volume dark-matter-only Millennium simulation (MS), combined with a sophisticated semi-analytic galaxy formation model, to explore whether the recently reported z = 3.7 quiescent galaxy ZF-COSMOS-20115 (ZF) can be accommodated in current galaxy formation models. In our model, a population of quiescent galaxies with stellar masses and star formation rates comparable to those of ZF naturally emerges at redshifts z 3.5 massive QGs are rare (about 2 per cent of the galaxies with the similar stellar masses), the existing AGN feedback model implemented in the semi-analytic galaxy formation model can successfully explain the formation of the high-redshift QGs as it does on their lower redshift counterparts.

  19. AN ULTRA-DEEP NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRUM OF A COMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXY AT z = 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriek, Mariska; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Marchesini, Danilo; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Quadri, Ryan F.; Illingworth, Garth D.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that about half of the massive galaxies at z ∼ 2 are in a quiescent phase. Moreover, these galaxies are commonly found to be ultra-compact with half-light radii of ∼1 kpc. We have obtained a ∼29 hr spectrum of a typical quiescent, ultra-dense galaxy at z = 2.1865 with the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph. The spectrum exhibits a strong optical break and several absorption features, which have not previously been detected in z > 2 quiescent galaxies. Comparison of the spectral energy distribution with stellar population synthesis models implies a low star formation rate (SFR) of 1-3 M sun yr -1 , an age of 1.3-2.2 Gyr, and a stellar mass of ∼2 x 10 11 M sun . We detect several faint emission lines, with emission-line ratios of [N II]/Hα, [S II]/Hα, and [O II]/[O III] typical of low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions. Thus, neither the stellar continuum nor the nebular emission implies active star formation. The current SFR is <1% of the past average SFR. If this galaxy is representative of compact quiescent galaxies beyond z = 2, it implies that quenching of star formation is extremely efficient and also indicates that low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) could be common in these objects. Nuclear emission is a potential concern for the size measurement. However, we show that the AGN contributes ∼<8% to the rest-frame optical emission. A possible post-starburst population may affect size measurements more strongly; although a 0.5 Gyr old stellar population can make up ∼<10% of the total stellar mass, it could account for up to ∼40% of the optical light. Nevertheless, this spectrum shows that this compact galaxy is dominated by an evolved stellar population.

  20. Waves and turbulences studies in plasmas: ten years of research on quiescent plasmas at the Brazilian Space Research National Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Quiescent plasmas generated by thermionic discharges and surface confined by multipole magnetic fields have been used in basic plasma research since 1973. The first machine was developed at UCLA (USA) to produce an uniform plasma for beam and waves studies in large cross section plasmas. A double quiescent plasma machine was constructed at the plasma laboratory of INPE in 1981, it began its operation producing linear ion-acoustic waves in an Argon plasma. Later on non linear ion acoustic waves and solitons were studied in plasma containing several species of negative and positive ions. The anomalous particle transport across multipole magnetic fields were also investigated. An anomalous resistivity associated with an ion acoustic turbulence is responsible for the formation of a small amplitude double-layer. The existence of a bootstrap mechanism is shown experimentally. Today, the main interest is toward the generation of Langmuir waves in non uniform plasmas. An experimental study on Langmuir wave generation using a grid system is been carried on. A magnetized quiescent plasma device for studies of whistle wave generation is been constructed. This machine will make possible future studies on several wave modes of magnetized plasmas. (author). 31 refs, 16 figs

  1. The occurrence of recruitment supported from the finding of an increase in radiosensitivity of quiescent cells in solid tumors after fractionated irradiation with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shinichiro; Ono, Koji; Kinashi, Yuko; Suzuki, Minoru; Akaboshi, Mitsuhiko

    1998-01-01

    We examined the behavior of quiescent cells in solid tumors irradiated twice at various intervals with X-rays, using our recently developed method for selectively detecting the response of quiescent cells in solid tumors. To determine the labeling indices of tumors at the second irradiation, each mouse group included mice that were continuously administered BrdU until just before the second irradiation using mini-osmotic pumps which had been implanted before the first irradiation. Radiosensitivity of total tumor cells at the second irradiation decreased in proportion to the increase in interval time. However, radiosensitivity of quiescent cells was raised with increase in the interval time. In addition, the labeling index at the second irradiation was higher than that at the first irradiation. These findings supported the occurrence of recruitment from quiescent to proliferating state during fractionated irradiation. (author)

  2. High contrast laser marking of alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Fernández, A.; Val, J. del; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser marking of alumina using near infrared (NIR) lasers was experimentally analyzed. • Color change produced by NIR lasers is due to thermally induced oxygen vacancies. • Laser marking results obtained using NIR lasers and green laser are compared. • High contrast marks on alumina were achieved. - Abstract: Alumina serves as raw material for a broad range of advanced ceramic products. These elements should usually be identified by some characters or symbols printed directly on them. In this sense, laser marking is an efficient, reliable and widely implemented process in industry. However, laser marking of alumina still leads to poor results since the process is not able to produce a dark mark, yielding bad contrast. In this paper, we present an experimental study on the process of marking alumina by three different lasers working in two wavelengths: 1064 nm (Near-infrared) and 532 nm (visible, green radiation). A colorimetric analysis has been carried out in order to compare the resulting marks and its contrast. The most suitable laser operating conditions were also defined and are reported here. Moreover, the physical process of marking by NIR lasers is discussed in detail. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were also employed to analyze the results. Finally, we propose an explanation for the differences of the coloration induced under different atmospheres and laser parameters. We concluded that the atmosphere is the key parameter, being the inert one the best choice to produce the darkest marks

  3. Energy transfer between a passing vortex ring and a flexible plate in an ideal quiescent fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, JiaCheng; Peterson, Sean D., E-mail: peterson@mme.uwaterloo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Porfiri, Maurizio [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    Recent advancements in highly deformable smart materials have lead to increasing interest in small-scale energy harvesting research for powering low consumption electronic devices. One such recent experimental study by Goushcha et al. explored energy harvesting from a passing vortex ring by a cantilevered smart material plate oriented parallel to and offset from the path of the ring in an otherwise quiescent fluid. The present study focuses on modeling this experimental study using potential flow to facilitate optimization of the energy extraction from the passing ring to raise the energy harvesting potential of the device. The problem is modeled in two-dimensions with the vortex ring represented as a pair of counter-rotating free vortices. Vortex pair parameters are determined to match the convection speed of the ring in the experiments, as well as the imposed pressure loading on the plate. The plate is approximated as a Kirchhoff-Love plate and represented as a finite length vortex sheet in the fluid domain. The analytical model matches experimental measurements, including the tip displacement, the integrated force along the entire plate length as a function of vortex ring position, and the pressure along the plate. The potential flow solution is employed in a parametric study of the governing dimensionless parameters in an effort to guide the selection of plate properties for optimal energy harvesting performance. Results of the study indicate an optimal set of plate properties for a given vortex ring configuration, in which the time-scale of vortex advection matches that of the plate vibration.

  4. Computational and experimental characterization of a liquid jet plunging into a quiescent pool at shallow inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Suraj S.; Trujillo, Mario F.; Wu Xiongjun; Chahine, Georges

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Jet impingement at shallow angles results in periodic cavity formation. ► Velocity profile affected both by buoyancy and splashing in the near field. ► Momentum diffusion leads to a velocity maximum at the gas–liquid interface for the far field. - Abstract: A circular water jet (Re = 1.6 × 10 5 ; We = 8.8 × 10 3 ) plunging at shallow angles (θ ≈ 12.5°) into a quiescent pool is investigated computationally and experimentally. A surprising finding from the work is that cavities, of the order of jet diameter, are formed periodically in the impact location, even though the impinging flow is smooth and completely devoid of such a periodicity. Computational prediction of these frequencies was compared with experimental findings, yielding excellent agreement. The region in the vicinity of the impact is characterized by strong churning due to splashing and formation of air cavities. Measured velocity profiles indicate a concentration of momentum beneath the free surface slightly beyond the impact location (X/D j ≈ 14), with a subsequent shift towards the free surface further downstream of this point (X/D j ≈ 30). This shift is due primarily to the action of buoyancy on the cavity/bubble population. Comparisons of the mean velocity profile between simulations and experiments are performed, yielding good agreement, with the exception of the relatively small churning flow region. Further downstream (X/D j ≳ 40), the flow develops mostly due to diffusion and the location of peak velocity coincides with the free surface. In this region, the free surface acts as an adiabatic boundary and restricts momentum diffusion, causing the peak velocity to occur at the free surface.

  5. The carbon inventory in a quiescent, filamentary molecular cloud in G328

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, Michael G.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Braiding, Catherine; Storey, John W. V.; Kulesa, Craig; Hollenbach, David J.; Wolfire, Mark; Glück, Christian; Rowell, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    We present spectral line images of [C I] 809 GHz, CO J = 1-0 115 GHz and H I 1.4 GHz line emission, and calculate the corresponding C, CO and H column densities, for a sinuous, quiescent giant molecular cloud about 5 kpc distant along the l = 328° sightline (hereafter G328) in our Galaxy. The [C I] data comes from the High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz telescope, a new facility on the summit of the Antarctic plateau where the precipitable water vapor falls to the lowest values found on the surface of the Earth. The CO and H I data sets come from the Mopra and Parkes/ATCA telescopes, respectively. We identify a filamentary molecular cloud, ∼75 × 5 pc long with mass ∼4 × 10 4 M ☉ and a narrow velocity emission range of just 4 km s –1 . The morphology and kinematics of this filament are similar in CO, [C I], and H I, though in the latter appears as self-absorption. We calculate line fluxes and column densities for the three emitting species, which are broadly consistent with a photodissociation region model for a GMC exposed to the average interstellar radiation field. The [C/CO] abundance ratio averaged through the filament is found to be approximately unity. The G328 filament is constrained to be cold (T Dust < 20 K) by the lack of far-IR emission, to show no clear signs of star formation, and to only be mildly turbulent from the narrow line width. We suggest that it may represent a GMC shortly after formation, or perhaps still in the process of formation.

  6. ICE AND DUST IN THE QUIESCENT MEDIUM OF ISOLATED DENSE CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Huard, T. L.; Knez, C.; Cook, A. M.; Chiar, J. E.; Decin, L.; Blake, G. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between ices in the envelopes and disks surrounding young stellar objects (YSOs) and those in the quiescent interstellar medium (ISM) is investigated. For a sample of 31 stars behind isolated dense cores, ground-based and Spitzer spectra and photometry in the 1-25 μm wavelength range are combined. The baseline for the broad and overlapping ice features is modeled, using calculated spectra of giants, H 2 O ice and silicates. The adopted extinction curve is derived empirically. Its high resolution allows for the separation of continuum and feature extinction. The extinction between 13 and 25 μm is ∼50% relative to that at 2.2 μm. The strengths of the 6.0 and 6.85 μm absorption bands are in line with those of YSOs. Thus, their carriers, which, besides H 2 O and CH 3 OH, may include NH + 4 , HCOOH, H 2 CO, and NH 3 , are readily formed in the dense core phase, before stars form. The 3.53 μm C-H stretching mode of solid CH 3 OH was discovered. The CH 3 OH/H 2 O abundance ratios of 5%-12% are larger than upper limits in the Taurus molecular cloud. The initial ice composition, before star formation occurs, therefore depends on the environment. Signs of thermal and energetic processing that were found toward some YSOs are absent in the ices toward background stars. Finally, the peak optical depth of the 9.7 μm band of silicates relative to the continuum extinction at 2.2 μm is significantly shallower than in the diffuse ISM. This extends the results of Chiar et al. to a larger sample and higher extinctions.

  7. The carbon inventory in a quiescent, filamentary molecular cloud in G328

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Michael G.; Ashley, Michael C. B.; Braiding, Catherine; Storey, John W. V. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Kulesa, Craig [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hollenbach, David J. [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernado Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043-5203 (United States); Wolfire, Mark [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Glück, Christian [KOSMA, I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Rowell, Gavin, E-mail: m.burton@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2014-02-20

    We present spectral line images of [C I] 809 GHz, CO J = 1-0 115 GHz and H I 1.4 GHz line emission, and calculate the corresponding C, CO and H column densities, for a sinuous, quiescent giant molecular cloud about 5 kpc distant along the l = 328° sightline (hereafter G328) in our Galaxy. The [C I] data comes from the High Elevation Antarctic Terahertz telescope, a new facility on the summit of the Antarctic plateau where the precipitable water vapor falls to the lowest values found on the surface of the Earth. The CO and H I data sets come from the Mopra and Parkes/ATCA telescopes, respectively. We identify a filamentary molecular cloud, ∼75 × 5 pc long with mass ∼4 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} and a narrow velocity emission range of just 4 km s{sup –1}. The morphology and kinematics of this filament are similar in CO, [C I], and H I, though in the latter appears as self-absorption. We calculate line fluxes and column densities for the three emitting species, which are broadly consistent with a photodissociation region model for a GMC exposed to the average interstellar radiation field. The [C/CO] abundance ratio averaged through the filament is found to be approximately unity. The G328 filament is constrained to be cold (T {sub Dust} < 20 K) by the lack of far-IR emission, to show no clear signs of star formation, and to only be mildly turbulent from the narrow line width. We suggest that it may represent a GMC shortly after formation, or perhaps still in the process of formation.

  8. Quiescent H-mode operation using torque from non-axisymmetric, non-resonant magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K.H.; Garofalo, A.M.; Osborne, T.H.; Snyder, P.B.; Solomon, W.M.; Park, J.-K.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Orlov, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) sustained by magnetic torque from non-axisymmetric magnetic fields is a promising operating mode for future burning plasmas including ITER. Using magnetic torque from n = 3 fields to replace counter-I p torque from neutral beam injection, we have achieved long duration, counter-rotating QH-mode operation with neutral beam injection (NBI) torque ranging continuously from counter-I p up to co-I p values of about 1 N m. This co-I p torque is about 3 times the scaled torque that ITER will have. This range also includes operation at zero net NBI torque, applicable to rf wave heated plasmas. These n = 3 fields have been created using coils either inside or, most recently, outside the toroidal coils. Experiments utilized an ITER-relevant lower single-null plasma shape and were done with ITER-relevant values ν ped * ∼0.08, β T ped ∼ 1%$ and β N = 2. Discharges have confinement quality H 98y2 = 1.3, exceeding the value required for ITER. Initial work with low q 95 = 3.4 QH-mode plasmas transiently reached fusion gain values of G = β N H 89 /q 95 2 =0.4, which is the desired value for ITER; the limits on G have not yet been established. This paper also includes the most recent results on QH-mode plasmas run without n = 3 fields and with co-I p NBI; these shots exhibit co-I p plasma rotation and require NBI torque ⩾2 N m. The QH-mode work to date has made significant contact with theory. The importance of edge rotational shear is consistent with peeling–ballooning mode theory. We have seen qualitative and quantitative agreement with the predicted torque from neoclassical toroidal viscosity. (paper)

  9. A density cusp of quiescent X-ray binaries in the central parsec of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Bauer, Franz E.; Berkowitz, Michael E.; Hong, Jaesub; Hord, Benjamin J.

    2018-04-01

    The existence of a ‘density cusp’—a localized increase in number—of stellar-mass black holes near a supermassive black hole is a fundamental prediction of galactic stellar dynamics. The best place to detect such a cusp is in the Galactic Centre, where the nearest supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, resides. As many as 20,000 black holes are predicted to settle into the central parsec of the Galaxy as a result of dynamical friction; however, so far no density cusp of black holes has been detected. Low-mass X-ray binary systems that contain a stellar-mass black hole are natural tracers of isolated black holes. Here we report observations of a dozen quiescent X-ray binaries in a density cusp within one parsec of Sagittarius A*. The lower-energy emission spectra that we observed in these binaries is distinct from the higher-energy spectra associated with the population of accreting white dwarfs that dominates the central eight parsecs of the Galaxy. The properties of these X-ray binaries, in particular their spatial distribution and luminosity function, suggest the existence of hundreds of binary systems in the central parsec of the Galaxy and many more isolated black holes. We cannot rule out a contribution to the observed emission from a population (of up to about one-half the number of X-ray binaries) of rotationally powered, millisecond pulsars. The spatial distribution of the binary systems is a relic of their formation history, either in the stellar disk around Sagittarius A* (ref. 7) or through in-fall from globular clusters, and constrains the number density of sources in the modelling of gravitational waves from massive stellar remnants, such as neutron stars and black holes.

  10. Fatty acid oxidation is required for active and quiescent brown adipose tissue maintenance and thermogenic programing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Lee, Jieun; Choi, Joseph; Wolfgang, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    To determine the role of fatty acid oxidation on the cellular, molecular, and physiologic response of brown adipose tissue to disparate paradigms of chronic thermogenic stimulation. Mice with an adipose-specific loss of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2 A-/- ), that lack mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation, were subjected to environmental and pharmacologic interventions known to promote thermogenic programming in adipose tissue. Chronic administration of β3-adrenergic (CL-316243) or thyroid hormone (GC-1) agonists induced a loss of BAT morphology and UCP1 expression in Cpt2 A-/- mice. Fatty acid oxidation was also required for the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) and the induction of UCP1 in WAT. In contrast, chronic cold (15 °C) stimulation induced UCP1 and thermogenic programming in both control and Cpt2 A-/- adipose tissue albeit to a lesser extent in Cpt2 A-/- mice. However, thermoneutral housing also induced the loss of UCP1 and BAT morphology in Cpt2 A-/- mice. Therefore, adipose fatty acid oxidation is required for both the acute agonist-induced activation of BAT and the maintenance of quiescent BAT. Consistent with this data, Cpt2 A-/- BAT exhibited increased macrophage infiltration, inflammation and fibrosis irrespective of BAT activation. Finally, obese Cpt2 A-/- mice housed at thermoneutrality exhibited a loss of interscapular BAT and were refractory to β3-adrenergic-induced energy expenditure and weight loss. Mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation is critical for the maintenance of the brown adipocyte phenotype both during times of activation and quiescence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatty acid oxidation is required for active and quiescent brown adipose tissue maintenance and thermogenic programing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsie Gonzalez-Hurtado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of fatty acid oxidation on the cellular, molecular, and physiologic response of brown adipose tissue to disparate paradigms of chronic thermogenic stimulation. Methods: Mice with an adipose-specific loss of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2A−/−, that lack mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation, were subjected to environmental and pharmacologic interventions known to promote thermogenic programming in adipose tissue. Results: Chronic administration of β3-adrenergic (CL-316243 or thyroid hormone (GC-1 agonists induced a loss of BAT morphology and UCP1 expression in Cpt2A−/− mice. Fatty acid oxidation was also required for the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT and the induction of UCP1 in WAT. In contrast, chronic cold (15 °C stimulation induced UCP1 and thermogenic programming in both control and Cpt2A−/− adipose tissue albeit to a lesser extent in Cpt2A−/− mice. However, thermoneutral housing also induced the loss of UCP1 and BAT morphology in Cpt2A−/− mice. Therefore, adipose fatty acid oxidation is required for both the acute agonist-induced activation of BAT and the maintenance of quiescent BAT. Consistent with this data, Cpt2A−/− BAT exhibited increased macrophage infiltration, inflammation and fibrosis irrespective of BAT activation. Finally, obese Cpt2A−/− mice housed at thermoneutrality exhibited a loss of interscapular BAT and were refractory to β3-adrenergic-induced energy expenditure and weight loss. Conclusion: Mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation is critical for the maintenance of the brown adipocyte phenotype both during times of activation and quiescence. Keywords: Fatty acid oxidation, Brown adipose tissue, Cold induced thermogenesis, Adrenergic signaling, Adipose macrophage

  12. QUASI-QUIESCENT RADIO EMISSION FROM THE FIRST RADIO-EMITTING T DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Peter K. G.; Berger, Edo; Zauderer, B. Ashley, E-mail: pwilliams@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    Radio detections of ultracool dwarfs provide insight into their magnetic fields and the dynamos that maintain them, especially at the very bottom of the main sequence, where other activity indicators dramatically weaken. Until recently, radio emission was only detected in the M and L dwarf regimes, but this has changed with the Arecibo detection of rapid polarized flares from the T6.5 dwarf 2MASS J10475385+2124234. Here, we report the detection of quasi-quiescent radio emission from this source at 5.8 GHz using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The spectral luminosity is L{sub {nu}} = (2.2 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} erg s{sup -1} Hz{sup -1}, a factor of {approx}100 times fainter than the Arecibo flares. Our detection is the lowest luminosity yet achieved for an ultracool dwarf. Although the emission is fully consistent with being steady, unpolarized, and broad band, we find tantalizing hints for variability. We exclude the presence of short-duration flares as seen by Arecibo, although this is not unexpected given estimates of the duty cycle. Follow-up observations of this object will offer the potential to constrain its rotation period, electron density, and the strength and configuration of the magnetic field. Equally important, follow-up observations will address the question of whether the electron cyclotron maser instability, which is thought to produce the flares seen by Arecibo, also operates in the very different parameter regime of the emission we detect, or whether instead this ultracool dwarf exhibits both maser and gyrosynchrotron radiation, potentially originating from substantially different locations.

  13. The quiescent intracluster medium in the core of the Perseus cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharonian, Felix; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steven W.; Anabuki, Naohisa; Angelini, Lorella; Arnaud, Keith; Audard, Marc; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Axelsson, Magnus; Bamba, Aya; Bautz, Marshall; Blandford, Roger; Brenneman, Laura; Brown, Gregory V.; Bulbul, Esra; Cackett, Edward; Chernyakova, Maria; Chiao, Meng; Coppi, Paolo; Costantini, Elisa; de Plaa, Jelle; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ebisawa, Ken; Eckart, Megan; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew C.; Ferrigno, Carlo; Foster, Adam; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gallo, Luigi; Gandhi, Poshak; Giustini, Margherita; Goldwurm, Andrea; Gu, Liyi; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haba, Yoshito; Hagino, Kouichi; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Harrus, Ilana; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Takayuki; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoshino, Akio; Hughes, John; Iizuka, Ryo; Inoue, Hajime; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Manabu; Ishikawa, Kumi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Itoh, Masayuki; Iyomoto, Naoko; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Timothy; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Kara, Erin; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Katsuta, Junichiro; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kelley, Richard; Khangulyan, Dmitry; Kilbourne, Caroline; King, Ashley; Kitaguchi, Takao; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Koyama, Shu; Koyama, Katsuji; Kretschmar, Peter; Krimm, Hans; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, François; Lee, Shiu-Hang; Leutenegger, Maurice; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox S.; Lumb, David; Madejski, Grzegorz; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Maier, Daniel; Makishima, Kazuo; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; McNamara, Brian; Mehdipour, Missagh; Miller, Eric; Miller, Jon; Mineshige, Shin; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Hideyuki; Mori, Koji; Moseley, Harvey; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Toshio; Mushotzky, Richard; Nagino, Ryo; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakano, Toshio; Nakashima, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Noda, Hirofumi; Nomachi, Masaharu; O’Dell, Steve; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Okajima, Takashi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stephane; Parmar, Arvind; Petre, Robert; Pinto, Ciro; Pohl, Martin; Porter, F. Scott; Pottschmidt, Katja; Ramsey, Brian; Reynolds, Christopher; Russell, Helen; Safi-Harb, Samar; Saito, Shinya; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Sato, Goro; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Rie; Sawada, Makoto; Schartel, Norbert; Serlemitsos, Peter; Seta, Hiromi; Shidatsu, Megumi; Simionescu, Aurora; Smith, Randall; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Lukasz; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Shin’ichiro; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Keisuke; Tamura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yohko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Hideki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Ueda, Shutaro; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Shiro; Uno, Shin’ichiro; Urry, Meg; Ursino, Eugenio; de Vries, Cor; Watanabe, Shin; Werner, Norbert; Wik, Daniel; Wilkins, Dan; Williams, Brian; Yamada, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yaqoob, Tahir; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yuasa, Takayuki; Zhuravleva, Irina; Zoghbi, Abderahmen

    2016-07-06

    Clusters of galaxies are the most massive gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and are still forming. They are thus important probes1 of cosmological parameters and many astrophysical processes. However, knowledge of the dynamics of the pervasive hot gas, the mass of which is much larger than the combined mass of all the stars in the cluster, is lacking. Such knowledge would enable insights into the injection of mechanical energy by the central supermassive black hole and the use of hydrostatic equilibrium for determining cluster masses. X-rays from the core of the Perseus cluster are emitted by the 50-million-kelvin diffuse hot plasma filling its gravitational potential well. The active galactic nucleus of the central galaxy NGC 1275 is pumping jetted energy into the surrounding intracluster medium, creating buoyant bubbles filled with relativistic plasma. These bubbles probably induce motions in the intracluster medium and heat the inner gas, preventing runaway radiative cooling—a process known as active galactic nucleus feedback2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Here we report X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster, which reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 ± 10 kilometres per second in the region 30–60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus. A gradient in the line-of-sight velocity of 150 ± 70 kilometres per second is found across the 60-kiloparsec image of the cluster core. Turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, with large-scale shear at most doubling this estimate. We infer that a total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium in a central region would require little correction for turbulent pressure.

  14. Paleoseismicity of two historically quiescent faults in Australia: Implications for fault behavior in stable continental regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, A.J.; De Martini, P. M.; Machette, M.M.; Okumura, K.; Prescott, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies of two historically aseismic Quaternary faults in Australia confirm that cratonic faults in stable continental regions (SCR) typically have a long-term behavior characterized by episodes of activity separated by quiescent intervals of at least 10,000 and commonly 100,000 years or more. Studies of the approximately 30-km-long Roopena fault in South Australia and the approximately 30-km-long Hyden fault in Western Australia document multiple Quaternary surface-faulting events that are unevenly spaced in time. The episodic clustering of events on cratonic SCR faults may be related to temporal fluctuations of fault-zone fluid pore pressures in a volume of strained crust. The long-term slip rate on cratonic SCR faults is extremely low, so the geomorphic expression of many cratonic SCR faults is subtle, and scarps may be difficult to detect because they are poorly preserved. Both the Roopena and Hyden faults are in areas of limited or no significant seismicity; these and other faults that we have studied indicate that many potentially hazardous SCR faults cannot be recognized solely on the basis of instrumental data or historical earthquakes. Although cratonic SCR faults may appear to be nonhazardous because they have been historically aseismic, those that are favorably oriented for movement in the current stress field can and have produced unexpected damaging earthquakes. Paleoseismic studies of modern and prehistoric SCR faulting events provide the basis for understanding of the long-term behavior of these faults and ultimately contribute to better seismic-hazard assessments.

  15. EVOLUTION OF QUIESCENT AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES SINCE z ∼ 1.5 AS A FUNCTION OF THEIR VELOCITY DISPERSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezanson, Rachel; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn

    2012-01-01

    We measure stellar masses and structural parameters for 5500 quiescent and 20,000 star-forming galaxies at 0.3 < z ≤ 1.5 in the Newfirm Medium Band Survey COSMOS and UKIDSS UDS fields. We combine these measurements to infer velocity dispersions and determine how the number density of galaxies at fixed inferred dispersion, or the velocity dispersion function (VDF), evolves with time for each population. We show that the number of galaxies with high velocity dispersions appears to be surprisingly stable with time, regardless of their star formation history. Furthermore, the overall VDF for star-forming galaxies is constant with redshift, extending down to the lowest velocity dispersions probed by this study. The only galaxy population showing strong evolution are quiescent galaxies with low inferred dispersions, whose number density increases by a factor of ∼4 since z = 1.5. This buildup leads to an evolution in the quiescent fraction of galaxies such that the threshold dispersion above which quiescent galaxies dominate the counts moves to lower velocity dispersion with time. We show that our results are qualitatively consistent with a simple model in which star-forming galaxies quench and are added to the quiescent population. In order to compensate for the migration into the quiescent population, the velocity dispersions of star-forming galaxies must increase, with a rate that increases with dispersion.

  16. Mark II magnetic detector for SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    The Mark II Detector, presently in the design stage, is a SLAC/LBL detector project to replace the Mark I now in operation at SPEAR. While similar in concept to the Mark I it will have improved momentum resolution, shower detection, solid angle coverage for both triggering and tracking and a magnet design providing easier access to those particles transmitted through the aluminum coil

  17. An analysis of hospital brand mark clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmers, Stacy M; Miller, Darryl W; Kilic, Ozcan

    2010-07-01

    This study analyzed brand mark clusters (i.e., various types of brand marks displayed in combination) used by hospitals in the United States. The brand marks were assessed against several normative criteria for creating brand marks that are memorable and that elicit positive affect. Overall, results show a reasonably high level of adherence to many of these normative criteria. Many of the clusters exhibited pictorial elements that reflected benefits and that were conceptually consistent with the verbal content of the cluster. Also, many clusters featured icons that were balanced and moderately complex. However, only a few contained interactive imagery or taglines communicating benefits.

  18. Early events elicited by bombesin and structurally related peptides in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. II. Changes in Na+ and Ca2+ fluxes, Na+/K+ pump activity, and intracellular pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, S.A.; Schneider, J.A.; Lopez-Rivas, A.; Sinnett-Smith, J.W.; Rozengurt, E.

    1986-01-01

    The amphibian tetradecapeptide, bombesin, and structurally related peptides caused a marked increase in ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake (a measure of Na + /K + pump activity) in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. This effect occurred within seconds after the addition of the peptide and appeared to be mediated by an increase in Na + entry into the cells. The effect of bombesin on Na + entry and Na + /K + pump activity was concentration dependent with half-maximal stimulation occurring at 0.3-0.4 nM. The structurally related peptides litorin, gastrin-releasing peptide, and neuromedin B also stimulated ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake; the relative potencies of these peptides in stimulating the Na + /K + pump were comparable to their potencies in increasing DNA synthesis. Bombesin increased Na + influx, at least in part, through an Na + /H + antiport. The peptide augmented intracellular pH and this effect was abolished in the absence of extracellular Na + . In addition to monovalent ion transport, bombesin and the structurally related peptides rapidly increased the efflux of 45 Ca 2+ from quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells. This Ca 2+ came from an intracellular pool and the efflux was associated with a 50% decrease in total intracellular Ca 2+ . The peptides also caused a rapid increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration. Prolonged pretreatment of Swiss 3T3 cells with phorbol dibutyrate, which causes a loss of protein kinase C activity, greatly decreased the stimulation of 86 Rb + uptake and Na + entry by bombesin implicating this phosphotransferase system in the mediation of part of these responses to bombesin. Since some activation of monovalent ion transport by bombesin was seen in phorbol dibutyrate-pretreated cells, it is likely that the peptide also stimulates monovalent ion transport by a second mechanism

  19. Subarcsecond bright points and quasi-periodic upflows below a quiescent filament observed by IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Zhang, J.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The new Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission provides high-resolution observations of UV spectra and slit-jaw images (SJIs). These data have become available for investigating the dynamic features in the transition region (TR) below the on-disk filaments. Aims: The driver of "counter-streaming" flows along the filament spine is still unknown yet. The magnetic structures and the upflows at the footpoints of the filaments and their relations with the filament mainbody have not been well understood. We study the dynamic evolution at the footpoints of filaments in order to find some clues for solving these questions. Methods: Using UV spectra and SJIs from the IRIS, along with coronal images and magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we present the new features in a quiescent filament channel: subarcsecond bright points (BPs) and quasi-periodic upflows. Results: The BPs in the TR have a spatial scale of about 350-580 km and lifetimes of more than several tens of minutes. They are located at stronger magnetic structures in the filament channel with a magnetic flux of about 1017-1018 Mx. Quasi-periodic brightenings and upflows are observed in the BPs, and the period is about 4-5 min. The BP and the associated jet-like upflow comprise a "tadpole-shaped" structure. The upflows move along bright filament threads, and their directions are almost parallel to the spine of the filament. The upflows initiated from the BPs with opposite polarity magnetic fields have opposite directions. The velocity of the upflows in the plane of sky is about 5-50 km s-1. The emission line of Si IV 1402.77 Å at the locations of upflows exhibits obvious blueshifts of about 5-30 km s-1, and the line profile is broadened with the width of more than 20 km s-1. Conclusions: The BPs seem to be the bases of filament threads, and the upflows are able to convey mass for the dynamic balance of the filament. The "counter-streaming" flows in previous observations

  20. Radiosensitization effect by combination with paclitaxel in vivo, including the effect on intratumor quiescent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Ono, Koji; Suzuki, Minoru; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Kinashi, Yuko; Takagaki, Masao; Hori, Hitoshi; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Izumi; Sadahiro, Sotaro; Murayama, Chieko

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiosensitization effect on solid tumors upon combination treatment with paclitaxel (TXL), including the effect on intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. Methods and Materials: Mice bearing SCC VII or EL4 solid tumors received 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously for 5 days to label all proliferating (P) cells. The mice then received γ-irradiation with or without tirapazamine (TPZ) at various time points after TXL administration. Another group of mice received a series of test doses of γ-rays while alive or after tumor clamping to obtain hypoxic fractions (HFs) in the tumors at various time points after TXL administration. Immediately after irradiation, the tumor cells were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labeling (Q cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. Meanwhile, 6 h after irradiation, the tumor cells were isolated from the solid tumors in another group of mice, and the apoptosis frequency in Q cells was also determined with immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN and apoptosis frequency in total (P+Q) tumor cells were determined from the tumors that were not pretreated with BrdU. For the measurement of the HFs, the MN or apoptosis frequency of Q cells was then used to calculate the surviving fraction of Q cells from the regression line for the relationship between the MN or apoptosis frequency and the surviving fraction of total tumor cells. Results: In both SCC VII and EL4 tumors, maximum values of mitotic index (MI) and apoptosis frequency were observed 9 and 24 h after TXL administration, respectively. However, on the whole, the apoptosis frequency for SCC VII was very low. γ-Irradiation 9 h after TXL administration induced significant radiosensitization effects on the total cells of both tumors. Irradiation at 60 h had a more significant effect on total cells of EL4 tumor, but no significant effect on total cells of SCC VII

  1. Activation of intracellular angiotensin AT2 receptors induces rapid cell death in human uterine leiomyosarcoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yi; Lützen, Ulf; Fritsch, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The presence of AT2 receptors in mitochondria and their role in NO generation and cell aging were recently demonstrated in various human and mouse non-tumour cells. We investigated the intracellular distribution of AT2 receptors including their presence in mitochondria and the role in the induction...... agonist, Compound 21 (C21) penetrates the cell membrane of quiescent SK-UT-1 cells, activates intracellular AT2 receptors and induces rapid cell death; approximately 70% of cells died within 24 h. The cells, which escaped from the cell death, displayed activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, i...

  2. 49 CFR 1520.13 - Marking SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION § 1520.13 Marking SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records... back cover, including a binder cover or folder, if the document has a front and back cover; (2) Any.... 552 and 49 CFR parts 15 and 1520. (d) Other types of records. In the case of non-paper records that...

  3. Lessons learned : pavement marking warranty contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, UDOT implemented a performance-based warranty on a portion of an I-15 pavement marking : project. The awarded contract requested a contractor warranty on the implemented markings for a total : duration of six years. This is the first time th...

  4. 49 CFR 178.338-18 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pounds. (7) Maximum design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon. (8) Material... cryogenic liquid, in hours, and the name of that cryogenic liquid (MRHT __ hrs, name of cryogenic liquid). Marked rated holding marking for additional cryogenic liquids may be displayed on or adjacent to the...

  5. 25 CFR 141.16 - Price marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Price marking. 141.16 Section 141.16 Indians BUREAU OF... AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.16 Price marking. The price of each article... visible to the customer and that affords the customer a reasonable opportunity to learn the price of the...

  6. Do employers prefer Mark over Mohammed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Eline Nievers; Laila Faulk; Jaco Dagevos

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Liever Mark dan Mohammed? Does Mohammed have less chance of succeeding on the Dutch labour market than Mark, even though they both have the same qualifications and work experience? And are employers less friendly towards Sonaya than Paula? This study investigates the

  7. 7 CFR 956.162 - Container markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container markings. 956.162 Section 956.162... WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Rules and Regulations § 956.162 Container markings. Effective April 15, 1997, no handler shall ship any container of Walla Walla Sweet Onions except...

  8. Transcription factors, coregulators, and epigenetic marks are linearly correlated and highly redundant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Ahsendorf

    Full Text Available The DNA microstates that regulate transcription include sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs, coregulatory complexes, nucleosomes, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and parts of the three-dimensional architecture of genomes, which could create an enormous combinatorial complexity across the genome. However, many proteins and epigenetic marks are known to colocalize, suggesting that the information content encoded in these marks can be compressed. It has so far proved difficult to understand this compression in a systematic and quantitative manner. Here, we show that simple linear models can reliably predict the data generated by the ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics consortia. Further, we demonstrate that a small number of marks can predict all other marks with high average correlation across the genome, systematically revealing the substantial information compression that is present in different cell lines. We find that the linear models for activating marks are typically cell line-independent, while those for silencing marks are predominantly cell line-specific. Of particular note, a nuclear receptor corepressor, transducin beta-like 1 X-linked receptor 1 (TBLR1, was highly predictive of other marks in two hematopoietic cell lines. The methodology presented here shows how the potentially vast complexity of TFs, coregulators, and epigenetic marks at eukaryotic genes is highly redundant and that the information present can be compressed onto a much smaller subset of marks. These findings could be used to efficiently characterize cell lines and tissues based on a small number of diagnostic marks and suggest how the DNA microstates, which regulate the expression of individual genes, can be specified.

  9. WHAT TURNS GALAXIES OFF? THE DIFFERENT MORPHOLOGIES OF STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES SINCE z {approx} 2 FROM CANDELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Eric F.; Herrington, Jessica [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Kocevski, Dale; Faber, S. M.; Cheung, Edmond; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth J. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lotz, Jennifer; Ferguson, Harry; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); McIntosh, Daniel H. [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [NOAO-Tucson, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Wuyts, Stijn [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Conselice, Christopher J. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Dunlop, James S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Giavalisco, Mauro, E-mail: ericbell@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2012-07-10

    We use HST/WFC3 imaging from the CANDELS Multi-Cycle Treasury Survey, in conjunction with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to explore the evolution of galactic structure for galaxies with stellar masses >3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} from z = 2.2 to the present epoch, a time span of 10 Gyr. We explore the relationship between rest-frame optical color, stellar mass, star formation activity, and galaxy structure. We confirm the dramatic increase from z = 2.2 to the present day in the number density of non-star-forming galaxies above 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} reported by others. We further find that the vast majority of these quiescent systems have concentrated light profiles, as parameterized by the Sersic index, and the population of concentrated galaxies grows similarly rapidly. We examine the joint distribution of star formation activity, Sersic index, stellar mass, inferred velocity dispersion, and stellar surface density. Quiescence correlates poorly with stellar mass at all z < 2.2. Quiescence correlates well with Sersic index at all redshifts. Quiescence correlates well with 'velocity dispersion' and stellar surface density at z > 1.3, and somewhat less well at lower redshifts. Yet, there is significant scatter between quiescence and galaxy structure: while the vast majority of quiescent galaxies have prominent bulges, many of them have significant disks, and a number of bulge-dominated galaxies have significant star formation. Noting the rarity of quiescent galaxies without prominent bulges, we argue that a prominent bulge (and perhaps, by association, a supermassive black hole) is an important condition for quenching star formation on galactic scales over the last 10 Gyr, in qualitative agreement with the active galactic nucleus feedback paradigm.

  10. WHAT TURNS GALAXIES OFF? THE DIFFERENT MORPHOLOGIES OF STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES SINCE z ∼ 2 FROM CANDELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Eric F.; Herrington, Jessica; Van der Wel, Arjen; Papovich, Casey; Kocevski, Dale; Faber, S. M.; Cheung, Edmond; Koo, David C.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Lotz, Jennifer; Ferguson, Harry; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Wuyts, Stijn; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dekel, Avishai; Dunlop, James S.; Giavalisco, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    We use HST/WFC3 imaging from the CANDELS Multi-Cycle Treasury Survey, in conjunction with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to explore the evolution of galactic structure for galaxies with stellar masses >3 × 10 10 M ☉ from z = 2.2 to the present epoch, a time span of 10 Gyr. We explore the relationship between rest-frame optical color, stellar mass, star formation activity, and galaxy structure. We confirm the dramatic increase from z = 2.2 to the present day in the number density of non-star-forming galaxies above 3 × 10 10 M ☉ reported by others. We further find that the vast majority of these quiescent systems have concentrated light profiles, as parameterized by the Sérsic index, and the population of concentrated galaxies grows similarly rapidly. We examine the joint distribution of star formation activity, Sérsic index, stellar mass, inferred velocity dispersion, and stellar surface density. Quiescence correlates poorly with stellar mass at all z 1.3, and somewhat less well at lower redshifts. Yet, there is significant scatter between quiescence and galaxy structure: while the vast majority of quiescent galaxies have prominent bulges, many of them have significant disks, and a number of bulge-dominated galaxies have significant star formation. Noting the rarity of quiescent galaxies without prominent bulges, we argue that a prominent bulge (and perhaps, by association, a supermassive black hole) is an important condition for quenching star formation on galactic scales over the last 10 Gyr, in qualitative agreement with the active galactic nucleus feedback paradigm.

  11. Tumor-reactive immune cells protect against metastatic tumor and induce immunoediting of indolent but not quiescent tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Kyle K; Keim, Rebecca C; Graham, Laura; Idowu, Michael O; Wan, Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Toor, Amir A; Bear, Harry D; Manjili, Masoud H

    2016-09-01

    Two major barriers to cancer immunotherapy include tumor-induced immune suppression mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells and poor immunogenicity of the tumor-expressing self-antigens. To overcome these barriers, we reprogrammed tumor-immune cell cross-talk by combined use of decitabine and adoptive immunotherapy, containing tumor-sensitized T cells and CD25(+) NKT cells. Decitabine functioned to induce the expression of highly immunogenic cancer testis antigens in the tumor, while also reducing the frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and the presence of CD25(+) NKT cells rendered T cells, resistant to remaining myeloid-derived suppressor cells. This combinatorial therapy significantly prolonged survival of animals bearing metastatic tumor cells. Adoptive immunotherapy also induced tumor immunoediting, resulting in tumor escape and associated disease-related mortality. To identify a tumor target that is incapable of escape from the immune response, we used dormant tumor cells. We used Adriamycin chemotherapy or radiation therapy, which simultaneously induce tumor cell death and tumor dormancy. Resultant dormant cells became refractory to additional doses of Adriamycin or radiation therapy, but they remained sensitive to tumor-reactive immune cells. Importantly, we discovered that dormant tumor cells contained indolent cells that expressed low levels of Ki67 and quiescent cells that were Ki67 negative. Whereas the former were prone to tumor immunoediting and escape, the latter did not demonstrate immunoediting. Our results suggest that immunotherapy could be highly effective against quiescent dormant tumor cells. The challenge is to develop combinatorial therapies that could establish a quiescent type of tumor dormancy, which would be the best target for immunotherapy. © The Author(s).

  12. AUTOMATICALLY DETECTING AND TRACKING CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. SEPARATION OF DYNAMIC AND QUIESCENT COMPONENTS IN CORONAGRAPH IMAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Huw; Byrne, Jason P.; Habbal, Shadia Rifai

    2012-01-01

    Automated techniques for detecting and tracking coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data are of ever increasing importance for space weather monitoring and forecasting. They serve to remove the biases and tedium of human interpretation, and provide the robust analysis necessary for statistical studies across large numbers of observations. An important requirement in their operation is that they satisfactorily distinguish the CME structure from the background quiescent coronal structure (streamers, coronal holes). Many studies resort to some form of time differencing to achieve this, despite the errors inherent in such an approach—notably spatiotemporal crosstalk. This article describes a new deconvolution technique that separates coronagraph images into quiescent and dynamic components. A set of synthetic observations made from a sophisticated model corona and CME demonstrates the validity and effectiveness of the technique in isolating the CME signal. Applied to observations by the LASCO C2 and C3 coronagraphs, the structure of a faint CME is revealed in detail despite the presence of background streamers that are several times brighter than the CME. The technique is also demonstrated to work on SECCHI/COR2 data, and new possibilities for estimating the three-dimensional structure of CMEs using the multiple viewing angles are discussed. Although quiescent coronal structures and CMEs are intrinsically linked, and although their interaction is an unavoidable source of error in any separation process, we show in a companion paper that the deconvolution approach outlined here is a robust and accurate method for rigorous CME analysis. Such an approach is a prerequisite to the higher-level detection and classification of CME structure and kinematics.

  13. Low-n magnetohydrodynamic edge instabilities in quiescent H-mode plasmas with a safety-factor plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.J.; Kotschenreuther, M.T.; Valanju, P.

    2013-01-01

    Low-n magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in the quiescent high confinement mode (H-mode) pedestal are investigated in this paper. Here, n is the toroidal mode number. The low collisionality regime is considered, so that a safety-factor plateau arises in the pedestal region because of the strong bootstrap current. The JET-like (Joint European Torus) equilibria of quiescent H-mode discharges are generated numerically using the VMEC code. The stability of this type of equilibria is analysed using the AEGIS code, with subsonic rotation effects taken into account. The current investigation extends the previous studies of n = 1 modes to n = 2 and 3 modes. The numerical results show that the MHD instabilities in this type of equilibria have characteristic features of the infernal mode. We find that this type of mode tends to prevail when the safety-factor value in the shear-free region is slightly larger than an integer. In this case the frequencies (ω n ) of modes with toroidal mode number n roughly follow the rule ω n ∼ −nΩ p , where Ω p is the local rotation frequency where the infernal harmonic prevails. Since the infernal mode tends to develop near the pedestal top, where pressure driving is strong but magnetic shear stabilization is weak, this local rotation frequency tends to be close to the pedestal top value. These typical mode features bear close resemblance to the edge harmonic oscillations (or outer modes) at the quiescent H-mode discharges observed experimentally. (paper)

  14. Mechanistic study of DNA damage and radioprotection of small molecule treatment in the irradiated proliferating and quiescent human lung fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jiawen; Baskar, Rajamanickam

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an invaluable diagnostic and treatment tool used in various clinical applications and also in cancer control. However, assessing normal tissue injury is of a great interest. Since radiation sensitivity varies with different phases of cell cycle, understanding how these cells differ in their sensitivity will help to prevent or reduce the radiation injury. We have used both proliferating and quiescent human normal lung fibroblast cells and investigated key proteins involved in the cell cycle, DNA damage and death, further the radioprotective role of small molecule after low doses (d ≤1Gy) of radiation exposure. Among the cell cycle/death proteins investigated, p53 and phosphorylation of p53 (Ser-15) were induced in both the proliferating and quiescent phases of cells when studied at different time intervals. In the proliferating cells after irradiation along with p53, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21, p27 were induced. However, similarly in the quiescent cells along with the p53, p21 and p27 were also induced. The DNA damage assessed by phosphorylation of histone H2AX expression showed an increase even in the non-dividing quiescent cells after 1 Gy of radiation exposure. Whereas cell cycle proteins Cyclin A and E and cell death proteins Bax and cytochrome-c did not show any increase in the quiescent cells. In conclusion, human normal lung fibroblast cells that are not actively dividing are also showed similar radiation response as of proliferating cells. Furthermore, proliferating and quiescent cells treated with small molecules attenuate p53 and its downstream target protein p21 indicating radioprotection of the cells. The specific activation of p53, phosphorylation of p53 (Ser-15), p21 and phosphorylation of histone H2AX following radiation doses of d ≤ 1 Gy in the quiescent cells demonstrated in this study may give us a better understanding about the radiation response of non-dividing fibroblast cells, which is present in many

  15. Fibrous dysplasia of the maxilla in an elderly female: Case report on a 14-year quiescent phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Park, Yong Chan; Choi, Moon Ki; Kim, Myong Hyoun; Yoon, Jung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is an uncommon skeletal disorder in which normal bone is replaced by abnormal fibroosseous tissue. Mainly, FD is found in children, and by adulthood it usually becomes quiescent. Our case showed FD of more than 14-year duration in the left maxilla. Our evaluation was that growth ceased in adulthood and had achieved the static stage. Because FD cases in elderly patients are rarely reported, we hereby present a monostotic FD case in a 65-year-old female. We presented sequential radiographic images and scintigraphic images of this case, and combined them with a literature review that emphasized the progression of the disease

  16. Fibrous dysplasia of the maxilla in an elderly female: Case report on a 14-year quiescent phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Park, Yong Chan; Choi, Moon Ki [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myong Hyoun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Wonkwang University, School of Medicine and Institute of Wonkwang Medical Science, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Wonkwang University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is an uncommon skeletal disorder in which normal bone is replaced by abnormal fibroosseous tissue. Mainly, FD is found in children, and by adulthood it usually becomes quiescent. Our case showed FD of more than 14-year duration in the left maxilla. Our evaluation was that growth ceased in adulthood and had achieved the static stage. Because FD cases in elderly patients are rarely reported, we hereby present a monostotic FD case in a 65-year-old female. We presented sequential radiographic images and scintigraphic images of this case, and combined them with a literature review that emphasized the progression of the disease.

  17. Dclk1 Defines Quiescent Pancreatic Progenitors that Promote Injury-Induced Regeneration and Tumorigenesis | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The existence of adult pancreatic progenitor cells has been debated. While some favor the concept of facultative progenitors involved in homeostasis and repair, neither a location nor markers for such cells have been defined. Using genetic lineage tracing, we show that Doublecortin-like kinase-1 (Dclk1) labels a rare population of long-lived, quiescent pancreatic cells. In vitro, Dclk1+ cells proliferate readily and sustain pancreatic organoid growth. In vivo, Dclk1+ cells are necessary for pancreatic regeneration following injury and chronic inflammation.

  18. Identification of markers that functionally define a quiescent multiple myeloma cell sub-population surviving bortezomib treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, Alfred; Calvo, Veronica; Biran, Noa; Osman, Keren; Chari, Ajai; Paton, James C; Paton, Adrienne W; Moore, Kateri; Schewe, Denis M; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms allowing residual multiple myeloma (MM) cells to persist after bortezomib (Bz) treatment remain unclear. We hypothesized that studying the biology of bortezomib-surviving cells may reveal markers to identify these cells and survival signals to target and kill residual MM cells. We used H2B-GFP label retention, biochemical tools and in vitro and in vivo experiments to characterize growth arrest and the unfolded protein responses in quiescent Bz-surviving cells. We also tested the effect of a demethylating agent, 5-Azacytidine, on Bz-induced quiescence and whether inhibiting the chaperone GRP78/BiP (henceforth GRP78) with a specific toxin induced apoptosis in Bz-surviving cells. Finally, we used MM patient samples to test whether GRP78 levels might associate with disease progression. Statistical analysis employed t-test and Mann-Whitney tests at a 95% confidence. We report that Bz-surviving MM cells in vitro and in vivo enter quiescence characterized by p21 CIP1 upregulation. Bz-surviving MM cells also downregulated CDK6, Ki67 and P-Rb. H2B-GFP label retention showed that Bz-surviving MM cells are either slow-cycling or deeply quiescent. The Bz-induced quiescence was stabilized by low dose (500nM) of 5-azacytidine (Aza) pre-treatment, which also potentiated the initial Bz-induced apoptosis. We also found that expression of GRP78, an unfolded protein response (UPR) survival factor, persisted in MM quiescent cells. Importantly, GRP78 downregulation using a specific SubAB bacterial toxin killed Bz-surviving MM cells. Finally, quantification of Grp78 high /CD138+ MM cells from patients suggested that high levels correlated with progressive disease. We conclude that Bz-surviving MM cells display a GRP78 HIGH /p21 HIGH /CDK6 LOW /P-Rb LOW profile, and these markers may identify quiescent MM cells capable of fueling recurrences. We further conclude that Aza + Bz treatment of MM may represent a novel strategy to delay recurrences by enhancing Bz

  19. High contrast laser marking of alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Fernández, A.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2015-05-01

    Alumina serves as raw material for a broad range of advanced ceramic products. These elements should usually be identified by some characters or symbols printed directly on them. In this sense, laser marking is an efficient, reliable and widely implemented process in industry. However, laser marking of alumina still leads to poor results since the process is not able to produce a dark mark, yielding bad contrast. In this paper, we present an experimental study on the process of marking alumina by three different lasers working in two wavelengths: 1064 nm (Near-infrared) and 532 nm (visible, green radiation). A colorimetric analysis has been carried out in order to compare the resulting marks and its contrast. The most suitable laser operating conditions were also defined and are reported here. Moreover, the physical process of marking by NIR lasers is discussed in detail. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were also employed to analyze the results. Finally, we propose an explanation for the differences of the coloration induced under different atmospheres and laser parameters. We concluded that the atmosphere is the key parameter, being the inert one the best choice to produce the darkest marks.

  20. Court presentation of bite mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinnan, A J; Melton, M J

    1985-12-01

    The uniqueness of an individual's bite mark is generally accepted. The use of bite mark analysis to identify or exclude those suspected of crimes is now a well established activity in forensic dentistry. Although the techniques for evaluating bite mark evidence are extremely sophisticated, it is important that the courtroom presentation of such evidence should be as simple as possible and be directed towards those who must judge it. Dentists likely to be involved in the courtroom presentation of bite mark evidence should: be certain that their local law enforcement personnel are frequently updated on the techniques to be used for producing the optimum evidence needed to evaluate bite marks; become acquainted with the current techniques of evaluating bite mark evidence and understand their difficulties and pitfalls; meet with the lawyers (prosecution or defence) before a courtroom appearance, briefing them on the significance of the particular findings; prepare clear and easily understandable visual aids to present to the court the techniques used in the analysis and the bases for the conclusion reached; and offer conclusions derived from the bite mark investigation.

  1. Changing Context of Trade Mark Protection in India: A Review of the Trade Marks Act, 1999

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Akhileshwar

    2004-01-01

    With liberalisation and globalisation of the Indian economy, it has become possible for anyone to get into production and services in most of the sectors. This has led to rampant misuse and appropriation of trade marks. In an insulated economy, with monopoly markets, law protecting trade marks had a limited role. In the changed context, however, trade mark law will be a field of much interest for academics and practitioners. Towards this, the paper explores the formation of trade mark law in ...

  2. Somatostatin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lars Neisig; Stidsen, Carsten Enggaard; Hartmann, Bolette

    2003-01-01

    functional units, receptors co-operate. The total receptor apparatus of individual cell types is composed of different-ligand receptors (e.g. SRIF and non-SRIF receptors) and co-expressed receptor subtypes (e.g. sst(2) and sst(5) receptors) in characteristic proportions. In other words, levels of individual......-peptides, receptor agonists and antagonists. Relatively long half lives, as compared to those of the endogenous ligands, have been paramount from the outset. Motivated by theoretical puzzles or the shortcomings of present-day diagnostics and therapy, investigators have also aimed to produce subtype...

  3. Elemental marking of arthropod pests in agricultural systems: single and multigenerational marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Leslie Hayes

    1991-01-01

    Use of elemental markers to study movement of arthropod pests of field crops is reviewed. Trace elements, rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs), have provided a nondisruptive method of marking natural adult populations via developmental stage consumption of treated host plants. Multigenerational marking occurs with the transfer of elemental markers from marked adults to...

  4. A self-consistent model of a thermally balanced quiescent prominence in magnetostatic equilibrium in a uniform gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.; Low, B.C.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical model of quiescent prominences in the form of an infinite vertical sheet is presented. Self-consistent solutions are obtained by integrating simultaneously the set of nonlinear equations of magnetostatic equilibrium and thermal balance. The basic features of the models are: (1) The prominence matter is confined to a sheet and supported against gravity by a bowed magnetic field. (2) The thermal flux is channelled along magnetic field lines. (3) The thermal flux is everywhere balanced by Low's (1975) hypothetical heat sink which is proportional to the local density. (4) A constant component of the magnetic field along the length of the prominence shields the cool plasma from the hot surrounding. It is assumed that the prominence plasma emits more radiation than it absorbes from the radiation fields of the photosphere, chromosphere and corona, and the above hypothetical heat sink is interpreted to represent the amount of radiative loss that must be balanced by a nonradiative energy input. Using a central density and temperature of 10 11 particles cm -3 and 5000 K respectively, a magnetic field strength between 2 to 10 gauss and a thermal conductivity that varies linearly with temperature, the physical properties implied by the model are discussed. The analytic treatment can also be carried out for a class of more complex thermal conductivities. These models provide a useful starting point for investigating the combined requirements of magnetostatic equilibrium and thermal balance in the quiescent prominence. (Auth.)

  5. Density and temperature profile modifications with electron cyclotron power injection in quiescent double barrier discharges on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, T A; Burrell, K H; Doyle, E J; Gohil, P; Lasnier, C J; Leonard, A W; Moller, J M; Osborne, T H; Snyder, P B; Thomas, D M; Weiland, J; West, W P

    2006-01-01

    Quiescent double barrier (QDB) conditions often form when an internal transport barrier is created with high-power neutral-beam injection into a quiescent H-mode (QH) plasma. These QH-modes offer an attractive, high-performance operating scenario for burning plasma experiments due to their quasi-stationarity and lack of edge localized modes. Our initial experiments and modelling using ECH/ECCD in QDB shots were designed to control the current profile and, indeed, we have observed a strong dependence on the q-profile when EC-power is used inside the core transport barrier region. While strong electron heating is observed with EC power injection, we also observe a drop in the other core parameters, namely ion temperature and rotation, electron density and impurity concentration. At onset and termination of the EC pulse, dynamically changing conditions are induced that provide a rapid evolution of T e /T i profiles accessible with 0.3 e /T i ) axis e /T i ratio as the ion temperature and density profiles flatten with this change in transport. The change in transport is consistent with a destabilization of ITG turbulence as inferred from the reduction of the stability threshold due to the change in T e /T i

  6. Core and edge aspects of quiescent double barrier operation on DIII-D, with relevance to critical ITB physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Casper, T.A.; Burrell, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results from DIII-D address critical internal transport barrier (ITB) research issues relating to sustainability, impurity accumulation and ITB control, and have also demonstrated successful application of general profile control tools. In addition, substantial progress has been made in understanding the physics of the Quiescent Double Barrier (QDB) regime, increasing the demonstrated operating space for the regime and improving performance. Highlights include: (1) A clear demonstration of q-profile modification using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD); (2) Successful use of localized profile control using electron cyclotron heating (ECH) or ECCD to reduce central high-Z impurity accumulation associated with density peaking; (3) Theory based modeling codes are now being used to design experiments; (4) The operating space for Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) has been substantially broadened, in particular higher density operation has been achieved; (5) Both absolute (β≤ 3.8%, neutron rate S n ≤ 5.5x10 15 s -1 ) and relative (β N H 89 = 7 for 10τ E ) performance has been increased; (6) With regard to sustainment, QDB plasmas have been run for 3.8 s or 26 τ E . These results emphasize that it is possible to produce sustained high quality H-mode performance with an edge localized mode (ELM)-free edge, directly addressing a major issue in fusion research, of how to ameliorate or eliminate ELM induced pulsed divertor particle and heat loads. (author)

  7. Glucose Regulates Cyclin D2 Expression in Quiescent and Replicating Pancreatic β-Cells Through Glycolysis and Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salpeter, Seth J.; Klochendler, Agnes; Weinberg-Corem, Noa; Porat, Shay; Granot, Zvi; Shapiro, A. M. James; Magnuson, Mark A.; Eden, Amir; Grimsby, Joseph; Glaser, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the molecular triggers of pancreatic β-cell proliferation may facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for diabetes. Genetic studies have demonstrated an important role for cyclin D2 in β-cell proliferation and mass homeostasis, but its specific function in β-cell division and mechanism of regulation remain unclear. Here, we report that cyclin D2 is present at high levels in the nucleus of quiescent β-cells in vivo. The major regulator of cyclin D2 expression is glucose, acting via glycolysis and calcium channels in the β-cell to control cyclin D2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, cyclin D2 mRNA is down-regulated during S-G2-M phases of each β-cell division, via a mechanism that is also affected by glucose metabolism. Thus, glucose metabolism maintains high levels of nuclear cyclin D2 in quiescent β-cells and modulates the down-regulation of cyclin D2 in replicating β-cells. These data challenge the standard model for regulation of cyclin D2 during the cell division cycle and suggest cyclin D2 as a molecular link between glucose levels and β-cell replication. PMID:21521747

  8. Evidence for quiescent synchrotron emission in the black hole X-ray transient Swift J1357.2–0933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz T.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present high time-resolution optical and infrared observations of the edge-on black hole X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933. Our data taken in 2012 shows the system to be at its pre-outburst magnitude and so the system is in quiescence. In contrast to other X-ray transients, the quiescent light curves of Swift J1357.2-0933 do not show the secondary star’s ellipsoidal modulation. The optical and infrared light curves is dominated by variability with an optical fractional rms of about 20 per cent, much larger than what is observed in other systems. The quiescent ultraviolet to mid-IR spectral energy distribution in quiescence is dominated by a nonthermal component with a power–law index of −1.4, (the broad-band rms SED has a similar index which arises from optically thin synchrotron emission from a jet; the lack of a peak in the spectral energy distribution rules out advection-dominated models (based on [19].

  9. A Nuclear Role for miR-9 and Argonaute Proteins in Balancing Quiescent and Activated Neural Stem Cell States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna Katz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout life, adult neural stem cells (NSCs produce new neurons and glia that contribute to crucial brain functions. Quiescence is an essential protective feature of adult NSCs; however, the establishment and maintenance of this state remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that in the adult zebrafish pallium, the brain-enriched miR-9 is expressed exclusively in a subset of quiescent NSCs, highlighting a heterogeneity within these cells, and is necessary to maintain NSC quiescence. Strikingly, miR-9, along with Argonaute proteins (Agos, is localized to the nucleus of quiescent NSCs, and manipulating their nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio impacts quiescence. Mechanistically, miR-9 permits efficient Notch signaling to promote quiescence, and we identify the RISC protein TNRC6 as a mediator of miR-9/Agos nuclear localization in vivo. We propose a conserved non-canonical role for nuclear miR-9/Agos in controlling the balance between NSC quiescence and activation, a key step in maintaining adult germinal pools.

  10. First results from Mark III at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einsweiler, K.F.

    The paper presents data on meson decays obtained using the MARK III detector operating at SPEAR. Results on hadronic decays; decays of the etasub(e); and results on radiative decays; are all described. (U.K.)

  11. User's guide : pavement marking management system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pavement markings play a critical role in maintaining a safe and efficient driving environment for road users, especially during nighttime conditions. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) spends millions of dollars each year for installatio...

  12. Mark Twain, Fenimore Cooper, and Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Robert Alan

    1992-01-01

    Describes how Mark Twain's essay "Fenimore Cooper's Literary Offenses" helped students to get interested in writing and inspired them to write a similar essay critiquing the movie "Batman." Provides excerpts from students' essays. (PRA)

  13. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... “To Close, Press Together Full Length”. The marking may be applied to the container by the silk screen process, using a suitable ink or paint, or may be applied by other means shown to be acceptable. (b...

  14. 49 CFR 180.213 - Requalification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... eddy current examination combined with a visual inspection, the marking is as illustrated in paragraph..., securely affixed in a manner prescribed by the cylinder manufacturer, near the original manufacturer's...

  15. Microscopic saw mark analysis: an empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Peters, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic saw mark analysis is a well published and generally accepted qualitative analytical method. However, little research has focused on identifying and mitigating potential sources of error associated with the method. The presented study proposes the use of classification trees and random forest classifiers as an optimal, statistically sound approach to mitigate the potential for error of variability and outcome error in microscopic saw mark analysis. The statistical model was applied to 58 experimental saw marks created with four types of saws. The saw marks were made in fresh human femurs obtained through anatomical gift and were analyzed using a Keyence digital microscope. The statistical approach weighed the variables based on discriminatory value and produced decision trees with an associated outcome error rate of 8.62-17.82%. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Enamel-based mark performance for marking Chinese mystery snail Bellamya chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alec; Allen, Craig R.; Hart, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeleton of gastropods provides a convenient surface for carrying marks, and i the interest of improving future marking methods our laboratory assessed the performance of an enamel paint. The endurance of the paint was also compared to other marking methods assessed in the past. We marked the shells of 30 adult Chinese mystery snails Bellamya chinensis and held them in an aquarium for 181 days. We observed no complete degradation of any enamel-paint mark during the 181 days. The enamel-paint mark was superior to a nai;-polish mark, which lasted a median of 100 days. Enamel-paint marks also have a lower rate of loss (0.00 month-1 181 days) than plastic bee tags (0.01 month-1, 57 days), gouache paint (0.07 month-1, 18.5 days), or car body paint from studies found in scientific literature. Legibility of enamel-paint marks had a median lifetime of 102 days. The use of enamel paint on the shells of gastropods is a viable option for studies lasting up to 6 months. Furthermore, visits to capture-mark-recapture site 1 year after application of enamel-paint marks on B. chinesnis shells produced several individuals on which the enamel paint was still visible, although further testing is required to clarify durability over longer periods.

  17. PREOPERATIVE ENDOSCOPIC MARKING OF UNPALPABLE COLONIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Goncharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.

  18. Forensic surface metrology: tool mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Carol; McLaughlin, Patrick; Kuo, Loretta; Kammerman, Frani; Shenkin, Peter; Diaczuk, Peter; Petraco, Nicholas; Hamby, James; Petraco, Nicholas D K

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several decades, forensic examiners of impression evidence have come under scrutiny in the courtroom due to analysis methods that rely heavily on subjective morphological comparisons. Currently, there is no universally accepted system that generates numerical data to independently corroborate visual comparisons. Our research attempts to develop such a system for tool mark evidence, proposing a methodology that objectively evaluates the association of striated tool marks with the tools that generated them. In our study, 58 primer shear marks on 9 mm cartridge cases, fired from four Glock model 19 pistols, were collected using high-resolution white light confocal microscopy. The resulting three-dimensional surface topographies were filtered to extract all "waviness surfaces"-the essential "line" information that firearm and tool mark examiners view under a microscope. Extracted waviness profiles were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to make the profile-gun associations, and conformal prediction theory (CPT) for establishing confidence levels. At the 95% confidence level, CPT coupled with PCA-SVM yielded an empirical error rate of 3.5%. Complementary, bootstrap-based computations for estimated error rates were 0%, indicating that the error rate for the algorithmic procedure is likely to remain low on larger data sets. Finally, suggestions are made for practical courtroom application of CPT for assigning levels of confidence to SVM identifications of tool marks recorded with confocal microscopy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mark 4A project training evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S. N.

    1985-11-01

    A participant evaluation of a Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The Mark IVA project is an implementation to upgrade the tracking and data acquisition systems of the dSN. Approximately six hundred DSN operations and engineering maintenance personnel were surveyed. The survey obtained a convenience sample including trained people within the population in order to learn what training had taken place and to what effect. The survey questionnaire used modifications of standard rating scales to evaluate over one hundred items in four training dimensions. The scope of the evaluation included Mark IVA vendor training, a systems familiarization training seminar, engineering training classes, a on-the-job training. Measures of central tendency were made from participant rating responses. Chi square tests of statistical significance were performed on the data. The evaluation results indicated that the effects of different Mark INA training methods could be measured according to certain ratings of technical training effectiveness, and that the Mark IVA technical training has exhibited positive effects on the abilities of DSN personnel to operate and maintain new Mark IVA equipment systems.

  20. Mark 4A project training evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, S. N.

    1985-01-01

    A participant evaluation of a Deep Space Network (DSN) is described. The Mark IVA project is an implementation to upgrade the tracking and data acquisition systems of the dSN. Approximately six hundred DSN operations and engineering maintenance personnel were surveyed. The survey obtained a convenience sample including trained people within the population in order to learn what training had taken place and to what effect. The survey questionnaire used modifications of standard rating scales to evaluate over one hundred items in four training dimensions. The scope of the evaluation included Mark IVA vendor training, a systems familiarization training seminar, engineering training classes, a on-the-job training. Measures of central tendency were made from participant rating responses. Chi square tests of statistical significance were performed on the data. The evaluation results indicated that the effects of different Mark INA training methods could be measured according to certain ratings of technical training effectiveness, and that the Mark IVA technical training has exhibited positive effects on the abilities of DSN personnel to operate and maintain new Mark IVA equipment systems.

  1. Non-Quiescent X-ray Emission from Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tournear, Derek M

    2003-08-18

    X-ray astronomy began with the detection of the persistent source Scorpius X-1. Shortly afterwards, sources were detected that were variable. Centaurus X-2, was determined to be an X-ray transient, having a quiescent state, and a state that was much brighter. As X-ray astronomy progressed, classifications of transient sources developed. One class of sources, believed to be neutron stars, undergo extreme luminosity transitions lasting a few seconds. These outbursts are believed to be thermonuclear explosions occurring on the surface of neutron stars (type I X-ray bursts). Other sources undergo luminosity changes that cannot be explained by thermonuclear burning and last for days to months. These sources are soft X-ray transients (SXTs) and are believed to be the result of instabilities in the accretion of matter onto either a neutron star or black hole. Type I X-ray bursts provide a tool for probing the surfaces of neutron stars. Requiring a surface for the burning has led authors to use the presence of X-ray bursts to rule out the existence of a black hole (where an event horizon exists not a surface) for systems which exhibit type I X-ray bursts. Distinguishing between neutron stars and black holes has been a problem for decades. Narayan and Heyl have developed a theoretical framework to convert suitable upper limits on type I X-ray bursts from accreting black hole candidates (BHCs) into evidence for an event horizon. We survey 2101.2 ks of data from the USA X-ray timing experiment and 5142 ks of data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) experiment to obtain the first formal constraint of this type. 1122 ks of neutron star data yield a population averaged mean burst rate of 1.7 {+-} 0.4 x 10{sup -5} bursts s{sup -1}, while 6081 ks of BHC data yield a 95% confidence level upper limit of 4.9 x 10{sup -7} bursts s{sup -1}. Applying the framework of Narayan and Heyl we calculate regions of luminosity where the neutron stars are expected to burst and the BHCs

  2. What Turns Galaxies Off? the Different Morphologies of Star-Forming and Quiescent Galaxies Since z Approximates 2 from CANDELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Eric F.; VanDerWel, Arjen; Papovich, Casey; Kocevski, Dale; Lotz, Jennifer; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Harry; Koekemoer, Anton; hide

    2011-01-01

    We use HST/WFC3 imaging from the CANDELS multicyc1e treasury survey, in conjunction with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, to explore the evolution of galactic structure for galaxies with stellar masses > 3 x 10(exp 10) Solar Mass from Z= 2.2 to the present epoch, a time span of 10 Gyr. We explore the relationship between rest-frame optical color, stellar mass, star formation activity and the structural parameters of galaxies as determined from parametric fits to the surface brightness profiles of galaxies. We confirm the dramatic evolution from z= 2.2 to the present day in the number density of non-star-forming galaxies above 3 x 10(exp 10) Solar Mass reported by other authors. We find that the vast majority of these quiescent systems have concentrated light profiles, as parameterized by the Sersic index, and the population of concentrated galaxies grows similarly rapidly. We examine the joint distribution of star formation activity, Sersic index, stellar mass, mass divided by radius (a proxy for velocity dispersion), and stellar surface density. Quiescence correlates poorly with stellar mass at all z < 2.2 (given the approx < 0.2 dex scatter between halo mass and stellar mass at z approximates 0 inferred by More et al, this argues against halo mass being the only factor determining quiescence). Quiescence correlates better with Sersic index, 'velocity dispersion' and stellar surface density, where Sersic index correlates the best (increasingly so at lower redshift). Yet, there is significant scatter between quiescence and galaxy structure: while the vast majority of quiescent galaxies have prominent bulges, many of them have significant disks, and a number of bulge-dominated galaxies have significant star formation. Noting the rarity of quiescent galaxies without prominent bulges, we argue that a prominent bulge (and, perhaps by association, a supermassive black hole) is a necessary but not sufficient condition for quenching star formation on galactic scales over the

  3. CANDELS+3D-HST: Compact SFGs at z ∼ 2-3, the progenitors of the first quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barro, G.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Guo, Y. [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Pérez-González, P. G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, F. CC. Físicas, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pacifici, C. [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Trump, J. R. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wuyts, S.; Hsu, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Bell, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dekel, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Porter, L.; Primack, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Caputi, K. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Ceverino, D. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Giavalisco, M. [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2014-08-10

    We analyze the star-forming and structural properties of 45 massive (log(M/M{sub ☉}) >10) compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 2 < z < 3 to explore whether they are progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2. The optical/NIR and far-IR Spitzer/Herschel colors indicate that most compact SFGs are heavily obscured. Nearly half (47%) host an X-ray-bright active galactic nucleus (AGN). In contrast, only about 10% of other massive galaxies at that time host AGNs. Compact SFGs have centrally concentrated light profiles and spheroidal morphologies similar to quiescent galaxies and are thus strikingly different from other SFGs, which typically are disk-like and sometimes clumpy or irregular. Most compact SFGs lie either within the star formation rate (SFR)-mass main sequence (65%) or below it (30%), on the expected evolutionary path toward quiescent galaxies. These results show conclusively that galaxies become more compact before they lose their gas and dust, quenching star formation. Using extensive HST photometry from CANDELS and grism spectroscopy from the 3D-HST survey, we model their stellar populations with either exponentially declining (τ) star formation histories (SFHs) or physically motivated SFHs drawn from semianalytic models (SAMs). SAMs predict longer formation timescales and older ages ∼2 Gyr, which are nearly twice as old as the estimates of the τ models. Both models yield good spectral energy distribution fits, indicating that the systematic uncertainty in the age due to degeneracies in the SFH is of that order of magnitude. However, SAM SFHs better match the observed slope and zero point of the SFR-mass main sequence. Contrary to expectations, some low-mass compact SFGs (log(M/M{sub ☉}) =10-10.6) have younger ages but lower specific SFRs than that of more massive galaxies, suggesting that the low-mass galaxies reach the red sequence faster. If the progenitors of compact SFGs are extended SFGs, state-of-the-art SAMs show that mergers

  4. CANDELS+3D-HST: Compact SFGs at z ∼ 2-3, the progenitors of the first quiescent galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barro, G.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Guo, Y.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Pacifici, C.; Trump, J. R.; Wuyts, S.; Hsu, L.; Bell, E.; Dekel, A.; Porter, L.; Primack, J.; Ferguson, H.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Caputi, K.; Ceverino, D.; Croton, D.; Giavalisco, M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the star-forming and structural properties of 45 massive (log(M/M ☉ ) >10) compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at 2 < z < 3 to explore whether they are progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2. The optical/NIR and far-IR Spitzer/Herschel colors indicate that most compact SFGs are heavily obscured. Nearly half (47%) host an X-ray-bright active galactic nucleus (AGN). In contrast, only about 10% of other massive galaxies at that time host AGNs. Compact SFGs have centrally concentrated light profiles and spheroidal morphologies similar to quiescent galaxies and are thus strikingly different from other SFGs, which typically are disk-like and sometimes clumpy or irregular. Most compact SFGs lie either within the star formation rate (SFR)-mass main sequence (65%) or below it (30%), on the expected evolutionary path toward quiescent galaxies. These results show conclusively that galaxies become more compact before they lose their gas and dust, quenching star formation. Using extensive HST photometry from CANDELS and grism spectroscopy from the 3D-HST survey, we model their stellar populations with either exponentially declining (τ) star formation histories (SFHs) or physically motivated SFHs drawn from semianalytic models (SAMs). SAMs predict longer formation timescales and older ages ∼2 Gyr, which are nearly twice as old as the estimates of the τ models. Both models yield good spectral energy distribution fits, indicating that the systematic uncertainty in the age due to degeneracies in the SFH is of that order of magnitude. However, SAM SFHs better match the observed slope and zero point of the SFR-mass main sequence. Contrary to expectations, some low-mass compact SFGs (log(M/M ☉ ) =10-10.6) have younger ages but lower specific SFRs than that of more massive galaxies, suggesting that the low-mass galaxies reach the red sequence faster. If the progenitors of compact SFGs are extended SFGs, state-of-the-art SAMs show that mergers and disk

  5. The national hydrologic bench-mark network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Ernest D.; Biesecker, J.E.

    1971-01-01

    The United States is undergoing a dramatic growth of population and demands on its natural resources. The effects are widespread and often produce significant alterations of the environment. The hydrologic bench-mark network was established to provide data on stream basins which are little affected by these changes. The network is made up of selected stream basins which are not expected to be significantly altered by man. Data obtained from these basins can be used to document natural changes in hydrologic characteristics with time, to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic structure of natural basins, and to provide a comparative base for studying the effects of man on the hydrologic environment. There are 57 bench-mark basins in 37 States. These basins are in areas having a wide variety of climate and topography. The bench-mark basins and the types of data collected in the basins are described.

  6. The Mark II Vertex Drift Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.P.; Baggs, R.; Fujino, D.

    1989-03-01

    We have completed constructing and begun operating the Mark II Drift Chamber Vertex Detector. The chamber, based on a modified jet cell design, achieves 30 μm spatial resolution and 2 gas mixtures. Special emphasis has been placed on controlling systematic errors including the use of novel construction techniques which permit accurate wire placement. Chamber performance has been studied with cosmic ray tracks collected with the chamber located both inside and outside the Mark II. Results on spatial resolution, average pulse shape, and some properties of CO 2 mixtures are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  7. THE MARK I BUSINESS SYSTEM SIMULATION MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    of a large-scale business simulation model as a vehicle for doing research in management controls. The major results of the program were the...development of the Mark I business simulation model and the Simulation Package (SIMPAC). SIMPAC is a method and set of programs facilitating the construction...of large simulation models. The object of this document is to describe the Mark I Corporation model, state why parts of the business were modeled as they were, and indicate the research applications of the model. (Author)

  8. An experimental and numerical study of diffusion flames in cross-flow and quiescent environment at smoke point condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Sien Fong

    An experimental and numerical study of a turbulent smoke point diffusion flame in a quiescent and cross-flow condition was performed. The fuel mass flow rate of a turbulent smoke point flame was determined at a quiescent condition and in cross-flow with velocity ranging from 2 to 4 m/s. This fuel mass flow rate is defined as the Critical Fuel Mass Flow Rate (CFMFR). At a fuel mass flow rate below the CFMFR the flame produces smoke. In the dilution study, an amount of inert gas (nitrogen) was added to the fuel stream to achieve the smoke point condition for ten different fractions of CFMFR. From this dilution study, three regions were defined, the chemically-dominated region, transition region, and momentum-dominated region. The first objective of this study was to determine the factors behind the distinction of these three regions. The second objective was to understand the effect of cross-flow velocity on the smoke point flame structure. The flame temperature, radiation, geometrical dimension of flame, velocity, and global emissions and in-flame species concentration were measured. The third objective was to study a numerical model that can simulate the turbulent smoke point flame structure. The dilution study showed that the flames in quiescent condition and in the 3.5 and 4 m/s cross-flow condition had the chemically-dominated region at 5% to 20% CFMFR, the transition region at 20% to 40% CFMFR, and the momentum-dominated region at 40% to 100% CFMFR. On the other hand, the flame in cross-flow of 2 to 3 m/s showed the chemically-dominated region at 5% to 10% CFMFR, the transition region at 10% to 30% CFMFR, and the momentum-dominated region at 30% to 100% CFMFR. The chemically-dominated flame had a sharp dual-peak structure for the flame temperature, CO2 and NO concentration profiles at 25% and 50% flame length. However, the momentum-dominated region flame exhibited a dual peak structure only at 25% flame length. The decrease of flow rate from 30% to 10% CFMFR

  9. High-frequency coherent edge fluctuations in a high-pedestal-pressure quiescent H-mode plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; McKee, G R; Groebner, R J; Snyder, P B; Osborne, T H; Burrell, K H

    2011-07-29

    A set of high frequency coherent (HFC) modes (f=80-250 kHz) is observed with beam emission spectroscopy measurements of density fluctuations in the pedestal of a strongly shaped quiescent H-mode plasma on DIII-D, with characteristics predicted for kinetic ballooning modes (KBM): propagation in the ion-diamagnetic drift direction; a frequency near 0.2-0.3 times the ion-diamagnetic frequency; inferred toroidal mode numbers of n∼10-25; poloidal wave numbers of k(θ)∼0.17-0.4 cm(-1); and high measured decorrelation rates (τ(c)(-1)∼ω(s)∼0.5×10(6) s(-1)). Their appearance correlates with saturation of the pedestal pressure. © 2011 American Physical Society

  10. Determining Quiescent Colloidal Suspension Viscosities Using the Green-Kubo Relation and Image-Based Stress Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neil Y. C.; Bierbaum, Matthew; Cohen, Itai

    2017-09-01

    By combining confocal microscopy and stress assessment from local structural anisotropy, we directly measure stresses in 3D quiescent colloidal liquids. Our noninvasive and nonperturbative method allows us to measure forces ≲50 fN with a small and tunable probing volume, enabling us to resolve the stress fluctuations arising from particle thermal motions. We use the Green-Kubo relation to relate these measured stress fluctuations to the bulk Brownian viscosity at different volume fractions, comparing against simulations and conventional rheometry measurements. We find that the Green-Kubo analysis gives excellent agreement with these prior results, suggesting that similar methods could be applied to investigations of local flow properties in many poorly understood far-from-equilibrium systems, including suspensions that are glassy, strongly sheared, or highly confined.

  11. Fine-scale structures and material flows of quiescent filaments observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Xue, Zhi-Ke; Xiang, Yong-Yuan; Yang, Li-Heng

    2015-10-01

    Study of the small-scale structures and material flows associated with solar quiescent filaments is very important for understanding the formation and equilibrium of solar filaments. Using high resolution Hα data observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we present the structures of barbs and material flows along the threads across the spine in two quiescent filaments on 2013 September 29 and on 2012 November 2, respectively. During the evolution of the filament barb, several parallel tube-shaped structures formed and the width of the structures ranged from about 2.3 Mm to 3.3 Mm. The parallel tube-shaped structures merged together accompanied by material flows from the spine to the barb. Moreover, the boundary between the barb and surrounding atmosphere was very neat. The counter-streaming flows were not found to appear alternately in the adjacent threads of the filament. However, the large-scale patchy counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The flows in one patch of the filament have the same direction but flows in the adjacent patch have opposite direction. The patches of two opposite flows with a size of about 10″ were alternately exhibited along the spine of the filament. The velocity of these material flows ranged from 5.6 km s-1 to 15.0 km s-1. The material flows along the threads of the filament did not change their direction for about two hours and fourteen minutes during the evolution of the filament. Our results confirm that the large-scale counter-streaming flows with a certain width along the threads of solar filaments exist and are coaligned well with the threads.

  12. The formation of quiescent glomerular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro is strongly dependent on the choice of extracellular matrix coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla, E-mail: kpaj@novonordisk.com [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark); Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Nielsen, Malik Nygaard [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark); Hansen, Troels Krarup [Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Williams, Julie M. [Global Research, Novo Nordisk A/S, Måløv (Denmark)

    2017-04-01

    Background and aims: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs). Methods: Primary hGEnCs were seeded on various ECMs. Cell adhesion was monitored by an impedance sensing system. The localization of junctional proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence and the barrier function by passage of fluorescent dextrans and magnitude of VEGF response. Results: All ECM matrices except recombinant human laminin 111 (rhLN111) supported comparable cell proliferation. Culturing hGEnCs on rhLN521, rhLN511 or fibronectin resulted in a physiologically relevant barrier to 70 kDa dextrans which was 82% tighter than that formed on collagen type IV. Furthermore, only hGEnCs cultured on rhLN521 or rhLN511 showed plasma-membrane localized zonula occludens-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin indicative of proper tight and adherens junctions (AJ). Conclusion: We recommend culturing hGEnCs on the mature glomerular basement membrane laminin - rhLN521 – which, as the only commercially available ECM, promotes all of the characteristics of the quiescent hGEnC monolayer: cobblestone morphology, well-defined AJs and physiological perm-selectivity. - Highlights: • rhLN521, rhLN511 and hFN assure physiologically relevant permeability. • rhLN521 and rhLN511 ensure best cell morphology and adherens junction formation. • Collagen IV and I based coating results in disorganized hGEnC monolayer. • Physiologically relevant ECM may lead to down-regulation of self-produced matrices.

  13. The formation of quiescent glomerular endothelial cell monolayer in vitro is strongly dependent on the choice of extracellular matrix coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajęcka, Kamilla; Nielsen, Malik Nygaard; Hansen, Troels Krarup; Williams, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Nephropathy involves pathophysiological changes to the glomerulus. The primary glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) have emerged as an important tool for studying glomerulosclerotic mechanisms and in the screening process for drug-candidates. The success of the studies is dependent on the quality of the cell model. Therefore, we set out to establish an easy, reproducible model of the quiescent endothelial monolayer with the use of commercially available extracellular matrices (ECMs). Methods: Primary hGEnCs were seeded on various ECMs. Cell adhesion was monitored by an impedance sensing system. The localization of junctional proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence and the barrier function by passage of fluorescent dextrans and magnitude of VEGF response. Results: All ECM matrices except recombinant human laminin 111 (rhLN111) supported comparable cell proliferation. Culturing hGEnCs on rhLN521, rhLN511 or fibronectin resulted in a physiologically relevant barrier to 70 kDa dextrans which was 82% tighter than that formed on collagen type IV. Furthermore, only hGEnCs cultured on rhLN521 or rhLN511 showed plasma-membrane localized zonula occludens-1 and vascular endothelial cadherin indicative of proper tight and adherens junctions (AJ). Conclusion: We recommend culturing hGEnCs on the mature glomerular basement membrane laminin - rhLN521 – which, as the only commercially available ECM, promotes all of the characteristics of the quiescent hGEnC monolayer: cobblestone morphology, well-defined AJs and physiological perm-selectivity. - Highlights: • rhLN521, rhLN511 and hFN assure physiologically relevant permeability. • rhLN521 and rhLN511 ensure best cell morphology and adherens junction formation. • Collagen IV and I based coating results in disorganized hGEnC monolayer. • Physiologically relevant ECM may lead to down-regulation of self-produced matrices.

  14. Quiescent Oct4+ Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) Repopulate Ablated Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein+ NSCs in the Adult Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Rachel L; Yammine, Samantha Z; Morshead, Cindi M; van der Kooy, Derek

    2017-09-01

    Adult primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) are a rare population of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) - Oct4 + cells in the mouse forebrain subependymal zone bordering the lateral ventricles that give rise to clonal neurospheres in leukemia inhibitory factor in vitro. pNSC neurospheres can be passaged to self-renew or give rise to GFAP + NSCs that form neurospheres in epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2, which we collectively refer to as definitive NSCs (dNSCs). Label retention experiments using doxycycline-inducible histone-2B (H2B)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice and several chase periods of up to 1 year quantified the adult pNSC cell cycle time as 3-5 months. We hypothesized that while pNSCs are not very proliferative at baseline, they may exist as a reserve pool of NSCs in case of injury. To test this function of pNSCs, we obtained conditional Oct4 knockout mice, Oct4 fl/fl ;Sox1 Cre (Oct4 CKO ), which do not yield adult pNSC-derived neurospheres. When we ablated the progeny of pNSCs, namely all GFAP + dNSCs, in these Oct4 CKO mice, we found that dNSCs did not recover as they do in wild-type mice, suggesting that pNSCs are necessary for dNSC repopulation. Returning to the H2B-GFP mice, we observed that the cytosine β-d-arabinofuranoside ablation of proliferating cells including dNSCs-induced quiescent pNSCs to proliferate and significantly dilute their H2B-GFP label. In conclusion, we demonstrate that pNSCs are the most quiescent stem cells in the adult brain reported to date and that their lineage position upstream of GFAP + dNSCs allows them to repopulate a depleted neural lineage. Stem Cells 2017;35:2071-2082. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Regionaalpoliitika ja arhitektuur / Ülar Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar

    1999-01-01

    Kagu-Eesti Regionaalarengu Programmi raames Eesti Kunstiakadeemia arhitektuurikateedri IV kursuse eriala valikaines 1998/99 tehtud tööst "HyperMobiilne Reaalsus & Kagu Eesti" (juhendajad Ralf Tamm, Ülar Mark). Ühises töös osalesid Tartu Ülikooli geograafiatudengid (juhendaja Rein Ahas). 4 illustratsiooni

  16. Nekroloog turundusele / Mark Earls ; interv. Margo Kokerov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Earls, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Turunduskommunikatsioonifirma Ogilvy & Mather suunajuht Mark Earls leiab, et kuna turg on üle ujutatud võrdselt heade toodetega ja tarbija teab, et tegelikult pole oluline, millise toote ta valib, muutub turundusrevolutsiooni keskne idee - tarbijavajaduste kindlakstegemine ja rahuldamine - tähtsusetuks.

  17. 49 CFR 15.13 - Marking SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SSI. (a) Marking of paper records. In the case of paper records containing SSI, a covered person must... limitation statement on the bottom, of— (1) The outside of any front and back cover, including a binder cover... types of records. In the case of non-paper records that contain SSI, including motion picture films...

  18. Monopoly, Pareto and Ramsey mark-ups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Monopoly prices are too high. It is a price level problem, in the sense that the relative mark-ups have Ramsey optimal proportions, at least for independent constant elasticity demands. I show that this feature of monopoly prices breaks down the moment one demand is replaced by the textbook linear

  19. Globaalne palavik ja Nord Stream / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2009-01-01

    Riigikogu keskkonnakomisjoni liikme Mark Soosaare sõnul peaks Eesti Taani eeskujul jõudma parlamentaarse otsuseni loobuda tuumajaamaehitusest, vähendada tuleks märgatavalt Eesti metsade raiumist. Vene-Saksa gaasitarneleppe vastu töötamise asemel tuleks otsida ühisosa nii Venemaa kui teiste Läänemeremaadega

  20. Teaching Mark through a postcolonial optic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-16

    Jul 16, 2015 ... question, eliciting answers that range from Mark as in direct and open ... or armed response, especially in a context where such actions were unrealistic. (whether ..... identity; social memory; to name a few) of power. It implies ... an elite-driven enterprise in the simplistic sense of the word, although the elite's ...

  1. First results from Mark II at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, G.S.; Alam, M.S.; Blocker, C.A.

    1979-05-01

    First results from the SLAC-LBL Mark II magnetic detector at SPEAR are presented. The performance of the detector is discussed and preliminary results are given on inclusive baryon production R/sub p + anti p/, R/sub Λ + anti Λ/, on decay modes of the D mesons and on two-photon production of eta' mesons

  2. 15 CFR 1150.3 - Approved markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved markings. 1150.3 Section 1150.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... permanently affixed to the exterior surface of the barrel, covering the circumference of the barrel from the...

  3. 22 CFR 226.91 - Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Miscellaneous § 226.91 Marking. (a) USAID policy is that all programs, projects, activities... support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The...

  4. Fingerprint Analysis with Marked Point Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Peter G. M.; Lauritzen, Steffen; Møller, Jesper

    We present a framework for fingerprint matching based on marked point process models. An efficient Monte Carlo algorithm is developed to calculate the marginal likelihood ratio for the hypothesis that two observed prints originate from the same finger against the hypothesis that they originate from...... different fingers. Our model achieves good performance on an NIST-FBI fingerprint database of 258 matched fingerprint pairs....

  5. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  6. The Four Marks of Holistic Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    What, to borrow a theological phrase, are the marks of a truly holistic kinesiology department? "In Kinesis and the Nature of the Human Person" (2010), I examined the theoretical impact of Aristotle's definition of "kinesis" and Polanyi's theory of "tacit knowledge" on kinesiology. The intention here, however, is practical rather than theoretical.…

  7. Marks & Spencer loob ELis maksupretsedenti / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 13. apr. lk. 6. Briti rõivakett Marks & Spencer kaebas, et Briti maksuseadused, mis ei lubanud emafirma Suurbritannias maksustavast tulust maha kanda Saksamaal, Prantsusmaal ja Belgias asunud tütarfirmade suuri kahjumeid üheksakümnendate aastate lõpus, on vastuolus EL-i ühisturu seadustega

  8. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, Maeike; Otte, Willem M; Van't Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans Ss; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Literature review. PARTICIPANTS: All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*,

  9. 27 CFR 28.216 - Export marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export marks. 28.216 Section 28.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Wine With Benefit of Drawback § 28.216...

  10. Primary Science Quality Mark--2016 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Back in May 2011, an article in "Primary Science" described how the idea for a quality mark for primary science was developed from an initial conversation at an Association for Science Education annual conference (Turner, Marshall and Elsmore, 2011). Its intention then, as now, was to support and champion good practice and raise the…

  11. Live cell imaging reveals marked variability in myoblast proliferation and fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background During the process of muscle regeneration, activated stem cells termed satellite cells proliferate, and then differentiate to form new myofibers that restore the injured area. Yet not all satellite cells contribute to muscle repair. Some continue to proliferate, others die, and others become quiescent and are available for regeneration following subsequent injury. The mechanisms that regulate the adoption of different cell fates in a muscle cell precursor population remain unclear. Methods We have used live cell imaging and lineage tracing to study cell fate in the C2 myoblast line. Results Analyzing the behavior of individual myoblasts revealed marked variability in both cell cycle duration and viability, but similarities between cells derived from the same parental lineage. As a consequence, lineage sizes and outcomes differed dramatically, and individual lineages made uneven contributions toward the terminally differentiated population. Thus, the cohort of myoblasts undergoing differentiation at the end of an experiment differed dramatically from the lineages present at the beginning. Treatment with IGF-I increased myoblast number by maintaining viability and by stimulating a fraction of cells to complete one additional cell cycle in differentiation medium, and as a consequence reduced the variability of the terminal population compared with controls. Conclusion Our results reveal that heterogeneity of responses to external cues is an intrinsic property of cultured myoblasts that may be explained in part by parental lineage, and demonstrate the power of live cell imaging for understanding how muscle differentiation is regulated. PMID:23638706

  12. The evolution of the stellar mass functions of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 from the COSMOS/ultraVISTA survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muzzin, Adam; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefano, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of the stellar mass functions (SMFs) of star-forming and quiescent galaxies to z = 4 using a sample of 95,675 Ks -selected galaxies in the COSMOS/UltraVISTA field. The SMFs of the combined population are in good agreement with previous measurements and show that the stellar...

  13. Multiwavelength study of quiescent states of MRK 421 with unprecedented hard x-ray coverage provided by NuSTAR in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baloković, M.; Paneque, D.; Madejski, G.

    2016-01-01

    V. For the first time, we observed both the synchrotron and the inverse-Compton peaks of the spectral energy distribution (SED) simultaneously shifted to frequencies below the typical quiescent state by an order of magnitude. The fractional variability as a function of photon energy shows a double-bump structure...

  14. KMOS"3"D Reveals Low-level Star Formation Activity in Massive Quiescent Galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, Sirio; Genzel, Reinhard; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Wilman, David J.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Ralf; Burkert, Andreas; Chan, Jeffrey; Davies, Rebecca L.; Davies, Ric; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fossati, Matteo; Galametz, Audrey; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter; Wuyts, Stijn; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.

    2017-01-01

    We explore the H α emission in the massive quiescent galaxies observed by the KMOS"3"D survey at 0.7 < z < 2.7. The H α line is robustly detected in 20 out of 120 UVJ -selected quiescent galaxies, and we classify the emission mechanism using the H α line width and the [N ii]/H α line ratio. We find that AGNs are likely to be responsible for the line emission in more than half of the cases. We also find robust evidence for star formation activity in nine quiescent galaxies, which we explore in detail. The H α kinematics reveal rotating disks in five of the nine galaxies. The dust-corrected H α star formation rates are low (0.2–7 M _⊙ yr"−"1), and place these systems significantly below the main sequence. The 24 μ m-based, infrared luminosities, instead, overestimate the star formation rates. These galaxies present a lower gas-phase metallicity compared to star-forming objects with similar stellar mass, and many of them have close companions. We therefore conclude that the low-level star formation activity in these nine quiescent galaxies is likely to be fueled by inflowing gas or minor mergers, and could be a sign of rejuvenation events.

  15. THE NUMBER DENSITY AND MASS DENSITY OF STAR-FORMING AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES AT 0.4 ≤ z ≤ 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Whitaker, K. E.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Lee, K.-S.; Muzzin, A.; Marchesini, D.; Franx, M.; Kriek, M.; Labbe, I.; Quadri, R. F.; Williams, R.; Rudnick, G.

    2011-01-01

    We study the buildup of the bimodal galaxy population using the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, which provides excellent redshifts and well-sampled spectral energy distributions of ∼27, 000 galaxies with K 3 x 10 10 M sun increases by a factor of ∼10 from z ∼ 2 to the present day, whereas the mass density in star-forming galaxies is flat or decreases over the same time period. Modest mass growth by a factor of ∼2 of individual quiescent galaxies can explain roughly half of the strong density evolution at masses >10 11 M sun , due to the steepness of the exponential tail of the mass function. The rest of the density evolution of massive, quiescent galaxies is likely due to transformation (e.g., quenching) of the massive star-forming population, a conclusion which is consistent with the density evolution we observe for the star-forming galaxies themselves, which is flat or decreasing with cosmic time. Modest mass growth does not explain the evolution of less massive quiescent galaxies (∼10 10.5 M sun ), which show a similarly steep increase in their number densities. The less massive quiescent galaxies are therefore continuously formed by transforming galaxies from the star-forming population.

  16. KMOS{sup 3D} Reveals Low-level Star Formation Activity in Massive Quiescent Galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Sirio; Genzel, Reinhard; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Wisnioski, Emily; Wilman, David J.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Beifiori, Alessandra; Bender, Ralf; Burkert, Andreas; Chan, Jeffrey; Davies, Rebecca L.; Davies, Ric; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fossati, Matteo; Galametz, Audrey; Lang, Philipp; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wuyts, Stijn [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Brammer, Gabriel B.; Momcheva, Ivelina G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2017-05-20

    We explore the H α emission in the massive quiescent galaxies observed by the KMOS{sup 3D} survey at 0.7 < z < 2.7. The H α line is robustly detected in 20 out of 120 UVJ -selected quiescent galaxies, and we classify the emission mechanism using the H α line width and the [N ii]/H α line ratio. We find that AGNs are likely to be responsible for the line emission in more than half of the cases. We also find robust evidence for star formation activity in nine quiescent galaxies, which we explore in detail. The H α kinematics reveal rotating disks in five of the nine galaxies. The dust-corrected H α star formation rates are low (0.2–7 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}), and place these systems significantly below the main sequence. The 24 μ m-based, infrared luminosities, instead, overestimate the star formation rates. These galaxies present a lower gas-phase metallicity compared to star-forming objects with similar stellar mass, and many of them have close companions. We therefore conclude that the low-level star formation activity in these nine quiescent galaxies is likely to be fueled by inflowing gas or minor mergers, and could be a sign of rejuvenation events.

  17. Distinguishing butchery cut marks from crocodile bite marks through machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Baquedano, Enrique

    2018-04-10

    All models of evolution of human behaviour depend on the correct identification and interpretation of bone surface modifications (BSM) on archaeofaunal assemblages. Crucial evolutionary features, such as the origin of stone tool use, meat-eating, food-sharing, cooperation and sociality can only be addressed through confident identification and interpretation of BSM, and more specifically, cut marks. Recently, it has been argued that linear marks with the same properties as cut marks can be created by crocodiles, thereby questioning whether secure cut mark identifications can be made in the Early Pleistocene fossil record. Powerful classification methods based on multivariate statistics and machine learning (ML) algorithms have previously successfully discriminated cut marks from most other potentially confounding BSM. However, crocodile-made marks were marginal to or played no role in these comparative analyses. Here, for the first time, we apply state-of-the-art ML methods on crocodile linear BSM and experimental butchery cut marks, showing that the combination of multivariate taphonomy and ML methods provides accurate identification of BSM, including cut and crocodile bite marks. This enables empirically-supported hominin behavioural modelling, provided that these methods are applied to fossil assemblages.

  18. 19 CFR 11.9 - Special marking on certain articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special marking on certain articles. 11.9 Section... OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.9 Special marking on certain articles. (a... of additional U.S. Note 4, Chapter 91. If any article so required to be marked is found not to be...

  19. 19 CFR 134.43 - Methods of marking specific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of marking specific articles. 134.43...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.43 Methods of marking specific articles. (a) Marking previously required by certain provisions of the...

  20. The quiescent state of the neutron-star X-ray transient GRS 1747-312 in the globular cluster Terzan 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Smriti; Wijnands, Rudy; Parikh, Aastha S.; Ootes, Laura; Degenaar, Nathalie; Page, Dany

    2018-04-01

    We studied the transient neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary GRS 1747-312, located in the globular cluster Terzan 6, in its quiescent state after its outburst in August 2004, using an archival XMM-Newton observation. A source was detected in this cluster and its X-ray spectrum can be fitted with the combination of a soft, neutron-star atmosphere model and a hard, power-law model. Both contributed roughly equally to the observed 0.5-10 keV luminosity (˜4.8 × 1033 erg s-1). This type of X-ray spectrum is typically observed for quiescent neutron-star X-ray transients that are perhaps accreting in quiescence at very low rates. Therefore, if this X-ray source is the quiescent counterpart of GRS 1747-312, then this source is also accreting at low levels in-between outbursts. Since source confusion a likely problem in globular clusters, it is quite possible that part, if not all, of the emission we observed is not related to GRS 1747-312, and is instead associated with another source or conglomeration of sources in the cluster. Currently, it is not possible to determine exactly which part of the emission truly originates from GRS1747-312, and a Chandra observation (when no source is in outburst in Terzan 6) is needed to be conclusive. Assuming that the detected emission is due to GRS 1747-312, we discuss the observed results in the context of what is known about other quiescent systems. We also investigated the thermal evolution of the neutron-star in GRS 1747-312, and inferred that GRS 1747-312 can be considered a typical quiescent system under our assumptions.

  1. The quiescent state of the neutron-star X-ray transient GRS 1747-312 in the globular cluster Terzan 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Smriti; Wijnands, Rudy; Parikh, Aastha S.; Ootes, Laura; Degenaar, Nathalie; Page, Dany

    2018-06-01

    We studied the transient neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary GRS 1747-312, located in the globular cluster Terzan 6, in its quiescent state after its outburst in August 2004, using an archival XMM-Newton observation. A source was detected in this cluster and its X-ray spectrum can be fitted with the combination of a soft, neutron-star atmosphere model and a hard, power-law model. Both contributed roughly equally to the observed 0.5-10 keV luminosity (˜4.8 × 1033 erg s-1). This type of X-ray spectrum is typically observed for quiescent neutron-star X-ray transients that are perhaps accreting in quiescence at very low rates. Therefore, if this X-ray source is the quiescent counterpart of GRS 1747-312, then this source is also accreting at low levels in-between outbursts. Since source confusion is a likely problem in globular clusters, it is quite possible that part, if not all, of the emission we observed is not related to GRS 1747-312, and is instead associated with another source or conglomeration of sources in the cluster. Currently, it is not possible to determine exactly which part of the emission truly originates from GRS 1747-312, and a Chandra observation (when no source is in outburst in Terzan 6) is needed to be conclusive. Assuming that the detected emission is due to GRS 1747-312, we discuss the observed results in the context of what is known about other quiescent systems. We also investigated the thermal evolution of the neutron star in GRS 1747-312, and inferred that GRS 1747-312 can be considered a typical quiescent system under our assumptions.

  2. Intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation and segregation in a rat fibroblast cell line transfected with a human insulin receptor gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.R.; Olefsky, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The cellular processing of insulin and insulin receptors was studied using a rat fibroblast cell line that had been transfected with a normal human insulin receptor gene, expressing approximately 500 times the normal number of native fibroblasts insulin receptors. These cells bind and internalize insulin normally. Biochemically assays based on the selective precipitation by polyethylene glycol of intact insulin-receptor complexes but not of free intracellular insulin were developed to study the time course of intracellular insulin-receptor dissociation. Fibroblasts were incubated with radiolabeled insulin at 4 0 C, and internalization of insulin-receptor complexes was initiated by warming the cells to 37 0 C. Within 2 min, 90% of the internalized radioactivity was composed of intact insulin-receptor complexes. The dissociation of insulin from internalized insulin-receptor complexes was markedly inhibited by monensin and chloroquine. Furthermore, chloroquine markedly increased the number of cross-linkable intracellular insulin-receptor complexes, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiography. These findings suggest that acidification of intracellular vesicles is responsible for insulin-receptor dissociation. Physical segregation of dissociated intracellular insulin from its receptor was monitored. The results are consistent with the view that segregation of insulin and receptor occurs 5-10 min after initiation of dissociation. These studies demonstrate the intracellular itinerary of insulin-receptor complexes, including internalization, dissociation of insulin from the internalized receptor within an acidified compartment, segregation of insulin from the receptor, and subsequent ligand degradation

  3. Minnesota Local Agency Pavement Marking : Mining Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Pavement marking is important for safety. Maximizing pavement marking performance in terms of increased retroreflectivity, within limited budget constraints, allows agencies to make better decisions toward providing more effective pavement marking pe...

  4. Fat cells reactivate quiescent neuroblasts via TOR and glial insulin relays in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Nunes, Rita; Yee, Lih Ling; Gould, Alex P

    2011-03-24

    Many stem, progenitor and cancer cells undergo periods of mitotic quiescence from which they can be reactivated. The signals triggering entry into and exit from this reversible dormant state are not well understood. In the developing Drosophila central nervous system, multipotent self-renewing progenitors called neuroblasts undergo quiescence in a stereotypical spatiotemporal pattern. Entry into quiescence is regulated by Hox proteins and an internal neuroblast timer. Exit from quiescence (reactivation) is subject to a nutritional checkpoint requiring dietary amino acids. Organ co-cultures also implicate an unidentified signal from an adipose/hepatic-like tissue called the fat body. Here we provide in vivo evidence that Slimfast amino-acid sensing and Target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling activate a fat-body-derived signal (FDS) required for neuroblast reactivation. Downstream of this signal, Insulin-like receptor signalling and the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/TOR network are required in neuroblasts for exit from quiescence. We demonstrate that nutritionally regulated glial cells provide the source of Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) relevant for timely neuroblast reactivation but not for overall larval growth. Conversely, ILPs secreted into the haemolymph by median neurosecretory cells systemically control organismal size but do not reactivate neuroblasts. Drosophila thus contains two segregated ILP pools, one regulating proliferation within the central nervous system and the other controlling tissue growth systemically. Our findings support a model in which amino acids trigger the cell cycle re-entry of neural progenitors via a fat-body-glia-neuroblasts relay. This mechanism indicates that dietary nutrients and remote organs, as well as local niches, are key regulators of transitions in stem-cell behaviour.

  5. Revised Mark 22 coolant temperature coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Coolant temperature coefficients for the Mark 22 charge published previously are non-conservative because of the neglect of a significant mechanism which has a positive contribution to reactivity. Even after correcting for this effect, dynamic tests made on a Mark VIB charge in the early 60's suggest the results are still non-conservative. This memorandum takes both of these sources of information into account in making a best estimate of the prompt (coolant plus metal) temperature coefficient. Although no safety issues arise from this work (the overall temperature coefficient still strongly contributes to reactor stability), it is obviously desirable to use best estimates for prompt coefficients in limits and other calculations

  6. EcoMark 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Yang, Bin; Andersen, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Eco-routing is a simple yet effective approach to substantially reducing the environmental impact, e.g., fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of vehicular transportation. Eco-routing relies on the ability to reliably quantify the environmental impact of vehicles as they travel...... in a spatial network. The procedure of quantifying such vehicular impact for road segments of a spatial network is called eco-weight assignment. EcoMark 2.0 proposes a general framework for eco-weight assignment to enable eco-routing. It studies the abilities of six instantaneous and five aggregated models......, and experiments for assessing the utility of the impact models in assigning eco-weights. The application of EcoMark 2.0 indicates that the instantaneous model EMIT and the aggregated model SIDRA-Running are suitable for assigning eco-weights under varying circumstances. In contrast, other instantaneous models...

  7. Geologic bench marks by terrestrial photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malde, Harold E.

    1973-01-01

    A photograph made with a level camera, if taken at a known height above a permanent mark on the ground, can be later repeated with exactness for measurement of changes in terrain. Such a photograph is one of several means for establishing a geologic bench mark and is especially useful for monitoring the subtle qualities of a landscape that are otherwise hard to map and describe, including the effects of man's use. Moreover, the geometry of such a photograph provides the same angular measurements between objects as can be made with a transit. A measurement of distance on a single photograph, however, requires control points. These can be surveyed at any convenient time, not necessarily when the initial photograph is made. Distances can also be determined by simple stereophotography from a base line of suitable length.

  8. Identification marking by means of laser peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, C. Brent; Harris, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for marking components by inducing a shock wave on the surface that results in an indented (strained) layer and a residual compressive stress in the surface layer. One embodiment of the laser peenmarking system rapidly imprints, with single laser pulses, a complete identification code or three-dimensional pattern and leaves the surface in a state of deep residual compressive stress. A state of compressive stress in parts made of metal or other materials is highly desirable to make them resistant to fatigue failure and stress corrosion cracking. This process employs a laser peening system and beam spatial modulation hardware or imaging technology that can be setup to impress full three dimensional patterns into metal surfaces at the pulse rate of the laser, a rate that is at least an order of magnitude faster than competing marking technologies.

  9. Monopoly, Pareto and Ramsey mark-ups

    OpenAIRE

    Ten Raa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Monopoly prices are too high. It is a price level problem, in the sense that the relative mark-ups have Ramsey optimal proportions, at least for independent constant elasticity demands. I show that this feature of monopoly prices breaks down the moment one demand is replaced by the textbook linear demand or, even within the constant elasticity framework, dependence is introduced. The analysis provides a single Generalized Inverse Elasticity Rule for the problems of monopoly, Pareto and Ramsey.

  10. Utilization of Slovenian TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoj, L.; Smodis, B.

    2010-01-01

    TRIGA Mark II research reactor at the Jozef Stefan Institute [JSI] is extensively used for various applications, such as: irradiation of various samples, training and education, verification and validation of nuclear data and computer codes, testing and development of experimental equipment used for core physics tests at a nuclear power plant. The paper briefly describes the aforementioned activities and shows that even such small reactors are still indispensable in nuclear science and technology. (author)

  11. Receptor assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, K; Ibayashi, H [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-05-01

    This paper summarized present status and problems of analysis of hormone receptor and a few considerations on clinical significance of receptor abnormalities. It was pointed that in future clinical field quantitative and qualitative analysis of receptor did not remain only in the etiological discussion, but that it was an epoch-making field of investigation which contained the possiblity of artificial change of sensitivity of living body on drugs and the development connected directly with treatment of various diseases.

  12. High efficiency metal marking with CO2 laser and glass marking with excimer laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    with a thoroughly tested ray-tracing model is presented and compared with experimental results. Special emphasis is put on two different applications namely marking in metal with TEA-CO2 laser and marking in glass with excimer laser. The results are evaluated on the basis of the achievable energy enhancement......Today, mask based laser materials processing and especially marking is widely used. However, the energy efficiency in such processes is very low [1].This paper gives a review of the results, that may be obtained using the energy enhancing technique [1]. Results of simulations performed...

  13. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Controls Neural Stem Cell Activation in Mice and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinah Han

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs continuously produce new neurons within the adult mammalian hippocampus. NSCs are typically quiescent but activated to self-renew or differentiate into neural progenitor cells. The molecular mechanisms of NSC activation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that adult hippocampal NSCs express vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR 3 and its ligand VEGF-C, which activates quiescent NSCs to enter the cell cycle and generate progenitor cells. Hippocampal NSC activation and neurogenesis are impaired by conditional deletion of Vegfr3 in NSCs. Functionally, this is associated with compromised NSC activation in response to VEGF-C and physical activity. In NSCs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, VEGF-C/VEGFR3 mediates intracellular activation of AKT and ERK pathways that control cell fate and proliferation. These findings identify VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling as a specific regulator of NSC activation and neurogenesis in mammals.

  14. Mark Raidpere näitused Pariisis ja Napolis / Mark Raidpere ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raidpere, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Mark Raidpere videod "Vekovka", "Dedication / Pühendus", "Majestoso Mystico" näitusel Pariisis Michel Reini galeriis. Osaleb koos saksa fotograafi Sven Johnega näitusel Napolis. Kreekas Thessalonikis valminud filmist "1:1:1"

  15. The progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies across cosmic time: from dusty star-bursting to quiescent stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Cemile Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Stefanon, Mauro [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Dunlop, James S.; Buitrago, Fernando [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-10

    Using the UltraVISTA catalogs, we investigate the evolution in the 11.4 Gyr since z = 3 of the progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies (log (M {sub star}/M {sub ☉}) ≈ 11.8; UMGs), providing a complete and consistent picture of how the most massive galaxies at z = 0 have assembled. By selecting the progenitors with a semi-empirical approach using abundance matching, we infer a growth in stellar mass of 0.56{sub −0.25}{sup +0.35} dex, 0.45{sub −0.20}{sup +0.16} dex, and 0.27{sub −0.12}{sup +0.08} dex from z = 3, z = 2, and z = 1, respectively, to z = 0. At z < 1, the progenitors of UMGs constitute a homogeneous population of only quiescent galaxies with old stellar populations. At z > 1, the contribution from star-forming galaxies progressively increases, with the progenitors at 2 < z < 3 being dominated by massive (M {sub star} ≈ 2 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}), dusty (A {sub V} ∼ 1-2.2 mag), star-forming (SFR ∼ 100-400 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) galaxies with a large range in stellar ages. At z = 2.75, ∼15% of the progenitors are quiescent, with properties typical of post-starburst galaxies with little dust extinction and strong Balmer break, and showing a large scatter in color. Our findings indicate that at least half of the stellar content of local UMGs was assembled at z > 1, whereas the remaining was assembled via merging from z ∼ 1 to the present. Most of the quenching of the star-forming progenitors happened between z = 2.75 and z = 1.25, in good agreement with the typical formation redshift and scatter in age of z = 0 UMGs as derived from their fossil records. The progenitors of local UMGs, including the star-forming ones, never lived on the blue cloud since z = 3. We propose an alternative path for the formation of local UMGs that refines previously proposed pictures and that is fully consistent with our findings.

  16. A STRONGLY LENSED MASSIVE ULTRACOMPACT QUIESCENT GALAXY AT z ∼ 2.4 IN THE COSMOS/UltraVISTA FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzzin, Adam; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Holt, J.; Szomoru, Daniel; Van de Sande, Jesse; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Brammer, Gabriel; Marchesini, Danilo; Stefanon, Mauro; Buitrago, F.; Dunlop, James; Caputi, K. I.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Le Févre, Olivier; McCracken, Henry J.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a massive ultracompact quiescent galaxy that has been strongly lensed into multiple images by a foreground galaxy at z 0.960. This system was serendipitously discovered as a set of extremely K s -bright high-redshift galaxies with red J – K s colors using new data from the UltraVISTA YJHK s near-infrared survey. The system was also previously identified as an optically faint lens/source system using the COSMOS Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging by Faure et al. Photometric redshifts for the three brightest images of the source galaxy determined from 27-band photometry place the source at z = 2.4 ± 0.1. We provide an updated lens model for the system that is a good fit to the positions and morphologies of the galaxies in the ACS image. The lens model implies that the magnification of the three brightest images is a factor of 4-5. We use the lens model, combined with the K s -band image, to constrain the size and Sérsic profile of the galaxy. The best-fit model is an ultracompact galaxy (R e = 0.64 +0.08 –0.18 kpc, lensing-corrected), with a Sérsic profile that is intermediate between a disk and a bulge profile (n 2.2 +2.3 – 0 .9 ), albeit with considerable uncertainties on the Sérsic profile. We present aperture photometry for the source galaxy images that have been corrected for flux contamination from the central lens. The best-fit stellar population model is a massive galaxy (log(M star /M ☉ ) = 10.8 +0.1 –0.1 , lensing-corrected) with an age of 1.0 +1.0 –0.4 Gyr, moderate dust extinction (A v = 0.8 +0.5 –0.6 ), and a low specific star formation rate (log(SSFR) –1 ). This is typical of massive ''red-and-dead'' galaxies at this redshift and confirms that this source is the first bona fide strongly lensed massive ultracompact quiescent galaxy to be discovered. We conclude with a discussion of the prospects of finding a larger sample of these galaxies.

  17. Stargazin Modulation of AMPA Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana A. Shaikh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast excitatory synaptic signaling in the mammalian brain is mediated by AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors. In neurons, AMPA receptors co-assemble with auxiliary proteins, such as stargazin, which can markedly alter receptor trafficking and gating. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer measurements to map distances between the full-length, functional AMPA receptor and stargazin expressed in HEK293 cells and to determine the ensemble structural changes in the receptor due to stargazin. In addition, we used single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer to study the structural and conformational distribution of the receptor and how this distribution is affected by stargazin. Our nanopositioning data place stargazin below the AMPA receptor ligand-binding domain, where it is well poised to act as a scaffold to facilitate the long-range conformational selection observations seen in single-molecule experiments. These data support a model of stargazin acting to stabilize or select conformational states that favor activation.

  18. The quiescent and mitogen stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells after gamma irradiation and their P53, P21 and H2AX expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilasova, Z.; Vavrova, J.; Sinkorova, Z.; Tichy, A.; Oesterreicher, J.; Rezacova, M.; Zoelzer, F.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare reaction of quiescent and proliferating PHA (mitogenic lectin phytohemagglutinin)-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to γ-irradiation and analyze changes of proteins related to repair if DNA damage and apoptosis, such as γH2A.X, p53 and its phosphorylations on serine 15 and 392, and p21. Protein changes induced by radiation are different in quiescent and stimulated PBMCs. W e analyzed changes in proteins related to DNA damage repair and apoptosis using the western blot method in quiescent and stimulated PBMCs. Western blot technique can detect γH2A.X increase only at later times, when the phosphorylation of H2A.X is related to the onset of apoptosis (24-72 h after irradiation by the dose of 4 Gy). The level of H2A.X phosphorylation increased after stimulation of PBMC by PHA (72 h, 10 μg/ml) and as shown here it was detectable by western blot analysis. The increase in γH2A.X that we detected by western blot 4 h after irradiation of stimulated lymphocytes was dose dependent. It can be concluded that measurement of γH2A.X during the first hours after the irradiation is a good marker of the received dose of radiation. We compared the dynamics of p53 induction after irradiation by IR in both quiescent and stimulated lymphocytes. p53 increase was observed only in stimulated lymphocytes, as was p53 phosphorylation at serines-392 and -15. The increase in the amount of p53 was not dose-dependent 4 h after the irradiation. On the other hand, phosphorylation of p53 at serine-15 analyzed 4 h after the irradiation is dose-dependent over the studied dose range. Despite the fact that p53 was not detected in quiescent lymphocytes and a reaction to irradiation was not observed either, p21 levels increased after irradiation in both quiescent and stimulated lymphocytes in a dose-dependent manner. IR induces phosphorylation of p53 at both serines-15 and -392 in PHA stimulated human lymphocytes. However

  19. Decontamination of TRIGA Mark II reactor, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suseno, H.; Daryoko, M.; Goeritno, A.

    2002-01-01

    The TRIGA Mark II Reactor in the Centre for Research and Development Nuclear Technique Bandung has been partially decommissioned as part of an upgrading project. The upgrading project was carried out from 1995 to 2000 and is being commissioned in 2001. The decommissioning portion of the project included disassembly of some components of the reactor core, producing contaminated material. This contaminated material (grid plate, reflector, thermal column, heat exchanger and pipe) will be sent to the Decontamination Facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Development Centre. (author)

  20. The Mark II detector for the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, G.; Baden, A.R.; Boyer, J.; Butler, F.; Drell, P.S.; Fay, J.; Gidal, G.; Goldhaber, G.; Haggerty, J.; Harr, R.; Hearty, C.; Herrup, D.; Holmgren, S.O.; Jaffre, M.; Juricic, I.; Kadyk, J.A.; Kral, J.F.; Levi, M.E.; Lynch, G.R.; Richman, J.D.; Rouse, F.R.; Schaad, M.W.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schumm, B.A.; Trilling, G.H.; Wood, D.R.; Akerlof, C.; Bonvicini, G.; Chapman, J.; Chmeissani, M.; Frey, R.; Gero, E.; Hong, S.J.; Koska, W.; Nitz, D.; Petradza, M.; Thun, R.; Tschirhart, R.; Veltman, H.; Alexander, J.P.; Ballam, J.; Barklow, T.; Bartelt, J.; De Boer, W.; Boyarski, A.; Braune, K.; Bulos, F.; Burke, D.L.; Cords, D.; Coupal, D.P.; Destaebler, H.C.; Dorfan, J.M.; Feldman, G.J.; Fernandes, D.; Field, R.C.; Fordham, C.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Glanzman, T.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Hanson, G.; Hayes, K.; Himel, T.; Hutchinson, D.; Innes, W.R.; Jacobsen, R.G.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Karlen, D.; Klein, S.R.; Koetke, D.; Komamiya, M.; Kowalski, L.A.; Kozanecki, W.; Lankford, A.J.; Larsen, R.R.; Lueth, V.; Mattison, T.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mueller, L.; Munger, C.T.; Nash, J.; Ong, R.A.; O'Shaughnessy, K.F.; Perl, J.; Perl, M.L.; Perrier, F.; Petersen, A.; Pitthan, R.; Riles, K.; Swartz, M.; Taylor, R.E.; Van Kooten, R.; Voruganti, P.; Weigend, A.; Woods, M.; Wormser, G.; Wright, R.; Alvarez, M.; Calvino, F.; Fernandez, E.; Ford, W.T.; Hinshaw, D.A.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Wagner, S.R.; Weber, P.; White, S.L.; Averill, D.; Blockus, D.; Brabson, B.; Brom, J.M.; Murray, W.N.; Ogren, H.; Rust, D.R.; Snyder, A.; Yurko, M.; Barish, B.C.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hoenk, M.; Kuhlen, M.; Li, Z.; McKenna, J.A.; Milliken, B.D.; Nelson, M.E.; Peck, C.; Porter, F.C.; Soderstrom, E.; Stroynowski, R.; Weinstein, A.J.; Weir, A.J.; Wicklund, E.; Wolf, R.C.; Wu, D.Y.; Barnett, B.A.; Boswell, C.; Dauncey, P.; Drewer, D.C.; Harral, B.; Hylen, J.; Matthews, J.A.J.; Stoker, D.P.; Vejcik, S.; Breakstone, A.; Cence, R.J.; Gong, X.; Harris, F.A.; Koide, A.; Parker, S.I.; Green, A.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; California Univ., Berkeley

    1989-01-01

    The Mark II detector has been upgraded in preparation for its role as the first detector to take data at the Stanford Linear Collider. The new detector components include the central drift chamber, the time-of-flight system, the coil, the endcap electromagnetic calorimeters and the beam energy and luminosity measuring devices. There have also been improvements in detector hermeticity. All of the major components were installed for a test run at the PEP storage ring (√s=29 GeV) in 1985. This paper describes the upgraded detector, including its trigger and data acquisition systems, and gives performance figures for its components. Future improvements are also discussed. (orig.)

  1. Kuosheng Mark III containment analyses using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ansheng, E-mail: samuellin1999@iner.gov.tw; Chen, Yen-Shu; Yuann, Yng-Ruey

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The Kuosheng Mark III containment model is established using GOTHIC. • Containment pressure and temperature responses due to LOCA are presented. • The calculated results are all below the design values and compared with the FSAR results. • The calculated results can be served as an analysis reference for an SPU project in the future. -- Abstract: Kuosheng nuclear power plant in Taiwan is a twin-unit BWR/6 plant, and both units utilize the Mark III containment. Currently, the plant is performing a stretch power uprate (SPU) project to increase the core thermal power to 103.7% OLTP (original licensed thermal power). However, the containment response in the Kuosheng Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was completed more than twenty-five years ago. The purpose of this study is to establish a Kuosheng Mark III containment model using the containment program GOTHIC. The containment pressure and temperature responses under the design-basis accidents, which are the main steam line break (MSLB) and the recirculation line break (RCLB) accidents, are investigated. Short-term and long-term analyses are presented in this study. The short-term analysis is to calculate the drywell peak pressure and temperature which happen in the early stage of the LOCAs. The long-term analysis is to calculate the peak pressure and temperature of the reactor building space. In the short-term analysis, the calculated peak drywell to wetwell differential pressure is 140.6 kPa for the MSLB, which is below than the design value of 189.6 kPa. The calculated peak drywell temperature is 158 °C, which is still below the design value of 165.6 °C. In addition, in the long-term analysis, the calculated peak containment pressure is 47 kPa G, which is below the design value of 103.4 kPa G. The calculated peak values of containment temperatures are 74.7 °C, which is lower than the design value of 93.3 °C. Therefore, the Kuosheng Mark III containment can maintain the integrity after

  2. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/√E was achieved

  3. 46 CFR 78.50-5 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 78.50-5 Section 78.50-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 78.50-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter. [CGD 72...

  4. 46 CFR 196.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 196.40-5 Section 196.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 196.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this chapter...

  5. 46 CFR 97.40-5 - Hull markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull markings. 97.40-5 Section 97.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings on Vessels § 97.40-5 Hull markings. Vessels shall be marked as required by parts 67 and 69 of this...

  6. Circulatory Markings at Double-Lane Traffic Roundabout.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, Jing; Lo, Hong K.; Wong, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares two types of circulatory markings at a double-lane traffic roundabout: the concentric marking scheme and the Alberta marking scheme. The effects of these two marking schemes on drivers' lane choice behavior, delay, and safety, are compared based on data collected from before and

  7. The quiescent chromospheres and transition regions of active dwarf stars: what are we learning from recent observations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsky, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The rapid progress in understanding active dwarf stars, which has been stimulated by recent IUE, Einstein and ground-based observations, is reviewed. Active phenomena in late-type dwarf stars are seen as somehow a direct consequence of strong magnetic fields. The nonflare phenomena in the chromosphere and transition regions of these stars are discussed, while some suggestions are given about the way in which magnetic fields control these phenomena. Especially, the review deals with a description and comparison of those activities which are similar in active and quiescent dwarf stars and summarizes the various roles which magnetic fields likely play in modifying the chromospheres and transition regions of active stars. Successively, the following subjects are discussed: the basic structure of the stars, the enhanced heating and solar-like flux tubes, the consequences of plasma flows, heating rates in different layers, heating mechanism of chromosphere and transition region, semi-empirical models. The author finishes with some suggestions for future work. (G.J.P.)

  8. Visualisation of gas-liquid mass transfer around a rising bubble in a quiescent liquid using an oxygen sensitive dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Nicolas; Hebrard, Gilles

    2018-02-01

    An approach for visualizing and measuring the mass transfer around a single bubble rising in a quiescent liquid is reported. A colorimetric technique, developed by (Dietrich et al. Chem Eng Sci 100:172-182, 2013) using an oxygen sensitive redox dye was implemented. It was based on the reduction of the colorimetric indicator in presence of oxygen, this reduction being catalysed by sodium hydroxide and glucose. In this study, resazurin was selected because it offered various reduced forms with colours ranging from transparent (without oxygen) to pink (in presence of oxygen). These advantages made it possible to visualize the spatio-temporal oxygen mass transfer around rising bubbles. Images were recorded by a CCD camera and, after post-processing, the shape, size, and velocity of the bubbles were measured and the colours around the bubbles mapped. A calibration, linking the level of colour with the dissolved oxygen concentration, enabled colour maps to be converted into oxygen concentration fields. A rheoscopic fluid was used to visualize the wake of the bubbles. A calculation method was also developed to determine the transferred oxygen fluxes around bubbles of two sizes (d = 0.82 mm and d = 2.12 mm) and the associated liquid-side mass transfer coefficients. The results compared satisfactorily with classical global measurements made by oxygen micro-sensors or from the classical models. This study thus constitutes a striking example of how this new colorimetric method could become a remarkable tool for exploring gas-liquid mass transfer in fluids.

  9. QUIESCENT PROMINENCES IN THE ERA OF ALMA: SIMULATED OBSERVATIONS USING THE 3D WHOLE-PROMINENCE FINE STRUCTURE MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Heinzel, Petr [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Mackay, Duncan H. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Anzer, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85740 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-12-20

    We use the detailed 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to produce the first simulated high-resolution ALMA observations of a modeled quiescent solar prominence. The maps of synthetic brightness temperature and optical thickness shown in the present paper are produced using a visualization method for synthesis of the submillimeter/millimeter radio continua. We have obtained the simulated observations of both the prominence at the limb and the filament on the disk at wavelengths covering a broad range that encompasses the full potential of ALMA. We demonstrate here extent to which the small-scale and large-scale prominence and filament structures will be visible in the ALMA observations spanning both the optically thin and thick regimes. We analyze the relationship between the brightness and kinetic temperature of the prominence plasma. We also illustrate the opportunities ALMA will provide for studying the thermal structure of the prominence plasma from the cores of the cool prominence fine structure to the prominence–corona transition region. In addition, we show that detailed 3D modeling of entire prominences with their numerous fine structures will be important for the correct interpretation of future ALMA observations of prominences.

  10. Constraining the Dense Matter Equation of State with ATHENA-WFI observations of Neutron Stars in Quiescent LMXBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Oezel, F.

    2015-09-01

    The study of neutron star quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) will address one of the main science goals of the Athena x-ray observatory. The study of the soft X-ray thermal emission from the neutron star surface in qLMXBs is a crucial tool to place constrains on the dense matter equation of state. I will briefly review this method, its strength and current weaknesses and limitations, as well as the current constraints on the equation of state from qLMXBs. The superior sensitivity of Athena will permit the acquisition of unprecedentedly high signal-to-noise spectra from these sources. It has been demonstrated that a single qLMXB, even with high S/N, will not place useful constraints on the EoS. However, a combination of qLMXBs spectra has shown promises of obtaining tight constraints on the equation of state. I will discuss the expected prospects for observations of qLMXBs inside globular clusters -- those that Athena will be able to resolve. I will also present the constraints on the equation of state that Athena will be able to obtain from these qLMXBs and from a population of qLMXBs in the field of the Galaxy, with distance measurements provided by Gaia.

  11. Measurements of confined alphas and tritons in the MHD quiescent core of TFTR plasmas using the pellet charge exchange diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Budny, R.V.; Mansfield, D.K.

    1996-05-01

    The energy distributions and radial density profiles of the fast confined trapped alpha particles in DT experiments on TFTR are being measured in the energy range 0.5--3.5 MeV using a Pellet Charge eXchange (PCX) diagnostic. A brief description of the measurement technique which involves active neutral particle analysis using the ablation cloud surrounding an injected impurity pellet as the neutralizer is presented. This paper focuses on alpha and triton measurements in the core of MHD quiescent TFTR discharges where the expected classical slowing down and pitch angle scattering effects are not complicated by stochastic ripple diffusion and sawtooth activity. In particular, the first measurement of the alpha slowing down distribution up to the birth energy, obtained using boron pellet injection, is presented. The measurements are compared with predictions using either the TRANSP Monte-Carlo code and/or a Fokker-Planck Post-TRANSP processor code, which assumes that the alphas and tritons are well confined and slow down classically. Both the shape of the measured alpha and triton energy distributions and their density ratios are in good agreement with the code calculations. The authors conclude that the PCX measurements are consistent with classical thermalization of the fusion-generated alphas and tritons

  12. Wortmannin efficiently suppresses the recovery from radiation-induced damage in pimonidazole-unlabeled quiescent tumor cell population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Ono, Koji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Maruhashi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Labeling of proliferating (P) cells in mice bearing EL4 tumors was achieved by continuous administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Tumors were irradiated with γ-rays at 1 h after pimonidazole administration followed by caffeine or wortmannin treatment. Twenty-four hours later, assessment of the responses of quiescent (Q) and total (=P+Q) cell populations were based on the frequencies of micronucleation and apoptosis using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The response of the pimonidazole-unlabeled tumor cell fractions was assessed by means of apoptosis frequency using immunofluorescence staining for pimonidazole. The pimonidazole-unlabeled cell fraction showed significantly enhanced radio-sensitivity compared with the whole cell fraction more remarkably in Q cells than total cells. However, a significantly greater decrease in radio-sensitivity in the pimonidazole-unlabeled than the whole cell fraction, evaluated using an assay performed 24 hours after irradiation, was more clearly observed in Q cells than total cells. In both the pimonidazole-unlabeled and the whole cell fractions, wortmannin efficiently suppressed the reduction in sensitivity due to delayed assay. Wortmannin combined with γ-ray irradiation is useful for suppressing the recovery from radiation-induced damage especially in the pimonidazole-unlabeled cell fraction within the total and Q tumor cell populations. (author)

  13. 1L Mark-IV Target Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This presentation includes General Design Considerations; Current (Mark-III) Lower Tier; Mark-III Upper Tier; Performance Metrics; General Improvements for Material Science; General Improvements for Nuclear Science; Improving FOM for Nuclear Science; General Design Considerations Summary; Design Optimization Studies; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Material Science; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Nuclear Science (Disk); Mark IV Enables Much Wider Range of Nuclear-Science FOM Gains than Mark III; Mark-IV Performance Summary; Rod or Disk? Center or Real FOV?; and Project Cost and Schedule.

  14. Nuclear particle track-etched anti-bogus mark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiangming; Yan Yushun; Zhang Quanrong

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear particle track-etched anti-bogus mark is a new type of forgery-proof product after engraving gravure printing, thermocolour, fluorescence, laser hologram and metal concealed anti-bogus mark. The mark is manufactured by intricate high technology and the state strictly controlled sensitive nuclear facilities to ensure the mark not to be copied. The pattern of the mark is specially characterized by permeability of liquid to be discriminated from forgery. The genuine mark can be distinguished from sham one by transparent liquid (e.g. water), colorful pen and chemical reagent. The mark has passed the official examination of health safety. It is no danger of nuclear irradiation. (author)

  15. Deposition in St. Mark's Basilica of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, E; Zendri, E; Piazza, R; Ganzerla, R; Montalbani, S; Marcoleoni, E; Bonetto, F; Scandella, A; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutants may cause damage to monuments and historical buildings. Besides air contaminants, soluble salts are also responsible for stone deterioration and decay in outdoor and indoor monuments. The problem of how to conserve works of arts thus requires a deep knowledge of contaminants' concentration and distribution inside buildings. In this work, water-soluble ions inside St. Mark's Basilica in Venice were studied, with the aim of understanding their principal source and distribution inside the building. With the aid of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis, the interaction between ions and surface's material was also investigated. Ion chromatographic analysis of depositions highlighted a large amount of "deteriorating agents" such as sulphates and chlorides. A possible source in the innermost area of the basilica has been found for formates and nitrates. On the contrary, a decrease of chloride, from the entrance to the innermost area, has been found, which indicates that the source is outside the building. It is emphasized that different contaminants behave differently on different material, and the effect of pollution inside churches and monuments is not easy to predict. Wood and brick seem to react differently than stone and mortar to the damaging action of salts and pollutants. The present work should be considered a useful tool for the future preservation of St. Mark's Basilica in Venice.

  16. The Five Marks of the Mental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernu, Tuomas K.

    2017-01-01

    The mental realm seems different to the physical realm; the mental is thought to be dependent on, yet distinct from the physical. But how, exactly, are the two realms supposed to be different, and what, exactly, creates the seemingly insurmountable juxtaposition between the mental and the physical? This review identifies and discusses five marks of the mental, features that set characteristically mental phenomena apart from the characteristically physical phenomena. These five marks (intentionality, consciousness, free will, teleology, and normativity) are not presented as a set of features that define mentality. Rather, each of them is something we seem to associate with phenomena we consider mental, and each of them seems to be in tension with the physical view of reality in its own particular way. It is thus suggested how there is no single mind-body problem, but a set of distinct but interconnected problems. Each of these separate problems is analyzed, and their differences, similarities and connections are identified. This provides a useful basis for future theoretical work on psychology and philosophy of mind, that until now has too often suffered from unclarities, inadequacies, and conflations. PMID:28736537

  17. Evaluation of copper for divider subassembly in MCO Mark IA and Mark IV scrap fuel baskets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    The K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) subprojection eludes the design and fabrication of a canister that will be used to confine, contain, and maintain fuel in a critically safe array to enable its removal from the K Basins, vacuum drying, transport, staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage (Goldinann 1997). Each MCO consists of a shell, shield plug, fuel baskets (Mark IA or Mark IV), and other incidental equipment. The Mark IA intact and scrap fuel baskets are a safety class item for criticality control and components necessary for criticality control will be constructed from 304L stainless steel. It is proposed that a copper divider subassembly be used in both Mark IA and Mark IV scrap baskets to increase the safety basis margin during cold vacuum drying. The use of copper would increase the heat conducted away from hot areas in the baskets out to the wall of the MCO by both radiative and conductive heat transfer means. Thus copper subassembly will likely be a safety significant component of the scrap fuel baskets. This report examines the structural, cost and corrosion consequences associated with using a copper subassembly in the stainless steel MCO scrap fuel baskets

  18. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of low density lipoproteins in aortic endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanan, D.A.

    1986-04-01

    Lipoprotein binding and metabolism in actively-dividing (subconfluent) and quiescent (postconfluent) bovine aortic endothelial cells (ECs) were qualitatively investigated by fluorescence microscopy using dioctadecylindocarbocyanine-labelled lipoproteins and by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. LDL and acetylated-LDL (AcLDL) were seen bound to the surfaces of subconfluent ECs (at 4 degrees C or at 37 degrees C), as a random distribution of punctate foci. ECs therefore closely resembled fibroblasts in the distribution of LDL receptors on their surfaces. No binding of LDL was seen on postconfluent EC surfaces by either direct or indirect fluorescence microscopy. The patterns of AcLDL binding on postconfluent ECs resembled those on subconfluent ECs. Intracellular LDL and AcLDL occurred as perinuclear accumulations of large fluorescent disc-shaped profiles in subconfluent ECs. These accumulations were shown to arise from surface-bound material by pulse-chase experiments. Intracellular LDL was absent in the majority of postconfluent ECs, while AcLDL accumulation was massive. 'Wounding' of cultures allowed simultaneous assessment of lipoprotein metabolism in quiescent and actively-dividing areas of the same culture. It is concluded that postconfluent quiescent bovine aortic ECs in vitro metabolise virtually no LDL via the LDL-receptor pathway due to a vanishingly low number of LDL receptors. This contrasts with the ability of postconfluent cells to metabolise relatively large amounts of AcLDL via a receptor-mediated mechanism. The significance of these conclusions is discussed with respect to the interaction of plasma lipoproteins with the endothelium in vivo. 301 refs

  19. Expression of hsp70 and ferritin in embryos of the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) during transition between subitaneous and quiescent state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Rewitz, Kim Furbo

    2014-01-01

    Subitaneous eggs of the neritic calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana) are capable of entering a resting state called quiescence to overcome adverse environmental conditions. Although physiological changes associated with this transition have been described, the molecular mechanisms are thus far...... for ferritin during the recovery phase toward hatching. This suggests that ferritin is a protein needed when embryos of A. tonsa enter quiescence. Both hsp70 and ferritin are required during recovery from quiescent to subitaneous state when embryogenesis continues toward egg hatching....

  20. Differential Signature of the Centrosomal MARK4 Isoforms in Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Magnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4 (MARK4 is a serine-threonine kinase expressed in two spliced isoforms, MARK4L and MARK4S, of which MARK4L is a candidate for a role in neoplastic transformation. Methods: We performed mutation analysis to identify sequence alterations possibly affecting MARK4 expression. We then investigated the MARK4L and MARK4S expression profile in 21 glioma cell lines and 36 tissues of different malignancy grades, glioblastoma-derived cancer stem cells (GBM CSCs and mouse neural stem cells (NSCs by real-time PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. We also analyzed the sub-cellular localisation of MARK4 isoforms in glioma and normal cell lines by immunofluorescence. Results: Mutation analysis rules out sequence variations as the cause of the altered MARK4 expression in glioma. Expression profiling confirms that MARK4L is the predominant isoform, whereas MARK4S levels are significantly decreased in comparison and show an inverse correlation with tumour grade. A high MARK4L/MARK4S ratio also characterizes undifferentiated cells, such as GBM CSCs and NSCs. Accordingly, only MARK4L is expressed in brain neurogenic regions. Moreover, while both MARK4 isoforms are localised to the centrosome and midbody in glioma and normal cells, the L isoform exhibits an additional nucleolar localisation in tumour cells. Conclusions: The observed switch towards MARK4L suggests that the balance between the MARK4 isoforms is carefully guarded during neural differentiation but may be subverted in gliomagenesis. Moreover, the MARK4L nucleolar localisation in tumour cells features this MARK4 isoform as a nucleolus-associated tumour marker.

  1. Decommissioning of TRIGA Mark II type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dooseong; Jeong, Gyeonghwan; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The first research reactor in Korea, KRR 1, is a TRIGA Mark II type with open pool and fixed core. Its power was 100 kWth at its construction and it was upgraded to 250 kWth. Its construction was started in 1957. The first criticality was reached in 1962 and it had been operated for 36,000 hours. The second reactor, KRR 2, is a TRIGA Mark III type with open pool and movable core. These reactors were shut down in 1995, and the decision was made to decommission both reactors. The aim of the decommissioning activities is to decommission the KRR 2 reactor and decontaminate the residual building structures and site, and to release them as unrestricted areas. The KRR 1 reactor was decided to be preserve as a historical monument. A project was launched for the decommissioning of these reactors in 1997, and approved by the regulatory body in 2000. A total budget for the project was 20.0 million US dollars. It was anticipated that this project would be completed and the site turned over to KEPCO by 2010. However, it was discovered that the pool water of the KRR 1 reactor was leaked into the environment in 2009. As a result, preservation of the KRR 1 reactor as a monument had to be reviewed, and it was decided to fully decommission the KRR 1 reactor. Dismantling of the KRR 1 reactor takes place from 2011 to 2014 with a budget of 3.25 million US dollars. The scope of the work includes licensing of the decommissioning plan change, removal of pool internals including the reactor core, removal of the thermal and thermalizing columns, removal of beam port tubes and the aluminum liner in the reactor tank, removal of the radioactive concrete (the entire concrete structure will not be demolished), sorting the radioactive waste (concrete and soil) and conditioning the radioactive waste for final disposal, and final statuses of the survey and free release of the site and building, and turning over the site to KEPCO. In this paper, the current status of the TRIGA Mark-II type reactor

  2. Cell-cycle-dependent drug-resistant quiescent cancer cells induce tumor angiogenesis after chemotherapy as visualized by real-time FUCCI imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated that quiescent cancer cells in a tumor are resistant to conventional chemotherapy as visualized with a fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (FUCCI). We also showed that proliferating cancer cells exist in a tumor only near nascent vessels or on the tumor surface as visualized with FUCCI and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing tumor vessels. In the present study, we show the relationship between cell-cycle phase and chemotherapy-induced tumor angiogenesis using in vivo FUCCI real-time imaging of the cell cycle and nestin-driven GFP to detect nascent blood vessels. We observed that chemotherapy-treated tumors, consisting of mostly of quiescent cancer cells after treatment, had much more and deeper tumor vessels than untreated tumors. These newly-vascularized cancer cells regrew rapidly after chemotherapy. In contrast, formerly quiescent cancer cells decoyed to S/G2 phase by a telomerase-dependent adenovirus did not induce tumor angiogenesis. The present results further demonstrate the importance of the cancer-cell position in the cell cycle in order that chemotherapy be effective and not have the opposite effect of stimulating tumor angiogenesis and progression. PMID:27715464

  3. The diet, physical activity and accommodation of patients with quiescent pulmonary tuberculosis in a poor South Indian community. A four-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, C V; Rajendran, K; Mohan, K; Fox, W; Radhakrishna, S

    1966-01-01

    A previous report from the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, has shown that, if standard chemotherapy is given for one year, the response of patients treated at home in very poor environmental circumstances is nearly as good as that of those treated in sanatorium under much more favourable conditions. This paper reports on a four-year follow-up of all the patients whose disease was bacteriologically quiescent at the end of the year's treatment. During this period, all the patients were managed on a domiciliary basis; about a quarter of them received chemotherapy with isoniazid alone for two years, another quarter received the drug for one year and the rest received no specific chemotherapy. Despite adverse environmental factors (poor diet; long hours of work often involving strenuous physical activity; overcrowded living conditions; and, for the sanatorium patients, the stresses of returning suddenly to the unfavourable home environment), the great majority of patients in both series maintained quiescent disease throughout the follow-up period. Furthermore, the few patients whose disease relapsed bacteriologically were at no special dietary disadvantage in comparison with those who maintained quiescent disease throughout, nor did they show any appreciable differences in occupation, physical activity or living accommodation. These findings, together with the earlier ones, indicate that, despite adverse environmental circumstances, standard chemotherapy for an adequate period of time is sufficient in the great majority of patients for the attainment of bacteriological quiescence and its maintenance thereafter.

  4. Cycling G1 CD34+/CD38+ cells potentiate the motility and engraftment of quiescent G0 CD34+/CD38-/low severe combined immunodeficiency repopulating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Tamara; Kahn, Joy; Kollet, Orit; Petit, Isabelle; Samira, Sarit; Shivtiel, Shoham; Ben-Hur, Herzl; Peled, Amnon; Piacibello, Wanda; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2005-04-01

    The mechanism of human stem cell expansion ex vivo is not fully understood. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanisms of human stem cell homing/repopulation and the role that differentiating progenitor cells may play in these processes. We report that 2- to 3-day in vitro cytokine stimulation of human cord blood CD34(+)-enriched cells induces the production of short-term repopulating, cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) cells with increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion as well as increased migration capacity to the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and homing to the bone marrow of irradiated nonobese diabetic severe/combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. These cycling G1 cells enhance SDF-1-mediated in vitro migration and in vivo homing of quiescent G0 CD34(+) cells, which is partially abrogated after inhibition of MMP-2/-9 activity. Moreover, the engraftment potential of quiescent G0 SCID repopulating cells (SRCs) is also increased by the cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) cells. This effect is significantly abrogated after incubation of cycling G1 cells with a neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody. Our data suggest synergistic interactions between accessory cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) committed progenitor cells and quiescent, primitive G0 CD34(+)/CD38(-/low) SRC/stem cells, the former increasing the motility and engraftment potential of the latter, partly via secretion of MMP-9.

  5. Aluminum-Oxide Temperatures on the Mark VB, VE, VR, 15, and Mark 25 Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    The task was to compute the maximum aluminum-oxide and oxide-coolant temperatures of assemblies cladded in 99+ percent aluminum. The assemblies considered were the Mark VB, VE, V5, 15 and 25. These assemblies consist of nested slug columns with individual uranium slugs cladded in aluminum cans. The CREDIT code was modified to calculate the oxide film thickness and the aluminum-oxide temperature at each axial increment. This information in this report will be used to evaluate the potential for cladding corrosion of the Mark 25 assembly

  6. Oxygen binding to nitric oxide marked hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louro, S.R.W.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Bemski, G.

    1979-04-01

    Electron spin resonance spectra of organic phosphate free human hemoglobin marked with nitric oxide at the sixth coordination position of one of the four hemes allow to observe the transition from the tense (T) to the relaxed (R) conformation, as a function of parcial oxygen pressure. The spectra are composites of contributions from α sub(T), α sub(R) and β chains spectra, showing the presence of only two conformations: T and R. In the absence of organic phosphates NO binds to α and β chains with the same probability, but in the presence of phosphates NO combines preferentially with α chains. The dissociation of NO proceeds at least an order of magnitude faster in T than in R configuration. (author) [pt

  7. Results on the iota from Mark III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is presented of Mark III results on the iota(1440), a possible glueball state observed in radiative J/psi decays. The measurements include a spin-parity determination using both the iota → Ksub(s) 0 K +- π +- and iota → K + K - π 0 decay modes; an upper limit on the K*anti-K content of the Kanti-Kπ Dalitz plot; branching fractions and isospin; stringent upper limits for several hadronic channels, including iota → zetaπ→etaππ; and results from a search for iota radiative decays into vector mesons. These measurements are discussed in the context of theoretical ideas about the iota and results on the E(1420), a state observed in hadronic interactions. 11 refs., 7 figs

  8. Decommissioning plan for the TRIGA mark-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. K.; Jung, W. S.; Jung, K. H.; Baek, S. T.; Jung, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    TRIGA Mark-III (KRR-2) is the second research reactor in Korea. Construction of KRR-2 was started in 1969 and first criticality was achieved in 1972. After 24 years operation, KRR-2 has stopped its operation at the end of 1995 due to normal operation of HANARO. KRR-2 was then decided to decommission in 1996 by government. Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) will be conducted in accordance with domestic laws and international regulations. Selected method of D and D will be devoted to protect workers and environment and to minimize radioactive wastes produced. The major D and D work will be conducted safely by using conventional industrial equipment because of relatively low radioactivity and contamination in the facility. When removing activated concrete from reactor pool, it will be installed a temporary containment and ventilation system. In this paper, structure of KRR-2 and method of D and D in each step are presented and discussed

  9. Dihydralazine induces marked cerebral vasodilation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H

    1987-01-01

    of dihydralazine was of the same order of magnitude as the effect of 5% CO2 inhalation. These results in normal subjects should be extrapolated to diseased persons only with extreme caution. Still, the very marked and long lasting vasodilation observed suggests that dihydralazine, from a theoretical point of view.......v. xenon-133 technique in seven young, normotensive volunteers before and 15, 60 and 180 min after 6.25 mg i.v. dihydralazine, corresponding approximately to 0.1 mg kg-1 body weight. For comparison the CBF reactivity to inhalation of 5% CO2 in air was investigated. Dihydralazine increased CBF throughout...... the period of study, in median 16, 27 and 23% at the three periods of measurements, respectively. The arterial blood pressure remained unchanged, whereas heart rate increased significantly. During CO2 inhalation, CBF increased on average 29%. Thus, the cerebral vasodilation exerted by a small i.v. dose...

  10. Edge Pedestal Control in Quiescent H-Mode Discharges in DIII-D Using Co Plus Counter Neutral Beam Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K.H.; Osborne, T.H.; Snyder, P.B.; West, W.P.; Chu, M.S.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Gohil, P.; Solomon, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    We have made two significant discoveries in our recent studies of quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) plasmas in DIII-D. First, we have found that we can control the edge pedestal density and pressure by altering the edge particle transport through changes in the edge toroidal rotation. This allows us to adjust the edge operating point to be close to, but below the ELM stability boundary, maintaining the ELM-free state while allowing up to a factor of two increase in edge pressure. The ELM boundary is significantly higher in more strongly shaped plasmas, which broadens the operating space available for QH-mode and leads to improved core performance. Second, for the first time on any tokamak, we have created QH-mode plasmas with strong edge co-rotation; previous QH-modes in all tokamaks had edge counter rotation. This result demonstrates that counter NBI and edge counter rotation are not essential conditions for QH-mode. Both these investigations benefited from the edge stability predictions based on peeling-ballooning mode theory. The broadening of the ELM-stable region with plasma shaping is predicted by that theory. The theory has also been extended to provide a model for the edge harmonic oscillation (EHO) that regulates edge transport in the QH-mode. Many of the features of that theory agree with the experimental results reported either previously or in the present paper. One notable example is the prediction that co-rotating QH-mode is possible provided sufficient shear in the edge rotation can be created

  11. A model on CME/Flare initiation: Loss of Equilibrium caused by mass loss of quiescent prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Mun Song; Kim, Jik Su

    2015-08-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) model should give an answer to enough energy storage for giant bulk plasma into interplanetary space to escape against the sun’s gravitation and its explosive eruption. Advocates of ‘Mass Loading’ model (e.g. Low, B. 1996, SP, 167, 217) suggested a simple mechanism of CME initiation, the loss of mass from a prominence anchoring magnetic flux rope, but they did not associate the mass loss with the loss of equilibrium. The catastrophic loss of equilibrium model is considered as to be a prospective CME/Flare model to explain sudden eruption of magnetic flux systems. Isenberg, P. A., et al (1993, ApJ, 417, 368)developed ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory of the magnetic flux rope to show occurrence of catastrophic loss of equilibrium according to increasing magnetic flux transported into corona.We begin with extending their study including gravity on prominence’s material to obtain equilibrium curves in case of given mass parameters, which are the strengths of the gravitational force compared with the characteristic magnetic force. Furthermore, we study quasi-static evolution of the system including massive prominence flux rope and current sheet below it to obtain equilibrium curves of prominence’s height according to decreasing mass parameter in a properly fixed magnetic environment. The curves show equilibrium loss behaviors to imply that mass loss result in equilibrium loss. Released fractions of magnetic energy are greater than corresponding zero-mass case. This eruption mechanism is expected to be able to apply to the eruptions of quiescent prominences, which is located in relatively weak magnetic environment with 105 km of scale length and 10G of photospheric magnetic field.

  12. Reactor-relevant quiescent H-mode operation using torque from non-axisymmetric, non-resonant magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K. H.; Garofalo, A. M; Osborne, T. H.; Schaffer, M. J.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Park, J.-K.; Fenstermacher, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Results from recent experiments demonstrate that quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) sustained by magnetic torque from non-axisymmetric magnetic fields is a promising operating mode for future burning plasmas. Using magnetic torque from n=3 fields to replace counter-I p torque from neutral beam injection (NBI), we have achieved long duration, counter-rotating QH-mode operation with NBI torque ranging from counter-I p to up to co-I p values of 1-1.3 Nm. This co-I p torque is 3 to 4 times the scaled torque that ITER will have. These experiments utilized an ITER-relevant lower single-null plasma shape and were done with ITER-relevant values of ν ped * and β N ped . These discharges exhibited confinement quality H 98y2 =1.3, in the range required for ITER. In preliminary experiments using n=3 fields only from a coil outside the toroidal coil, QH-mode plasmas with low q 95 =3.4 have reached fusion gain values of G=β N H 89 /q 95 2 =0.4, which is the desired value for ITER. Shots with the same coil configuration also operated with net zero NBI torque. The limits on G and co-I p torque have not yet been established for this coil configuration. QH-mode work to has made significant contact with theory. The importance of edge rotational shear is consistent with peeling-ballooning mode theory. Qualitative and quantitative agreements with the predicted neoclassical toroidal viscosity torque is seen.

  13. CONFIRMATION OF THE COMPACTNESS OF A z = 1.91 QUIESCENT GALAXY WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE'S WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szomoru, Daniel; Franx, Marijn; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Trenti, Michele; Illingworth, Garth D.; Labbe, Ivo; Oesch, Pascal A.; Carollo, C. Marcella

    2010-01-01

    We present very deep Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) photometry of a massive, compact galaxy located in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. This quiescent galaxy has a spectroscopic redshift z = 1.91 and has been identified as an extremely compact galaxy by Daddi et al. We use new H F160W imaging data obtained with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 to measure the deconvolved surface brightness profile to H ∼ 28 mag arcsec -2 . We find that the surface brightness profile is well approximated by an n = 3.7 Sersic profile. Our deconvolved profile is constructed by a new technique which corrects the best-fit Sersic profile with the residual of the fit to the observed image. This allows for galaxy profiles which deviate from a Sersic profile. We determine the effective radius of this galaxy: r e = 0.42 ± 0.14 kpc in the observed H F160W band. We show that this result is robust to deviations from the Sersic model used in the fit. We test the sensitivity of our analysis to faint 'wings' in the profile using simulated galaxy images consisting of a bright compact component and a faint extended component. We find that due to the combination of the WFC3 imaging depth and our method's sensitivity to extended faint emission we can accurately trace the intrinsic surface brightness profile, and that we can therefore confidently rule out the existence of a faint extended envelope around the observed galaxy down to our surface brightness limit. These results confirm that the galaxy lies a factor ∼10 off from the local mass-size relation.

  14. Non-contrast-enhanced imaging of haemodialysis fistulas using quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) MRA: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okur, A.; Kantarci, M.; Karaca, L.; Yildiz, S.; Sade, R.; Pirimoglu, B.; Keles, M.; Avci, A.; Çankaya, E.; Schmitt, P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the efficiency of a novel quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) technique for non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of haemodialysis fistulas. Materials and methods: QISS MRA and colour Doppler ultrasound (CDU) images were obtained from 22 haemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). A radiologist with extensive experience in vascular imaging initially assessed the fistulas using CDU. Two observers analysed each QISS MRA data set in terms of image quality, using a five-point scale ranging from 0 (non-diagnostic) to 4 (excellent), and lumen diameters of all segments were measured. Results: One hundred vascular segments were analysed for QISS MRA. Two anastomosis segments were considered non-diagnostic. None of the arterial or venous segments were evaluated as non-diagnostic. The image quality was poorer for the anastomosis level compared to the other segments (p<0.001 for arterial segments, and p<0.05 for venous segments), while no significant difference was determined for other vascular segments. Conclusion: QISS MRA has the potential to provide valuable complementary information to CDU regarding the imaging of haemodialysis fistulas. In addition, QISS non-enhanced MRA represents an alternative for assessment of haemodialysis fistulas, in which the administration of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents is contraindicated. - Highlights: • Close monitoring and early intervention in hemodialysis fistulas may prolong longevity fistulas. • DopplerUS, contrast enhanced CT and MRI are using assessment of hemodialysis fistulas. • QISS nonenhanced MR angiography represents an alternative for assessment of hemodialysis fistulas.

  15. Platelet lysate activates quiescent cell proliferation and reprogramming in human articular cartilage: Involvement of hypoxia inducible factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thi; Cancedda, Ranieri; Descalzi, Fiorella

    2018-03-01

    The idea of rescuing the body self-repair capability lost during evolution is progressively gaining ground in regenerative medicine. In particular, growth factors and bioactive molecules derived from activated platelets emerged as promising therapeutic agents acting as trigger for repair of tissue lesions and restoration of tissue functions. Aim of this study was to assess the potential of a platelet lysate (PL) for human articular cartilage repair considering its activity on progenitor cells and differentiated chondrocytes. PL induced the re-entry in the cell cycle of confluent, growth-arrested dedifferentiated/progenitor cartilage cells. In a cartilage permissive culture environment, differentiated cells also resumed proliferation after exposure to PL. These findings correlated with an up-regulation of the proliferation/survival pathways ERKs and Akt and with an induction of cyclin D1. In short- and long-term cultures of articular cartilage explants, we observed a release of proliferating chondroprogenitors able to differentiate and form an "in vitro" tissue with properties of healthy articular cartilage. Moreover, in cultured cartilage cells, PL induced a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) alpha increase, its nuclear relocation and the binding to HIF-1 responsive elements. These events were possibly related to the cell proliferation because the HIF-1 inhibitor acriflavine inhibited HIF-1 binding to HIF-1 responsive elements and cell proliferation. Our study demonstrates that PL induces quiescent cartilage cell activation and proliferation leading to new cartilage formation, identifies PL activated pathways playing a role in these processes, and provides a rationale to the application of PL for therapeutic treatment of damaged articular cartilage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Reducing intratumour acute hypoxia through bevacizumab treatment, referring to the response of quiescent tumour cells and metastatic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Liu, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Kondo, N; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to evaluate the influence of bevacizumab on intratumour oxygenation status and lung metastasis following radiotherapy, with specific reference to the response of quiescent (Q) cell populations within irradiated tumours. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH) with or without the administration of bevacizumab under aerobic conditions or totally hypoxic conditions, achieved by clamping the proximal end of the tumours. Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (P + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In the other tumour-bearing mice, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated 17 days after irradiation. Results 3 days after bevacizumab administration, acute hypoxia-rich total cell population in the tumour showed a remarkably enhanced radiosensitivity to γ-rays, and the hypoxic fraction (HF) was reduced, even after MTH treatment. However, the hypoxic fraction was not reduced after nicotinamide treatment. With or without γ-ray irradiation, bevacizumab administration showed some potential to reduce the number of lung metastases as well as nicotinamide treatment. Conclusion Bevacizumab has the potential to reduce perfusion-limited acute hypoxia and some potential to cause a decrease in the number of lung metastases as well as nicotinamide. PMID:21586505

  17. The quiescent H-mode regime for high performance edge localized mode-stable operation in future burning plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofalo, A. M., E-mail: garofalo@fusion.gat.com; Burrell, K. H.; Meneghini, O.; Osborne, T. H.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Smith, S. P.; Snyder, P. B.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Eldon, D.; Grierson, B. A.; Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Hanson, J. M. [Columbia University, 2960 Broadway, New York, New York 10027-6900 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Liu, F.; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Zeng, L. [University of California Los Angeles, P.O. Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095-7099 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    For the first time, DIII-D experiments have achieved stationary quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) operation for many energy confinement times at simultaneous ITER-relevant values of beta, confinement, and safety factor, in an ITER-like shape. QH-mode provides excellent energy confinement, even at very low plasma rotation, while operating without edge localized modes (ELMs) and with strong impurity transport via the benign edge harmonic oscillation (EHO). By tailoring the plasma shape to improve the edge stability, the QH-mode operating space has also been extended to densities exceeding 80% of the Greenwald limit, overcoming the long-standing low-density limit of QH-mode operation. In the theory, the density range over which the plasma encounters the kink-peeling boundary widens as the plasma cross-section shaping is increased, thus increasing the QH-mode density threshold. The DIII-D results are in excellent agreement with these predictions, and nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic analysis of reconstructed QH-mode equilibria shows unstable low n kink-peeling modes growing to a saturated level, consistent with the theoretical picture of the EHO. Furthermore, high density operation in the QH-mode regime has opened a path to a new, previously predicted region of parameter space, named “Super H-mode” because it is characterized by very high pedestals that can be more than a factor of two above the peeling-ballooning stability limit for similar ELMing H-mode discharges at the same density.

  18. Development and Parameters of a Non-Self-Similar CME Caused by the Eruption of a Quiescent Prominence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, I. V.; Grechnev, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    The eruption of a large quiescent prominence on 17 August 2013 and an associated coronal mass ejection (CME) were observed from different vantage points by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO), and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Screening of the quiet Sun by the prominence produced an isolated negative microwave burst. We estimated the parameters of the erupting prominence from a radio absorption model and measured them from 304 Å images. The variations of the parameters as obtained by these two methods are similar and agree within a factor of two. The CME development was studied from the kinematics of the front and different components of the core and their structural changes. The results were verified using movies in which the CME expansion was compensated for according to the measured kinematics. We found that the CME mass (3.6 × 10^{15} g) was mainly supplied by the prominence (≈ 6 × 10^{15} g), while a considerable part drained back. The mass of the coronal-temperature component did not exceed 10^{15} g. The CME was initiated by the erupting prominence, which constituted its core and remained active. The structural and kinematical changes started in the core and propagated outward. The CME structures continued to form during expansion, which did not become self-similar up to 25 R_{⊙}. The aerodynamic drag was insignificant. The core formed during the CME rise to 4 R_{⊙} and possibly beyond. Some of its components were observed to straighten and stretch outward, indicating the transformation of tangled structures of the core into a simpler flux rope, which grew and filled the cavity as the CME expanded.

  19. MarkIT büroo = Offices of MarkIT

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 102C asuvas büroohoones paikneva MarkIT büroo sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Kard Männil (SAB Miu Miu Miu) ja Loreida Hein (Studio La), nende tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Valge büroomööbel on sisearhitektide projekteeritud. Graafika on sisearhitektid ise joonistanud

  20. Tissue factor is an angiogenic-specific receptor for factor VII-targeted immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Cheng, Jijun; Xu, Jie; Ruf, Wolfram; Lockwood, Charles J

    2017-02-01

    Identification of target molecules specific for angiogenic vascular endothelial cells (VEC), the inner layer of pathological neovasculature, is critical for discovery and development of neovascular-targeting therapy for angiogenesis-dependent human diseases, notably cancer, macular degeneration and endometriosis, in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central pathophysiological role. Using VEGF-stimulated vascular endothelial cells (VECs) isolated from microvessels, venous and arterial blood vessels as in vitro angiogenic models and unstimulated VECs as a quiescent VEC model, we examined the expression of tissue factor (TF), a membrane-bound receptor on the angiogenic VEC models compared with quiescent VEC controls. We found that TF is specifically expressed on angiogenic VECs in a time-dependent manner in microvessels, venous and arterial vessels. TF-targeted therapeutic agents, including factor VII (fVII)-IgG1 Fc and fVII-conjugated photosensitizer, can selectively bind angiogenic VECs, but not the quiescent VECs. Moreover, fVII-targeted photodynamic therapy can selectively and completely eradicate angiogenic VECs. We conclude that TF is an angiogenic-specific receptor and the target molecule for fVII-targeted therapeutics. This study supports clinical trials of TF-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases such as cancer, macular degeneration and endometriosis.

  1. The probability of Mark-1 liner failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theofanous, T.G.; Yan, H.; Ratnam, U.; Amarasooriya, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors are proposing a probabilistic methodology, the risk-oriented accident analysis methodology (ROAAM) as an overall systematic, disciplined approach for addressing the Mark-1 liner attack issue. The probabilistic framework encompasses the key features of the phenomenology, yet it is flexible enough to allow independent quantification of individual components as it may arise from independent research efforts. As a first step in this direction, the authors assembled, discussed, and took into consideration in the quantification proposed all relevant prior work. Furthermore, as an essential aspect of the overall methodology, most of those whose work has been referenced and/or used in this report have been asked to comment. The details of this work, the comments received, and the authors' responses are included in NUREG/CR-5423. As an even more important characteristic of the methodology, it is hoped that other quantifications (or information relevant to such) of independent components will become available in the future so that one can aim for convergence and closure

  2. SRS reactor stack plume marking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1992-03-01

    Tests performed in 105-K in 1987 and 1988 demonstrated that the stack plume can successfully be made visible (i.e., marked) by introducing smoke into the stack breech. The ultimate objective of these tests is to provide a means during an emergency evacuation so that an evacuee can readily identify the stack plume and evacuate in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the potential of severe radiation exposure. The EPA has also requested DOE to arrange for more tests to settle a technical question involving the correct calculation of stack downwash. New test canisters were received in 1988 designed to produce more smoke per unit time; however, these canisters have not been evaluated, because normal ventilation conditions have not been reestablished in K Area. Meanwhile, both the authorization and procedure to conduct the tests have expired. The tests can be performed during normal reactor operation. It is recommended that appropriate authorization and procedure approval be obtained to resume testing after K Area restart

  3. The Mark 3 data base handler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. W.; Ma, C.; Schupler, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    A data base handler which would act to tie Mark 3 system programs together is discussed. The data base handler is written in FORTRAN and is implemented on the Hewlett-Packard 21MX and the IBM 360/91. The system design objectives were to (1) provide for an easily specified method of data interchange among programs, (2) provide for a high level of data integrity, (3) accommodate changing requirments, (4) promote program accountability, (5) provide a single source of program constants, and (6) provide a central point for data archiving. The system consists of two distinct parts: a set of files existing on disk packs and tapes; and a set of utility subroutines which allow users to access the information in these files. Users never directly read or write the files and need not know the details of how the data are formatted in the files. To the users, the storage medium is format free. A user does need to know something about the sequencing of his data in the files but nothing about data in which he has no interest.

  4. The AT2 Receptor and Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esquitino, Veronica Valero; Danyel, Leon Alexander; Steckelings, Ulrike M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes current knowledge about the role of the angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor in inflammation. The first section provides an overview about molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory action of the AT2 receptor. This section is followed...... by a review of the existing literature addressing the role of the AT2 receptor in a wide range of disorders, in which acute or chronic inflammation is an essential contributor to the pathology. These disorders comprise cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, renal, and autoimmune diseases.Taken as a whole......, the vast majority of data support an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory role of the AT2 receptor. In light of the current development of AT2 receptor agonists as future drugs for clinical use, diseases with a marked inflammatory component may become a major area of therapeutic use...

  5. Trade Mark Cluttering: An Exploratory Report Commissioned by UKIPO

    OpenAIRE

    von Graevenitz, Georg; Greenhalgh, Christine; Helmers, Christian; Schautschick, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    This report explores the problem of “cluttering” of trade mark registers. The report consists of two parts: the first presents a conceptual discussion of “cluttering” of trade mark registers. The second part provides an exploratory empirical analysis of trade mark applications at the UK Intellectual Property Office (UKIPO) and the European trade mark office (OHIM). This part contains results of a descriptive and an econometric analysis. According to our definition, cluttering arises where fir...

  6. 9 CFR 590.418 - Supervision of marking and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of marking and packaging...) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.418 Supervision of marking and packaging. (a) Evidence of label approval... has on file evidence that such official identification or packaging material bearing such official...

  7. 14 CFR 1203.501 - Applying derivative classification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 1203.501 Applying derivative classification markings. Persons who apply derivative classification markings shall: (a) Observe and respect original... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applying derivative classification markings...

  8. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.176 Markings on lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifeboats and rescue boats. Each lifeboat and rescue boat must be plainly marked as follows: (1) Each side of each lifeboat and rescue boat bow must be marked in block...

  9. 27 CFR 19.612 - Authorized abbreviations to identify marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... T Tax Determined TD Wine Spirits Addition WSA (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1360, as amended... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks... to identify certain marks: Mark Abbreviation Completely Denatured Alcohol CDA Distilled Spirits...

  10. 9 CFR 316.13 - Marking of outside containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of outside containers. 316.13... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION MARKING PRODUCTS AND THEIR CONTAINERS § 316.13 Marking of outside containers. (a... domestic commerce is moved from an official establishment, the outside container shall bear an official...

  11. Survival and reproduction of radio-marked adult spotted owls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.C. Foster; E.D. Forsman; E.C. Meslow; G.S. Miller; J.A. Reid; F.F. Wagner; A.B. Carey; J.B. Lint

    1992-01-01

    We compared survival, reproduction, and body mass of radio-marked and non radio-marked spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) to determine if backpack radios influenced reproduction or survival. In most study areas and years, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in survival of males and females or in survival of radio-marked versus banded owls. There...

  12. Marking for Structure using Boolean Feedback | Louw | Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents evidence that marking student texts with well considered checklists is more effective than marking by hand. An experiment conducted on first-year students illustrated that the checklists developed to mark introductions, conclusions and paragraphs yielded better revision results than handwritten ...

  13. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: an extremely rare trace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2001-01-01

    Tooth-marked dinosaur bones provide insight into feeding behaviours and biting strategies of theropod dinosaurs. The majority of theropod tooth marks reported to date have been found on herbivorous dinosaur bones, although some tyrannosaurid bones with tooth marks have also been reported. In 1988...

  14. 46 CFR 108.645 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 108.645 Section 108.645 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.645 Markings on lifesaving appliances. (a...

  15. Mark Leonard : EL ei peakski olema suurvõim / Mark Leonard ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leonard, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Euroopa Välissuhete Nõukogu tegevdirektoriga, kes vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA ja Euroopa suhteid, Euroopa Liidu välispoliitikat, Venemaa ja Euroopa Liidu suhteid pärast Gruusia konflikti. Ta peab murettekitavaks, et Venemaa üritab takistada euroopalike väärtuste levitamist oma naaberriikides. Vt. samas: Mark Leonard. Ilmunud ka Sirp : Diplomaatia 14. nov. nr. 11 lk. 13-14

  16. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE QUIESCENT MEDIUM OF NEARBY CLOUDS. I. ICE FORMATION AND GRAIN GROWTH IN LUPUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogert, A. C. A. [IPAC, NASA Herschel Science Center, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Chiar, J. E. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Knez, C.; Mundy, L. G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Öberg, K. I. [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Pendleton, Y. J. [Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Van Dishoeck, E. F., E-mail: aboogert@ipac.caltech.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-11-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 μm) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of grains and the composition of ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H{sub 2}O ices form at extinctions of A{sub K} = 0.25 ± 0.07 mag (A{sub V} = 2.1 ± 0.6). Such a low ice formation threshold is consistent with the absence of nearby hot stars. Overall, the Lupus clouds are in an early chemical phase. The abundance of H{sub 2}O ice (2.3 ± 0.1 × 10{sup –5} relative to N{sub H}) is typical for quiescent regions, but lower by a factor of three to four compared to dense envelopes of young stellar objects. The low solid CH{sub 3}OH abundance (<3%-8% relative to H{sub 2}O) indicates a low gas phase H/CO ratio, which is consistent with the observed incomplete CO freeze out. Furthermore it is found that the grains in Lupus experienced growth by coagulation. The mid-infrared (>5 μm) continuum extinction relative to A{sub K} increases as a function of A{sub K}. Most Lupus lines of sight are well fitted with empirically derived extinction curves corresponding to R{sub V} ∼ 3.5 (A{sub K} = 0.71) and R{sub V} ∼ 5.0 (A{sub K} = 1.47). For lines of sight with A{sub K} > 1.0 mag, the τ{sub 9.7}/A{sub K} ratio is a factor of two lower compared to the diffuse medium. Below 1.0 mag, values scatter between the dense and diffuse medium ratios. The absence of a gradual transition between diffuse and dense medium-type dust indicates that local conditions matter in the process that sets the τ{sub 9.7}/A{sub K} ratio. This process is likely related to grain growth by coagulation, as traced by the A{sub 7.4}/A{sub K} continuum extinction ratio, but not to ice mantle formation. Conversely, grains acquire ice mantles before the process of coagulation starts.

  17. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE QUIESCENT MEDIUM OF NEARBY CLOUDS. I. ICE FORMATION AND GRAIN GROWTH IN LUPUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Chiar, J. E.; Knez, C.; Mundy, L. G.; Öberg, K. I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared photometry and spectroscopy (1-25 μm) of background stars reddened by the Lupus molecular cloud complex are used to determine the properties of grains and the composition of ices before they are incorporated into circumstellar envelopes and disks. H 2 O ices form at extinctions of A K = 0.25 ± 0.07 mag (A V = 2.1 ± 0.6). Such a low ice formation threshold is consistent with the absence of nearby hot stars. Overall, the Lupus clouds are in an early chemical phase. The abundance of H 2 O ice (2.3 ± 0.1 × 10 –5 relative to N H ) is typical for quiescent regions, but lower by a factor of three to four compared to dense envelopes of young stellar objects. The low solid CH 3 OH abundance ( 2 O) indicates a low gas phase H/CO ratio, which is consistent with the observed incomplete CO freeze out. Furthermore it is found that the grains in Lupus experienced growth by coagulation. The mid-infrared (>5 μm) continuum extinction relative to A K increases as a function of A K . Most Lupus lines of sight are well fitted with empirically derived extinction curves corresponding to R V ∼ 3.5 (A K = 0.71) and R V ∼ 5.0 (A K = 1.47). For lines of sight with A K > 1.0 mag, the τ 9.7 /A K ratio is a factor of two lower compared to the diffuse medium. Below 1.0 mag, values scatter between the dense and diffuse medium ratios. The absence of a gradual transition between diffuse and dense medium-type dust indicates that local conditions matter in the process that sets the τ 9.7 /A K ratio. This process is likely related to grain growth by coagulation, as traced by the A 7.4 /A K continuum extinction ratio, but not to ice mantle formation. Conversely, grains acquire ice mantles before the process of coagulation starts

  18. EXPLORING THE z = 3-4 MASSIVE GALAXY POPULATION WITH ZFOURGE: THE PREVALENCE OF DUSTY AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitler, Lee R.; Rees, Glen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Labbé, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Glazebrook, Karl; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Nanayakkara, Themiya [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Papovich, Casey; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Mehrtens, Nicola; Tilvi, Vithal; Tomczak, Adam R. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Quadri, Ryan F.; Persson, S. Eric; Kelson, Daniel D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Monson, Andrew J. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Allen, Rebecca, E-mail: lee.spitler@mq.edu.au [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296 Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2014-06-01

    Our understanding of the redshift z > 3 galaxy population relies largely on samples selected using the popular ''dropout'' technique, typically consisting of UV-bright galaxies with blue colors and prominent Lyman breaks. As it is currently unknown if these galaxies are representative of the massive galaxy population, we here use the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution (ZFOURGE) survey to create a stellar mass-limited sample at z = 3-4. Uniquely, ZFOURGE uses deep near-infrared medium-bandwidth filters to derive accurate photometric redshifts and stellar population properties. The mass-complete sample consists of 57 galaxies with log M >10.6, reaching below M {sup *} at z = 3-4. On average, the massive z = 3-4 galaxies are extremely faint in the observed optical with median R{sub tot}{sup AB}=27.48±0.41 (rest-frame M {sub 1700} = –18.05 ± 0.37). They lie far below the UV luminosity-stellar mass relation for Lyman break galaxies and are about ∼100 × fainter at the same mass. The massive galaxies are red (R – K {sub s} {sub AB} = 3.9 ± 0.2; rest-frame UV-slope β = –0.2 ± 0.3) likely from dust or old stellar ages. We classify the galaxy spectral energy distributions by their rest-frame U–V and V–J colors and find a diverse population: 46{sub −6−17}{sup +6+10}% of the massive galaxies are quiescent, 40{sub −6−5}{sup +6+7}% are dusty star-forming galaxies, and only 14{sub −3−4}{sup +3+10}% resemble luminous blue star-forming Lyman break galaxies. This study clearly demonstrates an inherent diversity among massive galaxies at higher redshift than previously known. Furthermore, we uncover a reservoir of dusty star-forming galaxies with 4 × lower specific star-formation rates compared to submillimeter-selected starbursts at z > 3. With 5 × higher numbers, the dusty galaxies may represent a more typical mode of star formation compared to submillimeter-bright starbursts.

  19. Edge radial electric field structure in quiescent H-mode plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); West, W P [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Doyle, E J [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); DeGrassie, J S [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Gohil, P [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Greenfield, C M [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Jayakumar, R [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551-9900 (United States); Kaplan, D H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lao, L L [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Leonard, A W [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551-9900 (United States); McKee, G R [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1687 (United States); Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Thomas, D M [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Rhodes, T L [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Wade, M R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wang, G [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Watkins, J G [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Zeng, L [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States)

    2004-05-01

    H-mode operation is the choice for next step tokamak devices based on either conventional or advanced tokamak physics. This choice, however, comes at a significant cost for both the conventional and advanced tokamaks because of the effects of edge localized modes (ELMs). ELMs can produce significant erosion in the divertor and can affect the {beta} limit and reduced core transport regions needed for advanced tokamak operation. Experimental results from DIII-D over the past four years have demonstrated a new operating regime, the quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) regime, that solves these problems. QH-mode plasmas have now been run for over 4 s (>30 energy confinement times). Utilizing the steady-state nature of the QH-mode edge allows us to obtain unprecedented spatial resolution of the edge ion profiles and the edge radial electric field, E{sub r}, by sweeping the edge plasma slowly past the view points of the charge exchange spectroscopy system. We have investigated the effects of direct edge ion orbit loss on the creation and sustainment of the QH-mode. Direct loss of ions injected into the velocity-space loss cone at the plasma edge is not necessary for creation or sustainment of the QH-mode. The direct ion orbit loss has little effect on the edge E{sub r} well. The E{sub r} at the bottom of the well in these cases is about -100 kV m{sup -1} compared with -20 to -30 kV m{sup -1} in the standard H-mode. The well is about 1 cm wide, which is close to the diameter of the deuteron gyro-orbit. We also have investigated the effect of changing edge triangularity by changing the plasma shape from upwardly biased single null to magnetically balanced double null. We have now achieved the QH-mode in these double-null plasmas. The increased triangularity allows us to increase pedestal density in QH-mode plasmas by a factor of about 2.5 and overall pedestal pressure by a factor of 2. Pedestal {beta} and {nu}{sup *} values matching the values desired for ITER have been achieved. In

  20. Statistical methods for the forensic analysis of striated tool marks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeksema, Amy Beth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In forensics, fingerprints can be used to uniquely identify suspects in a crime. Similarly, a tool mark left at a crime scene can be used to identify the tool that was used. However, the current practice of identifying matching tool marks involves visual inspection of marks by forensic experts which can be a very subjective process. As a result, declared matches are often successfully challenged in court, so law enforcement agencies are particularly interested in encouraging research in more objective approaches. Our analysis is based on comparisons of profilometry data, essentially depth contours of a tool mark surface taken along a linear path. In current practice, for stronger support of a match or non-match, multiple marks are made in the lab under the same conditions by the suspect tool. We propose the use of a likelihood ratio test to analyze the difference between a sample of comparisons of lab tool marks to a field tool mark, against a sample of comparisons of two lab tool marks. Chumbley et al. (2010) point out that the angle of incidence between the tool and the marked surface can have a substantial impact on the tool mark and on the effectiveness of both manual and algorithmic matching procedures. To better address this problem, we describe how the analysis can be enhanced to model the effect of tool angle and allow for angle estimation for a tool mark left at a crime scene. With sufficient development, such methods may lead to more defensible forensic analyses.

  1. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  2. Involvement of direct inhibition of NMDA receptors in the effects of sigma-receptor ligands on glutamate neurotoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, H; Hashino, A; Kume, T; Katsuki, H; Kaneko, S; Akaike, A

    2000-09-15

    This study was performed to examine the roles of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor/phencyclidine (PCP) channel complex in the protective effects of sigma-receptor ligands against glutamate neurotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons derived from fetal rats. A 1-h exposure of cultures to glutamate caused a marked loss of viability, as determined by Trypan blue exclusion. This acute neurotoxicity of glutamate was prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists. Expression of sigma(1) receptor mRNA in cortical cultures was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). sigma Receptor ligands with affinity for NMDA receptor channels including the PCP site, such as (+)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)-SKF10,047), haloperidol, and R(-)-N-(3-phenyl-1-propyl)-1-phenyl-2-aminopropane ((-)-PPAP), prevented glutamate neurotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, other sigma-receptor ligands without affinity for NMDA receptors, such as carbetapentane and R(+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine ((+)-3-PPP), did not show neuroprotective effects. Putative endogenous sigma receptor ligands such as pregnenolone, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone did not affect glutamate neurotoxicity. The protective effects of (+)-SKF10,047, haloperidol, and (-)-PPAP were not affected by the sigma(1) receptor antagonist rimcazole. These results suggested that a direct interaction with NMDA receptors but not with sigma receptors plays a crucial role in the neuroprotective effects of sigma receptor ligands with affinity for NMDA receptors.

  3. THE UVJ SELECTION OF QUIESCENT AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: SEPARATING EARLY- AND LATE-TYPE GALAXIES AND ISOLATING EDGE-ON SPIRALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Holden, Bradford P.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Van der Wel, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    We utilize for the first time Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging to examine the structural properties of galaxies in the rest-frame U – V versus V – J diagram (i.e., the UVJ diagram) using a sample at 0.6 ☉ >10.25). The use of the UVJ diagram as a tool to distinguish quiescent galaxies from star-forming galaxies (SFGs) is becoming more common due to its ability to separate red quiescent galaxies from reddened SFGs. Quiescent galaxies occupy a small and distinct region of UVJ color space and we find most of them to have concentrated profiles with high Sérsic indices (n > 2.5) and smooth structure characteristic of early-type systems. SFGs populate a broad but well-defined sequence of UVJ colors and are comprised of objects with a mix of Sérsic indices. Interestingly, most UVJ-selected SFGs with high Sérsic indices also display structure due to dust and star formation typical of the n < 2.5 SFGs and late-type systems. Finally, we find that the position of an SFG on the sequence of UVJ colors is determined to a large degree by the mass of the galaxy and its inclination. Systems that are closer to edge-on generally display redder colors and lower [O II]λ3727 luminosity per unit mass as a consequence of the reddening due to dust within the disks. We conclude that the two main features seen in UVJ color space correspond closely to the traditional morphological classes of early- and late-type galaxies.

  4. Quiescent Galaxies in the 3D-HST Survey: Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Large Number of Galaxies with Relatively Old Stellar Populations at z ~ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Katherine E.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Skelton, Rosalind; Franx, Marijn; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt F.; Nelson, Erica J.; Patel, Shannon G.; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-06-01

    Quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2 have been identified in large numbers based on rest-frame colors, but only a small number of these galaxies have been spectroscopically confirmed to show that their rest-frame optical spectra show either strong Balmer or metal absorption lines. Here, we median stack the rest-frame optical spectra for 171 photometrically quiescent galaxies at 1.4 < z < 2.2 from the 3D-HST grism survey. In addition to Hβ (λ4861 Å), we unambiguously identify metal absorption lines in the stacked spectrum, including the G band (λ4304 Å), Mg I (λ5175 Å), and Na I (λ5894 Å). This finding demonstrates that galaxies with relatively old stellar populations already existed when the universe was ~3 Gyr old, and that rest-frame color selection techniques can efficiently select them. We find an average age of 1.3^{+0.1}_{-0.3} Gyr when fitting a simple stellar population to the entire stack. We confirm our previous result from medium-band photometry that the stellar age varies with the colors of quiescent galaxies: the reddest 80% of galaxies are dominated by metal lines and have a relatively old mean age of 1.6^{+0.5}_{-0.4} Gyr, whereas the bluest (and brightest) galaxies have strong Balmer lines and a spectroscopic age of 0.9^{+0.2}_{-0.1} Gyr. Although the spectrum is dominated by an evolved stellar population, we also find [O III] and Hβ emission. Interestingly, this emission is more centrally concentrated than the continuum with {L_{{O}\\,\\scriptsize{III}}}=1.7+/- 0.3\\times 10^{40} erg s-1, indicating residual central star formation or nuclear activity.

  5. Teacher Correction versus Peer-Marking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourente Miguel Mariana Correia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Written language is undoubtedly more often used than oral language in a variety of contexts, including both the professional and academic life. Consequently, developing strategies for correcting compositions and improving students’ written production is of vital importance. This article describes an experiment aimed at assessing the two most widely used methods of correction for compositions –traditional teacher correction and peer marking and their effect on the frequency of errors. Data was collected by asking students to write and revise a text. Statistical tests were performed to analyse it. At the end of the experiment, it was found that no significant difference in efficiency existed between the two methods, contradicting expectations (cf. Davies, 2002; Levine et al., 2002 and Ward, 2001. Key words: English-Teaching, Foreign Language-Teaching Writing, Evaluation, Assessment El lenguaje escrito es sin duda usado con más frecuencia que el lenguaje oral en una variedad de situaciones o contextos, incluyendo tanto la vida profesional como la académica. En consecuencia, el desarrollo de estrategias para corregir composiciones y mejorar la producción escrita de los estudiantes es de suma importancia. Este artículo describe un experimento cuyo objetivo es evaluar los dos métodos más usados para la corrección de composiciones, la corrección tradicional por el maestro y la corrección por revisión de pares, con respecto a su efecto en la frecuencia de errores. Se recogió información haciendo que estudiantes escribieran y revisaran un texto y sobre esos textos se aplicaron pruebas estadísticas para analizar los errores. Contrario a lo esperado, al final del experimento, no se encontró ninguna diferencia significativa entre los resultados encontrados por los dos métodos, (cfr. Davies, 2002; Levine et al., 2002 y Ward, 2001. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza, Idioma Extranjero-Enseñanza, Composición, Evaluación

  6. Erasing the methyl mark: histone demethylases at the center of cellular differentiation and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cloos, Paul A C; Christensen, Jesper; Agger, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The enzymes catalyzing lysine and arginine methylation of histones are essential for maintaining transcriptional programs and determining cell fate and identity. Until recently, histone methylation was regarded irreversible. However, within the last few years, several families of histone...... demethylases erasing methyl marks associated with gene repression or activation have been identified, underscoring the plasticity and dynamic nature of histone methylation. Recent discoveries have revealed that histone demethylases take part in large multiprotein complexes synergizing with histone deacetylases......, histone methyltransferases, and nuclear receptors to control developmental and transcriptional programs. Here we review the emerging biochemical and biological functions of the histone demethylases and discuss their potential involvement in human diseases, including cancer....

  7. DNAM-1 Expression Marks an Alternative Program of NK Cell Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Martinet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells comprise a heterogeneous population of cells important for pathogen defense and cancer surveillance. However, the functional significance of this diversity is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate through transcriptional profiling and functional studies that the activating receptor DNAM-1 (CD226 identifies two distinct NK cell functional subsets: DNAM-1+ and DNAM-1− NK cells. DNAM-1+ NK cells produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines, have enhanced interleukin 15 signaling, and proliferate vigorously. By contrast, DNAM-1− NK cells that differentiate from DNAM-1+ NK cells have greater expression of NK-cell-receptor-related genes and are higher producers of MIP1 chemokines. Collectively, our data reveal the existence of a functional program of NK cell maturation marked by DNAM-1 expression.

  8. Stem cells marked by the R-spondin receptor LGR5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koo, Bon-Kyoung; Clevers, Hans

    Since the discovery of LGR5 as a marker of intestinal stem cells, the field has developed explosively and led to many new avenues of research. The inner workings of the intestinal crypt stem cell niche are now well understood. The study of stem cell-enriched genes has uncovered some previously

  9. The Things of Caesar: Mark-ing the Plural (Mk 12:13–17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Carter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article observes the rarely-discussed phenomenon that the Marcan paying-the-tax scene refers to tax in the singular, whilst the concluding saying uses the plural ‘the things of Caesar and of God’. The article accounts for this phenomenon by means of developing traditions. The section under the heading ‘Mark’s scene and saying about taxes (12:13–17’ counters the common claim that scene and saying originated as a unit from the historical Jesus. It proposes that whilst the saying may have originated with Jesus, the scene as we have it did not. The section under the heading ‘Social memory, orality, and a multi-referential saying?’ suggests some contexts that the saying about the things of Caesar addressed pre-Mark. And under the section ‘Trauma and Mark’s scene’ it is argued that Mark created a unit comprising scene and saying to negotiate the ‘ trauma’ of the 66–70 war. The unit evaluates freshly-asserted Roman power as idolatrous and blasphemous whilst simultaneously authorising the continued involvement of Jesus-believers in imperial society.

  10. Radio-marking and in vivo imagery of oligonucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehnast, Bertrand

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis is part of activities aimed at the development of new molecules like oligonucleotides. Its first objective was the development and validation of a marking method with fluorine-18 of oligonucleotides for their in-vivo pharmacological assessment with positron emission tomography (PET). Further investigations addressed the use of iodine-125 for oligonucleotide marking purpose. This radio-marking, and in vivo and ex vivo imagery techniques are described, and their potential is highlighted for the pharmacological assessment of different oligonucleotides

  11. Keck-I MOSFIRE spectroscopy of compact star-forming galaxies at z ≳ 2: high velocity dispersions in progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Guo, Yicheng; Toloba, Elisa; Fang, Jerome J.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Dekel, Avishai; Kassin, Susan A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Pacifici, Camilla; Simons, Raymond; Campbell, Randy D.; Goodrich, Bob; Kassis, Marc; Ceverino, Daniel; Finkelstein, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    We present Keck-I MOSFIRE near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 13 compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at redshift 2 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 with star formation rates of SFR ∼ 100 M ☉ yr –1 and masses of log(M/M ☉ ) ∼10.8. Their high integrated gas velocity dispersions of σ int =230 −30 +40 km s –1 , as measured from emission lines of Hα and [O III], and the resultant M * -σ int relation and M * -M dyn all match well to those of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2, as measured from stellar absorption lines. Since log(M * /M dyn ) =–0.06 ± 0.2 dex, these compact SFGs appear to be dynamically relaxed and evolved, i.e., depleted in gas and dark matter (<13 −13 +17 %), and present larger σ int than their non-compact SFG counterparts at the same epoch. Without infusion of external gas, depletion timescales are short, less than ∼300 Myr. This discovery adds another link to our new dynamical chain of evidence that compact SFGs at z ≳ 2 are already losing gas to become the immediate progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies by z ∼ 2.

  12. Multiband Observations of the Quasar PKS 2326–502 during Active and Quiescent Gamma-Ray States in 2010–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutka, Michael S. [The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Carpenter, Bryce D.; Gehrels, Neil [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ojha, Roopesh [UMBC/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finke, Justin D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Code 7653, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); D’Ammando, Filippo [Università di Bologna Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, INAF-IRA, Bologna (Italy); Kadler, Matthias [Lehrstuhl für Astronomie, Universität Würzburg, Emil -Fischer-Straße 31, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Edwards, Philip G. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Stevens, Jamie [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, 1828 Yarrie Lake Road, Narrabri NSW 2390 (Australia); Torresi, Eleonora; Grandi, Paola [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, (National Institute of Astrophysics) INAF-IASFBO, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Nesci, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, (National Institute of Astrophysics) INAF-IAPS, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Krauß, Felicia [GRAPPA and Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Müller, Cornelia [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Wilms, Joern, E-mail: ditko86@gmail.com, E-mail: carpbr01@gmail.com [Remeis Observatory and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Quasi-simultaneous observations of the Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar PKS 2326−502 were carried out in the γ -ray, X-ray, UV, optical, near-infrared, and radio bands. Using these observations, we are able to characterize the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source during two flaring and one quiescent γ -ray states. These data were used to constrain one-zone leptonic models of the SEDs of each flare and investigate the physical conditions giving rise to them. While modeling one flare required only changes in the electron spectrum compared to the quiescent state, modeling the other flare required changes in both the electron spectrum and the size of the emitting region. These results are consistent with an emerging pattern of two broad classes of flaring states seen in blazars. Type 1 flares are explained by changes solely in the electron distribution, whereas type 2 flares require a change in an additional parameter. This suggests that different flares, even in the same source, may result from different physical conditions or different regions in the jet.

  13. Keck-I MOSFIRE spectroscopy of compact star-forming galaxies at z ≳ 2: high velocity dispersions in progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Guo, Yicheng; Toloba, Elisa; Fang, Jerome J. [University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Trump, Jonathan R. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Kassin, Susan A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pérez-González, Pablo G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. de Sneca, 2 Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University 50, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Simons, Raymond [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2683 (United States); Campbell, Randy D.; Goodrich, Bob; Kassis, Marc [W. M. Keck Observatory, California Association for Research in Astronomy, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Highway, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Ceverino, Daniel [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Finkelstein, Steven L. [The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); and others

    2014-11-10

    We present Keck-I MOSFIRE near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 13 compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at redshift 2 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 with star formation rates of SFR ∼ 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and masses of log(M/M {sub ☉}) ∼10.8. Their high integrated gas velocity dispersions of σ{sub int} =230{sub −30}{sup +40} km s{sup –1}, as measured from emission lines of Hα and [O III], and the resultant M {sub *}-σ{sub int} relation and M {sub *}-M {sub dyn} all match well to those of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2, as measured from stellar absorption lines. Since log(M {sub *}/M {sub dyn}) =–0.06 ± 0.2 dex, these compact SFGs appear to be dynamically relaxed and evolved, i.e., depleted in gas and dark matter (<13{sub −13}{sup +17}%), and present larger σ{sub int} than their non-compact SFG counterparts at the same epoch. Without infusion of external gas, depletion timescales are short, less than ∼300 Myr. This discovery adds another link to our new dynamical chain of evidence that compact SFGs at z ≳ 2 are already losing gas to become the immediate progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies by z ∼ 2.

  14. Preoperative Site Marking: Are We Adhering to Good Surgical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathla, Sonia; Chadwick, Michael; Nevins, Edward J; Seward, Joanna

    2017-06-29

    Wrong-site surgery is a never event and a serious, preventable patient safety incident. Within the United Kingdom, national guidance has been issued to minimize the risk of such events. The mandate includes preoperative marking of all surgical patients. This study aimed to quantify regional variation in practice within general surgery and opinions of the surgeons, to help guide the formulation and implementation of a regional general surgery preoperative marking protocol. A SurveyMonkey questionnaire was designed and distributed to 120 surgeons within the Mersey region, United Kingdom. This included all surgical trainees in Mersey (47 registrars, 56 core trainees), 15 consultants, and 2 surgical care practitioners. This sought to ascertain their routine practice and how they would choose to mark for 12 index procedures in general surgery, if mandated to do so. A total of 72 responses (60%) were obtained to the SurveyMonkey questionnaire. Only 26 (36.1%) said that they routinely marked all of their patients preoperatively. The operating surgeon marked the patient in 69% of responses, with the remainder delegating this task. Markings were visible after draping in only 55.6% of marked cases. Based on our findings, surgeons may not be adhering to "Good Surgical Practice"; practice is widely variable and surgeons are largely opposed and resistant to marking patients unless laterality is involved. We suggest that all surgeons need to be actively engaged in the design of local marking protocols to gain support, change practice, and reduce errors.

  15. FMRFamide receptors of Helix aspersa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payza, K.

    1988-01-01

    A receptor binding assay and an isolated heart bioassay were used to identify and characterize the FMRFamide receptors in Helix. In the heart bioassay, FMRFamide increased myocardial contraction force. A potent FMRFamide analog, desaminoTyr-Phe-norLeu-arg-Phe-amide (daYFnLRFamide), was used as a radioiodinated receptor ligand. The high affinity binding of 125 I-daYFnLRFamide at 0 degree C to Helix brain membranes was reversible, saturable, pH-dependent and specific, with a K D of 13-14 nM. A lower affinity (245 nM) site was also observed. Radioligand binding sites were also identified in the heart, male reproductive organs and digestive organs. The structure-activity relations (SAR) of cardiostimulation correlated with the specificity of 125 I-daYFnLRFamide binding to brain and heart receptors. The SAR were similar to those of other molluscan FMRFamide bioassays, except that they showed a marked preference for some analogs with blocked amino-terminals

  16. Marked bengal pink. A dynamic test using marking doses; its value in jaundice diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellershohn, C.; Desgrez, A.; Delaloye, B.

    1961-01-01

    The authors do a historic calling back of the differential study of jaundices thanks to the semi logarithmic gradients of expurgation of bromine sulphone-phthalein and thanks to the time of appearance of this material in the bile collected by duodenal tubing. They sum up likewise the foreign works which lead to take the place of this test, the outside count at the level of the head, the liver, and the abdomen after intravenous injection of a running dose of marked Rose Bengal. They specify the technical conditions of this test and report an experience which corroborate its value, its accuracy and the interest of its using in the different types of jaundices (hepatitis and obstructive types). (author) [fr

  17. Ülar Mark: loome uut ja iga loomisega lammutame midagi / Ülar Mark ; intervjueerinud Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektuurikeskuse juhatuse esimees, arhitekt Ülar Mark Tallinna arhitektuurist ja linna arengust, demokraatlikust linnaruumist. Pikemalt Solarise keskusest, vabadussambast, väikepoodide asemele suurte kaubanduskeskuste tulekust

  18. 9 CFR 592.340 - Supervision of marking and packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of marking and packaging... § 592.340 Supervision of marking and packaging. (a) Evidence of label approval. Inspection program... evidence that such official identification or packaging material bearing such official identification has...

  19. Marking behavior of Andean bears in an Ecuadorian cloud forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filipczyková, Eva; Heitkonig, Ignas; Castellanos, Armando; Hantson, Wouter; Steyaert, Sam M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Very little is known about marking behavior of the endangered Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus). Here, we present a first detailed description of Andean bear marking behavior obtained using camera traps. From November 2012 to April 2013, we inspected 16 bear trails in the Napo province of eastern

  20. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial number...

  1. 32 CFR 2400.16 - Derivative classification markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 2400.16 Derivative classification markings. (a) Documents... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification markings. 2400.16..., as described in § 2400.12 of this part, the information may not be used as a basis for derivative...

  2. Maaväline lind Mark Raidpere / Fagira D. Morti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fagira D. Morti, pseud., 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Soome Vabariigi president Tarja Halonen andis 28. veebruaril 2009. aastal Kumu Kunstimuuseumis videokunstnik Mark Raidperele üle Ars Fennica kunstipreemia. Meenutusi kunstniku EHI-s õppimise ajast, esimese näituse "Ilo" avamisest Vaal galeriis. Mark Raidpere loomingu mõistmisest

  3. 76 FR 11432 - Coding of Design Marks in Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...] Coding of Design Marks in Registrations AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce... practice of coding newly registered trademarks that include a design element with design mark codes based... notice and request for comments at 75 FR 81587, proposing to discontinue a secondary system of coding...

  4. Multi-Disciplinary Peer-Mark Moderation of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmot, Peter; Pond, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Self and peer assessment offers benefits for enhancing student learning. Peer moderation provides a convenient solution for awarding individual marks in group assignments. This paper provides a significant review of peer-mark moderation, and describes an award winning, web-based tool that was developed in the UK and is now spreading across the…

  5. Selection of gender marked morphemes in speech production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriefers, H.J.; Jescheniak, J.D.; Hantsch, A.

    2005-01-01

    N.O. Schiller and A. Caramazza (2003) and A. Costa, D. Kovacic, E. Fedorenko, and A. Caramazza (2003) have argued that the processing of freestanding gender-marked morphemes (e.g., determiners) and bound gender-marked morphemes (e.g., adjective suffixes) during syntactic encoding in speech

  6. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... brands. 26.207 Section 26.207 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or similar...

  7. 27 CFR 26.41 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... brands. 26.41 Section 26.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.41 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or similar containers...

  8. Mark's story as oral traditional literature: Rethinking the transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interpretation of Mark's gospel is inextricably linked to a conception of the gospel's genesis. By basing his argument on an aspect of the 'oral formulaic theory' the author of this paper argues that Mark's gospel can be seen as an example of oral traditional composition. The primary asset of this perspective is that it ...

  9. 7 CFR 319.37-10 - Marking and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking and identity. 319.37-10 Section 319.37-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-10 Marking and identity. (a) Any restricted article for...

  10. Otolith marking of juvenile shortnose gar by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Richard A.; Long, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been used to mark a variety of fish species at multiple developmental stages; however, there is little information on batch-marking Lepisosteidae. Juvenile Shortnose Gar Lepisosteus platostomus (53 ± 3 mm TL) were seined from an Oklahoma State University research pond and transported to the Oklahoma Fishery Research Lab. Juvenile Shortnose Gar were exposed to a range of OTC concentrations—0, 500, 600, and 700 mg/L—for 4, 5, or 6 h. Lapillus and sagitta otoliths were examined 14 d postexposure for mark presence and evaluation using fluorescent microscopy. Overall, 93.3% of otoliths exposed to OTC exhibited a mark. Concentration of OTC affected the mean mark quality, whereas duration and otolith type examined did not. However, as concentration increased, so did mortality, suggesting a balance is needed to achieve marking goals. Based on our findings, batch marking of Shortnose Gar can be successful at OTC concentrations from 500 to 700 mg/L for 4–6 h, although mark quality may vary and mortality rates increase at the higher concentrations and longer durations.

  11. 46 CFR 160.077-31 - PFD Marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Marking. (a) General. Each hybrid PFD must be marked with the applicable information required by this... text of special purpose or limitation and vessel(s) or vessel type(s), noted on approval certificate... and be presented in the exact order shown: Type [II, III, or V, as applicable] PFD [See paragraph (k...

  12. Administering and Detecting Protein Marks on Arthropods for Dispersal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James R; Machtley, Scott A

    2016-01-28

    Monitoring arthropod movement is often required to better understand associated population dynamics, dispersal patterns, host plant preferences, and other ecological interactions. Arthropods are usually tracked in nature by tagging them with a unique mark and then re-collecting them over time and space to determine their dispersal capabilities. In addition to actual physical tags, such as colored dust or paint, various types of proteins have proven very effective for marking arthropods for ecological research. Proteins can be administered internally and/or externally. The proteins can then be detected on recaptured arthropods with a protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe protocols for externally and internally tagging arthropods with protein. Two simple experimental examples are demonstrated: (1) an internal protein mark introduced to an insect by providing a protein-enriched diet and (2) an external protein mark topically applied to an insect using a medical nebulizer. We then relate a step-by-step guide of the sandwich and indirect ELISA methods used to detect protein marks on the insects. In this demonstration, various aspects of the acquisition and detection of protein markers on arthropods for mark-release-recapture, mark-capture, and self-mark-capture types of research are discussed, along with the various ways that the immunomarking procedure has been adapted to suit a wide variety of research objectives.

  13. Object marking in Swahili: Definiteness, specificity, or both ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the role of object marking in relation to definiteness and specificity in Swahili. Object marking in general has attracted the attention of many scholars in the field of Bantu linguistics due to the complex nature of object markers (OMs) and varying functions they fulfil in Bantu. Opinions differ on the role of ...

  14. Infrared technique for decoding of invisible laser markings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Jaeschke, Peter; Stein, Johannes; Goede, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Counterfeiting and product piracy continues to be an important issue not only for the Western industry, but also for the society in general. Due to the drastic increase in product imitation and the request for plagiarism protection as well as for reducing thefts there is a high interest in new protection methods providing new security features. The method presented here consists of security markings which are included below paint layers. These markings are invisible for the human eye due to the non-transparency of the upper layers in the visible spectral range. However, the markings can be detected by an infrared technique taking advantage on the partial transparency of the upper paint layers in the IR-region. Metal sheets are marked using laser radiation. The beam of a Nd:YAG-laser provides a modification of the surface structure, resulting in dark markings due to the annealing effect. After coating of the laser-marked material, the markings are invisible for the bare eye. In order to read out the invisible information below the coating, an infrared reflection technique is used. The samples are illuminated with halogen lamps or infrared radiators. Many coating materials (i. e. paints) show a certain transparency in the mid-infrared region, especially between 3 - 5 micrometers . The reflected radiation is detected using an IR-camera with a sensitivity range from 3.4 - 5 micrometers . Due to the different reflection properties between the markings and their surrounding, the information can be detected.

  15. 15 CFR 16.10 - The Department of Commerce Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Department of Commerce Mark. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.10 The Department of Commerce Mark. The Department of...

  16. 7 CFR 920.303 - Container marking regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Container marking regulations. 920.303 Section 920.303... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.303 Container marking regulations. No handler shall ship any kiwifruit except in accordance with the following terms and conditions: (a) Each package or container of kiwifruit shall bear on...

  17. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  18. The Information Literacy of Survey Mark Hunting: A Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Galas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In Brief: This article makes connections between the ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education and the activity of survey mark hunting. After a brief review of the literature related to geographic information systems (GIS, information literacy, and gamification of learning, the authors enter into a dialogue in which they discover and describe the various ways information literacy is both required by and developed through the recreational activity of survey mark hunting. Through their dialogue they found that the activity of survey mark hunting relies on the construction of both information and its authority in ways contextualized within the communities that participate; that survey mark hunting is a conversation that builds on the past, where lived experience counts as evidence; and, that survey mark hunting is both a metaphor and embodied enactment of information literacy.

  19. Variable features on Mars. VII - Dark filamentary markings on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veverka, J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the location, variability, and possible nature of well-developed patterns of dark filamentary markings in the Mariner 9 photographic records. Although not common on Mars, the markings are concentrated in at least two areas: Depressio Hellespontica and Cerberus/Trivium Charontis. In certain localities, strong winds are required to bring these markings into prominence. The dark filamentary markings seem to be true albedo features controlled by local topography, it being unlikely that they are free linear dunes. The distinctive criss-cross pattern seen in many of the pictures suggests that jointing provides the controlling topographic grid. At this stage it cannot be inferred whether the markings are erosional or depositional in character.

  20. An innovative road marking quality assessment mechanism using computer vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic quality acceptance for road marking works has been relied on subjective visual examination. Due to a lack of quantitative operation procedures, acceptance outcome can be biased and results in great quality variation. To improve aesthetic quality acceptance procedure of road marking, we develop an innovative road marking quality assessment mechanism, utilizing machine vision technologies. Using edge smoothness as a quantitative aesthetic indicator, the proposed prototype system first receives digital images of finished road marking surface and has the images processed and analyzed to capture the geometric characteristics of the marking. The geometric characteristics are then evaluated to determine the quality level of the finished work. System is demonstrated through two real cases to show how it works. In the end, a test comparing the assessment results between the proposed system and expert inspection is conducted to enhance the accountability of the proposed mechanism.

  1. [Werkgartner's muzzle imprint mark--a literature study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geserick, Gunther; Vendura, Klaus; Wirth, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Since Werkgartner described and correctly interpreted the muzzle imprint mark around the gunshot entrance wound in 1922, this finding has been generally accepted as a sign of a contact shot. In further studies, it could finally be clarified that the muzzle imprint mark is caused by the expansive power of the powder gases with pressure on and abrasion of the skin at the muzzle (weapon imprint). Its shape depends on the firearm, the ammunition and the anatomical conditions, but does not require a bullet. Examinations under a magnifying glass microscope and histological investigations can complete the macroscopic findings. Occasionally, the muzzle imprint mark requires a certain "drying period" in order to become clearly visible. In rare cases, muzzle imprint marks also form on textiles perforated by the projectile. Characteristically shaped muzzled imprint marks can provide clues to the type of the firearm and its position at the time of discharge.

  2. Lane marking detection based on waveform analysis and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yang Yang; Chen, Hou Jin; Hao, Xiao Li

    2017-06-01

    Lane markings detection is a very important part of the ADAS to avoid traffic accidents. In order to obtain accurate lane markings, in this work, a novel and efficient algorithm is proposed, which analyses the waveform generated from the road image after inverse perspective mapping (IPM). The algorithm includes two main stages: the first stage uses an image preprocessing including a CNN to reduce the background and enhance the lane markings. The second stage obtains the waveform of the road image and analyzes the waveform to get lanes. The contribution of this work is that we introduce local and global features of the waveform to detect the lane markings. The results indicate the proposed method is robust in detecting and fitting the lane markings.

  3. Using road markings as a continuous cue for speed choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Samuel G; Starkey, Nicola J; Malhotra, Neha

    2018-08-01

    The potential for using road markings to indicate speed limits was investigated in a driving simulator over the course of two sessions. Two types of experimental road markings, an "Attentional" set designed to provide visually distinct cues to indicate speed limits of 60, 80 and 100 km/h, and a "Perceptual" set designed to also affect drivers' perception of speed, were compared to a standard undifferentiated set of markings. Participants (n = 20 per group) were assigned to one of four experimental groups (Attentional-Explicit, Attentional-Implicit, Perceptual-Explicit, Perceptual-Implicit) or a Control group (n = 22; standard road markings). The Explicit groups were instructed about the meaning of the road markings while those in the Implicit and Control groups did not receive any explanation. Participants drove five 10 km simulated roads containing three speed zones (60, 80 and 100 km/h) during the first session. The participants returned to the laboratory approximately 3 days later to drive five more trials including roads they had not seen before, a trial that included a secondary task, and a trial where speed signs were removed and only markings were present. The findings indicated that both types of road markings improved drivers' compliance with speed limits compared to the control group, but that explicit instruction as to the meaning of the markings was needed to realise their full benefit. Although previous research has indicated the benefit of road markings used as warnings to indicate speed reductions in advance of horizontal or vertical curves, the findings of the present experiment also suggest that systematically associating road markings with specific speed limits may be a useful way to improve speed limit compliance and increase speed homogeneity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental applications for the MARK-1 and MARK-1A pulsed ionizing radiation detection systems. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, Y.D.; Lawrence, R.S.; Yoon, W.Y.; Lones, J.L.

    1993-12-01

    This report is the third volume in a three volume set describing the MARK series of pulsed ionizing radiation detection systems. This volume describes the MARK-1A detection system, compares it with the MARK-1 system, and describes the experimental testing of the detection systems. Volume 1 of this set presents the technical specifications for the MARK-1 detection system. Volume 2 is an operations manual specifically for the MARK-1 system, but it generally applies to the MARK-1A system as well. These detection systems operate remotely and detect photon radiation from a single or a multiple pulsed source. They contain multiple detector (eight in the MARK-1 and ten in the MARK-1A) for determination of does and incident photon effective energy. The multiple detector arrangement, having different detector sizes and shield thicknesses, provides the capability of determining the effective photon energy of the radiation spectrum. Dose measurements using these units are consistent with TLD measurements. The detection range is from 3 nanorads to 90 microrads per source burst; the response is linear over that range. Three units were built and are ready for field deployment

  5. The TCR ligand-inducible expression of CD73 marks γδ lineage commitment and a metastable intermediate in effector specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coffey, Francis; Lee, Sang-Yun; Buus, Terkild B

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that γδ T cell receptor (γδTCR) expression alone does not reliably mark commitment of early thymic progenitors to the γδ fate. This raises the possibility that the γδTCR is unable to intrinsically specify fate and instead requires additional environmental factors, includ...

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation leads to increased transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van der Velde, Astrid E.; van den Oever, Karin; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Huet, Stephane; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR delta markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation leads to increased transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van der Velde, Astrid E.; van den Oever, Karin; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Huet, Stephane; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPARdelta markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased hepatobiliary

  8. Thermal spectra of the TRIGA Mark III reactor; El espectro termico del reactor TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias B, L.R.; Palacios G, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    The diffraction phenomenon is gave in observance of the well known Bragg law in crystalline materials and this can be performance by mean of X-rays, electrons and neutrons among others, which allows to do inside the field of each one of these techniques the obtaining of measurements focussed at each one of them. For the present work, it will be mentioned only the referring to X-ray and neutron techniques. The X-ray diffraction due to its properties just it does measurements which are known in general as superficial measurements of the sample material but for the properties of the neutrons, this diffraction it explores in volumetric form the sample material. Since the neutron diffraction process depends lots of its intensity, then it is important to know the neutron source spectra that in this case is supplied by the TRIGA Mark III reactor. Within of diffraction techniques a great number of them can be found, however some of the traditional will be mentioned such as the identification of crystalline samples, phases identification and the textures measurement. At present this last technique is founded on the dot of a minimum error and the technique of phases identification performs but not compete with that which is obtained by mean of X-rays due to this last one has a major resolution. (Author)

  9. Detection and recognition of road markings in panoramic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Creusen, Ivo; Hazelhoff, Lykele; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-03-01

    Detection of road lane markings is attractive for practical applications such as advanced driver assistance systems and road maintenance. This paper proposes a system to detect and recognize road lane markings in panoramic images. The system can be divided into four stages. First, an inverse perspective mapping is applied to the original panoramic image to generate a top-view road view, in which the potential road markings are segmented based on their intensity difference compared to the surrounding pixels. Second, a feature vector of each potential road marking segment is extracted by calculating the Euclidean distance between the center and the boundary at regular angular steps. Third, the shape of each segment is classified using a Support Vector Machine (SVM). Finally, by modeling the lane markings, previous falsely detected segments can be rejected based on their orientation and position relative to the lane markings. Our experiments show that the system is promising and is capable of recognizing 93%, 95% and 91% of striped line segments, blocks and arrows respectively, as well as 94% of the lane markings.

  10. The LDL receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    In this article, the history of the LDL receptor is recounted by its codiscoverers. Their early work on the LDL receptor explained a genetic cause of heart attacks and led to new ways of thinking about cholesterol metabolism. The LDL receptor discovery also introduced three general concepts to cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor recycling, and feedback regulation of receptors. The latter concept provides the mechanism by which statins selectively lower plasma LDL, reducing heart attacks and prolonging life.

  11. Problems with ink skin markings for radiation field setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Masaru; Saeki, Mituaki; Ishida, Yusei

    1982-01-01

    Ink skin markings are used in radiation therapy to aid in reproduction of treatment field setups or to indelibly outline field markings or tumors. We reported two cases of indelible ink skin for radiation field septa with minimal discomfort and dermatitis have been experienced for 6 months and above since end of radiotherapy. These indelible ink skin markings look like tattoo that will be big problems in the case of young female. We improved these problems by using of 10 percent silver nitrate instead of habitual skin ink. (author)

  12. PI3K is involved in PDGF-beta receptor upregulation post-PDGF-BB treatment in mouse HSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Carmen G; Hernández-Nazara, Zamira H; Hernández, Elizabeth; Bustamante, Marcia; Desierto, Gregory; Cotty, Adam; Dharker, Nachiket; Choe, Moran; Rojkind, Marcos

    2006-12-01

    Increased expression of PDGF-beta receptors is a landmark of hepatic stellate cell activation and transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the fate of the receptor are lacking. Recent studies suggested that N-acetylcysteine enhances the extracellular degradation of PDGF-beta receptor by cathepsin B, thus suggesting that the absence of PDGF-beta receptors in quiescent cells is due to an active process of elimination and not to a lack of expression. In this communication we investigated further molecular mechanisms involved in PDGF-beta receptor elimination and reappearance after incubation with PDGF-BB. We showed that in culture-activated hepatic stellate cells there is no internal protein pool of receptor, that the protein is maximally phosphorylated by 5 min and completely degraded after 1 h by a lysosomal-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of receptor autophosphorylation by tyrphostin 1296 prevented its degradation, but several proteasomal inhibitors had no effect. We also showed that receptor reappearance is time and dose dependent, being more delayed in cells treated with 50 ng/ml (48 h) compared with 10 ng/ml (24 h).

  13. QUIESCENT H-MODE, AN ELM-FREE HIGH-CONFINEMENT MODE ON DIII-D WITH POTENTIAL FOR STATIONARY STATE OPERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEST, WP; BURRELL, KH; DeGRASSIE, JS; DOYLE, EJ; GREENFIELD, CM; LASNIER, CJ; SNYDER, PB; ZENG, L.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) is an ELM-free and stationary state mode of operation discovered on DIII-D. This mode achieves H-mode levels of confinement and pedestal pressure while maintaining constant density and radiated power. The elimination of edge localized modes (ELMs) and their large divertor loads while maintaining good confinement and good density control is of interest to next generation tokamaks. This paper reports on the correlations found between selected parameters in a QH-mode database developed from several hundred DIII-D counter injected discharges. Time traces of key plasma parameters from a QH-mode discharge are shown. On DIII-D the negative going plasma current (a) indicates that the beam injection direction is counter to the plasma current direction, a common feature of all QH-modes. The D α time behavior (c) shows that soon after high powered beam heating (b) is applied, the discharge makes a transition to ELMing H-mode, then the ELMs disappear, indicating the start of the QH period that lasts for the remainder of the high power beam heating (3.5 s). Previously published work showing density and temperature profiles indicates that long-pulse, high-triangularity QH discharges develop an internal transport barrier in combination with the QH edge barrier. These discharges are known as quiescent, double-barrier discharges (QDB). The H-factor (d) and stored energy (c) rise then saturate at a constant level and the measured axial and minimum safety factors remain above 1.0 for the entire QH duration. During QDB operation the performance of the plasma can be very good, with β N *H 89L product reaching 7 for > 10 energy confinement times. These discharges show promise that a stationary state can be achieved

  14. QUIESCENT H-MODE, AN ELM-FREE HIGH-CONFINEMENT MODE ON DIII-D WITH POTENTIAL FOR STATIONARY STATE OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEST,WP; BURRELL,KH; deGRASSIE,JS; DOYLE,EJ; GREENFIELD,CM; LASNIER,CJ; SNYDER,PB; ZENG,L

    2003-08-01

    OAK-B135 The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) is an ELM-free and stationary state mode of operation discovered on DIII-D. This mode achieves H-mode levels of confinement and pedestal pressure while maintaining constant density and radiated power. The elimination of edge localized modes (ELMs) and their large divertor loads while maintaining good confinement and good density control is of interest to next generation tokamaks. This paper reports on the correlations found between selected parameters in a QH-mode database developed from several hundred DIII-D counter injected discharges. Time traces of key plasma parameters from a QH-mode discharge are shown. On DIII-D the negative going plasma current (a) indicates that the beam injection direction is counter to the plasma current direction, a common feature of all QH-modes. The D{sub {alpha}} time behavior (c) shows that soon after high powered beam heating (b) is applied, the discharge makes a transition to ELMing H-mode, then the ELMs disappear, indicating the start of the QH period that lasts for the remainder of the high power beam heating (3.5 s). Previously published work showing density and temperature profiles indicates that long-pulse, high-triangularity QH discharges develop an internal transport barrier in combination with the QH edge barrier. These discharges are known as quiescent, double-barrier discharges (QDB). The H-factor (d) and stored energy (c) rise then saturate at a constant level and the measured axial and minimum safety factors remain above 1.0 for the entire QH duration. During QDB operation the performance of the plasma can be very good, with {beta}{sub N}*H{sub 89L} product reaching 7 for > 10 energy confinement times. These discharges show promise that a stationary state can be achieved.

  15. Significance of manipulating tumour hypoxia and radiation dose rate in terms of local tumour response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Matsumoto, Y; Kashino, G; Hirayama, R; Liu, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Kinashi, Y; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of manipulating intratumour oxygenation status and radiation dose rate on local tumour response and lung metastases following radiotherapy, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations within irradiated tumours. B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation at high dose rate (HDR) or reduced dose rate (RDR) following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local hyperthermia at mild temperatures (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the quiescent (Q) and total (proliferating + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Following HDR irradiation, nicotinamide and MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the total and Q-cell populations, respectively. The decrease in sensitivity at RDR irradiation compared with HDR irradiation was slightly inhibited by MTH, especially in Q cells. Without γ-ray irradiation, nicotinamide treatment tended to reduce the number of lung metastases. With γ-rays, in combination with nicotinamide or MTH, especially the former, HDR irradiation decreased the number of metastases more remarkably than RDR irradiation. Manipulating both tumour hypoxia and irradiation dose rate have the potential to influence lung metastasis. The combination with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide may be more promising in HDR than RDR irradiation in terms of reducing the number of lung metastases. PMID:20739345

  16. WFC3 GRISM CONFIRMATION OF THE DISTANT CLUSTER Cl J1449+0856 AT (z) = 2.00: QUIESCENT AND STAR-FORMING GALAXY POPULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobat, R.; Strazzullo, V.; Daddi, E. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Onodera, M.; Carollo, M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Finoguenov, A. [University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 33 (Yliopistonkatu 4), FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Cimatti, A. [Università di Bologna, Dipartimento di Astronomia Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Scarlata, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota 116 Church Street Southeast, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3) slitless spectroscopic observations of the distant cluster Cl J1449+0856. These cover a single pointing with 18 orbits of G141 spectroscopy and F140W imaging, allowing us to derive secure redshifts down to M{sub 140} ∼ 25.5 AB and 3σ line fluxes of ∼5 × 10{sup –18} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. In particular, we were able to spectroscopically confirm 12 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the field up to z ∼ 3, 6 of which are in the cluster core, which represents the first direct spectroscopic confirmation of quiescent galaxies in a z = 2 cluster environment. With 140 redshifts in a ∼6 arcmin{sup 2} field, we can trace the spatial and redshift galaxy distribution in the cluster core and background field. We find two strong peaks at z = 2.00 and z = 2.07, where only one was seen in our previously published ground-based data. Due to the spectroscopic confirmation of the cluster ETGs, we can now reevaluate the redshift of Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2.00, rather than z = 2.07, with the background overdensity being revealed to be sparse and {sup s}heet{sup -}like. This presents an interesting case of chance alignment of two close yet unrelated structures, each one preferentially selected by different observing strategies. With 6 quiescent or early-type spectroscopic members and 20 star-forming ones, Cl J1449+0856 is now reliably confirmed to be at z = 2.00. The identified members can now allow for a detailed study of galaxy properties in the densest environment at z = 2.

  17. A Search for Millisecond-pulsar Radio Emission from the Faint Quiescent Soft X-Ray Transient 1H 1905+000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, K.; Van Leeuwen, J. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jonker, P. G., E-mail: K.Mikhailov@uva.nl [SRON, the Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-05-01

    Transitional millisecond pulsars (tMSPs) switch between an accretion-powered state without radio pulsations and a rotation-powered state with radio pulsations. In the former state, tMSPs are X-ray bright, while in the latter state, they are X-ray dim. Soft X-ray transients (SXTs) undergo similar switches in X-ray, between “high” states with bright X-ray outbursts and “low” states of quiescence. The upper limit on the quiescent X-ray luminosity of SXT 1H 1905+000 suggests that its luminosity might be similar to that of the known tMSPs. A detection of radio pulsations would link SXTs more strongly with tMSPs; and thus, e.g., put stricter constraints on tMSP transitional timescales through the connection with the well-known SXT periods of quiescence. A nondetection allows us, based on the telescope sensitivity, to estimate how likely these sources are to pulsate in radio. Over a 10-year span, 2006–2015, we carried out targeted radio observations at 400/800 MHz with Arecibo, and searched for radio pulsations from the quiescent SXT 1H 1905+000. None of the observations have revealed radio pulsations from the targeted SXT. For a 1 ms pulsar, our flux density upper limit is 10.3 μ Jy. At an assumed distance of 10 kpc this translates to a pseudo-luminosity upper limit of 1.0 mJy kpc{sup 2}, which makes our search complete to ∼85% of the known MSP population. Given the high sensitivity, and the generally large beaming fraction of millisecond pulsars, we conclude that SXT 1H 1905+000 is unlikely to emit in radio as a tMSP.

  18. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słoniecka, Marta; Le Roux, Sandrine; Boman, Peter; Byström, Berit; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic) receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R), dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the α1 and β2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that neuropeptides

  19. The recently identified P2Y-like receptor GPR17 is a sensor of brain damage and a new target for brain repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lecca

    Full Text Available Deciphering the mechanisms regulating the generation of new neurons and new oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system, is of paramount importance to address new strategies to replace endogenous damaged cells in the adult brain and foster repair in neurodegenerative diseases. Upon brain injury, the extracellular concentrations of nucleotides and cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysLTs, two families of endogenous signaling molecules, are markedly increased at the site of damage, suggesting that they may act as "danger signals" to alert responses to tissue damage and start repair. Here we show that, in brain telencephalon, GPR17, a recently deorphanized receptor for both uracil nucleotides and cysLTs (e.g., UDP-glucose and LTD(4, is normally present on neurons and on a subset of parenchymal quiescent oligodendrocyte precursor cells. We also show that induction of brain injury using an established focal ischemia model in the rodent induces profound spatiotemporal-dependent changes of GPR17. In the lesioned area, we observed an early and transient up-regulation of GPR17 in neurons expressing the cellular stress marker heat shock protein 70. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in living mice showed that the in vivo pharmacological or biotechnological knock down of GPR17 markedly prevents brain infarct evolution, suggesting GPR17 as a mediator of neuronal death at this early ischemic stage. At later times after ischemia, GPR17 immuno-labeling appeared on microglia/macrophages infiltrating the lesioned area to indicate that GPR17 may also acts as a player in the remodeling of brain circuitries by microglia. At this later stage, parenchymal GPR17+ oligodendrocyte progenitors started proliferating in the peri-injured area, suggesting initiation of remyelination. To confirm a specific role for GPR17 in oligodendrocyte differentiation, the in vitro exposure of cortical pre-oligodendrocytes to the GPR17 endogenous ligands UDP-glucose and LTD(4

  20. Prostanoid Receptors Involved in Regulation of the Beating Rate of Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechiche, Hakima; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Robinet, Arnaud; Nazeyrollas, Pierre; Devillier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Although prostanoids are known to be involved in regulation of the spontaneous beating rate of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, the various subtypes of prostanoid receptors have not been investigated in detail. In our experiments, prostaglandin (PG)F2α and prostanoid FP receptor agonists (fluprostenol, latanoprost and cloprostenol) produced a decrease in the beating rate. Two prostanoid IP receptor agonists (iloprost and beraprost) induced first a marked drop in the beating rate and then definitive abrogation of beating. In contrast, the prostanoid DP receptor agonists (PGD2 and BW245C) and TP receptor agonists (U-46619) produced increases in the beating rate. Sulprostone (a prostanoid EP1 and EP3 receptor agonist) induced marked increases in the beating rate, which were suppressed by SC-19220 (a selective prostanoid EP1 antagonist). Butaprost (a selective prostanoid EP2 receptor agonist), misoprostol (a prostanoid EP2 and EP3 receptor agonist), 11-deoxy-PGE1 (a prostanoid EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptor agonist) did not alter the beating rate. Our results strongly suggest that prostanoid EP1 receptors are involved in positive regulation of the beating rate. Prostanoid EP1 receptor expression was confirmed by western blotting with a selective antibody. Hence, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes express both prostanoid IP and FP receptors (which negatively regulate the spontaneous beating rate) and prostanoid TP, DP1 and EP1 receptors (which positively regulate the spontaneous beating rate). PMID:22984630

  1. Plea to lower English test pass marks for EEA nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Chris

    2017-08-09

    Nurses from a group campaigning for the rights of EU citizens in the UK after Brexit are meeting the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) to press for the pass mark for English language tests to be lowered.

  2. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    3Institute of Remote Sensing, Anna University, Chennai-600025, INDIA .... Most of the Taguchi based studies used sink mark index or sink index as the parameter. It is an .... Maintaining higher pack pressure requires additional power and cost.

  3. 51. Veneetsia kunstibiennaalil esindab Eestit kunstnik Mark Raidpere...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Mark Raidpere ekspositsiooni "Varjupaik" on koostanud Hanno Soans. 12. VI-6. XI avatud biennaalil on kaks peakuraatorit ja kaks teemanäitust: Maria de Corrali kureeritud "Kunsti kogemus" ja Rosa Martinezi kureeritud "Alati pisut eespool"

  4. Acquaintance of bite mark identification procedures in Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuti Malinda

    2017-08-01

    Conclution: Dentist should carefully determine the conclusion among these possibilities , the mark is “possible biter”, “probable biter”, or “with a high level of confidence, is the biter”

  5. Full-Scale Mark II CRT Program data report, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Ken; Kukita, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1979-12-01

    The Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program was initiated in April 1976 to provide a full-scale data basis for the evaluation of the pressure suppression pool hydrodynamic loads associated with a hypothetical LOCA in a BWR Mark II Containment. The test facility, completed in March 1979, is 1/18 in volume of a typical 1100 MWe Mark II, and has a wetwell which is a full-scale replica of one 20 0 -sector of that of the reference Mark II. The present report documents experimental data from TEST 0002, a medium size (100 mm) water blowdown test, performed by Hitachi Ltd. for JAERI as the second of the four shakedown tests. Test data is provided for the vessel depressurization, the pressure and temperature responses in the test containment, and especially for the chugging phenomena associated with low flux steam condensation in the pool. (author)

  6. Safety performance evaluation of converging chevron pavement markings : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to perform a detailed safety analysis of converging chevron : pavement markings, quantifying the potential safety benefits and developing an understanding of the : incident types addressed by the treatment, and (...

  7. Campus lecture marks Conflict Resolution Day Oct. 21

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Conflict Resolution Program will sponsor a video conference presentation by Craig Runde and Tim Flanagan, co-authors of three books on conflict in the workplace, as the university marks International Conflict Resolution Day Thursday, Oct. 21.

  8. Inland Waters - Navigation Distance Mark - Minnesota River (Non-Navigable)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A distance mark indicates the distance measured from an origin and consists of a distinct location without special installation, used to serve as a reference along...

  9. 46 CFR 160.021-5 - Labeling and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: Stand with back to wind and point away from body when igniting or flare is burning. Service Life....__). Manufactured by (Name and address of manufacturer). U.S. Coast Guard Approval No.__ (b) Marking of expiration...

  10. 46 CFR 160.037-5 - Labeling and marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Caution: Stand with back to wind and point away from body when igniting or signal is burning. Service Life.... __). Manufactured by (Name and address of manufacturer). U.S. Coast Guard Approval No. __. (b) Marking of expiration...

  11. Viktor Misiano kureerib Mark Raidperet ning Jaan Toomikut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    27.05-26.08.2007 esitatakse Itaalia kunstikeskuses Pratos näitusel "Progressive Nostalgia" Jaan Toomiku videot "Merikajakas" (2004) ja Mark Raidpere videot "Andrei/Andris" (2006). Loetletud osalejad teistest maadest

  12. 27 CFR 19.605 - Additional marks on portable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... “Tax-Free.” (b) The proprietor may show other information such as brand or trade name; caution notices... plant control data. However, marks or attachments shall not conceal, obscure, interfere with or conflict...

  13. Continuous assessment and matriculation examination marks – An empirical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servaas van der Berg

    2015-12-01

    This study compares CASS data to the externally assessed matric exam marks for a number of subjects. There are two signalling dimensions to inaccurate assessments: (i Inflated CASS marks can give students a false sense of security and lead to diminished exam effort. (ii A weak correlation between CASS and the exam marks could mean poor signalling in another dimension: Relatively good students may get relatively low CASS marks. Such low correlations indicate poor assessment reliability, as the examination and continuous assessment should both be testing mastery of the same national curriculum. The paper analyses the extent of each of these dimensions of weak signalling in South African schools and draws disturbing conclusions for a large part of the school system.

  14. Meet EPA Chemist Mark Strynar, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Mark Strynar is a physical scientist in EPA's Office of Research and Development. His research interests include developing methods to measure and analyze the movement of PFCs and other xenobiotic compounds in biological and environmental media

  15. Evaluation of portable retroreflectometer for use on pavement marking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The subjective rating of the night visibility of pavement marking materials is difficult as it can be influenced by many variables. In an attempt to provide an improved method of determining the night visibility of these materials, a portable retrore...

  16. Skype'i kaasasutajad investeerivad MarkIT-isse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Nelja eestlasest Skype'i kaasasutaja loodud Ambient Sound Investments (ASI) investeerib 2 miljonit eurot, et aidata kaasa MarkIT e-hankekeskkonna arendamisele ning ettevõtte laienemisele viide Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riiki

  17. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis: durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project examined the life cycle and economic efficiency of two pavement marking : materials inlaid tape and thermoplastic to find the most economical product for specific : traffic and weather conditions. Six locations in the state of Ma...

  18. histone H3 predominantly mark the pericentromeric chromatin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANTOSH KUMAR SHARMA

    packaging of eukaryotic DNA in nucleoprotein complex known as .... The plant material used in the present study has ... materials (root tips/flower buds) were fixed in PHEMES ..... fications that mark active chromatin, while there are no data.

  19. 27 CFR 26.206 - Marking packages and cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.206 Marking packages and cases. The distiller... distiller, rectifier, or bottler shall plainly print, stamp, or stencil with durable coloring material, in...

  20. 131 The Ambiguity of Musical Expression Marks and the Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'tender' art in Nigerian higher institutions where most learners start at a relatively ... expression/performance marks as 'symbols and words or phrases and their .... involves the study of the teaching of the motor, intellectual, problem solving, ...

  1. A transgenic mouse marking live replicating cells reveals in vivo transcriptional program of proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klochendler, Agnes; Weinberg-Corem, Noa; Moran, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Most adult mammalian tissues are quiescent, with rare cell divisions serving to maintain homeostasis. At present, the isolation and study of replicating cells from their in vivo niche typically involves immunostaining for intracellular markers of proliferation, causing the loss of sensitive biolo...

  2. Lgr5 marks cycling, yet long-lived, hair follicle stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaks, V.; Barker, N.; Kasper, M.; van Es, J.H.; Snippert, H.J.G.; Clevers, H.; Toftgard, R.

    2008-01-01

    In mouse hair follicles, a group of quiescent cells in the bulge is believed to have stem cell activity. Lgr5, a marker of intestinal stem cells, is expressed in actively cycling cells in the bulge and secondary germ of telogen hair follicles and in the lower outer root sheath of anagen hair

  3. Effects of a novel bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist and angiotensin II receptor blockade on experimental myocardial infarction in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wu

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of the novel bradykinin B1 receptor antagonist BI-113823 following myocardial infarction (MI and to determine whether B1 receptor blockade alters the cardiovascular effects of an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 receptor antagonist after MI in rats.Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to permanent occlusion of the left descending coronary artery. Cardiovascular function was determined at 7 days post MI. Treatment with either B1 receptor antagonist (BI-113823 or AT1 receptor antagonist (irbesartan alone or in combination improved post-MI cardiac function as evidenced by attenuation of elevated left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP; greater first derivative of left ventricular pressure (± dp/dt max, left ventricle ejection fraction, fractional shorting, and better wall motion; as we as reductions in post-MI up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP-2 and collagen III. In addition, the cardiac up-regulation of B1 receptor and AT1 receptor mRNA were markedly reduced in animals treated with BI 113823, although bradykinin B2 receptor and angiotensin 1 converting enzyme (ACE1 mRNA expression were not significantly affected by B1 receptor blockade.The present study demonstrates that treatment with the novel B1 receptor antagonist, BI-113823 improves post-MI cardiac function and does not influence the cardiovascular effects of AT1 receptor antagonist following MI.

  4. Linguistic gender marking and its international business ramifications

    OpenAIRE

    Estefania Santacreu-Vasut; Oded Shenkar; Amir Shoham

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the impact of language-based gender distinctions within languages’ grammatical structures on women’s corporate presence. Using four different data sets, we find that countries where the dominant language marks gender more intensely have significantly lower female participation on boards of directors and in senior management, as well as smaller female-led corporate teams. We also find that the gender marking of the language used in the headquarters’ home country impacts female prese...

  5. Aksel Mark: kõik algaski Otsal / Enn Nõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõu, Enn, 1933-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Mark Beijer, Mai. Landkänning : Brevväxling mellan Anu och Aksel Mark under deras första år som flyktingar från Estland 1944-45. Stockholm : Bokverksta´n Förlag, 2008; Allt började på Otsa : minnen från min barndom och skoláren. Stockholm : Beijer Bok & Skog, 2011

  6. Regulation of glucose homeostasis by KSR1 and MARK2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J Klutho

    Full Text Available Protein scaffolds control the intensity and duration of signaling and dictate the specificity of signaling through MAP kinase pathways. KSR1 is a molecular scaffold of the Raf/MEK/ERK MAP kinase cascade that regulates the intensity and duration of ERK activation. Relative to wild-type mice, ksr1⁻/⁻ mice are modestly glucose intolerant, but show a normal response to exogenous insulin. However, ksr1⁻/⁻ mice also demonstrate a three-fold increase in serum insulin levels in response to a glucose challenge, suggesting a role for KSR1 in insulin secretion. The kinase MARK2 is closely related to C-TAK1, a known regulator of KSR1. Mice lacking MARK2 have an increased rate of glucose disposal in response to exogenous insulin, increased glucose tolerance, and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. mark2⁻/⁻ksr1⁻/⁻ (DKO mice were compared to wild type, mark2⁻/⁻, and ksr1⁻/⁻ mice for their ability to regulate glucose homeostasis. Here we show that disruption of KSR1 in mark2⁻/⁻ mice reverses the increased sensitivity to exogenous insulin resulting from MARK2 deletion. DKO mice respond to exogenous insulin similarly to wild type and ksr1⁻/⁻ mice. These data suggest a model whereby MARK2 negatively regulates insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue through inhibition of KSR1. Consistent with this model, we found that MARK2 binds and phosphorylates KSR1 on Ser392. Phosphorylation of Ser392 is a critical regulator of KSR1 stability, subcellular location, and ERK activation. These data reveal an unexpected role for the molecular scaffold KSR1 in insulin-regulated glucose metabolism.

  7. Preoperative stoma site marking in the general surgery population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnicki, Katherine M

    2013-01-01

    Preoperative teaching and stoma site marking are supported by research and professional organizations as interventions that can reduce the incidence of problematic stomas and improve patient outcomes. This study investigated the translation of this research into practice in the acute care surgery population. A retrospective chart review using convenience sampling was conducted at a large urban hospital in the Midwestern United States. Thirty patients underwent a surgical procedure that resulted in the creation of a fecal ostomy over a 5-month period. Descriptive statistical analysis examined the reason for surgery, preoperative length of stay (LOS), the percentage of patients who received preoperative teaching and stoma marking and the relationship between preoperative LOS and the use of preoperative teaching and stoma marking. Twenty-one of 30 patients were admitted to hospital 24 hours or more before surgery. No participants were admitted urgently. Three (14%) of those admitted for more than 24 hours received preoperative marking or teaching. There was no significant relationship between preoperative LOS and preoperative teaching and stoma marking. The opportunity exists to promote successful adaptation in this surgical population through the implementation of the evidence-based interventions of preoperative teaching and stoma marking. Additional study is needed to determine barriers to their use as well as to develop effective implementation strategies.

  8. AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF ROAD MARKINGS FROM MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  9. Multiplexing clonality: combining RGB marking and genetic barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornils, Kerstin; Thielecke, Lars; Hüser, Svenja; Forgber, Michael; Thomaschewski, Michael; Kleist, Nadja; Hussein, Kais; Riecken, Kristoffer; Volz, Tassilo; Gerdes, Sebastian; Glauche, Ingmar; Dahl, Andreas; Dandri, Maura; Roeder, Ingo; Fehse, Boris

    2014-01-01

    RGB marking and DNA barcoding are two cutting-edge technologies in the field of clonal cell marking. To combine the virtues of both approaches, we equipped LeGO vectors encoding red, green or blue fluorescent proteins with complex DNA barcodes carrying color-specific signatures. For these vectors, we generated highly complex plasmid libraries that were used for the production of barcoded lentiviral vector particles. In proof-of-principle experiments, we used barcoded vectors for RGB marking of cell lines and primary murine hepatocytes. We applied single-cell polymerase chain reaction to decipher barcode signatures of individual RGB-marked cells expressing defined color hues. This enabled us to prove clonal identity of cells with one and the same RGB color. Also, we made use of barcoded vectors to investigate clonal development of leukemia induced by ectopic oncogene expression in murine hematopoietic cells. In conclusion, by combining RGB marking and DNA barcoding, we have established a novel technique for the unambiguous genetic marking of individual cells in the context of normal regeneration as well as malignant outgrowth. Moreover, the introduction of color-specific signatures in barcodes will facilitate studies on the impact of different variables (e.g. vector type, transgenes, culture conditions) in the context of competitive repopulation studies. PMID:24476916

  10. Automatic Extraction of Road Markings from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.; Pei, Z.; Wei, Z.; Zhong, R.

    2017-09-01

    Road markings as critical feature in high-defination maps, which are Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and self-driving technology required, have important functions in providing guidance and information to moving cars. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) system is an effective way to obtain the 3D information of the road surface, including road markings, at highway speeds and at less than traditional survey costs. This paper presents a novel method to automatically extract road markings from MLS point clouds. Ground points are first filtered from raw input point clouds using neighborhood elevation consistency method. The basic assumption of the method is that the road surface is smooth. Points with small elevation-difference between neighborhood are considered to be ground points. Then ground points are partitioned into a set of profiles according to trajectory data. The intensity histogram of points in each profile is generated to find intensity jumps in certain threshold which inversely to laser distance. The separated points are used as seed points to region grow based on intensity so as to obtain road mark of integrity. We use the point cloud template-matching method to refine the road marking candidates via removing the noise clusters with low correlation coefficient. During experiment with a MLS point set of about 2 kilometres in a city center, our method provides a promising solution to the road markings extraction from MLS data.

  11. Mark retention of calcein in Cisco and Bloater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Mackey, Gregg; Nash, Kendra; Chiavelli, Richard; Johnson, James H.; Kehler, Thomas; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2012, a multi-agency initiative to restore these native forage species has been under way. Evaluating the restoration success of Cisco Coregonus artedi and Bloater C. hoyi in Lake Ontario waters requires methods to identify stocked fish. However, juvenile Cisco and Bloater are fragile; thus, mass marking techniques that reduce the handling of individual fish are required and have not previously been evaluated. In 2014–2015 we evaluated the usefulness of calcein (SE-MARK) as a marker on bony structures, including the otolith. Juvenile Bloater and Cisco (14, 100, 128 d old) were immersed in a calcein bath at 5,000 mg/L of water for 4 min to apply the chemical marker. Observations of the marking retention were evaluated 8 d following the treatment. All fish immersed in calcein had strong brilliant marks (rating scale 3) on all bony structures including scales, fin rays, jaw bones, and vertebrate. The otolith was the only hard structure that did not show a brilliant marking due to the opaque nature of the structure. Our results suggest that calcein produces a strong discernable mark on hard bony structures of Cisco and Bloater; however, long-term retention needs further study.

  12. The Pan-STARRS1 medium-deep survey: The role of galaxy group environment in the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation and quiescent fraction out to z ∼ 0.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Lihwai; Chen, Chin-Wei; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Jian, Hung-Yu; Foucaud, Sebastien; Norberg, Peder; Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Draper, P.; Heinis, Sebastien; Phleps, Stefanie; Chen, Wen-Ping; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Burgett, William; Chambers, K. C.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Using a large optically selected sample of field and group galaxies drawn from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1/MDS), we present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate (SSFR)—stellar mass (M * ) relation, as well as the quiescent fraction versus M * relation in different environments. While both the SSFR and the quiescent fraction depend strongly on stellar mass, the environment also plays an important role. Using this large galaxy sample, we confirm that the fraction of quiescent galaxies is strongly dependent on environment at a fixed stellar mass, but that the amplitude and the slope of the star-forming sequence is similar between the field and groups: in other words, the SSFR-density relation at a fixed stellar mass is primarily driven by the change in the star-forming and quiescent fractions between different environments rather than a global suppression in the star formation rate for the star-forming population. However, when we restrict our sample to the cluster-scale environments (M > 10 14 M ☉ ), we find a global reduction in the SSFR of the star-forming sequence of 17% at 4σ confidence as opposed to its field counterpart. After removing the stellar mass dependence of the quiescent fraction seen in field galaxies, the excess in the quiescent fraction due to the environment quenching in groups and clusters is found to increase with stellar mass, although deeper and larger data from the full PS1/MDS will be required to draw firm conclusions. We argue that these results are in favor of galaxy mergers to be the primary environment quenching mechanism operating in galaxy groups whereas strangulation is able to reproduce the observed trend in the environment quenching efficiency and stellar mass relation seen in clusters. Our results also suggest that the relative importance between mass quenching and environment quenching depends on stellar mass—the mass quenching plays a dominant role in producing quiescent galaxies for more

  13. The Pan-STARRS1 medium-deep survey: The role of galaxy group environment in the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation and quiescent fraction out to z ∼ 0.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Lihwai; Chen, Chin-Wei; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Jian, Hung-Yu [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Foucaud, Sebastien [Department of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, N°88, Tingzhou Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 11677, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Norberg, Peder; Bower, R. G.; Cole, Shaun; Arnalte-Mur, Pablo; Draper, P. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Heinis, Sebastien [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, MD 20742 (United States); Phleps, Stefanie [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Chen, Wen-Ping [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Lee, Chien-Hsiu [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Burgett, William; Chambers, K. C.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W., E-mail: lihwailin@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2014-02-10

    Using a large optically selected sample of field and group galaxies drawn from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium-Deep Survey (PS1/MDS), we present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate (SSFR)—stellar mass (M {sub *}) relation, as well as the quiescent fraction versus M {sub *} relation in different environments. While both the SSFR and the quiescent fraction depend strongly on stellar mass, the environment also plays an important role. Using this large galaxy sample, we confirm that the fraction of quiescent galaxies is strongly dependent on environment at a fixed stellar mass, but that the amplitude and the slope of the star-forming sequence is similar between the field and groups: in other words, the SSFR-density relation at a fixed stellar mass is primarily driven by the change in the star-forming and quiescent fractions between different environments rather than a global suppression in the star formation rate for the star-forming population. However, when we restrict our sample to the cluster-scale environments (M > 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}), we find a global reduction in the SSFR of the star-forming sequence of 17% at 4σ confidence as opposed to its field counterpart. After removing the stellar mass dependence of the quiescent fraction seen in field galaxies, the excess in the quiescent fraction due to the environment quenching in groups and clusters is found to increase with stellar mass, although deeper and larger data from the full PS1/MDS will be required to draw firm conclusions. We argue that these results are in favor of galaxy mergers to be the primary environment quenching mechanism operating in galaxy groups whereas strangulation is able to reproduce the observed trend in the environment quenching efficiency and stellar mass relation seen in clusters. Our results also suggest that the relative importance between mass quenching and environment quenching depends on stellar mass—the mass quenching plays a dominant role in producing quiescent

  14. How dead are dead galaxies? Mid-infrared fluxes of quiescent galaxies at redshift 0.3 < z < 2.5: implications for star formation rates and dust heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbé, Ivo; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van Dokkum, Pieter; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Maseda, Michael [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kriek, Mariska [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Quadri, Ryan [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Wake, David; Lundgren, Britt [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Whitaker, Katherine E. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory Road, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-11-20

    We investigate star formation rates (SFRs) of quiescent galaxies at high redshift (0.3 < z < 2.5) using 3D-HST WFC3 grism spectroscopy and Spitzer mid-infrared data. We select quiescent galaxies on the basis of the widely used UVJ color-color criteria. Spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting (rest-frame optical and near-IR) indicates very low SFRs for quiescent galaxies (sSFR ∼ 10{sup –12} yr{sup –1}). However, SED fitting can miss star formation if it is hidden behind high dust obscuration and ionizing radiation is re-emitted in the mid-infrared. It is therefore fundamental to measure the dust-obscured SFRs with a mid-IR indicator. We stack the MIPS 24 μm images of quiescent objects in five redshift bins centered on z = 0.5, 0.9, 1.2, 1.7, 2.2 and perform aperture photometry. Including direct 24 μm detections, we find sSFR ∼ 10{sup –11.9} × (1 + z){sup 4} yr{sup –1}. These values are higher than those indicated by SED fitting, but at each redshift they are 20-40 times lower than those of typical star-forming galaxies. The true SFRs of quiescent galaxies might be even lower, as we show that the mid-IR fluxes can be due to processes unrelated to ongoing star formation, such as cirrus dust heated by old stellar populations and circumstellar dust. Our measurements show that star formation quenching is very efficient at every redshift. The measured SFR values are at z > 1.5 marginally consistent with the ones expected from gas recycling (assuming that mass loss from evolved stars refuels star formation) and well below that at lower redshifts.

  15. How dead are dead galaxies? Mid-infrared fluxes of quiescent galaxies at redshift 0.3 < z < 2.5: implications for star formation rates and dust heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbé, Ivo; Patel, Shannon G.; Franx, Marijn; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Brammer, Gabriel; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Maseda, Michael; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Kriek, Mariska; Quadri, Ryan; Wake, David; Lundgren, Britt; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Marchesini, Danilo; Pacifici, Camilla; Skelton, Rosalind E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate star formation rates (SFRs) of quiescent galaxies at high redshift (0.3 < z < 2.5) using 3D-HST WFC3 grism spectroscopy and Spitzer mid-infrared data. We select quiescent galaxies on the basis of the widely used UVJ color-color criteria. Spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting (rest-frame optical and near-IR) indicates very low SFRs for quiescent galaxies (sSFR ∼ 10 –12 yr –1 ). However, SED fitting can miss star formation if it is hidden behind high dust obscuration and ionizing radiation is re-emitted in the mid-infrared. It is therefore fundamental to measure the dust-obscured SFRs with a mid-IR indicator. We stack the MIPS 24 μm images of quiescent objects in five redshift bins centered on z = 0.5, 0.9, 1.2, 1.7, 2.2 and perform aperture photometry. Including direct 24 μm detections, we find sSFR ∼ 10 –11.9 × (1 + z) 4 yr –1 . These values are higher than those indicated by SED fitting, but at each redshift they are 20-40 times lower than those of typical star-forming galaxies. The true SFRs of quiescent galaxies might be even lower, as we show that the mid-IR fluxes can be due to processes unrelated to ongoing star formation, such as cirrus dust heated by old stellar populations and circumstellar dust. Our measurements show that star formation quenching is very efficient at every redshift. The measured SFR values are at z > 1.5 marginally consistent with the ones expected from gas recycling (assuming that mass loss from evolved stars refuels star formation) and well below that at lower redshifts.

  16. Reproducibility of Computer-Aided Detection Marks in Digital Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ja; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Kim, Sun Mi; Im, Jung Gi; Cha, Joo Hee

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the performance and reproducibility of a computeraided detection (CAD) system in mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital mammograms taken serially, without release of breast compression. A CAD system was applied preoperatively to the fulfilled digital mammograms of two MLO views taken without release of breast compression in 82 patients (age range: 33 83 years; mean age: 49 years) with previously diagnosed breast cancers. The total number of visible lesion components in 82 patients was 101: 66 masses and 35 microcalcifications. We analyzed the sensitivity and reproducibility of the CAD marks. The sensitivity of the CAD system for first MLO views was 71% (47/66) for masses and 80% (28/35) for microcalcifications. The sensitivity of the CAD system for second MLO views was 68% (45/66) for masses and 17% (6/35) for microcalcifications. In 84 ipsilateral serial MLO image sets (two patients had bilateral cancers), identical images, regardless of the existence of CAD marks, were obtained for 35% (29/84) and identical images with CAD marks were obtained for 29% (23/78). Identical images, regardless of the existence of CAD marks, for contralateral MLO images were 65% (52/80) and identical images with CAD marks were obtained for 28% (11/39). The reproducibility of CAD marks for the true positive masses in serial MLO views was 84% (42/50) and that for the true positive microcalcifications was 0% (0/34). The CAD system in digital mammograms showed a high sensitivity for detecting masses and microcalcifications. However, reproducibility of microcalcification marks was very low in MLO views taken serially without release of breast compression. Minute positional change and patient movement can alter the images and result in a significant effect on the algorithm utilized by the CAD for detecting microcalcifications

  17. Scent marking behavior as an odorant communication in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Arakawa, Keiko; Dunlap, Christopher; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    In rodents, where chemical signals play a particularly important role in determining intraspecies interactions including social dominance and intersexual relationships, various studies have shown that behavior is sensitive to conspecific odor cues. Mice use urinary scent marks for communication with individual conspecifics in many social contexts. Urinary scent involves genetic information about individuals such as species, sex, and individual identity as well as metabolic information such as social dominance, and reproductive and health status, which are mediated by chemical proteins in scent marks including the major histocompatibility complex and the major urinary proteins. The odor of the predator which can be considered to be a threatening signal for the prey also modulate mouse behavior in which scent marking is suppressed in response to the cat odor exposure in mice. These odorant chemicals are detected and recognized through two olfactory bulbs, the role of which in detection of chemosignals with biological relevant appears to be differential, but partly overlapped. Mice deposit scent marks toward conspecifics to maintain their social relationships, and inhibit scent marking in a context where natural predator, cat odor is contained. This suppression of scent marking is long-lasting (for at least 7 days) and context-dependent, while the odorant signaling to conspecifics tends to appear frequently (over 24 hrs but less than 7 days intervals) depending on the familiarity of each signal-recipient. It has been discussed that scent marking is a communicative behavior associated with territoriality toward conspecifics, indicating that the social signaling within species are sensitive to predator odor cues in terms of vulnerability to predation risk. PMID:18565582

  18. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-C l...

  19. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanoni, Paolo; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Larach, Daniel B

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-...

  20. A method for studying knife tool marks on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kai-Ping; Chung, Ju-Hui; Chung, Fang-Chun; Tseng, Bo-Yuan; Pan, Chih-Hsin; Yang, Kai-Ting; Yang, Chun-Pang

    2011-07-01

    The characteristics of knife tool marks retained on hard tissues can be used to outline the shape and angle of a knife. The purpose of this study was to describe such marks on bone tissues that had been chopped with knives. A chopping stage with a gravity accelerator and a fixed bone platform was designed to reconstruct the chopping action. A digital microscope was also used to measure the knife angle (θ) and retained V-shape tool mark angle (ψ) in a pig skull. The κ value (elasticity coefficient; θ/ψ) was derived and recorded after the knife angle (θ) and the accompanied velocity were compared with the proportional impulsive force of the knife and ψ on the bone. The constant impulsive force revealed a correlation between the V-shape tool mark angle (ψ) and the elasticity coefficient (κ). These results describe the tool marks--crucial in the medicolegal investigation--of a knife on hard tissues. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Recognition in context: Implications for trade mark law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Michael S; McFarlane, Kimberley A; Burt, Jennifer S; Kelly, Sarah J; Weatherall, Kimberlee G; Burrell, Robert G

    2017-10-01

    Context effects in recognition have played a major role in evaluating theories of recognition. Understanding how context impacts recognition is also important for making sound trade mark law. Consumers attempting to discriminate between the brand they are looking for and a look-alike product often have to differentiate products which share a great deal of common context: positioning on the supermarket shelf, the type of store, aspects of the packaging, or brand claims. Trade mark and related laws aim to protect brands and reduce consumer confusion, but courts assessing allegations of trade mark infringement often lack careful empirical evidence concerning the impact of brand and context similarity, and, in the absence of such evidence, make assumptions about how consumers respond to brands that downplay the importance of context and focus on the similarity of registered marks. The experiments reported in this paper aimed to test certain common assumptions in trade mark law, providing evidence that shared context can cause mistakes even where brand similarity is low.

  2. Decrease in the number of rat brain dopamine and muscarinic receptors after chronic alcohol intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syvaelahti, E.K.G.; Hietala, J.; Roeyttae, M.; Groenroos, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of 32 weeks' alcohol treatment on the number and affinity of dopamine and muscarinic receptor sites in rat striatum were measured using 3 H-spiperone and 3 H-quinuclidinylbenzilate ( 3 H-QNB) as radioligans. The number of dopamine receptor sites was 38 per cent and the number of muscarinic receptor sites 36 per cent lower in the alcohol group than in control rats. The differences in receptor affinities were less marked. In conclusion, a long-term alcohol intake with rather moderate doses seems to induce a pronounced down-regulation in dopamine and muscarinic receptor systems in rat striatum. (author)

  3. Male and female meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus respond differently to scent marks from the top- middle-, and bottom-scent donors of an over-mark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. FERKIN, Nicholas J. HOBBS, Benjamin D. FERKIN, Adam C.FERKIN, Daniel A. FERKIN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that individuals responded preferentially to the mark of the top-scent donor relative to that of the bottom-scent donor of an over-mark. However, terrestrial mammals are likely to encounter over-marks consisting of the scent marks of more than two same-sex conspecifics in the intersections of runways, near the nests of sexually receptive female conspecifics, and inside and along the borders of the territories of conspecifics. We determined how meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, respond to the marks of the top-, middle-, and bottom-scent donors of an over-mark. We tested the hypothesis that voles exposed to an over-mark will respond preferentially to the scent marks that were deposited more recently, the scent marks that were on top or near the top of the over-mark, compared to the scent marks that were deposited earlier or near the bottom of the over-mark. Voles spent more time investigating the mark of the top-scent donor than that of the either the middle- or bottom-scent donor. However, males but not female voles spent more time investigating the middle-scent mark than the bottom-scent mark. We also tested the hypothesis that voles evaluate and respond to over-marks differently from single scent marks. Voles spent more time investigating the marks of the top-, middle-, and bottom-scent donors compared to scent marks that were not part of the over-mark. Voles can distinguish among the overlapping scent marks of three scent donors and sex differences exist in the values they appear to attach to each of these scent marks [Current Zoology 57 (4: 441–448, 2011].

  4. XML schemas and mark-up practices of taxonomic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Lyubomir; Lyal, Christopher Hc; Weitzman, Anna; Morse, David R; King, David; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Morris, Robert A; Catapano, Terry; Agosti, Donat

    2011-01-01

    We review the three most widely used XML schemas used to mark-up taxonomic texts, TaxonX, TaxPub and taXMLit. These are described from the viewpoint of their development history, current status, implementation, and use cases. The concept of "taxon treatment" from the viewpoint of taxonomy mark-up into XML is discussed. TaxonX and taXMLit are primarily designed for legacy literature, the former being more lightweight and with a focus on recovery of taxon treatments, the latter providing a much more detailed set of tags to facilitate data extraction and analysis. TaxPub is an extension of the National Library of Medicine Document Type Definition (NLM DTD) for taxonomy focussed on layout and recovery and, as such, is best suited for mark-up of new publications and their archiving in PubMedCentral. All three schemas have their advantages and shortcomings and can be used for different purposes.

  5. Evaluation of TRIGA Mark II reactor in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilge, Ali Nezihi

    1990-01-01

    There are two research reactors in Turkey and one of them is the university Triga Mark II reactor which was in service since 1979 both for education and industrial application purposes. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the spectrum of the services carried by Turkish Triga Mark II reactor. In this work, statistical distribution of the graduate works and applications, by using Triga Mark II reactor is examined and evaluated. In addition to this, technical and scientific uses of this above mentioned reactor are also investigated. It was already showed that the uses and benefits of this reactor can not be limited. If the sufficient work and service is given, NDT and industrial applications can also be carried economically. (orig.)

  6. Full-scale mark II CRT program data report, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukita, Yutaka; Namatame, Ken; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Takeshita, Isao; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1980-03-01

    The Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program was initiated in 1977 to provide a data base for evaluation of the LOCA hydrodynamic loads for the Mark II pressure suppression system. The test facility is 1/18 in volume and has a wetwell which is a fullscale replica of one 20 0 -sector of that of a reference Mark II. This report documents test data obtained from TEST 2101, which is a medium size (74 mm) water break test performed on April 27, 1979. TEST 2101 was designed to roughly approximate an intermediate break accident in which so-called chugging phenomenon associated with low-flux steam condensation is anticipated to continue for a longer duration than in a large break accident. (author)

  7. Full-scale mark II CRT program facility description report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Ken; Kukita, Yutaka; Ito, Hideo; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1980-03-01

    Started in fiscal year 1977, the Full-Scale Mark II CRT (Containment Response Test) Program is proceeding for the period of five years. The primary objective of the CRT Program is to provide a data base for evaluation of the pressure suppression pool hydrodynamic loads associated with a postulated loss-of-coolant accident in the BWR Mark II containment system. The test facility was designed and constructed from fiscal year 1977 to 1978, and completed in March 1979. It is 1/18 in volume and has a wetwell which is a full-scale replica of one 20 0 -sector of that of a reference Mark II. This report describes design concepts, dimensions and constructions of the test facility, as well as specifications, locations and installation schemes of the measuring equipments. Results of soil structure inspection, vacuum breaker test and shaker test of the containment shell are given in the appendices. (author)

  8. RAPID INSPECTION OF PAVEMENT MARKINGS USING MOBILE LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at building a robust semi-automated pavement marking extraction workflow based on the use of mobile LiDAR point clouds. The proposed workflow consists of three components: preprocessing, extraction, and classification. In preprocessing, the mobile LiDAR point clouds are converted into the radiometrically corrected intensity imagery of the road surface. Then the pavement markings are automatically extracted with the intensity using a set of algorithms, including Otsu’s thresholding, neighbor-counting filtering, and region growing. Finally, the extracted pavement markings are classified with the geometric parameters using a manually defined decision tree. Case studies are conducted using the mobile LiDAR dataset acquired in Xiamen (Fujian, China with different road environments by the RIEGL VMX-450 system. The results demonstrated that the proposed workflow and our software tool can achieve 93% in completeness, 95% in correctness, and 94% in F-score when using Xiamen dataset.

  9. Combined pump and marking tests for determining protection zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H.; Brauns, J.

    1982-02-01

    Under difficult conditions the determination of the protection area II on the basis of Mear pump tests becomes uncertain. The report shows how in such cases the results of supplementary marking tests can establish a more accurate finding. The execution of combined pump and marking tests enables us to check data gained on a theoretical basis and possibly alter these. This method is described in an example, in which certain hydrogeological conditions and rival interests of ground water protection prevail on the one side and utilization of land on the other side. A general tendency exists to take the utmost protective measure in safeguarding ground water, however in cases of collision of interests the boundary of the protective area should be optimized. Supplementary marking tests can be of great significance.

  10. Mark I containment, short term program. Safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Presented is a Safety Evaluation Report (SER) prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation addressing the Short Term Program (STP) reassessment of the containment systems of operating Boiler Water Reactor (BWR) facilities with the Mark I containment system design. The information presented in this SER establishes the basis for the NRC staff's conclusion that licensed Mark I BWR facilities can continue to operate safely, without undue risk to the health and safety of the public, during an interim period of approximately two years while a methodical, comprehensive Long Term Program (LTP) is conducted. This SER also provides one of the basic foundations for the NRC staff review of the Mark I containment systems for facilities not yet licensed for operation

  11. Laser marking as a result of applying reverse engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Andrei; Nagîţ, Gheorghe; Rîpanu, Marius Ionuţ; Slǎtineanu, Laurenţiu; Dodun, Oana; Coteaţǎ, Margareta

    2018-05-01

    The elaboration of a modern manufacturing technology needs a certain quantum of information concerning the part to be obtained. When it is necessary to elaborate the technology for an existing object, such an information could be ensured by using the principles specific to the reverse engineering. Essentially, in the case of this method, the analysis of the surfaces and of other characteristics of the part must offer enough information for the elaboration of the part manufacturing technology. On the other hand, it is known that the laser marking is a processing method able to ensure the transfer of various inscriptions or drawings on a part. Sometimes, the laser marking could be based on the analysis of an existing object, whose image could be used to generate the same object or an improved object. There are many groups of factors able to affect the results of applying the laser marking process. A theoretical analysis was proposed to show that the heights of triangles obtained by means of a CNC marking equipment depend on the width of the line generated by the laser spot on the workpiece surface. An experimental research was thought and materialized to highlight the influence exerted by the line with and the angle of lines intersections on the accuracy of the marking process. By mathematical processing of the experimental results, empirical mathematical models were determined. The power type model and the graphical representation elaborated on the base of this model offered an image concerning the influences exerted by the considered input factors on the marking process accuracy.

  12. UID...Leaving Its Mark on the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1975 bar codes on products at the retail counter have been accepted as the standard for entering product identity for price determination. Since the beginning of the 21 st century, the Data Matrix symbol has become accepted as the bar code format that is marked directly on a part, assembly or product that is durable enough to identify that item for its lifetime. NASA began the studies for direct part marking Data Matrix symbols on parts during the Return to Flight activities after the Challenger Accident. Over the 20 year period that has elapsed since Challenger, a mountain of studies, analyses and focused problem solutions developed by and for NASA have brought about world changing results. NASA Technical Standard 6002 and NASA Handbook 6003 for Direct Part Marking Data Matrix Symbols on Aerospace Parts have formed the basis for most other standards on part marking internationally. NASA and its commercial partners have developed numerous products and methods that addressed the difficulties of collecting part identification in aerospace operations. These products enabled the marking of Data Matrix symbols in virtually every situation and the reading of symbols at great distances, severe angles, under paint and in the dark without a light. Even unmarkable delicate parts now have a process to apply a chemical mixture, recently trademarked as Nanocodes, that can be converted to Data Matrix information through software. The accompanying intellectual property is protected by ten patents, several of which are licensed. Direct marking Data Matrix on NASA parts dramatically decreases data entry errors and the number of parts that go through their life cycle unmarked, two major threats to sound configuration management and flight safety. NASA is said to only have people and stuff with information connecting them. Data Matrix is one of the most significant improvements since Challenger to the safety and reliability of that connection.

  13. UID....Now That's Gonna Leave A Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1975 bar codes on products at the retail counter have been accepted as the standard for entering product identity for price determination. Since the beginning of the 21 st century, the Data Matrix symbol has become accepted as the bar code format that is marked directly on a part, assembly or product that is durable enough to identify that item for its lifetime. NASA began the studies for direct part marking Data Matrix symbols on parts during the Return to Flight activities after the Challenger Accident. Over the 20 year period that has elapsed since Challenger, a mountain of studies, analyses and focused problem solutions developed by and for NASA have brought about world changing results. NASA Technical Standard 6002 and NASA Handbook 6003 for Direct Part Marking Data Matrix Symbols on Aerospace Parts have formed the basis for most other standards on part marking internationally. NASA and its commercial partners have developed numerous products and methods that addressed the difficulties of collecting part identification in aerospace operations. These products enabled the marking of Data Matrix symbols in virtually every situation and the reading of symbols at great distances, severe angles, under paint and in the dark without a light. Even unmarkable delicate parts now have a process to apply a chemical mixture, recently trademarked as Nanocodes, that can be converted to Data Matrix information through software. The accompanying intellectual property is protected by ten patents, several of which are licensed. Direct marking Data Matrix on NASA parts dramatically decreases data entry errors and the number of parts that go through their life cycle unmarked, two major threats to sound configuration management and flight safety. NASA is said to only have people and stuff with information connecting them. Data Matrix is one of the most significant improvements since Challenger to the safety and reliability of that connection.

  14. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes: localization and structure/function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brann, M R; Ellis, J; Jørgensen, H

    1993-01-01

    Based on the sequence of the five cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes (m1-m5), subtype selective antibody and cDNA probes have been prepared. Use of these probes has demonstrated that each of the five subtypes has a markedly distinct distribution within the brain and among peripheral tissues...... are described, as well as the implied structures of these functional domains....

  15. GLP-1 receptor localization in monkey and human tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Charles; Heller, R Scott; Kirk, Rikke K

    2014-01-01

    and increase heart rate. Using a new monoclonal antibody for immunohistochemistry, we detected GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in important target organs in humans and monkeys. In the pancreas, GLP-1R was predominantly localized in β-cells with a markedly weaker expression in acinar cells. Pancreatic ductal epithelial...

  16. The effect of Ramadan fasting on quiescent systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients' disease activity, health quality of life and lipid profile: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharifar, Hamid; Faezi, Seyedeh Tahereh; Paragomi, Pedram; Montazeri, Ali; Banihashemi, Arash Tehrani; Akhlaghkhah, Maryam; Abdollahi, Bahar Sadeghi; Kamazani, Zahra; Akbarian, Mahmood

    2015-08-01

    SLE is a common autoimmune disease with considerable morbidity. Ramadan fasting is a religious custom Muslims regularly practice. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on SLE patients' disease activity, health quality of life and lipid profile. We conducted this case control study as a pilot study in 40 quiescent SLE patients, 21 cases who decided to fast and 19 controls who decided not to have Ramadan fasting between August and November 2009 in lupus unit of Rheumatology Research Center in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran. They were assessed for SLE Disease Activity Index, lipid profile and quality of life with Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Health Survey, 1 day before Ramadan, the day after and 3 months after Ramadan fasting. After 24.1 ± 5.4 (mean ± SD) days of fasting, anti-ds DNA increased for 0.34 ± 0.41 mmol/dL in cases versus 0.07 ± 0.31 in controls (P = 0.026). Likewise C3 increased more dramatically in cases (16.8 ± 17.5 vs. 2.3 ± 13.2 mg/dL, P = 0.006). Three months after fasting, anti-ds DNA was still increased 0.28 ± 0.46 mmol/dL in cases while a 0.02 ± 0.43 mmol/dL drop in controls was detected (P = 0.04). On the contrary, C3 returned to baseline. These changes were not accompanied with significant changes in disease activity and health quality of life. Ramadan fasting had no effect on lipid profile except for delayed total cholesterol decrease in cases in comparison with controls (16.4 ± 29.4 decrease vs. 4.6 ± 23.9 mg/dL decrease, P = 0.018). Ramadan fasting probably has no detrimental effect on SLE patients' disease activity and their quality of life in the quiescent phase of disease.

  17. EcoMark: Evaluating Models of Vehicular Environmental Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Chenjuan; Ma, Mike; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transporta- tion is essential for achieving politically agreed upon emissions re- duction targets that aim to combat global climate change. So-called eco-routing and eco-driving are able to substantially reduce GHG emissions caused by vehicular...... the vehicle travels in. We develop an evaluation framework, called EcoMark, for such environmental impact models. In addition, we survey all eleven state-of-the-art impact models known to us. To gain insight into the capabilities of the models and to understand the effectiveness of the EcoMark, we apply...

  18. Bench mark spectra for high-energy neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, R.

    1986-01-01

    To monitor radiation damage experiments, activation detectors are commonly used. The precision of the results obtained by the multiple foil analysis is largely increased by the intercalibration in bench-mark spectra. This technique is already used in dosimetry measurements for fission reactors. To produce neutron spectra similar to fusion reactor and high-energy high-intensity neutron sources (d-Li or spallation), accelerators can be used. Some possible solutions as p-Be and d-D 2 O neutron sources, useful as bench-mark spectra are described. (author)

  19. Mark-18A Ion Exchange Raffinate Management Strategy & Processing Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-21

    It is desired to recover Cm-244 through Cm-248 from dissolved Mark-18A targets following anion exchange processing to remove the Pu. The Cm will be sent to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for additional R&D. Approximately 5-8 L per quarter of a Mark-18A target will have undergone anion exchange treatment and will contain Cm. A significant portion of this volume of anion exchange raffinate solution is dissolved fission products not desired to be recovered which could be sent to waste. To reduce the amount of material being sent to ORNL, a waste and volume minimization strategy was developed and is described in this report.

  20. Marks on the petroleum fiscality; Reperes sur la fiscalite petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)