Sample records for receiving domiciliary noninvasive

  1. [Domiciliary noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic alveolar hypoventilation].

    Casas, J P; Robles, A M; Pereyra, M A; Abbona, H L; López, A M


    Effectiveness of treatment with domiciliary nocturnal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is analyzed in a group of patients with chronic alveolar hypoventilation of different etiologies. It was applied with two levels of pressure (BiPAP) via nasal mask. Criteria for evaluation were symptomatology and improvement in gas exchange. Data were analyzed by Student t tests. A total of 13 patients were included, mean age 55.7 range 20 to 76 years (5 male 8 female). Main diagnosis was tuberculosis in 6, four of them having had surgical procedure (thoracoplasty 2, frenicectomy 1 and neumonectomy 1), myopathy 3 (myasthenia gravis 1, muscular dystrophy 1 and diaphragmatic paralysis 1), obesity-hypoventilation syndrome 1, escoliosis 1, bronchiectasis 1 and cystic fibrosis 1. These last two patients were on waiting list for lung transplantation. At the moment of consultation, the symptoms were: dysnea 13/13 (100%), astenia 13/13 (100%), hypersomnolency 10/13 (77%), cephalea 9/13 (69%), leg edema 6/13 (46%), loss of memory 6/13 (46%). Regarding gas exchange, they showed hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Mean follow up was of 2.2 years (range 6 months to 4 years). Within the year, all 13 patients became less dyspneic. Astenia, hypersomnolency, cephalea, leg edema and memory loss disappeared. Improvement in gas exchange was: PaO2/FiO2 from 269 +/- 65.4 (basal) to 336.7 +/- 75.3 post-treatment (p = 0.0018). PaCO2 from 70.77 +/- 25.48 mmHg (basal) to 46.77 +/- 8.14 mmHg (p = 0.0013). Ventilatory support was discontinued en 5 patients: three because of pneumonia requiring intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation, two of them died and one is still with tracheostomy; One patient with bronchiectasis and one with cystic fibrosis were transplanted. The remaining eight patients are stable. In conclusion, chronic alveolar hypoventilation can be effectively treated with domiciliary nocturnal noninvasive ventilation. Long term improvement in symptomatology and arterial blood gases

  2. Obesity might be a good prognosis factor for COPD patients using domiciliary noninvasive mechanical ventilation

    Altinoz, Hilal; Adiguzel, Nalan; Salturk, Cuneyt; Gungor, Gokay; Mocin, Ozlem; Berk Takir, Huriye; Kargin, Feyza; Balci, Merih; Dikensoy, Oner; Karakurt, Zuhal


    Cachexia is known to be a deteriorating factor for survival of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but data related to obesity are limited. We observed that obese patients with COPD prescribed long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) had better survival rate compared to nonobese patients. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective observational cohort study. Archives of Thoracic Diseases Training Hospital were sought between 2008 and 2013. All the subjects were prescribed domiciliary NIMV for chronic respiratory failure secondary to COPD. Subjects were grouped according to their body mass index (BMI). The first group consisted of subjects with BMI between 20 and 30 kg/m2, and the second group consisted of subjects with BMI >30 kg/m2. Data obtained at the first month’s visit for the following parameters were recorded: age, sex, comorbid diseases, smoking history, pulmonary function test, 6-minute walk test (6-MWT), and arterial blood gas analysis. Hospital admissions were recorded before and after the domiciliary NIMV usage. Mortality rate was searched from the electronic database. Overall, 118 subjects were enrolled. Thirty-eight subjects had BMI between 20 and 30 kg/m2, while 80 subjects had BMI >30 kg/m2. The mean age was 65.8±9.4 years, and 81% were male. The median follow-up time was 26 months and mortality rates were 32% and 34% for obese and nonobese subjects (P=0.67). Improvement in 6-MWT was protective against mortality. In conclusion, survival of obese patients with COPD using domiciliary NIMV was found to be better than those of nonobese patients, and the improvement in 6-MWT in such patients was found to be related to a better survival. PMID:27578969

  3. Obesity might be a good prognosis factor for COPD patients using domiciliary noninvasive mechanical ventilation

    Altinoz H


    Full Text Available Hilal Altinoz,1 Nalan Adiguzel,2 Cuneyt Salturk,2 Gokay Gungor,2 Ozlem Mocin,2 Huriye Berk Takir,2 Feyza Kargin,2 Merih Balci,2 Oner Dikensoy,1 Zuhal Karakurt2 1Pulmonary Division, Acibadem University School of Medicine, 2Sureyyapasa Thoracic Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Cachexia is known to be a deteriorating factor for survival of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but data related to obesity are limited. We observed that obese patients with COPD prescribed long-term noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV had better survival rate compared to nonobese patients. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective observational cohort study. Archives of Thoracic Diseases Training Hospital were sought between 2008 and 2013. All the subjects were prescribed domiciliary NIMV for chronic respiratory failure secondary to COPD. Subjects were grouped according to their body mass index (BMI. The first group consisted of subjects with BMI between 20 and 30 kg/m2, and the second group consisted of subjects with BMI >30 kg/m2. Data obtained at the first month’s visit for the following parameters were recorded: age, sex, comorbid diseases, smoking history, pulmonary function test, 6-minute walk test (6-MWT, and arterial blood gas analysis. Hospital admissions were recorded before and after the domiciliary NIMV usage. Mortality rate was searched from the electronic database. Overall, 118 subjects were enrolled. Thirty-eight subjects had BMI between 20 and 30 kg/m2, while 80 subjects had BMI >30 kg/m2. The mean age was 65.8±9.4 years, and 81% were male. The median follow-up time was 26 months and mortality rates were 32% and 34% for obese and nonobese subjects (P=0.67. Improvement in 6-MWT was protective against mortality. In conclusion, survival of obese patients with COPD using domiciliary NIMV was found to be better than those of nonobese patients, and the improvement in 6-MWT in such

  4. Dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the use of psychotropic drugs among older people who receive domiciliary care: a cross-sectional study.

    Wergeland, Jon N; Selbæk, Geir; Høgset, Lisbeth D; Söderhamn, Ulrika; Kirkevold, Øyvind


    The objective of this study was to (a) determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment, dementia, and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) among home-dwelling people, 70 years and older (70+ years), who receive domiciliary care, and (b) describe their use of psychotropic drugs. Few studies have investigated dementia among people receiving in-home care. A sample (N = 1,000) representative of people aged 70+ years receiving domiciliary care was randomly recruited for participation. A standardized interview with the participants and their next of kin were performed using well-established assessment scales. Two clinical experts independently diagnosed dementia according to ICD-10 criteria. Of the 415 participants (41.5%) with dementia according to ICD-10 criteria, 19.5% had a dementia diagnosis known to the patient themselves, their caregiver, or health workers in the domiciliary care service. In the previous month, 72.1% exhibited NPSs (21.1% rated as clinically significant), with depression (47.5%), apathy (33.7%), anxiety (33.0%), and irritability (31.1%) being the most common. Psychotropic drugs were regularly used by 40.1% of the sample. Antidepressants (p = 0.001) and cognitive enhancers (p dementia than to those without dementia. Dementia and NPSs are highly prevalent among people who receive domiciliary care, and diagnostic disclosure is low. People with dementia constitute a distinct group with respect to NPSs and psychotropic drug use. Early detection and correct diagnosis might increase the understanding of their everyday challenges and enable families to alleviate consequences of dementia and NPSs.

  5. Management of critically ill patients receiving noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in the emergency department

    Rose L


    Full Text Available Louise RoseLawrence S Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Patients requiring noninvasive and invasive ventilation frequently present to emergency departments, and may remain for prolonged periods due to constrained critical care services. Emergency clinicians often do not receive the same education on management of mechanical ventilation or have similar exposure to these patients as do their critical care colleagues. The aim of this review was to synthesize the evidence on management of patients requiring noninvasive and invasive ventilation in the emergency department including indications, clinical applications, monitoring priorities, and potential complications. Noninvasive ventilation is recommended for patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Less evidence supports its use in asthma and other causes of acute respiratory failure. Use of noninvasive ventilation in the prehospital setting is relatively new, and some evidence suggests benefit. Monitoring priorities for noninvasive ventilation include response to treatment, respiratory and hemodynamic stability, noninvasive ventilation tolerance, detection of noninvasive ventilation failure, and identification of air leaks around the interface. Application of injurious ventilation increases patient morbidity and mortality. Lung-protective ventilation with low tidal volumes based on determination of predicted body weight and control of plateau pressure has been shown to reduce mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and some evidence exists to suggest this strategy should be used in patients without lung injury. Monitoring of the invasively ventilated patient should focus on assessing response to mechanical ventilation and other interventions, and avoiding complications, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. Several key aspects of management of noninvasive

  6. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    Ross, M.P.


    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator is disclosed for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator. 11 figs.

  7. Long-term survival for COPD patients receiving noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure

    Titlestad IL


    Full Text Available Ingrid L Titlestad,1 Annmarie T Lassen,2 Jørgen Vestbo1,3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; 3Respiratory Research Group, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University Hospital South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Implementation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV as an add-on treatment has been routinely used in a non-intensive care setting since 2004 for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and acute hypercapnic respiratory failure at a university hospital in Denmark. Although randomized controlled trials show lowered mortality rates in highly selected patients with acute exacerbation and respiratory failure, there are only few reports on long-term survival after receiving NIV. We present long-term all-cause mortality data from patients receiving NIV for the first time. Method: Data from medical records were retrospectively retrieved from all patients receiving NIV for the first time after being admitted acutely to an acute medical ward and further transfer to a respiratory ward with respiratory failure and a diagnosis of COPD in the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007; patients were followed until January 2012. Demographic data collected included age, sex, diagnoses at discharge, and, when present, FEV1; a “not-to-intubate” order was also registered when listed. Results: In total, 253 patients (143 female, 110 male received NIV for the first time. The median age was 72 years (range 46–91 years. The 30-day mortality rate was 29.3%. The 5-year survival rate was 23.7%. Women showed a trend towards better survival than men (25.7% vs 19.2%, P = 0.25, and the trend was even more pronounced for patients with COPD. Conclusion: The mortality rate of patients receiving NIV is high, as expected in a real-life setting, but with a 5-year survival rate

  8. Long-term survival for COPD patients receiving noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure

    Titlestad, Ingrid L; Lassen, Annmarie T; Vestbo, Jørgen


    Implementation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) as an add-on treatment has been routinely used in a non-intensive care setting since 2004 for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute hypercapnic respiratory failure at a university hospital in Denmark. Although randomiz...

  9. 38 CFR 17.46 - Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from...


    ..., domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from active military, naval, or air service... Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.46 Eligibility for hospital, domiciliary or nursing home care of persons discharged or released from active military, naval, or air service. (a) In...

  10. [Spiritual end of life domiciliary care: a bibliographic review].

    Sierra García, Marta; Getino Canseco, María


    This article is a descriptive literature review on the topic of spirituality, in a palliative care aimed at adult patients with different pathologies that are in an advanced stage of the disease. We analyze the sociocultural construction of spirituality at the end of life in the domiciliary environment, relating it to the disease process, its terminality and death. We describe the attention of the palliative-nurses, caring for the spiritual needs from a holistic point of view. It has to be considered that if the palliative-nurses are aware of the spirituality of patients with terminal illness should have some established strategies in their efforts to provide spiritual comfort.

  11. Effect of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation on weaning success in patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation: a meta-analysis

    ZHU Fen; LIU Zi-long; LONG Xuan; WU Xiao-dan; ZHOU Jing; BAI Chun-xue; LI Shan-qun


    Background Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has been proposed to shorten the duration of mechanical ventilation in intubated patients,especially those who fail initial weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV).However,there are also some discrepancies in terms of weaning success or failure,incidence of re-intubation,complications observed during study and patient outcomes.The primary objective of this update was to specifically investigate the role of NIPPV on facilitating weaning and avoiding re-intubation in patients intubated for different etiologies of acute respiratory failure,by comparing with conventional invasive weaning approach.Methods We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing noninvasive weaning of early extubation and immediate application of NIPPV with invasive weaning in intubated patients from PubMed,Embase,Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials,Web of Knowledge and Springerlink databases.Records from conference proceedings and reference lists of relevant studies were also identified.Results A total of 11 RCTs with 623 patients were available for the present analysis.Compared with IMV,NIPPV significantly increased weaning success rates (odds ratio (OR):2.50,95% confidence interval (C/):1.46-4.30,P=0.0009),decreased mortality (OR:0.39,95% CI:0.20-0.75,P=0.005),and reduced the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) (OR:0.17,95% CI:0.08-0.37,P <0.00001) and complications (OR:0.22,95% CI:0.07-0.72,P=0.01).However,effect of NIPPV on re-intubation did not reach statistical difference (OR:0.61,95% CI:0.33-1.11,P=0.11).Conclusions Early extubation and immediate application of NIPPV is superior to conventional invasive weaning approach in increasing weaning success rates,decreasing the risk of mortality and reducing the incidence of VAP and complications,in patients who need weaning from IMV.However,it should be applied with caution,as there is insufficient beneficial evidence to

  12. Factor analysis on implementation of domiciliary dental care in Metropolitan Tokyo.

    Hirata, SoIchiro; Sakayori, Takaharu; Maki, Yoshinobu; Takano, Naohisa; Ishii, Takuo


    The need for domiciliary dental care has increased with the aging of Japanese society. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government and Tokyo Dental Association conducted a survey of dental institutions within Tokyo in order to clarify which factors influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care by dental institutions. The proportion was significantly higher in (1) dentists in their 50s or older, (2) those working in cooperation with primary care physicians, (3) those providing dysphagia rehabilitation, (4) those who give information on prevention of aspiration pneumonia, (5) those who attended training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care, and (6) those who attended training workshops and seminars provided by the Tokyo Dental Association in 2010. In the logistic regression analysis, a significant odds ratio was obtained for the same items, excluding age. Attendance at training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care had the highest odds ratio. Those who attended any kind of training course implemented domiciliary dental care significantly more often. Training conducted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Center for Oral Health of Persons with Disabilities, Tokyo Dental Association, and local dental associations showed a significant odds ratio, with the highest by the Tokyo Dental Association. Traditionally, education on domiciliary dental care in the elderly is not provided at the college level. The present results indicate the importance of educating students with regard to the unique challenges such work poses. Attending seminars hosted by the Tokyo Dental Association also significantly influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care. This seems to be an important result, suggesting the effectiveness of training provided by dental associations with regard to the promotion of domiciliary dental care. This indicates the need for dental associations to provide such training throughout Japan.

  13. Self-Administered Domiciliary tDCS Treatment for Tinnitus: A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study.

    Petteri Hyvärinen

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has shown potential for providing tinnitus relief, although positive effects have usually been observed only during a short time period after treatment. In recent studies the focus has turned from one-session experiments towards multi-session treatment studies investigating long-term outcomes with double-blinded and sham-controlled study designs. Traditionally, tDCS has been administered in a clinical setting by a healthcare professional but in studies involving multiple treatment sessions, often a trade-off has to be made between sample size and the amount of labor needed to run the trial. Also, as the number of required visits to the clinic increases, the dropout rate is likely to rise proportionally.The aim of the current study was to find out if tDCS treatment for tinnitus could be patient-administered in a domiciliary setting and whether the results would be comparable to those from in-hospital treatment studies. Forty-three patients with chronic (> 6 months tinnitus were involved in the study, and data on 35 out of these patients were included in final analysis. Patients received 20 minutes of left temporal area anodal (LTA or bifrontal tDCS stimulation (2 mA or sham stimulation (0.3 mA for ten consecutive days. An overall reduction in the main outcome measure, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI, was found (mean change -5.0 points, p < 0.05, but there was no significant difference between active and sham treatment outcomes. Patients found the tDCS treatment easy to administer and they all tolerated it well. In conclusion, self-administered domiciliary tDCS treatment for tinnitus was found safe and feasible and gave outcome results similar to recent randomized controlled long-term treatment trials. The results suggest better overall treatment response-as measured by THI-with domiciliary treatment than with in-hospital treatment, but this advantage is not related to the tDCS variant. The study

  14. 38 CFR 59.40 - Maximum number of nursing home care and domiciliary care beds for veterans by State.


    ... ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.40 Maximum number of nursing home care and domiciliary care beds for veterans... projection of demand for nursing home and domiciliary care by veterans who at such time are 65 years of age... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum number of...

  15. Domiciliary pulse-oximetry at exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: prospective pilot study

    Goldring James JP


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to objectively differentiate exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD from day-to-day symptom variations would be an important development in clinical practice and research. We assessed the ability of domiciliary pulse oximetry to achieve this. Methods 40 patients with moderate-severe COPD collected daily data on changes in symptoms, heart-rate (HR, oxygen saturation (SpO2 and peak-expiratory flow (PEF over a total of 2705 days. 31 patients had data suitable for baseline analysis, and 13 patients experienced an exacerbation. Data were expressed as multiples of the standard deviation (SD observed from each patient when stable. Results In stable COPD, the SD for HR, SpO2 and PEF were approximately 5 min-1, 1% and 10l min-1. There were detectable changes in all three variables just prior to exacerbation onset, greatest 2-3 days following symptom onset. A composite Oximetry Score (mean magnitude of SpO2 fall and HR rise distinguished exacerbation onset from symptom variation (area under receiver-operating characteristic curve, AUC = 0.832, 95%CI 0.735-0.929, p = 0.003. In the presence of symptoms, a change in Score of ≥1 (average of ≥1SD change in both HR and SpO2 was 71% sensitive and 74% specific for exacerbation onset. Conclusion We have defined normal variation of pulse oximetry variables in a small sample of patients with COPD. A composite HR and SpO2 score distinguished exacerbation onset from symptom variation, potentially facilitating prompt therapy and providing validation of such events in clinical trials.

  16. Domiciliary mental health care program in community settings: Is it is ...

    Domiciliary mental health care is defined as care and support of clients with acute ... to provide family education on mental health promotion and care in the home; ... clinicians or the senior psychiatric mental health nurses working at St. John ...

  17. Domiciliary therapy during inpatient rehabilitation treatment for patients with an acquired brain injury : A preliminary study

    Boonstra, AM; Spikman, JM; Wijbrandi, Wilma


    The objective was to assess the feasibility of additional domiciliary treatment for patients with an acquired brain injury while they are still inpatients at a rehabilitation centre. This cohort study included 22 patients with an acquired brain injury (mainly stroke) and with moderate to severe neur

  18. Domiciliary therapy during inpatient rehabilitation treatment for patients with an acquired brain injury : A preliminary study

    Boonstra, AM; Spikman, JM; Wijbrandi, Wilma

    The objective was to assess the feasibility of additional domiciliary treatment for patients with an acquired brain injury while they are still inpatients at a rehabilitation centre. This cohort study included 22 patients with an acquired brain injury (mainly stroke) and with moderate to severe

  19. Health economic analyses of domiciliary dental care and care at fixed clinics for elderly nursing home residents in Sweden.

    Lundqvist, M; Davidson, T; Ordell, S; Sjöström, O; Zimmerman, M; Sjögren, P


    Dental care for elderly nursing home residents is traditionally provided at fixed dental clinics, but domiciliary dental care is an emerging alternative. Longer life expectancy accompanied with increased morbidity, and hospitalisation or dependence on the care of others will contribute to a risk for rapid deterioration of oral health so alternative methods for delivering oral health care to vulnerable individuals for whom access to fixed dental clinics is an obstacle should be considered. The aim was to analyse health economic consequences of domiciliary dental care for elderly nursing home residents in Sweden, compared to dentistry at a fixed clinic. A review of relevant literature was undertaken complemented by interviews with nursing home staff, officials at county councils, and academic experts in geriatric dentistry. Domiciliary dental care and fixed clinic care were compared in cost analyses and cost-effectiveness analyses. The mean societal cost of domiciliary dental care for elderly nursing home residents was lower than dental care at a fixed clinic, and it was also considered cost-effective. Lower cost of dental care at a fixed dental clinic was only achieved in a scenario where dental care could not be completed in a domiciliary setting. Domiciliary dental care for elderly nursing home residents has a lower societal cost and is cost-effective compared to dental care at fixed clinics. To meet current and predicted need for oral health care in the ageing population alternative methods to deliver dental care should be available.

  20. Facilitators and barriers influencing the readiness to receive dental implants in a geriatric institutionalised population-A randomized non-invasive interventional study.

    Merz, Miriam A; Terheyden, Hendrik; Huber, Christian G; Seixas, Azizi A; Schoetzau, Andreas; Schneeberger, Andres R


    Although elderly people have many serious dental issues and are in need of prosthesis, few opt for dental implants. The aim of this study was to investigate barriers that prevent elderly people from receiving dental implants. Specifically, we examined (i) whether the message was delivered before or after the interview had an impact, and (ii) whether it did matter who delivered the message. Sixty-six residents from seven residential homes in the Canton of Grisons, Switzerland were included. The sample was randomized to a treatment group that received comprehensive education about dental implants before the interview and a control group that received education after completing the questionnaire. The sample consisted of 54 women (81.8%) and 12 males (18.2%) with an average age of 86.2 years. Education before the interview did not show any impact on the attitude towards dental implants. Main reasons for a negative attitude towards implants were old age and high costs. Participants who received information about implants from their relatives and their own dentist and not from the study dentist were significantly more willing to receive implants. Providing an adequate education about benefits and risks of receiving dental implants does not change the attitude towards dental implants. The source of information/messenger does influence attitudes towards implants. If the person delivering the education and information is a relative or a known medical person, the person's attitude is more likely to change as compared to people receiving the information from an unrelated person. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis

    Marchant, Axelle; Mougel, Florence; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Harry, Myriam


    Background In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (re)colonize houses—a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes. Methodology/Principal Finding In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 3 odorant receptors (ORs), 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs), 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs), 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary) and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE) contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system. Conclusion/Significance Chemosensory genes could be good

  2. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis.

    Axelle Marchant


    Full Text Available In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (recolonize houses-a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes.In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs, 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 3 odorant receptors (ORs, 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs, 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system.Chemosensory genes could be good candidates for genes that contribute to adaptation or

  3. Genital trauma during a complicated domiciliary childbirth assisted by a non-expert midwife

    Ada Arleny Pérez Mayo


    Full Text Available The study presents the case of a 20-year-old puerpera seen at San Pedro Necta National Hospital of the Department of Huehuetenango, Guatemala, due to a persisting vaginal bleeding and genital tear. The clinical picture was determined as a genital trauma by domiciliary childbirth assisted by a midwife. As there was no abdominal echography and there were signs of hypovolemia, a gynecological checkup was performed at the operating room, having circulatory support with intravenous crystalloid solutions. A careful preoperative preparation was carried out which included local antisepsis with tincture of iodine and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the administration of ceftriaxone as a prophylactic antibiotic for the infection. The surgical intervention consisted in repairing the cervical tears, as well as the traumatic lesions caused by an inadequate manipulation of the external genitals, with absorbable suture material. No complications were reported and the patient progressed satisfactorily, with a 5-day hospital stay.

  4. Domiciliary cockroaches found in restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, peninsular Malaysia.

    Jeffery, J; Sulaiman, S; Oothuman, P; Vellayan, S; Zainol-Ariffin, P; Paramaswaran, S; Razak, A; Muslimin, M; Kamil-Ali, O B; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M


    The following domiciliary cockroaches were collected from restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Malaysia using 1L glass beaker traps baited with ground mouse-pellets: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (n = 820), Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister (n = 46), Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (n = 12504), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (n = 321), Symploce pallens Stephens (n = 29) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) (n = 5). The following bacteria were isolated from 10 cockroach specimens: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. rhinoscleromatis and Serratia liquefaciens from 5 B. germanica; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Citrobacter diversus/amalonaticus, Escherichia vulneris and K.p. pneumoniae from 3 P. brunnea; and Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans 4, Escherichia adecarboxylate, E. vulneris, K. p. pneumonia, K. p. rhinoscleromatis and Proteus vulgeris from 2 P. americana.

  5. Morgagni hernia with respiratory failure aggravated by noninvasive positive pressure ventilation: a case report and overview of the literature.

    Tone, Kazuya; Kiryu, Ikumi; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tsuboi, Kazuto; Takagi, Masamichi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi


    An elderly woman diagnosed with multiple myeloma (MM) in 2007 had improved with chemotherapy. She had severe kyphosis and a diaphragmatic hernia (DH), but no respiratory symptoms. In 2011, because of thoracic deformity and emaciation, we advised her to continue the previously prescribed domiciliary noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) therapy for chronic type II respiratory failure. However, she refused to continue NPPV. She was later admitted for deterioration in respiratory status and carbon dioxide (CO2) narcosis. We believed her low adherence to domiciliary NPPV caused CO2 narcosis; hence, we advised her to continue domiciliary NPPV and she complied. In May 2012, the now 79-year-old patient was admitted for acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure and CO2 narcosis. Chest imaging suggested that DH had caused a deterioration of her status. She underwent laparoscopic diaphragmatic hernia repair. Operative findings revealed a retrosternal hernia sac, and she was diagnosed as having a Morgagni hernia (MH). Her respiratory status subsequently improved. We hypothesize that NPPV increased intra-abdominal pressure, thereby worsening the MH and exacerbating respiratory failure. We believe that clinicians should be cautious when prescribing NPPV for MH patients.

  6. Residential age care and domiciliary oral health services: Reach-OHT-The development of a metropolitan oral health programme in Sydney, Australia.

    Wright, F A Clive; Law, Garry; Chu, Steven K-Y; Cullen, John S; Le Couteur, David G


    To describe an oral health care programme for older people in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) to improve access to care and support facilities. Different models of residential care have been proposed, but few have been comprehensive (providing on-site health promotion and service delivery) or sustainable. A partnership model of oral health care, with dental services plus oral health education, was integrated into the community outreach services of a metropolitan hospital department of aged care. The programme provided annual oral health education and training to staff, and on-site dental care to 10 (RACFs). None of the RACFs had received organised education or on-site dental service care prior to the programme. At the completion of the third year of the programme, 607 residents (75% of the total bed capacity for the 10 RACFs) had received an annual oral health assessment, and 271 (46.5%) had received on-site dental care. More than 120 nursing and allied health staff had received education and training in oral health support to residents. Oral cleanliness, the proportion not experiencing dental pain and referral for additional care decreased significantly over the period, but dental caries experience and periodontal conditions remained a concern. Sustainable domiciliary oral health services and oral health education are feasible and practical using a partnership model within the Australian health system. Adaptability, continuity and the use of oral health therapists/dental hygienists in the coordination and management of the programme further contribute to viability. © 2017 The Authors. Gerodontology published by The Gerodontology Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Domiciliary Support Service in Portugal and the change of paradigm in care provision

    Silvina Santana


    Full Text Available Context of case: In Portugal, the integration of care services is still in its infancy. Nevertheless, a home support service called SAD (Serviço de Apoio Domiciliário—Domiciliary Support Service, provided by non-profit institutions to the elderly population is believed to be a first approach to integrated care. Purpose: The aim of this work is to describe and discuss the services provided by the institutions that participate in SAD and understand if this service is the first step in a change towards integrated care. Data sources: The main data sources were documents provided by institutions like INE (Instituto Nacional de Estatística—National Institute of Statistics and a questionnaire that was submitted to 75 institutions in order to capture: (a demographic and structural data; (b the type of information that the professionals need to fulfil their jobs and (c the kind of relationship and constraints, if they exist, to better integration, between the institutions that provide SAD and the patients, the social and health systems, and other entities. Conclusion and discussion: SAD seems to have been promoting a formal collaboration between several entities in the social and health systems. The information shared between these institutions has increased, but where cooperation in care service provision is concerned this seldom surpasses the social bounds because health care is still difficult to integrate.

  8. Gerontologic domiciliary attendance: contributions for the elderly health care in the community - doi:10.5020/18061230.2008.p61

    Iracema Radael de Souza


    Full Text Available Objective: To present the contributions of the Domiciliary Attendance (DA for elderly care in the community. Data Synthesis: Following the proposals of Gerontology, the contributions of this type of attendance for elderly care were reached for as a directive question, and therein, delimiting the guiding principles of DA: the humanization, the interdisciplinarity and caregiver support, as fundamental for the continuity and success of this modality. The data search consisted of a research of primary data published in the periods of: 1988, 1994 and 1996-2007. Pointing out that the theme is in accordance to Health Politics proclaimed nowadays in Brazil; DA appears as a new attendance strategy contributing for the reorientation of the assistance models for the aged and, at the same time, humanizing elderly care. Conclusion: It was observed from the obtained data that domiciliary attendance significantly contributes for elderly care in the community, representing an advantageous strategy. One can say that such advantage occurs from the possibility of besides humanizing the attendance, also reducing the costs of the attention by means of precocious discharge, showing that DA with Gerontologic focusing is differenced, providing a more adequate treatment for the patient, his/her caregiver and the family.

  9. Detección de triatominos (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en ambientes domésticos y extradomésticos. Corrientes, Argentina Detection of triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in domiciliary and extra-domiciliary ecotopes. Corrientes, Argentina

    Miryam Pieri Damborsky


    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo identificar los triatominos que predominan en ambientes domésticos y extradomésticos de diferentes departamentos de la Provincia de Corrientes mediante muestreos llevados a cabo desde 1985 hasta 1995. En los ecótopos domiciliarios se detectaron Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834, Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859, Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811 y Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835. T. infestans y T. sordida se hallaron también en ambientes peridomésticos. Triatoma platensis (Neiva, 1913, Psammolestes coreodes (Bergroth, 1911, T. sordida y Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 se colectaron en biótopos silvestres. En los domicilios, se confirmó el predominio de T. infestans. Esta especie fue la única parasitada por tripanosomas cruziformes. Si bien T. sordida fue más frecuente en los ecótopos extradomésticos, se demostró su tendencia a colonizar los ambientes domésticos.In order to identify intra- and extra-domiciliary triatomines, a study in different counties of Corrientes Province, Argentina, was conducted from 1985 to 1995. Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834, Triatoma sordida (Stål, 1859, Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811, and Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835 were detected in domestic ecotopes. T. infestans and T. sordida were also found in the peridomicile. Triatoma platensis (Neiva, 1913, Psammolestes coreodes (Bergroth, 1911, T. sordida, and Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 were collected in sylvatic biotopes. T. infestans was confirmed as the predominant species in the domestic environment and was the only species infected with Trypanosoma cruzi-like parasites. T. sordida was most frequent in extra-domiciliary ecotopes, but could be considered capable of colonizing human dwellings.

  10. Geographical distribution and intra-domiciliary capture of sylvatic triatomines in La Convención province, Cusco, Peru.

    Torres V, Dina Beatriz; Cabrera, Rufino


    The geographical distribution and intra-domiciliary capture of sylvatic triatomines in three districts of the province of La Convención, Cusco, Peru are presented. In the district of Vilcabamba, eight adults of Rhodnius pictipes and five adults of Panstrongylus geniculatus were found. In the district of Ocobamba, 19 adults, 14 nymphs, and eggs of P. rufotuberculatus were found. In the district of Echarate, six adults and 10 nymphs of Eratyrus mucronatus, an adult of R. pictipes and P. geniculatus, and a nymph of P. rufotuberculatus were also found. The geographical distribution of E. mucronatus has extended to Cusco. This is the first report in Peru of household colonization by this triatomine.

  11. Relativistic Quantum Noninvasive Measurements

    Bednorz, Adam


    Quantum weak, noninvasive measurements are defined in the framework of relativity. Invariance with respect to reference frame transformations of the results in different models is discussed. Surprisingly, the bare results of noninvasive measurements are invariant for certain class of models, but not the detection error. Consequently, any stationary quantum realism based on noninvasive measurements will break, at least spontaneously, relativistic invariance and correspondence principle at zero temperature.

  12. The effect of long term domiciliary oxygen therapy on the quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases%长期家庭氧疗对慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者生存质量的影响

    邓星奇; 王树云; 罗艳蓉; 莫和凤; 秦兴国; 方宗君; 金静; 蔡映云


    Objective To observe the effects of long term domiciliary oxygen therapy (LTOT)on the quality of life in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) with hypoxaemia. Methods Thirty two hypoxaemic patients with stable COPD were divided into two groups randomly (LTOT group and control group ). The quality of life (QOL) score were evaluated in both groups. The both groups were received regular treatment and LTOT group was received oxygen therapy with the flow of 0.5~ 2.5 L/min for 15 h or more every day in one year, the quality of life score were evaluated after one year again. Results In LTOT group the total mean score of QOL, social activity score , depression score and anxiety score and general activity score were significantly improved (P0.05) . Conclusions LTOT could improve quality of life in stable COPD with hypoxaemia.

  13. Monitoring the domiciliary and peridomiciliary invasion process of Triatoma rubrovaria in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Almeida Carlos Eduardo


    Full Text Available The presence of Triatoma rubrovaria in Brazil has only been confirmed in the States of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul (RS, where it is found naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. In the wild environment it occurs in rocky habitats and has an eclectic diet, feeding from cockroaches, reptiles and mammals. Data from the Chagas Disease Control Program obtained by the Fundação Nacional de Saúde, between 1975 and 1997, indicate a growing domiciliary and peridomiciliary invasion of T. rubrovaria in RS, where it has become the most frequently Triatominae species captured in this state since the control of Triatoma infestans. In order to monitor this process, we analyzed collection data derived from 22 years of control campaigns against T. infestans. Collection data for triatomines from domestic habitats show an inverse relationship, with high numbers of T. infestans and low numbers of T. rubrovaria during 1976-1987, compared to the following ten years, 1986-1997, when the number of T. infestans dropped drastically and that of T. rubrovaria increased. There are no consistent indications of intradomiciliary colonization by T. rubrovaria, since only low numbers of nymphs have been captured in the intradomiciliary ecotopes. Nevertheless, this species appears to have preadaptive characteristics for anthropic ecotopes, and should be kept under constant epidemiological surveillance.

  14. Evaluation of the acarofauna of the domiciliary ecosystem in Juiz de Fora, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Ezequiel Oscarina da Silva


    Full Text Available From August 1999 to January 2000, samples of house dust were collected from 160 domiciles in the city of Juiz de Fora, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In 36 of these domiciles kitchen samples were obtained. Prevalence rate was 77.5%, varying according to the geographical sector. There were found 2,278 specimens of mites, with 1,530 (67.2% in the adult stage and 748 (32.8% in immature forms. The main species found were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Euroglyphus maynei, Blomia tropicalis and Tyrophagus putrescentiae. In a minor incidence we found Lepidoglyphus destructor, Suidasia pontificiae, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Cheyletus malaccensis, C. fortis, Ker bakeri, Cheletonella vespertilionis, C. caucasica and others. C. vespertilionis and C. caucasica were identified for the first time in the domiciliary ecosystem and in Brazil. The abundance rate and the infestation intensity were analyzed. There was a varied correlation between climatic conditions and positive domiciles and number of mites. The difference between the number of positive domiciles in the urban area and in the expanding urban area was significant and so was the difference between samples from the domiciles compared to those from the kitchens.

  15. Contribuição da educação popular no atendimento fisioterapêutico domiciliar Contribution of popular education in domiciliary physiotherapeutic attendance

    Cristina Katya Dantas Torres


    Full Text Available O projeto de extensão Fisioterapia na Comunidade é desenvolvido no Bairro do Grotão, vinculado às unidades de saúde da família, em João Pessoa. Procura-se neste trabalho valorizar os saberes e práticas populares. A assistência fisioterapêutica domiciliar à luz da educação popular, ao mesmo tempo em que promove uma assistência à população desassistida, amplia nossa visão de saúde como processo educativo. A cada visita domiciliar, nos confrontamos com a realidade social das camadas populares e os problemas que estas pessoas enfrentam, repercutindo no seu estado de saúde, evidenciando para nós os condicionantes socioeconômicos do processo saúde-doença. Observa-se que, ao realizar atendimentos domiciliares com base nos princípios da educação popular, amplia-se a perspectiva de atuação do fisioterapeuta. Isso se deve ao fato de ser esta uma educação baseada no diálogo, que propõe a troca entre os saberes científico e popular, motivando a perspectiva de um compromisso à saúde junto à comunidade.The extension project of Physiotherapy in the Community is developed in the neighborhood of Grotão linked to the family health units, in the city of João Pessoa. The aim of this work is to value popular knowledge and practices. The domiciliary physiotherapeutical assistance to the light of the popular education, at the same time that it promotes assistance to the unassisted population, extends our vision of health as an educational process. In each domiciliary visit we observed the social reality of the popular layers and the problems these people face, reflecting in its state of health, being evident for us the partner-economic conditionants of the process health-illness. This is observed that when carrying out domiciliary consultation on the basis of the principles of the popular education, it extents the perspective of the performance of the physiotherapist. This is so, because it is an education based on the dialogue

  16. Noninvasive genomic detection of melanoma.

    Wachsman, W; Morhenn, V; Palmer, T; Walls, L; Hata, T; Zalla, J; Scheinberg, R; Sofen, H; Mraz, S; Gross, K; Rabinovitz, H; Polsky, D; Chang, S


    Early detection and treatment of melanoma is important for optimal clinical outcome, leading to biopsy of pigmented lesions deemed suspicious for the disease. The vast majority of such lesions are benign. Thus, a more objective and accurate means for detection of melanoma is needed to identify lesions for excision. To provide proof-of-principle that epidermal genetic information retrieval (EGIR™; DermTech International, La Jolla, CA, U.S.A.), a method that noninvasively samples cells from stratum corneum by means of adhesive tape stripping, can be used to discern melanomas from naevi. Skin overlying pigmented lesions clinically suspicious for melanoma was harvested using EGIR. RNA isolated from the tapes was amplified and gene expression profiled. All lesions were removed for histopathological evaluation. Supervised analysis of the microarray data identified 312 genes differentially expressed between melanomas, naevi and normal skin specimens (Pclassifier that discriminates these skin lesions. Upon testing with an independent dataset, this classifier discerned in situ and invasive melanomas from naevi with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity, with an area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic of 0·955. These results demonstrate that EGIR-harvested specimens can be used to detect melanoma accurately by means of a 17-gene genomic biomarker. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  17. Predictors of noninvasive ventilation failure in patients with hematologic malignancy and acute respiratory failure.

    Adda, Mélanie; Coquet, Isaline; Darmon, Michaël; Thiery, Guillaume; Schlemmer, Benoît; Azoulay, Elie


    The current trend to manage critically ill hematologic patients admitted with acute respiratory failure is to perform noninvasive ventilation to avoid endotracheal intubation. However, failure of noninvasive ventilation may lead to an increased mortality. Retrospective study to determine the frequency of noninvasive ventilation failure and identify its determinants. Medical intensive care unit in a University hospital. All consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies admitted to the intensive care unit over a 10-yr period who received noninvasive ventilation. A total of 99 patients were studied. Simplified Acute Physiology Score II at admission was 49 (median, interquartile range, 39-57). Fifty-three patients (54%) failed noninvasive ventilation and required endotracheal intubation. Their PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly lower (175 [101-236] vs. 248 [134-337]) and their respiratory rate under noninvasive ventilation was significantly higher (32 breaths/min [30-36] vs. 28 [27-30]). Forty-seven patients (89%) who failed noninvasive ventilation required vasopressors. Hospital mortality was 79% in those who failed noninvasive ventilation, and 41% in those who succeeded. Patients who failed noninvasive ventilation had a significantly longer intensive care unit stay (13 days [8-23] vs. 5 [2-8]) and a significantly higher rate of intensive care unit-acquired infections (32% compared with 7%). Factors independently associated with noninvasive ventilation failure by multivariate analysis were respiratory rate under noninvasive ventilation, longer delay between admission and noninvasive ventilation first use, need for vasopressors or renal replacement therapy, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Failure of noninvasive ventilation occurs in half the critically ill hematologic patients and is associated with an increased mortality. Predictors of noninvasive ventilation failure might be used to guide decisions regarding intubation.

  18. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of mites (Acari in domiciliary dust in rural dwellings in the "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Oliveira Aristeu José de


    Full Text Available From July to September, 2000 (winter, and from January to March, 2001 (summer, 30 dust samples were collected for each season, from beds of rural dwellings located in farms in the geographical area named "Zona da Mata", Minas Gerais, Brazil. After being sorted, the mites were identified and quantified. The prevalence of mites in the samples was 100%. 891 mites were found in winter (22.97%, and 2988 in summer (77.03%. In winter, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897 was the most prevalent (55.00%, followed by Blomia tropicalis (Bronswijk, Cock & Oshima, 1973 (27.06%, Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman, 1950 (8.85%, and predator mites from Cheyletidae family (8.07%. In summer, the most prevalent species was B. tropicalis (47.79%, followed by D. pteronyssinus (43.38%, Cheyletidae (6.87%, and E. maynei (1.28%. Few Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961, Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau, 1879, and mites from Tarsonemidae and Cunaxidae families were found, the last two occurring only in summer. No mites from Acaridae family were found. The greatest number of immature forms found in summer suggested a greater breeding activity in this season. It was also noted that different building materials and varied cleaning routines may influence the population size of domiciliary dust mites.

  19. An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis

    Mnyone Ladslaus L


    Full Text Available Abstract Fungal biopesticides have the potential to significantly reduce densities of malaria vectors as well as associated malaria transmission. In previous field trials, entomopathogenic fungus was delivered from within human dwellings, where its efficacy was limited by low infection rates of target mosquitoes, high costs of spraying fungus inside houses, and potential public health concerns associated with introducing fungal conidia inside houses. Here we have demonstrated that Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46, delivered within an extra-domiciliary odor-baited station (OBS, can infect and slowly-kill a high proportion of the wild adult malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis which entered and exited the OBS. This study, carried out in rural Tanzania, showed that by using a concentration of 3.9 × 1010 conidia/m2, more than 95% of mosquitoes that flew in and out of the OBS died within 14 days post-exposure. At least 86% infection of mosquito cadavers was recorded with a significant reduction in the probability of daily survival of exposed An. arabiensis in both treatments tested: low quantity of conidia (eave baffles plus one cotton panel; HR = 2.65, P P

  20. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter


    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery.

  1. Home Non-Invasive Ventilation Fails to Improve Quality of Life in the Elderly: Results from a Multicenter Cohort Study.

    Adrien Tissot

    Full Text Available Home non-invasive ventilation (NIV is a widely used treatment for chronic hypoventilation but little is known on its impact in the elderly. In a multicenter prospective cohort study, we studied tolerance and efficacy of domiciliary NIV in patients aged 75 or more compared to younger ones.264 patients with at least a six-month follow-up were analyzed. Among them, 82 were elderly. In the elderly and the younger, we found an improvement of arterial blood gas, the Epworth sleepiness scale and the Pittsburgh sleep quality index at 6 months. Mean daily use of NIV at 6 months was 7 hours and the rate of non-adherent patients was similar in both group. Health-related quality of life (HRQL assessed by SF-36 questionnaires did not change significantly after NIV initiation in the elderly whereas HRQL improved in the less than 75. On univariate analysis, we found that diabetes was a predictive factor for non-adherence in the elderly (Odds ratio: 3.95% confidence interval: 1.06-8.52.NIV was efficient in the elderly while evaluation at 6 months showed a good adherence but failed to improve HRQL.

  2. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    Poisel, Richard A


    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  3. Noninvasive neuromodulation in cluster headache

    Láinez, Miguel J A; Jensen, Rigmor


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromodulation is an alternative in the management of medically intractable cluster headache patients. Most of the techniques are invasive, but in the last 2 years, some studies using a noninvasive device have been presented. The objective of this article is to review the data...... need to replicate these results with further controlled studies and conduct basic research in order to clarify the mechanism of action....

  4. Seasonal and nocturnal domiciliary human landing/biting behaviour of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis (Diptera; Psychodidae) in a periurban area of a city on the Caribbean coast of eastern Venezuela (Barcelona; Anzoátegui State).

    González, R; De Sousa, L; Devera, R; Jorquera, A; Ledezma, E


    In recent years, in addition to American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), a significant number of cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) have been reported in periurban areas of Barcelona city (Anzoátegui State, Venezuela). We studied the bionomics of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) evansi and Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) panamensis, possible vectors of AVL and ACL, respectively, in El Rincón, a periurban village of that city. To evaluate the seasonal domiciliary landing/biting activity of sandflies on human bait, a house was chosen in El Rincón. Landing catches were carried out between 18:00 and 06:00, once a month for a year. The results show the presence of 2 species, Lu. (Lu.) evansi (89.9%) and Lu. (Psy.) panamensis (10.1%). Lu. evansi was most abundant in the months of October and July, associated with the bimodal cycle of annual rainfall in the area. Maximum landing/biting activity of Lu. evansi was observed at 24:00 and 03:00. These findings suggest that at this time of the year and at these hours there is heightened risk of the transmission of AVL. Lu. panamensis monthly abundance also shows a direct association with rainfall and maximum landing/biting activity was observed between 02:00 and 03:00. The lower domiciliary abundance of Lu. panamensis suggests its greater importance in the extradomiciliary transmission of ACL.

  5. Domiciliary VR-Based Therapy for Functional Recovery and Cortical Reorganization: Randomized Controlled Trial in Participants at the Chronic Stage Post Stroke.

    Ballester, Belén Rubio; Nirme, Jens; Camacho, Irene; Duarte, Esther; Rodríguez, Susana; Cuxart, Ampar; Duff, Armin; Verschure, Paul F M J


    Most stroke survivors continue to experience motor impairments even after hospital discharge. Virtual reality-based techniques have shown potential for rehabilitative training of these motor impairments. Here we assess the impact of at-home VR-based motor training on functional motor recovery, corticospinal excitability and cortical reorganization. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of home-based VR-based motor rehabilitation on (1) cortical reorganization, (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) functional recovery after stroke in comparison to home-based occupational therapy. We conducted a parallel-group, controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of domiciliary VR-based therapy with occupational therapy in inducing motor recovery of the upper extremities. A total of 35 participants with chronic stroke underwent 3 weeks of home-based treatment. A group of subjects was trained using a VR-based system for motor rehabilitation, while the control group followed a conventional therapy. Motor function was evaluated at baseline, after the intervention, and at 12-weeks follow-up. In a subgroup of subjects, we used Navigated Brain Stimulation (NBS) procedures to measure the effect of the interventions on corticospinal excitability and cortical reorganization. Results from the system's recordings and clinical evaluation showed significantly greater functional recovery for the experimental group when compared with the control group (1.53, SD 2.4 in Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory). However, functional improvements did not reach clinical significance. After the therapy, physiological measures obtained from a subgroup of subjects revealed an increased corticospinal excitability for distal muscles driven by the pathological hemisphere, that is, abductor pollicis brevis. We also observed a displacement of the centroid of the cortical map for each tested muscle in the damaged hemisphere, which strongly correlated with improvements in clinical scales. These

  6. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas


    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  7. Non-invasive light observer

    Morichetti, Francesco; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco; Strain, Michael; Sorel, Marc; Melloni, Andrea


    Photonic technologies lack non-invasive monitoring tools to inspect the light inside optical waveguides. This is one of the main barriers to large scale of integration, even though photonic platforms are potentially ready to host several thousands of elements on a single chip. Here, we demonstrate non-invasive light observation in silicon photonics devices by exploiting photon interaction with intra-gap energy states localized at the waveguide surface. Light intensity is measured through a ContactLess Integrated Photonic Probe (CLIPP) that introduces no measurable extra-photon absorption and a phase perturbation as low as 0.2 mrad, comparable to thermal fluctuations of less than 3 mK. Multipoint light monitoring is demonstrated with a sensitivity of -30 dBm and a dynamic range of 40 dB. CLIPP technology is simple, inherently CMOS compatible, and scalable to hundreds of probing points per chip. This concept provides a viable way to real-time conditioning and feedback control of densely-integrated photonic syst...

  8. Measuring elevated intracranial pressure through noninvasive methods

    Kristiansson, Helena; Nissborg, Emelie; Bartek, Jiri;


    . This article is a review of the current literature on noninvasive methods for measuring and evaluating elevated ICP. The main focus is on studies that compare noninvasively measured ICP with invasively measured ICP. The aim is to provide an overview of the current state of the most common noninvasive...... is associated with certain risks. Intraparenchymal ICP monitoring methods are considered to be a safer alternative but can, in certain conditions, be imprecise due to zero drift and still require an invasive procedure. An accurate noninvasive method to measure elevated ICP would therefore be desirable...

  9. The market for domiciliary care

    Remco van Eijkel; Ab van der Torre; Mark Kattenberg; Evelien Eggink


    Original title: De markt voor huishoudelijke hulp. Since 2007, the market for domestic help has been decentralised to the municipalities. Since then, every municipality can decide how it contracts out this help. The Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and Netherlands Institute

  10. Non-invasive beamforming add-on module

    Bader, Ahmed


    An embodiment of a non-invasive beamforming add-on apparatus couples to an existing antenna port and rectifies the beam azimuth in the upstream and downstream directions. The apparatus comprises input circuitry that is configured to receive one or more signals from a neighboring node of the linear wireless sensor network; first amplifier circuitry configured to adjust an amplitude of a respective received signal in accordance with a weighting coefficient and invoke a desired phase to a carrier frequency of the received signal thereby forming a first amplified signal; and second amplifier circuitry configured to adjust a gain of the first amplified signal towards upstream and downstream neighbors of the linear wireless sensor in the linear wireless sensor network.

  11. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    Schneider, Kerstin


    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  12. Humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation: 2012.

    Restrepo, Ruben D; Walsh, Brian K


    We searched the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published between January 1990 and December 2011. The update of this clinical practice guideline is based on 184 clinical trials and systematic reviews, and 10 articles investigating humidification during invasive and noninvasive mechanical ventilation. The following recommendations are made following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system: 1. Humidification is recommended on every patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. 2. Active humidification is suggested for noninvasive mechanical ventilation, as it may improve adherence and comfort. 3. When providing active humidification to patients who are invasively ventilated, it is suggested that the device provide a humidity level between 33 mg H(2)O/L and 44 mg H(2)O/L and gas temperature between 34°C and 41°C at the circuit Y-piece, with a relative humidity of 100%. 4. When providing passive humidification to patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation, it is suggested that the HME provide a minimum of 30 mg H(2)O/L. 5. Passive humidification is not recommended for noninvasive mechanical ventilation. 6. When providing humidification to patients with low tidal volumes, such as when lung-protective ventilation strategies are used, HMEs are not recommended because they contribute additional dead space, which can increase the ventilation requirement and P(aCO(2)). 7. It is suggested that HMEs are not used as a prevention strategy for ventilator-associated pneumonia.

  13. Noninvasive assessment of cytokines in occupational respiratory diseases.

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Yucesoy, Berran; Elci, Omur Cinar; Weissman, David N


    A major goal in studying occupational respiratory diseases is to show relationships between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Due to the nature of these diseases, accurate, practical, and objective measurement techniques are needed in field investigations. Pulmonary function tests, such as spirometry, are important objective health outcome measures. However, they reflect the functional changes of the lung, often in relatively late stages, which may be irreversible. Direct monitoring of airways inflammations, in response to occupational exposures, are receiving an increasing attention since they may pick up inflammatory changes before the injury becomes irreversible. Invasive approaches such as bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial biopsies have been used to assess airways inflammation: but these methods are not practical for use in occupational field investigations. Thus, much work has focused on the development of noninvasive methods for monitoring inflammation in occupational respiratory diseases. The three recent most commonly used noninvasive techniques in occupational respiratory diseases investigations are induced sputum, exhaled breath condensate, and nasal lavage. In this review, we discuss the practical application of these techniques, patents and cytokines measured with them. Since variation of cytokine genes contribute to the inflammatory processes, we briefly discuss the genetic polymorphisms on the expression of occupational respiratory diseases. Details of genetic polymorphism were beyond the focus of this review. Our primary focus was cytokines measured with these three noninvasive techniques in occupational respiratory investigations.

  14. Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

    Nickmilder Marc


    Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.

  15. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan


    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  16. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  17. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in unplanned extubation

    Eryuksel Emel


    Full Text Available Background:Unplanned extubation is quite common in intensive care unit (ICU patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV in patients with unplanned extubation. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 patients (12 male, age: 57 ± 24 years, APACHE II score: 19 ± 7 monitored at the medical ICU during the year 2004 who developed unplanned extubation were included in the study. NPPV was tried in all of them following unplanned extubation. Indications for admission to the ICU were as follows: nine patients with pneumonia, three with status epilepticus, one with gastrointestinal bleeding, one with cardiogenic pulmonary edema and one with diffuse alveolar bleeding. Results:Eleven of the patients (74% were at the weaning period at the time of unplanned extubation. Among these 11 patients, NPPV was successful in 10 (91% and only one (9% was reintubated due to the failure of NPPV. The remaining four patients (26% had pneumonia and none of them were at the weaning period at the time of extubation, but their requirement for mechanical ventilation was gradually decreasing. Unfortunately, an NPPV attempt for 6-8 h failed and these patients were reintubated. Conclusions:Patients with unplanned extubation before the weaning criteria are met should be intubated immediately. On the other hand, when extubation develops during the weaning period, NPPV may be an alternative. The present study was conducted with a small number of patients, and larger studies on the effectiveness of NPPV in unplanned extubation are warranted for firm conclusions.

  18. Noninvasive ventilation in hypoxemic respiratory failure

    Raja Dhar


    Full Text Available Noninvasive ventilation (NIV refers to positive pressure ventilation delivered through a noninvasive interface (nasal mask, facemask, or nasal plugs etc. Over the past decade its use has become more common as its benefits are increasingly recognized. This review will focus on the evidence supporting the use of NIV in various conditions resulting in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF, that is, non-hypercapnic patients having acute respiratory failure in the absence of a cardiac origin or underlying chronic pulmonary disease. Outcomes depend on the patient's diagnosis and clinical characteristics. Patients should be monitored closely for signs of noninvasive ventilation failure and promptly intubated before a crisis develops. The application of noninvasive ventilation by a trained and experienced team, with careful patient selection, should optimize patient outcomes.

  19. Noninvasive intratympanic dexamethasone treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Zhang, Qiuying; Song, Haitao; Peng, Hao; Yang, Xuemei; Zhou, Junmei; Huang, Weining


    Noninvasive intratympanic dexamethasone perfusion (IDP) through the eustachian tube is an effective and safe therapy in cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). To investigate the effectiveness and safety of noninvasive IDP through the eustachian tube in patients with SSNHL. In this prospective study, 74 consecutive patients with SSNHL treated between September 2007 and March 2011 were enrolled: 35 patients fitted the criteria for initial treatment in the study (group I), while 39 patients, who had failed systemic therapy, received salvage treatment (group S). IDP through the eustachian tube was applied four times at 2-day intervals. Pure-tone test and tympanometry were performed before starting treatment, and 24 h and 1 week afterwards. All patients tolerated the procedure well. No perforation or infection was noticed in any of the patients at their last visit. With regard to the 74 patients who received intratympanic treatment, 80.0% (28 of 35) of the patients in group I and 64.1% (25 of 39) patients in group S had improvement in their hearing ability. Patients with simultaneous symptoms reported that the symptoms were relieved as follows: tinnitus, 73.3% (44/60); vertigo, 76.2% (16/21); and stuffy ear, 81.1% (30/37).

  20. Role of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma


    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0002 Role of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma Betty J. Tsuei, MD; Dennis J. Hanseman, PhD...W. Gerlach, USAF, MC U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Center for the Sustainment of Trauma and Readiness Skills March 2015...August 2012 – August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Monitoring in Trauma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-12-2-6B14 5b

  1. Non-invasive ventilation for cystic fibrosis.

    Moran, Fidelma; Bradley, Judy M; Piper, Amanda J


    Non-invasive ventilation may be a means to temporarily reverse or slow the progression of respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis by providing ventilatory support and avoiding tracheal intubation. Using non-invasive ventilation, in the appropriate situation or individuals, can improve lung mechanics through increasing airflow and gas exchange and decreasing the work of breathing. Non-invasive ventilation thus acts as an external respiratory muscle. This is an update of a previously published review. To compare the effect of non-invasive ventilation versus no non-invasive ventilation in people with cystic fibrosis for airway clearance, during sleep and during exercise. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We searched the reference lists of each trial for additional publications possibly containing other trials.Most recent search: 08 August 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing a form of pressure preset or volume preset non-invasive ventilation to no non-invasive ventilation used for airway clearance or during sleep or exercise in people with acute or chronic respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis. Three reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion criteria and methodological quality, and extracted data. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria with a total of 191 participants. Seven trials evaluated single treatment sessions, one evaluated a two-week intervention, one evaluated a six-week intervention and one a three-month intervention. It is only possible to blind trials of airway clearance and overnight ventilatory support to the outcome assessors. In most of the trials we judged there was an unclear risk of bias with regards to blinding due to inadequate descriptions. The six-week trial was the only one judged to have a low risk of bias for all

  2. Oxigenoterapia domiciliaria a largo plazo, necesidad apremiante en enfermos con insuficiencia respiratoria crónica LONG-TERM DOMICILIARY OXYGEN THERAPY, A COMPELLING NEED IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS



    Full Text Available RESUMEN La EPOC y la insuficiencia respiratoria crónica constituyen un importante problema de salud pública. Está demostrado que la oxigenoterapia domiciliaria a largo plazo mejora la sobrevida y calidad de vida de estos pacientes. Por ello el Instituto Nacional del Tórax organizó en 1984 el Programa de Oxigenoterapia Domiciliaria, con el trabajo de un equipo de profesionales y con una estructura operacionalmente eficiente. Hasta Diciembre 2001 han ingresado al programa 560 pacientes, actualmente 112 de ellos están en el programa. El 67,9% tiene el diagnóstico de EPOC y el 72% presenta insuficiencia respiratoria global. En una cohorte de 118 pacientes estudiados a su ingreso y 1 año después no encontramos diferencias en la gasometría arterial ni en la espirometría. Sí se observó una disminución del número de hospitalizaciones y días cama utilizadas por los pacientes. La calidad de vida evaluada en los primeros 50 pacientes demostró disminución de síntomas angustiosos y depresivos, como también de los elementos de deterioro psico-orgánico. El mayor problema del programa es la lista de espera por la alta demanda de la terapia y los limitados recursos financieros. La oxigenoterapia domiciliaria es un tratamiento efectivo que mejora tanto la sobrevida como la calidad de vida de los enfermos. Es un servicio absolutamente necesario para los pacientes respiratorios crónicos y por la magnitud del problema requeriría de un Programa Nacional de Oxigeno-terapia DomiciliariaChronic respiratory insufficiency and COPD patients are important public health problems. It has been shown that long-term oxygentherapy improve both survival and quality of life in these patients. On these basis, our institution (Instituto Nacional del Tórax organized by 1984 a domiciliary oxygentherapy program. The work of a professional team and an operatively efficient structure supported the program. From 1984 to december 2001, 560 patients had been admitted

  3. A novel noninvasive blood glucose monitor.

    Malchoff, Carl D; Shoukri, Kamal; Landau, Julian I; Buchert, Janusz M


    To evaluate the precision and accuracy of a new advanced prototype of a noninvasive blood glucose monitor across a wide range of serum glucose concentrations. An advanced handheld noninvasive glucose monitor prototype was calibrated and tested using patients recruited by the General Research Center of the University of Connecticut Health Center. The monitor, developed by Infratec, uses principles of thermal emission spectroscopy. The noninvasive measurement of tympanic membrane glucose concentration was calibrated to the serum glucose concentration using 432 paired measurements from 20 subjects with insulin-requiring diabetes. This calibration was subsequently tested (results of power analyses) in a blind fashion with 126 paired measurements from six diabetic subjects who require insulin. In vivo measurements demonstrated the reproducibility of the methodology of the noninvasive glucose monitor. Based on the calibration model, predicted glucose concentrations for six subjects were as follows (for 126 data points): SD = 32 mg/dl, mean absolute relative error (%MARE) = 11.6, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.87. Noninvasive glucose results were also compared with laboratory reference measurements using an error-in-variables method. Clark error grid analysis showed that 100% of the measurements fell within zones A and B (90% in zone A and 10% in zone B). The SD for all noninvasive measured concentrations was 27 mg/dl, %MARE was 8.6, and the correlation coefficient was r = 0.94. This first independent clinical study of an advanced noninvasive blood glucose prototype based on thermal emission in the mid-infrared spectral region has demonstrated glucose measurements with clinically acceptable accuracy but without the necessity of individual daily calibration.

  4. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm


    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance.

  5. Noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma.

    Stephanie C Y Yu

    Full Text Available Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  6. Noninvasive Ventilatory Correction as an Adjunct to an Experimental Systemic Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Kristian Barlinn


    Full Text Available Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in patients with acute ischemic stroke and associated with early clinical deterioration and poor functional outcome. However, noninvasive ventilatory correction is hardly considered as a complementary treatment option during the treatment phase of acute ischemic stroke. Summary of Case. A 55-year-old woman with an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA and enrolled into a thrombolytic research study. During tPA infusion, she became drowsy, developed apnea episodes, desaturated and neurologically deteriorated without recanalization, re-occlusion or intracerebral hemorrhage. Urgent noninvasive ventilatory correction with biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP reversed neurological fluctuation. Her MCA completely recanalized 24 hours later. Conclusions. Noninvasive ventilatory correction should be considered more aggressively as a complementary treatment option in selected acute stroke patients. Early initiation of BiPAP can stabilize cerebral hemodynamics and may unmask the true potential of other therapies.

  7. An alternative non-invasive treatment for Peyronie's disease

    Joaquim A. Claro


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Surgical correction of the deformity and plaque caused by Peyronie's disease has some important disadvantages and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT emerged as a new promising therapy. We evaluated prospectively the efficacy and safety of the association of high dose vitamin E and ESWT as a non-invasive treatment for the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients 42 to 68 years old (mean = 54 presenting penile deviation and sexual distress caused by Peyronie's disease were treated in a non-invasive manner. The time of penile deviation ranged from 16 to 52 months (mean = 30. All patients had previous unsuccessful treatment for Peyronie's disease. The angulation's deformity of the penis was assessed by photography at home. The patients received vitamin E (l.200 mg daily during 3 months and underwent 3 to 6 sessions (mean = 3 of ESWT (3,000 to 4,000 shockwaves at a power level of l to 2 at 1-week intervals. RESULTS: From 25 patients treated, 16 (64% reported an improvement in penile angulation, with a mean reduction of 21 degrees (10 to 40. Eight patients reported improvement in their spontaneous erections. Overall, the patients presented only minimal bruising at the site of treatment and skin hematoma. Four patients presented urethral bleeding. The mean angulation after treatment in the control group was 48.67 degrees (30 - 70 and in the study group was 24.42 degrees (0 - 70, statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Considering the common complications and the unsatisfactory outcome of the surgical correction for Peyronie's disease, the association of high dose vitamin E and ESWT represents a good option for a non-invasive, effective and safe treatment of the penile deformity.

  8. Wideband CMOS receivers

    Oliveira, Luis


    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  9. Novel noninvasive techniques in management of diabetes

    Nadaf Sameer


    Full Text Available Since the discovery, insulin remains as effective means of curing the diabetes. During the last decades, diabetes has become a life-threatening disease, because of this people initially goes for insulin injections but the inconvenience leads to the development of noninvasive techniques, which has recently replaced the insulin injection. These techniques overcome the barrier for the insulin treatment and ultimately control the glucose level of patient effectively than invasive technique. In these review, an attempt has been made to cover overall techniques available for diabetes treatment noninvasively. In an attempt of this, data has been collected, which includes insulin delivery via oral, nasal, pulmonary, rectal, buccal and ocular route. Along with these devices available in the market and under trials for diabetes treatment has also been covered. As this disease requires continuous treatment, it is advisable to go with noninvasive means of insulin delivery.

  10. Non-Invasive Optical Blood Glucose Measurement

    Megha C.Pande


    Full Text Available The method for noninvasively blood glucose monitoring system is discussed in this paper. Lot of research work has been done in developing the device which is completely noninvasive to avoid the pros & cons because of frequent pricking. In this paper we are trying to analyze the noninvasive blood glucose measurement study in the near infrared region which is the most suitable region for blood glucose measurement. For this purpose we use a technique which is similar to pulseoximetry based on near infrared spectrometry .An infrared light of particular wavelength is passed through fingertip containing an arterial pulse component are derived,thus minimizing influences of basal components such as resting blood volume,skin, muscle and bone.

  11. Zero-power receiver

    Brocato, Robert W.


    An unpowered signal receiver and a method for signal reception detects and responds to very weak signals using pyroelectric devices as impedance transformers and/or demodulators. In some embodiments, surface acoustic wave devices (SAW) are also used. Illustrative embodiments include satellite and long distance terrestrial communications applications.

  12. Sender-Receiver Games

    Peeters, R.J.A.P.; Potters, J.A.M.


    Standard game-theoretic solution concepts do not guarantee meaningful commu- nication in cheap-talk games. In this paper, we define a solution concept which guarantees communication for a large class of games by designing a behavior pro- tocol which the receiver uses to judge messages sent by the

  13. Noninvasive Biomarkers of Liver Fibrosis: An Overview

    Hind I. Fallatah


    Full Text Available Chronic liver diseases of differing etiologies are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Establishing accurate staging of liver disease is very important for enabling both therapeutic decisions and prognostic evaluations. A liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for assessing the stage of hepatic fibrosis, but it has many limitations. During the last decade, several noninvasive markers for assessing the stage of hepatic fibrosis have been developed. Some have been well validated and are comparable to liver biopsy. This paper will focus on the various noninvasive biochemical markers used to stage liver fibrosis.

  14. Physician liability and non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Toews, Maeghan; Caulfield, Timothy


    Although non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) marks a notable development in the field of prenatal genetic testing, there are some physician liability considerations raised by this technology. As NIPT is still emerging as the standard of care and is just starting to receive provincial funding, the question arises of whether physicians are obligated to disclose the availability of NIPT to eligible patients as part of the physician-patient discussion about prenatal screening and diagnosis. If NIPT is discussed with patients, it is important to disclose the limitations of this technology with respect to its accuracy and the number of disorders that it can detect when compared with invasive diagnostic options. A failure to sufficiently disclose these limitations could leave patients with false assurances about the health of their fetuses and could raise informed consent and liability issues, particularly if a child is born with a disability as a result.

  15. Noninvasive Free Flap Monitoring Using Eulerian Video Magnification

    Yuan Fang Liu


    Full Text Available Eulerian Video Magnification (EVM can enhance subtle changes in videos to reveal what was once invisible to the naked eye. In this proof of concept study, we investigated using EVM as a novel form of free flap monitoring. Free flaps with skin paddles were filmed in the operating room with manipulation of their pedicles. In a representative 77-year-old female who received a latissimus dorsi-serratus-rib composite free flap, EVM was able to detect blockage of arterial or venous supply instantaneously, providing a visible representation through degree of color change in videos. EVM has the potential to serve as a powerful free flap monitoring tool with the benefit of being noninvasive, sensitive, easy-to-use, and nearly cost-free.

  16. Noninvasive Retinal Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Torp, Thomas Lee; Lundberg, Kristian


    The retinal vascular system is the only part of the human body available for direct, in vivo inspection. Noninvasive retinal markers are important to identity patients in risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Studies have correlated structural features like retinal vascular caliber and ...

  17. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander


    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  18. Pressure difference receiving ears

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye


    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  19. Advancing ecological understandings through technological transformations in noninvasive genetics

    Albano Beja-Pereira; Rita Oliveira; Paulo C. Alves; Michael K. Schwartz; Gordon Luikart


    Noninvasive genetic approaches continue to improve studies in molecular ecology, conservation genetics and related disciplines such as forensics and epidemiology. Noninvasive sampling allows genetic studies without disturbing or even seeing the target individuals. Although noninvasive genetic sampling has been used for wildlife studies since the 1990s, technological...

  20. [Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis].

    Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Ben-Ari, Ziv


    Chronic liver diseases represent a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prognosis and management of chronic liver diseases depend on the amount of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy has long remained the gold standard for assessment of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy is an invasive procedure with associated morbidity, it is rarely the cause for mortality, and has a few limitations. During the past two decades, in an attempt to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, non-invasive methods for the evaluation of liver fibrosis have been developed, mainly in the field of viral hepatitis. This review will focus on different methods available for non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis including a biological approach which quantifies serum levels of biomarkers of fibrosis and physical techniques which measure liver stiffness by transient elastography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance based elastography, their accuracy, advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Non-invasive Mapping of Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    Shah, Ashok; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre


    Since more than 100 years, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is the standard-of-care tool, which involves measuring electrical potentials from limited sites on the body surface to diagnose cardiac disorder, its possible mechanism, and the likely site of origin. Several decades of research has led to the development of a 252-lead ECG and computed tomography (CT) scan-based three-dimensional electro-imaging modality to non-invasively map abnormal cardiac rhythms including fibrillation. These maps provide guidance towards ablative therapy and thereby help advance the management of complex heart rhythm disorders. Here, we describe the clinical experience obtained using non-invasive technique in mapping the electrical disorder and guide the catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beats), and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome).

  2. Fonoaudiologia e promoção da saúde: relato de experiência baseado em visitas domiciliares Speech therapy and health promotion: an experience report based on domiciliary visit

    Bárbara Niegia Garcia de Goulart


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: relatar a experiência de atuação fonoaudiológica para promoção da saúde baseada em visita domiciliar. MÉTODOS: a partir da realização de visitas domiciliares e entrevistas com um morador de cada domicílio visitado foram levantadas demandas gerais ligadas ao processo de saúde-doença, bem como realizadas as orientações e encaminhamentos para os serviços de atenção básica, quando necessário. RESULTADOS: foram visitadas 30 famílias, das quais 27 têm a mulher como principal provedora afetiva e financeira do núcleo familiar; sendo que nenhuma destas mulheres concluiu o ensino fundamental. Em média residem cinco moradores por domicílio, sendo pelo menos, duas crianças e um idoso; 10 das famílias visitadas não possuem, entre os residentes, alguém com trabalho fixo. As crianças costumam frequentar regularmente a escola. Tabagismo e alto índice de abandono dos estudos na adolescência também foram comumente referidos. Dentre as 63 crianças residentes nos domicílios visitados, os atrasos de linguagem e distúrbio fonológico consistem as alterações da comunicação humana mais comumente referidas, assim como o uso de chupeta e/ou mamadeira. Cada visita resultou em breve relato descritivo dos achados, bem como encaminhamentos e orientações realizadas. Sistematicamente foram realizadas discussões para revisão dos encaminhamentos feitos junto à equipe da unidade de saúde. CONCLUSÕES: os distúrbios de linguagem oral foram as alterações fonoaudiológicas mais comumente referidas pela população visitada, assim como a demanda por orientações em relação às funções do sistema sensório-motor-oral. Foram privilegiadas ações de promoção e educação em saúde a partir de visitas domiciliares. A continuação das atividades apresentadas prevê a avaliação da efetividade das ações desenvolvidas.PURPOSE: to report the experience of SLP intervention for health promotion based on domiciliary visits

  3. Noninvasive methods of measuring bone blood perfusion

    Dyke, J. P.; Aaron, R.K.


    Measurement of bone blood flow and perfusion characteristics in a noninvasive and serial manner would be advantageous in assessing revascularization after trauma and the possible risk of avascular necrosis. Many disease states, including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and bone neoplasms, result in disturbed bone perfusion. A causal link between bone perfusion and remodeling has shown its importance in sustained healing and regrowth following injury. Measurement of perfusion and permeability wi...

  4. Attitudes of pregnant women and male partners towards non-invasive prenatal testing and widening the scope of prenatal screening

    van Schendel, R.V.; Kleinveld, J.H.; Dondorp, W.J.; Pajkrt, E.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Holtkamp, K.C.A.; Karsten, M.; Vlietstra, A.L.; Lachmeijer, A.M.A.; Henneman, L.


    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and its potential to test for multiple disorders has received much attention. This study explores attitudes of women and men towards NIPT, and their views on widening the scope of prenatal testing in a country with a low uptake of prenatal screening (The Netherla

  5. Recent advances in noninvasive glucose monitoring

    So CF


    Full Text Available Chi-Fuk So,1 Kup-Sze Choi,1 Thomas KS Wong,2 Joanne WY Chung2,31Centre for Integrative Digital Health, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 2Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, Tung Wah College, Hong Kong, 3Department of Health and Physical Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong KongAbstract: The race for the next generation of painless and reliable glucose monitoring for diabetes mellitus is on. As technology advances, both diagnostic techniques and equipment improve. This review describes the main technologies currently being explored for noninvasive glucose monitoring. The principle of each technology is mentioned; its advantages and limitations are then discussed. The general description and the corresponding results for each device are illustrated, as well as the current status of the device and the manufacturer; internet references for the devices are listed where appropriate. Ten technologies and eleven potential devices are included in this review. Near infrared spectroscopy has become a promising technology, among others, for blood glucose monitoring. Although some reviews have been published already, the rapid development of technologies and information makes constant updating mandatory. While advances have been made, the reliability and the calibration of noninvasive instruments could still be improved, and more studies carried out under different physiological conditions of metabolism, bodily fluid circulation, and blood components are needed.Keywords: noninvasive, glucose monitoring, diabetes mellitus, blood glucose measurement

  6. CERN apprentice receives award


    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  7. All-optical noninvasive delayed feedback control of semiconductor lasers

    Schikora, Sylvia


    The stabilization of unstable states hidden in the dynamics of a system, in particular the control of chaos, has received much attention in the last years. Sylvia Schikora for the first time applies a well-known control method called delayed feedback control entirely in the all-optical domain. A multisection semiconductor laser receives optical feedback from an external Fabry-Perot interferometer. The control signal is a phase-tunable superposition of the laser signal and provokes the laser to operate in an otherwise unstable periodic state with a period equal to the time delay. The control is noninvasive, because the reflected signal tends to zero when the target state is reached.   The work has been awarded the Carl-Ramsauer-Prize 2012.   Contents ·         All-Optical Control Setup ·         Stable States with Resonant Fabry-Perot Feedback ·         Control of an Unstable Stationary State and of Unstable Selfpulsations ·         Controlling Chaos ·         Con...

  8. Noninvasive Assessment of Tumor Cell Proliferation in Animal Models

    Matthias Edinger


    Full Text Available Revealing the mechanisms of neoplastic disease and enhancing our ability to intervene in these processes requires an increased understanding of cellular and molecular changes as they occur in intact living animal models. We have begun to address these needs by developing a method of labeling tumor cells through constitutive expression of an optical reporter gene, noninvasively monitoring cellular proliferation in vivo using a sensitive photon detection system. A stable line of HeLa cells that expressed a modified firefly luciferase gene was generated, proliferation of these cells in irradiated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice was monitored. Tumor cells were introduced into animals via subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous inoculation and whole body images, that revealed tumor location and growth kinetics, were obtained. The number of photons that were emitted from the labeled tumor cells and transmitted through murine tissues was sufficient to detect 1×103 cells in the peritoneal cavity, 1×104 cells at subcutaneous sites and 1×106 circulating cells immediately following injection. The kinetics of cell proliferation, as measured by photon emission, was exponential in the peritoneal cavity and at subcutaneous sites. Intravenous inoculation resulted in detectable colonies of tumor cells in animals receiving more than 1×103 cells. Our demonstrated ability to detect small numbers of tumor cells in living animals noninvasively suggests that therapies designed to treat minimal disease states, as occur early in the disease course and after elimination of the tumor mass, may be monitored using this approach. Moreover, it may be possible to monitor micrometastases and evaluate the molecular steps in the metastatic process. Spatiotemporal analyses of neoplasia will improve the predictability of animal models of human disease as study groups can be followed over time, this method will accelerate development of novel therapeutic

  9. Noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    Conforti, Valéria A; Morato, Ronaldo G; Augusto, Anderson M; de Oliveira e Sousa, Lúcio; de Avila, David M; Brown, Janine L; Reeves, Jerry J


    Jaguars are threatened with extinction throughout their range. A sustainable captive population can serve as a hedge against extinction, but only if they are healthy and reproduce. Understanding how jaguars respond to stressors may help improve the captive environment and enhance their wellbeing. Thus, our objectives were to: (1) conduct an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) challenge to validate a cortisol radioimmunoassay (RIA) for noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in jaguars; (2) investigate the relationship between fecal corticoid (FCM) and androgen metabolite (FAM) concentrations in males during the ACTH challenge; and (3) establish a range of physiological concentrations of FCMs for the proposed protocol. Seven jaguars (3 M, 4 F) received 500 IU/animal of ACTH. Pre- and post-ACTH fecal samples were assayed for corticoid (M and F) and androgen metabolites (M) by RIA. Concentrations of FCMs increased (P80.01) after ACTH injection (pre-ACTH: 0.90 ± 0.12 µg/g dry feces; post-ACTH: 2.55 ± 0.25 µg/g). Considering pre- and post-ACTH samples, FCM concentrations were higher (P80.01) in males (2.15 ± 0.20 µg/g) than in females (1.30 ± 0.20 µg/g), but the magnitude of the response to ACTH was comparable (P>0.05) between genders. After ACTH injection, FAMs increased in two (of 3) males; in one male, FCMs and FAMs were positively correlated (0.60; P80.01). Excretion of FCMs was assessed in 16 jaguars (7 M, 9 F) and found to be highly variable (range, 80.11-1.56 µg/g). In conclusion, this study presents a cortisol RIA for monitoring adrenocortical function in jaguars noninvasively. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Noninvasive imaging of islet grafts using positron-emission tomography

    Lu, Yuxin; Dang, Hoa; Middleton, Blake; Zhang, Zesong; Washburn, Lorraine; Stout, David B.; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Atkinson, Mark A.; Phelps, Michael; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Tian, Jide; Kaufman, Daniel L.


    Islet transplantation offers a potential therapy to restore glucose homeostasis in type 1 diabetes patients. However, islet transplantation is not routinely successful because most islet recipients gradually lose graft function. Furthermore, serological markers of islet function are insensitive to islet loss until the latter stages of islet graft rejection. A noninvasive method of monitoring islet grafts would aid in the assessment of islet graft survival and the evaluation of interventions designed to prolong graft survival. Here, we show that recombinant adenovirus can engineer isolated islets to express a positron-emission tomography (PET) reporter gene and that these islets can be repeatedly imaged by using microPET after transplantation into mice. The magnitude of signal from engineered islets implanted into the axillary cavity was directly related to the implanted islet mass. PET signals attenuated over the following weeks because of the transient nature of adenovirus-mediated gene expression. Because the liver is the preferred site for islet implantation in humans, we also tested whether islets could be imaged after transfusion into the mouse liver. Control studies revealed that both intrahepatic islet transplantation and hyperglycemia altered the biodistribution kinetics of the PET probe systemically. Although transplanted islets were dispersed throughout the liver, clear signals from the liver region of mice receiving PET reporter-expressing islets were detectable for several weeks. Viral transduction, PET reporter expression, and repeated microPET imaging had no apparent deleterious effects on islet function after implantation. These studies lay a foundation for noninvasive quantitative assessments of islet graft survival using PET. diabetes | transplantation

  11. GNSS Software Receiver for UAVs

    Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik


    This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....

  12. Vaccine-associated paralytic Poliomyelitis: a case report of domiciliary transmission Poliomielite associada à vacina: descrição de caso por transmissão domiciliar

    José A. Paz


    Full Text Available Poliomyelitis associated with live strain vaccine is defined as the paralytic form of the acute anterior poliomyelitis related to the vaccine strain. Since these strains behave similarly to the wild-type virus, we can differentiate, epidemiologically, two types of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis: cases in which the patient was vaccinated and cases in which the patient had had contact with vaccinated individuals. We herein present the case of an unvaccinated child, with a clinical picture of an acute anterior poliomyelitis associated with the live strain vaccine, whose brother received the Sabin vaccine 20 days before the onset of the symptoms. Vaccine strain of the type 3 poliovirus was isolated in fecal culture and a presented mutation in nucleotide 472 (C®U in the 5' non-coding region, which is strongly related to the higher strain virulence.A poliomielite associada à vacina oral é definida como a forma paralítica da poliomielite anterior aguda decorrente da cepa vacinal. Uma vez que o comportamento da cepa vacinal é semelhante ao do vírus selvagem, epidemiologicamente podemos distinguir dois tipos de poliomielite associada à vacina, os casos em que o paciente foi vacinado e os casos em que o paciente teve contato com pessoas que receberam a vacina. Apresentamos o caso de um lactente não vacinado, que apresentou quadro de poliomielite anterior aguda associada à vacina oral, cujo irmão havia recebido a vacina Sabin 20 dias antes do início do quadro clínico. Na cultura de fezes do paciente foi isolado o poliovírus tipo 3, cepa vacinal, que apresentava mutação do nucleotídeo 472 (C®U na região 5' não codificadora, a qual está significativamente relacionada com a maior virulência da cepa.

  13. Influence of individualized health education on the compliance of domiciliary oxygen therapy among COPD patients%个性化健康教育对COP D患者家庭氧疗依从性的影响

    朱颖霞; 谌登红


    Objective To observe the effect of individual health education intervention on the compliance of domiciliary oxegen therapy with COPD patients.Methods 98 COPD patients admited in the respiratory department of our hospital from January 2013 to July 2013 were divid⁃ed into two groups.Systematic and regular personalized health education intervention were given to the experimental group,and random educa⁃tion were given to the control group.The number of oxygen,oxygen time,SGRQ and CAT questionnaire scores were compared.Results Com⁃pared with the control group,the number of oxygen inhalation in patients in the experimental group increased significantly(P<0.05),oxygen time significantly longer(P<0.01);the quality of life of the patients improved.Conclusion Individualized health education intervention pro⁃gram can significantly enhance the compliance of oxygen therapy in patients with COPD and improve patients�enthusiasm of treatment,and im⁃prove the quality of life,worthy of clinical application.%目的:观察个性化健康教育干预对COPD患者家庭氧疗依从性的影响。方法选取2013年1~7月入住本院呼吸内科的98例COPD患者进行随机分组,其中实验组49例予以系统、规律的个性化健康教育干预方案,对照组49例予以随机、整体教育方案。比较两组患者的吸氧人数和吸氧时长、SGRQ和CAT问卷评分。结果与对照组相比,实验组吸氧人数明显增加(P<0.05),吸氧时间显著延长( P<0.01),患者生活质量得到改善( P<0�05)。结论个性化健康教育干预方案能明显加强COPD患者的氧疗依从性,增强患者配合治疗的积极性,改善生活质量,值得临床推广。

  14. Hallazgo de Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae en ambiente domiciliario en la Región Piura, Perú Intra-domiciliary capture of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae in Piura, Peru

    Edgard Marín


    Full Text Available Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus presenta una amplia distribución en América Central y del Sur con un comportamiento de especie silvestre. En el Perú ha sido registrado en Tumbes, Piura y Cuzco, siendo descrito en casas de localidades de este último departamento. En el presente trabajo se documenta evidencia de domiciliación de P. rufotuberculatus en la localidad de Chirinos-La Pareja, Distrito de Suyo, Provincia de Ayabaca, Región Piura, Perú (4º46'S, 79º93'W. Se capturaron 28 especímenes: 3 ninfas II, 4 ninfas III, 2 ninfas IV, 8 ninfas V, 3 machos y 8 hembras, lo que evidencia la existencia de una colonia intradomiciliar en "cuyeros" (criaderos de Cavia porcellus camas y paredes del dormitorio de la vivienda. Exámenes parasitológicos de heces evacuadas espontáneamente fueron negativos a infección natural por Trypanosoma cruzi. A pesar de que se ha reportado la presencia de P. rufotuberculatus en localidades de Tumbes y Piura, es la primera vez que se documenta su tendencia sinantrópica en la Región. La importancia de esta especie y posteriores investigaciones permitirán evaluar su etología y potencial vectorial de trypanosomiasis americana. Se recomienda una cuidadosa actividad de vigilancia entomo-epidemiológica para esta especie y las otras que coexisten simpátricamente, actualmente en esta región del norte de Perú.Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Peru, it has been found in Tumbes, Piura, and Cuzco. The authors report the presence of P. rufotuberculatus in Chirinos-La Pareja, Suyo district, Ayabaca Province, Piura Region, Peru. Twenty-eight specimens were collected in two of 15 dwellings: three 2nd instar, four 3rd instar, two 4th instar, and eight 5th instar nymphs, three male and eight female, in an intra-domiciliary colony of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, raised indoors as a source of diet protein and beds and bedroom walls. None of the fecal samples were naturally

  15. Noninvasive photothermal cancer therapy nanoplatforms via integrating nanomaterials and functional polymers.

    Ban, Qingfu; Bai, Ting; Duan, Xiao; Kong, Jie


    In the cutting-edge field of cancer therapy, noninvasive photothermal therapy (PTT) has received great attention because it is considered to overcome the drawbacks of conventional surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy of severe body injuries and side effects on the immune system. The construction of PTT therapeutic and theranostic nanoplatforms is the key issue in achieving tumor targeting, imaging and therapy in a synergetic manner. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in constructing PTT therapeutic and theranostic nanoplatforms by integrating nanomaterials and functional polymers. The noninvasive photothermal cancer therapy mechanism and achievement strategies of PTT therapeutic and theranostic nanoplatforms are presented as well as the innovative construction strategies and perspectives for the future. Owing to their high tumor ablation efficiency, biological availability and low- or non-toxicity, PTT therapeutic and theranostic nanoplatforms are promising and emerging in medicine and clinical applications.

  16. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Todea, Carmen


    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  17. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography.

    Lakhno, Igor


    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34-40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R = -0.50; p < 0.05). So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  18. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease.

    DePace, N L; Hakki, A H; Weinreich, D J; Iskandrian, A S


    This study determines whether a mathematical model can be used to assess noninvasively the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). The model was based on stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis of data obtained in 99 patients from clinical and nonhemodynamic exercise variables, or from radionuclide determination of left ventricular function at rest or during exercise, or both. The extent of CAD was assessed by a scoring system and by the number of diseased vessels. The variables selected by this method (Q-wave infarction, exercise LV ejection fraction, change in systolic blood pressure from rest to exercise, sex and diabetes mellitus) yielded a predictive accuracy of 82% for the identification of patients with extensive CAD (score greater than or equal to 35). Slightly better results were achieved by a subgroup of 77 patients who had adequate exercise end points (exercise heart rate greater than or equal to 120 beats/min, or angina or ST depression during exercise). In these patients, the predictive accuracy was 84%. The model also identified patients with "light" CAD (score less than or equal to 10) with a predictive accuracy of 82%. Thus, noninvasive assessment of the extent of CAD is possible with a stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis of clinical, electrocardiographic and left ventricular function assessed by radionuclide ventriculography at rest and during exercise. The scoring system was superior to the conventional method of classifying patients according to the number of diseased vessels.


    Madhusudan Dey, Sumita Agarwal and Sumedha Sharma


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aneuploidies are one of the important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Initially screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. Recently, various methods including non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT by analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal blood has shown promise for highly accurate detection of common fetal autosomal trisomies. Incorporating these new non-invasive technologies into clinical practice will impact the current prenatal screening paradigm for fetal aneuploidy, in which genetic counselling plays an integral role. The advantage of the technique being elimination of risks such as miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. But then this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and further research is required before implementation. Data was obtained through a literature search via Pubmed and Google as well as detailed search of our library database.

  20. Non-invasive Evaluation for Epilepsy Surgery

    IWASAKI, Masaki; JIN, Kazutaka; NAKASATO, Nobukazu; TOMINAGA, Teiji


    Epilepsy surgery is aimed to remove the brain tissues that are indispensable for generating patient’s epileptic seizures. There are two purposes in the pre-operative evaluation: localization of the epileptogenic zone and localization of function. Surgery is planned to remove possible epileptogenic zone while preserving functional area. Since no single diagnostic modality is superior to others in identifying and localizing the epileptogenic zone, multiple non-invasive evaluations are performed to estimate the location of the epileptogenic zone after concordance between evaluations. Essential components of non-invasive pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy include detailed clinical history, long-term video-electroencephalography monitoring, epilepsy-protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neuropsychological testing. However, a significant portion of drug-resistant epilepsy is associated with no or subtle MRI lesions or with ambiguous electro-clinical signs. Additional evaluations including fluoro-deoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetoencephalography and ictal single photon emission computed tomography can play critical roles in planning surgery. FDG-PET should be registered on three-dimensional MRI for better detection of focal cortical dysplasia. All diagnostic tools are complementary to each other in defining the epileptogenic zone, so that it is always important to reassess the data based on other results to pick up or confirm subtle abnormalities. PMID:27627857

  1. Noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring: how accurate is enough?

    Rice, Mark J; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Morey, Timothy E


    Evaluating the accuracy of medical devices has traditionally been a blend of statistical analyses, at times without contextualizing the clinical application. There have been a number of recent publications on the accuracy of a continuous noninvasive hemoglobin measurement device, the Masimo Radical-7 Pulse Co-oximeter, focusing on the traditional statistical metrics of bias and precision. In this review, which contains material presented at the Innovations and Applications of Monitoring Perfusion, Oxygenation, and Ventilation (IAMPOV) Symposium at Yale University in 2012, we critically investigated these metrics as applied to the new technology, exploring what is required of a noninvasive hemoglobin monitor and whether the conventional statistics adequately answer our questions about clinical accuracy. We discuss the glucose error grid, well known in the glucose monitoring literature, and describe an analogous version for hemoglobin monitoring. This hemoglobin error grid can be used to evaluate the required clinical accuracy (±g/dL) of a hemoglobin measurement device to provide more conclusive evidence on whether to transfuse an individual patient. The important decision to transfuse a patient usually requires both an accurate hemoglobin measurement and a physiologic reason to elect transfusion. It is our opinion that the published accuracy data of the Masimo Radical-7 is not good enough to make the transfusion decision.

  2. Look at your process non-invasively

    Boyes, W. (TN Technologies, Inc., Round Rock, TX (United States)); Jean, R. (Epsilon Industrial, Inc. Austin, TX (United States))


    Gaining access to hazardous areas in process plants is a constant problem for instrument engineers. The area may contain hazardous chemicals, or may have dangerously high temperatures or pressures. An additional problem is the desire to avoid ports or other openings into process vessels, to improve safety and to minimize fugitive emissions. The answer of these types of problems is a sensor that is noninvasive or noncontacting in nature. A noncontacting sensor is one that might be mounted in a process vessel or through a port, but does not directly contact the process material. Among the range of noninvasive sensing techniques are those using microwave energy: microwave radar for level and guided microwave spectrometry (GMS) for composition. First introduced in the early 1980s for shipboard level measurement, the use of radar level has expanded to onshore tank farms, and then to process vessels. GMS, a relatively new application of microwave energy, is beginning to make inroads in a variety of online techniques for composition, water content and other process variables. The paper describes the technology and its applications.

  3. The Use of Fetal Noninvasive Electrocardiography

    Igor Lakhno


    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is one of the severe complications of pregnancy that leads to fetal deterioration. The aim was to survey the validity of fetal distress diagnostics in case of Doppler ultrasonic umbilical vein and arteries blood flow velocity investigation and ECG parameters analysis obtained from maternal abdominal signal before labor in preeclamptic patients. Fetal noninvasive ECG and umbilical arterial and venous Doppler investigation were performed in 120 patients at 34–40 weeks of gestation. And 30 of them had physiological gestation and were involved in Group I. In Group II 52 pregnant women with mild-moderate PE were observed. 38 patients with severe PE were monitored in Group III. The most considerable negative correlation was determined in pair Apgar score 1 versus T/QRS (R=-0.50; p<0.05. So the increased T/QRS ratio was the most evident marker of fetal distress. Fetal noninvasive ECG showed sensitivity of 96.6% and specificity of 98.4% and, therefore, was determined as more accurate method for fetal monitoring.

  4. Insular Epilepsy: Semiology and Noninvasive Investigations.

    Obaid, Sami; Zerouali, Younes; Nguyen, Dang Khoa


    In this review, authors discuss the semiology and noninvasive investigations of insular epilepsy, an underrecognized type of epilepsy, which may mimic other focal epilepsies. In line with the various functions of the insula and its widespread network of connections, insular epilepsy may feature a variety of early ictal manifestations from somatosensory, visceral, olfactory, gustatory, or vestibular manifestations. Depending on propagation pathways, insular seizures may also include altered consciousness, dystonic posturing, complex motor behaviors, and even autonomic features. Considering the variability in seizure semiology, recognition of insular epilepsy may be challenging and confirmation by noninvasive tests is warranted although few studies have assessed their value. Detection of an insular lesion on MRI greatly facilitates the diagnosis. Scalp EEG findings in frontocentral and/or temporal derivations will generally allow lateralization of the seizure focus. Ictal single-photon computed tomography has moderate sensitivity, whereas positron emission tomography has lower sensitivity. Among newer techniques, magnetoencephalography is highly beneficial, whereas proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy currently has limited value.

  5. Noninvasive cardiac output determination using applanation tonometry-derived radial artery pulse contour analysis in critically ill patients

    Compton, Friederike; Wittrock, Marc; Schaefer, Juergen-Heiner


    Conventional thermodilution cardiac output (CO) monitoring is limited mainly to intensive care units and operating rooms because it requires the use of invasive techniques. To reduce the potential for complications and to broaden the applicability of hemodynamic monitoring, noninvasive methods...... for CO determination are being sought. Applanation tonometry allows noninvasive CO estimation through pulse contour analysis, but the method has not been evaluated in critically ill patients. We therefore performed noninvasive radial artery applanation tonometry in 49 critically ill medical intensive...... care unit patients and compared CO estimates to invasive CO measurements obtained using a pulmonary artery catheter or the PiCCO transpulmonary thermodilution system. One-hundred-sixteen measurements were performed, and patients were receiving vasopressor support during 78 measurements. When the data...

  6. Clinical application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    ZHU Chuanlong


    Full Text Available Hepatic fibrosis is the common outcome of chronic liver diseases of various causes. At present, liver biopsy is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis, but it has limitations and is invasive, which leads to the development of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The article mainly introduces the technology and application of noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis from the aspects of clinical manifestation, serology, and radiology. It has pointed out the clinical value of these noninvasive diagnosis techniques, and it discusses the progress in clinical research and its limitations for noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis.

  7. Noninvasive imaging of oral premalignancy and malignancy

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Krasieva, T.; Jung, W.; You, J. S.; Chen, Z.; Osann, K.; Tromberg, B.


    Objectives: Early detection of cancer and its curable precursors remains the best way to ensure patient survival and quality of life. Despite significant advances in treatment, oral cancer still results in 10,000 U.S. deaths annually, mainly due to the late detection of most oral lesions. Specific aim was to use a combination of non-invasive optical in vivo technologies to test a multi-modality approach to non-invasive diagnostics of oral premalignancy and malignancy. Methods: In the hamster cheek pouch model (120 hamsters), in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical Doppler tomography (ODT) mapped epithelial, subepithelial and vascular change throughout carcinogenesis in specific, marked sites. In vivo multi-wavelength multi-photon (MPM) and second harmonic generated (SHG) fluorescence techniques provided parallel data on surface and subsurface tissue structure, specifically collagen presence and structure, cellular presence, and vasculature. Images were diagnosed by 2 blinded, pre-standardized investigators using a standardized scale from 0-6 for all modalities. After sacrifice, histopathological sections were prepared and pathology evaluated on a scale of 0-6. ANOVA techniques compared imaging diagnostics with histopathology. 95% confidence limits of the sensitivity and specificity were established for the diagnostic capability of OCT/ODT+ MPM/SHG using ROC curves and kappa statistics. Results: Imaging data were reproducibly obtained with good accuracy. Carcinogenesis-related structural and vascular changes were clearly visible to tissue depths of 2mm. Sensitivity (OCT/ODT alone: 71-88%; OCT+MPM/SHG: 79-91%) and specificity (OCT alone: 62-83%;OCT+MPM/SHG: 67-90%) compared well with conventional techniques. Conclusions: OCT/ODT and MPM/SHG are promising non-invasive in vivo diagnostic modalities for oral dysplasia and malignancy. Supported by CRFA 30003, CCRP 00-01391V-20235, NIH (LAMMP) RR01192, DOE DE903-91ER 61227, NIH EB-00293 CA91717, NSF BES

  8. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T


    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders.

  9. Facilitate insight by non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Richard P Chi

    Full Text Available Our experiences can blind us. Once we have learned to solve problems by one method, we often have difficulties in generating solutions involving a different kind of insight. Yet there is evidence that people with brain lesions are sometimes more resistant to this so-called mental set effect. This inspired us to investigate whether the mental set effect can be reduced by non-invasive brain stimulation. 60 healthy right-handed participants were asked to take an insight problem solving task while receiving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the anterior temporal lobes (ATL. Only 20% of participants solved an insight problem with sham stimulation (control, whereas 3 times as many participants did so (p = 0.011 with cathodal stimulation (decreased excitability of the left ATL together with anodal stimulation (increased excitability of the right ATL. We found hemispheric differences in that a stimulation montage involving the opposite polarities did not facilitate performance. Our findings are consistent with the theory that inhibition to the left ATL can lead to a cognitive style that is less influenced by mental templates and that the right ATL may be associated with insight or novel meaning. Further studies including neurophysiological imaging are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms leading to the enhancement.

  10. Evaluation of Fluid Responsiveness: Is Photoplethysmography a Noninvasive Alternative?

    Lars Prag Antonsen


    Full Text Available Background. Goal-directed fluid therapy reduces morbidity and mortality in various clinical settings. Respiratory variations in photoplethysmography are proposed as a noninvasive alternative to predict fluid responsiveness during mechanical ventilation. This paper aims to critically evaluate current data on the ability of photoplethysmography to predict fluid responsiveness. Method. Primary searches were performed in PubMed, Medline, and Embase on November 10, 2011. Results. 14 papers evaluating photoplethysmography and fluid responsiveness were found. Nine studies calculated areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for ΔPOP (>0.85 in four, 0.75–0.85 in one, and <0.75 in four studies and seven for PVI (values ranging from 0.54 to 0.98. Correlations between ΔPOP/PVI and ΔPP/other dynamic variables vary substantially. Conclusion. Although photoplethysmography is a promising technique, predictive values and correlations with other hemodynamic variables indicating fluid responsiveness vary substantially. Presently, it is not documented that photoplethysmography is adequately valid and reliable to be included in clinical practice for evaluation of fluid responsiveness.

  11. Noninvasive diagnosis of vulnerable coronary plaque

    Pozo, Eduardo; Agudo-Quilez, Pilar; Rojas-González, Antonio; Alvarado, Teresa; Olivera, María José; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; Alfonso, Fernando


    Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death are frequently the first manifestation of coronary artery disease. For this reason, screening of asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis has become an attractive field of research in cardiovascular medicine. Necropsy studies have described histopathological changes associated with the development of acute coronary events. In this regard, thin-cap fibroatheroma has been identified as the main vulnerable coronary plaque feature. Hence, many imaging techniques, such as coronary computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography, have tried to detect noninvasively these histomorphological characteristics with different approaches. In this article, we review the role of these diagnostic tools in the detection of vulnerable coronary plaque with particular interest in their advantages and limitations as well as the clinical implications of the derived findings. PMID:27721935

  12. Noninvasive Monitoring of Oxygen and Ventilation.

    Smallwood, Craig D; Walsh, Brian K


    Noninvasive monitoring of oxygenation and ventilation is an essential part of pediatric respiratory care. Carbon dioxide, gas exchange monitoring, transcutaneous monitoring, near-infrared spectroscopy, pulse oximetry, and electrical impedance tomography are examined. Although some of these technologies have been utilized for decades, incorporation into mechanical ventilators and recently developed methods may provide important clinical insights in a broader patient range. Less mature technologies (electrical impedance tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy) have been of particular interest, since they offer easy bedside application and potential for improved care of children with respiratory failure and other disorders. This article provides an overview of the principles of operation, a survey of recent and relevant literature, and important technological limitations and future research directions. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Noninvasive evaluation of peripheral arterial disease.

    Barnes, R W


    Doppler ultrasound is the most simple, inexpensive, accurate and versatile of the available noninvasive screening techniques to assess peripheral vascular diseases. The four fundamental components of peripheral arterial evaluation with this technique are assessment of blood velocity signal, measurement of resting ankle pressure, determination of segmental leg blood pressures, and measurement of ankle pressure response to exercise or reactive hyperemia. Plethysmography permits graphic recording of pulse-wave morphology, determination of digit blood pressure, and pulsatile responses to compression maneuvers. These techniques are useful in objectively quantifying peripheral arterial occlusive disease, predicting the results of operative therapy, monitoring the success of arterial reconstruction during surgery, and following the physiologic status of the patient after surgery.

  14. Noninvasive fluid property measurements using acoustic methods.

    Forbush, Michael; Chow, Humphrey; Chiao, James; Rose, Andrew


    The properties of a fluid are normally determined using invasive methods. These methods may lead to possibly contaminating or consuming the sample. When only very small amounts of a valuable sample exist, noninvasive measurement methods are preferred. The properties of fluids can then be used to deduce additional properties based on known relationships. In one case, the surface tension of a fluid may be used to determine the concentration of a fluid. The authors describe a measurement technique involving excitation of the surface of the fluid and the measurement of its response. An acoustic wave is used to both excite and monitor the surface of the liquid. This technique is used to determine the concentration of DMSO and water in solution, and the result determines the amount of fluid needed to deliver an accurate amount of solute in solution.

  15. Simple noninvasive measurement of skin autofluorescence.

    Meerwaldt, Robbert; Links, Thera; Graaff, Reindert; Thorpe, Suzannne R; Baynes, John W; Hartog, Jasper; Gans, Reinold; Smit, Andries


    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus and renal failure. Several studies indicate that AGE accumulation in tissue may reflect the cumulative effect of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress over many years. Simple quantitation of AGE accumulation in tissue could provide a tool for assessing the risk of long-term complications. Because several AGEs exhibit autofluorescence, we developed a noninvasive autofluorescence reader (AFR). Skin autofluorescence measured with the AFR correlates with collagen-linked fluorescence and specific skin AGE levels from skin biopsy samples. Furthermore, skin autofluorescence correlates with long-term glycemic control and renal function, and preliminary results show correlations with the presence of long-term complications in diabetes. The AFR may be useful as a clinical tool for rapid assessment of risk for AGE-related long-term complications in diabetes and in other conditions associated with AGE accumulation.

  16. [Intermediate care units and noninvasive ventilation].

    Becker, Heinrich F; Schönhofer, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus


    Intermediate care units (IMC) have been introduced to provide optimal patient management according to disease severity and to bridge the gap between intensive care (ICU) and general wards. Most patients that are referred to an IMC need monitoring and intensive analgetic treatment. Over the past years noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and weaning have emerged as important new forms of active treatment in the IMC. Most studies that have been published so far demonstrate that an IMC improves patient outcome and lowers costs, although randomized controlled trials are missing. NIV reduces mortality, the need for intubation as well as ICU and hospital length of stay in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other disorders that cause respiratory failure. In many cases NIV can be performed in the IMC, a fact that reduces the number of ICU admissions, lowers costs and improves patient care. The high prevalence of pulmonary diseases and NIV emphasizes the importance of pneumologists as directors of both ICU and IMC.

  17. Communications receivers principles and design

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans


    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  18. Noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure

    Mas A


    Full Text Available Arantxa Mas, Josep MasipCritical Care Department, Consorci Sanitari Integral (CSI, Hospital Sant Joan Despí Moisès Broggi and Hospital General de l’Hospitalet, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: After the institution of positive-pressure ventilation, the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV through an interface substantially increased. The first technique was continuous positive airway pressure; but, after the introduction of pressure support ventilation at the end of the 20th century, this became the main modality. Both techniques, and some others that have been recently introduced and which integrate some technological innovations, have extensively demonstrated a faster improvement of acute respiratory failure in different patient populations, avoiding endotracheal intubation and facilitating the release of conventional invasive mechanical ventilation. In acute settings, NIV is currently the first-line treatment for moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation as well as for acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and should be considered in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory insufficiency, in difficult weaning, and in the prevention of postextubation failure. Alternatively, it can also be used in the postoperative period and in cases of pneumonia and asthma or as a palliative treatment. NIV is currently used in a wide range of acute settings, such as critical care and emergency departments, hospital wards, palliative or pediatric units, and in pre-hospital care. It is also used as a home care therapy in patients with chronic pulmonary or sleep disorders. The appropriate selection of patients and the adaptation to the technique are the keys to success. This review essentially analyzes the evidence of benefits of NIV in different populations with acute respiratory failure and describes the main modalities, new devices, and some practical aspects of the use of this technique. Keywords

  19. 21 CFR 870.5550 - External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive).


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker... § 870.5550 External transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive). (a) Identification. An external transcutaneous cardiac pacemaker (noninvasive) is a device used to supply a periodic electrical pulse intended to...

  20. [The study of noninvasive ventilator impeller based on ANSYS].

    Hu, Zhaoyan; Lu, Pan; Xie, Haiming; Zhou, Yaxu


    An impeller plays a significant role in the non-invasive ventilator. This paper shows a model of impeller for noninvasive ventilator established with the software Solidworks. The model was studied for feasibility based on ANSYS. Then stress and strain of the impeller were discussed under the external loads. The results of the analysis provided verification for the reliable design of impellers.

  1. Prediction of oesophageal varices in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis by non-invasive markers

    Gao, Lili; Li, Hanwei; Han, Jun; Zhang, Weihui


    Introduction Preliminary data suggested that non-invasive methods could be useful to assess presence of oesophageal varices (OV) in liver cirrhosis. The primary objectives were to investigate non-invasive markers for diagnosing and grading OV in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Material and methods This study included a total of 106 consecutive treatment-naive patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Results of physical examination, blood tests, and abdominal ultrasound scan (USS) were measured. Performance of non-invasive markers for OV was expressed as sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), accuracy, and area under the curve (AUC). Results Oesophageal varices were found in 54 (50.9%) and large OV in 28 of the 106 patients. Variables found to differ significantly between patients with any grade or large and without OV included increased spleen length, increased portal vein diameter, low platelet count, and low levels of albumin or low γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP) values. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed that spleen length (cutoff = 156.0) had AUC 0.753 (95% CI: 0.657–0.849), and high NPV (82.1%) to exclude any grade OV. Large OV could be excluded with NPV 70.6% by spleen length. Conclusions Predictive risk factors that use readily available laboratory results and ultrasound scan results may reliably identify esophageal varices in patients with PBC. PMID:28261290

  2. Acoustic radiation force imaging sonoelastography for noninvasive staging of liver fibrosis

    Carmen Fierbinteanu-Braticevici; Dan Andronescu; Radu Usvat; Dragos Cretoiu; Cristian Baicus; Gabriela Marinoschi


    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging as a noninvasive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients.METHODS: We performed a prospective blind comparison of ARFI elastography, APRI index and FibroMax in a consecutive series of patients who underwent liver biopsy for CHC in University Hospital Bucharest. Histopathological staging of liver fibrosis according to the METAVIR scoring system served as the reference. A total of 74 patients underwent ARFI elastography, APRI index, FibroMax and successful liver biopsy.RESULTS: The noninvasive tests had a good correlation with the liver biopsy results. The most powerful test in predicting fibrosis was ARFI elastography. The diagnostic accuracy of ARFI elastography, expressed as area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) had a validity of 90.2% (95% CI AUROC =0.831-0.972, P < 0.001) for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (F ≥ 2). ARFI sonoelastography predicted even better F3 or F4 fibrosis (AUROC = 0.993, 95% CI =0.979-1).CONCLUSION: ARFI elastography had very good accuracy for the assessment of liver fibrosis and was superior to other noninvasive methods (APRI Index,FibroMax) for staging liver fibrosis.

  3. Severe subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum secondary to noninvasive ventilation support in status asthmaticus

    Lara González García


    Full Text Available A 12-year-old male with status asthmaticus developed subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum. He was transferred to our unit, where he received noninvasive ventilation (NIV. This respiratory support technique is not an absolute contraindication in these cases. After 2 h on NIV, he worsened sharply and the subcutaneous emphysema got bigger suddenly. He needed invasive ventilation for 5 days. Final outcome was satisfactory. This case illustrates that it is mandatory to keep a high level of vigilance when using NIV in patients with air leaks.

  4. Immunoadjuvant Therapy and Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure in Lung Tuberculosis: A Case Study

    Flores-Franco, René Agustín; Olivas-Medina, Dahyr Alberto; Pacheco-Tena, Cesar Francisco; Duque-Rodríguez, Jorge


    Acute respiratory failure caused by pulmonary tuberculosis is a rare event but with a high mortality even while receiving mechanical ventilatory support. We report the case of a young man with severe pulmonary tuberculosis refractory to conventional therapy who successfully overcame the critical period of his condition using noninvasive ventilation and immunoadjuvant therapy that included three doses of etanercept 25 mg subcutaneously. We conclude that the use of etanercept along with antituberculosis treatment appears to be safe and effective in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis presenting with acute respiratory failure. PMID:26273486

  5. The role of invasive and non-invasive procedures in diagnosing fever of unknown origin.

    Mete, Bilgul; Vanli, Ersin; Yemisen, Mucahit; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Dagtekin, Hilal; Ozaras, Resat; Saltoglu, Nese; Mert, Ali; Ozturk, Recep; Tabak, Fehmi


    The etiology of fever of unknown origin has changed because of the recent advances in and widespread use of invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tools. However, undiagnosed patients still constitute a significant number. To determine the etiological distribution and role of non-invasive and invasive diagnostic tools in the diagnosis of fever of unknown origin. One hundred patients who were hospitalized between June 2001 and 2009 with a fever of unknown origin were included in this study. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from the patients' medical records retrospectively. Fifty three percent of the patients were male, with a mean age of 45 years. The etiology of fever was determined to be infectious diseases in 26, collagen vascular diseases in 38, neoplastic diseases in 14, miscellaneous in 2 and undiagnosed in 20 patients. When the etiologic distribution was analyzed over time, it was noted that the rate of infectious diseases decreased, whereas the rate of rheumatological and undiagnosed diseases relatively increased because of the advances in imaging and microbiological studies. Seventy patients had a definitive diagnosis, whereas 10 patients had a possible diagnosis. The diagnoses were established based on clinical features and non-invasive tests for 61% of the patients and diagnostic benefit was obtained for 49% of the patients undergoing invasive tests. Biopsy procedures contributed a rate of 42% to diagnoses in patients who received biopsies. Clinical features (such as detailed medical history-taking and physical examination) may contribute to diagnoses, particularly in cases of collagen vascular diseases. Imaging studies exhibit certain pathologies that guide invasive studies. Biopsy procedures contribute greatly to diagnoses, particularly for malignancies and infectious diseases that are not diagnosed by non-invasive procedures.

  6. Effect of noninvasive, positive pressure ventilation on patients with severe, stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis

    SHI Jia-xin; XU Jin; SUN Wen-kui; SU Xin; ZHANG Yan; SHI Yi


    Background This meta-analysis evaluated the effect of noninvasive,positive pressure ventilation on severe,stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods PUBMED,CNKI,Wanfang,EMBASE and the Cochrane trials databases were searched.Randomized controlled trials of patients with severe,stable COPD and receiving noninvasive positive pressure ventilation,compared with sham ventilation or no ventilation,were reviewed.The mortality,physiological and health related parameters were pooled to yield odds ratio (OR),weighted mean differences or standardized mean differences (SMD),with 95% confidence interval (C/).Results Eight parallel and three crossover randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria.Pooled analysis for parallel,randomized controlled trials showed noninvasive positive pressure ventilation:(1) Did not affect the 12-or 24-month mortality (OR 0.82,95% C/:0.48 to 1.41); (2) Improved the arterial carbon dioxide tension (SMD-0.88,95%C/:-1.43 to-0.34); (3) Did not improve forced expiratory volume in one second (SMD 0.20,95% C/:-0.06 to 0.46),maximal inspiratory pressure (SMD 0.01,95% C/:-0.28 to 0.29) or 6-minute walk distance (SMD 0.17,95% C/:-0.16 to 0.50); (4) Subgroup analysis showed noninvasive positive pressure ventilation improved the arterial carbon dioxide tension in hypercapnic patients.Pooled analysis for crossover randomized controlled trials did not show improvement in arterial blood gas or forced expiratory volume in one second with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation.Conclusions Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation improves the arterial carbon dioxide tension but does not improve the mortality,pulmonary function,or exercise tolerance and should be cautiously used in severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  7. Noninvasive probes of mitochondrial molecular motors

    Nawarathna, Dharmakeerthna; Claycomb, James


    We report on a noninvasive method of probing mitochondrial molecular motors using nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy. It has been found previously that enzymes in the plasma membrane, particularly H+ ATPase, result in a strong low frequency (less than 100 Hz) nonlinear harmonic response. In this study, we find evidence that molecular motors located in the inner membranes of mitochondria cause the generation of harmonics at relatively high frequencies (1 - 30 kHz). In particular, we find that potassium cyanide (KCN), a respiratory inhibitor that binds to cytochrome c oxidase and thus prevents transport of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane, suppresses the harmonic response. We observe this behavior in yeast (S. cerevisiae), a eucaryote that typically contains about 300 mitochondria, and B. indicas, a procaryote believed to be related to the ancient ancestor of mitochondria. Our current modeling efforts are focusing on a Brownian ratchet model of the F0 unit of ATP synthase, a remarkable molecular turbine driven by the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane.

  8. Where should noninvasive ventilation be delivered?

    Hill, Nicholas S


    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has assumed an important role in the management of certain types of respiratory failure in acute-care hospitals. However, the optimal location for NIV has been a matter of debate. Some have argued that all patients begun on NIV in the acute-care setting should go to an intensive care unit (ICU), but this is impractical because ICU beds are often unavailable, and it may not be a sensible use of resources. Also, relatively few studies have examined the question of location for NIV. One problem is that various units' capabilities to deliver NIV differ substantially, even in the same hospital. Choosing the appropriate environment for NIV requires consideration of the patient's need for monitoring, the monitoring capabilities of the unit, including both technical and personnel resources (nursing and respiratory therapy), and the staff's skill and experience. In some hospitals NIV is begun most often in the emergency department, but is most often managed in an ICU. Step-down units are often good locations for NIV, but many institutions do not have step-down units. With ICU beds at a premium, many hospitals are forced to manage some NIV patients on general wards, which can be safely done with more stable patients if the ward is suitably monitored and experienced. When deciding where to locate the patient, clinicians must be familiar with the capabilities of the units in their facility and try to match the patient's need for monitoring and the unit's capabilities.

  9. Therapeutic Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Gonsalvez, Irene; Baror, Roey; Fried, Peter; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a looming public health crisis that currently lacks an effective treatment. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation (NBS), particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), offers a promising alternative approach to pharmacological interventions for an increasing number of neurological and psychiatric conditions. The aim of this review is summarize data from therapeutic trials of NBS in AD and other dementing illnesses. Despite the potential of NBS, there is limited theoretical framework and a lack of guidelines for its applications to AD. Several published clinical trials failed to report key parameters of the interventions thus limiting the utility of the study to assess efficacy and safety. Our review concludes with some suggestions for future studies aimed to advance research into NBS as a potential treatment for the symptoms and disabilities caused by AD and to enable comparison of results across trials. Ultimately, appropriately powered, and controlled, multi-site randomized clinical trials will be needed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of NBS in AD.

  10. [Noncontact and noninvasive microwave biological measurements].

    Misawa, T; Kutsumi, Y; Tada, H; Kim, S S; Nakai, T; Miyabo, S; Hamada, T; Arai, I; Suzuki, T


    Without contact probes, the signals of small human body surface movements were obtained with microwave Doppler sensors using a two-phase interferometric method. The signals were then compared with mechanocardiographic records routinely obtained by contact transducers. Furthermore, this system was applied to patients wearing clothes. The study subjects consisted of 20 cardiac patients and 10 normal controls. 1. The microwave signals obtained in the cervical and precordial regions were similar to those of the mechanocardiographic recordings, such as the carotid pulse and jugular venous pulse tracings and the apexcardiogram. There was a significant correlation between left ventricular ejection time (LVET) obtained by microwave Doppler sensors and that by the carotid pulse tracing (r = 0.95). 2. The signals of the microwave Doppler sensor were obtained from the patients wearing clothes. The heart beat components were distinguished from respiratory motion and patients' movements using band-pass filters. These results suggest that this method is capable of evaluating cardiac function noninvasively and thus has a distinct advantage in the field of non-contact measurements.

  11. Early use of noninvasive techniques for clearing respiratory secretions during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercapnic encephalopathy

    Wang, Jinrong; Cui, Zhaobo; Liu, Shuhong; Gao, Xiuling; Gao, Pan; Shi, Yi; Guo, Shufen; Li, Peipei


    Abstract Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) might be superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs). Inefficient clearance of respiratory secretions provokes NPPV failure in patients with hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). This study compared CMV and NPPV combined with a noninvasive strategy for clearing secretions in HE and AECOPD patients. The present study is a prospective cohort study of AECOPD and HE patients enrolled between October 2013 and August 2015 in a critical care unit of a major university teaching hospital in China. A total of 74 patients received NPPV and 90 patients received CMV. Inclusion criteria included the following: physician-diagnosed AECOPD, spontaneous airway clearance of excessive secretions, arterial blood gas analysis requiring intensive care, moderate-to-severe dyspnea, and a Kelly–Matthay scale score of 3 to 5. Exclusion criteria included the following: preexisting psychiatric/neurological disorders unrelated to HE, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, upper airway obstruction, acute coronary syndromes, preadmission tracheostomy or endotracheal intubation, and urgent endotracheal intubation for cardiovascular, psychomotor agitation, or severe hemodynamic conditions. Intensive care unit participants were managed by NPPV. Participants received standard treatment consisting of controlled oxygen therapy during NPPV-free periods; antibiotics, intravenous doxofylline, corticosteroids (e.g., salbutamol and ambroxol), and subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin; and therapy for comorbidities if necessary. Nasogastric tubes were inserted only in participants who developed gastric distension. No pharmacological sedation was administered. The primary and secondary outcome measures included comparative complication rates, durations of ventilation and hospitalization, number of invasive devices/patient, and in-hospital and 1-year mortality

  12. Noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance

    Edward L. Hull, PhD


    Full Text Available The ENGINE study evaluated noninvasive skin fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS for detection of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT. The AGT detection performance of SFS was compared to fasting plasma glucose (FPG and hemoglobin A1C (A1C. The study was a head-to-head comparison of SFS to FPG and A1C in an at-risk population of 507 subjects, with no prior diagnosis of diabetes, each of whom received a 75 g, two-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Subjects were measured by SFS on multiple days in fasting and non-fasting states. SFS data were acquired and analyzed with the SCOUT DS® device (VeraLight, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Disease truth was AGT, defined as OGTT ≥ 7.8 mmol/L. Sensitivity, false positive rate (FPR, ROC area, and equal error rate (EER for detection of AGT were computed. The reproducibility of SFS and FPG was assessed. The AGT sensitivity of SFS at the device's recommended screening threshold of 50 was 75.2%, higher than that of FPG (thresholds of 5.6 mmol/L or 6.1 mmol/L and A1C (thresholds of 5.7% or 6.0%. The SFS FPR was 42.1%, comparable to an A1C threshold of 5.7% (FPR = 43.5%. The EERs of SFS, FPG and A1C were similar, as were the partial ROC areas for FPRs of 20–50%. The reproducibility of SFS was 7.7% versus 8.1% for FPG. SFS had similar AGT detection performance to FPG and A1C and is a viable alternative to screening individuals for AGT.

  13. [Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in postoperative period of tracheal surgery].

    De La Torre, C A; Hernández, F; Sanabria, P; Vázquez, J; Miguel, M; Luis, A L; Barrena, S; Aguilar, R; Ramírez, M; Hernández, S; Borches, D; Lassaletta, L; Tovar, J A


    Reconstructive surgery of the airway often means prolonged periods of intubation during the post-operatory period, increasing the needs for drugs and favoring the appearance of infectious complications. We present an original system of ventilatory support with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) using in patients subjected to reconstructive surgery of the airway. A retrospective study in patients undergoing reconstructive procedures of the airway in the year 2009 was carried out. We exclude those treated endoscopically and those who had vascular rings. The positive pressure mechanism used in the Surgery Critical Care Unit was a design made by the unit based on the circuit devised by Mapleson that provides optimum levels of ventilation without need for connection to a respiratory. We analyze the results, postoperatory intubation time, time dependent on NIPPV and medical treatment received. A total of 7 patients (1 Female and 6 Males) with median age of 1.6 (0.1-7.5) years were included. The diagnoses were: 4 subglottic stenosis, 2 had tracheal stenosis and 1 subcarinal stenosis with involvement of both principal bronchioles. The techniques used were: laryngotracheoplasty with costal cartilage graft (4), tracheoplasty with costal cartilage (1) and sliding tracheoplasty (2) with bilateral bronchoplasty in one of them. The mean time of nasotracheal intubation was 3 days, and mean time of NIPPV was 2.3. No patient required reintubation and none had infectious complications. Ventilatory support by VPPNI allows effective extubation in these patients, it being possible to maintain a safe airway. Infectious complications, frequent in prolonged intubations, were not observed in any of the cases.


    A. K. Esman


    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  15. Noninvasive prenatal testing: the future is now.

    Norwitz, Errol R; Levy, Brynn


    Prenatal detection of chromosome abnormalities has been offered for more than 40 years, first by amniocentesis in the early 1970s and additionally by chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the early 1980s. Given the well-recognized association between increasing maternal age and trisomy,1-3 the primary utilization of prenatal testing has been by older mothers. This has drastically reduced the incidence of aneuploid children born to older mothers.4 Although younger women have relatively low risks of conceiving a child with aneuploidy, the majority of pregnant women are in their late teens, 20s, and early 30s. As such, most viable aneuploid babies are born to these younger mothers.5 Invasive prenatal diagnosis (CVS and amniocentesis) is not a feasible option for all low-risk mothers, as these procedures carry a small but finite risk and would ultimately cause more miscarriages than they would detect aneuploidy. For this reason, a number of noninvasive tests have been developed-including first-trimester risk assessment at 11 to 14 weeks, maternal serum analyte (quad) screening at 15 to 20 weeks, and sonographic fetal structural survey at 18 to 22 weeks-all of which are designed to give a woman an adjusted (more accurate) estimate of having an aneuploid fetus using as baseline her a priori age-related risk. Ultrasound and maternal serum analysis are considered screening procedures and both require follow up by CVS or amniocentesis in screen-positive cases for a definitive diagnosis of a chromosome abnormality in the fetus. The ability to isolate fetal cells and fetal DNA from maternal blood during pregnancy has opened up exciting opportunities for improved noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT). Direct analysis of fetal cells from maternal circulation has been challenging given the scarcity of fetal cells in maternal blood (1:10,000-1:1,000,000) and the focus has shifted to the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA, which is found at a concentration almost 25 times higher than that

  16. 21 CFR 888.5890 - Noninvasive traction component.


    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.5890 Noninvasive traction component. (a... apparatus so that a therapeutic pulling force may be applied to the patient's body. (b)...

  17. Noninvasive Tests for Inflammatory Bowel Disease : A Meta-analysis

    Holtman, Gea A.; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Berger, Marjolein Y.


    BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is often nonspecific and overlaps with functional gastrointestinal disorders. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms, signs, noninvasive tests, and test combinations that can assist the clinician

  18. Noninvasive diagnosis of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Hye Ran Yang


    Full Text Available Because nonalcoholic steatohepatitis can progress towards cirrhosis even in children, early detection of hepatic fibrosis and accurate diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD are important. Although liver biopsy is regarded as the gold standard of diagnosis, its clinical application is somewhat limited in children due to its invasiveness. Noninvasive diagnostic methods, including imaging studies, biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, hepatic apoptosis, hepatic fibrosis, and noninvasive hepatic fibrosis scores have recently been developed for diagnosing the spectrum of NAFLD, particularly the severity of hepatic fibrosis. Although data and validation are still lacking for these noninvasive modalities in the pediatric population, these methods may be applicable for pediatric NAFLD. Therefore, noninvasive imaging studies, biomarkers, and hepatic fibrosis scoring systems may be useful in the detection of hepatic steatosis and the prediction of hepatic fibrosis, even in children with NAFLD.

  19. NIRS-based noninvasive cerebrovascular regulation assessment

    Miller, S.; Richmond, I.; Borgos, J.; Mitra, K.


    Alterations to cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been implicated in diverse neurological conditions, including mild traumatic brain injury, microgravity induced intracranial pressure (ICP) increases, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-measured regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) provides an estimate of oxygenation of the interrogated cerebral volume that is useful in identifying trends and changes in oxygen supply to cerebral tissue and has been used to monitor cerebrovascular function during surgery and ventilation. In this study, CO2-inhalation-based hypercapnic breathing challenges were used as a tool to simulate CBF dysregulation, and NIRS was used to monitor the CBF autoregulatory response. A breathing circuit for the selective administration of CO2-compressed air mixtures was designed and used to assess CBF regulatory responses to hypercapnia in 26 healthy young adults using non-invasive methods and real-time sensors. After a 5 or 10 minute baseline period, 1 to 3 hypercapnic challenges of 5 or 10 minutes duration were delivered to each subject while rSO2, partial pressure of end tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and vital signs were continuously monitored. Change in rSO2 measurements from pre- to intrachallenge (ΔrSO2) detected periods of hypercapnic challenges. Subjects were grouped into three exercise factor levels (hr/wk), 1: 0, 2:>0 and 10. Exercise factor level 3 subjects showed significantly greater ΔrSO2 responses to CO2 challenges than level 2 and 1 subjects. No significant difference in ΔPETCO2 existed between these factor levels. Establishing baseline values of rSO2 in clinical practice may be useful in early detection of CBF changes.

  20. Noninvasive ventilation in status asthmaticus in children: levels of evidence

    Silva,Paula de Souza; Barreto,Sérgio Saldanha Menna


    Objective To evaluate the quality of available evidence to establish guidelines for the use of noninvasive ventilation for the management of status asthmaticus in children unresponsive to standard treatment. Methods Search, selection and analysis of all original articles on asthma and noninvasive ventilation in children, published until September 1, 2014 in all languages in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus and SciELO, located using the search terms: "a...

  1. Non-invasive Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Hong, Hao; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo


    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold tremendous therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. Over the last decade, non-invasive imaging techniques have proven to be of great value in tracking transplanted hESCs. This review article will briefly summarize the various techniques used for non-invasive imaging of hESCs, which include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), fluorescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography...

  2. Selective therapeutic hypothermia: A review of invasive and noninvasive techniques

    David Straus; Vinay Prasad; Lorenzo Munoz


    OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic hypothermia is a promising treatment to prevent secondary neurologic injury. Clinical utility is limited by systemic complications of global hypothermia. Selective brain cooling remains a largely uninvestigated application. We review techniques of inducing selective brain cooling. METHOD: Literature review. RESULTS: Strategies of inducing selective brain cooling were divided between non-invasive and invasive techniques. Non-invasive techniques were surface cooling and c...

  3. UWB communication receiver feedback loop

    Spiridon, Alex; Benzel, Dave; Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Rosenbury, Erwin T.


    A novel technique and structure that maximizes the extraction of information from reference pulses for UWB-TR receivers is introduced. The scheme efficiently processes an incoming signal to suppress different types of UWB as well as non-UWB interference prior to signal detection. Such a method and system adds a feedback loop mechanism to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of reference pulses in a conventional TR receiver. Moreover, sampling the second order statistical function such as, for example, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the received signal and matching it to the ACF samples of the original pulses for each transmitted bit provides a more robust UWB communications method and system in the presence of channel distortions.

  4. Receiver-exciter controller design

    Jansma, P. A.


    A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.

  5. RFID receiver apparatus and method

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne


    An RFID backscatter interrogator for transmitting data to an RFID tag, generating a carrier for the tag, and receiving data from the tag modulated onto the carrier, the interrogator including a single grounded-coplanar wave-guide circuit board and at least one surface mount integrated circuit supported by the circuit board.

  6. LU Peizhang receives Golay Award


    @@ Prof. LU Peizhang, an analytical chemist with the CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, received the prestigious Golay Award at the 30th International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography opened on 5 June in Dalian, a port city in northeast China's Liaoning Province.

  7. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel


    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...

  8. Noninvasive analysis of human neck muscle function

    Conley, M. S.; Meyer, R. A.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Feeback, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.


    STUDY DESIGN. Muscle use evoked by exercise was determined by quantifying shifts in signal relaxation times of T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Images were collected at rest and after exercise at each of two intensities (moderate and intense) for each of four head movements: 1) extension, 2) flexion, 3) rotation, and 4) lateral flexion. OBJECTIVE. This study examined the intensity and pattern of neck muscle use evoked by various movements of the head. The results will help elucidate the pathophysiology, and thus methods for treating disorders of the cervical musculoskeletal system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Exercise-induced contrast shifts in T2 has been shown to indicate muscle use during the activity. The noninvasive nature of magnetic resonance imaging appears to make it an ideal approach for studying the function of the complex neuromuscular system of the neck. METHODS. The extent of T2 increase was examined to gauge how intensely nine different neck muscles or muscle pairs were used in seven subjects. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation was assessed to infer the pattern of use among and within individual neck muscles or muscle pairs. RESULTS. Signal relaxation increased with exercise intensity for each head movement. The absolute and relative cross-sectional area of muscle showing a shift in signal relaxation also increased with exercise load. Neck muscles or muscle pairs extensively used to perform each head movement were: extension--semispinalis capitis and cervicis and splenius capitis; flexion--sternocleidomastoid and longus capitis and colli; rotation--splenius capitis, levator scapulae, scalenus, semispinalis capitis ipsilateral to the rotation, and sternocleidomastoid contralateral; and lateral flexion--sternocleidomastoid CONCLUSION. The results of this study, in part, agree with the purported functions of neck muscles derived from anatomic location. This also was true for the few

  9. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Stephens, Donald R.


    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  10. Managing Medicare receivables after PIP.

    Loria, L S


    The luxury of PIP is gone and managing cash flow will become more important than ever before. The hospital industry has come a long way in the development of automated billing systems and related recordkeeping since PIP was first introduced. The performance of an operations review of the accounts receivable management system should improve the effectiveness and efficiency of operations and significantly improve cash flow.

  11. Non-invasive continuous arterial pressure monitoring with Nexfin does not sufficiently replace invasive measurements in critically ill patients.

    Hohn, A; Defosse, J M; Becker, S; Steffen, C; Wappler, F; Sakka, S G


    In this study, we tested the reliability of a non-invasive finger-cuff-based continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring device (Nexfin, BMEYE, Amsterdam, NL) in critically ill surgical patients. Invasive intra-arterial and non-invasive arterial pressure measurements from 25 patients during a 4-h period were compared at five time points. Correlation and linear regression analysis were used and mean bias, precision [sd of bias] and limits of agreement (LOA) [bias (2.0 sd)] were calculated using the Bland-Altman method. Eight data pairs were excluded because of error message from the non-invasive technique, and thus a total of 117 data pairs were analysed. Overall, correlation between mean arterial pressure (MAP) was r(2)=0.50. Bias, precision, and LOA between invasive and non-invasive MAP were 6 (12) and -18 to +30 mm Hg. In patients requiring norepinephrine (83 data pairs), correlation was r(2)=0.28 and bias, precision, and LOA were 6 (13) and -20 to +32 mm Hg, whereas in patients not receiving norepinephrine (34 data pairs) r(2) was 0.80 and mean bias, precision, and LOA were 6 (11) and -16 to +28 mm Hg. In patients with peripheral oedema (49 data pairs), r(2) was 0.40 and mean bias, precision and LOA were 7 (15) and -23 to +37 mm Hg. In patients without oedema (64 data pairs), r(2) was 0.66 and mean bias, precision, and LOA were 5 (9) and -13 to +23 mm Hg. Non-invasive blood pressure monitoring with Nexfin does not seem to be sufficiently accurate to replace intra-arterial invasive blood pressure measurements in critically ill patients.

  12. Diversity of MMSE MIMO Receivers

    Mehana, Ahmed Hesham


    In most MIMO systems, the family of waterfall error curves, calculated at different spectral efficiencies, are asymptotically parallel at high SNR. In other words, most MIMO systems exhibit a single diversity value for all {\\em fixed} rates. The MIMO MMSE receiver does not follow this pattern and exhibits a varying diversity in its family of error curves. This effect cannot be captured by DMT analysis, due to the fact that all fixed rates correspond to the same multiplexing gain, thus they cannot be differentiated within DMT analysis. This work analyzes this interesting behavior of the MMSE MIMO receiver and produces the MMSE MIMO diversity at each rate. The diversity of the quasi-static flat-fading MIMO channel consisting of any arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas is fully characterized, showing that full spatial diversity is possible for all antenna configurations if and only if the rate is within a certain bound which is a function of the number of antennas. For other rate brackets, the avail...

  13. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.


    The objective of this research grant was to develop an approach for labeling progenitor cells, specifically those that we had identified as being able to replace ischemic heart cells, so that the distribution could be followed non-invasively. In addition, the research was aimed at determining whether administration of progenitor cells resulted in improved myocardial perfusion and function. The efficiency and toxicity of radiolabeling of progenitor cells was to be evaluated. For the proposed clinical protocol, subjects with end-stage ischemic coronary artery disease were to undergo a screening cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) scan using N-13 ammonia to delineate myocardial perfusion and function. If they qualified based on their PET scan, they would undergo an in-hospital protocol whereby CD34+ cells were stimulated by the administration of granulocytes-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). CD34+ cells would then be isolated by apharesis, and labeled with indium-111 oxine. Cells were to be re-infused and subjects were to undergo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning to evaluate uptake and distribution of labeled progenitor cells. Three months after administration of progenitor cells, a cardiac PET scan was to be repeated to evaluate changes in myocardial perfusion and/or function. Indium oxine is a radiopharmaceutical for labeling of autologous lymphocytes. Indium-111 (In-111) decays by electron capture with a t{sub ½} of 67.2 hours (2.8 days). Indium forms a saturated complex that is neutral, lipid soluble, and permeates the cell membrane. Within the cell, the indium-oxyquinolone complex labels via indium intracellular chelation. Following leukocyte labeling, ~77% of the In-111 is incorporated in the cell pellet. The presence of red cells and /or plasma reduces the labeling efficacy. Therefore, the product needed to be washed to eliminate plasma proteins. This repeated washing can damage cells. The CD34 selected product was a 90

  14. Noninvasive Hemodynamic Measurements During Neurosurgical Procedures in Sitting Position.

    Schramm, Patrick; Tzanova, Irene; Gööck, Tilman; Hagen, Frank; Schmidtmann, Irene; Engelhard, Kristin; Pestel, Gunther


    Neurosurgical procedures in sitting position need advanced cardiovascular monitoring. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to measure cardiac output (CO)/cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume (SV), and invasive arterial blood pressure measurements for systolic (ABPsys), diastolic (ABPdiast) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are established monitoring technologies for these kind of procedures. A noninvasive device for continuous monitoring of blood pressure and CO based on a modified Penaz technique (volume-clamp method) was introduced recently. In the present study the noninvasive blood pressure measurements were compared with invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring, and the noninvasive CO monitoring to TEE measurements. Measurements of blood pressure and CO were performed in 35 patients before/after giving a fluid bolus and a change from supine to sitting position, start of surgery, and repositioning from sitting to supine at the end of surgery. Data pairs from the noninvasive device (Nexfin HD) versus arterial line measurements (ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) and versus TEE (CO, CI, SV) were compared using Bland-Altman analysis and percentage error. All parameters compared (CO, CI, SV, ABPsys, ABPdiast, MAP) showed a large bias and wide limits of agreement. Percentage error was above 30% for all parameters except ABPsys. The noninvasive device based on a modified Penaz technique cannot replace arterial blood pressure monitoring or TEE in anesthetized patients undergoing neurosurgery in sitting position.

  15. Acute effects of vascular modifying agents in solid tumors assessed by noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry and near infrared spectroscopy

    Kragh, Michael; Quistorff, Bjørn; Horsman, Michael R;


    The potential of noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect acute effects of different vascular-modifying agents on perfusion and blood volume in tumors was evaluated. C3H mouse mammary carcinomas (approximately 200 mm(3)) in the rear foot of CDF1 mice...... were treated with flavone acetic acid (FAA, 150 mg/kg), 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA, 20 mg/kg), combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate (CA4DP, 250 mg/kg), hydralazine (HDZ, 5 mg/kg), or nicotinamide (NTA, 500 mg/kg). Tumor perfusion before and after treatment was evaluated by noninvasive...... LDF, using a 41 degrees C heated custom-built LDF probe with four integrated laser/receiver units, and tumor blood volume was estimated by NIRS, using light guide coupled reflectance measurements at 800+/-10 nm. FAA, DMXAA, CA4DP, and HDZ significantly decreased tumor perfusion by 50%, 47%, 73...

  16. Chip Advancer For GPS Receiver

    Meehan, Thomas K.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Thomas, J. Brooks


    Instrument errors made negligible. For each integration interval, both delay and rate of change of delay initialized to small fraction of chip - for example, to order of 10 to the negative 7th power - thereby making feedback control and extraction of delay highly accurate and flexible. With appropriate selection of sampling rate relative to chip rate, commensurability errors reduced to extremely small levels. In Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, pseudorandom code sequence generated by simple digital logic incorporating effects of time, delay, and rate of change of delay. Flexibility in starting time and sum interval very useful in aligning correlation interval with beginnings and endings of data bits.

  17. Environmental Risk Factors in Patients with Noninvasive Fungal Sinusitis

    Badr Eldin Mostafa


    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of our study was to try to determine the possible environmental risk factors for noninvasive fungal sinusitis in Egyptian patients. Methods. This is a prospective epidemiological case control study on the environmental risk factors of noninvasive fungal sinusitis. It included 60 patients and 100 age and sex matched controls. Results. There was a statistically significant relation between apartment floor, surface area, exposure to dust, exposure to cockroaches, poor air conditioning, and fungal sinusitis. Yet, no statistical significance was found between allergy related occupations, exposure to animals or plants, although their percentages were higher among cases, smoking, and urban or rural residence. Conclusion. We suggest that for patients with noninvasive fungal sinusitis a change in their living environment must be implied with better exposure to sunlight, larger well ventilated homes, proper cleaning of dust and cockroach extermination, and if possible the judicious use of air conditioners.

  18. Technology for noninvasive mechanical ventilation: looking into the black box

    Ramon Farré


    Full Text Available Current devices for providing noninvasive respiratory support contain sensors and built-in intelligence for automatically modifying ventilation according to the patient's needs. These devices, including automatic continuous positive airway pressure devices and noninvasive ventilators, are technologically complex and offer a considerable number of different modes of ventilation and setting options, the details of which are sometimes difficult to capture by the user. Therefore, better predicting and interpreting the actual performance of these ventilation devices in clinical application requires understanding their functioning principles and assessing their performance under well controlled bench test conditions with simulated patients. This concise review presents an updated perspective of the theoretical basis of intelligent continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation devices, and of the tools available for assessing how these devices respond under specific ventilation phenotypes in patients requiring breathing support.

  19. Noninvasive screening tools for Down syndrome: a review

    Smith M


    Full Text Available Meagan Smith, Jeannie Visootsak Emory University, Department of Human Genetics, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Down syndrome is the leading cause of prenatal chromosome abnormalities, accounting for 53% of all reported chromosome conditions. Testing strategies, guidelines, and screening options have expanded from their conception in the 1970s, and now include such options as anatomical ultrasound, maternal serum screening, and noninvasive prenatal testing. This review summarizes all currently available noninvasive diagnostic techniques for the detection of Down syndrome. By understanding fully each technology and the possible alternatives, the physician will be able to provide their patients with all the information necessary to make an informed decision regarding their medical management. Keywords: Down syndrome, noninvasive screening, diagnostic techniques

  20. Noninvasive Physiologic Assessment of Coronary Stenoses Using Cardiac CT

    Lei Xu


    Full Text Available Coronary CT angiography (CCTA has become an important noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD. CCTA enables accurate evaluation of coronary artery stenosis. However, CCTA provides limited information on the physiological significance of stenotic lesions. A noninvasive “one-stop-shop” diagnostic test that can provide both anatomical significance and functional significance of stenotic lesions would be beneficial in the diagnosis and management of CAD. Recently, with the introduction of novel techniques, such as myocardial CT perfusion, CT-derived fractional flow reserve (FFRCT, and transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG, CCTA has emerged as a noninvasive method for the assessment of both anatomy of coronary lesions and its physiological consequences during a single study. This review provides an overview of the current status of new CT techniques for the physiologic assessments of CAD.

  1. Selective therapeutic hypothermia: A review of invasive and noninvasive techniques

    David Straus


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Therapeutic hypothermia is a promising treatment to prevent secondary neurologic injury. Clinical utility is limited by systemic complications of global hypothermia. Selective brain cooling remains a largely uninvestigated application. We review techniques of inducing selective brain cooling. METHOD: Literature review. RESULTS: Strategies of inducing selective brain cooling were divided between non-invasive and invasive techniques. Non-invasive techniques were surface cooling and cooling via the upper airway. Invasive cooling methods include transvascular and compartmental (epidural, subdural, subarachnoid and intraventricular cooling methods to remove heat from the brain. CONCLUSION: Selective brain cooling may offer the best strategy for achieving hypothermic neuroprotection. Non-invasive strategies have proven disappointing in human trials. There is a paucity of human experiments using invasive methods of selective brain cooling. Further application of invasive cooling strategies is needed.

  2. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    Jamin, Olivier


    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  3. Non-invasive brain stimulation in early rehabilitation after stroke.

    Blesneag, A V; Popa, L; Stan, A D


    The new tendency in rehabilitation involves non-invasive tools that, if applied early after stroke, promote neurorecovery. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation may correct the disruption of cortical excitability and effectively contribute to the restoration of movement and speech. The present paper analyses the results of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) trials, highlighting different aspects related to the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation frequency, transcranial direct current stimulation polarity, the period and stimulation places in acute and subacute ischemic strokes. The risk of adverse events, the association with motor or language recovery specific training, and the cumulative positive effect evaluation are also discussed.

  4. Systematic experimental exploration of bifurcations with noninvasive control.

    Barton, D A W; Sieber, J


    We present a general method for systematically investigating the dynamics and bifurcations of a physical nonlinear experiment. In particular, we show how the odd-number limitation inherent in popular noninvasive control schemes, such as (Pyragas) time-delayed or washout-filtered feedback control, can be overcome for tracking equilibria or forced periodic orbits in experiments. To demonstrate the use of our noninvasive control, we trace out experimentally the resonance surface of a periodically forced mechanical nonlinear oscillator near the onset of instability, around two saddle-node bifurcations (folds) and a cusp bifurcation.

  5. Minimally Invasive Surfactant Therapy and Noninvasive Respiratory Support.

    Kribs, Angela


    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) caused by surfactant deficiency is major cause for neonatal mortality and short- and long-term morbidity of preterm infants. Continuous positive airway pressure and other modes of noninvasive respiratory support and intubation and positive pressure ventilation with surfactant therapy are efficient therapies for RDS. Because continuous positive airway pressure can fail in severe surfactant deficiency, and because traditional surfactant therapy requires intubation and positive pressure ventilation, this entails a risk of lung injury. Several strategies to combine noninvasive respiratory therapy with minimally invasive surfactant therapy have been described. Available data suggest that those strategies may improve outcome of premature infants with RDS.

  6. Noninvasive Testing for Mucosal Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Iborra, Marisa; Beltrán, Belén; Nos, Pilar


    Biomarkers have gained increasing attention for the diagnosis and follow-up of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endoscopy remains the gold standard for assessing disease activity. Biomarkers are rapid, inexpensive, and noninvasive, and can be used in different stages of the disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Calprotectin and tests for C-reactive protein are used to assess the disease activity, predict relapse, and monitor treatment response. New noninvasive tests are being studied. This review discusses current evidence for these surrogate markers, their potential clinical applications, and limitations in disease management. We highlight recent advances in IBD biomarkers and future uses.

  7. Development of a Portable Non-Invasive Swallowing and Respiration Assessment Device

    Wann-Yun Shieh


    Full Text Available Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders.

  8. Development of a portable non-invasive swallowing and respiration assessment device.

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Wang, Chin-Man; Chang, Chia-Shuo


    Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR) to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG) to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders.

  9. Development of a Portable Non-Invasive Swallowing and Respiration Assessment Device †

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Wang, Chin-Man; Chang, Chia-Shuo


    Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR) to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG) to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders. PMID:26024414

  10. Non-invasive optical detection of esophagus cancer based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Chen, Weiwei; Lin, Duo; Huang, Lingling; Wu, Shanshan; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong


    A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) approach was utilized for urine biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a label-free and non-invasive optical diagnostic method for esophagus cancer detection. SERS spectrums were acquired from 31 normal urine samples and 47 malignant esophagus cancer (EC) urine samples. Tentative assignments of urine SERS bands demonstrated esophagus cancer specific changes, including an increase in the relative amounts of urea and a decrease in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of normal compared with EC. The empirical algorithm integrated with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to identify some important urine SERS bands for differentiation between healthy subjects and EC urine. The empirical diagnostic approach based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity at 527 to 1002 cm-1 and 725 to 1002 cm-1 coupled with LDA yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 72.3% and specificity of 96.8%, respectively. The area under the receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.954, which further evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity combined with LDA analysis. This work demonstrated that the urine SERS spectra associated with empirical algorithm has potential for noninvasive diagnosis of esophagus cancer.

  11. Application of magnetic resonance elastography as a non-invasive technique for diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    YANG Minglei


    Full Text Available At present, liver biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis and grading of liver fibrosis, but its limitations have been widely acknowledged. The non-invasive detection methods are needed in clinical practice, and at present, magnetic resonance elastography (MRE is a hot research topic. This article reviews the advances in the clinical application of MRE in related fields, and studies have shown that MRE has a high diagnostic value due to its high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis and grading of liver fibrosis and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve as high as 0.95. Compared with serological and other imaging diagnostic methods, MRE can determine fibrosis stage more accurately and has good reproducibility and objectivity. MRE can be widely applied in all patients except those with hemochromatosis, with special advantages in the diagnosis for patients with obesity and ascites, and can make up for the disadvantages of other methods. This article points out that MRE may become the best non-invasive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis, especially advanced fibrosis.

  12. Biomarkers identified by urinary metabonomics for noninvasive diagnosis of nutritional rickets.

    Wang, Maoqing; Yang, Xue; Ren, Lihong; Li, Songtao; He, Xuan; Wu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingting; Lin, Liqun; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao


    Nutritional rickets is a worldwide public health problem; however, the current diagnostic methods retain shortcomings for accurate diagnosis of nutritional rickets. To identify urinary biomarkers associated with nutritional rickets and establish a noninvasive diagnosis method, urinary metabonomics analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis were employed to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with nutritional rickets in 200 children with or without nutritional rickets. The pathophysiological changes and pathogenesis of nutritional rickets were illustrated by the identified biomarkers. By urinary metabolic profiling, 31 biomarkers of nutritional rickets were identified and five candidate biomarkers for clinical diagnosis were screened and identified by quantitative analysis and receiver operating curve analysis. Urinary levels of five candidate biomarkers were measured using mass spectrometry or commercial kits. In the validation step, the combination of phosphate and sebacic acid was able to give a noninvasive and accurate diagnostic with high sensitivity (94.0%) and specificity (71.2%). Furthermore, on the basis of the pathway analysis of biomarkers, our urinary metabonomics analysis gives new insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of nutritional rickets.

  13. Noninvasive measurement of pharmacokinetics by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in the eye of mice

    Dobosz, Michael; Strobel, Steffen; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Osl, Franz; Scheuer, Werner


    Purpose: For generating preclinical pharmacokinetics (PKs) of compounds, blood is drawn at different time points and levels are quantified by different analytical methods. In order to receive statistically meaningful data, 3 to 5 animals are used for each time point to get serum peak-level and half-life of the compound. Both characteristics are determined by data interpolation, which may influence the accuracy of these values. We provide a method that allows continuous monitoring of blood levels noninvasively by measuring the fluorescence intensity of labeled compounds in the eye and other body regions of anesthetized mice. Procedures: The method evaluation was performed with four different fluorescent compounds: (i) indocyanine green, a nontargeting dye; (ii) OsteoSense750, a bone targeting agent; (iii) tumor targeting Trastuzumab-Alexa750; and (iv) its F(-alxea750 fragment. The latter was used for a direct comparison between fluorescence imaging and classical blood analysis using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We found an excellent correlation between blood levels measured by noninvasive eye imaging with the results generated by classical methods. A strong correlation between eye imaging and ELISA was demonstrated for the F( fragment. Whole body imaging revealed a compound accumulation in the expected regions (e.g., liver, bone). Conclusions: The combination of eye and whole body fluorescence imaging enables the simultaneous measurement of blood PKs and biodistribution of fluorescent-labeled compounds.

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites as novel lipidomic biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Loomba, Rohit; Quehenberger, Oswald; Armando, Aaron; Dennis, Edward A


    Lipotoxicity is a key mechanism thought to be responsible for the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Noninvasive diagnosis of NASH is a major unmet clinical need, and we hypothesized that PUFA metabolites, in particular arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids, in plasma would differentiate patients with NAFL from those with NASH. Therefore, we aimed to assess the differences in the plasma eicosanoid lipidomic profile between patients with biopsy-proven NAFL versus NASH versus normal controls without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; based on MRI fat fraction eicosanoid and other PUFA metabolite levels between NAFL versus NASH versus normal controls. Utilizing a uniquely well-characterized cohort, we demonstrated that plasma eicosanoid and other PUFA metabolite profiling can differentiate between NAFL and NASH. The top candidate as a single biomarker for differentiating NAFL from NASH was 11,12-dihydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid (11,12-diHETrE) with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 1. In addition, we also found a panel including 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin D2 (dhk PGD2) and 20-carboxy arachidonic acid (20-COOH AA) that demonstrated an AUROC of 1. This proof-of-concept study provides early evidence that 11,12-diHETrE, dhk PGD2, and 20-COOH AA are the leading eicosanoid candidate biomarkers for the noninvasive diagnosis of NASH.

  15. Noninvasive treatments for iatrogenic priapism: Do they really work? A prospective multicenter study

    Habous, Mohamad; Elkhouly, Mohammed; Abdelwahab, Osama; Farag, Mohammed; Madbouly, Khaled; Altuwaijri, Talal; Spilotros, Marco; Bettocchi, Carlo; Binsaleh, Saleh


    Objectives: Intracorporeal injections (ICIs) of vasoactive substances during penile Doppler ultrasound (PDU) are a common investigation for erectile dysfunction (ED) diagnosis. ICI can be responsible of priapism, a pathological condition of prolonged penile erection not related to sexual stimulation. The aim of our study is to investigate the effectiveness of physical exercise and medical treatment as noninvasive therapy to restore detumescence in prolonged erections after ICI. Materials and Methods: Data were prospectively collected on men undergoing PDU in three urological centers. Three hundred and sixty-nine patients underwent PDU for the investigation of ED. All the participants received an ICI of quadrimix; prostaglandine E1, papaverine, phentolamine, and atropine. The data of the patients have been analyzed to record their comorbidities, results of PDU, and the complications encountered. Results: Fifty-three patients (14.4%) developed prolonged erections. Physical exercise alone was successful in reversing prolonged erection within 30 min in 21 (39.6%) patients. Out of the remaining 32 patients, oral salbutamol induced detumescence in 18 (34%) within the observation period of 60 min. Nonresponders were managed successfully with aspiration and irrigation of corpora with saline (11 patients, 20.75%) or with Phenylephrine (three patients, 5.66%). Conclusions: Physical exercise and oral salbutamol are safe and effective in restoring detumescence of pharmacologically-induced priapism. Noninvasive therapy may save a significant number of these patients an invasive treatment. PMID:27141191

  16. A cryogenic receiver for EPR.

    Narkowicz, R; Ogata, H; Reijerse, E; Suter, D


    Cryogenic probes have significantly increased the sensitivity of NMR. Here, we present a compact EPR receiver design capable of cryogenic operation. Compared to room temperature operation, it reduces the noise by a factor of ≈2.5. We discuss in detail the design and analyze the resulting noise performance. At low microwave power, the input noise density closely follows the emission of a cooled 50Ω resistor over the whole measurement range from 20K up to room temperature. To minimize the influence of the microwave source noise, we use high microwave efficiency (≈1.1-1.7mTW(-1/2)) planar microresonators. Their efficient conversion of microwave power to magnetic field permits EPR measurements with very low power levels, typically ranging from a few μW down to fractions of nW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CERN physicist receives Einstein Medal


    On 29 June the CERN theorist Gabriele Veneziano was awarded the prestigious Albert Einstein Medal for significant contributions to the understanding of string theory. This award is given by the Albert Einstein Society in Bern to individuals whose scientific contributions relate to the work of Einstein. Former recipients include exceptional physicists such as Murray Gell-Mann last year, but also Stephen Hawking and Victor Weisskopf. Gabriele Veneziano, a member of the integrated CERN Theory Team since 1977, led the Theory Division from 1994 to 1997 and has already received many prestigious prizes for his outstanding work, including the Enrico Fermi Prize (see CERN Courier, November 2005), the Dannie Heineman Prize for mathematical physics of the American Physical Society in 2004 (see Bulletin No. 47/2003), and the I. Ya. Pomeranchuk Prize of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow) in 1999.

  18. Effect of Naloxone combined with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy on blood gas indexes and serum indexes of COPD complicated with respiratory failure patients

    Zhi-Xin Huang


    Objective: To analyze effect of Naloxone combined with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy on blood gas indexes and serum indexes of COPD complicated with respiratory failure patients. Methods: 116 cases of COPD complicated with respiratory failure patients treated in our hospital from June 2012 to June 2014 were enrolled and randomly divided into observation group (58 cases) who received Naloxone combined with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy, and control group (58 cases) who received plain noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy. Then differences of blood gas indexes, serum inflammatory factor levels and serum prognosis-related factor levels of both groups were compared. Results: 1) after treatment, artery blood PaO2 and PH level of observation group were higher than those of control group; PaCO2 level was lower than that of control group (P<0.05); 2) after treatment, serum factor levels of IL-13, IL-18, sICAM-1, PGE2 and hs-CRP, etc of observation group were all significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05); 3) after treatment, serum α1-AT, D-Dimer and BNP levels of observation group were lower than those of control group; FT3 level was higher than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusion:Naloxone combined with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy helps to improve ventilation and oxygenation levels of COPD complicated with respiratory failure patients, reduce systemic inflammatory response and optimize prognosis-related indexes.

  19. Noninvasive Ambient Pressure Estimation using Ultrasound Contrast Agents -- Invoking Subharmonics for Cardiac and Hepatic Applications

    Dave, Jaydev K.

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are encapsulated microbubbles that provide a source for acoustic impedance mismatch with the blood, due to difference in compressibility between the gas contained within these microbubbles and the blood. When insonified by an ultrasound beam, these UCAs act as nonlinear scatterers and enhance the echoes of the incident pulse, resulting in scattering of the incident ultrasound beam and emission of fundamental (f0), subharmonic (f0/2), harmonic (n*f0; n ∈ N) and ultraharmonic (((2n-1)/2)*f0; n ∈ N & n > 1) components in the echo response. A promising approach to monitor in vivo pressures revolves around the fact that the ultrasound transmit and receive parameters can be selected to induce an ambient pressure amplitude dependent subharmonic signal. This subharmonic signal may be used to estimate ambient pressure amplitude; such technique of estimating ambient pressure amplitude is referred to as subharmonic aided pressure estimation or SHAPE. This project develops and evaluates the feasibility of SHAPE to noninvasively monitor cardiac and hepatic pressures (using commercially available ultrasound scanners and UCAs) because invasive catheter based pressure measurements are used currently for these applications. Invasive catheter based pressure measurements pose risk of introducing infection while the catheter is guided towards the region of interest in the body through a percutaneous incision, pose risk of death due to structural or mechanical failure of the catheter (which has also triggered product recalls by the USA Food and Drug Administration) and may potentially modulate the pressures that are being measured. Also, catheterization procedures require fluoroscopic guidance to advance the catheter to the site of pressure measurements and such catheterization procedures are not performed in all clinical centers. Thus, a noninvasive technique to obtain ambient pressure values without the catheterization process is clinically

  20. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for acute asthma in children

    Korang, Steven Kwasi; Feinberg, Joshua; Wetterslev, Jørn


    BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission among children and constitutes a significant economic burden. Use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in the care of children with acute asthma has increased even though evidence supporting the intervention......: To assess the benefits and harms of NPPV as an add-on therapy to usual care (e.g. bronchodilators and corticosteroids) in children with acute asthma. SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR). The Register contains trial reports identified through...... both studies as having high risk of bias; both trials assessed effects of bilateral positive airway pressure (BiPAP). Neither trial used continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Controls received standard care. Investigators reported no deaths and no serious adverse events (Grades of Recommendation...

  1. Method for noninvasive determination of acoustic properties of fluids inside pipes



    A method for determining the composition of fluids flowing through pipes from noninvasive measurements of acoustic properties of the fluid is described. The method includes exciting a first transducer located on the external surface of the pipe through which the fluid under investigation is flowing, to generate an ultrasound chirp signal, as opposed to conventional pulses. The chirp signal is received by a second transducer disposed on the external surface of the pipe opposing the location of the first transducer, from which the transit time through the fluid is determined and the sound speed of the ultrasound in the fluid is calculated. The composition of a fluid is calculated from the sound speed therein. The fluid density may also be derived from measurements of sound attenuation. Several signal processing approaches are described for extracting the transit time information from the data with the effects of the pipe wall having been subtracted.

  2. Noninvasive microbubble-based pressure measurements: a simulation study

    Postema, Michiel; Bouakaz, Ayache; Jong, de Nico


    This paper describes a noninvasive method to measure local hydrostatic pressures in fluid filled cavities. The method is based on the disappearance time of a gas bubble, as the disappearance time is related to the hydrostatic pressure. When a bubble shrinks, its response to ultrasound changes. From

  3. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne


    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT ha...

  4. Nanobiotechnology promotes noninvasive high-intensity focused ultrasound cancer surgery.

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Hangrong; Shi, Jianlin


    The successful cancer eradication in a noninvasive manner is the ultimate objective in the fight against cancer. As a "bloodless scalpel," high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is regarded as one of the most promising and representative noninvasive therapeutic modalities for cancer surgery. However, large-scale clinical applications of HIFU are still in their infancy because of critical efficiency and safety issues which remain to be solved. Fortunately, recently developed nanobiotechnology provides an alternative efficient approach to improve such important issues in HIFU, especially for cancer therapy. This Research News presents the very recent exciting progresses on the elaborate design and fabrication of organic, inorganic, and organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles for enhancing the HIFU ablation efficiency against tumor tissues. It is highly expected that this Research News can arouse more extensive research enthusiasm on the development of functional nanomaterials for highly efficient HIFU-based synergistic therapy, which will give a promising noninvasive therapeutic modality for the successful cancer therapy with minimal damage to surrounding normal tissues, due to the noninvasive and site-specific therapeutic features of HIFU.

  5. Muscle perfusion and metabolic heterogeneity: insights from noninvasive imaging techniques

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Kjaer, Michael


    Recent developments in noninvasive imaging techniques have enabled the study of local changes in perfusion and metabolism in skeletal muscle as well as patterns of heterogeneity in these variables in humans. In this review, the principles of these techniques along with some recent findings on fun...

  6. Eyeblink Conditioning: A Non-Invasive Biomarker for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Fox, Nathan A.


    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition,…

  7. Non-invasive terahertz field imaging inside parallel plate waveguides

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    We present a non-invasive broadband air photonic method of imaging of the electric field of THz pulses propagating inside a tapered parallel plate waveguide. The method is based on field-enhanced second harmonic generation of the fundamental laser beam in an external electric field. We apply...

  8. Successful Noninvasive Trisomy 18 Detection Using Single Molecule Sequencing

    van den Oever, Jessica M. E.; Balkassmi, Sahila; Johansson, Lennart F.; van Scheltema, Phebe N. Adama; Suijkerbuijk, Ron F.; Hoffer, Mariette J. V.; Sinke, Richard J.; Bakker, Egbert; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Boon, Elles M. J.


    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive trisomy 21 detection performed by use of massively parallel sequencing is achievable with high diagnostic sensitivity and low false-positive rates. Detection of fetal trisomy 18 and 13 has been reported as well but seems to be less accurate with the use of this approach. The

  9. Measuring and modulating the brain with non-invasive stimulation

    Munneke, M.A.M


    The overall goal of the studies in this thesis was the use of non-invasive brain stimulation for measuring and modulating corticospinal excitability and to study the possibility of therapeutic modulation of excitability in some neurological disorders. Brain modulation to reduce the over-excitability

  10. Non-invasive diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy

    van Mello, N.M.


    The work presented in this thesis begins with a focus on non-invasive diagnostic methods for ectopic pregnancy. The heterogeneity found in studies on diagnostic tests for ectopic pregnancy has led to an international recommendation on uniform definitions of early pregnancy complications. Hereafter,

  11. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise


    Background About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally

  12. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)


    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  13. Successful Noninvasive Trisomy 18 Detection Using Single Molecule Sequencing

    van den Oever, Jessica M. E.; Balkassmi, Sahila; Johansson, Lennart F.; van Scheltema, Phebe N. Adama; Suijkerbuijk, Ron F.; Hoffer, Mariette J. V.; Sinke, Richard J.; Bakker, Egbert; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Boon, Elles M. J.


    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive trisomy 21 detection performed by use of massively parallel sequencing is achievable with high diagnostic sensitivity and low false-positive rates. Detection of fetal trisomy 18 and 13 has been reported as well but seems to be less accurate with the use of this approach. The

  14. Potential diagnostic consequences of applying non-invasive prenatal testing

    Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Vogel, I; Ekelund, C


    OBJECTIVES: Targeted non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies and could be an alternative to traditional karyotyping. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of missing other abnormal karyotypes of probable phenotypic...

  15. The Role of Noninvasive Techniques in Stroke Therapy

    Daniel Maxwell Bernad


    Full Text Available Noninvasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS have provided insight into understanding how neural connections are altered in consequence to cerebrovascular injury. The first part of this review will briefly survey some of the methodological issues and limitations related to noninvasive poststroke motor recovery studies. The second section will investigate some of the different neural mechanisms that underlie neurorehabilitation in stroke patients. The third part will explore our current understanding of motor memory processing, describe the neural structures that subserve motor memory consolidation, and discuss the current literature related to memory reconsolidation in healthy adults. Lastly, this paper will suggest the potential therapeutic applications of integrating noninvasive tools with memory consolidation and reconsolidation theories to enhance motor recovery. The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate how noninvasive technologies have been utilized in the multidisciplinary field of clinical behavioral neuroscience and to highlight their potential to be employed as clinical tools to promote individualized motor recovery in stroke patients.

  16. Advantages of the Quadruple Screen over noninvasive prenatal testing.

    Keller, Nathan A; Rijshinghani, Asha


    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is becoming increasingly popular with some offering it as a primary screen option in all patients in place of serum screening. Serum screening offers insight into placental function, which NIPT does not. Abnormal levels of analytes in the serum screen have been associated with pregnancy complications.

  17. New developments in non-invasive coronary imaging

    Dikkers, Riksta


    Coronary artery disease, and especially ischemic heart disease, is a major concern in Western society. To reduce mortality and morbidity early detection and treatment is important. Ideally, early detection should be non-invasive, fast and cheap. Coronary angiography (CAG) is a reliable technique to

  18. Assessment of disease activity in muscular dystrophies by noninvasive imaging.

    Maguire, Katie K; Lim, Leland; Speedy, Sedona; Rando, Thomas A


    Muscular dystrophies are a class of disorders that cause progressive muscle wasting. A major hurdle for discovering treatments for the muscular dystrophies is a lack of reliable assays to monitor disease progression in animal models. We have developed a novel mouse model to assess disease activity noninvasively in mice with muscular dystrophies. These mice express an inducible luciferase reporter gene in muscle stem cells. In dystrophic mice, muscle stem cells activate and proliferate in response to muscle degeneration, resulting in an increase in the level of luciferase expression, which can be monitored by noninvasive, bioluminescence imaging. We applied this noninvasive imaging to assess disease activity in a mouse model of the human disease limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B (LGMD2B), caused by a mutation in the dysferlin gene. We monitored the natural history and disease progression in these dysferlin-deficient mice up to 18 months of age and were able to detect disease activity prior to the appearance of any overt disease manifestation by histopathological analyses. Disease activity was reflected by changes in luciferase activity over time, and disease burden was reflected by cumulative luciferase activity, which paralleled disease progression as determined by histopathological analysis. The ability to monitor disease activity noninvasively in mouse models of muscular dystrophy will be invaluable for the assessment of disease progression and the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions.

  19. Non-invasive imaging of human embryonic stem cells.

    Hong, Hao; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo


    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold tremendous therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. Over the last decade, non-invasive imaging techniques have proven to be of great value in tracking transplanted hESCs. This review article will briefly summarize the various techniques used for non-invasive imaging of hESCs, which include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), fluorescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and multimodality approaches. Although the focus of this review article is primarily on hESCs, the labeling/tracking strategies described here can be readily applied to other (stem) cell types as well. Non-invasive imaging can provide convenient means to monitor hESC survival, proliferation, function, as well as overgrowth (such as teratoma formation), which could not be readily investigated previously. The requirement for hESC tracking techniques depends on the clinical scenario and each imaging technique will have its own niche in preclinical/clinical research. Continued evolvement of non-invasive imaging techniques will undoubtedly contribute to significant advances in understanding stem cell biology and mechanisms of action.

  20. Non-invasive diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy

    van Mello, N.M.


    The work presented in this thesis begins with a focus on non-invasive diagnostic methods for ectopic pregnancy. The heterogeneity found in studies on diagnostic tests for ectopic pregnancy has led to an international recommendation on uniform definitions of early pregnancy complications. Hereafter,

  1. Noninvasive deep brain stimulation using focused energy sources

    Sierra, C. V. Rizzo


    A non-invasive methodological possibility for brain stimulation through the simultaneous use of an external energy beam and an existing brain imaging system such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is herein proposed; the main advantage is to confine the stimulation into a single brain a

  2. Calprotectin - A novel noninvasive marker for intestinal allograft monitoring

    Sudan, Debra; Vargas, Luciano; Sun, Yimin; Bok, Lisette; Dijkstra, Gerard; Langnas, Alan


    Objective: To identify a noninvasive screening test for intestinal allograft monitoring. Summary Background Data: Intestinal allograft rejection is difficult to distinguish from other causes of diarrhea and can rapidly lead to severe exfoliation or death. Protocol biopsies are standard for allograft

  3. New developments in non-invasive coronary imaging

    Dikkers, Riksta


    Coronary artery disease, and especially ischemic heart disease, is a major concern in Western society. To reduce mortality and morbidity early detection and treatment is important. Ideally, early detection should be non-invasive, fast and cheap. Coronary angiography (CAG) is a reliable technique to

  4. Noninvasive continuous monitoring of digital pulse waves during hemodialysis

    Burkert, Antje; Scholze, Alexandra; Tepel, Martin


    Intermittent hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis treatment is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal failure. A noninvasive method for continuous hemodynamic monitoring is needed. We used noninvasive digital photoplethysmography and an algorithm for continuous, investiga......Intermittent hemodynamic instability during hemodialysis treatment is a frequent complication in patients with end-stage renal failure. A noninvasive method for continuous hemodynamic monitoring is needed. We used noninvasive digital photoplethysmography and an algorithm for continuous......, investigator-independent, automatic analysis of digital volume pulse in 10 healthy subjects and in 20 patients with end-stage renal failure during the hemodialysis session. The reflective index was defined representing the diastolic component of the digital pulse wave. The properties of the reflective index...... were studied in healthy control subjects (n=10). An increased reflective index was due to increased peripheral pulse wave reflection (e.g., vasoconstriction). During a hemodialysis session, the reflective index increased significantly from 36+/-3 arbitrary units to 41+/-3 arbitrary units (n=20; p...

  5. Measuring and modulating the brain with non-invasive stimulation

    Munneke, M.A.M


    The overall goal of the studies in this thesis was the use of non-invasive brain stimulation for measuring and modulating corticospinal excitability and to study the possibility of therapeutic modulation of excitability in some neurological disorders. Brain modulation to reduce the over-excitability

  6. Evaluation of noninvasive cardiac output methods during exercise

    Moore, Alan D.; Barrows, Linda H.; Rashid, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.


    Noninvasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (Qc) will be used during future space flight. This retrospective literature survey compared the Qc techniques of carbon dioxide rebreathing (CO2-R), CO2 single breath (CO2-S), Doppler (DOP), impedance (IM), and inert gas (IG: acetylene or nitrous oxide) to direct (DIR) assessments measured at rest and during exercise.

  7. Non-invasive assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy

    van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Groen, Henk; Roberts, Claire; Dekker, Gus A.


    Objectives: Non-invasive assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy may be promising in evaluating maternal hemodynamic (mal)adaptation to pregnancy. We explored usage of applanation tonometry and Doppler ultrasound for assessment of cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR

  8. UWB based low-cost and non-invasive practical breast cancer early detection

    Vijayasarveswari, V.; Khatun, S.; Fakir, M. M.; Jusoh, M.; Ali, S.


    Breast cancer is one of the main causes of women death worldwide. Breast tumor is an early stage of cancer that locates in cells of a human breast. As there is no remedy, early detection is crucial. Towards this, Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a prominent candidate. It is a wireless communication technology which can achieve high bandwidth with low power utilization. UWB is suitable to be used for short range communication systems including breast cancer detection since it is secure, non-invasive and human health friendly. This paper presents the low-cost and non-invasive early breast cancer detection strategy using UWB sensor (or antenna). Emphasis is given here to detect breast tumor in 2D and 3D environments. The developed system consisted of hardware and software. Hardware included UWB transceiver and a pair of home-made directional sensor/antenna. The software included feed-forward back propagation Neural Network (NN) module to detect the tumor existence, size and location along with soft interface between software and hardware. Forward scattering technique was used by placing two sensors diagonally opposite sides of a breast phantom. UWB pulses were transmitted from one side of phantom and received from other side, controlled by the software interface in PC environment. Collected received signals were then fed into the NN module for training, testing and validation. The system exhibited detection efficiency on tumor existence, location (x, y, z), and size were approximately 100%, (78.17%, 70.66%, 92.46%), 85.86% respectively. The proposed UWB based early breast cancer detection system could be more practical with low-cost, user friendly and non-harmful features. This project may help users to monitor their breast health regularly at their home.

  9. Geographical distribution and intra-domiciliary capture of sylvatic triatomines in La Convención province, Cusco, Peru Distribuição geográfica e captura intra-domiciliar de triatomíneos silvestres na província de La Convención, Cusco, Peru

    Dina Beatriz Torres V.


    Full Text Available The geographical distribution and intra-domiciliary capture of sylvatic triatomines in three districts of the province of La Convención, Cusco, Peru are presented. In the district of Vilcabamba, eight adults of Rhodnius pictipes and five adults of Panstrongylus geniculatus were found. In the district of Ocobamba, 19 adults, 14 nymphs, and eggs of P. rufotuberculatus were found. In the district of Echarate, six adults and 10 nymphs of Eratyrus mucronatus, an adult of R. pictipes and P. geniculatus, and a nymph of P. rufotuberculatus were also found. The geographical distribution of E. mucronatus has extended to Cusco. This is the first report in Peru of household colonization by this triatomine.Apresenta-se a distribuição geográfica e captura intra-domiciliar de triatomíneos silvestres em três distritos da província de La Convención, Cusco, no Peru. Foram encontrados oito adultos de Rhodnius pictipes e cinco adultos de Panstrongylus geniculatus, no distrito de Vilcabamba, 19 adultos, 14 ninfas e ovos de P. rufotuberculatus no distrito de Ocobamba. Também foram encontrados seis adultos e 10 ninfas de Eratyrus mucronatus, um adulto de R. pictipes e P. geniculatus, e uma ninfa de P. rufotuberculatus no distrito de Echarate. A distribuição de E. mucronatus amplia-se geograficamente a Cusco. Este é o primeiro relato de domiciliação por este triatomíneo no Peru.

  10. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers.

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob


    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and strongly dependent on interaural transmission attenuation. Even though the tympanic middle ear has originated independently in the major tetrapod groups, in each group the ancestral condition probably was that the two middle ears were exposed in the mouth cavity with relatively high interaural transmission. Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural transmission and functionally isolated pressure receiver ears in the mammals. Since some of the binaural interaction already takes place at the eardrum in animals with strongly coupled ears, producing enhanced interaural time and level differences, the subsequent neural processing may be simpler. In robotic simulations of lizards, simple binaural subtraction (EI cells, found in brainstem nuclei of both frogs and lizards) produces strongly lateralized responses that are sufficient for steering the animal robustly to sound sources.

  11. Recent developments in superconducting receivers

    Richards, Paul L.


    A description is given of recent work at Berkeley on superconducting mixers and detectors for infrared and millimeter wavelengths. The first report is a review article which summarizes the status of development of superconducting components for infrared and millimeter wave receivers. The next report describes accurate measurements and also theoretical modeling of an SIS quasiparticle waveguide mixer for W-band which uses very high quality Ta junctions. The best mixer noise is only 1.3 times the quantum limit. Both the mixer gain and the noise are in quantitative agreement with the quantum theory. Next, a report is given on measurements and theoretical modeling of the absorptivity (surface resistance) of high quality epitaxial films of the high Tc superconductor YBCO from 750 GHz to 21 THz. Finally, there are reports on the design and experimental performance of two different types of high Tc bolometric detectors. One is a conventional bolometer with a gold-black absorber. The other is an antenna coupled microbolometer.

  12. Oxygen therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, or noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Park Marcelo


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of 3 types of noninvasive respiratory support systems in the treatment of acute pulmonary edema: oxygen therapy (O2, continuous positive airway pressure, and bilevel positive pressure ventilation. METHODS: We studied prospectively 26 patients with acute pulmonary edema, who were randomized into 1 of 3 types of respiratory support groups. Age was 69±7 years. Ten patients were treated with oxygen, 9 with continuous positive airway pressure, and 7 with noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation. All patients received medicamentous therapy according to the Advanced Cardiac Life Support protocol. Our primary aim was to assess the need for orotracheal intubation. We also assessed the following: heart and respiration rates, blood pressure, PaO2, PaCO2, and pH at begining, and at 10 and 60 minutes after starting the protocol. RESULTS: At 10 minutes, the patients in the bilevel positive pressure ventilation group had the highest PaO2 and the lowest respiration rates; the patients in the O2 group had the highest PaCO2 and the lowest pH (p<0.05. Four patients in the O2 group, 3 patients in the continuous positive pressure group, and none in the bilevel positive pressure ventilation group were intubated (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation was effective in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, accelerated the recovery of vital signs and blood gas data, and avoided intubation.

  13. Evidence of activation of vagal afferents by non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation: An electrophysiological study in healthy volunteers.

    Nonis, Romain; D'Ostilio, Kevin; Schoenen, Jean; Magis, Delphine


    Background Benefits of cervical non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) devices have been shown in episodic cluster headache and preliminarily suggested in migraine, but direct evidence of vagus nerve activation using such devices is lacking. Vagal somatosensory evoked potentials (vSEPs) associated with vagal afferent activation have been reported for invasive vagus nerve stimulation (iVNS) and non-invasive auricular vagal stimulation. Here, we aimed to show and characterise vSEPs for cervical nVNS. Methods vSEPs were recorded for 12 healthy volunteers who received nVNS over the cervical vagus nerve, bipolar electrode/DS7A stimulation over the inner tragus, and nVNS over the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. We measured peak-to-peak amplitudes (P1-N1), wave latencies, and N1 area under the curve. Results P1-N1 vSEPs were observed for cervical nVNS (11/12) and auricular stimulation (9/12), with latencies similar to those described previously, whereas SCM stimulation revealed only a muscle artefact with a much longer latency. A dose-response analysis showed that cervical nVNS elicited a clear vSEP response in more than 80% of the participants using an intensity of 15 V. Conclusion Cervical nVNS can activate vagal afferent fibres, as evidenced by the recording of far-field vSEPs similar to those seen with iVNS and non-invasive auricular stimulation.

  14. Non-invasive control of influence of polyethylene glycol on transport function of fluorescent colored liposomal nanoparticles

    Stelmashchuk, O.; Zherebtsov, E.; Zherebtsova, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Vinokurov, A.; Dunaev, A.; Mamoshin, A.; Snimshchikova, I.; Borsukov, A.; Bykov, A.; Meglinski, I.


    The studies were carried out on groups of clinically healthy mice line of outbred CD-1 stock. The model animals were divided into 2 groups and received experimental liposomal formulations. Using the method of fluorescence spectroscopy, we investigated the effectiveness of penetration into the circulatory system of fluorescently stained liposomes with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and without PEG when administered orally. Fluorescence channel with a fiber probe series of multifunctional laser non-invasive diagnostic system "LAKK-M" (SPE "LAZMA" Ltd, Russia) was used as the measuring equipment.

  15. Noninvasive pulse wave analysis for the determination of central artery stiffness

    Wittrock, Marc; Scholze, Alexandra; Compton, Friederike;


    Central artery stiffness predicts cardiovascular structural damage and clinical outcome. It is controversial whether central artery stiffness can be determined by noninvasive measurements. We compared noninvasive determination of central artery stiffness obtained from applanation tonometry of the...

  16. The Mechanism of Company Accounts Receivable Management

    Halyna Yamnenko


    Full Text Available The relevance of the accounts receivable management is caused by its ability to influence on the filling of the company working capital. Therefore it is necessary to create a specific mechanism for management of accounts receivable in the company. The article analyses the components of the mechanism and the influence of factors that significantly affect the operation. The result of the functioning of the accounts receivable management is to receive funds and to minimize accounts receivable.

  17. Noninvasive Subharmonic Pressure Estimation for Monitoring Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy


    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0503 TITLE: Noninvasive Subharmonic Pressure...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Noninvasive Subharmonic Pressure Estimation for Monitoring Breast Cancer Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy 5b. GRANT...SUBTITLE Noninvasive Subharmonic Pressure Estimation for Monitoring Breast Cancer 5. FUNDING NUMBERS W81XWH-08-1-0503 6. AUTHOR(S) Flemming

  18. Thermal resistance model for CSP central receivers

    de Meyer, O. A. J.; Dinter, F.; Govender, S.


    The receiver design and heliostat field aiming strategy play a vital role in the heat transfer efficiency of the receiver. In molten salt external receivers, the common operating temperature of the heat transfer fluid or molten salt ranges between 285°C to 565°C. The optimum output temperature of 565°C is achieved by adjusting the mass flow rate of the molten salt through the receiver. The reflected solar radiation onto the receiver contributes to the temperature rise in the molten salt by means of heat transfer. By investigating published work on molten salt external receiver operating temperatures, corresponding receiver tube surface temperatures and heat losses, a model has been developed to obtain a detailed thermographic representation of the receiver. The steady state model uses a receiver flux map as input to determine: i) heat transfer fluid mass flow rate through the receiver to obtain the desired molten salt output temperature of 565°C, ii) receiver surface temperatures iii) receiver tube temperatures iv) receiver efficiency v) pressure drop across the receiver and vi) corresponding tube strain per panel.

  19. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    Tsui, James


    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  20. ACMG statement on noninvasive prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy.

    Gregg, Anthony R; Gross, S J; Best, R G; Monaghan, K G; Bajaj, K; Skotko, B G; Thompson, B H; Watson, M S


    Noninvasive assessment of the fetal genome is now possible using next-generation sequencing technologies. The isolation of fetal DNA fragments from maternal circulation in sufficient quantity and sizes, together with proprietary bioinformatics tools, now allows patients the option of noninvasive fetal aneuploidy screening. However, obstetric care providers must become familiar with the advantages and disadvantages of the utilization of this approach as analysis of cell-free fetal DNA moves into clinical practice. Once informed, clinicians can provide efficient pretest and posttest counseling with the goal of avoiding patient harm. It is in the public's best interest that test results contain key elements and that laboratories adhere to established quality control and proficiency testing standards. The analysis of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation for fetal aneuploidy screening is likely the first of major steps toward the eventual application of whole fetal genome/whole fetal exome sequencing.

  1. Invasive and noninvasive methods for studying pulmonary function in mice

    Braun Armin


    Full Text Available Abstract The widespread use of genetically altered mouse models of experimental asthma has stimulated the development of lung function techniques in vivo to characterize the functional results of genetic manipulations. Here, we describe various classical and recent methods of measuring airway responsiveness in vivo including both invasive methodologies in anesthetized, intubated mice (repetitive/non-repetitive assessment of pulmonary resistance (RL and dynamic compliance (Cdyn; measurement of low-frequency forced oscillations (LFOT and noninvasive technologies in conscious animals (head-out body plethysmography; barometric whole-body plethysmography. Outlined are the technical principles, validation and applications as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each methodology. Reviewed is the current set of invasive and noninvasive methods of measuring murine pulmonary function, with particular emphasis on practical considerations that should be considered when applying them for phenotyping in the laboratory mouse.

  2. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo


    , but their low spatial resolution limits their validity ranges for the coefficients. To cover a wider range of coefficients, we use camera-based spectroscopic oblique incidence reflectometry. We develop a noninvasive technique for acquisition of apparent particle size distributions based on this approach. Our......Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed...... technique is validated using stable oil-in-water emulsions with a wide range of known particle size distributions. We also measure the apparent particle size distributions of complex dairy products. These results show that our tool, in contrast to those based on fiber probes, can deal with a range...

  3. Non-invasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal blood.

    Wagner, Jasenka; Dzijan, Snjezana; Marjanović, Damir; Lauc, Gordan


    Prenatal paternity analysis can be performed only after invasive sampling of chorionic villi or amnionic fluid. Aiming to enable noninvasive paternity testing, we attempted to amplify fetal alleles from maternal plasma. Cell-free DNA was isolated from plasma of 20 pregnant women and amplified with ampFLSTR Identifiler and ampFLSTR Yfiler kits. Unfortunately, autosomal fetal alleles were heavily suppressed by maternal DNA, and the only locus that was reliably amplified with AmpFLSTR Identifiler kit was amelogenin, which revealed only fetal gender. Much better success was obtained with AmpFLSTR Yfiler kit, which, in the case of male fetuses, successfully amplified between six and 16 fetal loci. All amplified fetal alleles matched the alleles of their putative fathers, confirming the tested paternity. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report of noninvasive prenatal paternity testing.

  4. Noninvasive intestinal amebiasis: Entamoeba histolytica colonization without invasion.

    Nair, Gayatri V; Variyam, Easwaran P


    Entamoeba histolytica infection remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although research with the organism began in the late nineteenth century, our understanding of the natural history of the infection remains incomplete and is heavily based on expert opinion. Most persons infected with E. histolytica are carriers with the organism colonizing the large intestine. Host defense mechanisms that prevent invasive diseases are poorly understood. A timely review could lead to renewed interest. We herein review 2012 and 2013 publications related to the epidemiology, diagnosis, management and potential mechanisms that enable noninvasive E. histolytica colonization without invasion. There are several publications that advance our knowledge in the first three categories listed above, but studies of mechanisms for noninvasive E. histolytica colonization are glaringly few.

  5. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.


    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  6. Noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) through maternal plasma DNA sequencing

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao


    Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we...... developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels...... paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future....

  7. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C


    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions,and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accuracy for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Based on available data, the performance of simple tests derived from routine laboratory parameters appears to be similar to that of more complex and expensive fibrosis panels. Transient elastography seems more accurate than blood tests for diagnosing cirrhosis.

  8. Noninvasive LV pressure estimation using subharmonic emissions from microbubbles.

    Dave, Jaydev K; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Raichlen, Joel S; Liu, Ji-Bin; McDonald, Maureen E; Dickie, Kris; Wang, Shumin; Leung, Corina; Forsberg, Flemming


    To develop a new noninvasive approach to quantify left ventricular (LV) pressures using subharmonic emissions from microbubbles, an ultrasound scanner was used in pulse inversion grayscale mode; unprocessed radiofrequency data were obtained with pulsed wave Doppler from the aorta and/or LV during Sonazoid infusion. Subharmonic data (in dB) were extracted and processed. Calibration factor (mm Hg/dB) from the aortic pressure was used to estimate LV pressures. Errors ranged from 0.19 to 2.50 mm Hg when estimating pressures using the aortic calibration factor, and were higher (0.64 to 8.98 mm Hg) using a mean aortic calibration factor. Subharmonic emissions from ultrasound contrast agents have the potential to noninvasively monitor LV pressures.

  9. Noninvasive optical inhibition with a red-shifted microbial rhodopsin.

    Chuong, Amy S; Miri, Mitra L; Busskamp, Volker; Matthews, Gillian A C; Acker, Leah C; Sørensen, Andreas T; Young, Andrew; Klapoetke, Nathan C; Henninger, Mike A; Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Ogawa, Masaaki; Ramanlal, Shreshtha B; Bandler, Rachel C; Allen, Brian D; Forest, Craig R; Chow, Brian Y; Han, Xue; Lin, Yingxi; Tye, Kay M; Roska, Botond; Cardin, Jessica A; Boyden, Edward S


    Optogenetic inhibition of the electrical activity of neurons enables the causal assessment of their contributions to brain functions. Red light penetrates deeper into tissue than other visible wavelengths. We present a red-shifted cruxhalorhodopsin, Jaws, derived from Haloarcula (Halobacterium) salinarum (strain Shark) and engineered to result in red light-induced photocurrents three times those of earlier silencers. Jaws exhibits robust inhibition of sensory-evoked neural activity in the cortex and results in strong light responses when used in retinas of retinitis pigmentosa model mice. We also demonstrate that Jaws can noninvasively mediate transcranial optical inhibition of neurons deep in the brains of awake mice. The noninvasive optogenetic inhibition opened up by Jaws enables a variety of important neuroscience experiments and offers a powerful general-use chloride pump for basic and applied neuroscience.

  10. High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System

    Talukder, Ashit; LaBaw, Clayton; Michael-Morookian, John; Monacos, Steve; Serviss, Orin


    The figure schematically depicts a system of electronic hardware and software that noninvasively tracks the direction of a person s gaze in real time. Like prior commercial noninvasive eye-tracking systems, this system is based on (1) illumination of an eye by a low-power infrared light-emitting diode (LED); (2) acquisition of video images of the pupil, iris, and cornea in the reflected infrared light; (3) digitization of the images; and (4) processing the digital image data to determine the direction of gaze from the centroids of the pupil and cornea in the images. Relative to the prior commercial systems, the present system operates at much higher speed and thereby offers enhanced capability for applications that involve human-computer interactions, including typing and computer command and control by handicapped individuals,and eye-based diagnosis of physiological disorders that affect gaze responses.

  11. Noninvasive Intracranial Volume and Pressure Measurements Using Ultrasound

    Hargens, A. R.


    Prevention of secondary brain injuries following head can be accomplished most easily when intracranial pressure (ICP) is monitored. However, current measurement techniques are invasive and thus not practical in the combat environment. The Pulsed Phase Lock Loop (PPLL) devise, which was developed and patented, uses a unique, noninvasive ultrasonic phase comparison method to measure slight changes in cranial volume which occur with changes in ICP. Year one studies involved instrument improvements and measurement of altered intracranial distance with altered ICP in fresh cadavera. Our software was improved to facilitate future studies of normal subjects and trauma patients. Our bench studies proved that PPLL output correlated highly with changes in path length across a model cranium. Cadaveric studies demonstrated excellent compact, noninvasive devise for monitoring changes in intracranial distance may aid in the early detection of elevated ICP, decreasing risk of secondary brain injury and infection, and returning head-injured patients to duty.

  12. Noninvasive respiratory management of high level spinal cord injury.

    Bach, John R


    This article describes noninvasive acute and long-term management of the respiratory muscle paralysis of high spinal cord injury (SCI). This includes full-setting, continuous ventilatory support by noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV) to support inspiratory muscles and mechanically assisted coughing (MAC) to support inspiratory and expiratory muscles. The NIV and MAC can also be used to extubate or decannulate 'unweanable' patients with SCI, to prevent intercurrent respiratory tract infections from developing into pneumonia and acute respiratory failure (ARF), and to eliminate tracheostomy and resort to costly electrophrenic/diaphragm pacing (EPP/DP) for most ventilator users, while permitting glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) for security in the event of ventilator failure.

  13. Subharmonic microbubble emissions for noninvasively tracking right ventricular pressures

    Dave, Jaydev K.; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R.; Raichlen, Joel S; Liu, Ji-Bin; McDonald, Maureen E.; Dickie, Kris; Wang, Shumin; Leung, Corina; Forsberg, Flemming


    Right heart catheterization is often required to monitor intra-cardiac pressures in a number of disease states. Ultrasound contrast agents can produce pressure modulated subharmonic emissions that may be used to estimate right ventricular (RV) pressures. A technique based on subharmonic acoustic emissions from ultrasound contrast agents to track RV pressures noninvasively has been developed and its clinical potential evaluated. The subharmonic signals were obtained from the aorta, RV, and rig...

  14. Non-invasive matrices in human biomonitoring: a review.

    Esteban, Marta; Castaño, Argelia


    Humans and other living organisms are exposed to a variety of chemical pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. Environmental pollutants are incorporated into the organism by different routes and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, which leads to an internal concentration that can induce different alterations, adverse effects and/or diseases. Control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biomonitoring is a very useful tool that can contribute to this aim. Human biomonitoring uses different matrices to measure the target chemicals depending on the chemical, the amount of matrix necessary for the analysis and the detection limit (LOD) of the analytical technique. Blood is the ideal matrix for most chemicals due to its contact with the whole organism and its equilibrium with organs and tissues where chemicals are stored. However, it has an important disadvantage of being an invasive matrix. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of other matrices that are less or non-invasive, such as saliva, urine, meconium, nails, hair, and semen or breast milk. The presence of a chemical in these matrices reflects an exposure, but correlations between levels in non-invasive matrices and blood must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. The development of new biomarkers that are measurable in these matrices will improve non-invasive biomonitoring. This paper reviews studies that measure Cd, Pb, Hg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides and phthalates in non-invasive matrices, the most used techniques for measurements and what alternative techniques are available.

  15. Can noninvasive brain stimulation enhance function in the ageing brain?

    Vallence, Ann-Maree; Goldsworthy, Mitchell R


    Advancing age is associated with cognitive and motor performance deficits and a reduced capacity for plasticity. Zimerman and colleagues (Zimerman M, Nitsch M, Giraux P, Gerloff C, Cohen LG, Hummel FC. Ann Neurol 73: 10-15, 2013) have recently shown that noninvasive brain stimulation can enhance behavioral improvements following training on a motor sequence task in older adults. The work is of high clinical importance given the rapidly growing ageing population and the accompanying costs to health systems globally.

  16. Noninvasive Inguinal Approach for Cryptorchidectomy in Thirty-eight Stallions

    Arighi, Mimi; Horney, J. Donald; Bosu, William T. K.


    We describe the results of the noninvasive inguinal approach in 38 cases of cryptorchidism. Whether the retained testis was intra-abdominal or in the inguinal canal, this technique was found to be an easy, reliable method of locating abdominal and inguinal testes through a normal body opening. No postoperative complications were recorded in this series of cases and the postoperative rest period was minimal. PMID:17423023

  17. A novel homologous model for noninvasive monitoring of endometriosis progression.

    Ferrero, Hortensia; Buigues, Anna; Martínez, Jessica; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; Gómez, Raúl


    To date, several groups have generated homologous models of endometriosis through the implantation of endometrial tissue fluorescently labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP) or tissue from luciferase-expressing transgenic mice into recipient animals, enabling noninvasive monitoring of lesion signal. These models present an advantage over endpoint models, but some limitations persist; use of transgenic mice is laborious and expensive, and GFP presents poor tissue penetration due to the relatively short emission wavelength. For this reason, a homologous mouse model of endometriosis that allows in vivo monitoring of generated lesions over time and mimics human lesions in recipient mice would be most desirable. In this regard, using C57BL/6 and B6N-Tyrc-Brd/BrdCrCrl mice, we optimized a decidualization protocol to obtain large volumes of decidual endometrium and mimic human lesions. Subsequently, to obtain a more robust and reliable noninvasive monitoring of lesions, we used the fluorescent reporter mCherry, which presents deeper tissue penetration and higher photostability, showing that endometrial tissue was properly labeled with 1 × 108 PFU/mL mCherry adenoviral vectors. mCherry-labeled endometriotic tissue was implanted in recipient mice, generating lesions that displayed characteristics typical of human endometriotic lesions, such as epithelial cells forming glands, local inflammation, collagen deposits, and new vessel formation. In vivo monitoring demonstrated that subcutaneous implantation on ventral abdomen of recipient mice provided the most intense and reliable signal for noninvasive lesion monitoring over a period of at least 20 days. This homologous model improves upon previously reported models of endometriosis and provides opportunities to study mechanism underlying endometriotic lesion growth and progression. We created a cost-effective but accurate homologous mouse model of endometriosis that allows the study of growth and progression of

  18. Noninvasive Temperature Measurement Based on Microwave Temperature Sensor

    Shoucheng Ding


    In this study, we have a research of the noninvasive temperature measurement based on microwave temperature sensor. Moreover, in order to solve the surface temperature measurement for designing microwave temperature sensor, the microwave was issued by the transmitting antenna. Microwave encountered by the measured object to return back to the measured object and then convert it into electrical signals, the use of the quantitative relationship between this signal and input noise temperature to...

  19. Non-invasive fluid density and viscosity measurement

    Sinha, Dipen N.


    The noninvasively measurement of the density and viscosity of static or flowing fluids in a section of pipe such that the pipe performs as the sensing apparatus, is described. Measurement of a suitable structural vibration resonance frequency of the pipe and the width of this resonance permits the density and viscosity to be determined, respectively. The viscosity may also be measured by monitoring the decay in time of a vibration resonance in the pipe.

  20. Invasive versus non-invasive diagnosis of renal bone disease.

    Fournier, A; Oprisiu, R; Said, S; Sechet, A; Ghazali, A; Marié, A; el Esper, I; Brazier, M; Achard, J M; Morinière, P


    At present, bone histomorphometry remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of the various types of renal bone disease. In the search for a non-invasive method of diagnosis, biochemical serum markers of bone remodelling, in addition to serum intact parathyroid hormone and aluminium determinations, have been proposed as the most reliable tools and are at present widely used in clinical practice. Their respective diagnostic values, as separate items and in combined analysis, are thoroughly discussed in the present review.

  1. Non-invasive prediction of oesophageal varices in cirrhosis

    Sambit Sen; William JH Griffiths


    Non-invasive predictors of varices in cirrhosis would reduce the need for screening endoscopies. Platelet count and spleen size have been shown to be useful parameters, in mixed groups of cirrhotics with different aetiologies. We evaluated this in two homogeneous groups with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C and alcohol.Non-invasive predictors appear promising in the former group, but less so in the latter group.

  2. Noninvasive glucose monitoring using saliva nano-biosensor

    Wenjun Zhang


    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide live with diabetes and several millions die from it each year. A noninvasive, painless method of glucose testing would highly improve compliance and glucose control while reducing complications and overall disease management costs. To provide accurate, low cost, and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a unique, disposable saliva nano-biosensor. More than eight clinical trials on real-time noninvasive salivary glucose monitoring were carried out on two healthy individuals (a 2–3 h-period for each trial, including both regular food and standard glucose beverage intake with more than 35 saliva samples obtained. Excellent clinical accuracy was revealed as compared to the UV Spectrophotometer. By measuring subjects’ salivary glucose and blood glucose in parallel, we found the two generated profiles share the same fluctuation trend but the correlation between them is individual dependent. There is a time lag between the peak glucose values from blood and from saliva. However, the correlation between the two glucose values at fasting is constant for each person enabling noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes through saliva instead of blood. Furthermore, a good correlation of glucose levels in saliva and in blood before and 2 h after glucose intake was observed. Glucose monitoring before and 2 h after meals is usually prescribed by doctors for diabetic patients. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real-time salivary glucose tracking at any time.

  3. Bioelectrical Impedance Methods for Noninvasive Health Monitoring: A Review

    Tushar Kanti Bera


    Full Text Available Under the alternating electrical excitation, biological tissues produce a complex electrical impedance which depends on tissue composition, structures, health status, and applied signal frequency, and hence the bioelectrical impedance methods can be utilized for noninvasive tissue characterization. As the impedance responses of these tissue parameters vary with frequencies of the applied signal, the impedance analysis conducted over a wide frequency band provides more information about the tissue interiors which help us to better understand the biological tissues anatomy, physiology, and pathology. Over past few decades, a number of impedance based noninvasive tissue characterization techniques such as bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, electrical impedance plethysmography (IPG, impedance cardiography (ICG, and electrical impedance tomography (EIT have been proposed and a lot of research works have been conducted on these methods for noninvasive tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. In this paper BIA, EIS, IPG, ICG, and EIT techniques and their applications in different fields have been reviewed and technical perspective of these impedance methods has been presented. The working principles, applications, merits, and demerits of these methods has been discussed in detail along with their other technical issues followed by present status and future trends.

  4. Noninvasive Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children

    Sibylle Koletzko


    Full Text Available Noninvasive tests can be used for the initial diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and to monitor the success of eradication therapy. In populations with a low prevalence of H pylori infection (children living in North America and Europe, a high sensitivity is required to make the test valuable for clinical practice. The 13C-urea breath test has been validated in children of different age groups in a significant number of infected and noninfected children in several countries and, thus far, is the only noninvasive test that fulfills sensitivity and specificity quality standards. In studies to date, enzyme immunoassays using monoclonal antibodies to detect H pylori antigen in stool provide excellent results, but the number of children tested, particularly post-treatment, is not sufficient to recommend the test. All other noninvasive stool tests or methods based on the detection of specific antibodies in serum, whole blood, urine or saliva have limited accuracy in comparison with the 13C-urea breath test. Therefore, these tests cannot be recommended for clinical decision making in pediatric patients.

  5. Invasive and non-invasive methods for cardiac output measurement

    Lavdaniti M.


    Full Text Available The hemodynamic status monitoring of high-risk surgical patients and critically ill patients inIntensive Care Units is one of the main objectives of their therapeutic management. Cardiac output is one of the mostimportant parameters for cardiac function monitoring, providing an estimate of whole body perfusion oxygen deliveryand allowing for an understanding of the causes of high blood pressure. The purpose of the present review is thedescription of cardiac output measurement methods as presented in the international literature. The articles documentthat there are many methods of monitoring the hemodynamic status of patients, both invasive and non-invasive, themost popular of which is thermodilution. The invasive methods are the Fick method and thermodilution, whereasthe non-invasive methods are oeshophaegeal Doppler, transoesophageal echocardiography, lithium dilution, pulsecontour, partial CO2 rebreathing and thoracic electrical bioimpedance. All of them have their advantages and disadvantages,but thermodilution is the golden standard for critical patients, although it does entail many risks. The idealsystem for cardiac output monitoring would be non-invasive, easy to use, reliable and compatible in patients. A numberof research studies have been carried out in clinical care settings, by nurses as well as other health professionals, for thepurpose of finding a method of measurement that would have the least disadvantages. Nevertheless, the thermodilutiontechnique remains the most common approach in use today.

  6. Noninvasive tissue temperature estimation using nonlinear ultrasound harmonics

    Maraghechi, Borna; Kolios, Michael C.; Tavakkoli, Jahan


    Non-invasive tissue temperature estimation is important in thermal therapies for having an efficient treatment. A noninvasive ultrasonic technique for monitoring tissue temperature changes is proposed based on the changes in the harmonics of ultrasound backscatter as a function of temperature. The backscattered pressure amplitudes of the fundamental frequency (p1), the second (p2) and the third (p3) harmonics generated by nonlinear ultrasound propagation and the ratios of the second and the third harmonics over the fundamental frequency (p2/p1 and p3/p1) were investigated as a function of temperature. The acoustic harmonics were generated and detected with a commercial high frequency ultrasound imaging system in pulse-echo mode. The experiments were performed on tissue-mimicking gel phantoms and ex vivo bovine muscle tissues. The temperature was increased from 26°C to 46°C in increments of 2°C. The average values of p1, p2, p3, p2/p1, p3/p1 increased by 14%, 50%, 117%, 37% and 92% for the gel phantoms, and for the tissue samples increased by 29%, 50%, 170%, 10% and 109%, respectively. The results indicate that the harmonic amplitudes and their ratios are highly sensitive to propagation medium's temperature and could potentially be used for noninvasive ultrasound thermometry.

  7. Multimodality Noninvasive Imaging in the Monitoring of Pediatric Heart Transplantation.

    Kindel, Steven J; Hsu, Hao H; Hussain, Tarique; Johnson, Jonathan N; McMahon, Colin J; Kutty, Shelby


    Orthotopic heart transplantation is a well-established and effective therapeutic option for children with end-stage heart failure. Multiple modalities, including noninvasive cardiac imaging, cardiac catheterization, angiography, and endomyocardial biopsy, are helpful to monitor these patients for graft dysfunction, rejection, and vasculopathy. Because of morbidities associated with invasive monitoring, noninvasive imaging plays a key role in the surveillance and evaluation of symptoms in pediatric transplant recipients. Echocardiography with or without stress augmentation may provide serial data on systolic and diastolic function, ventricular deformation, and tissue characteristics in children after transplantation. Although not perfectly sensitive or specific, advanced two- and three-dimensional echocardiographic detection of functional changes in cardiac grafts may allow early recognition of allograft rejection. Magnetic resonance imaging has shown promise for characterization of edema and scar and myocardial perfusion reserve, as well as potential application for the detection of microvasculopathic changes in the transplanted heart. Cardiac computed tomography is particularly well suited for the demonstration of coronary artery dimensions and anatomic residual lesions. In combination, these noninvasive imaging techniques help the transplantation cardiologist screen for graft dysfunction, detect critical graft events, and identify situations that require invasive testing of the transplanted heart. Advanced multimodality imaging techniques are likely to increasingly shape the monitoring practices for children following heart transplantation. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Noninvasive Respiratory Management of Patients With Neuromuscular Disease.

    Bach, John R


    This review article describes definitive noninvasive respiratory management of respiratory muscle dysfunction to eliminate need to resort to tracheotomy. In 2010 clinicians from 22 centers in 18 countries reported 1,623 spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis users of noninvasive ventilatory support (NVS) of whom 760 required it continuously (CNVS). The CNVS sustained their lives by over 3,000 patient-years without resort to indwelling tracheostomy tubes. These centers have now extubated at least 74 consecutive ventilator unweanable patients with DMD, over 95% of CNVS-dependent patients with SMA1, and hundreds of others with advanced neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) without resort to tracheotomy. Two centers reported a 99% success rate at extubating 258 ventilator unweanable patients without resort to tracheotomy. Patients with myopathic or lower motor neuron disorders can be managed noninvasively by up to CNVS, indefinitely, despite having little or no measurable vital capacity, with the use of physical medicine respiratory muscle aids. Ventilator-dependent patients can be decannulated of their tracheostomy tubes.

  9. The First Six ALMA Band 10 Receivers

    Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kroug, M.; Kaneko, K.; Miyachi, A.; Yokoshima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Ogawa, H.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Uzawa, Y.


    The first six Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers have been developed and characterized during the receiver preproduction phase. State-of-the-art measurement systems at THz frequencies have been implemented and successfully used to measure the performance of the first six receivers. Extensive tests ranging from receiver sensitivity and stability to optical aperture efficiency on the secondary antenna have been performed. Performance of all six receivers is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. Moreover, our extensive tests have shown that there are no big performance differences between receivers. These results indicate that the ALMA Band 10 receiver is ready for the production phase, during which an additional 67 receivers will be produced and characterized.

  10. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.


    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  11. 49 CFR 236.730 - Coil, receiver.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coil, receiver. 236.730 Section 236.730 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Coil, receiver. Concentric layers of insulated wire wound around the core of a receiver of an...

  12. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a...

  13. In situ noninvasive study of artworks: the MOLAB multitechnique approach.

    Miliani, Costanza; Rosi, Francesca; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Sgamellotti, Antonio


    Driven by the need to study precious and irreplaceable artworks without compromising their integrity, researchers have undertaken numerous efforts to develop noninvasive analytical tools and methodologies that can provide a chemical description of cultural heritage materials without any contact with the object. The challenge is that artworks are made of complex mixtures, often with heterogeneous and unknown layered materials. Their components must be identified over a range of size scales, from the molecular identification of constituent compounds to the mapping of alteration phases. In this Account, we review recent research in spectroscopic techniques accessible from the mobile laboratory (MOLAB). The lab is equipped with an array of state-of-the-art, portable, and noninvasive instruments specifically tailored to tackle the different issues confronted by archaeologists, curators, and conservators. The MOLAB approach is suitable for studying a variety of objects, from ceramics to manuscripts or from historical wall paintings to contemporary canvases. We begin by discussing issues related to the acquisition and interpretation of reflectance or backscattered spectra from the surface of heterogeneous materials. Then we show how the selectivity needed for the noninvasive identification of pigments in paintings, even in mixtures or in layered matrices, can be acquired by combining elemental information from X-ray fluorescence with molecular and structural insights from electronic and vibrational spectroscopies. Discriminating between original pigments and restoration retouches is possible, even when both comprise similar chromophores, as highlighted in the study of paintings by Jordaens and Raphael. The noninvasive approach permits the examination of a very large number of artworks with a virtually limitless number of measurements. Thus, unexpected and uncommon features may be uncovered, as in the case of a lead pyroantimonate yellow doped with zinc that was discovered

  14. Noninvasive ventilation for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure: intubation rate in an experienced unit.

    Contou, Damien; Fragnoli, Chiara; Córdoba-Izquierdo, Ana; Boissier, Florence; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Thille, Arnaud W


    Failure of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is common in patients with COPD admitted to the ICU for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF). We aimed to assess the rate of NIV failure and to identify early predictors of intubation under NIV in patients admitted for AHRF of all origins in an experienced unit. This was an observational cohort study using data prospectively collected over a 3-year period after the implementation of a nurse-driven NIV protocol in a 24-bed medical ICU of a French university hospital. Among 242 subjects receiving NIV for AHRF (P(aCO2) > 45 mm Hg), 67 had cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE), 146 had acute-on-chronic respiratory failure (AOCRF) (including 99 subjects with COPD and 47 with other chronic respiratory diseases), and 29 had non-AOCRF (mostly pneumonia). Overall, the rates of intubation and ICU mortality were respectively 15% and 5%. The intubation rates were 4% in CPE, 15% in AOCRF, and 38% in non-AOCRF (P intubation rate was reduced to 15% in patients receiving NIV for AHRF, with a mortality rate of only 5%. Whereas the risk of NIV failure is associated with hypoxemia and acidosis after initiation of NIV, it is also markedly influenced by the presence or absence of an underlying chronic respiratory disease.

  15. Non-Invasive Electrical Brain Stimulation Montages for Modulation of Human Motor Function.

    Curado, Marco; Fritsch, Brita; Reis, Janine


    Non-invasive electrical brain stimulation (NEBS) is used to modulate brain function and behavior, both for research and clinical purposes. In particular, NEBS can be applied transcranially either as direct current stimulation (tDCS) or alternating current stimulation (tACS). These stimulation types exert time-, dose- and in the case of tDCS polarity-specific effects on motor function and skill learning in healthy subjects. Lately, tDCS has been used to augment the therapy of motor disabilities in patients with stroke or movement disorders. This article provides a step-by-step protocol for targeting the primary motor cortex with tDCS and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS), a specific form of tACS using an electrical current applied randomly within a pre-defined frequency range. The setup of two different stimulation montages is explained. In both montages the emitting electrode (the anode for tDCS) is placed on the primary motor cortex of interest. For unilateral motor cortex stimulation the receiving electrode is placed on the contralateral forehead while for bilateral motor cortex stimulation the receiving electrode is placed on the opposite primary motor cortex. The advantages and disadvantages of each montage for the modulation of cortical excitability and motor function including learning are discussed, as well as safety, tolerability and blinding aspects.

  16. Noninvasive Fetal Trisomy (NIFTY test: an advanced noninvasive prenatal diagnosis methodology for fetal autosomal and sex chromosomal aneuploidies

    Jiang Fuman


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional prenatal screening tests, such as maternal serum tests and ultrasound scan, have limited resolution and accuracy. Methods We developed an advanced noninvasive prenatal diagnosis method based on massively parallel sequencing. The Noninvasive Fetal Trisomy (NIFTY test, combines an optimized Student’s t-test with a locally weighted polynomial regression and binary hypotheses. We applied the NIFTY test to 903 pregnancies and compared the diagnostic results with those of full karyotyping. Results 16 of 16 trisomy 21, 12 of 12 trisomy 18, two of two trisomy 13, three of four 45, X, one of one XYY and two of two XXY abnormalities were correctly identified. But one false positive case of trisomy 18 and one false negative case of 45, X were observed. The test performed with 100% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity for autosomal aneuploidies and 85.7% sensitivity and 99.9% specificity for sex chromosomal aneuploidies. Compared with three previously reported z-score approaches with/without GC-bias removal and with internal control, the NIFTY test was more accurate and robust for the detection of both autosomal and sex chromosomal aneuploidies in fetuses. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a powerful and reliable methodology for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis.

  17. Non-invasive classification of breast microcalcifications using x-ray coherent scatter computed tomography

    Ghammraoui, Bahaa; Popescu, Lucretiu M.


    We investigate the use of energy dispersive x-ray coherent scatter computed tomography (ED-CSCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic method to differentiate between type I and type II breast calcifications. This approach is sensitive to the differences of composition and internal crystal structure of different types of microcalcifications. The study is carried out by simulating a CSCT system with a scanning pencil beam, considering a polychromatic x-ray source and an energy-resolving photon counting detector. In a first step, the multidimensional angle and energy distributed CSCT data is reduced to the projection-space distributions of only a few components, corresponding to the expected target composition: adipose, glandular tissue, weddellite (calcium oxalate) for type I calcifications, and hydroxyapatite for type II calcifications. The maximum-likelihood estimation of scatter components algorithm used, operating in the projection space, takes into account the polychromatic source, the detector response function and the energy dependent attenuation. In the second step, component images are reconstructed from the corresponding estimated component projections using filtered backprojection. In a preliminary step the coherent scatter differential cross sections for hydroxyapatite and weddellite minerals were determined experimentally. The classification of type I or II calcifications is done using the relative contrasts of their components as the criterion. Simulation tests were carried out for different doses and energy resolutions for multiple realizations. The results were analyzed using relative/receiver operating characteristic methodology and show good discrimination ability at medium and higher doses. The noninvasive CSCT technique shows potential to further improve the breast diagnostic accuracy and reduce the number of breast biopsies.

  18. A multi-analyte assay for the non-invasive detection of bladder cancer.

    Steve Goodison

    Full Text Available Accurate urinary assays for bladder cancer (BCa detection would benefit both patients and healthcare systems. Through genomic and proteomic profiling of urine components, we have previously identified a panel of biomarkers that can outperform current urine-based biomarkers for the non-invasive detection of BCa. Herein, we report the diagnostic utility of various multivariate combinations of these biomarkers. We performed a case-controlled validation study in which voided urines from 127 patients (64 tumor bearing subjects were analyzed. The urinary concentrations of 14 biomarkers (IL-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, SDC1, CCL18, PAI-1, CD44, VEGF, ANG, CA9, A1AT, OPN, PTX3, and APOE were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Diagnostic performance of each biomarker and multivariate models were compared using receiver operating characteristic curves and the chi-square test. An 8-biomarker model achieved the most accurate BCa diagnosis (sensitivity 92%, specificity 97%, but a combination of 3 of the 8 biomarkers (IL-8, VEGF, and APOE was also highly accurate (sensitivity 90%, specificity 97%. For comparison, the commercial BTA-Trak ELISA test achieved a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 83%, and voided urine cytology detected only 33% of BCa cases in the same cohort. These data show that a multivariate urine-based assay can markedly improve the accuracy of non-invasive BCa detection. Further validation studies are under way to investigate the clinical utility of this panel of biomarkers for BCa diagnosis and disease monitoring.

  19. Continuous Non-Invasive Arterial Pressure Technique Improves Patient Monitoring during Interventional Endoscopy

    Sylvia Siebig, Felix Rockmann, Karl Sabel, Ina Zuber-Jerger, Christine Dierkes, Tanja Brünnler, Christian E. Wrede


    Full Text Available Introduction: Close monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP is a central part of cardiovascular surveillance of patients at risk for hypotension. Therefore, patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with the use of sedating agents are monitored by discontinuous non-invasive BP measurement (NIBP. Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring based on vascular unloading technique (CNAP®, CN Systems, Graz may improve patient safety in those settings. We investigated if this new technique improved monitoring of patients undergoing interventional endoscopy. Methods: 40 patients undergoing interventional endoscopy between April and December 2007 were prospectively studied with CNAP® in addition to standard monitoring (NIBP, ECG and oxygen saturation. All monitoring values were extracted from the surveillance network at one-second intervals, and clinical parameters were documented. The variance of CNAP® values were calculated for every interval between two NIBP measurements. Results: 2660 minutes of monitoring were recorded (mean 60.1±34.4 min/patient. All patients were analgosedated with midazolam and pethidine, and 24/40 had propofol infusion (mean 90.9±70.3 mg. The mean arterial pressure for CNAP® was 102.4±21.2 mmHg and 106.8±24.8 mmHg for NIBP. Based on the first NIBP value in an interval between two NIBP measurements, BP values determined by CNAP® showed a maximum increase of 30.8±21.7% and a maximum decrease of 22.4±28.3% (mean of all intervals. Discussion: Conventional intermittent blood pressure monitoring of patients receiving sedating agents failed to detect fast changes in BP. The new technique CNAP® improved the detection of rapid BP changes, and may contribute to a better patient safety for those undergoing interventional procedures.

  20. Urine immunocytology as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for acute kidney rejection: a single center experience.

    Mihovilović, Karlo; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Ljubanović, Danica; Sabljar-Matovinović, Mirjana; Vidas, Zeljko; Knotek, Mladen


    Renal biopsy is a gold standard for establishing diagnosis of acute rejection of the renal allograft. However, being invasive, renal biopsy has potential significant complications and contraindications. Therefore, possibility to noninvasively diagnose acute rejection would improve follow-up of kidney transplant patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate urine immunocytology for T cells as a method for noninvasive identification of patients with acute renal allograft rejection in comparison to renal biopsy. In this prospective study a cohort of 56 kidney, or kidney-pancreas transplant recipients was included. Patients either received their transplant at the University Hospital "Merkur", or have been followed at the "Merkur" Hospital. Patients were subject to either protocol or indication kidney biopsy (a total of 70 biopsies), with simultaneous urine immunocytology (determination of CD3-positive cells in the urine sediment). Acute rejection was diagnosed in 24 biopsies. 23 episodes were T-cell mediated (6 grade IA, 5 grade IB, 1 grade IIA, 1 grade III and 10 borderline), while in 1 case acute humoral rejection was diagnosed. 46 biopsies did not demonstrate acute rejection. CD3-positive cells were found in 21% of cases with acute rejection and in 13% of cases without rejection (n.s.). A finding of CD3-positive cells in urine had a sensitivity of 21% and specificity of 87% for acute rejection (including borderline), with positive predictive value of 45% and negative predictive value of 68%. Although tubulitis is a hallmark of acute T cell-mediated rejection, detection of T cells in urine sediment was insufficiently sensitive and insufficiently specific for diagnosing acute rejection in our cohort of kidney transplant recipients.

  1. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Carles Grau

    Full Text Available Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI. These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B communication between subjects (hyperinteraction. Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  2. Conscious brain-to-brain communication in humans using non-invasive technologies.

    Grau, Carles; Ginhoux, Romuald; Riera, Alejandro; Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Chauvat, Hubert; Berg, Michel; Amengual, Julià L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ruffini, Giulio


    Human sensory and motor systems provide the natural means for the exchange of information between individuals, and, hence, the basis for human civilization. The recent development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) has provided an important element for the creation of brain-to-brain communication systems, and precise brain stimulation techniques are now available for the realization of non-invasive computer-brain interfaces (CBI). These technologies, BCI and CBI, can be combined to realize the vision of non-invasive, computer-mediated brain-to-brain (B2B) communication between subjects (hyperinteraction). Here we demonstrate the conscious transmission of information between human brains through the intact scalp and without intervention of motor or peripheral sensory systems. Pseudo-random binary streams encoding words were transmitted between the minds of emitter and receiver subjects separated by great distances, representing the realization of the first human brain-to-brain interface. In a series of experiments, we established internet-mediated B2B communication by combining a BCI based on voluntary motor imagery-controlled electroencephalographic (EEG) changes with a CBI inducing the conscious perception of phosphenes (light flashes) through neuronavigated, robotized transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with special care taken to block sensory (tactile, visual or auditory) cues. Our results provide a critical proof-of-principle demonstration for the development of conscious B2B communication technologies. More fully developed, related implementations will open new research venues in cognitive, social and clinical neuroscience and the scientific study of consciousness. We envision that hyperinteraction technologies will eventually have a profound impact on the social structure of our civilization and raise important ethical issues.

  3. A zero-power radio receiver.

    Brocato, Robert Wesley


    This report describes both a general methodology and some specific examples of passive radio receivers. A passive radio receiver uses no direct electrical power but makes sole use of the power available in the radio spectrum. These radio receivers are suitable as low data-rate receivers or passive alerting devices for standard, high power radio receivers. Some zero-power radio architectures exhibit significant improvements in range with the addition of very low power amplifiers or signal processing electronics. These ultra-low power radios are also discussed and compared to the purely zero-power approaches.

  4. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard


    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...

  5. Astronomical Receiver Modelling Using Scattering Matrices

    King, O G; Copley, C; Davis, R J; Leahy, J P; Leech, J; Muchovej, S J C; Pearson, T J; Taylor, Angela C


    Proper modelling of astronomical receivers is vital: it describes the systematic errors in the raw data, guides the receiver design process, and assists data calibration. In this paper we describe a method of analytically modelling the full signal and noise behaviour of arbitrarily complex radio receivers. We use electrical scattering matrices to describe the signal behaviour of individual components in the receiver, and noise correlation matrices to describe their noise behaviour. These are combined to produce the full receiver model. We apply this approach to a specified receiver architecture: a hybrid of a continous comparison radiometer and correlation polarimeter designed for the C-Band All-Sky Survey. We produce analytic descriptions of the receiver Mueller matrix and noise temperature, and discuss how imperfections in crucial components affect the raw data. Many of the conclusions drawn are generally applicable to correlation polarimeters and continuous comparison radiometers.

  6. Fatores influenciadores dos cuidados de enfermagem domiciliários na prevenção de úlceras por pressão Factores que influyen en los cuidados de enfermería domiciliarios en la prevención de úlceras por presión Factors influencing domiciliary nursing care for the prevention of pressure ulcers

    Alexandre Marques Rodrigues


    efectuarse el análisis del contenido de las cuestiones en abierto, se llevó a cabo un análisis cuantitativo a través del programa estadístico SPSS 16.0. Se comprobó que tan solo una minoría de enfermeros conduce una evaluación del riesgo del desarrollo de una UPP; la mayoría de los enfermeros implica al cuidador informal; la formación de los enfermeros es actual. Se constata una reducida cantidad de dispositivos de alivio de presión así como la escasa existencia de protocolos de prevención. Los factores que influyen positiva y negativamente en los cuidados adecuados según su abundancia o escasez son, por un lado, los recursos materiales y los recursos humanos, la formación de los enfermeros y las políticas de prevención de las instituciones y por otro lado, la frecuencia de las visitas domiciliarias, la implicación de los cuidadores y la colaboración con otros profesionales de la salud como potenciadores de la prevención de las UPP.Epidemiological levels of pressure ulcers (PU in domiciliary care are higher than those in any other type of care in the Azores Region (AR. Our goal is to analyze the factors that influence nursing care for PU prevention in domiciliary care, so that they can be monitored or improved to provide quality care. A quantitative descriptive study, with an analytical intention, was carried out, and included all AR domiciliary care nurses. We analyzed the content of open questions, and this was followed by a quantitative analysis using the SPSS 16.0 statistical program. From this data analysis we showed that there is a small percentage of nurses who evaluate the risk of developing a PU; the majority of the nurses include the informal caregiver; the nurses’ training in this area is up-to-date. We found a reduced amount of pressure relief devices and a scarce availability of prevention protocols. The factors that positively or negatively influence satisfactory care, depending on its abundance or scarcity are: material resources and

  7. Subharmonic microbubble emissions for noninvasively tracking right ventricular pressures.

    Dave, Jaydev K; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Raichlen, Joel S; Liu, Ji-Bin; McDonald, Maureen E; Dickie, Kris; Wang, Shumin; Leung, Corina; Forsberg, Flemming


    Right heart catheterization is often required to monitor intra-cardiac pressures in a number of disease states. Ultrasound contrast agents can produce pressure modulated subharmonic emissions that may be used to estimate right ventricular (RV) pressures. A technique based on subharmonic acoustic emissions from ultrasound contrast agents to track RV pressures noninvasively has been developed and its clinical potential evaluated. The subharmonic signals were obtained from the aorta, RV, and right atrium (RA) of five anesthetized closed-chest mongrel dogs using a SonixRP ultrasound scanner and PA4-2 phased array. Simultaneous pressure measurements were obtained using a 5-French solid state micromanometer tipped catheter. Initially, aortic subharmonic signals and systemic blood pressures were used to obtain a calibration factor in units of millimeters of mercury per decibel. This factor was combined with RA pressures (that can be obtained noninvasively) and the acoustic data from the RV to obtain RV pressure values. The individual calibration factors ranged from -2.0 to -4.0 mmHg/dB. The subharmonic signals tracked transient changes in the RV pressures within an error of 0.6 mmHg. Relative to the catheter pressures, the mean errors in estimating RV peak systolic and minimum diastolic pressures, and RV relaxation [isovolumic negative derivative of change in pressure over time (-dP/dt)] by use of the subharmonic signals, were -2.3 mmHg, -0.8 mmHg, and 2.9 mmHg/s, respectively. Overall, acoustic estimates of RV peak systolic and minimum diastolic pressures and RV relaxation were within 3.4 mmHg, 1.8 mmHg, and 5.9 mmHg/s, respectively, of the measured pressures. This pilot study demonstrates that subharmonic emissions from ultrasound contrast agents have the potential to noninvasively track in vivo RV pressures with errors below 3.5 mmHg.

  8. FDTD analysis of a noninvasive hyperthermia system for brain tumors

    Yacoob Sulafa M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthermia is considered one of the new therapeutic modalities for cancer treatment and is based on the difference in thermal sensitivity between healthy tissues and tumors. During hyperthermia treatment, the temperature of the tumor is raised to 40–45°C for a definite period resulting in the destruction of cancer cells. This paper investigates design, modeling and simulation of a new non-invasive hyperthermia applicator system capable of effectively heating deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors using inexpensive, simple, and easy to fabricate components without harming surrounding healthy brain tissues. Methods The proposed hyperthermia applicator system is composed of an air filled partial half ellipsoidal chamber, a patch antenna, and a head model with an embedded tumor at an arbitrary location. The irradiating antenna is placed at one of the foci of the hyperthermia chamber while the center of the brain tumor is placed at the other focus. The finite difference time domain (FDTD method is used to compute both the SAR patterns and the temperature distribution in three different head models due to two different patch antennas at a frequency of 915 MHz. Results The obtained results suggest that by using the proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system it is feasible to achieve sufficient and focused energy deposition and temperature rise to therapeutic values in deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors without harming surrounding healthy tissue. Conclusions The proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system proved suitable for raising the temperature in tumors embedded in the brain to therapeutic values by carefully selecting the systems components. The operator of the system only needs to place the center of the brain tumor at a pre-specified location and excite the antenna at a single frequency of 915 MHz. Our study may provide a basis for a clinical applicator prototype capable of heating brain tumors.

  9. Noninvasive continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring with Nexfin®.

    Martina, Jerson R; Westerhof, Berend E; van Goudoever, Jeroen; de Beaumont, Edouard M F H; Truijen, Jasper; Kim, Yu-Sok; Immink, Rogier V; Jöbsis, Dorothea A; Hollmann, Markus W; Lahpor, Jaap R; de Mol, Bas A J M; van Lieshout, Johannes J


    If invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure is not warranted, finger cuff technology can provide continuous and noninvasive monitoring. Finger and radial artery pressures differ; Nexfin® (BMEYE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) measures finger arterial pressure and uses physiologic reconstruction methodologies to obtain values comparable to invasive pressures. Intra-arterial pressure (IAP) and noninvasive Nexfin arterial pressure (NAP) were measured in cardiothoracic surgery patients, because invasive pressures are available. NAP-IAP differences were analyzed during 30 min. Tracking was quantified by within-subject precision (SD of individual NAP-IAP differences) and correlation coefficients. The ranges of pressure change were quantified by within-subject variability (SD of individual averages of NAP and IAP). Accuracy and precision were expressed as group average ± SD of the differences and considered acceptable when smaller than 5 ± 8 mmHg, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation criteria. NAP and IAP were obtained in 50 (34-83 yr, 40 men) patients. For systolic, diastolic, mean arterial, and pulse pressure, median (25-75 percentiles) correlation coefficients were 0.96 (0.91-0.98), 0.93 (0.87-0.96), 0.96 (0.90-0.97), and 0.94 (0.85-0.98), respectively. Within-subject precisions were 4 ± 2, 3 ± 1, 3 ± 2, and 3 ± 2 mmHg, and within-subject variations 13 ± 6, 6 ± 3, 9 ± 4, and 7 ± 4 mmHg, indicating precision over a wide range of pressures. Group average ± SD of the NAP-IAP differences were -1 ± 7, 3 ± 6, 2 ± 6, and -3 ± 4 mmHg, meeting criteria. Differences were not related to mean arterial pressure or heart rate. Arterial blood pressure can be measured noninvasively and continuously using physiologic pressure reconstruction. Changes in pressure can be followed and values are comparable to invasive monitoring.

  10. Cryolipolysis for noninvasive body contouring: clinical efficacy and patient satisfaction

    Krueger N


    Full Text Available Nils Krueger,1 Sophia V Mai,2 Stefanie Luebberding,1 Neil S Sadick3 1Rosenpark Research, Darmstadt, Germany; 2Department of Dermatology, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, LA, 3Department of Dermatology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In recent years, a number of modalities have become available for the noninvasive reduction of adipose tissue, including cryolipolysis, radiofrequency, low-level laser, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. Each technology employs a different mechanism of action to cause apoptosis or necrosis of the targeted adipocytes. Among these technologies, cryolipolysis has not only been commercially available for the longest time, but has also been best researched including in vitro and animal models and randomized controlled clinical trials in humans. The principle behind cryolipolysis exploits the premise that adipocytes are more susceptible to cooling than other skin cells. The precise application of cold temperatures triggers apoptosis of the adipocytes, which invokes an inflammatory response and leads to slow digestion by surrounding macrophages. In clinical studies, cryolipolysis was shown to reduce subcutaneous fat at the treatment site by up to 25% after one treatment. Improvements were seen in 86% of treated subjects. At 73%, the patient satisfaction rate is higher than with other technologies used for noninvasive lipolysis. Cryolipolysis has been proven to be a very safe method for body contouring, and is accomplished with only minimal discomfort. Expected side effects are temporary erythema, bruising, and transient numbness that usually resolve within 14 days after treatment. With a prevalence of 0.1%, the most common complaint is late-onset pain, occurring 2 weeks post-procedure, which resolves without intervention. Although no procedure has been accepted as the gold standard for noninvasive body contouring as yet, cryolipolysis is considered to be both safe and efficient with a

  11. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    Macann, Andrew, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Fua, Tsien [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Milross, Chris G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales (Australia); Porceddu, Sandro V. [Oncology Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Penniment, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Wratten, Chris [Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Krawitz, Hedley [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Poulsen, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tang, Colin I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); Morton, Randall P. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu, Auckland (New Zealand); Hay, K. David [Department of Oral Health, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Thomson, Vicki [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T. [Psycho-oncology Cooperative Research Group, Univerity of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Fraser-Browne, Carol L. [Adult Oncology Research Centre, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P. [Biometrics Matters Ltd, Hamilton (New Zealand)


    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility.

  12. Non-invasive pulmonary function test on Morquio patients.

    Kubaski, Francyne; Tomatsu, Shunji; Patel, Pravin; Shimada, Tsutomu; Xie, Li; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert; Mackenzie, William G; Theroux, Mary; Bober, Michael B; Oldham, Helen M; Orii, Tadao; Shaffer, Thomas H


    In clinical practice, respiratory function tests are difficult to perform in Morquio syndrome patients due to their characteristic skeletal dysplasia, small body size and lack of cooperation of young patients, where in some cases, conventional spirometry for pulmonary function is too challenging. To establish feasible clinical pulmonary endpoints and determine whether age impacts lung function in Morquio patients non-invasive pulmonary tests and conventional spirometry were evaluated. The non-invasive pulmonary tests: impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography in conjunction with conventional spirometry were evaluated in twenty-two Morquio patients (18 Morquio A and 4 Morquio B) (7 males), ranging from 3 to 40 years of age. Twenty-two patients were compliant with non-invasive tests (100%) with the exception of IOS (81.8%-18 patients). Seventeen patients (77.3%) were compliant with spirometry testing. All subjects had normal vital signs at rest including >95% oxygen saturation, end tidal CO2 (38-44 mmHg), and age-appropriate heart rate (mean=98.3, standard deviation=19) (two patients were deviated). All patients preserved normal values in the impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography, although predicted forced expiratory total (72.8±6.9 SE%) decreased with age and was below normal; phase angle (35.5±16.5°), %rib cage (41.6±12.7%), resonant frequency, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced expiratory volume total (110.0±3.2 SE%) were normal and not significantly impacted by age. The proposed non-invasive pulmonary function tests are able to cover a greater number of patients (young patients and/or wheel-chair bound), thus providing a new diagnostic approach for the assessment of lung function in Morquio syndrome which in many cases may be difficult to evaluate. Morquio patients studied herein demonstrated no clinical or functional signs of restrictive and

  13. Noninvasive spectroscopic diagnosis of superficial ocular lesions and corneal infections

    Mourant, J.R.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gritz, D.C.; Storey-Held, K. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology


    The potential of a rapid noninvasive diagnostic system to detect tissue abnormalities on the surface of the eye has been investigated. The optical scatter signal from lesions and normal areas on the conjunctival sclera of the human eye were measured in vivo. It is possible to distinguish nonpigmented pingueculas from other lesions. The ability of the system to detect malignancies could not be tested because none of the measured and biopsied lesions were malignant. Optical scatter and fluorescence spectra of bacterial and fungal suspensions, and corneal irritations were also collected. Both scattering and fluorescence show potential for diagnosing corneal infections.

  14. Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.

    Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L


    In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist.

  15. Cell-baswd non-invasive prenatal testing

    Uldbjerg, Niels; Singh, Ripudaman; Christensen, Rikke

    CONTROL ID: 2520273 ABSTRACT FINAL ID: OC06.03 TITLE: Cell based Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Niels Uldbjerg2, Ripudaman Singh4, Rikke Christensen3, Palle Schelde4, Ida Vogel1, Else Marie Vestergaard3, Lotte Hatt4, Steen Kølvrå4 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1....... Department of Clinical Genetics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, none, Denmark. 2. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark. 3. Clinical Genetics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. 4. Arcedi Biotech Aps, Aarhus, Denmark. ABSTRACT BODY: Objectives: NIPT...

  16. Tricuspid regurgitation: noninvasive techniques for determining causes and severity.

    DePace, N L; Ross, J; Iskandrian, A S; Nestico, P F; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S; Segal, B L; Hakki, A H; Morganroth, J


    Tricuspid regurgitation is often not apparent on physical examination and several methods are now available to aid in this difficult assessment. Cardiac catheterization using right ventriculography, previously considered the diagnostic standard, has several limitations. Currently available noninvasive tools such as M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography (with or without contrast), Doppler techniques and even radionuclide cardiologic imaging have added significantly to the precise assessment of the presence and severity of tricuspid regurgitation. This review examines the comparative use and limitations of these various techniques.

  17. Noninvasive method for retrieval of broken dental implant abutment screw

    Jagadish Reddy Gooty


    Full Text Available Dental implants made of titanium for replacement of missing teeth are widely used because of ease of technical procedure and high success rate, but are not free of complications and may fail. Fracturing of the prosthetic screw continues to be a problem in restorative practice and great challenge to remove the fractured screw conservatively. This case report describes and demonstrates the technique of using an ultrasonic scaler in the removal of the fracture screw fragment as a noninvasive method without damaging the hex of implants.

  18. Noninvasive brain-computer interface driven hand orthosis.

    King, Christine E; Wang, Po T; Mizuta, Masato; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Do, An H; Moromugi, Shunji; Nenadic, Zoran


    Neurological conditions, such as stroke, can leave the affected individual with hand motor impairment despite intensive treatments. Novel technologies, such as brain-computer interface (BCI), may be able to restore or augment impaired motor behaviors by engaging relevant cortical areas. Here, we developed and tested an electroencephalogram (EEG) based BCI system for control of hand orthosis. An able-bodied subject performed contralateral hand grasping to achieve continuous online control of the hand orthosis, suggesting that the integration of a noninvasive BCI with a hand orthosis is feasible. The adoption of this technology to stroke survivors may provide a novel neurorehabilitation therapy for hand motor impairment in this population.

  19. Noninvasive biological sensor system for detection of drunk driving.

    Murata, Kohji; Fujita, Etsunori; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Shinitirou; Ogura, Yumi; Kamei, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Toshio; Kaneko, Shigehiko; Yoshizumi, Masao; Suzuki, Nobutaka


    Systems capable of monitoring the biological condition of a driver and issuing warnings during instances of drowsiness have recently been studied. Moreover, many researchers have reported that biological signals, such as brain waves, pulsation waves, and heart rate, are different between people who have and have not consumed alcohol. Currently, we are developing a noninvasive system to detect individuals driving under the influence of alcohol by measuring biological signals. We used the frequency time series analysis to attempt to distinguish between normal and intoxicated states of a person as the basis of the sensing system.

  20. Biomechanics of subcellular structures by non-invasive Brillouin microscopy

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Braakman, Sietse


    Cellular biomechanics play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. Unfortunately, current methods to measure biomechanical properties are invasive and mostly limited to the surface of a cell. As a result, the mechanical behaviour of subcellular structures and organelles remains poorly characterised. Here, we show three-dimensional biomechanical images of single cells obtained with non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin microscopy with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Our results quantify the longitudinal elastic modulus of subcellular structures. In particular, we found the nucleoli to be stiffer than both the nuclear envelope (p biomechanics and its role in pathophysiology.

  1. Noninvasive spatial metrology of single-atom devices.

    Mohiyaddin, Fahd A; Rahman, Rajib; Kalra, Rachpon; Klimeck, Gerhard; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Pla, Jarryd J; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea


    The exact location of a single dopant atom in a nanostructure can influence or fully determine the functionality of highly scaled transistors or spin-based devices. We demonstrate here a noninvasive spatial metrology technique, based on the microscopic modeling of three electrical measurements on a single-atom (phosphorus in silicon) spin qubit device: hyperfine coupling, ground state energy, and capacitive coupling to nearby gates. This technique allows us to locate the qubit atom with a precision of ±2.5 nm in two directions and ±15 nm in the third direction, which represents a 1500-fold improvement with respect to the prefabrication statistics obtainable from the ion implantation parameters.

  2. A novel localization method for noninvasive monitoring capsule

    He Wenhui; Yan Guozheng; Jiang Pingping; Guo Xudong


    Noninvasive monitoring capsule for gastrointestinal tract can be swallowed by patient. It is of great importance for the physician to monitor the precise position of capsule in gastrointestinal tract. The authors investigated a novel method for it. Using three coils with DC current to excite magnetic field and one triaxial magnetoresistive sensor to measure the excited magnetic vectors, they tried to solve the problem.The authors provided the localization principle of the method and analyzed it by an experiment, too. The method may be applied in practice in the future though it is still immature now.

  3. Optical polarimetry for noninvasive glucose sensing enabled by Sagnac interferometry.

    Winkler, Amy M; Bonnema, Garret T; Barton, Jennifer K


    Optical polarimetry is used in pharmaceutical drug testing and quality control for saccharide-containing products (juice, honey). More recently, it has been proposed as a method for noninvasive glucose sensing for diabetic patients. Sagnac interferometry is commonly used in optical gyroscopes, measuring minute Doppler shifts resulting from mechanical rotation. In this work, we demonstrate that Sagnac interferometers are also sensitive to optical rotation, or the rotation of linearly polarized light, and are therefore useful in optical polarimetry. Results from simulation and experiment show that Sagnac interferometers are advantageous in optical polarimetry as they are insensitive to net linear birefringence and alignment of polarization components.

  4. Development of a Single-Sampling Noninvasive Hair Snare

    Bremner-Harrison, Samantha; Harrison, Stephen W. R.; Cypher, Brian L.


    multiple sampling, is cost-effective, easy to construct, and safe for target and nontarget species. Our initial field tests on endangered San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and swift foxes (Vulpes velox) suggest that this hair snare may be effective in collecting uncontaminated samples for DNA......Noninvasive hair and fecal DNA sampling provides a means of collecting information on elusive species, while causing little or no disturbance. However, current methods of hair collection do not preclude multiple sampling, thus risking sample contamination. We developed a hair snare that prevents...

  5. Human Urine as a Noninvasive Source of Kidney Cells

    Fanny Oliveira Arcolino


    Full Text Available Urine represents an unlimited source of patient-specific kidney cells that can be harvested noninvasively. Urine derived podocytes and proximal tubule cells have been used to study disease mechanisms and to screen for novel drug therapies in a variety of human kidney disorders. The urinary kidney stem/progenitor cells and extracellular vesicles, instead, might be promising for therapeutic treatments of kidney injury. The greatest advantages of urine as a source of viable cells are the easy collection and less complicated ethical issues. However, extensive characterization and in vivo studies still have to be performed before the clinical use of urine-derived kidney progenitors.

  6. All-optical noninvasive chaos control of a semiconductor laser.

    Schikora, S; Wünsche, H-J; Henneberger, F


    We demonstrate experimentally control of a chaotic system on time scales much shorter than in any previous study. Combining a multisection laser with an external Fabry-Perot etalon, the chaotic output transforms into a regular intensity self-pulsation with a frequency in the 10-GHz range. The control is noninvasive as the feedback from the etalon is minimum when the target state is reached. The optical phase is identified as a crucial control parameter. Numerical simulations agree well with the experimental data and uncover global control properties.

  7. High stable remote photoelectric receiver for interferometry

    Yang, Hongxing; Zhu, Pengfei; Tan, Jiubin; Hu, Pengcheng; Fan, Zhigang


    A high sensitive and high stable remote photoelectric receiver has been developed to reduce noise and phase delay drift caused by thermal pollution and environmental interference. The phase delay drift model is analyzed and built based on a traditional photoelectric receiver. According to the model, a new mechanical isolation structure and a temperature control system are designed to keep the photoelectric receiver in a low constant temperature. Comparison experiments with traditional bias voltage compensation method and temperature control method are carried out between photoelectric receivers. The results verify that the output voltage fluctuation of photoelectric receiver used is reduced by 65% while the phase drift between measurement and reference photoelectric receivers decreases from 1.05° to 0.02°.

  8. Analysis of the omnium-g receiver

    Bohn, M.


    A thermal analysis of the Omnium-G receiver is presented and the technique is shown to be generally applicable to solar thermal receivers utilizing a directly heated thermal mass. The thermal loss coefficient, including reradiation losses, is calculated and shown to agree quite well with the experimentally measured thermal loss coefficient. The rate of heat transfer to the working fluid is also analyzed and the analysis is used to show that the Omnium-G receiver is well matched to the water/steam working fluid because the steam outlet temperature is almost the same as the receiver temperature. A general procedure for calculating receiver performance is presented. With this procedure, the energy delivery to any working fluid, the delivered temperature of the working fluid, and the pressure drop through the receiver can be determined. An example of the calculation is also presented.

  9. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph


    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  10. Shipping/Receiving and Quality Control

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Shipping receiving, quality control, large and precise inspection and CMM machines. Coordinate Measuring Machines, including "scanning" probes, optical comparators,...

  11. Efficient structures for wideband digital receiver

    Wang Hong; Lu Youxin; Wang Xuegang; Wan Yonglun


    Digital receivers have become more and more popular in radar, communication, and electric warfare for the advantages compared with their analog counterparts. But conventional digital receivers have been generally considered impractical for bandwidth greater than several hundreds MHz. To extend receiver bandwidth, decrease data rate and save hardware resources, three novel structures are proposed. They decimate the data stream prior to mixing and filtering, then process the multiple decimated streams in parallel at a lower rate. Consequently it is feasible to realize wideband receivers on the current ASIC devices. A design example and corresponding simulation results are demonstrated to evaluate the proposed structures.

  12. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生


    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  13. Nursing process approach improves receivables management.

    Dias, K; Stockamp, D


    The "nursing process" is a systematic decision-making approach to problem solving based on open-system theory. This theory assumes that there is an on-going interchange between all system components. Components cannot be viewed in isolation, because decisions regarding one component will affect other components. Receivables management is similar to the nursing process, in that it involves constant diagnosis, assessment, and intervention in the work in process during all phases of the receivables cycle. In experiments that applied the nursing process concept to the management of accounts receivable in several hospitals, gross days in accounts receivable were reduced and cash flow was increased.

  14. Special design topics in digital wideband receivers

    Tsui, James B Y


    Offering engineers a thorough examination of special, more advanced aspects of digital wideband receiver design, this practical book builds on fundamental resources on the topic, helping you gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject. This in-depth volume presents a detailed look at a complete receiver design, including the encoder. Moreover, it discusses the detection of exotic signals and provides authoritative guidance on designing receivers used in electronic warfare. From frequency modulation and biphase shifting keys, to parameter encoders in electronic warfare receivers and

  15. Variable velocity in solar external receivers

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, M. R.; Sánchez-González, A.; Acosta-Iborra, A.; Santana, D.


    One of the major problems in solar external receivers is tube overheating, which accelerates the risk of receiver failure. It can be solved implementing receivers with high number of panels. However, it exponentially increases the pressure drop in the receiver and the parasitic power consumption of the Solar Power Tower (SPT), reducing the global efficiency of the SPT. A new concept of solar external receiver, named variable velocity receiver, is able to adapt their configuration to the different flux density distributions. A set of valves allows splitting in several independent panels those panels in which the wall temperature is over the limit. It increases the velocity of the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and its cooling capacity. This receiver does not only reduce the wall temperature of the tubes, but also simplifies the control of the heliostat field and allows to employ more efficient aiming strategies. In this study, it has been shown that variable velocity receiver presents high advantages with respect to traditional receiver. Nevertheless, more than two divisions per panels are not recommendable, due to the increment of the pressure drop over 70 bars. In the design point (12 h of the Spring Equinox), the use of a variable number of panels between 18 and 36 (two divisions per panel), in a SPT similar to Gemasolar, improves the power capacity of the SPT in 5.7%, with a pressure drop increment of 10 bars. Off-design, when the flux distribution is high and not symmetric (e.g. 10-11 h), the power generated by the variable velocity receiver is 18% higher than the generated by the traditional receiver, at these hours the pressure drop increases almost 20 bars.

  16. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    Hu, Yonghui; Hua, Yu; Hou, Lei; Wei, Jingfa; Wu, Jianfeng


    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1 σ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  17. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver


    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  18. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a noninvasive approach for cutaneous research.

    Agrawal, Karan; Hassoun, Lauren A; Foolad, Negar; Pedersen, Theresa L; Sivamani, Raja K; Newman, John W


    Recent advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques provide new opportunities to identify noninvasive biomarkers for the study of skin inflammation and repair. This study aims to characterize the lipid mediator profile including oxygenated lipids, endocannabinoids, and ceramides/sphingoid bases in sweat and identify differences in these profiles between sweat collected from nonlesional sites on the unflared volar forearm of subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Adapting routine procedures developed for plasma analysis, over 100 lipid mediators were profiled using LC-MS/MS and 58 lipid mediators were detected in sweat. Lipid mediator concentrations were not affected by sampling or storage conditions. Increases in concentrations of C30-C40 [NS] and [NdS] ceramides, and C18:1 sphingosine, were observed in the sweat of study participants with AD despite no differences being observed in transepidermal water loss between study groups, and this effect was strongest in men (P < 0.05, one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc HSD). No differences in oxylipins and endocannabinoids were observed between study groups. Sweat mediator profiling may therefore provide a noninvasive diagnostic for AD prior to the presentation of clinical signs.

  19. Infrared thermography: A non-invasive window into thermal physiology.

    Tattersall, Glenn J


    Infrared thermography is a non-invasive technique that measures mid to long-wave infrared radiation emanating from all objects and converts this to temperature. As an imaging technique, the value of modern infrared thermography is its ability to produce a digitized image or high speed video rendering a thermal map of the scene in false colour. Since temperature is an important environmental parameter influencing animal physiology and metabolic heat production an energetically expensive process, measuring temperature and energy exchange in animals is critical to understanding physiology, especially under field conditions. As a non-contact approach, infrared thermography provides a non-invasive complement to physiological data gathering. One caveat, however, is that only surface temperatures are measured, which guides much research to those thermal events occurring at the skin and insulating regions of the body. As an imaging technique, infrared thermal imaging is also subject to certain uncertainties that require physical modelling, which is typically done via built-in software approaches. Infrared thermal imaging has enabled different insights into the comparative physiology of phenomena ranging from thermogenesis, peripheral blood flow adjustments, evaporative cooling, and to respiratory physiology. In this review, I provide background and guidelines for the use of thermal imaging, primarily aimed at field physiologists and biologists interested in thermal biology. I also discuss some of the better known approaches and discoveries revealed from using thermal imaging with the objective of encouraging more quantitative assessment.

  20. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Noninvasive methods of diagnosing hepatic steatosis

    Rasha AlShaalan


    Full Text Available Hepatic steatosis is the buildup of lipids within hepatocytes. It is the simplest stage in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. It occurs in approximately 30% of the general population and as much as 90% of the obese population in the United States. It may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is a state of hepatocellular inflammation and damage in response to the accumulated fat. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard tool to diagnose and stage NAFLD. However, it comes with the risk of complications ranging from simple pain to life-threatening bleeding. It is also associated with sampling error. For these reasons, a variety of noninvasive radiological markers, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the controlled attenuation parameter using transient elastography and Xenon-133 scan have been proposed to increase our ability to diagnose NAFLD, hence avoiding liver biopsy. The aim of this review is to discuss the utility and accuracy of using available noninvasive diagnostic modalities for fatty liver in NAFLD.

  1. Non-invasive Respiratory Support in Blunt Chest Injury

    T. V. Lobus


    Full Text Available Objective. To optimize the results of treatment in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF due to lung contusion, by using the methods of non-invasive mask respiratory support. Materials and methods. The study covered 31 patients with severe blunt chest injury, multiple costal fractures, and hypoxemic ARF. The patients underwent assisted ventilation (AV in the CPAP+PSV mode through a facial or nasal mask. Physiological parameters were recorded during non-invasive mask ventilation (NIMV in the stepwise fashion. A control group comprised 25 patients with the similar severity of injury and ARF who were given conventional AV.Results. In 67.7% of the study group patients, NIMV was effective in improving oxygenation and external respiration, without exerting negative hemodynamic effects. Endotracheal intubation and AV could be avoided in these patients. Comparison of the study and control groups revealed a significant reduction in the incidence of secondary pneumonias in the NIMV group and in the duration of treatment. Mask ventilation could decrease mortality from 44% in the control group to 9.7% in the NIMV group.Conclusion. NIMV applied to patients with hypoxemic ARF in the presence of lung contusion improves pulmonary function and, in the bulk of patients, allows endotracheal intubation and AV and consequently their associated complications. When mask ventilation is employed, management of patients becomes shorter and simpler and mortality rates substantially decrease. 

  2. Sleep-related breathing disorders and non-invasive ventilation

    Agata Lax


    Full Text Available Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NPPV was originally used in patients with acute respiratory impairment or exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases, as an alternative to the endotracheal tube. Over the last thirty years NPPV has been also used at night in patients with stable chronic lung disease such as obstructive sleep apnea, the overlap syndrome (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea, neuromuscular disorders, obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, and in other conditions such as sleep disorders associated with congestive heart failure (Cheyne-Stokes respiration. In this no-systematic review we discuss the different types of NPPV, the specific conditions in which they can be used and the indications, recommendations and evidence supporting the efficacy of NPPV. Optimizing patient acceptance and adherence to non-invasive ventilation treatment is challenging. The treatment of sleep-related disorders is a life-threatening condition. The optimal level of treatment should be determined in a sleep laboratory. Side effects directly affecting the patient’s adherence to treatment are known. The most common are nasopharyngeal symptoms including increased congestion and rhinorrhea; these effects are related to reduced humidity of inspired gas. Humidification of delivered gas may improve these symptoms.

  3. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases

    Pier; Paolo; Mainenti; Federica; Romano; Laura; Pizzuti; Sabrina; Segreto; Giovanni; Storto; Lorenzo; Mannelli; Massimo; Imbriaco; Luigi; Camera; Simone; Maurea


    Colorectal cancer is one of the few malignant tumors in which synchronous or metachronous liver metastases [colorectal liver metastases(CRLMs)] may be treated with surgery. It has been demonstrated that resection of CRLMs improves the long-term prognosis. On the other hand, patients with un-resectable CRLMs may benefit from chemotherapy alone or in addition to liverdirected therapies. The choice of the most appropriate therapeutic management of CRLMs depends mostly on the diagnostic imaging. Nowadays, multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are available and those have a pivotal role in the workup of patients with CRLMs. Although extensive research has been performed with regards to the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance for the detection of CRLMs, the optimal imaging strategies for staging and follow up are still to be established. This largely due to the progressive technological and pharmacological advances which are constantly improving the accuracy of each imaging modality. This review describes the non-invasive imaging approaches of CRLMs reporting the technical features, the clinical indications, the advantages and the potential limitations of each modality, as well as including some information on the development of new imaging modalities, the role of new contrast media and the feasibility of using parametric image analysis as diagnostic marker of presence of CRLMs.

  4. Noninvasive imaging technologies for cutaneous wound assessment: A review.

    Paul, Dereck W; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C; Prindeze, Nicholas J; Moffatt, Lauren T; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Shupp, Jeffrey W


    The ability to phenotype wounds for the purposes of assessing severity, healing potential and treatment is an important function of evidence-based medicine. A variety of optical technologies are currently in development for noninvasive wound assessment. To varying extents, these optical technologies have the potential to supplement traditional clinical wound evaluation and research, by providing detailed information regarding skin components imperceptible to visual inspection. These assessments are achieved through quantitative optical analysis of tissue characteristics including blood flow, collagen remodeling, hemoglobin content, inflammation, temperature, vascular structure, and water content. Technologies that have, to this date, been applied to wound assessment include: near infrared imaging, thermal imaging, optical coherence tomography, orthogonal polarization spectral imaging, fluorescence imaging, laser Doppler imaging, microscopy, spatial frequency domain imaging, photoacoustic detection, and spectral/hyperspectral imaging. We present a review of the technologies in use or development for these purposes with three aims: (1) providing basic explanations of imaging technology concepts, (2) reviewing the wound imaging literature, and (3) providing insight into areas for further application and exploration. Noninvasive imaging is a promising advancement in wound assessment and all technologies require further validation.

  5. On noninvasive assessment of acoustic fields acting on the fetus

    Antonets, V. A.; Kazakov, V. V.


    The aim of this study is to verify a noninvasive technique for assessing the characteristics of acoustic fields in the audible range arising in the uterus under the action of maternal voice, external sounds, and vibrations. This problem is very important in view of actively developed methods for delivery of external sounds to the uterus: music, maternal voice recordings, sounds from outside the mother's body, etc., that supposedly support development of the fetus at the prenatal stage psychologically and cognitively. However, the parameters of acoustic signals have been neither measured nor normalized, which may be dangerous for the fetus and hinder actual assessment of their impact on fetal development. The authors show that at frequencies below 1 kHz, acoustic pressure in the uterus may be measured noninvasively using a hydrophone placed in a soft capsule filled with liquid. It was found that the acoustic field at frequencies up to 1 kHz arising in the uterus under the action of an external sound field has amplitude-frequency parameters close to those of the external field; i.e., the external field penetrates the uterus with hardly any difficulty.

  6. Preliminary clinical investigations of a new noninvasive venous pulse oximeter

    Chan, Daniel; Smith, Peter R.; Caine, Michael P.; Spyt, Tomasz; Boehm, Maria; Machin, David


    For decades, the monitoring of mixed venous oxygen saturation, SvO2 has been performed invasively using fibre-optic catheters. This procedure is not without risk as complications may arise from catheterisation. The group has devised a new non-invasive venous oximetry method which involves inducing regular modulations of the venous blood volume and associated measurement of those modulations using optical means. A clinical investigation was conducted in Glenfield Hospital, UK to evaluate the sensitivity of the new technique to haemodynamic changes such as Cardiac Output (CO) in intraoperative and postoperative cardiac patients. Preliminary trials on patients recovering from cardiac surgery yielded an average correlation of r = 0.72 between CO at different Intra Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) augmentation levels and SvO2 measured by the new venous oximeter. In intraoperative patients undergoing off-pump cardiac surgery, SvO2 recorded by the new technique responded to unplanned events such as a cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: The new venous oximetry technique is a promising technique which responds to haemodynamic changes such as CO and with further development might offer an alternative means of monitoring SvO2 non-invasively.

  7. Noninvasive monitoring of salmonella infections in young mice

    Olomu, Isoken N.; Reilly-Contag, Pamela; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.


    A recently developed bioluminescent assay was used to study the influence of age and inoculum size on the acute susceptibility of newborn and juvenile BALB/c mice to Salmonella gastrointestinal infection. Three strains of Salmonella were tagged by expression of the lux operon from Photohabdus luminescenes. Using a range of inoculum sizes varied over 6 orders of magnitude, mice aged 0-6 weeks were infected by oral inoculation. LIght emitted from the tagged bacteria and transmitted through mouse tissues was used to noninvasively monitor disease progression over 7 days. In neonatal mice there was evidence of gastrointestinal infection at 24 hours even with small inocular, and at 4-7 days, the patterns of photon emission and remained and healthy throughout the study period. Inoculation of neonates with tagged LB5000 and BJ66 resulted in severe gastrointestinal infections with low and intermediate sizes of inocula respectively. These strains are known to be of reduced virulence in adult mice. These age-related differences in susceptibility emphasize the need to define virulence in the context of age of the host, and implicate maturation of innate resistance factors in determining disease patterns. Identifying these host-factors and further defining the bacterial determinants of virulence in the neonatal host will be facilitated by this noninvasive study of infection using bioluminenscent methods.

  8. Novel non-invasive protein and peptide drug delivery approaches.

    Wallis, L; Kleynhans, E; Toit, T Du; Gouws, C; Steyn, D; Steenekamp, J; Viljoen, J; Hamman, J


    Protein and peptide based therapeutics are typically administered by injection due to their poor uptake when administered via enteral routes of drug administration. Unfortunately, chronic administration of these drugs through multiple injections presents certain patient related problems and it is difficult to mimic the normal physiological release patterns via this mode of drug administration. A need therefore exists to non-invasively deliver these drugs by means of alternative ways such as via the oral, pulmonary, nasal, transdermal and buccal administration routes. Although some attempts of needle free peptide and protein drug delivery have progressed to the clinical stage, relatively limited success has been achieved in terms of commercially available products. Despite the low frequency of clinical breakthroughs with noninvasive protein drug delivery this far, it remains an active research area with renewed interest not only due to its improved therapeutic potential, but also due to the attractive commercial outcomes it offers. It is the aim of this review article to reflect on the main strategies investigated to overcome the barriers against effective systemic protein drug delivery in different routes of drug administration. Approaches based on chemical modifications and pharmaceutical technologies are discussed with reference to examples of drugs and devices that have shown potential, while attempts that have failed are also briefly outlined.

  9. Use of Doppler ultrasound for non-invasive urodynamic diagnosis

    Hideo Ozawa


    Full Text Available Objectives: A totally non-invasive transperineal urodynamic technique using Doppler ultrasonography has been developed. Methods: Since normal urine does not have blood cells, urine was thought not to produce the Doppler effects. However, basic studies confirmed that the decrease of pressure at high velocity (Bernouilli effect caused dissolved gas to form microbubbles, which are detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects sat and the probe was advanced via remote control to achieve gentle contact with the perineal skin. The digital uroflow data signals and the color Doppler ultrasound video images were processed on a personal computer. The flow-velocity curves from two sites; the distal prostatic urethra just above the external sphincter (V1 and the sphincteric urethra (V2 were plotted against time. The parameters of both the pressure-flow studies and the Doppler ultrasound urodynamic studies were compared in men who had various degrees of obstruction. Results: Functional cross-sectional area at prostatic urethra (A1, calculated by Q max /V1, was lower in the group of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO vs. control group. Velocity ratio (VR, which was calculated by V1/V2, was the parameter having the best correlation with BOO index, though A1 had a similar correlation. This method is viable to diagnose the degree of BOO. Conclusions: The development of non-invasive Doppler ultrasound videourodynamics (Doppler UDS will dramatically expand the information on voiding function.

  10. Noninvasive brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease and dystonia.

    Wu, Allan D; Fregni, Felipe; Simon, David K; Deblieck, Choi; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro


    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are promising noninvasive cortical stimulation methods for adjunctive treatment of movement disorders. They avoid surgical risks and provide theoretical advantages of specific neural circuit neuromodulation. Neuromodulatory effects depend on extrinsic stimulation factors (cortical target, frequency, intensity, duration, number of sessions), intrinsic patient factors (disease process, individual variability and symptoms, state of medication treatment), and outcome measures. Most studies to date have shown beneficial effects of rTMS or tDCS on clinical symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) and support the notion of spatial specificity to the effects on motor and nonmotor symptoms. Stimulation parameters have varied widely, however, and some studies are poorly controlled. Studies of rTMS or tDCS in dystonia have provided abundant data on physiology, but few on clinical effects. Multiple mechanisms likely contribute to the clinical effects of rTMS and tDCS in movement disorders, including normalization of cortical excitability, rebalancing of distributed neural network activity, and induction of dopamine release. It remains unclear how to individually adjust rTMS or tDCS factors for the most beneficial effects on symptoms of PD or dystonia. Nonetheless, the noninvasive nature, minimal side effects, positive effects in preliminary clinical studies, and increasing evidence for rational mechanisms make rTMS and tDCS attractive for ongoing investigation.

  11. Modulation of untruthful responses with noninvasive brain stimulation

    Shirley eFecteau


    Full Text Available Deceptive abilities have long been studied in relation to personality traits. More recently, studies explored the neural substrates associated with deceptive skills suggesting a critical role of the prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated whether noninvasive brain stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC could modulate generation of untruthful responses about subject’s personal life across contexts (i.e., deceiving on guilt-free questions on daily activities; generating previously memorized lies about past experience; and producing spontaneous lies about past experience, as well as across modality responses (verbal and motor responses. Results reveal that real, but not sham, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the DLPFC can reduce response latency for untruthful over truthful answers across contexts and modality responses. Also, contexts of lies seem to incur a different hemispheric laterality. These findings add up to previous studies demonstrating that it is possible to modulate some processes involved in generation of untruthful answers by applying noninvasive brain stimulation over the DLPFC and extend these findings by showing a differential hemispheric contribution of DLPFCs according to contexts.

  12. Influence of hemoglobin on non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing

    Jiang, Jingying; Gong, Qiliang; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin


    Since the abnormal metabolism of bilirubin could lead to diseases in the human body, especially the jaundice which is harmful to neonates. Traditional invasive measurements are difficult to be accepted by people because of pain and infection. Therefore, the real-time and non-invasive measurement of bilirubin is of great significance. However, the accuracy of currently transcutaneous bilirubinometry(TcB) is generally not high enough, and affected by many factors in the human skin, mostly by hemoglobin. In this talk, absorption spectra of hemoglobin and bilirubin have been collected and analyzed, then the Partial Least Squares (PLS) models have been built. By analyzing and comparing the Correlation and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction(RMSEP), the results show that the Correlation of bilirubin solution model is larger than that of the mixture solution added with hemoglobin, and its RMSEP value is smaller than that of mixture solution. Therefore, hemoglobin has influences on the non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing. In next step, it is necessary to investigate how to eliminate the influence.

  13. Non-invasive measurement of oxygen diffusion in model foods.

    Bhunia, Kanishka; Sablani, Shyam S; Tang, Juming; Rasco, Barbara


    In this study, we developed a non-invasive method to determine oxygen diffusivity (DO2) in food gels using an Oxydot luminescence sensor. We designed and fabricated a transparent diffusion cell in order to represent oxygen transfer into foods packaged in an 8-ounce polymeric tray. Oxydots were glued to the sides (side-dot) and bottom (bottom-dot) of the cell and filled with 1, 2, and 3% (w/v) agar gel as a model food. After deoxygenation, local oxygen concentrations in the gels were measured non-invasively at 4, 12 and 22°C. Effective oxygen diffusivities in gels (DO2g) and water (DO2w) were obtained after fitting experimental data to the analytical solution (data from side-dot) and the numerical solution (data from bottom-dot) to Fick's second law. Temperature had significant positive influence (P0.05) was found between the activation energy (Ea) of water and gels (1-3% w/v) for temperatures ranging from 4 to 22°C. We used a combined obstruction and hydrodynamic model to explain why DO2g decreased as gel concentration increased. The method developed in this study can be used to study the oxygen diffusivity in foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Noninvasive measurement of lung carbon-11-serotonin extraction in man

    Coates, G.; Firnau, G.; Meyer, G.J.; Gratz, K.F. (McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))


    The fraction of serotonin extracted on a single passage through the lungs is being used as an early indicator of lung endothelial damage but the existing techniques require multiple arterial blood samples. We have developed a noninvasive technique to measure lung serotonin uptake in man. We utilized the double indicator diffusion principle, a positron camera, {sup 11}C-serotonin as the substrate, and {sup 11}CO-erythrocytes as the vascular marker. From regions of interest around each lung, we recorded time-activity curves in 0.5-sec frames for 30 sec after a bolus injection of first the vascular marker {sup 11}CO-erythrocytes and 10 min later {sup 11}C-serotonin. A second uptake measurement was made after imipramine 25-35 mg was infused intravenously. In three normal volunteers, the single-pass uptake of {sup 11}C-serotonin was 63.9% +/- 3.6%. This decreased in all subjects to a mean of 53.6% +/- 1.4% after imipramine. The rate of lung washout of {sup 11}C was also significantly prolonged after imipramine. This noninvasive technique can be used to measure lung serotonin uptake to detect early changes in a variety of conditions that alter the integrity of the pulmonary endothelium.

  15. Noninvasive diagnosis of allograft vascular disease after heart transplantation

    Fernando Bacal


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive values of noninvasive tests for the detection of allograft vascular disease. METHODS: We studied 39 patients with mean ages of 48±13 years and a follow-up period of 86±13 months. The diagnosis of allograft vascular disease was made by cine-coronary arteriography, and it was considered as positive if lesions existed that caused > or = 50% obstruction of the lumen. Patients underwent 24h Holter monitoring, thallium scintigraphy, a treadmill stress test, and dobutamine stress echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were determined in percentages for each method, as compared with the cine-coronary arteriography results. RESULTS: Allograft vascular disease was found in 15 (38% patients. The Holter test showed 15.4% sensitivity, 95.5% specificity. For the treadmill stress test, sensitivity was 10%, specificity was 100%. When thallium scintigraphy was used, sensitivity was 40%, specificity 95.8%. On echocardiography with dobutamine, we found a 63.6% sensitivity, 91.3% specificity. When the dobutamine echocardiogram was associated with scintigraphy, sensitivity was 71.4%, specificity was 87%. CONCLUSION: In this group of patients, the combination of two noninvasive methods (dobutamine echocardiography and thallium scintigraphy may be a good alternative for the detection of allograft vascular disease in asymptomatic patients with normal ventricular function.

  16. A novel noninvasive method to detect rejection after heart transplantation

    Jun Hu


    Full Text Available Prompt and accurate detection of rejection prior to pathological changes after organ transplantation is vital for monitoring rejections. Although biopsy remains the current gold standard for rejection diagnosis, it is an invasive method and cannot be repeated daily. Thus, noninvasive monitoring methods are needed. In this study, by introducing an IL-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (IL-2 N-mAb and immunosuppressants into the culture with the presence of specific stimulators and activated lymphocytes, an activated lymphocyte-specific assay (ALSA system was established to detect the specific activated lymphocytes. This assay demonstrated that the suppression in the ALSA test was closely related to the existence of specific activated lymphocytes. The ALSA test was applied to 47 heart graft recipients and the proliferation of activated lymphocytes from all rejection recipients proven by endomyocardial biopsies was found to be inhibited by spleen cells from the corresponding donors, suggesting that this suppression could reflect the existence of activated lymphocytes against donor antigens, and thus the rejection of a heart graft. The sensitivity of the ALSA test in these 47 heart graft recipients was 100%; however, the specificity was only 37.5%. It was also demonstrated that IL-2 N-mAb was indispensible, and the proper culture time courses and concentrations of stimulators were essential for the ALSA test. This preliminary study with 47 grafts revealed that the ALSA test was a promising noninvasive tool, which could be used in vitro to assist with the diagnosis of rejection post-heart transplantation.

  17. Integrated circuits and electrode interfaces for noninvasive physiological monitoring.

    Ha, Sohmyung; Kim, Chul; Chi, Yu M; Akinin, Abraham; Maier, Christoph; Ueno, Akinori; Cauwenberghs, Gert


    This paper presents an overview of the fundamentals and state of the-art in noninvasive physiological monitoring instrumentation with a focus on electrode and optrode interfaces to the body, and micropower-integrated circuit design for unobtrusive wearable applications. Since the electrode/optrode-body interface is a performance limiting factor in noninvasive monitoring systems, practical interface configurations are offered for biopotential acquisition, electrode-tissue impedance measurement, and optical biosignal sensing. A systematic approach to instrumentation amplifier (IA) design using CMOS transistors operating in weak inversion is shown to offer high energy and noise efficiency. Practical methodologies to obviate 1/f noise, counteract electrode offset drift, improve common-mode rejection ratio, and obtain subhertz high-pass cutoff are illustrated with a survey of the state-of-the-art IAs. Furthermore, fundamental principles and state-of-the-art technologies for electrode-tissue impedance measurement, photoplethysmography, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and signal coding and quantization are reviewed, with additional guidelines for overall power management including wireless transmission. Examples are presented of practical dry-contact and noncontact cardiac, respiratory, muscle and brain monitoring systems, and their clinical applications.

  18. Non-invasive assessment of the liver using imaging

    Thorling Thompson, Camilla; Wang, Haolu; Liu, Xin; Liang, Xiaowen; Crawford, Darrell H.; Roberts, Michael S.


    Chronic liver disease causes 2,000 deaths in Australia per year and early diagnosis is crucial to avoid progression to cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. There is no ideal method to evaluate liver function. Blood tests and liver biopsies provide spot examinations and are unable to track changes in function quickly. Therefore better techniques are needed. Non-invasive imaging has the potential to extract increased information over a large sampling area, continuously tracking dynamic changes in liver function. This project aimed to study the ability of three imaging techniques, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, infrared thermography and photoacoustic imaging, in measuring liver function. Collagen deposition was obvious in multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging in fibrosis and cirrhosis and comparable to conventional histology. Infrared thermography revealed a significantly increased liver temperature in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging and photoacoustic imaging could both track uptake and excretion of indocyanine green in rat liver. These results prove that non-invasive imaging can extract crucial information about the liver continuously over time and has the potential to be translated into clinic in the assessment of liver disease.

  19. Noninvasive method to assess the electrical brain activity from rats

    Rosana Ferrari


    Full Text Available This research presents a noninvasive method for the acquisition of brain electrical signal in rat. Was used an electroencephalography (EEG system developed for bovine and adapted to rats. The bipolar electrode system (needle electrodes was glued on the surface of the head of the animal without surgical procedures and the other electrode was glued to the tail, as ground. The EEG activity was sampled at 120Hz for an hour. The accuracy and precision of the EEG measurement was performed using Fourier analysis and signal energy. For this, the digital signal was divided into sections successive of 3 seconds and was decomposed into four frequency bands: delta (0.3 to 4Hz, theta (4-8Hz, alpha (8-12Hz and beta (12-30Hz and energy (µV² of the series of time filtered were calculated. The method allowed the acquisition of non-invasive electrical brain signals in conscious rats and their frequency patterns were in agreement with previous studies that used surgical procedures to acquire EEG in rats. This system showed accuracy and precision and will allow further studies on behavior and to investigate the action of drugs on the central nervous system in rats without surgical procedures.

  20. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases.

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Romano, Federica; Pizzuti, Laura; Segreto, Sabrina; Storto, Giovanni; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Camera, Luigi; Maurea, Simone


    Colorectal cancer is one of the few malignant tumors in which synchronous or metachronous liver metastases [colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs)] may be treated with surgery. It has been demonstrated that resection of CRLMs improves the long-term prognosis. On the other hand, patients with un-resectable CRLMs may benefit from chemotherapy alone or in addition to liver-directed therapies. The choice of the most appropriate therapeutic management of CRLMs depends mostly on the diagnostic imaging. Nowadays, multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are available and those have a pivotal role in the workup of patients with CRLMs. Although extensive research has been performed with regards to the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance for the detection of CRLMs, the optimal imaging strategies for staging and follow up are still to be established. This largely due to the progressive technological and pharmacological advances which are constantly improving the accuracy of each imaging modality. This review describes the non-invasive imaging approaches of CRLMs reporting the technical features, the clinical indications, the advantages and the potential limitations of each modality, as well as including some information on the development of new imaging modalities, the role of new contrast media and the feasibility of using parametric image analysis as diagnostic marker of presence of CRLMs.

  1. Noninvasive methods of rejection diagnosis after heart transplantation.

    Kemkes, B M; Schütz, A; Engelhardt, M; Brandl, U; Breuer, M


    For clinical follow-up and prognosis in heart transplant patients, it is important to understand accurately the presence and extent of cardiac allograft rejection. Since the introduction of endomyocardial biopsy, almost 40 different noninvasive diagnostic procedures for the recognition of myocardial rejection have been proposed. However, endomyocardial biopsy is invasive and not suitable for frequent monitoring. If the pattern of rejection shows a focal distribution, false-negative results can be expected. Discrepancies between biopsy findings and allograft function are obviously possible. State-of-the-art information will be given on the most reliable noninvasive methods for rejection diagnosis, which can be differentiated from electrophysiology (fast-Fourier-transformed electrocardiography and intramyocardial electrocardiography), echocardiography, immunologic methods (cytoimmunologic monitoring, transferrin receptors, and interleukin-2 receptors), various biochemical markers (neopterines, prolactin, urinary polyamines, and beta 2-microglobulins), radioisotopic techniques (antimyosin-monoclonal antibodies, thallium, technetium, and gallium scintigraphy and indium-labeled cells), as well as magnetic resonance imaging. Thus modified and patient-adapted antirejection therapy can be provided if the decision for or against antirejection therapy is not based on biopsy findings alone but rather is confirmed along with histologic, electrophysiologic, biochemical, immunologic, and functional parameters.

  2. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon


    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  3. Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content

    Sanjeev R Mehta; E Louise Thomas; Jimmy D Bell; Desmond G Johnston; Simon D Taylor-Robinson


    Hepatic steatosis affects 20% to 30% of the general adult population in the western world. Currently, the technique of choice for determining hepatic fat deposition and the stage of fibrosis is liver biopsy. However, it is an invasive procedure and its use is limited, particularly in children. It may also be subject to sampling error. Non-invasive techniques such as ultrasound, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) can detect hepatic steatosis, but currently cannot distinguish between simple steatosis and steatohepatitis, or stage the degree of fibrosis accurately. Ultrasound is widely used to detect hepatic steatosis, but its sensitivity is reduced in the morbidly obese and also in those with small amounts of fatty infiltration. It has been used to grade hepatic fat content, but this is subjective. CT can detect hepatic steatosis, but exposes subjects to ionising radiation, thus limiting its use in longitudinal studies and in children. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) techniques using chemical shift imaging have provided a quantitative assessment of the degree of hepatic fatty infiltration, which correlates well with liver biopsy results in the same patients. Similarly, in vivo 1H MRS is a fast, safe, non-invasive method for the quantification of intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) levels. Both techniques will be useful tools in future longitudinal clinical studies, either in examining the natural history of conditions causing hepatic steatosis(e.g. non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), or in testing new treatments for these conditions.

  4. Modulation of Untruthful Responses with Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    Fecteau, Shirley; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro


    Deceptive abilities have long been studied in relation to personality traits. More recently, studies explored the neural substrates associated with deceptive skills suggesting a critical role of the prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated whether non-invasive brain stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could modulate generation of untruthful responses about subject’s personal life across contexts (i.e., deceiving on guilt-free questions on daily activities; generating previously memorized lies about past experience; and producing spontaneous lies about past experience), as well as across modality responses (verbal and motor responses). Results reveal that real, but not sham, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the DLPFC can reduce response latency for untruthful over truthful answers across contexts and modality responses. Also, contexts of lies seem to incur a different hemispheric laterality. These findings add up to previous studies demonstrating that it is possible to modulate some processes involved in generation of untruthful answers by applying non-invasive brain stimulation over the DLPFC and extend these findings by showing a differential hemispheric contribution of DLPFCs according to contexts. PMID:23550273

  5. Non-invasive quantification of brain tumor-induced astrogliosis

    Baird Andrew


    Full Text Available Abstract Background CNS injury including stroke, infection, and tumor growth lead to astrogliosis, a process that involves upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in astrocytes. However, the kinetics of astrogliosis that is related to these insults (i.e. tumor is largely unknown. Results Using transgenic mice expressing firefly luciferase under the regulation of the GFAP promoter (GFAP-luc, we developed a model system to monitor astrogliosis upon tumor growth in a rapid, non-invasive manner. A biphasic induction of astrogliosis was observed in our xenograft model in which an early phase of activation of GFAP was associated with inflammatory response followed by a secondary, long-term upregulation of GFAP. These animals reveal GFAP activation with kinetics that is in parallel with tumor growth. Furthermore, a strong correlation between astrogliosis and tumor size was observed. Conclusions Our results suggest that non-invasive, quantitative bioluminescent imaging using GFAP-luc reporter animal is a useful tool to monitor temporal-spatial kinetics of host-mediated astrogliosis that is associated with glioma and metastatic brain tumor growth.

  6. Clinical role of non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension.

    Bolognesi, Massimo; Di Pascoli, Marco; Sacerdoti, David


    Measurement of portal pressure is pivotal in the evaluation of patients with liver cirrhosis. The measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient represents the reference method by which portal pressure is estimated. However, it is an invasive procedure that requires significant hospital resources, including experienced staff, and is associated with considerable cost. Non-invasive methods that can be reliably used to estimate the presence and the degree of portal hypertension are urgently needed in clinical practice. Biochemical and morphological parameters have been proposed for this purpose, but have shown disappointing results overall. Splanchnic Doppler ultrasonography and the analysis of microbubble contrast agent kinetics with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography have shown better accuracy for the evaluation of patients with portal hypertension. A key advancement in the non-invasive evaluation of portal hypertension has been the introduction in clinical practice of methods able to measure stiffness in the liver, as well as stiffness/congestion in the spleen. According to the data published to date, it appears to be possible to rule out clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis (i.e., hepatic venous pressure gradient ≥ 10 mmHg) with a level of clinically-acceptable accuracy by combining measurements of liver stiffness and spleen stiffness along with Doppler ultrasound evaluation. It is probable that the combination of these methods may also allow for the identification of patients with the most serious degree of portal hypertension, and ongoing research is helping to ensure progress in this field.

  7. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan


    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging based noninvasive measurements of brain hemodynamics in neonates

    De Vis, Jill B; Alderliesten, Thomas; Hendrikse, Jeroen


    Perinatal disturbances of brain hemodynamics can have a detrimental effect on the brain's parenchyma with consequently adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Noninvasive, reliable tools to evaluate the neonate's brain hemodynamics are scarce. Advances in magnetic resonance imaging have provided new...... methods to noninvasively assess brain hemodynamics. More recently these methods have made their transition to the neonatal population. The aim of this review is twofold. Firstly, to describe these newly available noninvasive methods to investigate brain hemodynamics in neonates. Secondly, to discuss...

  9. Superconducting integrated submillimeter receiver for TELIS

    Koshelets, Valery P.; Ermakov, Andrey B.; Filippenko, Lyudmila V.; Khudchenko, Andrey V.; Kiselev, Oleg S.; Sobolev, Alexander S.; Torgashin, Mikhail Yu.; Yagoubov, Pavel A.; Hoogeveen, Ruud W. M.; Wild, Wolfgang


    In this report an overview of the results on the development of a single-chip superconducting integrated receiver for the Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS) balloon project intended to measure a variety of stratosphere trace gases is presented. The Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) comprises in

  10. 47 CFR 32.1170 - Receivables.


    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.1170 Receivables. (a... enable the company to make the following analysis: (1) Amounts due from customers who are receiving... process of collection. (b) Collections in excess of amounts charged to this account may be credited to...

  11. Superconducting chip receivers for imaging application

    Shitov, SV; Koshelets, VP; Ermakov, AB; Filippenko, LV; Baryshev, AM; Luinge, W; Gao, [No Value


    Experimental details of a unique superconducting imaging array receiver are discussed. Each pixel contains an internally pumped receiver chip mounted on the back of the elliptical microwave lens. Each chip comprises a quasi-optical SIS mixer integrated with a superconducting flux-flow oscillator (FF

  12. Social networks and receiving informal care.

    Boer, A. de; Klerk, M. de; Cardol, M.; Westert, G.


    In 2001, roughly half a million people (4% of the Dutch population) received informal care from family members living outside their home, and a quarter of a million (2% of the Dutch population) received this care from acquaintances, such as friend, neighbours and work colleagues. The potential suppl

  13. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television...

  14. RF performance of T-DAB receivers

    Schiphorst, R.; Potman, J.; Hofstra, K.L.; Cronie, H.S.; Slump, C.H.


    In every wireless system, the weakest link determines the performance of the network. In this paper the Radio Frequency (RF) performance of both band III and L-band Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcasting (T-DAB) consumer receivers are discussed. The receivers have been tested based on the EN 50248 s

  15. Risk factors for intubation as a guide for noninvasive ventilation in patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

    Masip, Josep; Páez, Joaquim; Merino, Montserrat; Parejo, Sandra; Vecilla, Francisco; Riera, Clara; Ríos, Araceli; Sabater, Joan; Ballús, Josep; Padró, J


    Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the endotracheal intubation rate in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. However, criteria for selecting candidates for this technique are not well established. We analyzed a cohort of patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema managed by conventional therapy to identify risk factors for intubation. These factors were used as guide for indications for noninvasive ventilation. Observational cohort registry in the ICU and emergency and cardiology departments in a community teaching hospital. . 110 consecutive patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, 80 of whom received conventional oxygen therapy. Physiological measurements and blood gas samples registered upon admission. Twenty-one patients (26%) treated with conventional oxygen therapy needed intubation. Acute myocardial infarction, pH below 7.25, low ejection fraction (predictors for intubation. Conversely, systolic blood pressure of 180 mmHg or higher showed to be a protective factor since only two patients with this blood pressure value required intubation (8%)], both presenting with a pH lower than 7.25. Considering systolic blood pressure lower than 180 mmHg, patients who showed hypercapnia presented a high intubation rate (13/21, 62%) whereas the rate of intubation in patients with normocapnia was intermediate (6/23, 26%). All normocapnic patients with pH less than 7.25 required intubation. No patient with hypocapnia was intubated regardless the level of blood pressure. Patients with pH less than 7.25 or systolic blood pressure less than 180 mmHg associated with hypercapnia should be promptly considered for noninvasive ventilation. With this strategy about 40% of the patients would be initially treated with this technique, which would involve nearly 90% of the patients that require intubation.

  16. Acute Effects of Vascular Modifying Agents in Solid Tumors Assessed by Noninvasive Laser Doppler Flowmetry and Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Michael Kragh


    Full Text Available The potential of noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to detect acute effects of different vascular-modifying agents on perfusion and blood volume in tumors was evaluated. C3H mouse mammary carcinomas (∼200 mm3 in the rear foot of CDF1 mice were treated with flavone acetic acid (FAA, 150 mg/kg, 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4acetic acid (DMXAA, 20 mg/kg, combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate (CAMP, 250 mg/kg, hydralazine (HDZ, 5 mg/kg, or nicotinamide (NTA, 500 mg/kg. Tumor perfusion before and after treatment was evaluated by noninvasive LDF, using a 41°C heated custombuilt LDF probe with four integrated laser/receiver units, and tumor blood volume was estimated by MRS, using light guide coupled reflectance measurements at 800±10 nm. FAA, DMXAA, CAMP, and HDZ significantly decreased tumor perfusion by 50%, 47%, 73%, and 78%, respectively. In addition, FAA, DMXAA, and HDZ significantly reduced the blood volume within the tumor, indicating that these compounds to some degree shunted blood from the tumor to adjacent tissue, HDZ being most potent. CAMP caused no change in the tumor blood volume, indicating that the mechanism of action of CAMP was vascular shut down with the blood pool trapped in the tumor. NTA caused no change in either tumor perfusion or tumor blood volume. We conclude that noninvasive LDF and MRS can determine acute effects of vascular modifying agents on tumor perfusion and blood volume.

  17. Sequential non-invasive mechanical ventilation following short-term invasive mechanical ventilation in COPD induced hypercapnic respiratory failure

    王辰; 商鸣宇; 黄克武; 童朝晖; 孔维民; 姜超美; 代华平; 张洪玉; 翁心植


    Objective To estimate the feasibility and the efficacy of early extubation and sequential non-invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with exacerbated hypercapnic respiratory failure.Methods Twenty-two intubated COPD patients with severe hypercapnic respiratory failure due to pulmonary infection (pneumonia or purulent bronchitis) were involved in the study. At the time of pulmonary infection control window (PIC window) appeared, when pulmonary infection had been significantly controlled (resolution of fever and decrease in purulent sputum, radiographic infiltrations, and leukocytosis) after the antibiotic and the comprehensive therapy, the early extubation was conducted and followed by non-invasive MV via facial mask immediately in 11 cases (study group). Other 11 COPD cases with similar clinical characteristics who continuously received invasive MV after PIC window were recruited as control group.Results All patients had similar clinical characteristics and gas exchange before treatment, as well as the initiating time and all indices at the time of the PIC window. For study group and control group, the duration of invasive MV was (7.1±2.9) vs (23.0±14.0) days, respectively, P<0.01. The total duration of ventilatory support was (13±7) vs (23±14) days, respectively, P<0.05. The incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) were 0/11 vs 6/11, respectively, P<0.01. The duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay was (13±7) vs (26±14) days, respectively, P<0.05. Conclusions In COPD patients requiring intubation and MV for pulmonary infection and hypercapnic respiratory failure, early extubation followed by non-invasive MV initiated at the point of PIC window significantly decreases the invasive and total durations of ventilatory support, the risk of VAP, and the duration of ICU stay.

  18. Noninvasive Ventilation Practice Patterns for Acute Respiratory Failure in Canadian Tertiary Care Centres: A Descriptive Analysis

    Geneviève C Digby


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extent of noninvasive ventilation (NIV use for patients with acute respiratory failure in Canadian hospitals, indications for use and associated outcomes are unknown.

  19. Compressive Sensing for Spread Spectrum Receivers

    Fyhn, Karsten; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Larsen, Torben


    With the advent of ubiquitous computing there are two design parameters of wireless communication devices that become very important: power efficiency and production cost. Compressive sensing enables the receiver in such devices to sample below the Shannon-Nyquist sampling rate, which may lead...... to a decrease in the two design parameters. This paper investigates the use of Compressive Sensing (CS) in a general Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) receiver. We show that when using spread spectrum codes in the signal domain, the CS measurement matrix may be simplified. This measurement scheme, named...... Compressive Spread Spectrum (CSS), allows for a simple, effective receiver design. Furthermore, we numerically evaluate the proposed receiver in terms of bit error rate under different signal to noise ratio conditions and compare it with other receiver structures. These numerical experiments show that though...

  20. High dynamic, low volume GPS receiver

    Hurd, W. J.


    A new GPS receiver concept and design are presented to meet the high dynamic and low volume requirements for range applications in missiles and drones. The receiver has the potential to satisfy all range requirements with one basic receiver, which has significant potential economic benefit over the alternate approach of using a family of receivers, each tailored for specific applications. The main new concept is to use approximate maximum likelihood estimates of pseudo range and range-rate, rather than tracking with carrier phase locked loops and code delay locked loops. Preliminary analysis indicates that receivers accelerating at 50 g or more can track with position errors due to acceleration of approximately 0.2 m/g, or 10 m at 50 g. Implementation is almost entirely digital to meet the low volume requirements.

  1. An SDR based AIS receiver for satellites

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard


    For a few years now, there has been a high interest in monitoring the global ship traffic from space. A few satellite, capable of listening for ship borne AIS transponders have already been launched, and soon the AAUSAT3, carrying two different types of AIS receivers will also be launched. One...... of the AIS receivers onboard AAUSAT3 is an SDR based AIS receiver. This paper serves to describe the background of the AIS system, and how the SDR based receiver has been integrated into the AAUSAT3 satellite. Amongst some of the benefits of using an SDR based receiver is, that due to its versatility, new...... detection algorithms are easily deployed, and it is easily adapted the new proposed AIS transmission channels....

  2. Accuracy of continuous noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring for the prediction of blood transfusions in trauma patients.

    Galvagno, Samuel M; Hu, Peter; Yang, Shiming; Gao, Cheng; Hanna, David; Shackelford, Stacy; Mackenzie, Colin


    Early detection of hemorrhagic shock is required to facilitate prompt coordination of blood component therapy delivery to the bedside and to expedite performance of lifesaving interventions. Standard physical findings and vital signs are difficult to measure during the acute resuscitation stage, and these measures are often inaccurate until patients deteriorate to a state of decompensated shock. The aim of this study is to examine a severely injured trauma patient population to determine whether a noninvasive SpHb monitor can predict the need for urgent blood transfusion (universal donor or additional urgent blood transfusion) during the first 12 h of trauma patient resuscitation. We hypothesize that trends in continuous SpHb, combined with easily derived patient-specific factors, can identify the immediate need for transfusion in trauma patients. Subjects were enrolled if directly admitted to the trauma center, >17 years of age, and with a shock index (heart rate/systolic blood pressure) >0.62. Upon admission, a Masimo Radical-7 co-oximeter sensor (Masimo Corporation, Irvine, CA) was applied, providing measurement of continuous non-invasive hemoglobin (SpHb) levels. Blood was drawn and hemoglobin concentration analyzed and conventional pulse oximetry photopletysmograph signals were continuously recorded. Demographic information and both prehospital and admission vital signs were collected. The primary outcome was transfusion of at least one unit of packed red blood cells within 24 h of admission. Eight regression models (C1-C8) were evaluated for the prediction of blood use by comparing area under receiver operating curve (AUROC) at different time intervals after admission. 711 subjects had continuous vital signs waveforms available, to include heart rate (HR), SpHb and SpO2 trends. When SpHb was monitored for 15 min, SpHb did not increase AUROC for prediction of transfusion. The highest ROC was recorded for model C8 (age, sex, prehospital shock index, admission

  3. Enhanced AIS receiver design for satellite reception

    Clazzer, Federico; Lázaro, Francisco; Plass, Simon


    The possibility to detect Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages from low earth orbit (LEO) satellites paves the road for a plurality of new and unexplored services. Besides worldwide tracking of vessels, maritime traffic monitoring, analysis of vessel routes employing big data, and oceans monitoring are just few of the fields, where satellite-aided AIS is beneficial. Designed for ship-to-ship communication and collision avoidance, AIS satellite reception performs poorly in regions with a high density of vessels. This calls for the development of advanced satellite AIS receivers able to improve the decoding capabilities. In this context, our contribution focuses on the introduction of a new enhanced AIS receiver design and its performance evaluation. The enhanced receiver makes use of a coherent receiver for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region, while for medium to high SNRs, a differential Viterbi receiver is used. Additional novelty of our work is in the exploitation of previously decoded packets from one vessel that is still under the LEO reception range, to improve the vessel detection probability. The assessment of the performance against a common receiver is done making the use of a simple and tight model of the medium access (MAC) layer and the multi-packet reception (MPR) matrix for physical layer (PHY) representation. Performance results show the benefits of such enhanced receiver, especially when it is bundled with successive interference cancellation (SIC).

  4. Terahertz Array Receivers with Integrated Antennas

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Llombart, Nuria; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecile; Lin, Robert; Cooper, Ken B.; Reck, Theodore; Siles, Jose; Schlecht, Erich; Peralta, Alessandro; Thomas, Bertrand; Mehdi, Imran


    Highly sensitive terahertz heterodyne receivers have been mostly single-pixel. However, now there is a real need of multi-pixel array receivers at these frequencies driven by the science and instrument requirements. In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architectures for use in multi-pixel integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies has progressed very well over the past few years. Novel stacking of micro-machined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages has made it possible to design multi-pixel heterodyne arrays. One of the critical technologies to achieve fully integrated system is the antenna arrays compatible with the receiver array architecture. In this paper we explore different receiver and antenna architectures for multi-pixel heterodyne and direct detector arrays for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

  5. Fundamentals of GPS Receivers A Hardware Approach

    Doberstein, Dan


    While much of the current literature on GPS receivers is aimed at those intimately familiar with their workings, this volume summarizes the basic principles using as little mathematics as possible, and details the necessary specifications and circuits for constructing a GPS receiver that is accurate to within 300 meters. Dedicated sections deal with the features of the GPS signal and its data stream, the details of the receiver (using a hybrid design as exemplar), and more advanced receivers and topics including time and frequency measurements. Later segments discuss the Zarlink GPS receiver chip set, as well as providing a thorough examination of the TurboRogue receiver, one of the most accurate yet made. Guiding the reader through the concepts and circuitry, from the antenna to the solution of user position, the book’s deployment of a hybrid receiver as a basis for discussion allows for extrapolation of the core ideas to more complex, and more accurate designs. Digital methods are used, but any analogue c...

  6. Temperature influences in receiver clock modelling

    Wang, Kan; Meindl, Michael; Rothacher, Markus; Schoenemann, Erik; Enderle, Werner


    In Precise Point Positioning (PPP), hardware delays at the receiver site (receiver, cables, antenna, …) are always difficult to be separated from the estimated receiver clock parameters. As a result, they are partially or fully contained in the estimated "apparent" clocks and will influence the deterministic and stochastic modelling of the receiver clock behaviour. In this contribution, using three years of data, the receiver clock corrections of a set of high-precision Hydrogen Masers (H-Masers) connected to stations of the ESA/ESOC network and the International GNSS Service (IGS) are firstly characterized concerning clock offsets, drifts, modified Allan deviations and stochastic parameters. In a second step, the apparent behaviour of the clocks is modelled with the help of a low-order polynomial and a known temperature coefficient (Weinbach, 2013). The correlations between the temperature and the hardware delays generated by different types of antennae are then analysed looking at daily, 3-day and weekly time intervals. The outcome of these analyses is crucial, if we intend to model the receiver clocks in the ground station network to improve the estimation of station-related parameters like coordinates, troposphere zenith delays and ambiguities. References: Weinbach, U. (2013) Feasibility and impact of receiver clock modeling in precise GPS data analysis. Dissertation, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.

  7. In vivo non-invasive multiphoton tomography of human skin

    König, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Ehlers, Alexander; Le Harzic, Ronan


    High resolution non-invasive 3D imaging devices are required to detect pathogenic microorganisms such as Anthrax spores, bacteria, viruses, fungi and chemical agents entering biological tissues such as the epidermis. Due to the low light penetration depth and the biodamage potential, ultraviolet light sources can not be employed to realize intratissue imaging of bio- and chemohazards. We report on the novel near infrared laser technology multiphoton tomography and the high resolution 4D imaging tool DermaInspect for non-invasive detection of intratissue agents and their influence on cellular metabolism based on multiphoton autofluorescence imaging (MAI) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Femtosecond laser pulses in the spectral range of 750 nm to 850 nm have been used to image in vivo human skin with subcellular spatial and picosecond temporal resolution. The non-linear induced autofluorescence of both, skin tissues and microorganisms, originates mainly from naturally endogenous fluorophores/protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, keratin, collagen, elastin, porphyrins and melanin. Bacteria emit in the blue/green spectral range due to NAD(P)H and flavoproteins and, in certain cases, in the red spectral range due to the biosynthesis of Zn-porphyrins, coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin. Collagen and exogenous non-centrosymmetric molecules can be detected by SHG signals. The system DermaInspect consists of a wavelength-tunable compact 80/90 MHz Ti:sapphire laser, a scan module with galvo scan mirrors, piezo-driven objective, fast photon detector and time-resolved single photon counting unit. It can be used to perform optical sectioning and 3D autofluorescence lifetime imaging (τ-mapping) with 1 μm spatial resolution and 270 ps temporal resolution. The parameter fluorescence lifetime depends on the type of fluorophore and its microenvironment and can be used to distinguish bio- and chemohazards from cellular background and to gain information for pathogen

  8. Noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Andrea Bellone


    Full Text Available The term noninvasive ventilation (NIV encompasses two different modes of delivering positive airway pressure, namely continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and bilevel positive airway pressure (bilevel-PAP. The two modes are different since CPAP does not actively assist inspiration whereas bilevel-PAP does. Bilevel-PAP is a type of noninvasive ventilation that helps keep the upper airways of the lungs open by providing a flow of air delivered through a face mask. The air is pressurized by a machine, which delivers it to the face mask through long, plastic hosing. With bilevel-PAP, the doctor prescribes specific alternating pressures: a higher pressure is used to breathe in (inspiratory positive airway pressure and a lower pressure is used to breath out (expiratory positive airway pressure. Noninvasive ventilation has been shown to reduce the rate of tracheal intubation. The main indications are exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE. This last is a common cause of respiratory failure with high incidence and high mortality rate. Clinical findings of ACPE are related to the increased extra-vascular water in the lungs and the resulting reduced lung compliance, increased airway resistance and elevated inspiratory muscle load which generates a depression in pleural pressure. These large pleural pressure swings are responsible for hemodynamic changes by increasing left ventricular afterload, myocardial transmural pressure, and venous return. These alterations can be detrimental to patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Under these circumstances, NIV, either by CPAP or bilevel-PAP, improves vital signs, gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics by reducing left ventricular afterload and preload. In the first randomized study which compared the effectiveness of CPAP plus medical treatment vs medical treatment alone, the CPAP group showed a significant decrease in its

  9. Advances in noninvasive cardiovascular imaging: implications for the anesthesiologist.

    Cahalan, M K; Litt, L; Botvinick, E H; Schiller, N B


    We have presented a review of recent advances in medical imaging which are relevant to the practice of anesthesia and associated research. The appropriate interpretation and use of the information derived from these noninvasive technologies can prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography remains the most advanced tool for noninvasive cardiac imaging because of its applicability for most cardiac disorders and its exquisite spatial resolution. Two-dimensional systems produce real time, dynamic, qualitative assessments of cardiac chamber morphology, size, thickness, and performance. The development of transesophageal echocardiography has brought this imaging power into the operating room for use by anesthesiologists. Recently developed quantitative and color-coded Doppler techniques will reveal intracardiac flow patterns and their alterations by anesthetics and surgery. These advantages are partially offset by inherent difficulties in quantifying echocardiographic data, and the need for highly trained operators for image reproduction. Nuclear cardiology and echocardiology are highly complementary. The scintigraphic methods identify myocardium at risk for infarction, confirm infarction when present, and produce quantitative, highly reproducible estimates of ventricular filling and performance. Time required to obtain data can be very brief for first-pass techniques, and these data are ideally suited for computer processing. Equilibrium studies require a larger dose of radioactive material, but provide excellent assessment of segmental wall motion. Preoperative studies with dipyridamole and Tl can indicate the patients truly at high risk for perioperative myocardial infarction. Monitoring and intensive care efforts may be better allocated with this information. No new technology in the past decade has stirred as much interest among clinicians as magnetic resonance imaging. Like echocardiography, it uses no ionizing radiation and is entirely noninvasive

  10. 无创分娩经验%Noninvasive delivery experience



    Objective:To study the effect of noninvasive delivery for reducing episiotomy rate.Methods:126 cases of vaginal delivery women from July to September 2013 were divided into the observation group and the control group, with 63 cases in each. The observation group were given noninvasive delivery technology,while the control group were given traditional delivery technology.The curative effect of two groups were compared.Results:The difference of perineum complete and episiotomy of two groups was statistically significant(P0.05).The bleeding was similar between the two groups,with no statistical significance(P>0.05).The difference of postpartum perineum wound healing and perineal pain after 3 days was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:Noninvasive childbirth can reduce episiotomy rate and reduce the perineal pain postpartum.It is favorable for perineum wound healing and improving the quality of life.It makes maternal women no longer fear episiotomy,so that it reduces the rate of cesarean delivery.%目的:探讨无创分娩对于减少会阴侧切率的效果。方法:2013年7-9月收治经阴道分娩产妇126例,分成观察组和对照组,各63例。观察组采用无创分娩技术,对照组采用传统分娩技术。比较两组效果。结果:两组会阴完整、会阴侧切比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),会阴裂伤程度差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),两组出血比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),产后3 d 会阴伤口愈合及会阴疼痛差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:无创分娩降低会阴侧切率,减轻会阴产后疼痛,有利会阴伤口愈合,改善产妇生活质量,使产妇不再惧怕侧切而行剖宫产,降低了剖宫产率。

  11. Effective noninvasive zygosity determination by maternal plasma target region sequencing.

    Jing Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently very few noninvasive molecular genetic approaches are available to determine zygosity for twin pregnancies in clinical laboratories. This study aimed to develop a novel method to determine zygosity by using maternal plasma target region sequencing. METHODS: We constructed a statistic model to calculate the possibility of each zygosity type using likelihood ratios ( Li and empirical dynamic thresholds targeting at 4,524 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs loci on 22 autosomes. Then two dizygotic (DZ twin pregnancies,two monozygotic (MZ twin pregnancies and two singletons were recruited to evaluate the performance of our novel method. Finally we estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the model in silico under different cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA concentration and sequence depth. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: We obtained 8.90 Gbp sequencing data on average for six clinical samples. Two samples were classified as DZ with L values of 1.891 and 1.554, higher than the dynamic DZ cut-off values of 1.162 and 1.172, respectively. Another two samples were judged as MZ with 0.763 and 0.784 of L values, lower than the MZ cut-off values of 0.903 and 0.918. And the rest two singleton samples were regarded as MZ twins, with L values of 0.639 and 0.757, lower than the MZ cut-off values of 0.921 and 0.799. In silico, the estimated sensitivity of our noninvasive zygosity determination was 99.90% under 10% total cff-DNA concentration with 2 Gbp sequence data. As the cff-DNA concentration increased to 15%, the specificity was as high as 97% with 3.50 Gbp sequence data, much higher than 80% with 10% cff-DNA concentration. SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents the feasibility to noninvasively determine zygosity of twin pregnancy using target region sequencing, and illustrates the sensitivity and specificity under various detecting condition. Our method can act as an alternative approach for zygosity determination of twin pregnancies in clinical

  12. NINJA: a noninvasive framework for internal computer security hardening

    Allen, Thomas G.; Thomson, Steve


    Vulnerabilities are a growing problem in both the commercial and government sector. The latest vulnerability information compiled by CERT/CC, for the year ending Dec. 31, 2002 reported 4129 vulnerabilities representing a 100% increase over the 2001 [1] (the 2003 report has not been published at the time of this writing). It doesn"t take long to realize that the growth rate of vulnerabilities greatly exceeds the rate at which the vulnerabilities can be fixed. It also doesn"t take long to realize that our nation"s networks are growing less secure at an accelerating rate. As organizations become aware of vulnerabilities they may initiate efforts to resolve them, but quickly realize that the size of the remediation project is greater than their current resources can handle. In addition, many IT tools that suggest solutions to the problems in reality only address "some" of the vulnerabilities leaving the organization unsecured and back to square one in searching for solutions. This paper proposes an auditing framework called NINJA (acronym for Network Investigation Notification Joint Architecture) for noninvasive daily scanning/auditing based on common security vulnerabilities that repeatedly occur in a network environment. This framework is used for performing regular audits in order to harden an organizations security infrastructure. The framework is based on the results obtained by the Network Security Assessment Team (NSAT) which emulates adversarial computer network operations for US Air Force organizations. Auditing is the most time consuming factor involved in securing an organization's network infrastructure. The framework discussed in this paper uses existing scripting technologies to maintain a security hardened system at a defined level of performance as specified by the computer security audit team. Mobile agents which were under development at the time of this writing are used at a minimum to improve the noninvasiveness of our scans. In general, noninvasive

  13. Urinary metabolomics for noninvasive detection of borderline and acute T cell-mediated rejection in children after kidney transplantation.

    Blydt-Hansen, T D; Sharma, A; Gibson, I W; Mandal, R; Wishart, D S


    The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of urinary metabolomics for noninvasive diagnosis of T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Urine samples (n = 277) from 57 patients with surveillance or indication kidney biopsies were assayed for 134 unique metabolites by quantitative mass spectrometry. Samples without TCMR (n = 183) were compared to borderline tubulitis (n = 54) and TCMR (n = 30). Partial least squares discriminant analysis identified distinct classifiers for TCMR (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.892; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.827-0.957) and borderline tubulitis (AUC = 0.836; 95% CI 0.781-0.892), respectively. Application of the TCMR classifier to borderline tubulitis samples yielded a discriminant score (-0.47 ± 0.33) mid-way between TCMR (-0.20 ± 0.34) and No TCMR (-0.80 ± 0.32) (p metabolomics is a sensitive, specific and noninvasive tool for TCMR identification that is superior to serum creatinine, with minimal confounding by other allograft injury processes. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Heliox and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation: a role for heliox in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    Hess, Dean R


    Evidence-based respiratory therapy for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) includes oxygen, inhaled bronchodilators, and noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. Examining the physics of gas flow, a case can be made either for or against the use of helium-oxygen mixture (heliox) in the care of patients with COPD. The evidence for the use of heliox in patients with COPD exacerbation is not strong at present. Most of the peer-reviewed literature consists of case reports, case series, and physiologic studies in small samples of carefully selected patients. Some patients with COPD exacerbation have a favorable physiologic response to heliox therapy, but predicting who will be a responder is difficult. Moreover, the use of heliox is hampered by the lack of widespread availability of an approved heliox delivery system. Appropriately designed randomized controlled trials with patient-important outcomes, such as avoidance of intubation, decreased intensive-care-unit and hospital days, and decreased cost of therapy, are sorely needed to establish the role of heliox in patients with COPD exacerbation, including those receiving noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation. Lacking such evidence, the use of heliox in patients with COPD exacerbation cannot be considered standard therapy.

  15. Prospective observational study of the non-invasive assessment of immediate postoperative pain using the analgesia/nociception index (ANI).

    Boselli, E; Daniela-Ionescu, M; Bégou, G; Bouvet, L; Dabouz, R; Magnin, C; Allaouchiche, B


    The analgesia/nociception index (ANI), a 0-100 non-invasive index calculated from heart rate variability, reflects the analgesia/nociception balance during general anaesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ANI in the assessment of immediate postoperative pain in adult patients undergoing general anaesthesia. Two-hundred patients undergoing scheduled surgery or endoscopy with general anaesthesia were included in this prospective observational study. Pain intensity was assessed using a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) after arousal from general anaesthesia. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were built to assess the performance of ANI to detect patients with NRS>3 and NRS ≥ 7 on arrival in the postoperative care unit. A negative linear relationship was observed between ANI and NRS (ANI=-5.2 × NRS+77.9, r(2)=0.41, Psensitivity and specificity of ANI to detect patients with NRS>3 were 78 and 80%, respectively, with a negative predictive value of 88%, corresponding to an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.86. At the threshold of 48, the sensitivity and specificity of ANI to detect NRS ≥ 7 were 92 and 82%, respectively, with a negative predictive value of 99%, corresponding to a ROC curve AUC of 0.91. A measurement of ANI during the immediate postoperative period is significantly correlated with pain intensity. The measurement of ANI appears to be a simple and non-invasive method to assess immediate postoperative analgesia.

  16. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    Byrne, R.H.


    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  17. Accuracy of continuous noninvasive arterial pressure monitoring in living-liver donors during transplantation.

    Araz, Coskun; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Pirat, Arash; Veziroglu, Nukhet; Camkiran Firat, Aynur; Arslan, Gulnaz


    Hemodynamic monitoring is vital during liver transplant surgeries because distinct hemodynamic changes are expected. The continuous noninvasive arterial pressure (CNAP) monitor is a noninvasive device for continuous arterial pressure measurement by a tonometric method. This study compared continuous noninvasive arterial pressure monitoring with invasive direct arterial pressure monitoring in living-liver donors during transplant. There were 40 patients analyzed while undergoing hepatic lobectomy for liver transplant. Invasive pressure monitoring was established at the radial artery and continuous noninvasive arterial pressure monitoring using a finger sensor was recorded simultaneously from the contralateral arm. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures from the 2 methods were compared. Correlation between the 2 methods was calculated. A total of 5433 simultaneous measurements were obtained. For systolic arterial blood pressure, 55% continuous noninvasive arterial pressure measurements were within 10% direct arterial measurement; the correlation was 0.479, continuous noninvasive arterial pressure bias was -0.3 mm Hg, and limits of agreement were 32.0 mm Hg. For diastolic arterial blood pressure, 50% continuous noninvasive arterial pressure measurements were within 10% direct arterial measurement; the correlation was 0.630, continuous noninvasive arterial pressure bias was -0.4 mm Hg, and limits of agreement were 21.1 mm Hg. For mean arterial blood pressure, 60% continuous noninvasive arterial pressure measurements were within 10% direct arterial measurement; the correlation was 0.692, continuous noninvasive arterial pressure bias was +0.4 mm Hg, and limits of agreement were 20.8 mm Hg. The 2 monitoring techniques did not show acceptable agreement. Our results suggest that continuous noninvasive arterial pressure monitoring is not equivalent to invasive arterial pressure monitoring in donors during living-donor liver transplant.

  18. Noninvasive Detection of Inflammation-Associated Colon Cancer in a Mouse Model

    Aaron C. Ericsson


    Full Text Available Helicobacter bilis-infected Smad3-/- mice represent an attractive model of inflammation-associated colon cancer. Most infected mice develop mucinous adenocarcinoma (MUC by 6 weeks post inoculation (PI; however, approximately one third do not progress to MUC. The ability to predict the development of MUC in mice used in therapeutic studies would confer a considerable saving of time and money. In addition, the inadvertent use of mice without MUC may confound therapeutic studies by making treatments seem falsely efficacious. We assessed both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and fecal biomarkers in Helicobacter- and sham-inoculated mice as methods of noninvasively detecting MUC before the predicted onset of disease. Non-contrast-enhanced MRI was able to detect lesions in 58% of mice with histologically confirmed MUC; however, serial imaging sessions produced inconsistent results. MRI was also a labor- and time-intensive technique requiring anesthesia. Alternatively, inflammatory biomarkers isolated from feces at early time points were correlated to later histologic lesions. Fecal expression of interleukin 1β, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α, and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted at 3 weeks PI correlated significantly with lesion severity at 9 weeks PI. For each biomarker, receiver-operator characteristic curves were also generated, and all three biomarkers performed well at 1 to 3 weeks PI, indicating that the development of MUC can be predicted based on the early expression of certain inflammatory mediators in feces.

  19. Effect of nasal noninvasive respiratory support methods on pharyngeal provocation-induced aerodigestive reflexes in infants.

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Sitaram, Swetha; Clouse, Brian J; Slaughter, Jonathan L; Shaker, Reza


    The pharynx is a locus of provocation among infants with aerodigestive morbidities manifesting as dysphagia, life-threatening events, aspiration-pneumonia, atelectasis, and reflux, and such infants often receive nasal respiratory support. We determined the impact of different oxygen delivery methods on pharyngeal stimulation-induced aerodigestive reflexes [room air (RA), nasal cannula (NC), and nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP)] while hypothesizing that the sensory motor characteristics of putative reflexes are distinct. Thirty eight infants (28.0 ± 0.7 wk gestation) underwent pharyngoesophageal manometry and respiratory inductance plethysmography to determine the effects of graded pharyngeal stimuli (n = 271) on upper and lower esophageal sphincters (UES, LES), swallowing, and deglutition-apnea. Comparisons were made between NC (n = 19), nCPAP (n = 9), and RA (n = 10) groups. Importantly, NC or nCPAP (vs. RA) had: 1) delayed feeding milestones (P reflexes (P > 0.05). We conclude that aerodigestive reflexes were similarly developed in infants using noninvasive respiratory support with adequate upper and lower aerodigestive protection. Increased concern for GERD is unfounded in this population. These infants may benefit from targeted oromotor feeding therapies and safe pharyngeal bolus transit to accelerate feeding milestones. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Artificial neural network aided non-invasive grading evaluation of hepatic fibrosis by duplex ultrasonography

    Zhang Li


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial neural networks (ANNs are widely studied for evaluating diseases. This paper discusses the intelligence mode of an ANN in grading the diagnosis of liver fibrosis by duplex ultrasonogaphy. Methods 239 patients who were confirmed as having liver fibrosis or cirrhosis by ultrasound guided liver biopsy were investigated in this study. We quantified ultrasonographic parameters as significant parameters using a data optimization procedure applied to an ANN. 179 patients were typed at random as the training group; 60 additional patients were consequently enrolled as the validating group. Performance of the ANN was evaluated according to accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Youden’s index and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results 5 ultrasonographic parameters; i.e., the liver parenchyma, thickness of spleen, hepatic vein (HV waveform, hepatic artery pulsatile index (HAPI and HV damping index (HVDI, were enrolled as the input neurons in the ANN model. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ANN model for quantitative diagnosis of liver fibrosis were 95.0%, 85.0% and 88.3%, respectively. The Youden’s index (YI was 0.80. Conclusions The established ANN model had good sensitivity and specificity in quantitative diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis or liver cirrhosis. Our study suggests that the ANN model based on duplex ultrasound may help non-invasive grading diagnosis of liver fibrosis in clinical practice.

  1. Artificial neural network aided non-invasive grading evaluation of hepatic fibrosis by duplex ultrasonography.

    Zhang, Li; Li, Qiao-Ying; Duan, Yun-You; Yan, Guo-Zhen; Yang, Yi-Lin; Yang, Rui-Jing


    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are widely studied for evaluating diseases. This paper discusses the intelligence mode of an ANN in grading the diagnosis of liver fibrosis by duplex ultrasonogaphy. 239 patients who were confirmed as having liver fibrosis or cirrhosis by ultrasound guided liver biopsy were investigated in this study. We quantified ultrasonographic parameters as significant parameters using a data optimization procedure applied to an ANN. 179 patients were typed at random as the training group; 60 additional patients were consequently enrolled as the validating group. Performance of the ANN was evaluated according to accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, Youden's index and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. 5 ultrasonographic parameters; i.e., the liver parenchyma, thickness of spleen, hepatic vein (HV) waveform, hepatic artery pulsatile index (HAPI) and HV damping index (HVDI), were enrolled as the input neurons in the ANN model. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the ANN model for quantitative diagnosis of liver fibrosis were 95.0%, 85.0% and 88.3%, respectively. The Youden's index (YI) was 0.80. The established ANN model had good sensitivity and specificity in quantitative diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis or liver cirrhosis. Our study suggests that the ANN model based on duplex ultrasound may help non-invasive grading diagnosis of liver fibrosis in clinical practice.

  2. Fiber-based hybrid probe for non-invasive cerebral monitoring in neonatology

    Rehberger, Matthias; Giovannella, Martina; Pagliazzi, Marco; Weigel, Udo; Durduran, Turgut; Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Pifferi, Antonio; Torricelli, Alessandro; Schmitt, Robert


    Improved cerebral monitoring systems are needed to prevent preterm infants from long-term cognitive and motor restrictions. Combining advanced near-infrared diffuse spectroscopy measurement technologies, time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) will introduce novel indicators of cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow for neonatology. For non-invasive sensing a fiber-optical probe is used to send and receive light from the infant head. In this study we introduce a new fiber-based hybrid probe that is designed for volume production. The probe supports TRS and DCS measurements in a cross geometry, thus both technologies gain information on the same region inside the tissue. The probe is highly miniaturized to perform cerebral measurements on heads of extreme preterm infants down to head diameters of 6cm. Considerations concerning probe production focus on a reproducible accuracy in shape and precise optical alignment. In this way deviations in measurement data within a series of probes should be minimized. In addition to that, requirements for clinical use like robustness and hygiene are considered. An additional soft-touching sleeve made of FDA compatible silicone allows for a flexible attachment with respect to the individual anatomy of each patient. We present the technical concept of the hybrid probe and corresponding manufacturing methods. A prototype of the probe is shown and tested on tissue phantoms as well as in vivo to verify its operational reliability.

  3. Noninvasive assessment of left ventricular wall stress in chronic congestive heart failure patients.

    Gould, L; Gopalaswamy, C; Chandy, F; Abdou, O


    Therapy with prazosin can improve the condition of patients with congestive heart failure due to its vasodilating action. Therefore nine patients with volume overloaded left ventricles due to aortic insufficiency and mitral insufficiency received 1 mg. of prazosin four times a day for two weeks. Peak and end-systolic wall stress were estimated using a noninvasive echocardiographic technique. The peak systolic wall stress in this group was 155 x 10(3) dynes/cm2 which is similar to the reported normal value. However, the end systolic wall stress was 101 x 10(3) dynes/cm2 which is much higher than the reported normal values. Following the administration of oral prazosin, the end systolic stress was normalized while the peak systolic stress was reduced below normal. As a result of therapy with prazosin, the ejection fraction, the percentage of change in the minor axis, and the velocity of circumferential fiber shortening significantly increased. Thus, the oral administration of prazosin can improve left ventricular function in patients with mitral insufficiency and aortic insufficiency.

  4. Non-invasive evaluation of the cardiac function in golden retriever dogs by radionuclide angiography.

    Devaux, J Y; Cabane, L; Esler, M; Flaouters, H; Duboc, D


    Golden Retriever dogs manifest an X-linked, Duchenne-like, muscular dystrophy with a characteristic lack of dystrophin. Histologic findings have demonstrated the cardiac involvement in these dogs to be a model for the cardiac insufficiency in human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The goal of this study was to assess the capability of radionuclide angiography (RNA) as an assessment tool to measure the ventricular dysfunction in these dogs. Three dogs, one normal and two with muscular dystrophy (MD), were studied by equilibrium gated blood pool. Red blood cells were labelled with 420 MBq of 99mTc. The three dogs lying on their left sides on the table, received no drugs and were not restrained in any manner. RNA left ejection fraction (EF) and echographic measurements of left ventricular fractional shortening (FS) were performed during the same session. EF values were 61%, 48%, 36% and FS values were 47%, 32%, 26%, respectively, for the control dog, the 6 month old MD dog and the 12 month old MD dog. This preliminary study demonstrates the potential usefulness of RNA for the non-invasive follow-up exams of specific therapy in a canine model of muscular dystrophy.

  5. Characterization and noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer with serum surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithms.

    Li, Shaoxin; Li, Linfang; Zeng, Qiuyao; Zhang, Yanjiao; Guo, Zhouyi; Liu, Zhiming; Jin, Mei; Su, Chengkang; Lin, Lin; Xu, Junfa; Liu, Songhao


    This study aims to characterize and classify serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectra between bladder cancer patients and normal volunteers by genetic algorithms (GAs) combined with linear discriminate analysis (LDA). Two group serum SERS spectra excited with nanoparticles are collected from healthy volunteers (n = 36) and bladder cancer patients (n = 55). Six diagnostic Raman bands in the regions of 481-486, 682-687, 1018-1034, 1313-1323, 1450-1459 and 1582-1587 cm(-1) related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids are picked out with the GAs and LDA. By the diagnostic models built with the identified six Raman bands, the improved diagnostic sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 100% were acquired for classifying bladder cancer patients from normal serum SERS spectra. The results are superior to the sensitivity of 74.6% and specificity of 97.2% obtained with principal component analysis by the same serum SERS spectra dataset. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves further confirmed the efficiency of diagnostic algorithm based on GA-LDA technique. This exploratory work demonstrates that the serum SERS associated with GA-LDA technique has enormous potential to characterize and non-invasively detect bladder cancer through peripheral blood.

  6. Noninvasive optical cytochrome c oxidase redox state measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy

    Lee, Jangwoen; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Mukai, David; Yoon, David; Boss, Gerry R.; Patterson, Steven E.; Rockwood, Gary; Isom, Gary; Brenner, Matthew


    A major need exists for methods to assess organ oxidative metabolic states in vivo. By contrasting the responses to cyanide (CN) poisoning versus hemorrhage in animal models, we demonstrate that diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) can detect cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) redox states. Intermittent decreases in inspired O2 from 100% to 21% were applied before, during, and after CN poisoning, hemorrhage, and resuscitation in rabbits. Continuous DOS measurements of total hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and oxidized and reduced CcO from muscle were obtained. Rabbit hemorrhage was accomplished with stepwise removal of blood, followed by blood resuscitation. CN treated rabbits received 0.166 mg/min NaCN infusion. During hemorrhage, CcO redox state became reduced concurrently with decreases in oxyhemoglobin, resulting from reduced tissue oxygen delivery and hypoxia. In contrast, during CN infusion, CcO redox state decreased while oxyhemoglobin concentration increased due to CN binding and reduction of CcO with resultant inhibition of the electron transport chain. Spectral absorption similarities between hemoglobin and CcO make noninvasive spectroscopic distinction of CcO redox states difficult. By contrasting physiological perturbations of CN poisoning versus hemorrhage, we demonstrate that DOS measured CcO redox state changes are decoupled from hemoglobin concentration measurement changes.

  7. Validation of non-invasive arterial pressure monitoring during carotid endarterectomy.

    Heusdens, J F; Lof, S; Pennekamp, C W A; Specken-Welleweerd, J C; de Borst, G J; van Klei, W A; van Wolfswinkel, L; Immink, R V


    Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy require strict arterial blood pressure (BP) control to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion. In this study we tested whether non-invasive beat-to-beat Nexfin finger BP (BPfin) can replace invasive beat-to-beat radial artery BP (BPrad) in this setting. In 25 consecutive patients (median age 71 yr) scheduled for carotid endarterectomy and receiving general anaesthesia, BPfin and BPrad were monitored simultaneously and ipsilaterally during the 30-min period surrounding carotid artery cross-clamping. Validation was guided by the standard set by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), which considers a BP monitor adequate when bias (precision) is <5 (8) mm Hg, respectively. BPfin vs BPrad bias (precision) was -3.3 (10.8), 6.1 (5.7) and 3.5 (5.2) mm Hg for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP, respectively. One subject was excluded due to a poor quality BP curve. In another subject, mean BPfin overestimated mean BPrad by 13.5 mm Hg. Mean BPfin could be considered as an alternative for mean BPrad during a carotid endarterectomy, based on the AAMI criteria. In 23 of 24 patients, the use of mean BPfin would not lead to decisions to adjust mean BPrad values outside the predefined BP threshold. NCT01451294. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  8. Oral Samples as Non-Invasive Proxies for Assessing the Composition of the Rumen Microbial Community.

    Ilma Tapio

    Full Text Available Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA genes or the fungal ITS1 amplicons. Faeces contained few protozoa, and bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were substantially different to ruminal digesta. Buccal and bolus samples gave much more similar profiles to ruminal digesta, although fewer archaea were detected in buccal and bolus samples. Bolus samples overall were most similar to ruminal samples. The differences between both buccal and bolus samples and ruminal digesta were consistent across all treatments. It can be concluded that either proxy sample type could be used as a predictor of the rumen microbial community, thereby enabling more convenient large-scale animal sampling for phenotyping and possible use in future animal breeding programs aimed at selecting cattle with a lower environmental footprint.

  9. [Non-invasive prenatal testing: challenges for future implementation].

    Henneman, Lidewij; Page-Chrisiaens, G C M L Lieve; Oepkes, Dick


    The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) is an accurate and safe test in which blood from the pregnant woman is used to investigate if the unborn child possibly has trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome) or trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Since April 2014 the NIPT has been available in the Netherlands as part of the TRIDENT implementation project for those in whom the first trimester combined test showed an elevated risk (> 1:200) of trisomy, or on medical indication, as an alternative to chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. Since the introduction of the NIPT the use of these invasive tests, which are associated with a risk of miscarriage, has fallen steeply. The NIPT may replace the combined test. Also the number of conditions that is tested for can be increased. Modification of current prenatal screening will require extensive discussion, but whatever the modification, careful counseling remains essential to facilitate pregnant women's autonomous reproductive decision making.

  10. Non-invasive measurement of pressure gradients using ultrasound

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Traberg, Marie Sand; Pihl, Michael Johannes


    A non-invasive method for estimating 2-D pressure gradients from ultrasound vector velocity data is presented. The method relies on in-plane vector velocity fields acquired using the Transverse Oscillation method. The pressure gradients are estimated by applying the Navier-Stokes equations...... Medical 2202 UltraView Pro Focus scanner. The results are validated through finite element simulations of the carotid flow model where the geometry is determined from MR images. This proof of concept study was conducted at nine ultrasound frames per second. Estimated pressure gradients along...... the longitudinal direction of the constriction varied from 0 kPa/m to 10 kPa/m with a normalized bias of -9.1% for the axial component and -7.9% for the lateral component. The relative standard deviation of the estimator, given in reference to the peak gradient, was 28.4% in the axial direction and 64...

  11. Neonatal noninvasive ventilation techniques: do we really need to intubate?

    DiBlasi, Robert M


    The current trend for supporting neonates with respiratory distress syndrome is nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Nearly half of all neonates who are supported with CPAP will still develop respiratory failure that requires potentially injurious endotracheal intubation and invasive ventilation. Thus, the role of any neonatal clinician is to minimize invasive ventilation whenever possible, to avoid the multitude of complications that can arise when using this form of therapy. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a form of respiratory assistance that provides greater respiratory support than does CPAP and may prevent intubation in a larger fraction of neonates who would otherwise fail CPAP. With the inception of nasal airway interfaces, clinicians have ushered in many different forms of NIV in neonates, often with very little experimental data to guide management. This review will explore in detail all of the different forms of neonatal NIV that are currently focused within an area of intense clinical investigation.

  12. Noninvasive method to drive medical micro-robots


    A noninvasive method to drive medical micro-robots into endocoeles has been proposed and a kind of medical micro robot driven by the method has been designed. The robot has a spirally grooved impeller. When the spirally grooved impeller rotates, a hydrodynamic film between the robot and endocoeles is formed because of mucus existence in endocoeles. The generated axial thrust force of the impeller can drive robots to move. Because the hydrodynamic film is formed when the robot moves in endocoeles, injury may be prevented, so it can alleviate or avoid pain of sufferers. The generated axial thrust force of the impeller has been estimated according to the hydrodynamic lubrication theory and has been confirmed by experiments.

  13. Non-invasive brainstem monitoring: the ocular microtremor.

    Robertson, James; Timmons, Shelly


    The ocular microtremor (OMT) is mediated by the oculomotor area of the brainstem and is altered in several pathologic states, including traumatic brain injury, general anesthesia, brain death, coma, Parkinsonism and multiple sclerosis. The EYETECT tremor monitor is a non-invasive means of measuring the frequency and amplitude of this microscopic tremor. It has been clinically tested in these clinical scenarios and has been found to be a reliable means of detecting the depth of anesthesia, and has been useful in predicting outcome in coma and traumatic brain injury patients and in confirming brain death. This paper reviews the scientific literature on the EYETECT OMT monitor, describes the underlying physiology and discusses the potential for future works and clinical use of this innovative technology.

  14. Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Mora, Alberto Dalla; Pifferi, Antonio; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Farina, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo


    Summary The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an overview of the physical principles of light propagation in biological tissues, and of the main physiological sources of signal. Finally, we discuss the open issues in models, instrumentation, data analysis and clinical approaches. PMID:25764252

  15. Noninvasive ventilation: has Pandora’s box been opened?

    Ari Manuel


    Full Text Available Ari Manuel1, Richard EK Russell2, Quentin Jones31Department of Respiratory Medicine, High Wycombe Hospital, Bucks, UK; 2Airway Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College, London, UK; 3Specialist Registrar, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Churchill Hospital, OxfordExacerbations of COPD are the largest single cause of hospital admission with respiratory disease, and are frequently associated with impaired gas exchange and mortality rates of up to 14%. Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure leads to admissions to intensive care units with a mortality rate of 59% at one year. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV is a well established and validated therapy for acidotic hypercapnia respiratory failure in COPD, a leading cause of global mortality and morbidity. The use of NIV in patients with acute type II or chronic respiratory failure has increased over the past 10 years.

  16. Non-invasive quantification of hemodynamics in human choriocapillaries

    Yu, Huidan (Whitney); Chen, Rou; An, Senyou; McDonough, James; Gelfand, Bradley; Yao, Jun


    The development of retinal disease is inextricably linked to defects in the choroidal blood supply. However, to date a description of the hemodynamics in the human choroidal circulation is lacking. Through high resolution choroidal vascular network mapped from immunofluorescent labeling and confocal microscopy of human cadaver donor eyes. We noninvasively quantify hemodynamics including velocity, pressure, and wall-shear stress (WSS) in choriocapillaries through mesoscale modeling and GPU-accelerated fast computation. This is the first-ever map of hemodynamic parameters (WSS, pressure, and velocity) in anatomically accurate human choroidal vasculature in health and disease. The pore scale simulation results are used to evaluate porous media models with the same porosity and boundary conditions. School of Medicine, Indiana University.

  17. Noninvasive Methods to Evaluate Bladder Obstruction in Men

    Dean S. Elterman


    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH commonly affect older men. Fifty percent of men in their sixties and 80% of men in their nineties will be affected. Many of these men will seek care for their bothersome symptoms and decreased quality of life. There is a poor association between LUTS and objective measures such as post void residual, voided volumes, or maximal flow. Pressure flow studies are considered the gold standard for detecting bladder outlet obstruction. These studies tend to be cumbersome, expensive, and have exposure to ionizing radiation. There are several techniques which may offer noninvasive methods of detecting bladder outlet obstruction (BOO in men.

  18. Noninvasive genotyping of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) by fingernail PCR.

    Takabayashi, Shuji; Katoh, Hideki


    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate that is a useful model for medical studies. In this study, we report a convenient, reliable, and noninvasive procedure to genotype a living common marmoset by using fingernails. This method was used to successfully genotype DNA by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) PCR without prior purification, by using the KOD FX PCR enzyme kit. Additionally, there is no sample contamination from hematopoietic chimera derived from fused placenta in utero. We compared chimeric levels between various tissues in females with male littermates using quantitative fluorescent (QF)-PCR to prepare a reliable DNA source for genetic analyses, such as genotyping, gene mapping, or genomic sequencing. The chimerism detected appeared to be restricted to lymphatic tissues, such as bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes and blood cells. As a result, DNA from fingernails with the quick is the best DNA source for genetic research in living marmosets.

  19. Non-invasive exploration in an environmentally sensitive world

    Livo, K.E.; Knepper, D.H.


    Modern remote sensing provides a means for locating and characterizing exposed mineralized systems in many parts of the world. These capabilities are non-invasive and help target specific areas for more detailed exploration. An example of how remote sensing technology can be used is evident from a study of the Questa Mining District, New Mexico. Analysis of low spectral resolution data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite system clearly shows the regional distribution of two broad mineral groups often associated with mineralized systems: clay-carbonate-sulfate and iron oxides-iron hydroxides. Analysis of high spectral resolution data from the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging System (AVIRIS) shows the occurrence and distribution of many individual mineral species that characterize the pattern of hydrothermally altered rocks in the district.

  20. [Non-invasive brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease].

    Gajo, Gianandrea; Pollak, Pierre; Lüscher, Christian; Benninger, David


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major socio-economic burden increasing with the aging population. In advanced PD, the emergence of symptoms refractory to conventional therapy poses a therapeutic challenge. The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD have raised interest in non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) as an alternative therapeutic tool. NIBS could offer an alternative approach for patients at risk who are excluded from surgery and/or to treat refractory symptoms. The treatment of the freezing of gait, a major cause of disability and falls in PD patients, could be enhanced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). A therapeutic study is currently performed at the Department of Neurology at the CHUV.

  1. Eyeblink conditioning: a non-invasive biomarker for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Fox, Nathan A


    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition, abnormalities in the cerebellum, a region of the brain highly involved in EBC, have been implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the current paper, we review studies that have employed EBC as a biomarker for several neurodevelopmental disorders including fetal alcohol syndrome, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, specific language impairment, and schizophrenia. In addition, we discuss the benefits of using such a tool in individuals with ASD.

  2. Non-invasive distress evaluation in preterm newborn infants.

    Manfredi, C; Bocchi, L; Orlandi, S; Calisti, M; Spaccaterra, L; Donzelli, G P


    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental outcomes. Infant cry characteristics reflect the development and possibly the integrity of the central nervous system. In this paper, relationships between fundamental frequency (F(0)) and vocal tract resonance frequencies (F(1)-F(3)) are investigated for a set of preterm newborns, by means of a multi-purpose voice analysis tool (BioVoice), characterised by high-resolution and tracking capabilities. Also, first results about possible distress occurring during cry in preterm newborn infants, as related to the decrease of central blood oxygenation, are presented. To this aim, a recording system (Newborn Recorder) has been developed, that allows synchronised, non-invasive monitoring of blood oxygenation and audio recordings of newborn infant's cry. The method has been applied to preterm newborns at the Intensive Care Unit, A.Meyer Children Hospital, Firenze, Italy.

  3. Noninvasive optical interrogation of the ocular anterior chamber

    Blue, Robert; Uttamchandani, Deepak G.; Wilson, Clive G.


    Ophthalmic drug research and ocular diagnostics is hampered by an inability to perform continuous sampling of the aqueous humor contained within the anterior chamber by paracentesis is technically problematic and is associated with the use of local or general anesthesia. Moreover, sampling by direct injection exposes the eye to the risk of infection. We report results obtained from an optical instrumentation technique which is concerned with the direct and non-invasive measurements of optical scattering, absorbance and fluorescence produced in the aqueous humor by various compounds, thus avoiding the need for direct sampling. Light scatter in the anterior chamber arises from particulate matter, such as cell debris and chemical precipitates following eye surgery. Absorbance is caused by the presence of materials such as haemoglobin, or results from the penetration of drugs such as hydroxyquinolines applied to the cornea. Fluorescence can be used to provide a sensitive measurements of fluoroquinolines in the anterior chamber.

  4. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity: Ethical Considerations.

    Iwry, Jonathan; Yaden, David B; Newberg, Andrew B


    As noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technology advances, these methods may become increasingly capable of influencing complex networks of mental functioning. We suggest that these might include cognitive and affective processes underlying personality and belief systems, which would raise important questions concerning personal identity and autonomy. We give particular attention to the relationship between personal identity and belief, emphasizing the importance of respecting users' personal values. We posit that research participants and patients should be encouraged to take an active approach to considering the personal implications of altering their own cognition, particularly in cases of neurocognitive "enhancement." We suggest that efforts to encourage careful consideration through the informed consent process would contribute usefully to studies and treatments that use NIBS.

  5. Moral Enhancement Using Non-invasive Brain Stimulation

    Darby, R. Ryan; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro


    Biomedical enhancement refers to the use of biomedical interventions to improve capacities beyond normal, rather than to treat deficiencies due to diseases. Enhancement can target physical or cognitive capacities, but also complex human behaviors such as morality. However, the complexity of normal moral behavior makes it unlikely that morality is a single capacity that can be deficient or enhanced. Instead, our central hypothesis will be that moral behavior results from multiple, interacting cognitive-affective networks in the brain. First, we will test this hypothesis by reviewing evidence for modulation of moral behavior using non-invasive brain stimulation. Next, we will discuss how this evidence affects ethical issues related to the use of moral enhancement. We end with the conclusion that while brain stimulation has the potential to alter moral behavior, such alteration is unlikely to improve moral behavior in all situations, and may even lead to less morally desirable behavior in some instances. PMID:28275345

  6. Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethics and policy considerations.

    Vanstone, Meredith; King, Carol; de Vrijer, Barbra; Nisker, Jeff


    New technologies analyzing fetal DNA in maternal blood have led to the wide commercial availability of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). We present here for clinicians the ethical and policy issues related to an emerging practice option. Although NIPT presents opportunities for pregnant women, particularly women who are at increased risk of having a baby with an abnormality or who are otherwise likely to access invasive prenatal testing, NIPT brings significant ethics and policy challenges. The ethical issues include multiple aspects of informed decision-making, such as access to counselling about the possible results of the test in advance of making a decision about participation in NIPT. Policy considerations include issues related to offering and promoting a privately available medical strategy in publicly funded institutions. Ethics and policy considerations merge in NIPT with regard to sex selection and support for persons living with disabilities.

  7. Targeting the Cerebellum by Noninvasive Neurostimulation: a Review.

    van Dun, Kim; Bodranghien, Florian; Manto, Mario; Mariën, Peter


    Transcranial magnetic and electric stimulation of the brain are novel and highly promising techniques currently employed in both research and clinical practice. Improving or rehabilitating brain functions by modulating excitability with these noninvasive tools is an exciting new area in neuroscience. Since the cerebellum is closely connected with the cerebral regions subserving motor, associative, and affective functions, the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathways are an interesting target for these new techniques. Targeting the cerebellum represents a novel way to modulate the excitability of remote cortical regions and their functions. This review brings together the studies that have applied cerebellar stimulation, magnetic and electric, and presents an overview of the current knowledge and unsolved issues. Some recommendations for future research are implemented as well.

  8. Noninvasive Deep Brain Stimulation via Temporally Interfering Electric Fields.

    Grossman, Nir; Bono, David; Dedic, Nina; Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Rudenko, Andrii; Suk, Ho-Jun; Cassara, Antonino M; Neufeld, Esra; Kuster, Niels; Tsai, Li-Huei; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Boyden, Edward S


    We report a noninvasive strategy for electrically stimulating neurons at depth. By delivering to the brain multiple electric fields at frequencies too high to recruit neural firing, but which differ by a frequency within the dynamic range of neural firing, we can electrically stimulate neurons throughout a region where interference between the multiple fields results in a prominent electric field envelope modulated at the difference frequency. We validated this temporal interference (TI) concept via modeling and physics experiments, and verified that neurons in the living mouse brain could follow the electric field envelope. We demonstrate the utility of TI stimulation by stimulating neurons in the hippocampus of living mice without recruiting neurons of the overlying cortex. Finally, we show that by altering the currents delivered to a set of immobile electrodes, we can steerably evoke different motor patterns in living mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Information-theoretical noninvasive damage detection in bridge structures

    Sudu Ambegedara, Amila; Sun, Jie; Janoyan, Kerop; Bollt, Erik


    Damage detection of mechanical structures such as bridges is an important research problem in civil engineering. Using spatially distributed sensor time series data collected from a recent experiment on a local bridge in Upper State New York, we study noninvasive damage detection using information-theoretical methods. Several findings are in order. First, the time series data, which represent accelerations measured at the sensors, more closely follow Laplace distribution than normal distribution, allowing us to develop parameter estimators for various information-theoretic measures such as entropy and mutual information. Second, as damage is introduced by the removal of bolts of the first diaphragm connection, the interaction between spatially nearby sensors as measured by mutual information becomes weaker, suggesting that the bridge is "loosened." Finally, using a proposed optimal mutual information interaction procedure to prune away indirect interactions, we found that the primary direction of interaction or influence aligns with the traffic direction on the bridge even after damaging the bridge.

  10. [The study of arteriogenic erectile impotence by noninvasive methods].

    Ley Pozo, J; Aldama Figueroa, A; Vega Gómez, M E; Perera González, F


    With the development of noninvasive haemodynamic methods, recognition of arterial insufficiency signs is possible also in cases in which, in old times, we just could suspect a psychogenic cause. Although this advance, discrimination permitted by this method can be improved. Eighty-eight supposed healty patients and eighty-four patients with arteriogenic erectile impotency (tested by arteriography) were included into an study, which results are presented in here. Analysis made, avoided the effect of envelleiment on haemodynamic parameters interpretation. For identification of patients which obstructive arterial defect can be cause of sexual disfunction, combination of systolic pressure determination and arterial flow velocity curves (by Doppler ultrasonography) is proposed. We recommend this method as a part of the multifactorial examen required by such type of patients.

  11. Epsilon Haemoglobin Specific Antibodies with Applications in Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis

    Sørensen, Morten Dræby; Gonzalez Dosal, Regina; Jensen, Kim Bak; Christensen, Britta; Kølvraa, Steen; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Kristensen, Peter


    Invasive procedures for prenatal diagnosis are associated with increased risk of abortion; thus, development of noninvasive procedures would be beneficial. Based on the observation that embryonic nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) crosses the placenta and enters the circulation of pregnant women, the ability to identify such cell would allow development of such procedures. Identification of NRBCs in blood samples would be possible provided that specific antibodies are available. Here we have isolated recombinant antibodies using phage display. From the panel of antibody fragments specifically recognising ε-Hb, one was chosen for further characterization, DAb1. DAb1 binds to ε-Hb both in Western blots and immunocytochemistry. Several ε-Hb positive cells were detected in a blood sample taken as postchorionic villus sampling (CVS). To evaluate the sensitivity of the method, K562 cells (which express ε-Hb) were spiked in a blood sample followed by staining in solution and FACS analysis. PMID:19636421

  12. Epsilon Haemoglobin Specific Antibodies with Applications in Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis

    Morten Dræby Sørensen


    Full Text Available Invasive procedures for prenatal diagnosis are associated with increased risk of abortion; thus, development of noninvasive procedures would be beneficial. Based on the observation that embryonic nucleated red blood cell (NRBC crosses the placenta and enters the circulation of pregnant women, the ability to identify such cell would allow development of such procedures. Identification of NRBCs in blood samples would be possible provided that specific antibodies are available. Here we have isolated recombinant antibodies using phage display. From the panel of antibody fragments specifically recognising ε-Hb, one was chosen for further characterization, DAb1. DAb1 binds to ε-Hb both in Western blots and immunocytochemistry. Several ε-Hb positive cells were detected in a blood sample taken as postchorionic villus sampling (CVS. To evaluate the sensitivity of the method, K562 cells (which express ε-Hb were spiked in a blood sample followed by staining in solution and FACS analysis.

  13. Non-invasive assessment of phonatory and respiratory dynamics.

    LaBlance, G R; Steckol, K F; Cooper, M H


    Evaluation of vocal pathology and the accompanying dysphonia should include an assessment of laryngeal structure and mobility as well as respiratory dynamics. Laryngeal structure is best observed through laryngoscopy which provides an accurate assessment of the tissues and their mobility. Respiratory measures of lung volume, air-flow and pressure, and breathing dynamics are typically determined via spirometry and pneumotachography. While the above are traditional invasive procedures which interfere with normal speech production, recent advances in electronic technology have resulted in the development of non-invasive procedures to assess phonatory and respiratory dynamics. These procedures, when used as an adjunct to laryngoscopy, can provide information that is useful in the diagnosis and management of vocal tract dysfunction. The Laryngograph and Computer-Aided Fluency Establishment Trainer, described here, are examples of this new technology.

  14. Algorithms for High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System

    Talukder, Ashit; Morookian, John-Michael; Lambert, James


    Two image-data-processing algorithms are essential to the successful operation of a system of electronic hardware and software that noninvasively tracks the direction of a person s gaze in real time. The system was described in High-Speed Noninvasive Eye-Tracking System (NPO-30700) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 51. To recapitulate from the cited article: Like prior commercial noninvasive eyetracking systems, this system is based on (1) illumination of an eye by a low-power infrared light-emitting diode (LED); (2) acquisition of video images of the pupil, iris, and cornea in the reflected infrared light; (3) digitization of the images; and (4) processing the digital image data to determine the direction of gaze from the centroids of the pupil and cornea in the images. Most of the prior commercial noninvasive eyetracking systems rely on standard video cameras, which operate at frame rates of about 30 Hz. Such systems are limited to slow, full-frame operation. The video camera in the present system includes a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector plus electronic circuitry capable of implementing an advanced control scheme that effects readout from a small region of interest (ROI), or subwindow, of the full image. Inasmuch as the image features of interest (the cornea and pupil) typically occupy a small part of the camera frame, this ROI capability can be exploited to determine the direction of gaze at a high frame rate by reading out from the ROI that contains the cornea and pupil (but not from the rest of the image) repeatedly. One of the present algorithms exploits the ROI capability. The algorithm takes horizontal row slices and takes advantage of the symmetry of the pupil and cornea circles and of the gray-scale contrasts of the pupil and cornea with respect to other parts of the eye. The algorithm determines which horizontal image slices contain the pupil and cornea, and, on each valid slice, the end coordinates of the pupil and cornea

  15. Noninvasive and Real-Time Plasmon Waveguide Resonance Thermometry

    Pengfei Zhang


    Full Text Available In this paper, the noninvasive and real-time plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR thermometry is reported theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Owing to the enhanced evanescent field and thermal shield effect of its dielectric layer, a PWR thermometer permits accurate temperature sensing and has a wide dynamic range. A temperature measurement sensitivity of 9.4 × 10−3 °C is achieved and the thermo optic coefficient nonlinearity is measured in the experiment. The measurement of water cooling processes distributed in one dimension reveals that a PWR thermometer allows real-time temperature sensing and has potential to be applied for thermal gradient analysis. Apart from this, the PWR thermometer has the advantages of low cost and simple structure, since our transduction scheme can be constructed with conventional optical components and commercial coating techniques.

  16. Non-Invasive in vivo Imaging in Small Animal Research

    V. Koo


    Full Text Available Non-invasive real time in vivo molecular imaging in small animal models has become the essential bridge between in vitro data and their translation into clinical applications. The tremendous development and technological progress, such as tumour modelling, monitoring of tumour growth and detection of metastasis, has facilitated translational drug development. This has added to our knowledge on carcinogenesis. The modalities that are commonly used include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Computed Tomography (CT, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, bioluminescence imaging, fluorescence imaging and multi-modality imaging systems. The ability to obtain multiple images longitudinally provides reliable information whilst reducing animal numbers. As yet there is no one modality that is ideal for all experimental studies. This review outlines the instrumentation available together with corresponding applications reported in the literature with particular emphasis on cancer research. Advantages and limitations to current imaging technology are discussed and the issues concerning small animal care during imaging are highlighted.

  17. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: An update.

    René Martin Müri


    Full Text Available Here, we review the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in the rehabilitation of neglect. We found 12 studies including 172 patients (10 TMS studies and 2 tDCS studies fulfilling our search criteria. Activity of daily living (ADL measures such as the Barthel Index or more specifically for neglect, the Catherine Bergego Scale were the outcome measure in 3 studies. Five studies were randomized controlled trials with a follow-up time after intervention of up to 6 weeks. One TMS study fulfilled criteria for Class I and one for Class III evidence.The studies are heterogeneous concerning their methodology, outcome measures, and stimulation parameters making firm comparisons and conclusions difficult. Overall, there are however promising results for theta burst stimulation, suggesting that TMS is a powerful add-on therapy in the rehabilitation of neglect patients.

  18. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: an update.

    Müri, René Martin; Cazzoli, Dario; Nef, Tobias; Mosimann, Urs P; Hopfner, Simone; Nyffeler, Thomas


    Here, we review the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the rehabilitation of neglect. We found 12 studies including 172 patients (10 TMS studies and 2 tDCS studies) fulfilling our search criteria. Activity of daily living measures such as the Barthel Index or, more specifically for neglect, the Catherine Bergego Scale were the outcome measure in three studies. Five studies were randomized controlled trials with a follow-up time after intervention of up to 6 weeks. One TMS study fulfilled criteria for Class I and one for Class III evidence. The studies are heterogeneous concerning their methodology, outcome measures, and stimulation parameters making firm comparisons and conclusions difficult. Overall, there are however promising results for theta-burst stimulation, suggesting that TMS is a powerful add-on therapy in the rehabilitation of neglect patients.

  19. List of Nuclear Materials Licensing Actions Received

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A catalog of all Materials Licensing Actions received for review. The catalog lists the name of the entity submitting the license application, their city and state,...

  20. Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The best low-noise receiver solutions for frequencies above about 800 GHz rely on either a low-noise bolometric direct detector or a hot electron bolometric mixer....

  1. Metal Mesh Filters for Terahertz Receivers Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of this SBIR program is to develop and demonstrate metal mesh filters for use in NASA's low noise receivers for terahertz astronomy and...

  2. 49 CFR 236.788 - Receiver.


    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.788 Receiver. A device on a locomotive, so placed that it is in position to be influenced inductively or actuated by...

  3. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)


    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  4. Digital Receiver for Laser Imaging Radar

    WANG Wei Ran; SUN Bing


    With the extension of the application domains for laser imaging radar,it is necessary to find a new technical way to obtain high technical performance and adaptive ability.In this paper,A new concept of digital receiver of laser imaging radar system is presented.This digital receiver is defined as a time varying parameter receiver which possesses large dynamics region and time domain filter.The receiver's mode,component structure as well as every function of its processing are described.The results and laboratorial data show the feasibility of digital reception.Also,it can exploit the inherent nature of laser imaging radar to obtain high probability of detection.

  5. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai


    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  6. High dynamic GPS receiver validation demonstration

    Hurd, W. J.; Statman, J. I.; Vilnrotter, V. A.


    The Validation Demonstration establishes that the high dynamic Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver concept developed at JPL meets the dynamic tracking requirements for range instrumentation of missiles and drones. It was demonstrated that the receiver can track the pseudorange and pseudorange rate of vehicles with acceleration in excess of 100 g and jerk in excess of 100 g/s, dynamics ten times more severe than specified for conventional High Dynamic GPS receivers. These results and analytic extensions to a complete system configuration establish that all range instrumentation requirements can be met. The receiver can be implemented in the 100 cu in volume required by all missiles and drones, and is ideally suited for transdigitizer or translator applications.

  7. High-Rate Receiver Design Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS 413.0-G-1...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.306 - Air receivers.


    ... transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and automotive equipment. (2) New and... manholes therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.169 - Air receivers.


    ... and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and... therein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiver be buried underground or...

  10. Utilization of noninvasive ventilation in acute care hospitals: a regional survey.

    Maheshwari, Vinay; Paioli, Daniela; Rothaar, Robert; Hill, Nicholas S


    Little information is available on the utilization of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) in the United States. Accordingly, we performed a survey on the use of NPPV at acute care hospitals in a region of the United States to determine variations in utilization and between hospitals, the reasons for lower rates of utilization, and the techniques used for application. Using survey methodology, we developed a questionnaire consisting of 19 questions and distributed it by mail to directors of respiratory care at all 82 acute care hospitals in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Nonresponders were contacted by phone to complete the survey. Responses were analyzed using standard statistics, including t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests where appropriate. We obtained responses from 71 of the 82 hospitals (88%). The overall utilization rate for NPPV was 20% of ventilator starts, but we found enormous variation in the estimated utilization rates among different hospitals, from none to > 50%. The top two reasons given for lower utilization rates were a lack of physician knowledge and inadequate equipment. In the 19 hospitals that provided detailed information, COPD and congestive heart failure constituted 82% of the diagnoses of patients receiving NPPV, but NPPV was still used in only 33% of patients with these diagnoses receiving any form of mechanical ventilation. The utilization rates for NPPV vary enormously among different acute care hospitals within the same region. The perceived reasons for lower utilization rates include lack of physician knowledge, insufficient respiratory therapist training, and inadequate equipment. Educational programs directed at individual institutions may be useful to enhance utilization rates.

  11. Dual-mode antenna design for microwave heating and noninvasive thermometry of superficial tissue disease.

    Jacobsen, S; Stauffer, P R; Neuman, D G


    Hyperthermia therapy of superficial skin disease has proven clinically useful, but current heating equipment is somewhat clumsy and technically inadequate for many patients. The present effort describes a dual-purpose, conformal microwave applicator that is fabricated from thin, flexible, multilayer printed circuit board (PCB) material to facilitate heating of surface areas overlaying contoured anatomy. Preliminary studies document the feasibility of combining Archimedean spiral microstrip antennas, located concentrically within the central region of square dual concentric conductor (DCC) annular slot antennas. The motivation is to achieve homogeneous tissue heating simultaneously with noninvasive thermometry by radiometric sensing of blackbody radiation from the target tissue under the applicator. Results demonstrate that the two antennas have complimentary regions of influence. The DCC ring antenna structure produces a peripherally enhanced power deposition pattern with peaks in the outer corners of the aperture and a broad minimum around 50% of maximum centrally. In contrast, the Archimedean spiral radiates (or receives) energy predominantly along the boresight axis of the spiral, thus confining the region of influence to tissue located within the central broad minimum of the DCC pattern. Analysis of the temperature-dependent radiometer signal (brightness temperature) showed linear correlation of radiometer output with test load temperature using either the spiral or DCC structure as the receive antenna. The radiometric performance of the broadband Archimedean antenna was superior compared to the DCC, providing improved temperature resolution (0.1 degree C-0.2 degree C) and signal sensitivity (0.3 degree C-0.8 degree C/degree C) at all four 500 MHz integration bandwidths tested within the frequency range from 1.2 to 3.0 GHz.

  12. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    HU YongHui; HUA Yu; HOU Lei; WEI JingFa; WU JianFeng


    In this paper,baaed on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties,the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated,and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver.A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation,the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers,and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband.A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time.A software process flow is provided,and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted,such as signal searching,code loop and carrier loop algorithms,a height assistant algorithm,a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique,a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance,and a CAPS time correcting algorithm,according to the design frame of the receiver hardware.Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m,height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m,speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s,dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m,height accuracy is 3.0 m,and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s.In the case of C/A code,the timing accuracy is 200 ha,and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ) is 5 m from south to north,and 0.8 m from east to west.Finally,research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.


    Manish Hinduja


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Precise preoperative assessment of aortic annulus diameter is essential for sizing of aortic valve especially in patients planned for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Computed Tomographic (CT and echocardiographic measurements of the aortic annulus vary because of elliptical shape of aortic annulus. This study was undertaken to compare the measurement of aortic annulus intraoperatively with preoperative noninvasive methods in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. MATERIALS AND METHODS Aortic annulus diameter was measured with cardiac CT and Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE prior to open aortic valve replacement in 30 patients with aortic valve stenosis. In CT, aortic annulus dimensions were measured in coronal plane, sagittal oblique plane and by planimetry. Both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional TEE were used. These were compared with intraoperative measurements done by valve sizers and Hegar dilators. Pearson analysis was applied to test for degree of correlation. RESULTS CT in coronal and sagittal oblique plane tends to overestimate the diameter of aortic annulus when compared with intraoperative measurements (coefficient of relation, r = 0.798 and 0.749, respectively. CT measurements in single oblique plane showed a weaker correlation with intraoperative measurements than 3D TEE and 2D TEE (r = 0.917 and 0.898, respectively. However, CT measurements by planimetry method were most correlating with the intraoperative measurements (r = 0.951. CONCLUSION Noninvasive investigations with 3-dimensional views (CT-based measurement employing calculated average diameter assessment by planimetry and 3-dimensional TEE showed better correlation with intraoperative measurement of aortic annulus. CT-based aortic annulus measurement by planimetry seems to provide adequate dimensions most similar to operative measurements.

  14. Noninvasive tomographic and velocimetric monitoring of multiphase flows

    Chaouki, J. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Larachi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada); Dudukovic, M.P. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Chemical Reaction Engineering Lab.


    A condensed review of recent advances accomplished in the development and the applications of noninvasive tomographic and velocimetric measurement techniques to multiphase flows and systems is presented. In recent years utilization of such noninvasive techniques has become widespread in many engineering disciplines that deal with systems involving two immiscible phases or more. Tomography provides concentration, holdup, or 2D or 3D density distribution of at least one component of the multiphase system, whereas velocimetry provides the dynamic features of the phase of interest such as the flow pattern, the velocity field, the 2D or 3D instantaneous movements, etc. The following review is divided into two parts. The first part summarizes progress and developments in flow imaging techniques using {gamma}-ray and X-ray transmission tomography; X-ray radiography; neutron transmission tomography and radiography; positron emission tomography; X-ray diffraction tomography; nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; electrical capacitance tomography; optical tomography; microwave tomography; and ultrasonic tomography. The second part of the review summarizes progress and developments in the following velocimetry techniques: positron emission particle tracking; radioactive particle tracking; cinematography; laser-Doppler anemometry; particle image velocimetry; and fluorescence particle image velocimetry. The basic principles of tomography and velocimetry techniques are outlined, along with advantages and limitations inherent to each technique. The hydrodynamic and structural information yielded by these techniques is illustrated through a literature survey on their successful applications to the study of multiphase systems in such fields as particulate solids processes, fluidization engineering, porous media, pipe flows, transport within packed beds and sparged reactors, etc.

  15. Non-invasive actionable biomarkers for metastatic prostate cancer

    Jun Luo


    Full Text Available In the current clinical setting, many disease management options are available for men diagnosed with prostate cancer. For metastatic prostate cancer, first-line therapies almost always involve agents designed to inhibit androgen receptor (AR signaling. Castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs that arise following first-line androgen deprivation therapies (ADT may continue to respond to additional lines of AR-targeting therapies (abiraterone and enzalutamide, chemotherapies (docetaxel and cabazitaxel, bone-targeting Radium-223 therapy, and immunotherapy sipuleucel-T. The rapidly expanding therapies for CRPC is expected to transform this lethal disease into one that can be managed for prolonged period of time. In the past 3 years, a number of promising biomarkers that may help to guide treatment decisions have been proposed and evaluated, including androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7, a truncated AR lacking the ligand-binding domain (LBD and mediate constitutively-active AR signaling. Putative treatment selection markers such as AR-V7 may further improve survival benefit of existing therapies and help to accelerate development of new agents for metastatic prostate cancer. In the metastatic setting, it is important to consider compatibility between the putative biomarker with non-invasive sampling. In this review, biomarkers relevant to the setting of metastatic prostate cancer are discussed with respect to a number of key attributes critical for clinical development of non-invasive, actionable markers. It is envisioned that biomarkers for metastatic prostate cancer will continue to be discovered, developed, and refined to meet the unmet needs in both standard-of-care and clinical trial settings.

  16. Non-invasive Blood Glucose Quantification Using a Hybrid Sensor

    Sundararajan JAYAPAL


    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose levels which result from defects in insulin secretion. It is very important for the diabetics and normal people to have a correct blood glucose level. The HbA1c test is the most preferred test by renowned doctors for glucose quantification. But this test is an invasive one. At present, there are many available techniques for this purpose but these are mostly invasive or minimally non-invasive and most of these are under research. Among the different methods available, the photo acoustic (PA methods provide a reliable solution since the acoustical energy loss is much less compared to the optical or other techniques. Here a novel framework is presented for blood glucose level measurement using a combination of the HbA1c test and a PA method to get an absolutely consistent and precise, non-invasive technique. The setup uses a pulsed laser diode with pulse duration of 5-15 ns and at a repetition rate of 10 Hz as the source. The detector setup is based on the piezoelectric detection. It consists of a ring detector that includes two double ring sensors that are attached to the ring shaped module that can be worn around the finger. The major aim is to detect the photo acoustic signals from the glycated hemoglobin with the least possible error. The proposed monitoring system is designed with extreme consideration to precision and compatibility with the other computing devices. The results obtained in this research have been studied and analyzed by comparing these with those of in-vitro techniques like the HPLC. The comparison has been plotted and it shows a least error. The results also show a positive drive for using this concept as a basis for future extension in quantifying the other blood components.

  17. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor

    Shih, Ludy C.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro


    Background There is increasing interest in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to characterize and potentially treat essential tremor (ET). Studies have used a variety of stimulation coils, paradigms, and target locations to make these observations. We reviewed the literature to compare prior studies and to evaluate the rationale and the methods used in these studies. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of the PubMed database using the terms “transcranial,” “noninvasive,” “brain stimulation,” “transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS),” “transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS),” “transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS),” and “essential tremor.” Results Single pulses of TMS to the primary motor cortex have long been known to reset tremor. Although there are relatively few studies showing alterations in motor cortical physiology, such as motor threshold, short and long intracortical inhibition, and cortical silent period, there may be some evidence of altered intracortical facilitation and cerebello-brain inhibition in ET. Repetitive TMS, theta burst stimulation, tDCS, and tACS have been applied to human subjects with tremor with some preliminary signs of tremor reduction, particularly in those studies that employed consecutive daily sessions. Discussion A variety of stimulation paradigms and targets have been explored, with the increasing rationale an interest in targeting the cerebellum. Rigorous assessment of coil geometry, stimulation paradigm, rationale for selection of the specific anatomic target, and careful phenotypic and physiologic characterization of the subjects with ET undergoing these interventions may be critical in extending these preliminary findings into effective stimulation therapies. PMID:28373927

  18. Connective tissue diseases and noninvasive evaluation of atherosclerosis

    Ardita G


    Full Text Available Giorgio Ardita, Giacomo Failla, Paolo Maria Finocchiaro, Francesco Mugno, Luigi Attanasio, Salvatore Timineri, Michelangelo Maria Di SalvoCardiovascular Department, Angiology Unit, Ferrarotto Hospital, Catania, ItalyAbstract: Connective tissue diseases (CTDs are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to accelerated atherosclerosis. In patients with autoimmune disorders, in addition to traditional risk factors, an immune-mediated inflammatory process of the vasculature seems to contribute to atherogenesis. Several pathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed, including chronic inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, both able to produce vascular damage. Macrovascular atherosclerosis can be noninvasively evaluated by ultrasound measurement of carotid or femoral plaque. Subclinical atherosclerosis can be evaluated by well-established noninvasive techniques which rely on ultrasound detection of carotid intima-media thickness. Flow-mediated vasodilatation and arterial stiffness are considered markers of endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis, respectively, and have been recently found to be impaired early in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases. Carotid intima-media thickness turns out to be a leading marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and many studies recognize its role as a predictor of future vascular events, both in non-CTD individuals and in CTD patients. In rheumatic diseases, flow-mediated dilatation and arterial stiffness prove to be strongly correlated with inflammation, disease damage index, and with subclinical atherosclerosis, although their prognostic role has not yet been conclusively shown. Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and likely antiphospholipid syndrome are better associated with premature and accelerated atherosclerosis. Inconclusive results were reported in systemic sclerosis.Keywords: rheumatic disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness

  19. Non-invasive investigation in patients with inflammatory joint disease

    Elisabetta Dal Pont; Renata DТncá; Antonino Caruso; Giacomo Carlo Sturniolo


    Gut inflammation can occur in 30%-60% of patients with spondyloarthropathies. However, the presence of such gut inflammation is underestimated, only 27% of patients with histological evidence of gut inflammation have intestinal symptoms, but subclinical gut inflammation is documented in two-thirds of patients with inflammatory joint disease. There are common genetic and immunological mechanisms behind concomitant inflammation in the joints and intestinal tract. A number of blood tests, e.g. erythrocyte sedimentation rate, orosomucoid, C-reactive protein, and white cell and platelet counts, are probably the most commonly used laboratory markers of inflammatory disease, however, these tests are difficult to interpret in arthropathies associated with gut inflammation, since any increases in their blood levels might be attributable to either the joint disease or to gut inflammation. Consequently, it would be useful to have a marker capable of separately identifying gut inflammation. Fecal proteins, which are indirect markers of neutrophil migration in the gut wall, and intestinal permeability, seem to be ideal for monitoring intestinal inflammation:they are easy to measure non-invasively and are specific for intestinal disease in the absence of gastrointestinal infections.Alongside the traditional markers for characterizing intestinal inflammation, there are also antibodies, in all probability generated by the immune response to microbial antigens and auto-antigens, which have proved useful in establishing the diagnosis and assessing the severity of the condition, as well as the prognosis and the risk of complications. In short, noninvasive investigations on the gut in patients with rheumatic disease may be useful in clinical practice for a preliminary assessment of patients with suspected intestinal disease.

  20. A handbook for solar central receiver design

    Falcone, P.K.


    This Handbook describes central receiver technology for solar thermal power plants. It contains a description and assessment of the major components in a central receiver system configured for utility scale production of electricity using Rankine-cycle steam turbines. It also describes procedures to size and optimize a plant and discussed examples from recent system analyses. Information concerning site selection criteria, cost estimation, construction, and operation and maintenance is also included, which should enable readers to perform design analyses for specific applications.

  1. Flexible receiver adapter formal design review

    Krieg, S.A.


    This memo summarizes the results of the Formal (90%) Design Review process and meetings held to evaluate the design of the Flexible Receiver Adapters, support platforms, and associated equipment. The equipment is part of the Flexible Receiver System used to remove, transport, and store long length contaminated equipment and components from both the double and single-shell underground storage tanks at the 200 area tank farms.

  2. Anatomy of a digital coherent receiver

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    Digital coherent receivers have gained significant attention in the last decade. The reason for this is that coherent detection, along with digital signal processing (DSP) allows for substantial increase of the channel capacity by employing advanced detection techniques. In this paper, we first......, orthonormaliation, chromatic dispersion compensation/nonlinear compensation, resampling a nd timing recovery, polarization demultiplexing and equalization, frequency and phase recovery, digital demodulation. We also describe novel subsystems of a digital coherent receiver: modulation format recognition...

  3. Inversion of receiver function by wavelet transformation

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李桂银; 曾融生


    A new method for receiver function inversion by wavelet transformation is presented in this paper. Receiver func-tion is expanded to different scales with different resolution by wavelet transformation. After an initial model be-ing taken, a generalized least-squares inversion procedure is gradually carried out for receiver function from low tohigh scale, with the inversion result for low order receiver function as the initial model for high order. Aneighborhood containing the global minimum is firstly searched from low scale receiver function, and will gradu-ally focus at the global minimum by introducing high scale information of receiver function. With the gradual ad-dition of high wave-number to smooth background velocity structure, wavelet transformation can keep the inver-sion result converge to the global minimum, reduce to certain extent the dependence of inversion result on theinitial model, overcome the nonuniqueness of generalized least-squares inversion, and obtain reliable crustal andupper mantle velocity with high resolution.

  4. GPS Receiver Performance Inspection by Wavelet Transform

    Xia Lin-yuan; Liu Jing-nan; Lu Liang-xi


    As a powerful analysis tool and the result of contemporary mathematics development, wavelet transform has shown its promising application potentials through the research in the paper. Three aspects regarding GPS receiver performance is tackled: cycle slip detection, receiver noise analysis and receiver channel bias inspection. Wavelet decomposition for double differential observation has demonstrated that this multi-level transform can reveal cycle slips as small as 0.5 cycles without any pre-adjustment processes or satellite orbit information, it can therefore be regarded as a 'geometry free' method. Based on property assumption of receiver noise, signal of noise serial is obtained at the high frequency scale in wavelet decomposition layers. This kind of noise influence on GPSb aseline result can be effectively eliminated by reconstruction process during wavelet reconstruction. Through observed data analysis, the transform has detected a kind of receiver channel bias that has not been completely removed by processing unit of GPS receiver during clock offset resetting operation. Thus the wavelet approach can be employed as a kind of system diagnosis in a generalized point of view.

  5. Efficient receiver tuning using differential evolution strategies

    Wheeler, Caleb H.; Toland, Trevor G.


    Differential evolution (DE) is a powerful and computationally inexpensive optimization strategy that can be used to search an entire parameter space or to converge quickly on a solution. The Kilopixel Array Pathfinder Project (KAPPa) is a heterodyne receiver system delivering 5 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth in the tuning range of 645-695 GHz. The fully automated KAPPa receiver test system finds optimal receiver tuning using performance feedback and DE. We present an adaptation of DE for use in rapid receiver characterization. The KAPPa DE algorithm is written in Python 2.7 and is fully integrated with the KAPPa instrument control, data processing, and visualization code. KAPPa develops the technologies needed to realize heterodyne focal plane arrays containing 1000 pixels. Finding optimal receiver tuning by investigating large parameter spaces is one of many challenges facing the characterization phase of KAPPa. This is a difficult task via by-hand techniques. Characterizing or tuning in an automated fashion without need for human intervention is desirable for future large scale arrays. While many optimization strategies exist, DE is ideal for time and performance constraints because it can be set to converge to a solution rapidly with minimal computational overhead. We discuss how DE is utilized in the KAPPa system and discuss its performance and look toward the future of 1000 pixel array receivers and consider how the KAPPa DE system might be applied.

  6. [Non-invasive Genetic Prenatal Testing - A Serious Challenge for Society as a Whole].

    Zerres, K


    Non-invasive genetic prenatal tests nowadays allow a highly reliable identification of pregnancies with foetal aneuploidies. Due to the general availability of these tests for all pregnant women, non-invasive genetic prenatal testing raises many ethical questions whieh can only be answered by a debate focused on society as a whole.

  7. Involvement of patients' perspectives on treatment with noninvasive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Christensen, Helle Marie; Huniche, Lotte; Titlestad, Ingrid L


    conduct their everyday lives with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease looking at chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a basic life condition rather than an illness. This approach had a major impact on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients' attitudes to noninvasive ventilation treatment...... a nurse was assigned, was designated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients treated with noninvasive ventilation....

  8. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring in neonates using bioreactance: a comparison with echocardiography.

    Weisz, Dany E


    Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring is a potentially useful clinical tool in the neonatal setting. Our aim was to evaluate a new method of non-invasive continuous cardiac output (CO) measurement (NICOM™) based on the principle of bioreactance in neonates.

  9. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 by maternal plasma DNA sequencing.

    Chen, E.Z.; Chiu, R.W.; Sun, H.; Akolekar, R.; Chan, K.C.; Leung, T.Y.; Jiang, P.; Zheng, Y.W.; Lun, F.M.; Chan, L.Y.; Jin, Y.; Go, A.T.; Lau, E.T; To, W.W.; Leung, W.C.; Tang, R.Y.; Au-Yeung, S.K.; Lam, H.; Kung, Y.Y.; Zhang, X.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Minekawa, R.; Tang, M.H.; Wang, J.; Oudejans, C.B.; Lau, T.K.; Nicolaides, K.H.; Lo, Y.M.


    Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due t

  10. Imaging the pancreas: from ex vivo to non-invasive technology

    Holmberg, D; Ahlgren, U


    While many recently published reviews have covered non-invasive nuclear imaging techniques, the aim of this review is to focus on current developments in optical imaging technologies for investigating the pancreas. Several of these modalities are being developed into non-invasive, real...

  11. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 by maternal plasma DNA sequencing.

    Chen, E.Z.; Chiu, R.W.; Sun, H.; Akolekar, R.; Chan, K.C.; Leung, T.Y.; Jiang, P.; Zheng, Y.W.; Lun, F.M.; Chan, L.Y.; Jin, Y.; Go, A.T.; Lau, E.T; To, W.W.; Leung, W.C.; Tang, R.Y.; Au-Yeung, S.K.; Lam, H.; Kung, Y.Y.; Zhang, X.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Minekawa, R.; Tang, M.H.; Wang, J.; Oudejans, C.B.; Lau, T.K.; Nicolaides, K.H.; Lo, Y.M.


    Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due t

  12. Advanced signal processing theory and implementation for sonar, radar, and non-invasive medical diagnostic systems

    Stergiopoulos, Stergios


    Integrates topics of signal processing from sonar, radar, and medical system technologies by identifying their concept similarities. This book covers non-invasive medical diagnostic system applications, including intracranial ultrasound, a technology that attempts to address non-invasive detection on brain injuries and stroke.

  13. 47 CFR 15.121 - Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers.


    ... receivers and frequency converters designed or marketed for use with scanning receivers, shall: (1) Be...; replacing a plug-in semiconductor chip; or programming a semiconductor chip using special access codes or an external device, such as a personal computer. Scanning receivers, and frequency converters designed for...

  14. Comparing Drug Use between Welfare-Receiving Arrestees and Non-Welfare-Receiving Arrestees.

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Urbach, Blake J.; Johnson, Regina J.


    Compares drug-positive rates between welfare-receiving arrestees, non-welfare receiving arrestees living below the poverty level, and non-welfare arrestees living above the poverty level. Welfare-receiving arrestees were more likely to be female, older, less educated, and to test positive for opiates and benzodiazepines than the other subgroups.…

  15. Validation of non-invasive haemodynamic methods in patients with liver disease

    Brittain, Jane M; Busk, Troels M; Møller, Søren


    , SBP, DBP and HR were measured non-invasively and by femoral artery catheterization. CO was measured non-invasively and by indicator dilution technique. The non-invasive pressure monitoring was considered acceptable with a bias (accuracy) and a SD (precision) not exceeding 5 and 8 mmHg, respectively......Patients with advanced cirrhosis often present a hyperdynamic circulation characterized by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and an increase in heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO). Accurate assessment of the altered circulation can be performed invasively......; however, due to the disadvantages of this approach, non-invasive methods are warranted. The purpose of this study was to compare continuous non-invasive measurements of haemodynamic variables by the Finometer and the Task Force Monitor with simultaneous invasive measurements. In 25 patients with cirrhosis...

  16. Non-invasive index of liver fibrosis induced by alcohol, thioacetamide and schistosomal infection in mice

    El-Beltagy Doha M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non invasive approaches will likely be increasing utilized to assess liver fibrosis. This work provides a new non invasive index to predict liver fibrosis induced in mice. Methods Fibrosis was generated by thioacetamide (TAA, chronic intake of ethanol, or infection with S. mansoni in 240 mice. Both progression and regression of fibrosis (after treatment with silymarin and/or praziquantel were monitored. The following methods were employed: (i The METAVIR system was utilized to grade and stage liver inflammation and fibosis; (ii Determination of hepatic hydroxyproline and collagen; and (iii Derivation of a new hepatic fibrosis index from the induced changes, and its prospective validation in a group of 70 mice. Results The index is composed of 4 serum variable including total proteins, γ-GT, bilirubin and reduced glutathione (GSH, measured in diseased, treated and normal mice. These parameters were highly correlated with both the histological stage and the grade. They were combined in a logarithmic formula, which non-invasively scores the severity of liver fibrosis through a range (0 to 2, starting with healthy liver (corresponding to stage 0 to advanced fibrosis (corresponding stage 3.Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC for the accuracy of the index to predict the histological stages demonstrated that the areas under the curve (AUC were 0.954, 0.979 and 0.99 for index values corresponding to histological stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Also, the index was correlated with stage and grade, (0.947 and 0.859, respectively. The cut off values that cover the range between stages 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 are 0.4, 1.12 and 1.79, respectively. The results in the validation group confirmed the accuracy of the test. The AUROC was 0.869 and there was good correlation with the stage of fibrosis and grade of inflammation. Conclusion The index fulfils the basic criteria of non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis since it is liver

  17. Noninvasive measurement of cerebrospinal fluid flow using an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor: a preliminary study.

    Pennell, Thomas; Yi, Juneyoung L; Kaufman, Bruce A; Krishnamurthy, Satish


    OBJECT Mechanical failure-which is the primary cause of CSF shunt malfunction-is not readily diagnosed, and the specific reasons for mechanical failure are not easily discerned. Prior attempts to measure CSF flow noninvasively have lacked the ability to either quantitatively or qualitatively obtain data. To address these needs, this preliminary study evaluates an ultrasonic transit time flow sensor in pediatric and adult patients with external ventricular drains (EVDs). One goal was to confirm the stated accuracy of the sensor in a clinical setting. A second goal was to observe the sensor's capability to record real-time continuous CSF flow. The final goal was to observe recordings during instances of flow blockage or lack of flow in order to determine the sensor's ability to identify these changes. METHODS A total of 5 pediatric and 11 adult patients who had received EVDs for the treatment of hydrocephalus were studied in a hospital setting. The primary EVD was connected to a secondary study EVD that contained a fluid-filled pressure transducer and an in-line transit time flow sensor. Comparisons were made between the weight of the drainage bag and the flow measured via the sensor in order to confirm its accuracy. Data from the pressure transducer and the flow sensor were recorded continuously at 100 Hz for a period of 24 hours by a data acquisition system, while the hourly CSF flow into the drip chamber was recorded manually. Changes in the patient's neurological status and their time points were noted. RESULTS The flow sensor demonstrated a proven accuracy of ± 15% or ± 2 ml/hr. The flow sensor allowed real-time continuous flow waveform data recordings. Dynamic analysis of CSF flow waveforms allowed the calculation of the pressure-volume index. Lastly, the sensor was able to diagnose a blocked catheter and distinguish between the blockage and lack of flow. CONCLUSIONS The Transonic flow sensor accurately measures CSF output within ± 15% or ± 2 ml

  18. Invasive and Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation For Acute Exacerbations Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Abd-Hay I. Abd-Hay; Ahmed S. Alsaily* and Essam A. El-Moselhy


    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a frequent cause of hospitalization and intensive care unit admission. Respiratory failure from airflow obstruction is a direct consequence of acute airway narrowing. Aim of the study: It was to compare the efficacy of noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV against conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Patients and methods: Forty patients with acute exacerbation of COPD were recruited in the present study. A comparative, hospital based study design was used. All the cases were examined; clinically and laboratory. The patients were divided into two groups each include 20 patients. Group A received NIMV in the form of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and group B with CMV. Results: There were statistically significant decreases in respiratory rate, heart rate and diastolic blood pressure after 6 hours of CPAP in comparison to baseline parameters in group A. While, there were statistically significant increases in PaO2 and SaO2 after 6 hours of CPAP in comparison to baseline parameters. In group B there were statistically significant decreases in respiratory rate, heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure after 6 hours of CMV in comparison to baseline parameters. While, there were statistically significant increases in pH, PaO2, and SaO2 and a statistically significant decrease in PaCO2 after 6 hours of CMV in comparison to baseline parameters. Further, comparison of respiratory rate and hemodynamic parameters in both groups showed statistically significant decreases in respiratory rate, heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in group A in comparison to group B. Finally, failure rate was 35.0% in group A (NIMV compared to 5.0% in group B (CMV with statistically significant difference. Conclusions and recommendations: Noninvasive mechanical ventilation is a safe

  19. MicroRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers of heart transplant rejection.

    Duong Van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Tible, Marion; Gay, Arnaud; Guillemain, Romain; Aubert, Olivier; Varnous, Shaida; Iserin, Franck; Rouvier, Philippe; François, Arnaud; Vernerey, Dewi; Loyer, Xavier; Leprince, Pascal; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Bruneval, Patrick; Loupy, Alexandre; Jouven, Xavier


    Rejection is one of the major causes of late cardiac allograft failure and at present can only be diagnosed by invasive endomyocardial biopsies. We sought to determine whether microRNA profiling could serve as a non-invasive biomarker of cardiac allograft rejection. We included 113 heart transplant recipients from four referral French institutions (test cohort, n = 60, validation cohort, n = 53). In the test cohort, we compared patients with acute biopsy-proven allograft rejection (n = 30) to matched control patients without rejection (n = 30), by assessing microRNAs expression in the heart allograft tissue and patients concomitant serum using RNA extraction and qPCR analysis. Fourteen miRNAs were selected on the basis of their implication in allograft rejection, endothelial activation, and inflammation and tissue specificity. We identified seven miRNAs that were differentially expressed between normal and rejecting heart allografts: miR-10a, miR-21, miR-31, miR-92a, miR-142-3p miR-155, and miR-451 (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Four out of seven miRNAs also showed differential serological expression (miR-10a, miR-31, miR-92a, and miR-155) with strong correlation with their tissular expression. The receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that these four circulating miRNAs strongly discriminated patients with allograft rejection from patients without rejection: miR-10a (AUC = 0.975), miR-31 (AUC = 0.932), miR-92a (AUC = 0.989), and miR-155 (AUC = 0.998, P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). We confirmed in the external validation set that these four miRNAs highly discriminated patients with rejection from those without. The discrimination capability of the four miRNAs remained significant when stratified by rejection diagnosis (T-cell-mediated rejection or antibody-mediated rejection) and time post-transplant. This study demonstrates that a differential expression of miRNA occurs in rejecting allograft patients, not only at the tissue level but also in the

  20. Millimeter-wave receivers for wireless communications

    Overmiller, Brock Morgan

    The modern communications environment is becoming an increasingly crowded place, resulting in rapidly increasing demands on current technology. Military and civilian operations require the ability to locate and decode all communication signals in the environment. However, developments in RADAR (RAdio Detection And Ranging) and communications technology are making it harder to effectively identify and maintain bandwidth usage for everyone. Millimeter waves--waves measured between one millimeter to one centimeter in wavelength--have only recently been explored as a new technology to replace the augment receiver architectures. These small wavelengths introduce many engineering challenges, such as: large atmospheric losses, poor sensitivity, and expensive electronic equipment. With growing developments in Microwave Photonics, low-noise RF amplifiers and high-speed modulators have demonstrated the ability to design RF communication links in the millimeter wave regime to counter such problems. However, despite these developments, toward a cost-effective, spatial division multiplexing (SDM) receiver concept has not proved capable of being implemented as part of the next generation 5G wireless network infrastructure. To this end, we present a novel receiver architecture utilizing an optically addressed phased-array millimeter wave receiver based on optical-upconversion and signal recovery. This receiver is capable of geolocation and spatial multiplexing of multiple Tunable Optically Paired Source (TOPS) communication signals in its scene. Operating at 35 GHz, the receiver up-converts the received RF onto an optical sideband, which, to our advantage, contains all of the frequency, amplitude, and phase information of the received signals. Subsequent optical processing allows routing of the sideband to a free space detector port. Photomixing a coherent optical local oscillator (LO) with the optical sideband performs heterodyne down-conversion to an Intermediate Frequency (IF

  1. Performance outlook of the SCRAP receiver

    Lubkoll, Matti; von Backström, Theodor W.; Harms, Thomas M.


    A combined cycle (CC) concentrating solar power (CSP) plant provides significant potential to achieve an efficiency increase and an electricity cost reduction compared to current single-cycle plants. A CC CSP system requires a receiver technology capable of effectively transferring heat from concentrated solar irradiation to a pressurized air stream of a gas turbine. The small number of pressurized air receivers demonstrated to date have practical limitations, when operating at high temperatures and pressures. As yet, a robust, scalable and efficient system has to be developed and commercialized. A novel receiver system, the Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) concept has been proposed to comply with these requirements. The SCRAP system is conceived as a solution for an efficient and robust pressurized air receiver that could be implemented in CC CSP concepts or standalone solar Brayton cycles without a bottoming Rankine cycle. The presented work expands on previous publications on the thermal modeling of the receiver system. Based on the analysis of a single heat transfer element (spike), predictions for its thermal performance can be made. To this end the existing thermal model was improved by heat transfer characteristics for the jet impingement region of the spike tip as well as heat transfer models simulating the interaction with ambient. While the jet impingement cooling effect was simulated employing a commercial CFD code, the ambient heat transfer model was based on simplifying assumptions in order to employ empirical and analytical equations. The thermal efficiency of a spike under design conditions (flux 1.0 MW/m2, air outlet temperature just below 800 °C) was calculated at approximately 80 %, where convective heat losses account for 16.2 % of the absorbed radiation and radiative heat losses for a lower 2.9 %. This effect is due to peak surface temperatures occurring at the root of the spikes. It can thus be concluded that the geometric

  2. Sexual function in women receiving maintenance dialysis.

    Seethala, Srikanth; Hess, Rachel; Bossola, Maurizio; Unruh, Mark L; Weisbord, Steven D


    While substantial attention has been paid to the issue of sexual dysfunction in men on chronic dialysis, less is known about this problem in women with end-stage renal disease. We sought to assess sexual dysfunction in women on chronic dialysis and determine whether patients discuss this problem with their providers and receive treatment. We prospectively enrolled women receiving chronic hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis in Pittsburgh, PA. We asked patients to complete the 19-item Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to assess sexual function and a 5-item survey that assessed whether patients had discussed sexual dysfunction with their providers and/or received treatment for this problem in the past. We enrolled 66 patients; 59 (89%) on hemodialysis and 7 (11%) on peritoneal dialysis. All patients completed the FSFI, of whom 53 (80%) had FSFI scores <26.55, consistent with the presence of sexual dysfunction. Of 37 patients who were married or residing with a significant other, 27 (73%) had sexual dysfunction. Among 24 participants who reported having been sexually active over the previous 4 weeks, 11 (46%) had sexual dysfunction. Only 21% of patients with sexual dysfunction had discussed this problem with their gynecologist, renal or primary provider, and 3 (6%) reported having received treatment. Sexual dysfunction is common in women on dialysis, even among patients who are married or residing with a significant other and those who are sexually active. However, few women discuss this issue with their providers or receive treatment.

  3. Receiver-Controlled Multi-Node Cooperation

    Liang Ye; Yue Li; XueJun Sha; Esko Alasaarela


    Since wireless links in Ad hoc networks are more fragile than those in traditional wireless networks due to route flapping, multi-node cooperation plays an important role in ensuring the quality of service ( QoS) . Based on the authors’ previous work, this paper proposes a receiver-controlled multi-node cooperation routing protocol, known as AODV-RCC. In this protocol, nodes form a cooperation group based on signal power. In a cooperation group, signal power between a partner and a transmitter, as well as signal power between the partner and the receiver, must be larger than the signal power between the transmitter and the receiver. Otherwise, the transmission will not benefit from cooperation. To avoid collision or congestion, each cooperation group only contains one partner. This partner offers both data and ACK cooperative retransmission. Its retransmission time should be shorter than the internal retry time of the transmitter’ s MAC layer, because it is better for the partner to retransmit firstly, as it offers a more reliable cooperative link. In AODV-RCC, it is the receiver that chooses the partner, because the link between the partner and the receiver is the most important. According to our simulation results, AODV-RCC shortens the end-to-end delay and increases the packet delivery ratio.

  4. Schottky Heterodyne Receivers With Full Waveguide Bandwidth

    Hesler, Jeffrey; Crowe, Thomas


    Compact THz receivers with broad bandwidth and low noise have been developed for the frequency range from 100 GHz to 1 THz. These receivers meet the requirements for high-resolution spectroscopic studies of planetary atmospheres (including the Earth s) from spacecraft, as well as airborne and balloon platforms. The ongoing research is significant not only for the development of Schottky mixers, but also for the creation of a receiver system, including the LO chain. The new receivers meet the goals of high sensitivity, compact size, low total power requirement, and operation across complete waveguide bands. The exceptional performance makes these receivers ideal for the broader range of scientific and commercial applications. These include the extension of sophisticated test and measurement equipment to 1 THz and the development of low-cost imaging systems for security applications and industrial process monitoring. As a particular example, a WR-1.9SHM (400-600 GHz) has been developed (see Figure 1), with state-of-the-art noise temperature ranging from 1,000-1,800 K (DSB) over the full waveguide band. Also, a Vector Network Analyzer extender has been developed (see Figure 2) for the WR1.5 waveguide band (500 750 GHz) with 100-dB dynamic range.

  5. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser


    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  6. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.


    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  7. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser

    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  8. The Communication Between Designer and Design Receiver

    Dai, Zheng; Dai, Yan


    When people think about a product,the first impression always mainly influences the result.Product is the medium of communication between designer and designer receiver.Because both of them have varied different experience and background,the information would be biased during the transferring...... process.The common symbols which can be recognized by both of designer and receiver are the key tools for communication.In some case,the same symbol in one product would be leads to different receiver impression.Generally,impression includes 3 aspects:aesthetics,function, and emotion.Designer needs...... to create an attractive and accurate impression in product from these 3 aspects.For facing the dilemma of communication,some experimental approaches can help designer deal with unique and diversity situations.Solving the detail problem in each step could keep the original meaning of designer....

  9. Randomized transmit and receive ultrasound tomography

    Clement, Gregory T


    A tomographic method is considered that forms images from sets of spatially randomized source signals and receiver sensitivities. The method is designed to allow image reconstruction for an extended number of transmitters and receivers in the presence noise and without plane wave approximation or otherwise approximation on the size or regularity of source and receiver functions. An overdetermined set of functions are formed from the Hadamard product between a Gaussian function and a uniformly distributed random number set. It is shown that this particular type of randomization tends to produce well-conditioned matrices whose pseudoinverses may be determined without implementing relaxation methods. When the inverted sets are applied to simulated first-order scattering from a Shepp-Logan phantom, successful image reconstructions are achieved for signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) as low as 1. Evaluation of the randomization approach is conducted by comparing condition numbers with other forms of signal randomization....

  10. Precision Continuum Receivers for Astrophysical Applications

    Wollack, Edward J.


    Cryogenically cooled HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) amplifiers find widespread use in radioastronomy receivers. In recent years, these devices have also been commonly employed in broadband receivers for precision measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. In this setting, the combination of ultra-low-noise and low-spectral-resolution observations reinforce the importance achieving suitable control over the device environment to achieve fundamentally limited receiver performance. The influence of the intrinsic amplifier stability at low frequencies on data quality (e.g., achievable noise and residual temporal correlations), observational and calibration strategies, as well as architectural mitigation approaches in this setting will be discussed. The implications of device level 1/f fluctuations reported in the literature on system performance will be reviewed.

  11. Performance Evaluation of an Integrated Optoelectronic Receiver

    A. Vera-Marquina


    Full Text Available This work describes the optical and electrical characterization of an integrated optoelectronic receiver. The receiver is composed of a photodiode and a transimpedance amplifier, both fabricated in silicon technology using a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process. The total area occupied by the photodiode is of 10,000 μm2. In a first step, the generated photocurrent of the photodiode is measured for the wavelengths of 780 nm and 830 nm at different levels of optical power. In a second step, the responsivity and quantum efficiency parameters of the photodiode are computed. Finally, an electrical measurement including the transimpedance amplifier is achieved. A potential application for this optoelectronic receiver is on the first optical communications window.

  12. Implementation of Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter

    Payata Srikanth Yadav


    Full Text Available Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART is the serial communication protocol that is used for data exchange between computer & peripherals. UART is a low velocity, short-distance, low-cost protocol. UART includes three modules which are received, the baud rate generator and transmitter. The UART design with Very High Description Language can be integrated into the Field Programmable Gate Array to achieve stable data transmission and to make system reliable and compact. In the result and simulation part, this project will focus on check the receive data with error free & baud rate generation at different frequencies. Before synthesizing of UART a baud rate generator is incorporated into the system. We use the frequency divider which sets itself to required frequency for the functionality at lower frequency. All modules are designed using VERILOG and implemented on Xilinx Suite development board.

  13. Multiple Antenna Cognitive Receivers and Signal Detection

    Couillet, Romain


    A Bayesian inference learning process for cognitive receivers is provided in this paper. We focus on the particular case of signal detectionas an explanatory example to the learning framework. Under any prior state of knowledge on the communication channel, an information theoretic criterion is presented to decide on the presence of informative data in a noisy wireless MIMO communication. We detail the particular cases of knowledge, or absence of knowledge at the receiver, of the number of transmit antennas and noise power. The provided method is instrumental to provide intelligence to the receiver and gives birth to a novel Bayesian signal detector. The detector is compared to the classical power detector and provides detection performance upper bounds. Simulations corroborate the theoretical results and quantify the gain achieved using the proposed Bayesian framework.

  14. Antennas and Receivers in Radio Interferometry

    Hunter, Todd R


    The primary antenna elements and receivers are two of the most important components in a synthesis telescope. Together they are responsible for locking onto an astronomical source in both direction and frequency, capturing its radiation, and converting it into signals suitable for digitization and correlation. The properties and performance of antennas and receivers can affect the quality of the synthesized images in a number of fundamental ways. In this lecture, their most relevant design and performance parameters are reviewed, with emphasis on the current ALMA and VLA systems. We discuss in detail the shape of the primary beam and the components of aperture efficiency, and we present the basics of holography, pointing, and servo control. On receivers, we outline the use of amplifiers and mixers both in the cryogenic front-end and in the room temperature back-end signal path. The essential properties of precision local oscillators (LOs), phase lock loops (PLLs), and LO modulation techniques are also describ...

  15. Olympus receiver evaluation and phase noise measurements

    Campbell, Richard L.; Wang, Huailiang; Sweeney, Dennis


    A set of measurements performed by the Michigan Tech Sensing and Signal Processing Group on the analog receiver built by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for propagation measurements using the Olympus Satellite is described. Measurements of local oscillator (LO) phase noise were performed for all of the LOs supplied by JPL. In order to obtain the most useful set of measurements, LO phase noise measurements were made using the complete VPI receiver front end. This set of measurements demonstrates the performance of the receiver from the Radio Frequency (RF) input through the high Intermediate Frequency (IF) output. Three different measurements were made: LO phase noise with DC on the voltage controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) port; LO phase noise with the 11.381 GHz LO locked to the reference signal generator; and a reference measurement with the JPL LOs out of the system.

  16. The new indicators of accounts receivable excellence.

    Lampi, G L


    Calculation of AR days will continue to be a valuable internal measurement tool of accounts receivable excellence. As healthcare organizations move toward managed care through a mix of reimbursement systems--many with conflicting incentives--the director of patient accounting must approach each system separately and ensure that the hospital receives all of the reimbursement to which it is entitled. The director of patient accounting must understand the industry and recognize that healthcare reimbursement will almost certainly continue to become more complex rather than simpler. Creativity will be a necessity, and good luck will be an advantage.

  17. On Satellite Multicast to Heterogeneous Receivers


    combined into one bulk file. Let the multicast source use Reed-Solomon erasure ( RSE ) coding (e.g. [Mac97]) and let the bulk file be encoded into W ≥ 1... RSE -based FEC blocks. Each FEC block consists of h data packets and c parity packets – all of the same length. We assume a multicast tree that has a... RSE -based FEC block, a receiver must receive at least h distinct packets, either data or parity, from the same FEC block. To allow a systematic way

  18. Building and Testing a Portable VLF Receiver

    McLaughlin, Robert; Krause, L.


    Unwanted emissions or signal noise is a major problem for VLF radio receivers. These can occur from man made sources such as power line hum, which can be prevalent for many harmonics after the fundamental 50 or 60 Hz AC source or from VLF radio transmissions such as LORAN, used for navigation and communications. Natural emissions can also be detrimental to the quality of recordings as some of the more interesting natural emissions such as whistlers or auroral chorus may be drowned out by the more common sferic emissions. VLF receivers must selectively filter out unwanted emissions and amplify the filtered signal to a record-able level without degrading the quality.

  19. Avalanche Photodiode Arrays for Optical Communications Receivers

    Srinivasan, M.; Vilnrotter, V.


    An avalanche photodiode (APD) array for ground-based optical communications receivers is investigated for the reception of optical signals through the turbulent atmosphere. Kolmogorov phase screen simulations are used to generate realistic spatial distributions of the received optical field. It is shown that use of an APD array for pulse-position modulation detection can improve performance by up to 4 dB over single APD detection in the presence of turbulence, but that photon-counting detector arrays yield even greater gains.

  20. Financing with Receivables: Factoring, Securitization and Collateral

    Ioana Benea


    Full Text Available Short term financing is vital for the financial survival of any company, because very often they are facing deficits of cash during their activity. Therefore a company has to identify the optimal solutions in order to cover those (temporary deficits. A good solution to this problem is the financing with receivables using factoring, securitization and collateral. In this paper we try to analyze how this types of financing works and which are their advantages and costs. Also, we developed a reasoning pattern in order to evaluate the best receivables financing alternative for the Romanian companies.

  1. Noninvasive optical detection of carotenoid antioxidants in the human retina

    Sharifzadeh, Mohsen

    This dissertation develops laser Raman and fluorescence based spectroscopy for the noninvasive detection of medically important pigments in the human retina. Large-scale epidemiological studies have recently shown that the pigments lutein and zeaxanthin, located in the ˜1 mm diameter macular area of the retina, protect the eye from phototoxic blue light and/or oxidative damage. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) can detect and monitor macular pigments in intact human eyes quantitatively by recording the Raman scattered light originating from the highly specific stretching vibrations of the pigment molecules' conjugated carbon backbone. This dissertation develops RRS from a spatially averaged measuring approach to spatially resolved imaging. For this purpose, a filter-based Raman imaging setup with speckle-free illumination was constructed that permits detection of macular pigments at physiological concentrations with eye-safe laser excitation levels. Subsequently, RRS images would be obtained from the living human retina. The images demonstrate quantitative as well as micron-scale, spatially resolved RRS detection of the whole macular pigment distribution. The RRS images reveal important physiological details of a subject's macular pigment distribution such as the peaked pigment concentration in the center of the macula, and the rapidly dropping pigment concentration towards the periphery of the macula. As an alternative to direct RRS imaging of macular pigments, this dissertation explores an indirect imaging approach of macular pigments, based on excitation spectroscopy of lipofuscin. A dual-wavelength laser apparatus was constructed that excites the lipofuscin fluorescence at wavelengths inside and outside the spectral range of macular pigment absorption, and that allows one to image the fluorescence intensities in a large section of the retina centered on the macula. Measuring the lipofuscin fluorescence intensities inside and outside the macula area at the two

  2. Noninvasive skin tightening: focus on new ultrasound techniques

    Fabi SG


    Full Text Available Sabrina Guillen Fabi Goldman, Butterwick, Fitzpatrick, Groff and Fabi, Cosmetic Laser Dermatology, San Diego, CA, USA Abstract: Microfocused ultrasound (MFU has been recently developed to meet the ever-growing public demand for achieving significant, noninvasive skin lifting and tightening. MFU can be focused on subcutaneous tissue where the temperature briefly reaches greater than 60°C, producing small (<1 mm3 thermal coagulation points to a depth of up to 5 mm within the mid-to-deep reticular layer of the dermis and subdermis. The intervening papillary dermal and epidermal layers of skin remain unaffected. The application of heat at these discrete thermal coagulation points causes collagen fibers in the facial planes such as the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and platysma, as well as the deep reticular dermis, to become denatured, contracting and stimulating de novo collagen. A commercially available device combines MFU with high-resolution ultrasound imaging (MFU-V, which enables visualization of tissue planes to a depth of 8 mm and allows the user to see where the MFU energy will be applied (Ultherapy®; Ulthera Inc., Mesa, AZ, USA. Using different transducers, MFU-V treatment can be customized to meet the unique physical characteristics of each patient by adjusting energy and focal depth of the emitted ultrasound. By targeting the facial superficial musculoaponeurotic system, noninvasive tightening and lifting of sagging facial and neck skin and improvements in the appearance of wrinkles can be achieved. MFU-V can also improve lines and wrinkles of the décolleté. Treatment protocols for the use of MFU-V continue to be refined, and its use in combination with other rejuvenation techniques has been demonstrated. Brief discomfort that often occurs during treatment can be minimized with oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Other treatment-related adverse events include transient erythema, edema, and occasional bruising. MFU-V is

  3. Non-invasive photo acoustic approach for human bone diagnosis.

    Thella, Ashok Kumar; Rizkalla, James; Helmy, Ahdy; Suryadevara, Vinay Kumar; Salama, Paul; Rizkalla, Maher


    The existing modalities of bone diagnosis including X-ray and ultrasound may cite drawback in some cases related to health issues and penetration depth, while the ultrasound modality may lack image quality. Photo acoustic approach however, provides light energy to the acoustic wave, enabling it to activate and respond according to the propagating media (which is type of bones in this case). At the same time, a differential temperature change may result in the bio heat response, resulting from the heat absorbed across the multiple materials under study. In this work, we have demonstrated the features of using photo acoustic modality in order to non-invasively diagnose the type of human bones based on their electrical, thermal, and acoustic properties that differentiate the output response of each type. COMSOL software was utilized to combine both acoustic equations and bio heat equations, in order to study both the thermal and acoustic responses through which the differential diagnosis can be obtained. In this study, we solved both the acoustic equation and bio heat equations for four types of bones, bone (cancellous), bone (cortical), bone marrow (red), and bone marrow (yellow). 1 MHz acoustic source frequency was chosen and 10(5) W/m(2) power source was used in the simulation. The simulation tested the dynamic response of the wave over a distance of 5 cm from each side for the source. Near 2.4 cm was detected from simulation from each side of the source with a temperature change of within 0.5 K for various types of bones, citing a promising technique for a practical model to detect the type of bones via the differential temperature as well as the acoustic was response via the multiple materials associated with the human bones (skin and blood). The simulation results suggest that the PA technique may be applied to non-invasive diagnosis for the different types of bones, including cancerous bones. A practical model for detecting both the temperature change via

  4. Neural Network Classifier for Automatic Detection of Invasive Versus Noninvasive Airway Management Technique Based on Respiratory Monitoring Parameters in a Pediatric Anesthesia.

    Gálvez, Jorge A; Jalali, Ali; Ahumada, Luis; Simpao, Allan F; Rehman, Mohamed A


    Children undergoing general anesthesia require airway monitoring by an anesthesia provider. The airway may be supported with noninvasive devices such as face mask or invasive devices such as a laryngeal mask airway or an endotracheal tube. The physiologic data stored provides an opportunity to apply machine learning algorithms distinguish between these modes based on pattern recognition. We retrieved three data sets from patients receiving general anesthesia in 2015 with either mask, laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube. Patients underwent myringotomy, tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy or inguinal hernia repair procedures. We retrieved measurements for end-tidal carbon dioxide, tidal volume, and peak inspiratory pressure and calculated statistical features for each data element per patient. We applied machine learning algorithms (decision tree, support vector machine, and neural network) to classify patients into noninvasive or invasive airway device support. We identified 300 patients per group (mask, laryngeal mask airway, and endotracheal tube) for a total of 900 patients. The neural network classifier performed better than the boosted trees and support vector machine classifiers based on the test data sets. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for neural network classification are 97.5%, 96.3%, and 95.8%. In contrast, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of support vector machine are 89.1%, 92.3%, and 88.3% and with the boosted tree classifier they are 93.8%, 92.1%, and 91.4%. We describe a method to automatically distinguish between noninvasive and invasive airway device support in a pediatric surgical setting based on respiratory monitoring parameters. The results show that the neural network classifier algorithm can accurately classify noninvasive and invasive airway device support.

  5. Temporal Trends in the Utilization of Noninvasive Diagnostic Tests for Coronary Artery Disease in Ontario Between 2008 and 2014: A Population-Based Study.

    Roifman, Idan; Wijeysundera, Harindra C; Austin, Peter C; Maclagan, Laura C; Rezai, Mohammad R; Wright, Graham A; Tu, Jack V


    The proliferation of cardiac diagnostic tests over the past few decades has received substantial attention from policymakers. However, contemporary population-based temporal trends of the utilization of noninvasive cardiac diagnostic tests for coronary artery disease are not known. Our objective was to examine the temporal trends in the utilization of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), exercise stress testing (GXT), and stress echocardiography between 2008 and 2014. We performed a population-based repeated cross-sectional study of the adult population of Ontario between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2014. Annual utilization rates of noninvasive cardiac diagnostic tests were computed. For each cardiac testing modality, a negative binomial regression model was used to assess temporal changes in test utilization. GXT and MPI collectively accounted for 88% of all cardiac noninvasive diagnostic tests throughout our study period. Age- and sex-standardized rates of GXT declined from 26.7/1000 adult population to 21.6/1000 adult population (mean annual reduction of 3.4%; P utilization rates for both CCTA and stress echocardiography increased over time, the combined rate of all available tests decreased from 50.8/1000 adult population to 49.1/1000 adult population (mean annual reduction of 1.1%; P utilization rates for the most prevalent noninvasive cardiac diagnostic tests-GXT and MPI-declined over our study period. Furthermore, the overall test utilization rate also declined over time. We believe our findings are encouraging from a health policy perspective. Nonetheless, rising utilization rates for CCTA and stress echocardiography will need to be monitored in the future. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Superconducting Submm Integrated Receiver for TELIS

    Koshelets, V. P.; Ermakov, A. B.; Filippenko, L. V.; Koryukin, O. V.; Khudchenko, A. V.; Sobolev, A. S.; Torgashin, M. Yu; Yagoubov, P. A.; Hoogeveen, R. W. M.; Vreeling, W. J.; Wild, W.; Pylypenko, O. M.


    In this report we present design and first experimental results for development of the submm superconducting integrated receiver spectrometer for Terahertz Limb Sounder (TELIS). TELIS is a collaborative European project to build up a three-channel heterodyne balloon-based spectrometer for measuring

  7. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    Kwok, K.C.


    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  8. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer


    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  9. CAS expert receives Tribology Gold Medal


    Prof. XUE Qunji, a senior expert in tribology from the CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (L1CP) and member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, received the Tribology Gold Medalfor 2011 on February 27, 2012 in Beijing. As one of the world's most outstanding and influential tribologists in the last forty years, Prof.

  10. Receiving Assistance and Local Food System Participation

    Rebecca L. Som Castellano


    Full Text Available A body of literature has noted that local food systems (LFSs may not involve active participation by individuals with lower incomes. This is, in part, a function of racial and class hegemony, as well as physical and financial accessibility of LFSs. LFS institutions, such as farmers’ markets, have been working to facilitate receipt of food assistance programs, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP. Charitable assistance programs, such as food banks, have also been actively working to engage in LFSs, for example, by making local foods available. However, little research has explored the role that receiving public or charitable assistance can play in influencing LFS participation. In this article, I utilize quantitative and qualitative data collected from across the state of Ohio to examine the relationship between receiving assistance and LFS participation for women, who remain predominately responsible for food provisioning in the U.S., including among those who participate in LFSs. Quantitative results suggest that receiving assistance can increase participation in LFSs. Qualitative data provides more nuanced information about the importance of food assistance for women who want to participate in LFSs, and suggest that it is essential that food cooperatives and farmers’ markets are equipped to receive food assistance programs, such as SNAP, in order for women with lower incomes to participate in LFSs.

  11. Why Receiving Feedback Collides with Self Determination

    ten Cate, Olle Th. J.


    Providing feedback to trainees in clinical settings is considered important for development and acquisition of skill. Despite recommendations how to provide feedback that have appeared in the literature, research shows that its effectiveness is often disappointing. To understand why receiving feedback is more difficult than it appears, this paper…

  12. A 24GHz Radar Receiver in CMOS

    Kwok, K.C.


    This thesis investigates the system design and circuit implementation of a 24GHz-band short-range radar receiver in CMOS technology. The propagation and penetration properties of EM wave offer the possibility of non-contact based remote sensing and through-the-wall imaging of distance stationary or

  13. Howard Feiertag receives hospitality industry award

    Ho, Sookhan


    Howard Feiertag, of Blacksburg, an instructor in hospitality and tourism management at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, received the inaugural Excellence in Sales and Marketing Strategy Award at the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association/New York University Strategy Conference in New York recently.

  14. Compressed Sensing-Based Direct Conversion Receiver

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben


    Due to the continuously increasing computational power of modern data receivers it is possible to move more and more processing from the analog to the digital domain. This paper presents a compressed sensing approach to relaxing the analog filtering requirements prior to the ADCs in a direct...

  15. Richard W. Ziolkowski Receives Honorary Doctorate

    Breinbjerg, Olav


    At the annual Commemoration of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) on April 27, 2012, Prof. Richard W. Ziolkowski, University of Arizona (UoA), received DTU's highest academic degree, the Honorary Doctor degree: Doctor Technices Honoris Causa (Figure 1). Prof. Ziolkowski has been a close...

  16. Reasons Parents Exempt Children from Receiving Immunizations

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Callister, Lynn C.; Cahoon, Spencer


    School nurses are on the front lines of educational efforts to promote childhood vaccinations. However, some parents still choose to exempt their children from receiving vaccinations for personal reasons. Studying the beliefs of parents who exempt vaccinations allows health care workers, including school nurses, to better understand parental…

  17. Radiometric Receiver for Passive Microwave Imaging System

    Ubaichin Anton


    Full Text Available The paper describes a new method to develop a zero-type W-band radiometric receiver. The block diagram and operating algorithm of the digital control system are presented. The main advantages of the zero method in passive radio physical investigations in comparison with classical engineering solutions are shown.

  18. 7 CFR 29.42 - Receiving station.


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.42 Receiving station. Points at which producer tobacco is offered for marketing (other than sale at auction on a designated market), including tobacco auction warehouses,...

  19. Howard Feiertag receives hospitality industry award

    Ho, Sookhan


    Howard Feiertag, of Blacksburg, an instructor in hospitality and tourism management at Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, received the inaugural Excellence in Sales and Marketing Strategy Award at the Hospitality Sales and Marketing Association/New York University Strategy Conference in New York recently.

  20. Urban soil exploration through multi-receiver electromagnetic induction and stepped-frequency ground penetrating radar.

    Van De Vijver, Ellen; Van Meirvenne, Marc; Vandenhaute, Laura; Delefortrie, Samuël; De Smedt, Philippe; Saey, Timothy; Seuntjens, Piet


    In environmental assessments, the characterization of urban soils relies heavily on invasive investigation, which is often insufficient to capture their full spatial heterogeneity. Non-invasive geophysical techniques enable rapid collection of high-resolution data and provide a cost-effective alternative to investigate soil in a spatially comprehensive way. This paper presents the results of combining multi-receiver electromagnetic induction and stepped-frequency ground penetrating radar to characterize a former garage site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The sensor combination showed the ability to identify and accurately locate building remains and a high-density soil layer, thus demonstrating the high potential to investigate anthropogenic disturbances of physical nature. In addition, a correspondence was found between an area of lower electrical conductivity and elevated concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons, suggesting the potential to detect specific chemical disturbances. We conclude that the sensor combination provides valuable information for preliminary assessment of urban soils.

  1. A GPS Receiver for Lunar Missions

    Bamford, William A.; Heckler, Gregory W.; Holt, Greg N.; Moreau, Michael C.


    Beginning with the launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in October of 2008, NASA will once again begin its quest to land humans on the Moon. This effort will require the development of new spacecraft which will safely transport people from the Earth to the Moon and back again, as well as robotic probes tagged with science, re-supply, and communication duties. In addition to the next-generation spacecraft currently under construction, including the Orion capsule, NASA is also investigating and developing cutting edge navigation sensors which will allow for autonomous state estimation in low Earth orbit (LEO) and cislunar space. Such instruments could provide an extra layer of redundancy in avionics systems and reduce the reliance on support and on the Deep Space Network (DSN). One such sensor is the weak-signal Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver "Navigator" being developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). At the heart of the Navigator is a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based acquisition engine. This engine allows for the rapid acquisition/reacquisition of strong GPS signals, enabling the receiver to quickly recover from outages due to blocked satellites or atmospheric entry. Additionally, the acquisition algorithm provides significantly lower sensitivities than a conventional space-based GPS receiver, permitting it to acquire satellites well above the GPS constellation. This paper assesses the performance of the Navigator receiver based upon three of the major flight regimes of a manned lunar mission: Earth ascent, cislunar navigation, and entry. Representative trajectories for each of these segments were provided by NASA. The Navigator receiver was connected to a Spirent GPS signal generator, to allow for the collection of real-time, hardware-in-the-loop results for each phase of the flight. For each of the flight segments, the Navigator was tested on its ability to acquire and track GPS satellites under the dynamical

  2. Vulcan: A deep-towed CSEM receiver

    Constable, Steven; Kannberg, Peter K.; Weitemeyer, Karen


    We have developed a three-axis electric field receiver designed to be towed behind a marine electromagnetic transmitter for the purpose of mapping the electrical resistivity in the upper 1000 m of seafloor geology. By careful adjustment of buoyancy and the use of real-time monitoring of depth and altitude, we are able to deep-tow multiple receivers on arrays up to 1200 m long within 50 m of the seafloor, thereby obtaining good coupling to geology. The rigid body of the receiver is designed to reduce noise associated with lateral motion of flexible antennas during towing, and allows the measurement of the vertical electric field component, which modeling shows to be particularly sensitive to near-seafloor resistivity variations. The positions and orientations of the receivers are continuously measured, and realistic estimates of positioning errors can be used to build an error model for the data. During a test in the San Diego Trough, offshore California, inversions of the data were able to fit amplitude and phase of horizontal electric fields at three frequencies on three receivers to about 1% in amplitude and 1° in phase and vertical fields to about 5% in amplitude and 5° in phase. The geological target of the tests was a known cold seep and methane vent in 1000 m water depth, which inversions show to be associated with a 1 km wide resistor at a depth between 50 and 150 m below seafloor. Given the high resistivity (30 Ωm) and position within the gas hydrate stability field, we interpret this to be massive methane hydrate.

  3. Social effects of migration in receiving countries.

    Ohndorf, W


    This paper examines the impact of post-1945 migration into Western, Middle, and Northern Europe from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, and migration to the traditional immigration countries by Asian and Latin American immigrants, on the social structures of receiving countries. Between 1955 and 1974, 1) traditional migration to the US and Australia became less important for European countries while traditional receiving countries accepted many immigrants from developing countries; and 2) rapid economic revival in Western and Northern Europe caused a considerable labor shortage which was filled by migrant workers especially from Southern Europe, Turkey, and Northern Africa, who stayed only until they reached their economic goals. Since 1974, job vacancies have declined and unemployment has soared. This employment crisis caused some migrants 1) to return to their countries of origin, 2) to bring the rest of their families to the receiving country, or 3) to lengthen their stay considerably. The number of refugees has also significantly increased since the mid-970s, as has the number of illegal migrants. After the mid-1970s, Europe began to experience integration problems. The different aspects of the impact of migration on social structures include 1) improvement of the housing situation for foreigners, 2) teaching migrants the language of the receiving country, 3) solving the unemployment problem of unskilled migrants, 4) improvement of educational and vocational qualifications of 2nd generation migrants, 5) development of programs to help unemployed wives of migrants to learn the language and meet indigenous women, 6) encouraging migrants to maintain their cultural identity and assisting them with reintegration if they return to their original country, 7) coping with the problems of refugees, and 8) solving the problems of illegal migration. Almost all receiving countries now severely restrict further immigration. [Those policies should result in

  4. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.


    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

  5. Stroke rehabilitation using noninvasive cortical stimulation: hemispatial neglect.

    Mylius, Veit; Ayache, Samar S; Zouari, Hela G; Aoun-Sebaïti, Mehdi; Farhat, Wassim H; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal


    The rehabilitation of neuropsychological sequels of cerebral stroke such as hemispatial neglect by noninvasive cortical stimulation (NICS) attracts increasing attention from the scientific community. The NICS techniques include primarily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). They are based on the concept of either reactivating a hypoactive cortical region affected by the stroke (the right hemisphere in case of neglect) or reducing cortical hyperactivity of the corresponding cortical region in the contralateral hemisphere (the left hemisphere). In the studies published to date on the topic of neglect rehabilitation, rTMS was used to inhibit the left parietal cortex and tDCS to either activate the right or inhibit the left parietal cortex. Sham-controlled NICS studies assessed short-term effects, whereas long-term effects were only assessed in noncontrolled rTMS studies. Further controlled studies of large series of patients are necessary to determine the best parameters of stimulation (including the optimal cortical target location) according to each subtype of neglect presentation and to the time course of stroke recovery. To date, even if there are serious therapeutic perspectives based on imaging data and experimental studies, the evidence is not compelling enough to recommend any particular NICS protocol to treat this disabling condition in clinical practice.

  6. Noninvasive imaging of protein-protein interactions in living animals

    Luker, Gary D.; Sharma, Vijay; Pica, Christina M.; Dahlheimer, Julie L.; Li, Wei; Ochesky, Joseph; Ryan, Christine E.; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Piwnica-Worms, David


    Protein-protein interactions control transcription, cell division, and cell proliferation as well as mediate signal transduction, oncogenic transformation, and regulation of cell death. Although a variety of methods have been used to investigate protein interactions in vitro and in cultured cells, none can analyze these interactions in intact, living animals. To enable noninvasive molecular imaging of protein-protein interactions in vivo by positron-emission tomography and fluorescence imaging, we engineered a fusion reporter gene comprising a mutant herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase and green fluorescent protein for readout of a tetracycline-inducible, two-hybrid system in vivo. By using micro-positron-emission tomography, interactions between p53 tumor suppressor and the large T antigen of simian virus 40 were visualized in tumor xenografts of HeLa cells stably transfected with the imaging constructs. Imaging protein-binding partners in vivo will enable functional proteomics in whole animals and provide a tool for screening compounds targeted to specific protein-protein interactions in living animals.

  7. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Darvin, M.; Richter, H.; Antoniou, C.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.


    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled.

  8. Gold-Speckled Multimodal Nanoparticles for Noninvasive Bioimaging


    In this report the synthesis, characterization, and functional evaluation of a multimodal nanoparticulate contrast agent for noninvasive imaging through both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is presented. The nanoparticles described herein enable high resolution and highly sensitive three-dimensional diagnostic imaging through the synergistic coupling of MRI and PAT capabilities. Gadolinium (Gd)-doped gold-speckled silica (GSS) nanoparticles, ranging from 50 to 200 nm, have been prepared in a simple one-pot synthesis using nonionic microemulsions. The photoacoustic signal is generated from a nonuniform, discontinuous gold nanodomains speckled across the silica surface, whereas the MR contrast is provided through Gd incorporated in the silica matrix. The presence of a discontinuous speckled surface, as opposed to a continuous gold shell, allows sufficient bulk water exchange with the Gd ions to generate a strong MR contrast. The dual imaging capabilities of the particles have been demonstrated through in silicio and in vitro methods. The described particles also have the capacity for therapeutic applications including the thermal ablation of tumors through the absorption of irradiated light. PMID:19466201

  9. Non-invasive imaging of microcirculation: a technology review

    Eriksson S


    Full Text Available Sam Eriksson,1,2 Jan Nilsson,1,2 Christian Sturesson1,2 1Department of Surgery, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, 2Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden Abstract: Microcirculation plays a crucial role in physiological processes of tissue oxygenation and nutritional exchange. Measurement of microcirculation can be applied on many organs in various pathologies. In this paper we aim to review the technique of non-invasive methods for imaging of the microcirculation. Methods covered are: videomicroscopy techniques, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and laser speckle contrast imaging. Videomicroscopy techniques, such as orthogonal polarization spectral imaging and sidestream dark-field imaging, provide a plentitude of information and offer direct visualization of the microcirculation but have the major drawback that they may give pressure artifacts. Both laser Doppler perfusion imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging allow non-contact measurements but have the disadvantage of their sensitivity to motion artifacts and that they are confined to relative measurement comparisons. Ideal would be a non-contact videomicroscopy method with fully automatic analysis software. Keywords: laser speckle contrast imaging, sidestream dark-field, orthogonal polarization spectral imaging, laser Dopplerimaging

  10. Mucositis and non-invasive markers of small intestinal function.

    Tooley, Katie L; Howarth, Gordon S; Butler, Ross N


    Mucositis is a common and debilitating side effect of chemotherapy that manifests due to the inability of chemotherapy agents to discriminate between normal and neoplastic cells. This results in ulcerating lesions lining the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, the development of efficacious treatments for small intestinal mucositis has been hindered as the pathobiology of mucositis is still not fully understood. The small intestine is an extensive organ which is largely inaccessible by conventional means. Non-invasive biomarkers such as small intestinal permeability, H(2) breath tests, serum citrulline tests and the (13)C-sucrose breath test (SBT) have emerged as potential markers of small intestinal function. The SBT is emerging as the more appropriate biomarker to assess chemotherapy-induced mucositis in cancer patients and animal models, where it measures the decrease in sucrase activity associated with villus blunting and crypt disruption. The SBT has been successfully applied to detect mucositis induced by different classes of chemotherapy agents and has been used successfully to monitor small intestinal function with a range of candidate anti-mucositis treatments. We propose the SBT a superior biomarker of small intestinal function that could be successfully applied in clinical practice for monitoring the development of mucositis in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  11. Noninvasive Identification of Ischemic Lesion in the Heart

    Milan Tysler


    Full Text Available A method for noninvasive identification of heart lesions with changed repolarization caused by local ischemia was proposed and tested on a model and on a group of patients. It evaluates changes in QRST integral maps measured on a chest surface of known geometry and computes an equivalent dipole representing the position, size and orientation of the lesion. Testing on a computer model indicated ability of the method to localize small  subendocardial and subepicardial lesions with an error less about 1 cm. From 11 patients with single vessel stenosis mapped before and after the percutaneous cardiac intervention, differences in QRST integral maps could be represented by a dipole in 8 patients. 6 LAD and 1 RCA lesion were identified successfully, localization of 1 RCA lesion failed. Results of the study suggest that difference QRST integral maps can help in identification of small ischemic regions on the epicardial or endocardial surface by estimating parameters of an equivalent dipole characterizing the lesion

  12. Evaluating noninvasive genetic sampling techniques to estimate large carnivore abundance.

    Mumma, Matthew A; Zieminski, Chris; Fuller, Todd K; Mahoney, Shane P; Waits, Lisette P


    Monitoring large carnivores is difficult because of intrinsically low densities and can be dangerous if physical capture is required. Noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) is a safe and cost-effective alternative to physical capture. We evaluated the utility of two NGS methods (scat detection dogs and hair sampling) to obtain genetic samples for abundance estimation of coyotes, black bears and Canada lynx in three areas of Newfoundland, Canada. We calculated abundance estimates using program capwire, compared sampling costs, and the cost/sample for each method relative to species and study site, and performed simulations to determine the sampling intensity necessary to achieve abundance estimates with coefficients of variation (CV) of sampling was effective for both coyotes and bears and hair snags effectively sampled bears in two of three study sites. Rub pads were ineffective in sampling coyotes and lynx. The precision of abundance estimates was dependent upon the number of captures/individual. Our simulations suggested that ~3.4 captures/individual will result in a sampling was more cost-effective for sampling multiple species, but suggest that hair sampling may be less expensive at study sites with limited road access for bears. Given the dependence of sampling scheme on species and study site, the optimal sampling scheme is likely to be study-specific warranting pilot studies in most circumstances. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Noninvasive in vivo glucose sensing using an iris based technique

    Webb, Anthony J.; Cameron, Brent D.


    Physiological glucose monitoring is important aspect in the treatment of individuals afflicted with diabetes mellitus. Although invasive techniques for glucose monitoring are widely available, it would be very beneficial to make such measurements in a noninvasive manner. In this study, a New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit animal model was utilized to evaluate a developed iris-based imaging technique for the in vivo measurement of physiological glucose concentration. The animals were anesthetized with isoflurane and an insulin/dextrose protocol was used to control blood glucose concentration. To further help restrict eye movement, a developed ocular fixation device was used. During the experimental time frame, near infrared illuminated iris images were acquired along with corresponding discrete blood glucose measurements taken with a handheld glucometer. Calibration was performed using an image based Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique. Independent validation was also performed to assess model performance along with Clarke Error Grid Analysis (CEGA). Initial validation results were promising and show that a high percentage of the predicted glucose concentrations are within 20% of the reference values.

  14. Noninvasive pulsatile flow estimation for an implantable rotary blood pump.

    Karantonis, Dean M; Cloherty, Shaun L; Mason, David G; Ayre, Peter J; Lovell, Nigel H


    A noninvasive approach to the task of pulsatile flow estimation in an implantable rotary blood pump (iRBP) has been proposed. Employing six fluid solutions representing a range of viscosities equivalent to 20-50% blood hematocrit (HCT), pulsatile flow data was acquired from an in vitro mock circulatory loop. The entire operating range of the pump was examined, including flows from -2 to 12 L/min. Taking the pump feedback signals of speed and power, together with the HCT level, as input parameters, several flow estimate models were developed via system identification methods. Three autoregressive with exogenous input (ARX) model structures were evaluated: structures I and II used the input parameters directly; structure II incorporated additional terms for HCT; and the third structure employed as input a non-pulsatile flow estimate equation. Optimal model orders were determined, and the associated models yielded minimum mean flow errors of 5.49% and 0.258 L/min for structure II, and 5.77% and 0.270 L/min for structure III, when validated on unseen data. The models developed in this study present a practical method of accurately estimating iRBP flow in a pulsatile environment.

  15. Noninvasive thermometry with a clinical x-ray CT scanner

    Fallone, B.G.; Moran, P.R.; Podgorsak, E.B.


    A CT scanner yields CT numbers which are proportional to the fractional difference in effective local electron density of the subject material with respect to that of calibration material. A homogeneous water-equivalent material is used as a calibration phantom under isothermal conditions. Any temperature variation (spatial or temporal) in the subject material subsequently scanned, will generate a CT-number shift in the CT image because of density changes due to thermal expansion. The potential use of the thermally generated CT-number shift in noninvasive thermometry during cancer hyperthermia was studied in vitro in samples of water and muscle tissue. The reproducibility of the area-averaged CT-number measurement on our EMI-7070 scanner was found to depend strongly on the time interval between successive counterclockwise scans and on the size of the region of interest used for area averaging. A linear relationship was found between the CT number and water density in the water temperature range from 10 to 55 /sup 0/C. In the hyperthermia temperature range (36--50 /sup 0/C), the relationship between the CT number and temperature itself is linear, with a CT-number thermal shift of about 0.4 and 0.45 HU//sup 0/C for water and muscle tissue, respectively. The achievable temperature discrimination is a fraction of /sup 0/C at spatial resolutions of the order of a centimeter.

  16. Noninvasive dosimetry and monitoring of TTT using spectral imaging

    Schuele, G.; Molnar, F. E.; Yellachich, D.; Vitkin, E.; Perelman, L. T.; Palanker, D.


    Transpupillary thermo therapy (TTT) is a slow (60 seconds) photothermal treatment of the fundus with a near-infrared (780-810nm) laser irradiating a large spot (0.5- 1. mm) on the retina. Due to high variability in ocular tissue properties and the lack of immediately observable outcome of the therapy, a real-time dosimetry is highly desirable. We found that fundus spectroscopy and spectrally-resolved imaging allow for non-invasive real-time monitoring and dosimetry of TTT. A 795nm laser was applied in rabbit eyes for 60 seconds using a 0.86mm retinal spot diameter. The fundus was illuminated with a broadband polarized light, and its reflectance spectra were measured in parallel and cross-polarizations. The fundus was also imaged in selected spectral domains. At irradiances that do not create ophthalmoscopically visible lesions the fundus reflectance increases at the wavelengths corresponding to absorption of the oxygenated blood indicating the reduced concentration of blood in the choroid. Vasoconstrictive response of the choroidal and retinal vasculature during TTT was also directly observed using spectrally-resolved imaging. At irradiances that produce ophthalmoscopically visible lesions a rapid reduction of the fundus reflectance was observed within the first 5-10 seconds of the exposure even when the visible lesions developed only by the end of the 60 second exposure. No visible lesions were produced where the laser was terminated after detection of the reduced scattering but prior to appearance of the enhanced scattering.

  17. Non-invasive system for monitoring of the manufacturing equipment

    Mazăre, A. G.; Belu, N.; Ionescu, L. M.; Rachieru, N.; Misztal, A.


    The automotive industry is one of the most important industries in the world that concerns the economy and the world culture. High demand has resulted in increasing of the pressure on the production lines. In conclusion, it is required more careful in monitoring of the production equipment not only for maintenance but also for staff safety and to increase the quality of production. In this paper, we propose a solution for non-invasive monitoring of the industrial equipment operation by measuring the current consumption on energy supply lines. Thus, it is determined the utilization schedule of the equipment and operation mode. Based on these measurements, it’s built an activity report for that equipment, available to the quality management and maintenance team. The solution consists of the current measuring equipment, with self-harvesting capabilities and radio transceiver, and an embedded system which run a server. The current measuring equipment will transmit data about consumption of each energy supply network line where is placed the industrial equipment. So, we have an internal measuring radio network. The embedded system will collect data for the equipment and put in a local data base and it will provide via an intranet application. The entire system not requires any supplementary energy supply and interventions in the factory infrastructure. It is experimented in a company from the automotive industries.

  18. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in acute asthmatic attack

    A. Soroksky


    Full Text Available Asthma is characterised by reversible airway obstruction. In most patients, control of disease activity is easily achieved. However, in a small minority, asthma may be fatal. Between the two extremes lie patients with severe asthmatic attacks, refractory to standard treatment. These patients are at an increased risk of recurrent severe attacks, with respiratory failure, and mechanical ventilation. Invasive mechanical ventilation of the asthmatic patient is associated with a higher risk of complications and, therefore, is a measure of last resort. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV is another treatment modality that may be beneficial in patients with severe asthmatic attack who are at an increased risk of developing respiratory failure. These patients have the potential to benefit from early respiratory support in the form of NPPV. However, reports of NPPV in asthmatic patients are scarce, and its usage in asthmatic attacks is, therefore, still controversial. Only a few reports of NPPV in asthma have been published over the last decade. These studies mostly involve small numbers of patients and those who have problematic methodology. In this article we review the available evidence for NPPV in asthma and try to formulate our recommendations for NPPV application in asthma based on the available evidence and reports.

  19. Ipsilateral motor pathways after stroke: implications for noninvasive brain stimulation

    Lynley V Bradnam


    Full Text Available In humans the two cerebral hemispheres have essential roles in controlling the upper limb. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the potential importance of ipsilateral descending pathways for functional recovery after stroke, and the use of noninvasive brain stimulation (NBS protocols of the contralesional primary motor cortex (M1. Conventionally NBS is used to suppress contralesional M1, and to attenuate transcallosal inhibition onto the ipsilesional M1. There has been little consideration of the fact that contralesional M1 suppression may also reduce excitability of ipsilateral descending pathways that may be important for paretic upper limb control for some patients. One such ipsilateral pathway is the cortico-reticulo-propriospinal pathway (CRPP. In this review we outline a neurophysiological model to explain how contralesional M1 may gain control of the paretic arm via the CRPP. We conclude that the relative importance of the CRPP for motor control in individual patients must be considered before using NBS to suppress contralesional M1. Neurophysiological, neuroimaging and clinical assessments can assist this decision making and facilitate the translation of NBS into the clinical setting.

  20. Noninvasive Temperature Measurement Based on Microwave Temperature Sensor

    Shoucheng Ding


    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the noninvasive temperature measurement based on microwave temperature sensor. Moreover, in order to solve the surface temperature measurement for designing microwave temperature sensor, the microwave was issued by the transmitting antenna. Microwave encountered by the measured object to return back to the measured object and then convert it into electrical signals, the use of the quantitative relationship between this signal and input noise temperature to real-time calibration. In order to calculate the antenna brightness temperature and then after signal conditioning circuit, which can show the temperature value, in order to achieve the detection of microwave temperature. Microwave-temperature measurement system hardware based on 89C51 microcontroller consists of the microwave temperature sensor, signal conditioning circuitry and chip control circuit, AD converter circuit and display circuit. The system software is by the main program, the AD conversion routines, subroutines and delay subprogram. The microwave temperature measurement characterize has: without gain fluctuations, without the impact of changes in the noise of the machine, to provide continuous calibration, wide dynamic range.