Task scheduling is a key problem for the distributed computation. This thesis analyzes receiver-initiated(RI) task scheduling algorithm, finds its weakness and presents an improved algorithm-PRI algorithm. This algorithm schedules the concurrent tasks onto network of workstation dynamically at runtime, and initiates task scheduling by the node of low load. The threshold on each node can be modified according to the system information which is periodically detected. Meanwhile, the detecting period can be adjusted in terms of the change of the system state. The result of the experiments shows that the PRI algorithm is superior to the RI algorithm.
Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension ability of Iranian English language learners receiving reciprocal teaching and cooperative grouping intervention program. To this aim, 80 students participated in the vocabulary test as the pre-test and they were asked to fill out the questionnaire. Then, they were distributed in four groups. Control groups (A & B received the typical instruction of reading comprehension. On the other hand, experimental groups (A & B received the intervention program. At the end of the course, all the students took part in the vocabulary test as the post-test and they were also asked to fill out the questionnaire provided for them after the post-test. The results were analyzed by the use of a series of independent –sample t-tests and MANOVA. It was found out there was relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the level of motivation in reading comprehension skill of Iranian EFL learner.
Morteza Abdar Esfahani
Full Text Available Background: Methadone is a synthetic opioid, used in treatment of chronic pains. The current study was carried out to evaluate the QTc interval in Iranian causalities (Janbazan of Iran-Iraq war receiving maintenance methadone treatment. Materials and Methods: In 2010, one hundred war causalities in Isfahan who chronically take daily dose of 20 mg or more of methadone (more than 2 weeks, and did not have the history of cerebrovascular or coronary artery diseases, cardiac pacemaker, congenital prolonged QTC, or taking drugs affecting QTc, or having electrolyte abnormalities, were selected for the study. An electrocardiogram was taken from each patient using cardiofax instrument, and QTC was calculated manually. The data was analyzed using SPSS software with descriptive statistical methods and Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Findings: All patients were male and had the mean age of 45.6 6.1 years. The patients received 20-240 mg methadone daily for 1 to 108 months. The QTc was prolonged in 25% of the patients (QTc 5 450 ms, with the mean of 472.72 18.5 ms (range 450-508 ms and the mean daily dose of methadone 85.2 59.0 mg. No significant relationship was observed between QTC interval on the one hand, and methadone dose (R = 0.025, P = 0.8, duration of treatment (R =-0.048, P = 0.68, age (R = 0.037, P = 0.71, and weight (R = 0.1, P = 0.21 of the patients, on the other hand. None of the patients had faint, syncope, arrhythmia, or sudden death. Conclusion: Oral methadone causes prolongation of QTC interval. However, the dosage of methadone and duration of treatment were not statistically related to QTC interval.
Fafoutis, Xenofon; Orfanidis, Charalampos; Dragoni, Nicola
In receiver-initiated medium access control (MAC) protocols for wireless sensor networks, communication is initiated by the receiver node which transmits beacons indicating its availability to receive data. In the case of multiple senders having traffic for a given receiver, such beacons form...... points where collisions are likely to happen. In this paper, we present altruistic backoff (AB), a novel collision avoidance mechanism that aims to avoid collisions before the transmission of a beacon. As a result of an early backoff, senders spend less time in idle listening waiting for a beacon, thus...
Di Mauro, Alessio; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander
In receiver-initiated MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), communication is initiated by the receiver of the data through beacons containing the receiver's identity. In this paper, we consider the case of a network intruder that captures and replays such beacons towards legitimate...... nodes, pretending to have a fake identity within the network. To prevent this attack we propose RAP, a challenge-response authentication protocol that is able to detect and prevent the beacon replay attack. The effectiveness of the protocol is formally verified using OFMC and ProVerif. Furthermore, we...
Full Text Available Background: Sufficient level of physical activity may promote overall and mental health of old people. This study was carried out to investigate the practicability of a physical activity promotion initiative amongst institutionalized older people in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: Purposive sampling method was used in this semi-experimental study to recruit 31 older people living in a selected residential care in Tabriz. Moderate-intensity aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity was planned for those who had not severe baseline cognitive impairment or were not too frail to undertake the survey. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used to measure mental health status before and after intervention through a face-to-face interview. Descriptive statistics, Wilkcoxon rank-sum, Mann–Whitney U and Chi-Square tests were employed to analyses the data. Results: The applied intervention was significantly improved status of physical health, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression. Conclusion: Incorporation of physical activity promotion programs into routines of older people residential care homes in Iran is feasible but may need training of physical activity specialists to work with older people based on their physical endurance and limitations.
Palo, Scott; Vaudrin, Cody
Defined by a minimal RF front-end followed by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and con-trolled by a reconfigurable logic device (FPGA), the digital receiver will replace conventional heterodyning analog receivers currently in use by the COBRA meteor radar. A basic hardware overview touches on the major digital receiver components, theory of operation and data han-dling strategies. We address concerns within the community regarding the implementation of digital receivers in small-scale scientific radars, and outline the numerous benefits with a focus on reconfigurability. From a remote sensing viewpoint, having complete visibility into a band of the EM spectrum allows an experiment designer to focus on parameter estimation rather than hardware limitations. Finally, we show some basic multistatic receiver configurations enabled through GPS time synchronization. Currently, the digital receiver is configured to facilitate range and radial velocity determination of meteors in the MLT region for use with the COBRA meteor radar. Initial measurements from data acquired at Platteville, Colorado and Tierra Del Fuego in Argentina will be presented. We show an improvement in detection rates compared to conventional analog systems. Scientific justification for a digital receiver is clearly made by the presentation of RTI plots created using data acquired from the receiver. These plots reveal an interesting phenomenon concerning vacillating power structures in a select number of meteor trails.
Fafoutis, Xenofon; Di Mauro, Alessio; Vithanage, Madava D.
is to provide a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the fundamentals of the receiver-initiated paradigm, providing newcomers with a quick-start guide on the state of the art of this field and a palette of options, essential for implementing applications or designing new protocols....
Abbasi, Mahmoud; Pirouz, Amir Samavati
The physician's acquittal has obsessed Iranian legislator's mind to a large extent. This is exclusively observed in Iranian statuses and specifically in Shi'ite school of though. Muslim jurists' opinions play a very important role in enacting legal articles related to it. After reviewing the literature, the authors tried to pick and collect common features of physician's responsibilities and duties to introduce Iranian Acts with respect to the subject. Also, Iranian Acts are analyzed and the challenging medical topics such as emergency situations and infectious diseases are discussed.Iranian legislator didn't specify a kind of physician's acquittal which received from the patient knowingly and is based on his/her free will. There are also some medical and legal gaps. Patients are not often informed of all exact and scientific information and results of their treatments. Furthermore, the forms prepared to receive the patient's consent do not provide what Iranian legislator meant.
Lee, Jae-Won; Cho, Ho-Shin
In this paper, we propose a method for sharing the handshakes of control packets among multiple nodes, which we call a hybrid sender- and receiver-initiated (HSR) protocol scheme. Handshake-sharing can be achieved by inviting neighbors to join the current handshake and by allowing them to send their data packets without requiring extra handshakes. Thus, HSR can reduce the signaling overhead involved in control packet exchanges during handshakes, as well as resolve the spatial unfairness problem between nodes. From an operational perspective, HSR resembles the well-known handshake-sharing scheme referred to as the medium access control (MAC) protocol using reverse opportunistic packet appending (ROPA). However, in ROPA the waiting time is not controllable for the receiver's neighbors and thus unexpected collisions may occur at the receiver due to hidden neighbors, whereas the proposed scheme allows all nodes to avoid hidden-node-induced collisions according to an elaborately calculated waiting time. Our computer simulations demonstrated that HSR outperforms ROPA with respect to both the throughput and delay by around 9.65% and 11.36%, respectively.
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method for sharing the handshakes of control packets among multiple nodes, which we call a hybrid sender- and receiver-initiated (HSR protocol scheme. Handshake-sharing can be achieved by inviting neighbors to join the current handshake and by allowing them to send their data packets without requiring extra handshakes. Thus, HSR can reduce the signaling overhead involved in control packet exchanges during handshakes, as well as resolve the spatial unfairness problem between nodes. From an operational perspective, HSR resembles the well-known handshake-sharing scheme referred to as the medium access control (MAC protocol using reverse opportunistic packet appending (ROPA. However, in ROPA the waiting time is not controllable for the receiver’s neighbors and thus unexpected collisions may occur at the receiver due to hidden neighbors, whereas the proposed scheme allows all nodes to avoid hidden-node-induced collisions according to an elaborately calculated waiting time. Our computer simulations demonstrated that HSR outperforms ROPA with respect to both the throughput and delay by around 9.65% and 11.36%, respectively.
Nolin, Thomas D; Aronoff, George R; Fissell, William H; Jain, Lokesh; Madabushi, Rajnikanth; Reynolds, Kellie; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew Mei; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Flessner, Michael F; Leypoldt, John K; Witcher, Jennifer W; Zineh, Issam; Archdeacon, Patrick; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Goldstein, Stuart L
The effect of AKI and modern continuous RRT (CRRT) methods on drug disposition (pharmacokinetics) and response has been poorly studied. Pharmaceutical manufacturers have little incentive to perform pharmacokinetic studies in patients undergoing CRRT because such studies are neither recommended in existing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance documents nor required for new drug approval. Action is urgently needed to address the knowledge deficit. The Kidney Health Initiative has assembled a work group composed of clinicians and scientists representing academia, the FDA, and the pharmaceutical and dialysis industries with expertise related to pharmacokinetics, AKI, and/or CRRT. The work group critically evaluated key considerations in the assessment of pharmacokinetics and drug dosing in CRRT, practical constraints related to conducting pharmacokinetic studies in critically ill patients, and the generalizability of observations made in the context of specific CRRT prescriptions and specific patient populations in order to identify efficient study designs capable of addressing the knowledge deficit without impeding drug development. Considerations for the standardized assessment of pharmacokinetics and development of corresponding drug dosing recommendations in critically ill patients with AKI receiving CRRT are proposed. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the association between the beliefs of a group of adult, male prisoners in Iran about the transmission of HIV and their high-risk practices while in prison. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004. The study population was a random selection of 100 men incarcerated at Rajaei-Shahr prison. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group discussions were held at the prison to guide the design of the questionnaire. The relationship between components of the Health Belief Model (HBM and prisoners' risky HIV-related behaviors was examined. Results Calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, a significant, positive association was found between the benefit component of the HBM and prisoners not engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors. Conclusion Educational harm reduction initiatives that promote the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission may decrease prisoners' high-risk behaviors. This finding provides initial support for the Iran prison system's current offering of HIV/AIDS harm reduction programming and suggests the need to offer increased education about the effectiveness of HIV prevention practices.
Eshrati, Babak; Asl, Rahim Taghizadeh; Dell, Colleen Anne; Afshar, Parviz; Millson, Peggy Margaret E; Kamali, Mohammad; Weekes, John
Harm reduction is a health-centred approach that seeks to reduce the health and social harms associated with high-risk behaviors, such as illicit drug use. The objective of this study is to determine the association between the beliefs of a group of adult, male prisoners in Iran about the transmission of HIV and their high-risk practices while in prison. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2004. The study population was a random selection of 100 men incarcerated at Rajaei-Shahr prison. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Focus group discussions were held at the prison to guide the design of the questionnaire. The relationship between components of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and prisoners' risky HIV-related behaviors was examined. Calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient, a significant, positive association was found between the benefit component of the HBM and prisoners not engaging in HIV high-risk behaviors. Educational harm reduction initiatives that promote the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce the risk of HIV transmission may decrease prisoners' high-risk behaviors. This finding provides initial support for the Iran prison system's current offering of HIV/AIDS harm reduction programming and suggests the need to offer increased education about the effectiveness of HIV prevention practices.
Lambert, Lisa Schurer; Tepper, Bennett J; Carr, Jon C; Holt, Daniel T; Barelka, Alex J
We examined the effects of fit between leader consideration and initiating structure needed and received on employees' work-related attitudes (i.e., trust in the supervisor, job satisfaction, and affective commitment to the organization). Consistent with predictions that derive from the person-environment fit research tradition, results from Study 1 suggested that deficient amounts of both leadership behaviors were associated with unfavorable attitudinal outcomes. However, while excess levels of consideration were associated with favorable attitudinal outcomes, excess levels of initiating structure were associated with unfavorable attitudes, and for both forms of leadership, higher levels of absolute fit were associated with more favorable outcomes. Results from Study 2 suggested that attitudes generated by the fit between leadership needed and received influence employees' organizational citizenship behavior as reported by their supervisors. The relationship between consideration needed and received and subordinates' organizational citizenship behavior relating to individuals (OCBI) and organizational citizenship behavior relating to the organization itself (OCBO) was partially mediated by employees' trust in the supervisor, while the relationship between initiating structure needed and received and OCBI was fully mediated by trust in the supervisor, and for OCBO was partially mediated.
Nolin, Thomas D.; Aronoff, George R.; Fissell, William H.; Jain, Lokesh; Madabushi, Rajnikanth; Reynolds, Kellie; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew Mei; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Flessner, Michael F.; Leypoldt, John K.; Witcher, Jennifer W.; Zineh, Issam; Archdeacon, Patrick; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir
The effect of AKI and modern continuous RRT (CRRT) methods on drug disposition (pharmacokinetics) and response has been poorly studied. Pharmaceutical manufacturers have little incentive to perform pharmacokinetic studies in patients undergoing CRRT because such studies are neither recommended in existing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance documents nor required for new drug approval. Action is urgently needed to address the knowledge deficit. The Kidney Health Initiative has asse...
Full Text Available This study investigates the Web Impact Factors (WIFs for Iranian universities and introduces a new system of measurement. Counts of links to the web sites of Iranian universities were calculated from the output of AltaVista search engine. The WIFs for Iranian universities were calculated by dividing link page counts by the number of pages found in AltaVista for each university at a given point in time. These WIFs were then compared, to study the impact, visibility, and influence of Iranian university web sites. Overall, Iranian university web sites have a low inlink WIF. While specific features of sites may affect an institution's Web Impact Factor, there is a significant correlation between the proportion of English-language pages at an institution's site and the institution's backlink counts. This indicates that for linguistic reasons, Iranian (Persian-language web sites may not receive and attract the attention that they deserve from the World Wide Web. This raises the possibility that information may be ignored due to linguistic and geographic barriers, and this should be taken into account in the development of the global Web.
Iranian legislator didn′t specify a kind of physician′s acquittal which received from the patient knowingly and is based on his/her free will. There are also some medical and legal gaps. Patients are not often informed of all exact and scientific information and results of their treatments. Furthermore, the forms prepared to receive the patient′s consent do not provide what Iranian legislator meant.
Full Text Available Hepatitis Monthly issue 7 contained four clinical trials of pegylated interferon (Peg- IFN plus ribavirin for Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis C infection conducted in four various centers(1-4. Apart from one trial(2, which enrolled only patients with inherited bleeding disorders, three others enrolled heterogeneous HCV infected populations. However, reported sustained virologic response (SVR rate was varied from 50% to 78% in these studies. This wide SVR range might make difficulties for the readers to gain clear data regarding efficacy of this therapeutic regimen on Iranian patients.Almost analogous inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as the details of these four studies allow us to intervene and join the cases and reanalyze the datafrom a single pool. However, the slight differences among these studies will obviously diminish the accuracy and make us discuss the results conservatively. For instance, in the study by Merat et al. none of the patients underwent liver biopsy(2 or Zali et al. excluded cirrhotic patients from the study(4. Moreover, the sensitivities of RT-PCR tests applied to define response to treatment were varied from 100 copies/ml to 600 copies/ml in various studies. In spite of these inevitable biases, our intervention is able to provide useful information.To analyze the data, we applied intention to treat analysis (ITT. ITT analysis is generally interpreted as including all patients who received at least one dose of medication(s, regardless of whether they actually satisfied the entry criteria, the treatment actually received, and subsequent withdrawal or deviation from the protocol(5. Therefore, all patients who do not complete the study are considered to have failure to treatment. It is a strategy to avoid the problems created by omitting dropouts and noncompliant patients, which can introduce bias in the trial, and overestimate clinical effectiveness. Although there is a debate about the validity of excluding
Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aims to investigate the international status and visibility of Iranian journals which have been indexed in Journal Citation Reports (JCR. Accordingly, the number of international papers, citations and editorial board members of each journal was studied. Moreover, various measures were utilized to compare the quality of Iranian journals with their international counterparts. Method: Current paper applied scientometric research method. A total of 16471 papers which published in 38 Iranian journals and indexed by the JCR 2013 were selected as the population of the study. Web of Science (WoS, JCR and journals’ website were used for data gathering. Results: Results of the study revealed that foreign researchers have published 34.8% of papers published in Iranian ISI journals. Moreover, only 30.6% of citations to Iranian ISI journals have been received from foreign papers or Iranian internationally collaborative papers. The results showed that Iranian researchers accounted for 66.4% of editorial board member of all studied journals, while foreign researchers only occupied 33.6% of the editorial board positions. Based on the findings, only two Iranian journals have impact factors above the median of the journals in the disciplinary category areas in which they are classified in JCR. Furthermore, only 8 Iranian journals have ever been placed in the 1st and 2nd quartile of journals of the same field in the JCR. Findings also showed that 36 out of the 38 Iranian journals have mostly cited by journals with higher median impact factors than cited journals. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the share of international papers, citations and editorial board memberships is low in Iranian ISI journals. Moreover, Iranian journals’ impact factor was below of those of the leading journals.
Izadi, Dina; Seiedfadaei, Azita
Women in the world have made great contributions to science. In Iran more than 60% of undergraduate university students are women, most in physics. Women's representation in postgraduate studies is lower; however, these numbers do not account for those who go to other countries to continue their studies, of which there are many. Alinoush Tarian, the oldest woman professor in Iran, the first Iranian woman professor of physics, and the founder of the first solar telescopic observatory in Iran, is one of them. There are some women physicists in Iran that are working as professors at the universities and famous institutes such as the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics. Iranians have always showed their talents and intelligence everywhere in the world, and nowadays, some of the women physics teachers in Iran are trying to teach physics with new methods to attract more students.
Alsulami, Mohammed S.H.
The study addresses and explains the issue of negative descriptions of the Arab Other in modern Iranian thought. It attempts to understand and illustrate what the notion of the Arab means for Iranians and how Arabs are portrayed and by examining how they depicted, It describes why they depicted in m
The frosty relationship between the United States and Iran has created a chill in many areas of scholarly endeavor. One resulting battle, over whether Iranian scholars can belong to the American Chemical Society, has been largely resolved. But a new imbroglio looms with the arrest of a prominent U.S.-Iranian scholar who was visiting Tehran. The…
Full Text Available Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is prevalent in people at high meat-product consumption. To study the effect of consuming different Pâté and Frankfurter formulations on clinical/emergent CVD biomarkers in male volunteers with different initial LDL-cholesterol levels (< and ³ 3.36 mmol/L. Method: Eighteen male volunteers with at least two CVD risk factors were enrolled in a crossover controlled study. Pork-products were consumed during 4wk: reduced-fat (RF, omega-3-enriched-RF (n-3RF, and normal-fat (NF. Pork-products were separated by 4wk washout. Lipids, lipoproteins, oxidized LDL (oxLDL, apolipoproteins (apo and their ratios, homocysteine (tHcys, arylesterase (AE, C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrotic factor (TNFa were tested. Results: The rate of change for AE, oxLDL, Lp(a, AE/HDL-cholesterol, LDL/apo B and AE/oxLDL ratios varied (p<0.05 among periods only in volunteers with LDLcholesterol ³3.36 mmol/L. TNFa decreased (p<0.05 among volunteers with low-normal LDL-cholesterol values while AE increased (p<0.01 in high LDL-cholesterol volunteers during the RF-period. AE increased while CRP decreased (both p<0.01 in low-normal LDL-cholesterol volunteers while AE (p<0.001 and apo B (p<0.01 increased in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the n-3RF-period. Total cholesterol (p<0.05 increased in the low/normal LDL-cholesterol group while tHcys decreased (p<0.05 in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the NF-period. Differences in response in volunteers with low-normal vs. high initial LDL-cholesterol levels to the n-3RF but not to the RF meat-products seem evident. Conclusions: Subjects with high LDL-cholesterol seem target for n-3RF products while subjects with LDL-cholesterol <3.36 mmol/L were more negatively affected by NF-products. Any generalization about functional meat product or consumption should be avoided.
Cathcart, Chundra Aroor
This dissertation investigates the forces at work in the formation of a tightly knit but ultimately non-genetic dialect group. The Iranian languages, a genetic sub-branch of the larger Indo-European language family, are a group whose development has been profoundly affected by millennia of internal contact. This work is concerned with aspects of the diversification and disparification (i.e., the development of different versus near-identical features across languages) of this group of languag...
Kumar, Shaji K; Uno, Hajime; Jacobus, Susanna J; Van Wier, Scott A; Ahmann, Greg J; Henderson, Kimberly J; Callander, Natalie S; Haug, Jessica L; Siegel, David S; Greipp, Philip R; Fonseca, Rafael; Rajkumar, S Vincent
Detection of specific chromosomal abnormalities by FISH and metaphase cytogenetics allows risk stratification in multiple myeloma; however, gene expression profiling (GEP) based signatures may enable more specific risk categorization. We examined the utility of 2 GEP-based risk stratification systems among patients undergoing initial therapy with lenalidomide in the context of a phase 3 trial. Among 45 patients studied at baseline, 7 (16%) and 10 (22%), respectively, were high-risk using the GEP70 and GEP15 signatures. The median overall survival for the GEP70 high-risk group was 19 months versus not reached for the rest (hazard ratio = 14.1). Although the medians were not reached, the GEP15 also predicted a poor outcome among the high-risk patients. The C-statistic for the GEP70, GEP15, and FISH based risk stratification systems was 0.74, 0.7, and 0.7, respectively. Here we demonstrate the prognostic value for GEP risk stratification in a group of patients primarily treated with novel agents. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00098475.
The present study attempted to investigate the status of pragmatics among Iranian EFL learners. Status of pragmatics was analyzed in terms of the amount of pragmatic knowledge EFL learners believed to have and the amount of pragmatic knowledge they believed to receive from teachers, classmates, course books, and exams. Additionally, attempts were…
Full Text Available This paper reports trichotillomania in eight Iranian children (7 girls and 1 boy .It is rarely seen in children and adolescents. Although some subjects are psychiatrically normal, but some suffer from depressive disorder, neurosis, or personality problems. Separation from key figure, denial of femininity/and inadequate mother-child relationship play important roles either in the etiology of trichotillomania or psychiatric disorders. Finally therapeutic interventi.ons according to the cultural factors were mentioned. Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry, Tehran Univer sity. Formerly, chief, Child Psychiatric Dept. Roozbeh Hospital Teheran University, Medical School.
Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218 and Turkish (N=142 high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (α= .758 was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.
Paige, Shari; Hatfield, Elaine; Liang, Lu
Recent political events in the United States have created a political climate that promotes prejudice against Middle Eastern, Iranian, and Muslim people. In this study, we were interested in investigating two questions: (1) How welcome do Iranian-American men and women from various religious backgrounds (Muslim, Jewish, or no religious affiliation) feel in their new homeland (specifically, how much social distance (affective distance) do they think their Euro-American neighbors feel toward them? and (2) to what extent does the possession of stereotypical Middle Eastern, Iranian, or Muslim traits (an accent, darker skin, wearing of religious symbols, traditional garb, etc.) spark prejudice and thus Iranian-Americans perception of social distance? Participants were recruited from two very different sources: (1) shoppers at grocery stores in Iranian-American neighborhoods in Los Angeles, and (2) a survey posted on http://Surveymonkey.com. A total of 374 Iranian-Americans, ages 18 and older, completed an in-person or online questionnaire that included the following: a request for demographic information, religious preferences, a survey of how typically Iranian-American the respondents' traits were, and the social distance scale. A surprise was that it was the Iranian-American Jews (not the Muslims), who felt most keenly that Euro-Americans kept them at a distance. Jewish women received higher scores on the social distance scale than did members of any other group. In addition, again, it was mainly Iranian-American Jews, particularly those who spoke with a Middle Eastern accent or wore stereotypically religious symbols, who felt the most social distance existing between them and "typical" Americans.
Full Text Available In asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL, the available bandwidth is divided in subcarriers or tones which are assigned to the upstream and/or downstream transmission direction. To allow efficient bidirectional communication over one twisted pair, echo cancellation is required to separate upstream and downstream channels. In addition, intersymbol interference and intercarrier interference have to be reduced by means of equalization. In this paper, a computationally efficient algorithm for adaptively initializing the per-tone equalizers (PTEQ and per-tone echo cancelers (PTEC is presented. For a given number of equalizer and echo canceler taps per-tone, it was shown that the joint PTEQ/PTEC receiver structure is able to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR on each subcarrier and hence also the achievable bit rate. The proposed initialization scheme is based on a modification of the square root recursive least squares (SR-RLS algorithm to reduce computational complexity and memory requirement compared to full SR-RLS, while keeping the convergence rate acceptably fast. Our performance analysis will show that the proposed method converges in the mean and an upper bound for the step size is given. Moreover, we will indicate how the presented initialization method can be reused in several other ADSL applications.
LIAO Lin; YANG Ming; QIU Lu-lu; MOU Ya-ru; ZHAO Jia-jun; DONG Jian-jun
Background Few studies have given suggestions on appropriate initiation insulin dosage when combined with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). This research was to investigate appropriate initiation insulin doses for insulin-naive type 2diabetes patients with different combinations and the relationship between insulin dosage and relevant factors.Methods This was a randomized, open-label, treat to target study. The target was 20% decrease of both fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 hours post-breakfast blood glucose (P2hBG). One hundred and forty-seven insulin-naive Chinese patients recruited were randomiy assigned to 3 groups: group A, patients received insulin monotherapy; group B, received insulin plus metformin (0.5 g, tid) and group C, received insulin plus metformin (0.5 g, tid) and pioglitazone (15 mg, qd).Results Both the time of getting 20% reduction of FPG and P2hBG showed significant differences among the three groups. The time was shortest in Group C. The insulin doses needed to achieve glucose reduction of 20% in three treatment groups were (0.40±0.04) U·kg-1·d-1 for Group A, (0.37±0.04) U·kg-1·d-1 for Group B, and (0.35±0.03) U·kg-1·d-1 for Group C, respectively. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that insulin doses correlated with body weight, FPG, diabetes duration, age and history of sulfonylurea treatment. The standardized regression coefficients were 0.871, 0.322, 0.089, 0.067 and 0.063 (with all P ＜0.05).Conclusions To achieve blood glucose's reduction of 20% within safety context, initial insulin doses were recommended as the following: 0.40 U·kg-1·d-1 for insulin mono-therapy, 0.37 U·kg-1·d-1 for insulin plus metformin treatment, and 0.35 U·kg-1.d-1 for insulin plus metformin and pioglitazone treatment in Chinese type 2 diabetes outpatients. Body weight is found the most closely related factor to the insulin dosage.
Full Text Available The present investigation intends to review the extent of visibility, impact and collaboration of Iranian nanotechnology websites using webometric method of link analysis. The sample consists of all websites dealing with nanotechnology in Iran. Findings showed that these sites have low visibility, web impact factor and page count. Iranian Nanotechnology Initiative, Nano Ideas and Iranian Nanotechnology Association had the highest number of inlinks and therefore highest visibility, while Nanotechnology Department Website had the lowest visibility. Findings also indicated that Amir Kabir Technical University Nanotechnology Committee website, Iran Nanotechnology initiative and Nano Ideas websites had the highest web impact factor, while Kashan University Institute for Nano Science and Technology had the lowest web impact factor. It was further established that Iranian Nanotech websites collaborate within two clusters. A Multi-dimensional scale was used.
Mohammad Amin Mahdavi
Full Text Available Ranking is one of the key measures for evaluating universities. Progress of research at universities is often measured by the rate of its publications. It is also common knowledge in the field of research that journal publications owe their success to their impact factor. However, one of the contributing factors that affect a journal's impact factor is the accessibility and availability of its content. The law of statistics suggests that publishing an electronic version of the journal content through online publications is likely to boost the visibility of a journal; hence, improving the impact factor. The ability to publish electronically is often received favorably by the research community. Despite advances in electronic journal publishing, only recently, online journals have made their way into Iranian university journal publishing. This paper evaluates and reports on the extent of online journal publications among Iranian universities. For the purposes of this study, 653 journals published by 183 universities were studied. The results reveal that 66.7% of all universities have online copies of their journals. This study is carried out for three categories of universities; the Ministry of Health and medical Education universities, the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology universities (MSRT, and Islamic Azad University Branches (IAU.
On 1st and 4th March respectively, CERN received visits from Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, and Reza Mansouri, Deputy Minister for Science, Research and Technology of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Asset Issekeshev and his delegation came to CERN with the aim of learning "the European way of building strong and effective ties between science and the industrial sector". Welcomed by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, he visited the ATLAS assembly hall and the CLIC installations before signing the visitors' book. After a short visit to Point 5 (CMS), Reza Mansouri met CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, before talking to Iranian PhD students working on their theses at CERN. Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, signs the visitors' book, watched by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General.From left to right: Mojtaba Mohammadi and Majid Hashemi (Iranian PhD students at CERN); Dr Daniel Denegri (CMS), Professor Re...
Parrish, Richard H; Pazdur, Danielle E; O'donnell, Philip J
A 72-year-old Caucasian woman with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation had been taking warfarin therapy for 5 years with a stable international normalized ratio (INR). Her dentist then prescribed carbamazepine 200 mg/day to control facial nerve pain. At her next physician visit about 2 weeks after the start of the carbamazepine, the patient's INR had dropped from 3.3 to 1.3; she reported no contributing changes in her diet or warfarin dosage, nor had she taken other interacting drugs. Her warfarin dosage was increased, and the INR returned to the target range of 2.0-3.0 approximately 2 months later. The patient's INR remained stable for approximately 6 more months, until she had facial surgery. During that time, her warfarin was discontinued for 5 days, and the patient had stopped taking the carbamazepine because she had no pain. One month later, her INR increased from 2.2 to 3.6. She did not experience any thrombotic or hemorrhagic episodes. Warfarin undergoes hepatic metabolism through cytochrome P450 2C9, and carbamazepine induces this isoenzyme. Inducing warfarin metabolism necessitates an increase in the warfarin dosage to maintain the INR in the therapeutic target range. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the effect of the carbamazepine initiation and discontinuation in a patient receiving anticoagulation therapy with warfarin. In patients taking warfarin, clinicians should monitor the INR closely when carbamazepine is started or discontinued, or when either dosage is changed.
Full Text Available Osteoporosis, characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to enlarged bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly people. The mortality rate in elderly persons with hip fracture approaches 20%. Half of them will be disabled in the remained life. Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (IMOS developed by Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (EMRC-TUMS and Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2000. The aim of this study with more than 6000 participitants, was to determine normal range of BMD in Iranian population and assessing the current calcium and vitamin D status in Iran. The results were used for determining the normrmogram of BMD in Iranians and prevalence of Vit-D deficinecy among them. This document outlines all aspects of osteoporosis including risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.
Full Text Available This study intended to inspect the possible effects of vocabulary cluster on Iranian Intermediate EFL learners' vocabulary achievement. It was based on the comparison between semantically and thematically –related sets to find out which type of vocabulary learning cluster was more effective on learners vocabulary learning. Sixty intermediate EFL learners were selected based on their performance on OPT test and then were randomly assigned into three groups each containing 20 subjects (one control and two experimental groups. Quasi-experimental design was used in which Pre-test and post-test were administered to collect data. The researcher employed Nations word level test as the pre-test to examine the participants' initial knowledge of common words. The experimental group (A worked on thematic clustering, while experimental group (B received instruction on semantic clustering and the control group received placebo. Next, all participants took part in vocabulary size test to evaluate the vocabulary achievement of the participants. The scores obtained from pre-test and post-test were analyzed through running paired sample t-test, and one-way ANOVA. The results indicated that the experimental group (B which received semantically related sets outperformed the control group & the experimental group (A which received thematically related sets. This may have significant implications for language instructors, syllabus designers, and learners to make more advancement in vocabulary learning process through employing vocabulary cluster.
Full Text Available The academic performance of medical students seems to influence and be influenced by various factors. Identification of the factors that would influence the academic performance may help to modify some of these factors which may be reflecting positively on student’s GPA. Therefore, the objective of present study was to examine the effects of factors such as the student’s demographic data, educational and socio-cultural factors on the academic underachievement of Iranian medical students. In this systematic review study, all the papers related to the investigation of the causes of academic underachievement in case of the Iranian medical students, that were published during the period between 1996 and 2015, were recorded and reviewed. To carry out this purpose, all the Iranian journals and some of the scientific databases such as IranMedex, SID, Magiran, and MedLib, and foreign databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, ERIC, and Science Direct, were used to search the keywords academic underachievement, medical students, educational status, and education progress. After searching mentioned databases, 218 papers were recorded, 97 of which were unrelated and were omitted during the initial review. After omitting the unrelated papers, 121 papers were reviewed by authors independently, and after the omission of the papers not possessing the criteria to enter the study, 65 papers remained, and finally, after complete reviewing procedure, 10 studies entered the analysis. In conclusion, being married, having second jobs, residing in a dormitory, admission to university by the privilege, low educational level of the parents, long interval between receiving diploma and entering university, male sex, age, not having educational planning and motivation skills, and absence from the classes are the main educational barriers among medical students resulted in underachievement.
Aslani, Hamidreza; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Taghi; Lahiji, Farivar A; Heydarian, Keykavoos; Jabalameli, Mahmood; Ghazavi, Mohammad Taghi; Tahmasebi, Mohammad Naghi; Fayyaz, Mahmoud Reza; Sazegari, Mohammad Ali; Mohaddes, Maziar; Rajabpour, Mojtaba; Emami, Mohammad; Jazayeri, Seyyed Mohammad; Madadi, Firooz; Farahini, Hossein; Mirzatoloee, Fardin; Gharahdaghi, Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ebrahimian, Mohammadreza; Mirvakili, Hossein; Bashti, Kaveh; Almasizadeh, Mohtasham; Abolghasemian, Mansour; Taheriazam, Afshin; Motififard, Mehdi; Yazdi, Hamidreza; Mobarakeh, Mahmood Karimi; Shayestehazar, Masoud; Moghtadae, Mehdi; Siavashi, Babak; Sajjadi, Mohammadreza M; Rasi, Alireza Manafi; Chabok, Seyyed Kazem; Zafarani, Zohreh; Salehi, Shahin; Ahmadi, Monireh; Mohammadi, Amin; Shahsavand, Mohammad Ebrahim
Periodic evaluation and monitoring the health and economic outcome of joint replacement surgery is a common and popular process under the territory of joint registries in many countries. In this article we introduce the methodology used for the foundation of the National Iranian Joint Registry (IJR) with a joint collaboration of the Social Security Organization (SSO) and academic research departments considering the requirements of the Iran's Ministry of Health and Education.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic parameters of mycophenolic acid (MPA in Iranian kidney transplant patients. Methods: Plasma MPA concentration of mycophenolate mofetile (MMF 1 gram two times a day was measured in 21 Iranian kidney transplant recipients receiving treatment. Patients who entered the study had been transplanted for more than 3 months and their drug level was supposed to be at steady state. MMF concentration was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: The plasma MPA concentration-time curve was characterized by an early sharp peak at about 1 hour postdose. The mean Area Under Curve (AUC, Cmax and Tmax were 47.0±18.3 µg.h/ml, 18.6±8.5 µg/ml and 1.0±0.5 hours respectively. Conclusion: The plasma MPA concentration-time curve pattern of Iranian patients was similar and consistent with previously reported profiles in other populations taking the same dose. Keywords: Mycophenolate mofetil, Mycophenolic acid, Pharmacokinetics, Area Under Curve, Kidney transplantation
Gholami, Maryam; Lange, Daniela; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf
The study examined whether a dietary planning intervention would help increase fruit consumption among Iranian women focusing on self-regulatory mechanisms in behavior change. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare a planning intervention with a control condition in 165 Iranian women (aged 17-48years). Dependent variable was fruit intake, and dietary planning served as the mediator. After baseline assessment (T1) the intervention group received a leaflet on fruit consumption with a planning sheet. Changes were assessed at 3-weeks (T2) and at 3-months follow-ups (T3). Findings showed that the dietary planning intervention led to an increase in fruit intake. Age moderated this mediation. Changes in dietary planning mediated between intervention and fruit consumption in middle aged women. Dietary planning seems to play a role in the mechanism that facilitates fruit intake among Iranian women. This mediation by planning was found in middle aged women (30-48 years old), but not in young adult women (17-29 years old). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Academicians are identified with their papers and expertise in writing scholarly articles, either for promotion or for satisfying their prestige. Iranian academic members are expected to win a justifiable stance by the quality and quantity of their publications and presentations. Regrettably through pervious studying about second language writing, any studies haven’t been dedicated to the style of writing articles, which are used by academic members. Former studies on second language writing indicate that style in academic paper writing is most likely ignored. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of mind translation strategy among Iranian academic members for expressing their own opinion through writing second language academic papers. The present paper has based its hypothesis on three levels of strategies, effective in writing academic papers, namely: 1-Do Iranian academicians follow specific strategies in writing their academic papers? 2-What role does translation play as a strategy in their writing academic papers? 3-Do they feel a need for a strategy shift in their academic paper writing? Data elicited based on survey and corpora analysis in form of CBDTS- on micro and macro levels, are put into matrices and their analyses are supportive of academicians’ reliance on different types of mental translation use and their shift toward authentic writing after receiving feedback from their reviewers.Keywords: CBDTS, micro level, macro level, mental translation, strategy shift
Mohammad Hosein Vaziri
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the moral distress among Iranian registered nurses.This was a descriptive -analytic study, in which 264 out of 1000 nurses were randomly selected as a sample group and completed the questionnaire. The nurses' moral distress was assessed using Corley's 30-item Moral Distress Scale adapted for use in an Iranian population. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 19.In this study, no correlation was found between the level of moral distress and any of the demographic data. The mean moral distress score ranged from 3.56 to 5.83, indicating moderate to high levels of moral distress. The item with the highest mean score was "working with unsafe levels of nurse staffing". The item with the lowest mean score was "giving medication intravenously to a patient who has refused to take it". Nurses working in EMS and NICU units had the highest levels of moral distress.A higher degree of moral distress is observed among nurses who work in health care systems. The results of this study highly recommend practical and research-oriented evaluation of moral distress in the medical society in Iran. Our findings suggest that Iranian version of MDS is a reliable instrument to measure moral distress in nurses.
Asgarian, Amir; Vefali, Gülsen Musayeva
Translation language learning strategies, especially in relation to translation students, have not received adequate attention in the research to date. Therefore, the present study attempted to explore Iranian translation students' use of translation strategies, related beliefs, and academic achievement. It was a survey study involving…
Saadi, Zahra Kheradmand; Saadat, Mahboobeh
The present study was conducted to compare the impact of direct and metalinguistic written corrective feedback on Iranian EFL learners' grammatical knowledge. The participants were a convenient sample of students in two intact writing classes. The instruction provided in both groups was similar; however, the students in one group received direct…
Komachali, Maryam Eslahcar; Khodareza, Mohammadreza
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of using vocabulary flash card on Iranian pre-university students' vocabulary knowledge. The participants of the study comprised 50 female learners. They were randomly assigned into two homogeneous groups each consisting of 25 learners. The control group received the traditional treatment…
Talebian, Mohammad; Talebian, Ehsan
We present a biographical sketch of Alenush Terian, the first Iranian woman physicist, who was known as the Iranian Solar Mother, since she founded the first solar telescopic observatory in Iran. She taught and carried out astronomical research for three decades with inadequate resources but with unflinching devotion, motivated by a strong desire to propagate scientific education and research in her country.
Khany, Reza; Boghayeri, Mahnaz
The study of creativity has been of great interest to educationalists in general and language teaching practitioners in particular. With all these, very little if any has been reported on the issue in Iranian EFL context. Having this in mind and drawing on the latest profile of creativity, effort was made to see how creative Iranian EFL teachers…
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... entered into Iranian commerce. Based on this definition, foodstuffs and carpets of third-country origin... carpets of third-country origin that are transshipped through Iran for importation into the United States... of Iranian- origin household goods and personal effects set forth in section 560.524(b) of the...
Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…
Tavakoli, F.; Nankali, H. R.; Sedighi, M.; Djamour, Y.; Mosavi, Z.
Iran is one of the most tectonically active zone in Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt where has been shaken by largely destroying historical and instrumental earthquakes. Iran is located in the convergence zone between Arabia and Eurasia with a velocity of 22 mm/yr nearly to the North. The shortening between Arabian and Eurasian plates in Iran is mainly distributed on Zagros and Alborz belts. Despite the historical and scientific awareness of seismic hazard in Iran, unfortunately this country lacked a Continuous GPS network to study geodynamic and tectonic movements. Such geodetic measurement can play an important role to understand the tectonic deformation then to evaluate the seismic hazard on Iran. Since early 2005 National Cartographic Center of Iran (NCC) is establishing a continuous GPS network named Iranian Permanent GPS Network for Geodynamics (IPGN). Taking into account the number of provided GPS receivers, (108) we made a priority based on two factors of seismicity and population. At the first, in order to study general tectonic behavior in Iran 41 stations, globally distributed in whole of Iran, were been considered. Three other areas in the priority list were: Centeral Alborz, North-West of Iran and North-East of Iran. The rest of receivers, i.e. ~60, were considered for these areas as local networks. These four networks are daily processed and give us a continuous monitoring of any surface deformation. In this paper we try to present the results obtained from the network
Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad
Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Iran has experienced high food prices in recent years. This paper examines the welfare impacts of rising major food groups' prices on Iranian urban households using Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS approach. The elasticity coefficients derived from QUAIDS are used to estimate Compensated Variations (CV.The study uses Iranian Household Expenditure and Income Survey (HEIS raw data, encompassing both low and high price periods. Prices of all food and agricultural products increased during the entire survey period of 2004 to 2012. Based on our estimates, the food groups of cereals, dairy products, vegetable and pulses, Potables and Spices are necessary goods, as their budget elasticity is positive and below one at the same time. Meat, edible oils, fruits and dried fruits and Sugary products are luxury goods, with income elasticity above one. We find that the remarkable increases in food prices resulted in severe erosion of purchasing power for the Iranian urban households and they need to be compensated on average about 48% of their initial income for the food price changes they faced during the 2004 and 2012. In addition the high share of cereals in year 2012 implies that urban households shift their consumption to cheaper calorie source. This figure is confirmed with the decline in the share of meat, dairy Products, fruits and dried fruits, vegetables and pulses and potables expenditure.
Masoud Khalili Sabet
Full Text Available Reviewing literature reveals that identifying generic structure of research articles (RAs in different fields of study, especially ESP, has received much attention. The major purpose behind such trends of research has been raising researchers' awareness of the common conventions in writing RAs. Along with this universal trend, a lot of genre studies have been done in Iranian context; however, it seems that ESP RAs have not been paid due attention yet. Hence this study aimed at investigating the generic structure of ESP RAs in international and Iranian journals. Applying Kanoksilapatham's (2007 model to the compiled corpus, it was found that contextualizing the study (Move 1 and consolidating results (Move 2 were the obligatory moves in Discussion section of ESP RAs across international and Iranian journals. Evaluation of the findings was a new step found in international Discussion sections but absent in Iranian ones. Related discussion of these findings prepares the researchers for publishing in international and Iranian ESP journals. Keywords: ESP, Discussion section, Move, Step, Author presence, Generic structure
Khoshsima, Hooshang; Rezaeiantiyar, Forouzan
The present experimental study primarily aimed at examining the effect of presentation strategy on reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To determine the effect of this strategy, 61 students who enrolled in English Language Center of Chabahar Maritime University were initially selected and then divided randomly into two…
Davoudi, Mohammad; Chavosh, Milad
The present paper aimed at investigating the relationship between listening self-efficacy and multiple intelligences of Iranian EFL learners. Initially, ninety intermediate male learners were selected randomly from among 20 intermediate classes in a Language Academy in Yazd. In order to assure the homogeneity of the participants in terms of…
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Massage training and how the body is influenced by massage are common issues which are seriously under study and discussion in Iranian traditional medicine. Iranian physicians considered motion and massage as major principles of health maintenance.In this study, we examined the available literature of traditional medicine to evaluate location, purpose and use of massage therapy in Iranian medicine in comparison with other popular conventional styles.The aim of Iranian massage is to regulate the core body temperature and aid to eliminate the waste products from the body. This type of massage is divided into five categories including solid, soft, moderate, great and aggressive, based on the intensity, speed, duration and techniques of massage.Iranian physicians proposed general body massage or massage of a particular area based on subjective complaints. They recommended specific massages in particular groups including children, pregnant women, the elderly and athletes. In some cases, the effects of these recommendations have been studied in clinical trials.Conclusion: It seems that the major difference between Iranian massage and other styles of massage is special attention of Iranian massage to the individual circumstances, and the cause of the problem rather than technique of the massage.
Rafii, Forough; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Forooshani, Zahra Sadat Dibaji
The professional satisfaction of staff is one of the most challenging organizational concepts that can enhance the efficiency level of organizations. In a similar vein, the professional satisfaction of nurses is of considerable importance, in that, professional dissatisfaction among nurses could result in emotional detachment, depression, anger, evasion from work, and inefficacy and would negatively impact the organization's work rate. The aim of this study was to understand Iranian nurses' experiences of the concept of professional satisfaction. This was a qualitative study conducted with a targeted sampling of 10 nurses (4 men and 6 women) in 2015. The data were collected through conducting in-depth interviews, and textual data were analyzed subsequently using the Qualitative Content Analysis (QCA) method. The findings of this study pointed to "fair conduct," which was comprised of three sub-categories, i.e., expectation of fairness in social-professional settings, expectation of fairness in receiving professional benefits, and expectation of fairness in the area of professional interactions. There are various ups and downs in nursing due to the challenging nature of the profession, from the initial education at the university until retirement. According to the findings of this study, a lack of fairness in social-professional settings, a lack of fairness in receiving professional benefits, and a lack of fairness in the area of professional interactions were among the factors that have great impacts on the degree of professional dissatisfaction among nurses.
Full Text Available Mercy killing, euthanasia or killing a person who is terminally ill is not an allowable murder and all kinds of direct killings are in a sense of willful murder. Indirect mercy killing is considered as assisted suicide. According to Iranian criminal system, mercy killing is not allowable because human is a creature superior to an animal and will experience the result of their acts in the eternal world. A lot of efforts are done in many countries for the legalization of euthanasia or mercy killing.
Khadigeh Mirzaii Najmabadi
Full Text Available Khadigeh Mirzaii NajmabadiShahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, IranObjectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a multimodal intervention (including the Women’s Wellness Program on increasing levels of physical activity in Iranian midlife women.Study design: This 12-week study was conducted in women aged 50–65 years living in the general population. Women who were allocated to the intervention group (n = 40 received an intervention, which combined a multimodal program of physical activity and health education. Women in the control group continued their normal physical activities (n = 45.Mean outcome measure: The women completed a questionnaire that included measures for items of interest for this analysis, such as menopausal status, sociodemographic, and exercise and activity levels.Results: Analysis of covariance indicated that the intervention was effective in improving women’s physical activity. The test showed that there was a significant difference between intervention and control in current vigorous activity.Conclusion: Physical activity should be encouraged for prevention and reduction of risks for chronic disease and for improvement of health in midlife women. The multimodal intervention program may offer implications for designing and implementing exercise interventions in further studies.Keywords: midlife women, intervention, physical activity, menopause
Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral reservoir size refers to cellular human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 DNA levels in CD4+ T lymphocytes of peripheral blood obtained from patients with plasma HIV-1-RNA levels (viral load, VL maintained below the detection limit by antiretroviral therapy (ART. We measured HIV-1 DNA levels in CD4+ lymphocytes in such patients to investigate their clinical significance. Methods CD4+ T lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of 61 patients with a VL maintained at less than 50 copies/ml for at least 4 months by ART and total DNA was purified. HIV-1 DNA was quantified by nested PCR to calculate the copy number per 1 million CD4+ lymphocytes (relative amount and the copy number in 1 ml of blood (absolute amount. For statistical analysis, the Spearman rank or Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used, with a significance level of 5%. Results CD4 cell counts at the time of sampling negatively correlated with the relative amount of HIV-1 DNA (median = 33 copies/million CD4+ lymphocytes; interquartile range [IQR] = 7-123 copies/million CD4+ lymphocytes, but were not correlated with the absolute amounts (median = 17 copies/ml; IQR = 5-67 copies/ml. Both absolute and relative amounts of HIV-1 DNA were significantly lower in six patients in whom ART was initiated before positive seroconversion than in 55 patients in whom ART was initiated in the chronic phase, as shown by Western blotting. CD4 cell counts before ART introduction were also negatively correlated with both the relative and absolute amounts of HIV-1 DNA. Only the relative amounts of HIV-1 DNA negatively correlated with the duration of VL maintenance below the detection limit, while the absolute amounts were not significantly correlated with this period. Conclusions The amounts of cellular HIV-1 DNA in patients with VLs maintained below the detection limit by the introduction of ART correlated with the timing of ART initiation but not with the duration of ART. In
Full Text Available In this study, 278 species from 37 families of native Iranian plants were screened for in vitro antifungal activity against 19 fungal strains. Initially, the crude extracts in concentration of 100 μg/ml were tested. Among 278 plant extracts, 201(71.27% of them showed antifungal activity against at least one fungal strain. A wide range of total extracts of different species were shown to have potentially noticeable antifungal effects. The outstanding species were: Mentha longifolia, Saliva multicaulis, Thymus transcaspicus, Zataria multiflora, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hulthemia persica, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella anisum, Pragnos ferulacea, Pragnos uloptera, and Viola odorata.
Escribá, María-José; Bellver, José; Bosch, Ernesto; Sánchez, María; Pellicer, Antonio; Remohí, José
To determine whether the initiation of P supplementation as artificial luteal phase support (day -1, day 0, or day +1 of egg donation) in extensive programs of ovum donation influences cycle cancellation, pregnancy outcome, and implantation rate in day 3 embryo transfers. Prospective randomized trial. Oocyte donation program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad, Valencia, Spain. Three hundred recipients with normal ovarian function, absence of uterine anomalies, and undergoing their first egg donation were recruited between September 2003 and September 2004. A computer-based randomization divided the recipients into three groups when hCG was administered to their matched donors. The first group (group A) started P supplementation the day before oocyte retrieval; the second group (group B) started P supplementation on the day of the oocyte retrieval; and the third group (group C) started P supplementation 1 day after the egg retrieval once fertilization was confirmed. Implantation, pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates were the primary outcome measures considered. The secondary outcome measure was the cancellation rate, especially due to fertilization failure. Global cancellation rate and cancellation rate due to fertilization failure were significantly higher in group A (12.4% and 8.2%, respectively) than in group C (3.3% and 0%, respectively). Reproductive outcome was similar in all the groups except for a higher biochemical pregnancy rate in group A (12.9%) than in groups B (6.6%) and C (2.3%). Initiation of P on day +1 of embryo development decreases cancellation rates of day 3 embryo transfers in extensive programs of ovum donation without any deleterious effect on pregnancy outcome or implantation rate.
Full Text Available This study investigates the level of Narcissism among 185 Iranian auditors groups and narcissism has been used to describe people behavior in people groups. The present study uses a questionnaire to measure Narcissism and to examine the hypotheses of the paper analysis of variance and T-test are used. The results of testing hypotheses show that the level of narcissism was significantly different in auditors groups in private sector. However, in public sector, the difference between narcissistic personality in auditors’ groups is not significant. Results of the study also indicated that, in private sector, narcissistic personality in young generation of auditors was higher than audit old generation. These results confirm previous studies on narcissism indicating that narcissistic behavior was high among young generation. We suggest the Iranian association of certified public accountants (IACPA to review the ethical training needs for auditors. In addition, audit firms can provide a system to increase interaction among old generations of auditors with young generation of auditors.
Full Text Available Banks are the most important tool for preparing and supplying money in each country. In recent years, by institution of the new private banks and privatization of the governmental banks, banking competition has become very complex. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors on return on assets and return on equities on 18 selected Iranian firms over the period 2002-2011. Using different regression models, the study studies the effects of total assets, debt ratio, etc. on return of assets (ROA and return on equities (ROE on selected eighteen Iranian banks as statistical community. The study considers total assets, ownership ratio, deposits to assets ratio, and loans to assets ratio as independent variables, and ROE and ROA as dependent variables. The results indicate that the private banks returns were better than governmental banks and the commercial banks’ returns were better than special banks. There is a reverse relationship between logarithm of total assets and ownership ratio with profitability based on return of assets.
Full Text Available Mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome. Less than 25 families have been reported, most of which are Italian. Here, we describe a new patient of Iranian origin, born to consanguineous parents.
Full Text Available Comparative studies have demonstrated that the themes for corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives are different among nations and geographic regions based on their cultural, political, legal, social, and economic contexts. In this research, which was conducted on 56 corporations from IMI100 (100 Iranian companies with highest annual sales, ranked by Industrial Management Institute or IMI, CSR themes in priority have been identified. Data collected from a semistructured questionnaire and some complementary interviews were analyzed against the results of a reference study over 100 companies from developed countries. The resulted themes, some of which may have several subthemes, were developed in three economic, environmental, and social categories. Beside these qualitative findings, two indices are constructed for indicating the “importance” of and “contribution” to each theme. The results and discussions are supposed to help business leaders, international companies inside Iran, governmental authorities, and researchers to improve CSR discussions and practices in the country where CSR undergoes a less structured platform.
Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education.
Full Text Available Background: Transmission of HIV from intra-venous drug users (IDUs to the community occurs predominantly through high-risk sexual behaviors. Limited information exists regarding the high-risk sexual behaviors of IDUs in Iran. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with having multiple sexual partners among Iranian IDUs. Methods. This is a national survey on drug-dependent adults. Participants were sampled from medical centers, prisons, and streets of capitals of 29 provinces in Iran, between May 2007 and February 2008. We analyzed data of 1,416 current IDUs. Socio-demographics and drug use characteristics were entered into a binary logistic regression model to determine predictors of having multiple sexual partners. Results. Having multiple sexual partners in the past or at the time of survey was reported by 56.4% of Iranian IDUs. Multivariate analysis showed that the likelihood of having multiple sexual partners in IDUs decreased by being married (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; P < .001 and increased by female gender (OR, 13.44; P = .02, having illegal income (OR, 1.72; P = .003, higher monthly family income (OR, 1.01; P = .003, pleasure, curiosity, and recreation as cause of first drug use (OR, 1.37; P = .04, ruins as usual place for injection (OR, 1.89; P = .001, and history of syringe sharing (OR, 1.50; P = .02. Conclusions. Having multiple sexual partners was reported by majority of Iranian IDUs, and this was linked to socio-demographics, initiation data, and other risk behaviors. This information should be considered in prevention efforts to reduce sexual transmission of HIV infection in Iran.
Farrokhi, E; Shayesteh, F; Asadi Mobarakeh, S; Roghani Dehkordi, F; Ghatreh Samani, K; Hashemzadeh Chaleshtori, M
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder of lipoprotein metabolism caused mainly by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and apolipoprotein B 100 (APOB) genes. Until now, the molecular basis of FH has been demonstrated in detail in many populations, but there is still very limited Molecular data concerning FH in Iran. The aim of this study was to characterize the LDLR and APOB gene mutations in an Iranian population. A total of 30 non-related Iranian possible FH subjects were studied. Diagnosis of FH was based on the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network diagnostic criteria. All samples were initially tested for three common APOB gene mutations including R3500Q, R3500 W and R3531C using PCR-RFLP assay. Subsequently, promoter and coding region of the LDLR gene was screened by PCR-SSCP analysis and positive results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Four previously reported polymorphisms 1413G > A, 1725C > T, 1773T > C and 2140 + 5G > A were found in ~17% (5/30) of population studied. Moreover, no variation was found in APOB gene. Our data indicated that LDLR and APOB gene mutations have not contribution to possible FH in Iranian population studied here. However, we examined three common APOB mutations and LDLR in only 30 patients, and to determine the role of these genes in developing FH in Iran, more FH samples and populations needed to be investigated for the mutations of the related genes.
Full Text Available Today, using computer is common in all fields. Education is not an exception. In fact, this approach of technology has been using increasingly in language classrooms. We have witnessed there are more and more language teachers are using computers in their classrooms. This research study investigates the impact of using computer on vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL university students. To this end, a sample of 40 university students in Islamic Azad University, Larestan branch were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. Prior the treatment and to catch the initial deferences between the participants, all the students sat for a pre-test that was an Oxford Placement Test. Then the students were received the treatment for 10 weeks. The students in the experimental group were taught by computer software for vocabulary learning while the students in the control group were taught through traditional method for vocabulary learning. After the treatment, all the students sat for a post-test. The statistical analysis through running Independent-Sample T-tests revealed thatthe students in the experimental group who used the computer software for vocabulary learning performed better than the students in the control group were taught through traditional method for vocabulary learning.
Rabbani D.1 PhD,
Full Text Available Aims Heavy metals in the environment are toxic to plants, animals and human. This study aimed to investigate concentration of Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in Iranian and non- Iranian rice which have been sold in Kashan City, Iran shops. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, 126 samples from 42 trademarks (15 Iranian and 27 non-Iranian rice were collected from Kashan shopping centers. At first each sample was ashed, and then they have been dissolved with nitric acid. Heavy metal concentration was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software using One-sample and Independent T-tests. Findings Arsenic was not found in any of rice samples. There was a significant difference between Pb concentration in both Iranian and non-Iranian rice samples. There was not a significance difference between Cd concentration in Iranian (p=0.823 and non-Iranian (p=0.346 rice samples according to Iran national standards but there was a significant difference between Cd concentration in both Iranian (p=0.001 and non-Iranian (p=0.001 rice samples according to WHO and FAO standards. Conclusion Consumed rice pollution with Pb is considerable but with Cd is low. Arsenic concentration in Iranian and non-Iranian rice is less than Iran national and WHO/FAO standards.
Rezaei, Davood; Niloufari, Morteza; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: email@example.com, email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email: email@example.com
With the coming shortage of fossil fuels it is important to develop energy efficient buildings to reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. In Iran, traditional homes have been built in a sustainable manner to withstand the high climate diversity of the country. The aim of this paper is to present the different methods used in Iranian traditional architecture. Among the architectural principles is appropriate orientation of the building to allow the capture of solar energy and at the same time protect against the cold wind. In addition, indigenous materials were used in the constructions to provide the highest degree of comfort possible with minimal damage to the environment. Finally, Iranian traditional architecture took advantage of the soil's constant temperature by building a Shvadan which is an underground space beneath the house. This article highlighted the different Iranian traditional methods which can create a sustainable architecture.
Shahab, S; Kavosi, A; Nazarinia, H; Mehralizadeh, S; Mohammadpour, M; Emami, M
Objectives Dentists use radiographs in their daily practice. Their knowledge and behaviour towards radiographic examination can affect patients' exposure to radiation. The aim of this study was to survey the knowledge and behaviour of Iranian dentists regarding oral radiology safety standards. Methods 1000 questionnaires were given to the participants of the 48th Annual Congress of the Iranian Dental Association, of which 700 were returned. The participants were asked about demographic data, primary knowledge of radiation protection, selection criteria, radiographic equipment and technique, methods of patient and personnel protection and management of radiographic waste. Descriptive analysis of data was performed. Results 44% of respondents said the initial radiograph they took was of the periapical view of a limited area. 12% preferred the periapical paralleling technique. F-speed film was used by 9% and E-speed film by 62%. Only 2% had digital receptors. Proper exposure time was selected by 26.5%. The use of long and rectangular collimators was 15% and 6%, respectively. 34% occasionally covered their patients with both thyroid shields and lead aprons. 36% used the position and distance rule correctly for their own protection. Proper disposal of the used processing solutions and the lead foils were done by only 1% and 3%, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the majority of dentists in the study group did not select the proper method, material and equipment in order to minimize the exposure of their patient to unnecessary radiation in dental radiography. PMID:22301640
Somaye Hamdi asl
Full Text Available Studies regarding gender differences in EFL context have been done for many years. However, it seems that writing, which is a vital skill in academic issues, has gained much less attention in this area. In addition, not having enough knowledge of gender differences for teachers is one of the main barriers of language learning. The current study examines gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing in terms of 13 linguistic features mentioned in Mulac, Bradac, & Gibbons (2001. The results of this study showed significant differences toward the use of some linguistic features. Female participants tended to use more “I” references, references to quantity, references to emotions, uncertainty verbs, sentence initial adverbials and judgmental adjectives. In addition, the results showed than women tended to be wordier than men in terms of total number of words. Men, on the other hand, exceeded women on a number of linguistic dimensions including locatives, mean length sentence and dependent clauses. Moreover, elliptical sentences were not used by female participants at all and few male participants used them in their letters. Therefore, this study demonstrated gender differences in Iranian EFL students’ letter writing. These dissimilarities between genders in EFL can be contributed to many aspects such as educational instructions, teachers, and cultural differences. It also illustrated teachers’ perspectives of gender regarding students’ writing.Keywords: Gender, Writing, Linguistic Features
Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.
K. Sadeghniiat Y. Labbafinejad
Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS denotes a propensity to doze off or fall asleep unintentionally during the day, particularly in passive situations. There is cumulative evidence pointing to an association between sleepiness and probability of involvement in motor vehicle crashes. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of sleepiness in a group of Iranian lorry drivers and its association with accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in lorry drivers of Tehran goods transportation terminal in 2005. This study used a questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. The questionnaire included questions regarding demographic features, professional data, sleep habits and excessive daytime sleepiness. A total of 386 male drivers, aged 43.23 ± 9.72 years were included in the study. ESS was higher than 10 points in 9.1% of the interviewees; 50.8% never have driven drowsy, although 36% rarely, 7.3% half of the times, 4.9% almost always and 1% always have driven drowsy. Logistic regression analysis indicated that EDS, age and job satisfaction were associated with an increased risk of accidents. Sleepiness is a prevailing symptom in lorry drivers and is probably related to accidents.
Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to prioritize and rank problems exporting Iranian saffron. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature on issues related to data and information collected from questionnaires, with 816% reliability is used. In this study, the sample of managers and sales and marketing company is exporting Iranian saffron is the sample size of 231 subjects. The results of this study are positive and significant relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables of export performance of export barriers exist.
Mousavian, Seyed Hossein
The first detailed Iranian account of the diplomatic struggle between Iran and the international community, The Iranian Nuclear Crisis: A Memoir opens in 2002, as news of Iran's clandestine uranium enrichment and plutonium production facilities emerge. Seyed Hossein Mousavian, previously the head of the Foreign Relations Committee of Iran'sSupreme National Security Council and spokesman for Tehran's nuclear negotiating team, brings the reader into Tehran's private deliberations as its leaders wrestle with internal and external adversaries.Mousavian provides readers with intim
Full Text Available Knowledge management has changed its nature from theoretical concept to an instrument that assists innovativeness. The originality of this study lies in its purpose to explore issues of knowledge management and its relation to the innovativeness of organizations. The study focuses on three selected Iranian banks (in public and private sector, an industry and a setting that has received less attention by researches so far. This paper studies the effectiveness of managers’ mindset in leading or misleading the organizations to achieve organizational innovativeness through KM. Based on a questionnaire survey, the authors argue that applying knowledge management makes it simpler to achieve the innovativeness in organizations. What we found significant in this study is that employees, provided with appropriate training and mentoring opportunities to generate novel ideas, would create new services in banking. The mindset of bank managers about their human resources absorbs diversity of opinions and provides equal opportunity for all employees to present ideas.
Hwang, Jessica P; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E; Cantor, Scott B; Barbo, Andrea; Lin, Heather Y; Ahmed, Sairah; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Donato-Santana, Christian; Eng, Cathy; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Fisch, Michael J; McLaughlin, Peter; Simon, George R; Rondon, Gabriela; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Lok, Anna S
Data on the incidence of adverse liver outcomes are limited for cancer patients with chronic (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-positive/hepatitis B core antibody [anti-HBc]-positive) or past (HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive) hepatitis B virus (HBV) after chemotherapy. This study was aimed at determining the impact of test timing and anti-HBV therapy on adverse liver outcomes in these patients. Patients with solid or hematologic malignancies who received chemotherapy between 2004 and 2011 were retrospectively studied. HBV testing and anti-HBV therapy were defined as early at the initiation of cancer therapy and as late after initiation. Outcomes included hepatitis flares, hepatic impairment, liver failure, and death. Time-to-event analysis was used to determine incidence, and multivariate hazard models were used to determine predictors of outcomes. There were 18,688 study patients (80.4% with solid tumors). The prevalence of chronic HBV was 1.1% (52 of 4905), and the prevalence of past HBV was 7.1% (350 of 4905). Among patients with solid tumors, late identification of chronic HBV was associated with a higher risk of hepatitis flare (hazard ratio [HR], 4.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-12.86), hepatic impairment (HR, 8.48; 95% CI, 1.86-38.66), liver failure (HR, 9.38; 95% CI, 1.50-58.86), and death (HR, 3.90; 95% CI, 1.19-12.83) in comparison with early identification. Among patients with hematologic malignancies and chronic HBV, the risk of death was 7.8 (95% CI, 1.73-35.27) times higher for persons with late initiation of anti-HBV therapy versus early initiation. Patients with late identification of chronic HBV had late or no anti-HBV therapy. Chronic HBV predicted liver failure in patients with solid or hematologic malignancies, whereas male sex and late identification were predictors for patients with solid tumors. Early identification correlates with early anti-HBV therapy and reduces the risk of liver failure and death in chronic HBV patients
Yahaghi, Bamdad R
A collection of problems from a competition for college students organised by the Iranian Mathematical Society. It compiles problems from these competitions between 1973 and 2007 and provides solutions to most of them. It is suitable for students of mathematics preparing for competitions and for advanced studies.
Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.
Harvey, John F.
This outline of how to establish and maintain an Asian national union catalog contains basic instruction for the staff and for the participating libraries of one of West Asia's largest union catalogs. It has been prepared to: (1) define and clarify the purposes of the Iranian National Union Catalog; (2) explain the policies and procedures under…
Tehrani, Mohammad Dadkhah; Rezaei, Omid; Dezhara, Salman; Kafrani, Reza Soltani
This study investigated the different primary and secondary strategies the Iranian EFL students use in different situations and the effect of gender on this. A questionnaire was developed based on Sugimoto's (1995) to compare the apology strategies used by male and female students, only gender was examined as a variable. The results showed that…
Harvey, John F.
A list of English, French and German serials published in Iran and available for subscription abroad is given. Bibliographic information is included for each publication. The list was compiled with the help of Guity Afshar and Anoush Hovsepian from Pouri Soltani's "Directory of Iranian Periodicals," 1971. It was distrubuted to certain…
Iranian Georgians are the descendants of Georgians, who were moved to different parts of Iran from the Safavid until the early Qajar period, either voluntarily or by force. The main wave of these migrations occurred in 17th century Safavid Iran. The paper discusses some preliminary issues to the stu
Full Text Available The aim of this study is threefold, first to explore the extent of outsourcing implementation in Iranian organizations, second, given contextual factors of the country to identify drivers and barriers of outsourcing implementation among the investigated organizations and thirdly, to survey if there is any relationship between outsourcing functions and organizational performance of Iranian organizations, mainly based on a descriptive analysis. Based on the review of literature 16 main functions and activities which are widely outsourced and drivers and barriers of outsourcing implementation were identified. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among Iranian organizations. Based on 197 returned questionnaires the extent of outsourcing for various functions in the surveyed organizations was determined. Results indicate that most of the sample organizations realize the importance and the role of outsourcing strategy in gaining and increasing competitiveness and competitive advantage over their competition which could hopefully lead to the increase of their profitability. However, the result of the chi-square test cannot confirm that the implementation of outsourcing is significantly related to greater company success in Iranian industries context.
Full Text Available Background: Central obesity is one of the major public health problems. Recent studies have indicated that body fat distribution would be important in general health. Materials and Methods: The present study is a review of several studies which discuss the contributing factors of abdominal obesity, particulary in Iran. This study reviews 34 cross-sectional and interventional studies, which have been comducted during 1995-2012 and issued in English language. PubMed search engine and the related keywords were used to search the papers.Results: Breakfast skipping and also the sleep duration as well as the quality of diet are also associated with central adiposity. Dietary diversity score among Iranians can be related to abdominal adiposity. Fastfood consumption can increase the risk of central adiposity among young Iranian population. Red meat intake and food source of trans fat can increase the risk of central adiposity. Low quality diet with low amount of nutrients can increase the risk of central adiposity. Conclusion: Some behaviours such as sleep duration and eating breakfast can be associated with central adiposity among Iranians. Diet quality and dietary diversity score is also associated with this problem among Iranians.
Sadeghi Pour Roudsari HR
Full Text Available We studied fertility indices of Iranian and non-Iranian populations which were covered by 23 Rays health houses. This cross-sectional study aimed to prove the effect of increasing number of non-Iranian immigrants on health indices of the area covered by Tehran university of medical sciences and health services, consequently giving attention to specific health programs. The data collection method was census of permanent residents of the villages by means of vital horoscopes. 8494 of 27611 persons were non-Iranian. Dependency ratio and natural growth rate was 75%, 1.14% in Iranians and 98%, 1.74% in non-Iranians, respectively. Mortality in non-Iranians was 1.24 times more than Iranians. General fertility rate in Iranians was 60 and in non-Iranians was 110 live births in 1000 women of child bearing age. Total fertility rate in Iranians was 1.73 and in non-Iranians 3.27 neonates for each woman. Age-specific fertility rates were absolutely higher in non-Iranians. Gross eproductive rate was 0.87 in Iranians and 1.59 in non-Iranians. Mean number of girls born by a non-Iranian mother will be double times of an Iranian mother (P<0.01. Modern contraceptive methods coverage was 70% in Iranian couples and less than 40% in non-Iranian couples. 96.94% of Iranian deliveries and 70.9% of non-Iranian deliveries were safe (P<0.01.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of co-authorship and self-citation on the citation rates of Iranian indexed articles in Web of Science (WoS. Research population included Iranian indexed articles in WoS in 2007 which had been received at least one citation. Numbers of articles in the time of research (October & November 2010 was 7355, which 390 of them, using stratified random sampling, was selected as sample. Research results showed that co-authored articles have received more citations than single-authored ones and this difference was statistically significant. On the other hand, self-citation exclusion has significantly reduced the citation rates of both co-authored and single-authored articles. After self-citation exclusion, existing difference between citation rates of co-authored and single-authored articles lost its significance. So, it can be concluded that self-citation exclusion led to reduction of citation rates of Iranian indexed articles in WoS, but this exclusion affected co-authored articles citation rates more than single-authored ones. In other words, high citation of Iranian co-authored articles in comparison with single-authored articles has been affected mainly by self-citation, not by foreign citation. This finding, which was our contribution, contradicted with results of previous researches.
KHAKI G.N.; MIR GOUSIA
Globalization and its core components like modernization, secularization, democracy etc. have become most debatable issues in the post-Revolution Iran. There has been a significant impact of globalization over the changing socio-religious milieu of contemporary Iranian society. Iranian women''s position has also come under its profound influence. In the last three decades, the position of Iranian women has come through different development perspectives. While resisting the Islamization polic...
Utility of [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT) in the Initial Staging and Response Assessment of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
Hulikal, Narendra; Gajjala, Sivanath Reddy; Kalawat, Teck Chand; Kottu, Radhika; Amancharla Yadagiri, Lakshmi
In India up to 50 % of breast cancer patients still present as locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). The conventional methods of metastatic work up include physical examination, bone scan, chest & abdominal imaging, and biochemical tests. It is likely that the conventional staging underestimates the extent of initial spread and there is a need for more sophisticated staging procedure. The PET/CT can detect extra-axillary and occult distant metastases and also aid in predicting response to chemotherapy at an early point in time. To evaluate the utility of FDG PET/CT in initial staging and response assessment of patients with LABC receiving NACT. A prospective study of all biopsy confirmed female patients diagnosed with LABC receiving NACT from April 2013 to May 2014. The conventional work up included serum chemistry, CECT chest and abdomen and bone scan. A baseline whole body PET/CT was done in all patients. A repeat staging evaluation and a whole body PET/CT was done after 2/3rd cycle of NACT in non-responders and after 3/4 cycles in clinical responders. The histopathology report of the operative specimen was used to document the pathological response. The FDG PET/CT reported distant metastases in 11 of 38 patients, where as conventional imaging revealed metastases in only 6. Almost all the distant lesions detected by conventional imaging were detected with PET/CT, which showed additional sites of metastasis in 3 patients. In 2 patients, PET/CT detected osteolytic bone metastasis which were not detected by bone scan. In 5 patients PET CT detected N3 disease which were missed on conventional imaging. A total of 14 patients had second PET/CT done to assess the response to NACT and 11 patients underwent surgery. Two patients had complete pathological response. Of these 1 patient had complete metabolic and morphologic response and other had complete metabolic and partial morphologic response on second PET/CT scan. The 18 FDG PET/CT can detect more number of
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Iranians comprise an immigrant group that has a very different cultural background from that of the mainstream Canadian population and speaks a language other than English or French; in this case mainly Farsi (Persian. Although Iranian immigrants in Toronto receive a high proportion of care from Farsi-speaking family physicians and health care providers than physicians who cannot speak Farsi, they are still not satisfied with the provided services. The purpose of this study was to identify the obstacles and issues Iranian immigrants faced in accessing health care services as seen through the eyes of Iranian health care professionals/providers and social workers working in Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Methods Narrative inquiry was used to capture and understand the obstacles this immigrant population faces when accessing health care services, through the lens of fifty Iranian health care professionals/providers and social workers. Thirty three health care professionals and five social workers were interviewed. To capture the essence of issues, individual interviews were followed by three focus groups consisting of three health care professionals and one social worker in each group. Results Three major themes emerged from the study: language barrier and the lack of knowledge of Canadian health care services/systems; lack of trust in Canadian health care services due to financial limitations and fear of disclosure; and somatization and needs for psychological supports. Conclusion Iranians may not be satisfied with the Canadian health care services due to a lack of knowledge of the system, as well as cultural differences when seeking care, such as fear of disclosure, discrimination, and mistrust of primary care. To attain equitable, adequate, and effective access to health care services, immigrants need to be educated and informed about the Canadian health care system and services it provides. It would be of great benefit to
Full Text Available Background: A supportive needs assessment is an essential component of any care program. There is no research evidence regarding the supportive care needs of cancer patients in Iran or other Middle Eastern countries. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the supportive care needs of Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in a referral medical center in the northwest of Iran. A total of 274 cancer patients completed the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-59. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: In 18 items of the SCNS, more than 50% of the participants reported that their needs were unmet. Most frequently, unmet needs were related to the health system, information, physical, and daily living domains, and most met needs were related to sexuality, patient care, and support domains. Conclusions: Iranian cancer patients experience many unmet needs and there is an urgent need for establishing additional supportive care services in Iran.
Arezoo Molavi Vardanjani
Full Text Available This paper discusses the theoretical and pedagogical issues in EFL learning and instruction to explore the research problem ‘the EFL teaching deficiencies in Iranian classrooms’. The primary aim of this study is to provide a solid overview of the second language teaching methods and approaches in the context of English as a foreign language in Iran. The theoretical issues discussed include research on the nature of the two commonly used Grammar Translation Method (GTM and Communicative Language Teaching approaches (CLT, the methodology and strategies employed in Iranian EFL classrooms and evaluating the students’ achievement from the point of view of language teachers and learners. To fulfill the aims of the study, a modified version of a BALLI questionnaire was employed. Results show that in spite of its deficiencies, both teachers and students still prefer to use the traditional GTM.
Full Text Available Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the interdisciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels.Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking and consultation. The learning organizations, leadership from inside-out and transformational leadership frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared-visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team building activities and coaching have also included.The 1st workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program (IFNLP was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP. The PhD Nutrition programs (at 4 leading Universities and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity.In short, the initiative on nutrition leadership development has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to increase investment
Davari, Azadeh; Rashidi, Arash; Baartmans, Jacques Antonius
Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the inter-disciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels. Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking, and consultation. The "learning organizations," "leadership from inside-out," and "transformational leadership" frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team-building activities and coaching have also been included. The first workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP). The Ph.D. Nutrition programs (at four leading Universities) and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High-satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity. In short, the initiative on "nutrition leadership development" has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to increase the
Davari, Azadeh; Rashidi, Arash; Baartmans, Jacques Antonius
Personal and organizational performance is determined by commitment and both technical and general competencies, including leadership skills. Academia, however, mainly targets technical aspects in its curricular programs. On the other hand, the inter-disciplinary and multi-sector nature of Nutrition necessitates high levels of collaboration between stakeholders. Leadership development is therefore required in Nutrition. This paper describes the endeavor made in Iran and the Middle-East region, aiming at building leadership capacity among nutrition professionals. The empowered human resource is expected to facilitate nutrition security at the national and regional levels. Since 2007, the development process of the initiative has begun through research, bench marking, and consultation. The “learning organizations,” “leadership from inside-out,” and “transformational leadership” frameworks have been employed as underpinning theories. Main topics have been self-awareness, effective communication, shared visioning, trust building, creativity, and motivating. Outbound team-building activities and coaching have also been included. The first workshop of the Iranian Food and Nutrition Leadership Program was held in 2009 in Tehran. The experience expanded to the region as the Middle-East Nutrition Leadership Program (MENLP). The Ph.D. Nutrition programs (at four leading Universities) and Iranian Nutrition Society have been taken as other opportunity windows to develop leadership competencies. Biannual Iranian nutrition congresses have been used as the main media for advocacy purposes. High-satisfaction rates obtained following each training activity. In short, the initiative on “nutrition leadership development” has received growing investment and positive feedback in Iran. Continuous improvement of the initiative, establishment of active alumni networks, building MENLP regional platform, and integrating a monitoring and evaluation system are required to
Tahmineh; Akbarzadeh; Reyhaneh; Sabourian; Mina; Saeedi; Hossein; Rezaeizadeh; Mahnaz; Khanavi; Mohammad; Reza; Shams; Ardekani
Considering the fact that liver is one of the most important organs in our body,it deserves special attention and protection.Among various recommended supplements,complementary and alternative medicines particularly herbal remedies have received much attention owing to their truly healing properties.This review profits from Iranian traditional medicine and presents advantageous herbal guide directions for liver protection.According to credible Iranian medical literature such as Al Qanun Fil Tibb.Al-Havi and Makhzan-al-Aadvia.a wide spectrum of plants have been found to be useful for cleansing and protecting the liver.Some herbs such as ghafes(Agrimonia eupatoria),kasni(Cichorium intybus),anar(Punica granatum),darchin(Cinnamomum zeylanicum),za’feran(Crocus sativus),gole-sorkh(Rosa damascena) and zereshk(Berberis vulgaris) appeared to get strong consideration and were well documented as outstanding liver tonics.We conducted a comprehensive review of available Iranian medical resources such as scientific information database and medical sciences databases which cover all in vitro and in vivo studies of medicinal plants as liver tonics and hepatoprotcctive candidates.Literature survey was accomplished using multiple databases including PubMed,ISI web of knowledge,and Google Scholar.
Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza
Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care.
Although most biomedical journals have adopted the authorship criteria established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) in 1985, little is known about the extent Iranian researchers are familiar with these criteria. The study seeks to evaluate the number of authors fulfilling ICMJE authorship criteria (considering the names mentioned in the byline of 12 issues of the Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) journal), and to determine the type of contribution made by each author. The fulfilment of authorship criteria and contribution percentage of each researcher were evaluated according to their position in the bylines of 12 issues of the Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) journal published from January 2005 to October 2007. We asked corresponding authors to answer our questionnaire which was designed to assess authorship criteria and contribution. A total of 576 researchers' names were in the studied article bylines. The ratio of authors to articles was 3.48 in 2005, 4.06 in 2006, and 5.59 in 2007. Sixty three out of 128 corresponding authors (49.21%) responded to our questionnaire, so we evaluated 296 researchers' names, from which 186 authors (62.83%) met the authorship criteria; 110 authors (37.17%) were identified as guest authors, 97 of which deserved to be mentioned in the acknowledgement section. The major criteria used for authors order was their participation in research projects in addition to article writing, mostly determined by the corresponding author. Two authors (0.67%) whose names were not mentioned in the articles were considered to be ghost writers as the articles were based on the results of their thesis. It is essential to make Iranian researchers familiar with ICMJE authorship criteria and to encourage applying the criteria in scientific writing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
put Iran back as before the 1979 revolution. However, the infinite political complexities that are intertwined today in the whole Middle East will...unpredictable. The infinite political complexities that are intertwined today in the whole Middle East will not disappear instantaneously with this...passion towards obtaining atomic knowledge. It can be related to how the Iranian perceives their country as being isolated against Israel, Russia and
Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.
Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes ( M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the Wells and Coppersmith (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the Burkhard and Grünthal (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.
Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase “Teriac” (raw opium) as a means of “antidote” a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642
Organ shortage for transplantation remains a worldwide serious problem for kidney patients with end-stage renal failure, and several countries have tried different models to address this issue. Iran has 20 years of experience with one such model that involves the active role of the government and charity foundations. Patients with a desperate demand for a kidney have given rise to a black market of brokers and other forms of organ commercialism only accessible to those with sufficient financial resources. The current Iranian model has enabled most of the Iranian kidney transplant candidates, irrespective of socioeconomic class, to have access to kidney transplantation. The Iranian government has committed a large budget through funding hospital and staff at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education by supporting the brain death donation (BDD) program or redirecting part of the budget of living unrelated renal donation (LURD) to the BDD program. It has been shown that it did not prevent the development and progression of a BDD program. However, the LURD program is characterized by several controversial procedures (e.g., confrontation of donor and recipient at the end of the evaluation procedure along with some financial interactions) that should be ethically reviewed. Operational weaknesses such as the lack of a registration system and long-term follow-up of the donors are identified as the 'Achilles heel of the model'.
Full Text Available Background: Transmission of human pathogens can be occurred via inert objects. Paper currency is a further common contact surface whereby pathogens can be transferred within a population although the significance remains unknown. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate microbial populations associated with Iranian paper currency.Methods: This study was carried out by getting 108 samples of the Iranian currency notes (1000, 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000 and 50000 RIALS from food-related shops that included food service outlets, greengrocery, supermarket, bakery, confectionary and poultry meat retail outlets. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count and identification of pathogenic bacteria.Results: The average total bacterial count that was recovered from currency notes was found to be 3.27±0.31 colony forming unites. 2000R had the highest total bacterial count, followed by 5000R, 10000R and the lowest in 50000R. In this study, the isolated bacteria recovered were Bacillus cereus (8.33%, E. coli (48.14%, Staphylococcus aureus (28.7%, Salmonella (0.92%, Listeria monocytogenes (0.92%, Yersinia entrocolitica (6.48%. It was revealed that all the pathogens screened for where encountered on currency notes were recovered from one sample. There were no significant (P>0.05 correlations between the carriage of pathogens/fecal indicator bacteria and currency note condition.Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Iranian currency notes represent a significant vehicle for human pathogens.
Full Text Available A number of innocent rashes occurs in neonates. They are usually transient and self limited and thus require no therapy but early recognition is important to distinguish these lesions from more serious disorders. In this study, our purpose was to determine the frequency of birthmarks in Iranian neonates. The presence of various types of birthmarks was determined in 503 Iranian neonates under 72 hour of age. The physiological skin changes observed in order to frequency were Epstein pearls in 444 (88.27%, Mongolian spot in 409 (81%, erythema toxicum in 272 (54%, sucking blisters in 264 (52.1%, Salmon patch in 262 (52%, milia in 232 (46%, petechia in 41(0.08% and mottling in 29 (0.06%. Petechia was seen more commonly in vaginal delivery and in babies with more birth weight. Mottling was more common in premature and low birth babies. Our data suggest that the incidence of birthmarks in Iranian neonates is similar to the prevalence reported by others in white neonates.
We present a general description of the Iranian calendar and Nowruz, which starts at the precise instant when the Sun coincides with the vernal equinox. Although the paper aims at the basic astronomical elements of the calendar, historical aspects are not ignored. Using the ephemeris provided by the French Institut de Mecanique Celeste et de Calcul des Ephemerides (IMCCE) for the period A.D. -4000 to +2500, we discuss the various definitions of the year and show that the Iranian calendar is based upon the vernal-equinox year and not on the ``tropical year'' of 365.2422 days formulated by researchers in the field of celestial mechanics. Neglecting the short-term fluctuations, the mean length of the Iranian year at the present epoch is 365.2424 solar days, corresponding to the mean interval between two successive passages of the Sun through the vernal equinox. There is now a widely spread confusion between the "tropical" and vernal-equinox years, leading to the erroneous value of 365.2422 days often given for t...
Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption.
Few studies have investigated what information women from minority immigrant groups need about breast cancer and screening. Nor has much research been conducted about how such women would prefer to receive this information. Mere translation of breast cancer and screening information from generic materials, without considering and respecting women's unique historical, political, and cultural experiences, is insufficient. This study explored breast cancer and screening information needs and preferred methods of communication among Iranian immigrant women. A convenience sample of 50 women was recruited and interviewed over a 4-month period (June-September 2008); all resided in Toronto Canada, and had no history of breast cancer. Tape-recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed using a thematic analysis technique. While generic breast health communication focusing on physiological risk information meets some of the needs of Iranian immigrant women, results showed that the needs of this group go beyond this basic information. This group is influenced by historical, sociopolitical, and cultural experiences pre- and post-immigration. Their experiences with chemical war, unsafe physical environment (air and water pollution), and their sociopolitical situation appear to have limited their access to accurate and reliable breast cancer and screening information in their homeland. Moreover, the behavioural and psychosocial changes they face after immigration appear to have a strong influence on their breast cancer and screening information needs. Considering their limited time due to their multiple demands post-migration, multi-media methods were highly preferred as a communication means by this group. The results of this study can be used to guide the design and implementation of culturally sensitive breast health information. For instance, video presentations conducted by a trusted Iranian healthcare professional focusing on socioculturally relevant breast cancer risk
Full Text Available Background: Evaluating emergency medical students’ skill of endotracheal intubation (ETI as the best and challenging procedure to airway control for seriously ill and injured patients, is important for validating the utility and effectiveness of educational experience they previously received. Methods: A descriptive- analytical study was conducted on 146 Iranian freshman students who newly admitted for emergency medical Bachelor’s degree in Alborz medical science university in 2014. Students' knowledge and skill of endotracheal intubation were measured on a model through a visual checklist contains 17 stages in which each stage had a maximum. Data was analysed by the SPSS software through one-sample t- test statistical test. Results: Evaluating students’ knowledge and skill of ETI revealed that however, majority of students had skill’ score more than 30 out of 40 (optimal score, but the mean score of all students showed a negative significant distance between actual gained skill of students and optimal skill according to ETI standard techniques. Moreover, the least distance was seen about stages which was related to initial evaluation, scene evaluation and appropriate position of head and neck that don’t need much skill. Adversely, some stages which were really crucial to survive critically ill patient such as Intubation correctly, Check tube placement and preparing intubation equipment had the most gap to optimal level. Conclusions: Regarding the results, either they haven’t learned ETI courses previously very well or have forgotten whatever they learned. Therefore, training programs both theoretically and practically should be strongly encouraged and given high priority.
... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 562 Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations AGENCY.... The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control is issuing the Iranian Human Rights... PROPERTY OF CERTAIN PERSONS WITH RESPECT TO SERIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES BY THE GOVERNMENT OF IRAN AND...
Tabatabaei, Omid; Molavi, Ahmad
In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated…
Marzban, Amin; Barati, Hossein; Moinzadeh, Ahmad
The present study aimed to explore how tolerant of ambiguity Iranian EFL learners at university level are and if gender plays a role in this regard. To this end, upon filling in the revised SLTAS scale of ambiguity tolerance 194 male and female Iranian teacher trainees were assigned to three ambiguity tolerance groups; namely, high, moderate and…
Hedayati, Hora; Marandi, S. Susan
Despite the spread of reliable technological tools and the availability of computers in Iranian universities, as well as the mounting evidence of the effectiveness of blended learning, many Iranian language teachers are still reluctant to incorporate such tools in their English as a foreign language (EFL) classes. This study inspected the status…
Neghad, Hossein Hashem
This study was undertaken to evaluate Iranian ELT English textbooks (Senior High school and Pre-University) in the light of three learning theories i.e., behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each of these learning theories embedding an array of instructional strategies and techniques acted as evaluation checklist. That is, Iranian ELT…
Poisel, Richard A
Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o
Full Text Available Negotiation is believed to play a key role in language learning in general and vocabulary learning in particular. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of types of instructions (negotiation, non-negotiation, or in isolation on learning and recalling of new words by Iranian learners. Using a quasi-experimental research design, 39 EFL students of a secondary school were sampled and assigned into three experimental groups: the input plus negotiated group (IPN, the input without negotiated group (IWN, and the elaborative, un-instructed input group (EUI. The first group had the chance for negotiated interaction; the second one received the input without any negotiation with their instructor and the last group received elaborative input without any interaction with their teachers. The groups were rated on their degree of comprehension and the acquisition of vocabulary items. The results revealed that negotiation had a non-significant effect over non-negotiation tasks. However, the results indicated that negotiation was significantly effective against un-instruction task. Thus, in acquisition and retention of new vocabulary, IPN group was not significantly different than IWN group, but they outperformed those learners who used their own strategy to learn new words (EUI.
Amiri, Parisa; Jalali-Farahani, Sara; Zarkesh, Maryam; Barzin, Maryam; Kaviani, Robabeh; Ahmadizad, Sajad
The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the Quantification de l'Activite Physique en Altitude Chez les Enfants (QAPACE) in adolescents. After linguistic validation, the Iranian version of the QAPACE was completed by 359 (52.4 % girls) schoolchildren, aged 15-18 years. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was determined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). For validation purposes, two methods were used for (1) the correlation between VO2peak and the DEE and (2) known-group validity, which was examined by comparing the normal weight adolescents and those who were overweight/obese. ICCs for test-retest ranged from 0.79 to 0.98. The mean scores in test-retest surveys for total score and all of the subscores were significant (p activities except for transportation, other activities in school, personal artistic activities, sport competition, and home activities were significantly lower in overweight/obese group than normal group. Our results support the initial reliability and validity of the Iranian version of QAPACE as a daily physical activity measure in adolescents.
Alavi, Afagh; Nafissi, Shahriar; Rohani, Mohammad; Zamani, Babak; Sedighi, Behnaz; Shamshiri, Hosein; Fan, Jian-Bing; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Elahi, Elahe
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease, and the most common in European populations. Results of genetic analysis and mutation screening of SOD1 in a cohort of 60 Iranian ALS patients are here reported. Initially, linkage analysis in 4 families identified a disease-linked locus that included the known ALS gene, SOD1. Screening of SOD1 identified homozygous p.Asp90Ala causing mutations in all the linked families. Haplotype analysis suggests that the p.Asp90Ala alleles in the Iranian patients might share a common founder with the renowned Scandinavian recessive p.Asp90Ala allele. Subsequent screening in all the patients resulted in identification of 3 other mutations in SOD1, including p.Leu84Phe in the homozygous state. Phenotypic features of the mutation-bearing patients are presented. SOD1 mutations were found in 11.7% of the cohort, 38.5% of the familial ALS probands, and 4.25% of the sporadic ALS cases. SOD1 mutations contribute significantly to ALS among Iranians.
Haniye Sadat Sajadi
Full Text Available The critical role of the boards of trustee in the governance of universities clarifies the necessity of evaluating its performance. Despite the importance of such evaluation, evidence demonstrated few studies have been done on the model of board performance evaluation especially in Iran. Aim: This study was aimed to develop a model to evaluate the board performance in Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences. Methodology: The present study was a mix qualitative-quantitative study. The participants were all stakeholders of board performance evaluation. The study, firstly, focused on the world experiences about the models of the board performance evaluation in the universities. Then, this study tried to investigate the current and proposed model of the board performance evaluation in the Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences. Hence, data were collected through interviews, observation and relevant document analysis and analyzed using framework approach. After that, the clustering and rating of the proposed dimensions and indicators of the board performance evaluation was done using the concept mapping method. Finally, the study concentrated on the expert consensus about the initial proposed model of the board performance evaluation. A model was proposed to evaluate the board performance in Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences, which had eight parts and sixty-four indicators proposing for the board performance evaluation. This study helped to develop a valid model to evaluate the board performance evaluation in a special kind of university. Such model can be used to produce useful tool for evaluating the performance of the board.
Full Text Available Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freely choose a series of activities, already predisposed by the teacher, to improve and develop L2 proficiency. This is because human beings have different ways to learn and process information; and, these different ways of learning are independent of each other. In other words, learning styles and techniques differ across individuals; thus, personalized learning provides L2 learners to freely choose the activities they enjoy the most. So it is a student-centered learning method in which the interests and the preferences of the learner is taken into account.The present study is an investigation of a personalized versus normal practice of L2 proficiency. For this purpose an OPT (Oxford Placement Test was given to a total of 80 Iranian EFL learners. Then, 40 of them who were considered as intermediate learners were selected for the purpose of the study. The participants were randomly divided into two groups i.e. an experimental group and a control group. Both groups were pretested prior to the study. Then, the experimental group received the treatment in the form of personalized learning (games-based learning, songs, music, stories, English tongue twisters and the materials that the subjects were most interested in for ten sessions while the control group received a normal practice of speaking proficiency (based on New Interchange course books. After ten sessions, both groups were post tested. Then the results of the posttests were subjects of statistical analysis
Aghagolzadeh, Ferdows; Davari, Hossein
Reviewing and discussing the development of critical studies in the field of applied linguistics in general and English language teaching (ELT) in particular in Iran, this paper attempts to highlight the main contributions in this field. Introducing a new growing critical-oriented shift in Iranian ELT community as the one which has been mostly…
Victor H. Sundquist
Full Text Available The 2009 Iranian Presidential Elections represented one of the most contentious displays of the evolving Iranian democracy since the 1979 Islamic Revolution that led to the removal of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi – the nation’s last shah. This tumultuous political event not only exposed a growing rift between the political and religious ruling elite in that country; it also led to the emergence of an opposition movement that would later be known as the Green Revolution. Viewed through a Western political lens, this revolution represented yet another opportunity for the demise of the ruling Iranian Islamic Regime. Recently, some scholars have questioned whether this movement was ever intended to topple the government in the first place, and have argued instead that it represented the beginning of a long-term civil rights push. To better understand why the Green Movement emerged one must first understand what the original intent of the movement was, as well as the political factors that led to its rapid growth. In order to answer these questions, this article will compare and contrast identified similarities and differences between the 1979 Islamic Revolution and 2009 Green Movement in order to isolate the true intent behind this perceived Iranian political revolt.
Javad Mikaeli; Farhad Islami; Reza Malekzadeh
Achalasia is a primary motor disorder of the esophagus, in which esophageal emptying is impaired.Diagnosis of achalasia is based on clinical findings. The diagnosis is confirmed by radiographic, endoscopic,and manometric evaluations. Several treatments for achalasia have been introduced. We searched the PubMed Database for original articles and metaanalyses about achalasia to summarize the current knowledge regarding this disease, with particular focus on different procedures that are used for treatment of achalasia. We also report the Iranian experience of treatment of this disease, since it could be considered as a model for mediumresource countries. Myotomy,particularly laparoscopic myotomy with fundoplication,is the most effective treatment for achalasia.Compared to other treatments, however, the initial cost of myotomy is usually higher and the recovery period is longer. When performing myotomy is not indicated or not possible, graded pneumatic dilation with slow rate of balloon inflation seems to be an effective and safe initial alternative. Injection of botulinum toxin into the lower esophageal sphincter before pneumatic dilation may increase remission rates. However, this needs to be confirmed in further studies. Due to lack of adequate information regarding the role of expandable stents in the treatment of achalasia, insertion of stents does not currently seem to be a recommended treatment. In summary, laparoscopic myotomy can be considered as the procedure of choice for treatment of achalasia. Graded pneumatic dilation is an effective alternative when the performance of myotomy is not possible for any reason.
Full Text Available Background: Scientific journals are the most credible and updated information resources for valid information in the various fields of science and technology. The present study investigates the status of Iranian scientific journals in disseminating medical information to the world of science. Materials and Methods: Total 163 Iranian medical journals accredited by national medical journals commission of Iranian ministry of health and medical education were evaluated through a cross-sectional study. The results were represented in descriptive statistics in the form of table and chart. Results: The study showed that 89.6% of Iranian medical journals were covered by regional information databases. Web of Science database indexed 22 (13.5% Iranian journals in the field of medical science. Only six (6.7% journals were indexed by Medline. Fifty-eight (35.6% journals were in English, 102 (62.6% in Persian, and three (1.8% were bilingual which published their articles both in Persian and English languages. The highest Impact factor belonged to Iranian Journal of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. Conclusions: Improving scientific credibility of Iranian scholarly journals and their influence in disseminating medical information calls for a precise scientific and executive administration in publishing standards and also in the quality of content.
In 2000, we asked a nationally representative sample of 2,532 Iranian adults "which of the following best describes you: I am an Iranian, above all; I am a Muslim, above all; I am an Arab, a Kurd, a Turk, a Baluch, etc., above all?" We also asked them how proud they are to be Iranian; (1) very proud, (2) proud, (3) not proud, and (4) not proud at all. In the 2005 survey of a nationally representative sample of 2,667 Iranian adults, we asked these questions again. The first question was intended to measure national identity and the second national pride. The results showed that between the two surveys the percent of Iranians who defined themselves as "Iranians, above all" went up significantly-from 35% in 2000 to 42% in 2005. Those who said that they were very proud to be Iranian, on the other hand, went down considerably-from 89% in 2000 to 64% in 2005. What is more, national identity and national pride displayed opposing relationships with the norms and values that were rigorously promoted by Iran's religious regime and these relationships grew stronger between 2000 and 2005. The feeling of national pride was positively linked to attitudes toward gender inequality, religiosity, and religious intolerance, but negatively to attitudes toward the West, while national identity had just the opposite relationships with these variables.
Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyle habits during adolescence can prevent many of the diseases and disabilities in adulthood and later. The aim of the study was to examine the role of education in improving lifestyles among Iranian adolescents.Methods: This group randomized controlled trial was conducted during October 2010 until January 2011 in Tehran. Participants for this study were selected through a random sampling method and divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received a six session course on healthy lifestyles and the control group received no intervention. The Adolescent Lifestyle Questionnaire (ALQ was used for collecting data. Data were collected before the intervention, at a two week after participation time point, and a three month follow-up was conducted.Results: Overall, 365 (male: 173, female: 192 adolescents participated in the study. There were significant differences between boys and girls in terms of physical activity and social support (P<0.001. The boys had higher levels of physical activity than girls. Girls received more social support than boys. There were significant differences in the lifestyle scores between the intervention and control groups at follow-up (P<0.001. The educational intervention indicated an improved total lifestyle score (from 123.7(SD.16.1 at baseline to 131.8 (SD.16.7 at two weeks and to 130.5(16.5 at 3 months after education among the intervention group.Conclusions: Adolescents` behaviors may be different in some dimensions among boys and girls. Unhealthy lifestyle habits are prevalent among adolescents. Therefore sex-specified lifestyle education can bring promising results. Further research in the field can reveal the importance of lifestyle intervention programs.
@@ Sinopec, one of China's big-three oil companies, is now under negotiation with Iranian companies over a landmark multi-billion dollar deal with Iranian firms to import liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the Middle Eastern nation, which would be one of the biggest LNG purchase transactions in the world. The move was revealed by Iranian Vice-President Mohammad Sattarifar in an interview with China's news media in the beginning of April when he visited Beijing to attend the 12th meeting of the China-Iran Commission for Economic, Trade, Scientific and Technological Cooperation.
How to Cite this Article: Soltanifar A, Ashrafzadeh F, Mohareri F, Mokhber N. Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Mothers ofChildren with Epilepsy. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2012;6(1):29-34. ObjectiveEpilepsy is a common neurological disorder in children. Parents with epileptic children have many psychosocial care needs. So the main goal of this study was to evaluate depression and anxiety in Iranian mothers with epileptic children.Materials & MethodsWe identified 30 mothers of chi...
Full Text Available Recent political events have created a political and social climate in the United States that promotes prejudice against Middle Eastern, Iranian, and Muslim peoples. In this study, we were interested in investigating two major questions: (1 How much ethnic harassment do Iranian-American men and women from various religious backgrounds (Muslim, Jewish, or no religious affiliation at all perceive in their day-to-day interactions? (2 To what extent does the possession of stereotypical Middle Eastern, Iranian, or Muslim traits (an accent, dark skin, wearing of religious symbols, traditional garb, etc. spark prejudice and thus the perception of ethnic harassment? Subjects were recruited from two very different sources: (1 shoppers at grocery stores in Iranian-American neighborhoods in Los Angeles, and (2 a survey posted on an online survey site. A total of 338 Iranian-Americans, ages 18 and older, completed an in-person or online questionnaire that included the following: a request for demographic information, an assessment of religious preferences, a survey of how “typically” Iranian-American Muslim or Iranian-American Jewish the respondents’ traits were, and the Ethnic Harassment Experiences Scale. One surprise was that, in general, our participants reported experiencing a great deal of ethnic harassment. As predicted, Iranian-American Muslim men perceived the most discrimination—far more discrimination than did American Muslim women. Overall, there were no significant differences between the various religious groups. All felt discriminated against. Iranian-American men and women, whose appearance was stereotypically Middle Eastern (i.e., they wore Middle Eastern clothing, who had sub-ethnic identification, and who had lower family income, generally reported experiencing the most prejudice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper identifies the views of Iranian clinical nurses regarding the utilization of nursing research in practice. There is a need to understand what restricts Iranian clinical nurses to use research findings. The aim of this study was to identify practicing nurses' view of aspects which they perceived constrain them from research utilization that summarizes and uses research findings to address a nursing practice problem. Methods Data were collected during 6 months by means of face-to face interviews follow by one focus group. Analysis was undertaken using a qualitative content analysis. Results Findings disclosed some key themes perceived by nurses to restrict them to use research findings: level of support require to be research active, to be research minded, the extent of nurses knowledge and skills about research and research utilization, level of educational preparation relating to using research, administration and executive challenges in clinical setting, and theory-practice gap. Conclusion This study identifies constraints that require to be overcome for clinical nurses to actively get involved in research utilization. In this study nurses were generally interested to use research findings. However they felt restricted because of lack of time, lack of peer and manager support and limited knowledge and skills of the research process. This study also confirms that research utilization and the change to research nursing practice are complex issues which require both organizational and educational efforts.
Somayeh Tayefeh Aliakbarkhani
Full Text Available As Iran is one of the richest pistachio germplasms a few studies have been conducted on different sexes of pistachio trees, in areas where this crop emerged. To this end, 40 male and female Iranian pistachio genotypes from Feizabad region, Khorasan, Iran; were evaluated using morphological characters and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. For morphological assessments, 54 variables were considered to investigate similarities between and among the studied genotypes. Morphological data indicated relative superiority in some female genotypes (such as Sefid 1, Sefid Sabuni 2, Garmesiah, and Ghermezdorosht Z regarding characters such as halfcrackedness, the percentages of protein and fat content. 115 polymorphic bands were recorded with 92.83% average polymorphism among all primers. The total resolving power (Rp of the primers was 74.54. The range of genetic similarity varied from about 0.31 to about 0.70. Genotypes were segregated into eight groups at the similarity limit of 0.41. Results of present investigation could be helpful for strategic decisions for maintaining Iranian pistachio genotypes.
For those who see the trend of progress and movement of the Iranian space endeavor from the outside, it can be difficult to understand what goes on behind the scenes. However, for one who observes these events firsthand, they take on a very different meaning. In this book, the author brings new and different profiles of Iran’s space endeavor to light. Iran claims to be the ninth leading country in the world capable of manufacturing satellites and launching them, plans to land an astronaut on the Moon within a decade, and says its own president plans to be the first Iranian astronaut to travel into space. The author explains in this book that not all of these claims are quite as they seem. In addition to technical explanations, the book also includes historical, legal, social and cultural aspects of Iran’s space program as well. It is the author’s goal to create a tangible feeling of Iran’s space endeavor for the readers.
Full Text Available Introduction: Black tea leaf is one of the most important sources of Aluminum in dietary. Therefore this research was conducted to assess the amount of Aluminum in Iranian tea infusion. Methods: To assess Aluminum in Iranian consumed tea, 27 tea samples were analyzed for Al concentration for 10 and 60 min infusion, aluminum concentration was measured with atomic absorption and the results were analyzed by SPSS.13 version. Results: The results showed that minimum and maximum concentration of Al in tea infusion for 10 min infusion was 1.59 and 18.60 mg.L-1 respectively in this regard Baroti and Bamdad tea show the highest and lowest concentration respectively in term of Al, Also Statistical analysis with pair T-test showed that infusion time doesn,t significantly effects on aluminum leaching into infusion (P>0.05. Calculation of percentage "available" Al to the human system showed that 1 L of tea can provide 17.68 % of the daily dietary intake of Al, the percentage "available" for absorption in the intestine is only 8.49 % for overall mean Al concentration. Conclusion: Therefore based on our results, tea consumption in medium values cannot cause toxic effects on human. Although it is necessary to note that tea consumption might be toxic because of effects on people with absorption or secretion problems
Masoud Khalili Sabet
Full Text Available The present study attempts to employ orthographic knowledge enhancement as a tool in order to determine its efficiency in improving Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Orthographic knowledge can be defined as one’s familiarity with the general spelling rules of a language, or the ability to defer those letter combinations that are permissible form those that are not, which makes it an exceptional requirement for effective word identification and as a result successful reading comprehension skill. In doing so, 55 male and female students learning English at pre-intermediate level in a language institute in Astaneh, Guilan, Iran were randomly selected and were equally divided into an experimental and a control group. A researcher-made reading comprehension test followed by multiple-choice items as well as a word identification measure was given to both groups as a pre-test, and then the experimental group received the treatment in eighteen 30-minute sessions, in which the instructor taught skills to enhance students’ orthographic knowledge. Meanwhile, the control group did not receive any specific treatment. Finally the post-test, which was the same as the pre-test was administered. Their scores were calculated through computer softwares. The results indicated that raising orthographic knowledge results in significant improvement in both word identification and reading comprehension. The findings of this study can benefit EFL learners in improving their reading comprehension skill. Keywords: Orthographic knowledge, Word Identification, Reading comprehension, Iranian EFL Learners
Full Text Available Periodic evaluation and monitoring the health and economic outcome of joint replacement surgery is a common and popular process under the territory of joint registries in many countries. In this article we introduce the methodology used for the foundation of the National Iranian Joint Registry (IJR with a joint collaboration of the Social Security Organization (SSO and academic research departments considering the requirements of the Iran’s Ministry of Health and Education.
Lindert, A. te; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Vijver, F.J.R. van de; Kroon, S.; Arends-Tóth, J.
The relations between perceived discrimination, perceived acceptance of immigrants, acculturation orientations, and acculturation outcomes (psychological and sociocultural adjustment) were investigated in a sample of 232 Iranian refugees in the Netherlands. A good fit was found for a path model with
Ghazinoory, Sepehr; Ghazinoori, Soroush; Azadegan-Mehr, Mandana
Recently, a few of scientific journals raise serious questions about scientific ethics and moral judgment of some of the Iranian government's senior executives in their papers. Plagiarism, under any circumstances is not justified, and we do not intend to justify it in this note. However, we find it useful in understanding why otherwise respected, responsible individuals may engage in plagiarism by terse review of the history Iranian academia.
Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh
Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carrie...
stronger . These issues are discussed at more length in the following chapters. 20 This page intentionally left blank...Iranian nation is not a nation that would bear bullying . The Iranian nation is a strong nation. The Islamic Republic’s system is a deep-rooted and...and Israel’s cyber effort against Iran’s nuclear program.117 Despite some of Iran’s claims, a U.S. role in the assassinations did not gain as much
Negarandeh Reza; Dehghan Nayeri Nahid
Abstract Background This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to explore how Iranian hospital nurses perceive and resolve conflicts at work. A ...
Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh
Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carrie...
Hossein Hashem Neghad
This study was undertaken to evaluate Iranian ELT English textbooks (Senior High school and Pre-University) in the light of three learning theories i.e., behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each of these learning theories embedding an array of instructional strategies and techniques acted as evaluation checklist. That is, Iranian ELT English textbooks were evaluated in terms of instructional strategies and techniques cited in the related literature for each learning theory. The ana...
Taherkhani, Sakineh; Negarandeh, Reza; Simbar, Masomeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
Violence against women has been identified as a public health problem, which has fundamental consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. To understand abused women and provide support for them, it is necessary to enter the world in which the victims of intimate partner violence live. This study was designed to investigate experiences of abused Iranian women of intimate partner violence. Content analysis approach was used to design this qualitative study. Participants were 11 married women, selected from two health centers and one park located in the south of Tehran, Iran. Purposive sampling method was applied to recruit the study participants and continued until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured interviews were employed to collect data. During the data analysis, 650 initial codes were clustered in six subcategories and two categories. "Neglect or covert violence" and "overt violence" were two categories emerged through data analysis, both having physical, sexual, and emotional dimensions. Emotional violence was the most prevalent in both cases and had more significance for the women. Neglect was much more common than overt violence. It was the precursor for overt violence. Although participants had experienced both neglect and overt violence, the major part of experienced violence was neglect. This type of violence usually is not addressed or recognized and is difficult to identify, but it is damaging to women. Knowledge of women‟s experiences of intimate partner violence makes the health staff provide better care for abused women.
Full Text Available Because peat has high organic content and high natural water content, it is potentially problematic for civil engineering projects involving construction on peatland. Therefore, it is important to understand the physical, chemical and geotechnical properties of the peat. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the properties of two Iranian peat types. Peat and water samples were collected from sites within two extensive wetland areas (Chaghakhor Wetland and Gavkhuni Swamp where construction works are planned. Both sites had peat layers more than three metres thick, which were sampled at depths of 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, 2.4 and 3.0 metres below ground level with four replicates per site. Degree of humification was determined in the field. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the pH of water and peat; and the natural (field moisture content, organic content, ash content, bulk density, dry density, density of solids, liquid limit, initial void ratio, linear shrinkage, unconfined compressive strength, shear strength and falling-head permeability of each peat sample. We also investigated the elemental compositions and microstructure of the peats using X-Ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. The laboratory tests of physical and geotechnical properties indicated that, for construction purposes, Chaghakhor peat is weaker than Gavkhuni peat.
Full Text Available Decision-making problems in the area of financial status evaluation are considered very important. Making incorrect decisions in firms is very likely to cause financial crises and distress. Predicting financial distress of factories and manufacturing companies is the desire of managers and investors, auditors, financial analysts, governmental officials, employees. Therefore, the current study aims to predict financial distress of Iranian Companies. The current study applies support vector data description (SVDD to the financial distress prediction problem in an attempt to suggest a new model with better explanatory power and stability. To serve this purpose, we use a grid-search technique using 3-fold cross-validation to find out the optimal parameter values of kernel function of SVDD. To evaluate the prediction accuracy of SVDD, we compare its performance with fuzzy c-means (FCM.The experiment results show that SVDD outperforms the other method in years before financial distress occurrence. The data used in this research were obtained from Iran Stock Market and Accounting Research Database. According to the data between 2000 and 2009, 70 pairs of companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange are selected as initial data set.
Salehi, Alireza; Alembizar, Faranak; Hosseinkhani, Ayda
Studying the history of science could help develop an understanding of the contributions made by ancient nations towards scientific advances. Although Iranians had an important impact on the improvement of science, the history of Iranian medicine seems not to have been given enough attention by historians. The present study focused on the history of anesthesia and pain management in Iranian medical history. In this regard, related books such as Avesta and Shahnameh were studied in order to obtain the history of anesthesiology in Iranian pre Islamic era. This subject was also studied in the famous books of Rhazes, Haly Abbas, Avicenna, Jorjani, MomenTunekaboni and Aghili from different times of the Islamic era. Scientific data bases such as PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched using key words "Iranian", "Persian", "pain management" and "anesthesia". It was discovered that pain management and anesthesiology were well known to the Iranians. Rhazes and Avicenna had innovations in this regard. Fourteen Mokhader (anesthetic) herbs, which were included in the collection of the previous knowledge of the 18th century entitled Makhzan al-Advieyh and used as the Persian Materia Medica, were identified and listed. This study introduces the history of anesthesiology and pain management at different periods in the history of Iran.
Full Text Available Cigarette butts have been shown to release numerous kinds of chemicals such as heavy metals in water and may be a continual source of aquatic environments contamination after discarding. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of Cd and Pb in cigarette filters of different Iranian and non-Iranian brands in smoked and non-smoked samples. Methods: Ten different brands of cigarettes were collected from Tehran, Iran local markets in 2014. Standardized international protocols were followed for preparation of the materials and analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Cd contents. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 18 software by ANOVA and Student T tests. Results: The average concentration of Cd in Iranian cigarette filters was 0.42±0.03mg/kg and in non-Iranian cigarette filters was 0.31±0.05mg/kg (p=0.4. The average concentration of Pb in Iranian cigarette filters was 22.32±1.15mg/kg and in non-Iranian cigarette filters was 23.62±3.17mg/kg (p=0.072. The Cadmium concentration in cigarette filters ranged from 0.18 to 0.48μg/g before and 0.25 to 0.88μg/g after smoking. The Lead concentration in cigarette filters ranged from 16.63 to 33.52μg/g before and 20.14 to 53.55μg/g after smoking. Conclusion: Smoked cigarette filters have more concentrations of Cd and Pb than non-smoked cigarette filters and these concentrations are also different between Iranian and non-Iranian cigarette brands.
Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah
Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .
Full Text Available This paper examined some common problems involving prepositions in learning a second language. Many students learning English as a foreign language commonly commit mistakes in prepositions. The aim of this paper is to survey the causes of errors in the use of prepositions that are frequently made by Iranian students. A diagnostic test (35 Multiple choice item was constructed to test the students proficiency in using these prepositions. The prepositions selected for this purpose were; to, in, at, on, with, of, from, for, about, during, into under, over and by. This test was given to a group of 35 intermediate students. The results indicated that the errors committed by the students were due to both Inter-lingual and Intra-lingual interferences. It is hoped that this research will help teachers of English Language to be aware of these problems and re-evaluate their teaching approach.
Full Text Available Data mining is the process of extracting valuable and novel knowledge from large data. It is analysis of data sets for finding patterns, relationships and help to summarize the knowledge for various goals. This investigation is motivated to study the students’ academic performance in high schools during 4 years which are collected from the department of education, Shiraz, Iran. Since one of the main challenges in Iranian schools is, prediction of students’ academic performance and their success in university entrance exam, therefore, we applied different classification and prediction algorithms on students’ data for discovering the possibility of predicting students’ scores before examination. Our results show that, it is possible to predict students’ gender, marks with applying classification and prediction algorithms and verifying some factors which are mentioned in this paper
Full Text Available Investigating how foreign language learners’ discourse mediates their demotivation construction is a relatively new area of inquiry. This paper examined the discursive construction of four (two males and two females Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners’ demotivation at Shiraz University, Iran. Employing Fairclough’s (2003 critical discourse analysis framework, the present study revealed that demotivation is not uni-dimensional and static; rather, it is complex, multi-dimensional, and dynamic, which is discursively constructed in the constant interaction between the individual and the social context. Findings also indicated that the discursive construction of demotivation involved simultaneous interaction of multiple levels of learners’ interpersonal relationships, their future self-guides, and factors in local and broader social, cultural and political milieus.
Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah
Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them.
Motlagh, Maria G; Seddigh, Arshia; Dashti, Behnoosh; Leckman, James F; Alaghband-Rad, Javad
The search for vulnerability genes for Tourette syndrome has been ongoing for nearly three decades. The contribution of recessive loci with reduced penetrance is one possibility that has been difficult to explore. Homozygosity mapping has been successfully used to detect recessive loci within populations with high rates of consanguinity. Using this technique, even quite small inbred families can be informative due to autozygosity in which the two alleles at an autosomal locus are identical by descent (i.e., copies of a single ancestral gene). To explore the utility of this approach, we identified 12 consanguineous Iranian families. Remarkably, these families were seen with an unusual natural history characterized by the early onset of vocal tics and coprolalia and frequent comorbidity with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Genotyping the affected and unaffected members of these pedigrees has the potential to identify rare recessive contributions to this disorder.
Full Text Available The main focus of this study, which is of the most important and most frequent speech acts used in multicultural settings, is the speech act of apology. It probes native Persian-speaking ESL university students’ apology and non-apology strategies based on Cohen and Olshtain’s (1981 frame work to evince variations ascribed to gender, mother tongue, and culture. The results of this survey reveal that Iranian male and female respondents use different percentages of apology and non-apology strategies. Considering significance levels, in general, except for a few strategies, there is no statistically significant difference between the groups considering the number and type of strategies used.
Full Text Available Patient's preoccupations with perceived defect in appearance or excessive concern about minimal flaws are among diagnostic criteria of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. Sufferers usually seek cosmetic procedures such as orthodontic treatment. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of BDD among a sample of Iranian orthodontic patients. A total of 270 orthodontic patients were evaluated with BDD-YBOCS questionnaire for the diagnosis of BDD. Fifteen patients (5.5% were screened positive for BDD. BDD was more frequent among females, singles and in younger patients. Most of the BDD patients experienced multiple previous orthodontic evaluations. The relative high prevalence of BDD among orthodontic patients in Iran offers that orthodontists should take psychologically based problems such as BDD into account while evaluating patient's orthodontic problems.
Full Text Available Email has become a widespread medium of communication between students and their instructors, however; there is a limited amount of research on instructional role and uses of email in academic context. The present study investigated the communication strategies in email messages sent by Iranian EFL students to their male instructors in relation to their socioeconomic status (such as family income and education level. Moreover, the relationships between communication strategies and gender were examined. Email message sent by male and female students to their male instructors during the academic year 2012-2013 were analyzed for communication strategies (requesting, negotiating, reporting, social. The results of quantitative and qualitative statistics revealed that there were significant relationships between communication strategies and participants’ socioeconomic status. In addition, there were significant relationships between communication strategies and gender.
Full Text Available Background: As English has increasingly become the lingua franca in science and international journals require native- like academic writing standards from nonnative researchers, there is more pressure on nonnative scholars to write their research articles more accurately and appropriately in English.This study was conducted to determine the most-occurring language-related errors which Iranian medical authors/ researchers commit while trying to have their research published in international English journals. Also, this article seeks to provide useful guidelines to reduce such linguistic mistakes.Methods: The present study investigated the most common language-related errors in Iranian medical specialists' research articles. To this end, the first drafts of 60 published research articles in medical sciences were cross-checked against their peer-reviewed published versions in order to identify the most frequent non-target language forms which received discoursal, lexical, grammatical, and mechanical revisions by peer editors.Results: The findings revealed that the editors had surprisingly dealt with discoursal errors more than any other linguistic aspects of these research articles. This was followed by lexical replacements. In third place were grammatical improvements, where erroneous structures mostly related to tenses, usage of articles and prepositions, and agreement between verbs and nouns were treated. The least common revisions were on the mechanics of academic writing, consisting of hyphenating, spelling, case lettering, spacing, and spacing with commas.Conclusion: Although most of the Iranian medical authors/researchers enjoyed a good level of proficiency in English, their manuscripts required discoursal, lexical, grammatical, and mechanical revisions before publication in credited international journals.
Ali Mohammad Foroughmand
Conclusion: The examined STR loci in this study have proven a relatively high genetic variation in the Iranian population. The data could be used for construction of a forensic genetic database for the Iranian population.
Full Text Available This article charts Iran’s relations with Central Asia following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. This event gave Iran a new set of neighbours to the north, and this came at a time when Iran was undergoing changes in the direction of its foreign policy from radical idealistic goals, such as the export of the Islamic Revolution, to more pragmatic aims, including giving priority to its own national interests and pursuing good neighbourly relations. Since 1991, Iran has attempted to develop relations towards the Central Asian states, both bilaterally and through various regional fora. Iran’s actions have been based, in part, on a greater commitment to regionalism that has been evident in Iranian foreign policy since the early 1990s. This has focused on cultivating economic, infrastructural and cultural links with the region, rather than any form of ideological crusade, and has helped reduce Iran’s international isolation. Following a historical contextualisation and explanation of the place that the lands of Central Asia hold in the Iranian geopolitical imagination, the article explores the key concerns of Iran in the region. It will examine Iran’s position on what it perceives as being the key issues shaping its Central Asian diplomacy, namely regional economic cooperation, pipeline politics, the status of the Caspian Sea, security cooperation and cultural diplomacy. This provides a revealing case study of how Iran perceives itself as a vital player in the region, seeking to emphasise the benefits of its geostrategic location, relative stability, and increasing international role following the nuclear deal.
Gholamipour, P; Mahmoudi, S; Pourakbari, B; Ashtiani, M Taghi Haghi; Sabouni, F; Teymuri, M; Mamishi, S
Candida spp. especially Candida albicans is considered as one of the most common cause of fungal infections. The aim of our study was to determine epidemiology of candiduria in children who were referred to an Iranian referral hospital. During May 2011 to February 2013, among 4813 urine culture positive, 209 candida spp. isolates (4.3%) was found. Forty-one percent of cadiduria infection was seen in patients between 1 month and 1 year, 24% in neonatant and 24% in patients 1 to 5 years. Cadiduria was mainly found in patients who had received more than 2 or 3 antibiotic during their hospitalization (37% and 24%, respectively). In our study, the highest frequency of cadiduria was seen in patients who had received more than 2 antibiotics and more than 3 antibiotics during their hospitalization; therefore, the strategic goals to optimize antimicrobial use including optimizing choice and duration of empiric therapy as well as monitoring and providing feedback regarding antibiotic resistance are recommended.
Pakpour, Amir H; Saffari, Mohsen; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed;
This study evaluated the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of Iranian patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. The data were compared with the HRQOL for the Iranian general population.......This study evaluated the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of Iranian patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. The data were compared with the HRQOL for the Iranian general population....
Mahmudi, Zoleikha; Tahamtan, Iman; Sedghi, Shahram; Roudbari, Masoud
We conducted a comprehensive bibliometrics analysis to calculate the H, G, M, A and R indicators for all Iranian biomedical research centers (IBRCs) from the output of ISI Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus between 1991 and 2010. We compared the research performance of the research centers according to these indicators. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study, conducted on 104 Iranian biomedical research centers between August and September 2011. We collected our data through Scopus and WoS. Pearson correlation coefficient between the scientometrics indicators was calculated using SPSS, version 16. The mean values of all indicators were higher in Scopus than in WoS. Drug Applied Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences had the highest number of publications in both WoS and Scopus databases. This research center along with Royan Institute received the highest number of citations in both Scopus and WoS, respectively. The highest correlation was seen between G and R (.998) in WoS and between G and R (.990) in Scopus. Furthermore, the highest overlap of the 10 top IBRCs was between G and H in WoS (100%) and between G-R (90%) and H-R (90%) in Scopus. Research centers affiliated to the top ranked Iranian medical universities obtained a better position with respect to the studied scientometrics indicators. All aforementioned indicators are important for ranking bibliometrics studies as they refer to different attributes of scientific output and citation aspects.
Amir H. Pakpour, PhD
Conclusion: The results provide evidence for good reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the PEDT. The questionnaire therefore represents a suitable tool for screening PE in Iranian men. Pakpour AH, Yekaninejad MS, Nikoobakht MR, Burri A, and Fridlund B. Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. Sex Med 2014;2:31–40.
Eysenck, Sybil B. G.; And Others
Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was completed by 1,076 Iranian early adolescents, and their scores were compared to scores obtained previously for English children. Iranian boys scored higher than girls on the psychoticism and lower on the neuroticism and social desirability scales. Iranian children scored higher than English children on…
Mahdavi Zafarghandi, Amir; Jodai, Hojat
This study intends to represent attitudes toward English and English learning at an Iranian military university. Iranian military staff is required to study English in a social environment where there is little immediate need or opportunity to use the language for real communicative purposes.The subjects included 34 Iranian military personnel who…
Ramezani, Afsaneh Effatdokht; Dehgahi, Meysam; Hashemi, Hanie
This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students…
Nassiry, M R; Shahroodi, F Eftekhar; Mosafer, J; Mohammadi, A; Manshad, E; Ghazanfari, S; Mohammad Abadi, M R; Sulimova, G E
The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune response by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. DRB3 gene has been extensively evaluated as a candidate marker for association with various bovine diseases and immunological traits. This study describes genetic variability in the BoLA-DRB3 in Iranian Holstein cattle. This is the first study of the DNA polymorphism of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in Iranian Holstein cattle. Hemi-nested PCR-RFLP method is used for identification the frequency of BoLA-DRB3 alleles. The BoLA-DRB3 locus is highly polymorphic in the studied herd (26 alleles). Almost 67% of the alleles were accounted for four alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2*8, *24, *11 and *16) in Iranian Holstein cattle. The DRB3.2*8 allele frequency (26.6%) was higher than the others. The frequencies of the DRB3.2*54, *37, *36, *28, *25, *14, *13, *10, *1 alleles were lower than 1%. Significant distinctions have been found between Iranian Holstein cattle and other cattle breeds studied. In Iranian Holstein cattle the alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2*22, *2 and *16) associated with a lower risk of cystic ovarian disease in Holstein cattle are found. The alleles associated with the resistance to mastitis and to bovine leukemia virus infection BoLA-DRB3.2*11 and *23 are detected with the frequencies 10.4% and 4.4%, respectively. Thus in the Iranian Holstein cows studied are found alleles which are associated with resistance to various diseases. The method of DNA-typing of animals can be used in agricultural practice for BoLA-DRB3 allele genotyping of cattle in order to reduce spreading of alleles providing susceptibility to mastitis or leukemia in cattle herds.
Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.
Project WINGS (Women Initiating New Goals of Safety): A randomised controlled trial of a screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) service to identify and address intimate partner violence victimisation among substance-using women receiving community supervision.
Gilbert, Louisa; Shaw, Stacey A; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Rowe, Jessica; McCrimmon, Tara; Almonte, Maria; Goodwin, Sharun; Epperson, Matthew
The high rate of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimisation found among substance-using women receiving community supervision underscores the need for effective IPV victimisation screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment services (SBIRT) for this population. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) aims to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of a single-session computerised self-paced IPV SBIRT (Computerised WINGS) in identifying IPV victimisation among women under community supervision and increasing access to IPV services, compared to the same IPV SBIRT service delivered by a case manager (Case Manager WINGS). This RCT was conducted with 191 substance-using women in probation and community court sites in New York City. No significant differences were found between Computerised and Case Manager WINGS arms on any outcomes. Both arms reported identical high rates of any physical, sexual or psychological IPV victimisation in the past year (77% for both arms) during the intervention. Both arms experienced significant increases from baseline to the 3-month follow-up in receipt of IPV services, social support, IPV self-efficacy and abstinence from drug use. Findings suggest that both modalities of WINGS show promise in identifying and addressing IPV victimisation among substance-using women receiving community supervision. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jansma, P. A.
A description of the general design of both the block 3 and block 4 receiver-exciter controllers for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Mark IV-A System is presented along with the design approach. The controllers are designed to enable the receiver-exciter subsystem (RCV) to be configured, calibrated, initialized and operated from a central location via high level instructions. The RECs are designed to be operated under the control of the DMC subsystem. The instructions are in the form of standard subsystem blocks (SSBs) received via the local area network (LAN). The centralized control provided by RECs and other DSCC controllers in Mark IV-A is intended to reduce DSN operations costs from the Mark III era.
Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad Akhoundi
Full Text Available Objectives: Health care workers, including dentists, are at the front line for acquiring blood-borne virus infections. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses among Iranian dentists. Material and Methods: The survey included 1628 dental health care workers who attended the 51st annual Congress of the Iranian Dental Association. Data on the risk of blood-borne virus transmission during health care and infection control practices were gathered from self-administered questionnaires. Sera were screened serologically by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The positive samples were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PRC followed by direct sequencing. Results: Six (0.36% and 81 (5.0% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and (anti-hepatitis B virus core antigen (anti-HBc, respectively. Only 1 (0.061% was positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV. No case was positive for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV. One case was diagnosed as being occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. One thousand five hundred thirty-five (94.3% of participants had received at least 1 dose of HBV vaccine. One thousand three hundred fifty-nine (88.5% contained hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs > 10 IU/ml, of whom 55 (4.0% were anti-HBc positive, suggesting that they had been infected with HBV in the past. Anti-HBc positive cases had past histories of hepatitis, either their own or their spouses’. Individuals with inadequate anti-HBs levels (< 10 IU/ml were significantly more prevalent among anti-HBc positive cases (p < 0.001. Conclusions: The prevalence of blood-borne viruses among dental HCWs found in this study was lower than past reports from Iranian dentists and general population. The implementation of HBV vaccination together with improvement in infection control procedures has reduced the potential for risk infection among Iranian dentists.
Full Text Available Tackling learners’ erroneous oral output has always been a substantial issue for both language teachers and researchers. Taking Swain’s output hypothesis and Schmidt’s noticing hypothesis into account, this study aims at investigating the effect of task- initiated noticing along with task repetition sessions as a route to destabilization of learner errors. The participants of the study were thirty two Iranian upper-intermediate learners. The participants were divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. Both groups’ voices were recorded while delivering a prepared speech. The participants in experimental group were given the recorded presentation to be transcribed and compared with the original text they used while the control group didn’t receive feedback of any kind. The experimental group submitted a draft to their teacher who checked the papers and later asked them to prepare themselves for another prepared speech in the future. There was a pre-test, a treatment and a post-test. The comparison of the erroneous utterances in both groups lent support to the effectiveness of task repetition and noticing on destabilization of learners’ oral output. Keywords: fossilization, noticing, task repetition, output
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of using podcast on listening comprehension among Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners. To fulfill the objectives of the study a Homogeneity test (Oxford Quick Placement Test was administered among 90 students at the pre-intermediate level of Poyesh language Institute and finally 60 participants were selected. Then, they were non-randomly divided into two subgroups, namely control and experimental groups. Before starting the treatment, a validated teacher-made listening comprehension test was administered to students as pre-test to assess the participants' listening comprehension at the beginning of the course. Then, the experimental group received the treatment, which was teaching listening comprehension through using podcasts while the control group was taught using traditional methods of teaching listening with no multimedia source. After 20 sessions of treatment, the two groups were administered the same teacher-made listening test as post-test. Data were analyzed by Paired and Independent Samples t-test. The findings showed that the experimental group significantly performed better than the control group. Generally, the experimental groups outperformed the control groups. The results suggest that podcasts can be used in English classes to develop listening ability among Iranian EFL learners.
Alimoradi, Zainab; Kariman, Nourossadat; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ahmadi, Fazlollah
ABSTRACT Background: Adolescence is a period of overwhelming changes and challenges, which expose the adolescents to high-risk behaviors. Risky sexual relationship is one of these behaviors that entails physical risks and psychosocial harms. Various factors have been recognized to shape sexual behaviors in adolescents. This paper is an attempt to investigate the factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods: A literature review of the research published by Iranian authors, in Farsi or English language in local and foreign journals, was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, IranDoc, and Google Scholar. The search in each database included all the years covered at that time using keywords such as “sexual, adolescents, and Iran”, and continued using other keywords such as “sexual behavior, high-risk behavior, sexual risk and reproductive behavior” individually and in combination Results: Sixteen published articles were identified. Factors contributing to high-risk sexual behaviors in girls can be divided into four general groups including personal, family, peer, school and community. Conclusion: Regarding the identified risk and protective factors, appropriate individual, family and school-based interventions can be designed and implemented to strengthen protective factors. While individual and family factors are considered more in research, factors related to peers, school and community have received less attention. Since social values, beliefs and norms are important factors in formation of sexual behaviors, further research regarding these factors is suggested. PMID:28097173
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the impact of multimodal text on reading comprehension test performance of Iranian intermediate learners. A total of 80 students participated in this study. All of them were Iranian female EFL learners with the age ranging from 16 to 18. They were selected from a boarding high school in Nasr Abad, Torbat Jam in Khorasan e Razavi, Iran. The students were randomly settled in four groups, who received different instructional approaches through using linear texts, multimodal printed texts, non-printed multimodal texts, and both multimodal printed and non-printed texts. A pre-test and post-test were used to find out the differences before and after the experimental treatment. The results reflected that the printed and non-printed multimodal texts had significant impact on reading comprehension test performance. In contrast, applying linear texts or traditional texts did not exert significant influence on reading comprehension ability of the participants. The findings provide useful hints for language instructors to improve effectiveness of instructional reading curriculums and reading ability of language learners. The participants who learned reading comprehension through using multimodal printed and non-printed texts enjoy reading programs and develop their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for improving reading ability.
Full Text Available Self-assessment is one of the attractive new alternative assessment forms which raises learners’ awareness of their individual progress, and encourages learners to become autonomous learners (Harris, 1997. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of self-assessment on speaking skill of Iranian EFL learners. The participants were 60 pre intermediate Iranian EFL learners. The participants in experimental group received training and practiced self-assessment of their speaking ability during the semester; however, participants in control group experienced no self-assessment. At the end of the semester, the participants in both groups were interviewed as posttest. The results revealed that self-assessment practices helped the participants of the study to improve their speaking ability. Moreover, participants had generally positive attitudes toward the notion of self-assessment and showed their willingness to continue self-assessment in future; however, they were in favor of teacher assessment too. The findings of the study offer several implications for teachers and practitioners.
Full Text Available A large number of variables influence the way a learner comprehends a reading passage, one of which is prior knowledge. This study examines this variable to discover its effect on the reading comprehension ability of Iranian EFL learners. The data was elicited from sixty-eight intermediate level students who were studying English as a foreign language in a private language institute in Rasht, a city in the north of Iran. After an English Proficiency test, they were divided in two groups, an experimental group and a control one. A pre-test was administered to both groups. Consequently, the experimental group received the treatment. Finally, a post-test was administered to both groups in order to find out the differences between two groups. The experimental group outperformed the control group. It was concluded that schematic knowledge has a noticeable significance on improving the reading comprehension skill of Iranian EFL Learners. Therefore, the activation of schematic knowledge prior to the reading process can be a useful method in teaching reading comprehension in language classes. Keywords: schematic knowledge, EFL learners, reading comprehension
Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Karimpour-Razkenari, Elahe; Saeedi, Mina; Bagheri, Maryam S; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Sadati, Narges; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh; Ardekani, Mohammad R S
In recent years, rapid population growth and unsafe abortions have emerged as controversial health issues in some countries. Hence, safe and effective contraceptive methods or agents have attracted a great deal of attention and the corresponding market has been widely expanded. In this study, we present a review profiting from Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) to introduce expedient plants as efficient contraceptive agents. Medicinal plants suggested as contraceptive agents were obtained from ITM text books and they were also investigated using search engines to confirm their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. According to credible Iranian medical literature a wide spectrum of plants possesses contraceptive activity and among them, Ruta graveolens, Ricinus communis, Piper nigrum, and Physalis alkekengi were found to be more efficient. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), particularly herbal remedies have received a lot of attention because of their truly healing properties. Focusing on ITM knowledge, there are various comments based on medicinal plants to reduce unsafe abortions leading to better public health in the society.
Full Text Available Developing reading comprehension ability is an important aspect in acquisition of a language. The present study focused on improving reading comprehension ability through Task-based Instruction (TBI. TBI is a methodology that develops from a focus on classroom tasks. The participants of the study were 135 Iranian female students at different levels selected from high schools in Isfahan, Iran, through a quasi-experimental design. The participants were divided into four groups, two control groups (CGs and two experimental groups (EGs. They received a pre-test, the instruction, and a post-test. The participants in EGs were taught through TBI, whereas CGs were exposed to a traditional method. The comparison between CGs and EGs were made through paired sample t-tests. The results revealed that the students in EGs outperformed CGs. The difference between the two grades was also investigated by independent sample t-test. The results showed that students at first-grade outperformed fourth-graders. The findings suggest that using flexible and interactive tasks in English classes improves reading comprehension ability of Iranian EFL learners. This study may have pedagogical implications for practitioners in the field and for syllabus designers to include appropriate tasks in English textbooks.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Methylphenidate is one of the basic drugs in treating ADHD. According to many clinical studies, the foreign form of methylphenidate (ritalin is more efficient than the Iranian form of the drug (stimidate. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of stimidate and Ritalin in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Materials & Methods: In this double blind, randomized clinical trial, 200 children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder who referred to Isfahan psychiatric clinics were studied. For 100 of these patients ritalin was prescribed while others received stimidate. After 4 weeks, changes in severity of symptoms were evaluated with parental form of Conner's questionnaire. Results: After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean decrease of Conner's number in Ritalin group was 19.63±13.5 and in Stimidate group was 3.29±7.2. Ritalin had effectiveness in treatment of 83.3 percent of the patients ( 6 reduction in Conner's number, but Stimidate was only effective in treating 37.5 percent of the patients. Conclusion: This study showed that foreign methylphenidate (ritalin is more effective than the Iranian form of the medicine (stimidate.
Full Text Available Reduced forms are thought to have a significant influence on understanding spoken language. They are important aspects of spoken language which have sometimes been undervalued in material development, teaching, and testing. This problem is further aggravated in an Iranian EFL setting. In an attempt to address this issue, this study set out to examine the familiarity of Iranian EFL learners with reduced forms as well as the relationship between the proficiency level of language learners and their familiarity with reduced forms. To this end, a test of RFs on listening comprehension was developed based on the literature and findings of a pilot study. Afterward, 306 English language learners were selected from two Iranian cities of Shiraz and Ahwaz based on multi-stage cluster sampling to participate in the study. The results of this study indicate that Iranian EFL learners are not familiar with RFs in spoken language. However, in contrast to earlier findings, there was a significant difference between the performance of advanced and intermediate learners based on their familiarity with reduced forms. Keywords: Iranian EFL Learners, Reduced Forms, Spoken English, Proficiency Level
Seyyed Hamid Reza Ramazani
Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. can avoid the deleterious effects of low temperatures by using environmental adaptation strategies such as vernalization requirement and photoperiod reaction. Awareness of the genetic factors influencing growth and flowering patterns is necessary for introducing new varieties to specific environments. We performed morphological and genetic studies of 104 lines and cultivars of Iranian wheat genotypes, including four durum genotypes, obtained from national wheat breeding programmes. We used sequence-tagged site (STS-PCR with specific primers to identify alleles affecting the sensitivity to vernalization and photoperiod response at the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1, and Ppd-D1 loci. Some morphological traits such as percentage germination, growth habit, final leaf number (FLN, ear length, and days to ear emergence were also measured. Results showed that FLN and days to ear emergence are the best morphological traits to study wheat flowering time. Allelic variation showed that Vrn-D1 is more frequent than other genes in Iranian wheat genotypes, and so most Iranian genotypes are vernalization-insensitive. In addition, most genotypes were photoperiod-insensitive because of the semi-dominant mutation allele, Ppd-D1a. Based on allelic variation and morphological traits, we identified five classes of Iranian genotypes. The allelic variation study and morphology evaluation of this germplasm showed that the majority of Iranian cultivars and breeding lines are spring varieties and insensitive to day length.
Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor A; Mannion, Russell; Mahdipour, Saeade
Performance measurement systems are increasingly used to reward and improve provider performance. However, such initiatives may also inadvertently induce a range of unintended and dysfunctional side-effects. This study explores the unintended and adverse consequences induced by the Iranian national hospital grading programme, which incorporates financial incentives for meeting nationally defined standards. We interviewed key informants across four key groups with a legitimate interest in healthcare performance: four purposively selected hospitals; four health insurance organizations; the Iranian hospital accreditation body; and one grading agency. The transcribed interviews and field notes were analysed thematically, and subsequently, member checking was conducted. Seven dysfunctional consequences were identified: misrepresentation of data by hospitals; increased anxiety and stress among hospital employees; tunnel vision; financial pressures on poorly graded hospitals; incentives to purchase unnecessary equipment; erosion of public trust; and restricting access to hospital services by patients. These were caused by the way the grading system was implemented: poor standards of audit; the way in which the audit process was conducted; and the timing of audits. The pay for performance element of the grading system and the focus on structural aspects in the standards made improvement in grading particularly difficult for those hospitals that had been assessed as under-performing. Although the Iranian hospital grading system has resulted in a significant increase in the adoption of national standards, it has nevertheless induced a range of perverse outcomes. To mitigate these requires further refinement and recalibration of the system. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...
Full Text Available A wide range of population, 4% to 30%, suffers from tinnitus that is defined as perception of sound without apparent acoustic stimulus. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population; Tehran province. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2009, recruiting 3207 individuals (age range, 7-98 who were residing in Tehran province, Iran. Participants were asked to fill two questionnaires; the validated Persian version of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and another one that was specifically designed for this study. Prevalence of tinnitus and its association factors were evaluated. 3207 participants enrolled into our study comprising 1429 (44.7% male and 1765 (55.3% female with mean age of 55.01±17.85. Of total of 3207 participants, 146 (4.6% had tinnitus consisting of 80 male (54.8% and 66 (45.2% female participants. It showed a rising trend with increasing age that was especially significant after the sixth decade of life (P=0.001. The analysis showed mean TQ global score of 35.96±25.52 that was significantly different between male and female participants (P=0.051 and had no significant correlation with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.10. The tinnitus intensity was moderate to very severe in 95 (56.1% of the participants. Its severity level was not significantly different between men and women (P=0.09. Tinnitus intensity had no significant association with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.31. Patients with higher TQ global score had higher tinnitus intensities (P=0.001. The annoyance level was significantly different between men and women (P=0.04 and its impact on the participants daily routine functions were significantly higher in men (P=0.003. Given the results of the study, demonstrating that prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population (Tehran province was lower than the other countries and had a direct correlation with increasing age only after the sixth
Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...
Full Text Available Limited studies have examined the relationship between quality of life and lifestyle behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of quality of life among young Iranian women and its association with lifestyle behaviors.This cross-sectional study was conducted among 391 young women selected through a cluster convenience sampling strategy in Shiraz, Iran. WHOQoL-BREF and satisfaction with life scales were used to measure subjective well-being. The International Health and Behavior survey was used for measuring lifestyle behaviors.Young Iranian women were averagely dissatisfied with their life circumstances. The score of psychological quality of life, and social quality of life were below average. According to the findings, higher quality of life is positively related to healthier lifestyle behaviors. Multiple regression analysis showed that smoking and physical activity are the main predictors of quality of life. Findings also demonstrate that diminished quality of life was significantly associated with older age, low income, being single, low level of religiosity, smoking and low levels of physical activity.In order to improve the situation of young Iranian women, the findings that should be sources of concern to policy makers include the average dissatisfaction with circumstances of life particularly in terms of psychological, social and environmental quality of life. While the health system focus is often upon addressing unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, policy initiatives aimed at improving these circumstances of life for young Iranian women would be of substantial medium to long-term benefit to their wellbeing.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS 413.0-G-1...
Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients. PMID:23902642
Rezaei, Davood; Toufani, Sargol; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email: email@example.com, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The energy crisis and climate change give new importance to sustainable architecture which reduces the negative impacts that buildings can have on the environment. In ancient times, architects did not have access to modern equipment and had to use natural energies to provide pleasant indoor conditions. Iran has various climatic zones and Iranian traditional architecture relied on a variety of solutions to provide for human comfort. The aim of this study is to present those solutions used in traditional Iranian architecture. This paper presents the use of the energy of the earth depth and other methods such as Syzan, a cellar, Shvadan, pool house, Zmhryr in addition to the sunken garden, which taps geothermal energy by constructing a courtyard lower than street level. This document showed that traditional Iranian architectural strategies are efficient in providing sustainable buildings and could be applied in the design of new construction.
Full Text Available Concentration is among the key indicators of market structure. The number of manufacturers and distribution of market between firms with different sizes can be examined using concentration index. In this paper, the concentration ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Hall-Tiedman Index, comprehensive industrial concentration index, entropy and Hannah-Kay index were used during 1996, 2011, 2006 and 2011. The main objective of the present study is to measure concentration in the Iranian car market and show its changes during 1996-2011. The results indicated a high concentration in the Iranian automotive industry. Even with the advent of new firms to the Iranian automotive industry and increased total production, there has been a constant concentration in the automotive industry.
Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.
Nahidi, Shizar; Blignault, Ilse; Hayen, Andrew; Razee, Husna
This study investigated psychological distress in Iranian international students at UNSW Australia, and explored the psychosocial factors associated with high levels of distress. A total of 180 Iranian international students pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate degrees during 2012/2013 completed an email questionnaire containing socio-demographic items and five standardized and validated scales. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the predictors of psychological distress. Compared to domestic and international students at two other Australian universities, a significantly smaller proportion of Iranian international students scored as distressed on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Greater levels of psychological distress were associated with being female, poorer physical health, less social support, less religious involvement and spirituality, and negative attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help. Findings from this growing group of international students can help inform culturally competent mental health promotion and service provision in their host countries.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Iranian propolis on some microorganisms using disc diffusion method. The chemical composition of the propolis was also investigated using thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric methods. Ethanol extract of propolis showed activity only against Gram-positives and fungi, whereas no activity was observed against Gram-negatives. Thin layer chromatography screening revealed the presence of pinocembrine, caffeic acid, kaempferol, phenethyl caffeate, chrysin, and galangin in Iranian propolis. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents were 7.3% and 36%, respectively, which suggests that the strong antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis may be due to high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.
Full Text Available The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application of evidence and documents. In this study, criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts’ views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM.
Cheraghali, Abdol Majid
Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.
Soltani Arabshahi, SeyyedKamran; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Shams-Ardakani, MohammadReza; Bigdeli, Shoaleh
The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application of evidence and documents. In this study, criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts' views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM.
A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi
Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .
Full Text Available Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection, is endemic in Southeast Asia. Currently, incidences have been increasing among adults. There have been no published reports of dengue fever from Iran. Widespread connection between different countries may predispose them for acquisition of infection. The patient was a 58-year-old Iranian woman with acute unexplained high-grade fever for 4 days, associated with skin rash, after returning from Southeast Asia. CBC showed WBC = 1600/mm 3 and platelet count 99,000/mm 3 . The patient also had hematuria. ELISA immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies to dengue and serum RT-PCR for dengue virus was positive. The patient managed with conservative treatment and due to good general condition and improvement specific antiviral treatment was not started. She became afebrile at the 3 rd day of hospitalization and discharged with good general condition on fourth day. She was afebrile after two weeks follow-up. Dengue fever has been increasing among adults. It should be suspected, when a patient presents with acute febrile illness and skin rashes returning from endemic region. Conservative treatment may be conducted in uncomplicated cases .
Full Text Available This study, which is a strategic study with a mixed research approach aimed to identify obstacles facing the academies of Iranian Basketball Federation. The population comprises board of directors and committees responsible for Education and Talent Spotting Association, academy administrators, physical education instructors, qualified experts, professors, coaches, referees and heads of delegations who were asked via interviews and questionnaire (exploratory manner to state internal and external obstacles facing basketball academies in following 8 components in order of importance utilizing the Delphi method: management and planning, training, human resources, financial resources, talent spotting, scientific and research and information technology, venues and infrastructures. Items were identified in 34 external and 49 internal factors. For weighting and prioritizing of items, the questionnaire was completed by 27 subjects employing AHP method based on pairwise comparisons. SPSS software version18 was utilized for descriptive statistics while AHP method in Expert Choice software was utilized for inferential statistics. At the end, a total of 11 executive strategies were proposed for removing the obstacles.
Full Text Available After four years of publishing the Iranian National Laboratory Standard and following a strategic plan to implement its requirements, it was decided to review the taken actions, evaluating the achievements and the failures, as well as analyzing the gaps and planning the interventional activities to resolve the problems. A thorough evaluation revealed that the progress of implementation process varies considerably in different provinces, as well as in laboratories in different public and private sectors. Diversity and heterogeneousity of laboratories throughout the country is one of unresolvable problems. Although we encounter shortage of resources in the country, improper allocation or distribution of resources and budgets make the problems more complicated. Inadequacy of academic training in laboratory sciences has resulted in necessity of holding comprehensive post-graduate training courses. Revising academic curriculum of laboratory sciences could be mostly helpful, moreover there should be organized, training courses with pre-determined practical topics. providing specific technical guidelines, to clarify the required technical details could temporarily fill the training gaps of laboratory staff. Inadequate number of competent auditors was one of the difficulties in universities. Another important challenge returns to laboratory equipment, developing the national controlling system to manage the laboratory equipment in terms of quality and accessibility has been planned in RHL. At last cultural problems and resistance to change are main obstacles that have reduced the pace of standardization, it needs to rationalize the necessity of establishing laboratory standards for all stakeholders.
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saghafi, Abolfazl
In the present study, factors that could play an important role in Internet addiction (IA) in 4,177 Iranian high school and secondary school adolescents (age range: 14-19 years) were examined. Data for the present study were gathered through Young's IA test, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and family relationship questionnaires distributed between high school and secondary school students in different demographic regions, carefully selected using multistage sampling techniques. Among the study participants, 21.1% of the students were in some way victims of IA, among whom 1.1% had significant problematic symptoms. Familial relationships was the most important factor related to IA; religious beliefs, moreover, was the second most important factor. The father's level of education was more important than that of the mother's by nearly twice as much. Other factors had important roles in the kind of Internet use, but not as much as the above mentioned factors. The findings of this study could help parents, school counselors, and teachers to pay more attention to excessive Internet use in adolescents and propose possible solutions.
Safadel, N; Dahim, P; Anjarani, S; Rahnamaye Farzami, M; Samiee, S Mirab; Amini, R; Farsi, Sh; Mahdavi, S; Khodaverdian, K; Rashed Marandi, F
After four years of publishing the Iranian National Laboratory Standard and following a strategic plan to implement its requirements, it was decided to review the taken actions, evaluating the achievements and the failures, as well as analyzing the gaps and planning the interventional activities to resolve the problems. A thorough evaluation revealed that the progress of implementation process varies considerably in different provinces, as well as in laboratories in different public and private sectors. Diversity and heterogeneousity of laboratories throughout the country is one of unresolvable problems. Although we encounter shortage of resources in the country, improper allocation or distribution of resources and budgets make the problems more complicated. Inadequacy of academic training in laboratory sciences has resulted in necessity of holding comprehensive post-graduate training courses. Revising academic curriculum of laboratory sciences could be mostly helpful, moreover there should be organized, training courses with pre-determined practical topics. providing specific technical guidelines, to clarify the required technical details could temporarily fill the training gaps of laboratory staff. Inadequate number of competent auditors was one of the difficulties in universities. Another important challenge returns to laboratory equipment, developing the national controlling system to manage the laboratory equipment in terms of quality and accessibility has been planned in RHL. At last cultural problems and resistance to change are main obstacles that have reduced the pace of standardization, it needs to rationalize the necessity of establishing laboratory standards for all stakeholders.
Full Text Available Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88. About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6% showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6. There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r=-0.231, P<0.001 as well as diastolic BP (r=-0.280, P<0.001. In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B=-0.52, P=0.02, previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B=-0.79, P=0.001, and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B=-0.51, P=0.04 were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence.
Full Text Available There has been a growing body of research in the few past decades on the role of metacognition in learning. In line with the evolution of research in the area of metacognition in education, there is a growing need for the better understanding the nature of the construct in foreign language (FL teaching especially writing skill. In an attempt to develop a model of writing metacognitive awareness, based on both Flavel’s (1987 and the two-dimensional dichotomy of knowledge and regulation of cognition (Brown, 1987; Jacobs & Paris, 1987; Schraw & Moshman, 1995, 59 English as a foreign language (EFL learners with different proficiency levels were divided into two novice and expert groups. After writing an essay, the participants took part in a semi-structured interview. The content analysis of the data as well as the related literature revealed a model for Iranian EFL learners’ writing metacognitive awareness in which knowledge of cognition with four subcomponents and regulation of cognition with five sub-components emerged.
Hosein H E Y D A R I
Full Text Available The main drop - out reasons from the sport of roller skating amongst Iranian youth skaters has been examined. A questionnaire with 53 items (adopted from Enoksen, 2011 representing seven subscales namel y: training factors and facilities, executive factors and team, education and work obligations, motivational aspects, social - cultural environment, choice of other sport activities and interests and economic factors was especially developed for this researc h. Responses were measured on a Likert scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree” in relation to each statement. In all 11 2 skaters predominantly male (mean age 17.1, SD = 1.63 with a mean = 5.43 years of experience (SD = 2.92 that had di scontinued in the past two years completed the questionnaire. Results of one sample t - tests showed that all factors expect “social - cultural environment” are significant indicators for drop out from skating with “economical factors” scoring the highest rank ing. Correlational analysis showed that younger participants agree more strongly th at “executive factors and team” and “education and work obligations” were the best predictors of drop out. Those with fewer years of experience considered “training factors and facilities”, “motivational aspects and social and cultural environment” as more likely reasons for quitting. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Behnood-Rod, Azin; Rabbanifar, Omid; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Saadat, Habibollah; Moharamzad, Yashar; Morisky, Donald E
Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s) and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88). About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6%) showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score obesity (B = -0.52, P = 0.02), previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B = -0.79, P = 0.001), and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B = -0.51, P = 0.04) were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence.
Hamid Reza Baradaran
Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.
Full Text Available This study aims to explore the non functional shopping motives among Iranian consumers. In addition, the effects of marital status, gender, age and residential region as an indicator for social class on the non-functional shopping motives are investigated. This paper uses a self-reported and 15 items questionnaire. The analysis is done based on 363 returned and usable questionnaires. Multivariate analysis of variance is applied for this study. MANOVA results show that marital status, gender, age and region have different significant effects on the non-functional shopping motives among Iranian consumers.
Shahla Afsharpaiman; Ali Bagheri Hagh; Mohammad Kolbadi Nejad; Susan Amirsalari; Mohammad Torkaman
Sleep problems are common in childhood, but there are limited studies regarding that in Iranian children and awareness of the sleep problems and their complication in Iranian parents. We arranged this study in which parents of children attending for a sick visit or routine growth control to assess whether sleep problems are under-reported at general pediatric visits. In a cross - a sectional study from April 2010 to April 2011 in 301 children aged 2-14 years old attending to pediatric clinics...
Full Text Available Committing errors is inevitable in process of language acquisition and learning. Analysis of learners' errors from different perspectives, contributes to the improvement of language learning and teaching. Although the issue of gender differences has received considerable attention in the context of second or foreign language learning and teaching, few studies on the relationship between gender and EFL learners' written errors have been carried out. The present study conducted on 100 Iranian advanced EFL learners' written errors (50 male learners and 50 female learners, presents different classifications and subdivisions of errors, and carries out an analysis on these errors. Detecting the most committed errors in each classification, findings reveal significant differences between error frequencies of the two male and female groups (more error frequency in female written productions.
Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Cheraghi, Taher; Rezaei, Nima; Kanegane, Hirokazu; Abdollahzede, Sina; Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Heidari, Golnaz; Zandieh, Fariborz; Moin, Mostafa; Miyawaki, Toshio
X-linked Agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a hereditary immunodeficiency, characterized by an early onset of recurrent bacterial infections, hypogammaglobulinemia and markedly reduced B lymphocytes number. In order to determine the association of neutropenia among Iranian patients with XLA, hospital records of 30 patients with confirmed XLA in Children Medical Center Hospital, were reviewed. Eight out of 30 XLA patients (26.7%) developed neutropenia during the course of the disease. In two patients, episodes of neutropenia were identified before or at the time of diagnosis of XLA. Other six patients whom were not visited regularly and did not receive periodical immunoglobulin replacement therapy experienced neutropenia after diagnosis of XLA. Neutropenia in XLA is mainly associated with infection and is resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin replacement and antibiotics therapy.
Nader Assadi Aidinlou
Full Text Available The present study mainly focused on the impact of Instructional Conversation (IC method on reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate high school learners. To accomplish the study,71 high school learners studying English. In order to determine their homogeneities in reading comprehension, a reading comprehension test was given to them. Then they based on their own scores, 45 students assigned two experimental groups and one control group, each include 15 students. Control group are taught through the traditional method, first experimental group are taught through Instructional Conversation method and second experimental group received Instructional Conversation with traditional method. After instruction, a post-test was given to them. The findings reveled differences in the performance of the three groups of the study. Based on the result of these study, adopting integrated approach (instructional conversation method plus traditional method is more useful for increasing reading comprehension of the students.
Meehan, Thomas K.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Thomas, J. Brooks
Instrument errors made negligible. For each integration interval, both delay and rate of change of delay initialized to small fraction of chip - for example, to order of 10 to the negative 7th power - thereby making feedback control and extraction of delay highly accurate and flexible. With appropriate selection of sampling rate relative to chip rate, commensurability errors reduced to extremely small levels. In Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, pseudorandom code sequence generated by simple digital logic incorporating effects of time, delay, and rate of change of delay. Flexibility in starting time and sum interval very useful in aligning correlation interval with beginnings and endings of data bits.
Hassan Rasouli Khorshidi
Full Text Available This longitudinal study empirically investigated the development of request strategies in Iranian study abroaders. More specifically, this study aimed at exploring if length of stay in L2 context impacts learners’ number and type of strategies. To this end, 72 students who registered in a six month study abroad program and 60 native speakers from U.S. Britain, Australia, and Canada agreed to participate in the present study. The learners in this investigation were tested at three phases. In the first phase, the study abroad (SA group was given a Discourse Completion Task (DCT at the beginning of the program as a pre-test. Three months later the same test was administered to the learners as post-test 1 and subsequently at the end of the program once again the test was given to the learners as post-test 2 in order to measure their achievement after three and six months sojourn. The native speakers were also asked to fill the DCT in order to compare the learners’ responses to the native speakers’. Finally, through comparing the learners’ performances in pre-test and post-tests with each other and with the native speakers’, it was found out that first, majority of learners and native speakers used conventionally indirect strategies in their request utterances, second, the number of strategies used by the students steadily increased over time from pre-test to the first and second post-test and third, the type of request strategies used by learners changed to be native like at the end of their sojourn.Keywords: interlanguage pragmatics, pragmatic competence, request strategies, speech acts, study abroad
Full Text Available To assess genetic diversity and maternal origin of Turkish and Iranian native chicken breeds, we analyzed the mtDNA D-loop sequences of 222 chickens from 2 Turkish (Denizli and Gerze and 7 Iranian (White Marandi, Black Marandi, Naked Neck, Common Breed, Lari, West Azarbaijan, and New Hampshire native chicken breeds, together with the available reference sequences of G. gallus gallus in GenBank. The haplotype diversity was estimated as 0.24±0.01 and 0.36±0.02 for Turkish and Iranian populations, respectively. In total, 19 haplotypes were observed from 24 polymorphic sites in Turkish and Iranian native chicken populations. Two different clades or haplogroups (A and E were found in Turkish and Iranian chickens. Clade A haplotypes were found only in White Marandi, Common Breed and New Hampshire populations. Clade E haplotypes, which are quite common, were observed in Turkish and Iranian populations with 18 different haplotypes, of which Turkish and Iranian chickens, Clade E, haplotype 1 (TRIRE1 was a major haplotype with the frequency of 81.5% (181/222 across all breeds. Compared to red jungle fowl, Turkish and Iranian chicken breeds are closely related to each other. These results suggest that Turkish and Iranian chickens originated from the same region, the Indian subcontinent. Our results will provide reliable basic information for mtDNA haplotypes of Turkish and Iranian chickens and for studying the origin of domestic chickens.
Meydan, Hasan; Jang, Cafer Pish; Yıldız, Mehmet Ali; Weigend, Steffen
To assess genetic diversity and maternal origin of Turkish and Iranian native chicken breeds, we analyzed the mtDNA D-loop sequences of 222 chickens from 2 Turkish (Denizli and Gerze) and 7 Iranian (White Marandi, Black Marandi, Naked Neck, Common Breed, Lari, West Azarbaijan, and New Hampshire) native chicken breeds, together with the available reference sequences of G. gallus gallus in GenBank. The haplotype diversity was estimated as 0.24±0.01 and 0.36±0.02 for Turkish and Iranian populations, respectively. In total, 19 haplotypes were observed from 24 polymorphic sites in Turkish and Iranian native chicken populations. Two different clades or haplogroups (A and E) were found in Turkish and Iranian chickens. Clade A haplotypes were found only in White Marandi, Common Breed and New Hampshire populations. Clade E haplotypes, which are quite common, were observed in Turkish and Iranian populations with 18 different haplotypes, of which Turkish and Iranian chickens, Clade E, haplotype 1 (TRIRE1) was a major haplotype with the frequency of 81.5% (181/222) across all breeds. Compared to red jungle fowl, Turkish and Iranian chicken breeds are closely related to each other. These results suggest that Turkish and Iranian chickens originated from the same region, the Indian subcontinent. Our results will provide reliable basic information for mtDNA haplotypes of Turkish and Iranian chickens and for studying the origin of domestic chickens. PMID:27189637
Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor
Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…
Nezami, Ali; Najafi, Mousa Sadraie
This paper aimed at obtaining a clear understanding of Iranian EFL learners' L2 writing error types. To develop such an understanding, a research question was formulated to see whether there is any significant difference between the participants' language proficiency level and their error types in writing. To this end, a sample version of the…
Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa
Iranian universities have recently displayed a growing interest in integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) into teaching/learning English. The English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context, however, is not keeping pace with the current changes since EAP courses are strictly text-based and exam-oriented, and little research has thus…
This article draws on a qualitative study which seeks to explore whether Iranian English as a foreign language learners experience any reversal conceptual transfer and whether they construct two identities as a result of learning a foreign language. The findings from the open-ended questionnaires distributed among 65 undergraduates at the…
Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan
In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…
Full Text Available Investigating the effects of different methods of assessing reading on students’ reading comprehension has been one of the major topics among Iranian EFL researchers (Atai & Nikuinezhad, 2006; Delgoshaei, Kharrazi, & Talkhabi, 2011; Shams & Tavakoli, 2014. However, the amount of popularity of these methods among teachers has not gained this much attention. The present study examined the popularity of different methods of assessing reading among teachers of adult and young adult learners and also investigated the difference in the frequency of the methods used by these two groups of teachers. Categories of different methods were chosen based on Brown's (2004 taxonomy and the study conducted by Cheng, Rogers, and Hu (2004. Background Information Questionnaire and assessment questionnaire were used to collect the data. The results revealed that Iranian teachers did not use a variety of reading assessment methods in their classes. The most common method to assess reading among Iranian teachers was reported to be reading aloud, and other methods of assessing reading ‒ e.g. preparing summaries and oral questioning ‒ were far less common than reading aloud. Alternative methods of assessment ‒ e.g. journals and portfolios ‒ were the least common methods as were reported by Iranian EFL teachers.
The purpose of this study is to investigate locally designed ELT textbooks in the light of multiple intelligences theory. Three textbooks (grade 1.2.3) used in guidance school of Iranian educational system were analyzed using MI checklist developed by Botelho, Mario do Rozarioand. Catered for kinds of intelligences in the activities and exercises…
Full Text Available Halitosis is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating constantly from oral cavity. Almost 22-50% of the population experiences such a condition during lifespan and about half of them suffer from personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Based on the literature survey, it seems that the oral cavity is the most important origin of halitosis; therefore, this area could be considered as the best target for the treatment. Halitosis is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM; Avicenna and some other famous Iranian traditional physicians have described this condition in their manuscripts precisely. Herbal therapy was the major treatment suggested by Iranian scholars in which mixtures of medicinal plants were used in the form of mouthwashes and other oral formulations. In the present study, six Iranian ancient medical texts were screened for the herbs with anti-halitosis effects. Subsequent to this study, the medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the effort has been taken to provide the best scientific name for each plant as well as searching modern studies about their biological effects. In our investigation fourteen plants were obtained as the most frequent herbs for treatment of halitosis in ITM. Previous studies revealed that some of these plants have shown biological activities relating to anti-halitosis effect. The present study introduces some more plants for future studies about anti-halitosis property.
Learners make errors during the process of learning languages. This study examines errors in writing task of twenty Iranian lower intermediate male students aged between 13 and 15. A subject was given to the participants was a composition about the seasons of a year. All of the errors were identified and classified. Corder's classification (1967)…
Zalzadeh Borazjani, Ashraf
The purpose of this study is to investigate how learner variables, including language proficiency, motivation, effort, and family background affect Iranian language learners' EFL vocabulary strategy use? Subjects in this study were 450 EFL students (N = 450) at Payam e Noor University, Borazjan, Iran. After a placement test, they were grouped into…
Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 1Department of ... between gene polymorphism and risk of asthma in Iranian population, and the study should ... distribution (no allelic distribution) was considered for .... geographic locations are more likely to be associated with.
Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…
Full Text Available Soft tissue analysis has been proposed by many authors as a reliable guide in treatment planning. Thus establishing population norms is an important issue in orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the mean values of some of the soft tissue facial traits in Iranian subjecsts as determined by Bergman. Lateral cephalograms of 120 Iranian subjects (60 males and 60 females in five age groups (n= 24 with well balanced face and normal occlusion were used.statistical analyses were done by means of unpaired student’s t-test and one way AOVA. The associations of variables with age and also with each other were assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The norms valuesfor Iranian subjects differ from those of Bergman in upper and lower lip thicknesses, facial profile angle and upper lip length (in males.sexual dimorphism was determined in lower facial height, upper lip length, upper lip thickness and lower lip thickness. All of the variables were significantly correlated with age except for facial profile angle. Iranian norms differ from those of other population which are usually used. Therefore, when planning a treatment for this population their own norms should be employed
Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor
Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…
Khatib, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed
This study examines the preferred vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. In order to identify the aforementioned group in terms of language proficiency, a TOEFL test was administered to a population of 146 undergraduate EFL students at the university of Vali-e-Asr in Rafsanjan, Iran. Those scoring above 480 were…
Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid
Root cause analysis (RCA) has been widely used for retrospective investigations of patient safety incidents. To increase patient safety competencies, RCA has recently been introduced in Iranian hospitals. The aims of the current study were to explore team members' experiences and perceptions of RCA and to identify the challenges and benefits of using it in Iranian hospitals from their perspective. A qualitative study was conducted consisting of 32 semi-structured interviews with health professionals who participated in the national training programme and were involved in RCA investigations. Data were analysed using the thematic analysis method. The participants encountered a range of obstacles while conducting RCA, including time constraints, a lack of resources, the blame culture and unsupportive colleagues. They stressed the need for further leadership support and cultural change within the Iranian healthcare system to facilitate the application of RCA. RCA was perceived as a beneficial analytical tool that improved patient care, fostered teamwork and communication among staff and promoted safety culture. This study concluded that applying RCA in the Iranian healthcare setting has had a significant impact on improving commitment to safety. However, the general adoption of this method is hindered by the lack of workplace and system supports. To maximize profits from RCA, clinical leaders must assign a high priority to RCA investigations and support RCA team efforts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Assistive technologies have always opened new horizons in human's life, posed solutions to problemsand brought relief and prosperity for human beings. Iranian judicial authorities have recently recognizedthe importance of medical technologies. Accordingly, Iranian legal system has recognized surrogacy anda surrogacy contract seems unavoidable for surrogacy to be legally valid, socially acceptable andreligiously legitimate. As a legal defense of including a typical surrogacy contract in contract law, thisreview studies the four building blocks of a valid contract: the intention and consent of parties, theirlegal capacity, the subject of the contract and its legitimacy. Discussing related Iranian Acts concerningcontracts and responsibilities of parties, the authors of the present article deal with main commitmentsand responsibilities of the parties to a typical surrogacy contract: infertile couples, surrogate, fertilityclinic or medical institute, and surrogate's husband. The authors conclude that a surrogacy contract isaccepted based on article 10 of Iranian Civil Act 1928, pose some suggestions to be included in such acontract, and emphasize that a specific Act concerning surrogacy should be approved to cover rights andlegal needs of all parties to a surrogacy contract.
Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.
Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…
... cultural property or other items of archaeological, historical, or rare scientific importance. Note 1 to... not authorize the importation into the United States of Iranian-origin cultural property or other..., 62 FR 59989, 3 CFR, 1997 Comp., p. 230; E.O. 13412, 71 FR 61369, 3 CFR, 2006 Comp., p. 244. Subpart...
Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan
In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…
Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive review of macroinvertebrate studies conducted along the Iranian running waters over the last 15 years has been made by providing the most updated checklist of the Iranian running waters benthic invertebrates. Running waters ecosystems are complex environments known for their importance in terms of biodiversity. As part of the analysis, we endeavored to provide the critical re-identification of the reported species by through comparisons with the database of the Animal Diversity Web (ADW and appropriate literature sources or expert knowledge. A total of 126 species belonging to 4 phyla have been compiled from 57 references. The phylum Arthropoda was found to comprise the most taxa (n = 104 followed by Mollusca, Annelida and Platyhelminthes. Ongoing efforts in the Iranian running waters regarding biomonitoring indices development, testing, refinement and validation are yet to be employed in streams and rivers. Overall, we suggest that future macroinvertebrate studies in Iranian running waters should be focused on long-term changes by broadening target species and strong efforts to publish data in peer-reviewed journals in English.
Abdolsalehi-Najafi, Emon; Beckman, Linda J
Although the experience of sex guilt has been considered among a variety of ethnic groups, the area has not yet been empirically explored among Iranian American women. The present study investigated the relationship between sexual self-schema (i.e., beliefs about the sexual aspects of oneself), acculturation, and sex guilt, and it further examined the association between sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian American women. A total of 65 Iranian American women, with a mean age of 31.3 years (SD = 11.7), completed five self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicated a significant inverse correlation between sexual self-schema and sex guilt. More specifically, women who endorsed negative self-views regarding their sexual self reported higher levels sex guilt. Results revealed that acculturation was unrelated to sex guilt, when the effect of being Muslim or non-Muslim was controlled. Women with high sex guilt reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Moreover, analyses for mediation effects supported sex guilt as a partially mediating variable between sexual self-schema and life satisfaction. Levels of sex guilt were higher among Muslim women when compared to women of other religious affiliations. Additionally, Muslim women appeared to be significantly less acculturated to Western ideals than other religious groups. The present findings suggest that mental health professionals who provide services to Iranian American women need to consider the negative effects of sex guilt, particularly among Muslim women.
This article examines the recent developments and changes concerning Iranian music education from the constitutional revolution of 1905 to 2014. This concentrates on the five major chronological events referred to as Nationalism, Modernism, Conservatism, Neo-Traditionalism (Shirin-navazi) and Revivalism of the Traditions. This provides a source of…
Mazdeh, Mohammad Mahdavi; Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Hesamamiri, Roozbeh; Zahedi, Mohammad-Reza; Elahi, Behin
The purpose of this study is to propose a framework to evaluate the entrepreneurship intensity (EI) of Iranian state universities. In order to determine EI, a hybrid multi-method framework consisting of Delphi, Analytic Network Process (ANP), and VIKOR is proposed. The Delphi method is used to localize and reduce the number of criteria extracted…
Chahardahcheriki, Mitra Abdolahi; Shahi, Sakine
The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of globalization of important indicators of education system in Iran including teaching approaches, educational tools and facilities, curriculums and contents, and education management. Findings suggest that the situation of Iranian education system has some distance with the globalized level and…
Full Text Available Teacher self-disclosure (TSD as a communication behavior can influence students' learning by increasing their engagement and class participation as well as helping them establish effective interpersonal relationships. Owning to its context-sensitive and culture-dependent nature, however, TSD topics, purposes, and considerations may vary cross-culturally. This study was an attempt to explore Iranian EFL teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of TSD as well as to investigate whether there was a significant difference between male and female teachers' perceptions of appropriateness of TSD. To this end, the Appropriateness of Teacher Self-Disclosure Scale was distributed among 68 Iranian EFL teachers (34 females and 34 males from six language institutes. The results of the study indicated the extent to which the Iranian EFL teachers perceived TSD topics, purposes, and considerations to be appropriate or inappropriate. Furthermore, the study found convergence and divergence between male and female teachers' perceptions in terms of the topics used in TSD, the purposes TSD serves in classroom, and considerations the teachers take into account when practicing TSD. The results of the study suggest that Iranian EFL teachers can practice TSD as a pedagogical tool to enhance learning although they should be wary of its consequences in some aspects as TSD is contingent upon context and culture.
Ghaemi, Farid; Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat
Reading comprehension has won much effort on the part of teachers, testers, and researchers in Iran due to the fact that the immediate need of Iranian students at different university levels is the ability to read in order to get new information on the topic they are studying. The question raised is how much reading practice can move learners…
Ghahari, Hassan; Chérot, Frédéric
An updated list of Iranian Miridae Hahn, 1833 is provided and discussed. Seven subfamilies (Bryocorinae, Cylapinae, Deraeocorinae, Isometopinae, Mirinae, Orthotylinae, and Phylinae), 140 genera, and 498 species are confirmed from Iran. Phytocoris (Stictophytocoris) meridionalis (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835), is newly recorded from Iran. The possible presence in the country of 28 additional species is briefly analyzed.
in Urban Iranian Population Aged Between. 20 to 84 Years ... aimed to provide population‑based data on the prevalence of obesity and estimation the risk of some .... in Tehran, capital of Iran. ..... Prevalence and risk factors associated with obesity in the elderly ... obesity and central fat accumulation among Tehranian adults.
Esmaeeli, Hadiseh; Abasi, Maasumeh; Soori, Afshin
This study aims to investigate the effect of peer review training on the Iranian EFL students' subsequent revision in an advanced writing class in Larestan Islamic Azad University. After 12 weeks class demonstration, teacher-reviewer conferences with 20 male and female students, the students' first drafts, revisions, and reviewers' comments were…
Sara Jalalzadeh Asrejadidi
Full Text Available Robert K. Merton has made up the expression of “Matthew effect" in sociology of Science that explains how the eminent scientists frequently get more acknowledgment than unknown researchers, even if their work was similar. The objective of this study is to analyze and visualize the influence of “Matthew effect" on the quantitative (papers and qualitative (citations of scientific publications originated by Iranian Medical Sciences Universities throughout 2002 – 2006. The method of current study was an analytical-descriptive review. All data about publications originated by Iranian Medical Sciences Universities were extracted from the database of Web of Science (WoS. The citations received by Medical Sciences Universities were extracted from the Citation Report. The relationship between the publications and citations was plotted by Excel. We found a non-linear correlation between the publications and citations of Iranian Medical Universities. The first class and other universities group showed a positive impact related to the Matthew effect; whereas this relationship among second class universities and third class universities were negative. Tehran University of Medical Sciences got the first place on the ranking order based on the scale independent indicator while Bushehr Medical Science University was the last one. Analysis of data indicated that there was a non-liner relationship between Iranian scientific profiles and the citations that they received. The Scale-independent Indicators were the most reliable metrics for normalizing the ranking of universities.
Saifadini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehrabani, Mitra; Kamalinegad, Mohamad; Haghdoost, Aliakbar
Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In regards to the world's aging population, control and treatment of AD will be one of the major concerns of global public health in the next century. Alzheimer disease was not mentioned with the same phrase or its equivalent in traditional medical texts. The main of present paper was to investigate symptoms and causes of alzheimer disease from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine. In this qualitative study, we searched reliable sources of Iranian traditional medicine such as Canon of Medicide by Avicenna (Al-Quanon fi- tibb), Aghili cure by Aghili's (Molajat-E-aghili), Tib-E-Akbari, Exire -E-Aazam and Sharh-E-Asbab and some reliable resources of neurology were probed base on keywords to find a disease that had the most overlap in terms of symptoms with alzheimer disease. By taking from the relevant materials, the extracted texts were compared and analyzed. Findings showed that alzheimer disease has the most overlap with Nesyan (fisad-e-zekr, fisad-e-fekr and fisad-e-takhayol) symptoms in Iranian traditional medicine. Although this is not a perfect overlap and there are causes, including coldness and dryness of the brain or coldness and wetness that could also lead to alzheimer disease according to Iranian traditional medicine. According to Iranian traditional medicine, The brain dystemperement is considered the main causes of alzheimer disease. By correcting the brain dystemperement, alzheimer can be well managed. This study helps to suggest a better strategy for preventing and treating alzheimer in the future.
Mehregan, Fatemeh Fereshteh; Ziaee, Vahid; Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Tahghighi, Fatemeh; Sabouni, Farah; Moradinejad, Mohamad-Hassan
The periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is a nonhereditary idiopathic febrile syndrome belonging to the group of autoinflammatory diseases. No longtime sequel was reported in this disease. Early diagnosis can lead physicians to treatment of this disorder with a short course steroid application and provide satisfaction of the patient's family. This study is a prospective review of patients diagnosed with PFAPA syndrome who were registered in Iranian Periodic Fever and Autoinflammatory Registry (IPFAIR) through periodic fever clinic in the Children's Medical Center, Pediatric Center of Excellence in Tehran, Iran from January 2013 to March 2014. One hundred thirty patients were registered in our databases. Twenty-one (16.1%) patients including 15 males and 6 females had PFAPA. Normal growth was seen in all patients. The median age at onset was 18 months. The mean duration of fever was 4 days and the mean duration of intervals between fever episodes 21 days. Along with fever, all patients had characteristic symptoms. All patients were asymptomatic between fever episodes. Steroid was used in all patients and causing immediate reduction by 84.61%. Two patients received both steroid and colchicine because of their clinical feature and positive laboratory tests for PFAPA and familial Mediterranean fever. No patient received biological therapy or a tonsillectomy. The long diagnostic delay of PFAPA gives cause to concern indicating a need for greater awareness of the disease so that the diagnosis may be made timely.
Pakpour, Amir H.; Nourozi, Saeedeh; Mølsted, Stig
and construct validity on the patient group as a whole. A linear regression analysis was used to assess any variation in the physical component summary and mental component summary scores of the SF-36 with the respective component summary scores of the SF-12. In addition, the factor structure......INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reliability of the SF-12 questionnaire in a sample of Iranian patients undergoing hemodialysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and forty-four hemodialysis patients were included from dialysis centers in Zanjan, Iran, and were...... asked to complete the SF-12 and SF-36 questionnaires. An initial test-retest reliability evaluation was performed on a sample of 70 patients from the total group, with a retest interval of 14 days. Reliability was estimated by internal consistency and validity was assessed using known-group comparisons...
This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology. The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.
Negar Sadeghi Hariri
Full Text Available The present study attempted to investigate the possible effects of Instructional (INS and Environmental (ENS strategies on Iranian EFL young learners' grammar achievement. For this purpose, 82 female language young learners ranged between 8 to 12 years of age were selected and randomly assigned into INS, ENS and Control groups in this study. After taking EPT, INS and ENS groups received EFL grammar structures accompanied by INS and ENS strategies, respectively, while Control group received only conventional instructions to English grammar. After conducting the treatment, all participants took a grammar post-test. The Null hypotheses 1 and 2 in this study assumed that the INS and the ENS strategies had no impact on Iranian EFL young learners’ grammar achievement. They were successfully rejected due to different performance of INS and ENS groups from Control group on the post-test. Statistical results did support the superiority of INS over ENS strategies. Therefore, the researcher was able to rectify that INS strategies caused higher impact on the young learners’ grammar achievement than ENS strategies. She concluded her work with some pedagogical implications and recommended topics for further research. Key words: Bulletin boards, Cooperate Learning, Environmental Strategy, Grammar Achievement, Instructional Strategy, Young Learners
Soltani, Batoul; Keyvanara, Mahmoud
At the modern age, to acquire knowledge and experience, the individuals with their own specific culture have to enter contexts with cultural diversity, adapt to different cultures and have social interactions to be able to have effective inter-cultural relationships.To have such intercultural associations and satisfy individual needs in the society, cultural intelligence and social adaptability are deemed as inevitable requirements, in particular for those who enter a quite different culture. Hence, the present study tries to compare the cultural intelligence and its aspects and social adaptability in Iranian and non-Iranian dormitory students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. The study was of descriptiveanalytical nature. The research population consisted of Iranian and non-Iranian students resided in the dormitories of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences which are 2500, totally. For Iranian students, two-stage sampling method was adopted. At the first stage, classified sampling and at the second stage, systematic random sampling was conducted. In this way, 441 students were selected. To form non-Iranian students' sample, consensus sampling method was applied and a sample of 37 students were obtained. The research data was collected by using Earley & Ang's Cultural Intelligence Questionnaire with the Cronbach's coefficient α of 76% and California Social Adaptability Standard Questionnaire with the Cronbach's coefficient α of over 70%. Then, the data were put into SPSS software to be analyzed. Finally, the results were presented by descriptive and inferential statistics methods. The study findings revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between cultural intelligence and cognitive aspect of cultural intelligence in Iranian and non-Iranian students (P≥0/05). However, Iranian and non-Iranian students statistically differed in terms of the following aspects of cultural intelligence: meta-cognitive aspect (61.8% for
Brocato, Robert W.
An unpowered signal receiver and a method for signal reception detects and responds to very weak signals using pyroelectric devices as impedance transformers and/or demodulators. In some embodiments, surface acoustic wave devices (SAW) are also used. Illustrative embodiments include satellite and long distance terrestrial communications applications.
Peeters, R.J.A.P.; Potters, J.A.M.
Standard game-theoretic solution concepts do not guarantee meaningful commu- nication in cheap-talk games. In this paper, we define a solution concept which guarantees communication for a large class of games by designing a behavior pro- tocol which the receiver uses to judge messages sent by the
Mohsen Bahmani Kashkouli
Full Text Available "nWe determined the frequency of clinical thyroid ophthalmopathy in Iranian patients. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Endocrinology Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All patients with documented thyroid disorders from September 2003 to July 2005 were recruited. Eye examinations included evaluation of soft tissue changes, measurement of proptosis, lid width, lagophthalmos, evaluation of eye muscle function, and determination of visual acuity. The activity of ophthalmopathy was scored according to the NOSPECS scale. Among 851 visited patients, 303 cases had thyroid eye disease (TED. The nature of the ophthalmopathy breaks down as follows: 53.4% were hypothyroid (9.3% Hashimoto disease, 5.5% euthyroid and 41.1% had Graves' disease. The prevalence of TED in males was 60% which was nearly 2 times the prevalence of TED in females. There was a significant relationship between presentation of TED and active smoking of the patients (P<0.0001 while no significant relationship with passive smoking was obtained (P=0.181. The most common clinical sign of TED in descending order respectively were proptosis with 63.4%, soft tissue involvement (40.9%, extraocular muscle involvement (22.1%, corneal involvement (12.9% and optic nerve dysfunction (6.3%. Myasthenia gravis occurred in only 2 patients. In the logistic regression, occurrence of TED was influenced by cardiovascular disease (OR=5.346, Graves' disease (OR=47.507, radioiodine therapy (OR=2.590, and anti-thyroid medications (OR=0.650. Thyroid ophtalmopathy (orbitopathy is a matter of important health concern among patients with thyroid disorder. Since TED occurred with a high prevalence in all thyroid states, a close collaboration between endocrinologists and ophthalmologists along with timely referrals of patients with any eye complaint is deemed necessary. Also smoking was the most important risk factor for developing TED. Therefore, it is advisable to raise
Du Plessis, WP
Full Text Available of 80 Gb/s which is 25% more than the optimistic assumption of 64 Gb/s for the fastest Serial RapidIO line. This means that data will take 25% longer to read from memory than it took to write into memory, so the above example will only be sampling 44... of compressive sensing are considered in Section V showing that real-time operation is possible. Finally, a brief conclusion and suggestions for future research are provided in Section VI. II. DATA RATES OF MODERN ES SYSTEMS AND THEIR EFFECT ON SYSTEM...
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex clustering cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dylipedemia. It has been a growing health problem in Iranian adults in recent decade. The objective of this article was to review the prevalence of MetS and the corresponding risk factors among Iranian adults. Methods: We conducted a systematic review to extract the published articles regarding metabolic syndrome and its risk factors among Iranian adu...
Mehdi Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad Poloee, Tayebeh Ghari
Background: In the area of exporting, in developing countries, including Iran, the concept of export readiness is unknown to many decision makers and field of activity of Iranian pharmaceutical companies have been limited to the domestic market. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to compare the export performance of ten Iranian pharmaceutical companies with their export readiness. Methods: In order to do this, the top ten of Iranian pharmaceutical companies were selected as the sa...
Jalali, B; Molnár, K
Thirteen Dactylogyrus spp. were found on cultured fishes in five Iranian fish farms. Besides typical Dactylogyrus vastator, specimens with small anchors were often found in goldfish, which were designated as D. vastator forma minor. Rutilus frisii kutum, a fish cultured only in Iran, was infected by two Dactylogyrus spp. during its short period of prerearing in Iranian fish farms. All Dactylogyrus found are new for the Iranian fauna.
Full Text Available "nThis article, related to the history of Iranian radiology, is based on my personal limited information gained at the time I practiced radiology in Tehran from 1958 to 1963. The late Dr. Habib Adl (was the uncle of the late Professor Yahya Adl, a pioneer of modern surgery in Iran. I did not know Dr. Habib Adl, but he was the first Iranian radiation therapist in Tehran and probably he also practiced diagnostic radiology as well.The late Dr. Mohammad Hessabi held the Chair of radiology at Tehran University Medical School. He was also Chairman of Radiology at Sina Hospital of Tehran University, as well as a private practitioner. He was not too active when I was in Tehran.The late Dr. Ahmad Farhad held the Chair of the Department of Medical Physics at Tehran University Medical School for many years. Later on he became the first chairman of radiology at the former Tehran University's "500 beds Hospital" currently called the "Imam Khomeini Hospital". Dr. Farhad was a highly successful private practitioner of radiology and extremely powerful in Iranian radiological affairs. He also was the Dean of Tehran University Medical School as well as the president of Tehran University for several years.Dr. Massih was an associate professor of radiology at the "500 beds Hospital" and he was also a private practitioner. He is in California now.The Late Dr. Pezeshkmehr was an associate professor at Sina Hospital and he was also a private practitioner. Dr. Pezeshkmehr was a true gentleman. His son is now a radiologist in Tehran.Dr. Atri was an associate professor at Sina Hospital and a he is a very good private practitioner.The late Dr. Manouchehrian was an associate professor of medical physics and he was also a private practitioner of radiology.The late Professor Abbass Maleki was Chairman of diagnostic radiology at Tehran Cancer Institute and probably a professor of radiology at Tehran University. He was a successful private practitioner.The late Dr
Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardroud
Full Text Available Considering the overall tendency of foreign language learners to use mechanical strategies of rote rehearsal in vocabulary learning and their resistance towards use of 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, namely contextual guessing, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, and semantic mapping, this study intended (a to explore what impact the instruction of these deep strategies, on vocabulary retention of 32 post-intermediate adult EFL Iranian learners, (b to determine how the variable of gender influences the vocabulary retention of students after receiving training in these strategies. To this end, on the basis of a strategy-based model of instruction–CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994, the experimental group received training in using 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies while the control group received only the common method of vocabulary teaching. After the treatment, following factorial design, the performance of the participants in the teacher-made vocabulary test as posttest was analyzed statistically. The results indicated higher vocabulary retention for the experimental group, and it was revealed that female students were more receptive to strategy training. This study provides evidence for confirmation of 'depth of processing' hypothesis and the emerging theory about the impact of gender on effective strategy teaching and use, and it recommends incorporation of teaching these 'deep' strategies of vocabulary learning into EFL classrooms.
Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the interplay among Iranian EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence, classroom management, and their general English language proficiency. The result of the data analysis showed that: 1 there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the classroom management of Iranian EFL teachers, 2 there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, and 3 there was a statistically significant relationship between the classroom management and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers. Teacher trainers, researchers in teacher education, and language teachers may benefit from the findings of the present research.
Mohammad Reza Babaei Semirumi
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between money and inflation in the Iranian economy with cagan(1956 money demand function . In doing so,I have first reviewed theoretical and empirical literature of causality throughout the world and then it be used Granger’s method for detecting causality between money and inflation in the Iranian economy. according to this working paper elasticity of demand for real balances in money market toward inflation for Iranian economy are approximately 0.9 and Money is exogenous reward to WPI,CPI and PPI in Iranian economy.
Abbas Norouzi Javidan
Full Text Available Marvelon®, a combined oral contraceptive, contains 30 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE and 150 μg desogestrel (DE, and has been shown to be a well-tolerated and effective combination that provides high contraceptive reliability and good cycle control. However, its efficacy has not been yet evaluated among Iranian women. Thus, the study aimed to determine the effect of oral contraceptive pill on treating premenstrual symptoms and on various parameters associated with well-being and health in a sample of Iranian. This clinical trial (before- after study was performed at the family-planning clinic of the centers under the supervision of Tehran University of Medical Sciences on sixty-one women. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and all participants received a 21/7-day regimen of oral contraceptive containing 150 μg desogestrel (DE and 30 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE for six cycles. Efficacy parameters included changes in premenstrual symptoms were also assessed. Clinical data was collected by calendar of premenstrual experiences (COPE at baseline and treatment cycles 1,2, 3 and 6. Clinical variables were measured including low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL and triglyceride levels for two timing periods (baseline and last visit. Linear mixed model analyses were used to analyze differences in changes of the four factors of premenstrual syndrome (PMS, weight and blood pressure during these timing periods. The mean age of the women was 28.52 (SD=6.75 years. Participants on average had been pregnant 1.13 (SD=1.16 times. The linear mixed model analyses indicated that premenstrual syndrome symptoms reduced significantly over time (P0.05. A combined oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel has a positive effect on women's health and reduces premenstrual symptoms.
Full Text Available Background: Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS gene is a target of genetic alterations which are diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who are treated with monoclonal anti-EGFR antibodies such as cetuximab and panitumumab. KRAS mutations are seen in 35-42% of patients with colorectal cancer. The high frequency of these mutations in colorectal cancer represents their high potential as a biomarker in early diagnosis of cancer. This study was done to evaluate the frequency of KRAS gene mutations in a small population of Iranian patients suffering from colorectal cancer. Methods: 50 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks with colorectal cancer (CRC, already confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry testing, were received to Payvand Clinical and Specialty Laboratory, Tehran, from across the country in 2015. DNA was extracted from the tissue blocks and its quality was then evaluated. The reverse dot blotting method was used to evaluate KRAS gene mutations. Results: KRAS mutations were found in 42% of the study patients. 30% and 12% of the mutations were found in codon 12 and codon 13, respectively. Moreover, no mutation was found in codon 61. Results also showed that the most frequency of samples examined belonged to male with 68% (average age of 56 years old and then to female with 32% (median age of 54.8 years old. Conclusion: This study was performed to evaluate the frequency of KRAS gene mutations in Iranian colorectal cancer patients. According to the study results, the frequency of KRAS mutations was consistent with that of other countries, reported in previous studies. The high prevalence of these mutations in patients with colorectal cancer indicates the important role of these genes in this group of patients. Thus, the presence of these mutations can be used as a suitable biomarker for evaluation of response to targeted therapies in patients suffering from colorectal cancer.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the positive relationship between insulin resistance (IR and central obesity is well known, the direct relationship between waist circumference and IR is not clear yet and there is no consensus regarding the cut off value for waist circumference as a surrogate index for central obesity. The present study was aimed to determine the optimal cut-off value of waist circumference (WC for predicting IR in reproductive aged Iranian women. Methods Using the stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling method 1036 women were randomly selected from among reproductive aged women of different geographic regions of Iran. Following implementation of exclusion criteria, complete data for 907 women remained for analysis. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and its cut off value was defined as the 95th percentile of HOMA-IR value for 129 subjects, without any metabolic abnormality. The optimal cut-off of WC in relation to HOMA-IR was calculated based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the Youden index and the area under curve (AUC. Results The mean age of the total sample of 907 subjects was 34.4 ± 7.6 years (range, 18 - 45 years. After adjustment for age the odds ratios (OR of elevated HOMA-IR were progressively higher with increasing levels of waist circumference; the age adjusted OR of IR for women with WC > 95 cm in comparison to those subjects with WC Conclusions Waist circumference is directly related to insulin resistance and the optimal cut-off value for waist circumference reflecting insulin resistance is considered to be 88.5 cm for reproductive aged Iranian women.
... Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, Subtitle D of the National Defense Authorization Act... President by section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, subtitle D) to...
Conclusions: This nationwide survey revealed that Iranian students have an acceptable level of hygienic behaviors both in urban and rural areas; however, still it is necessary to improve school health facilities and hygienic habits in Iranian students.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men who were adults (at least 18 years old and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP, becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains
Full Text Available This study explores the differential effect of two types of corrective feedback strategies - explicit and implicit - on the acquisition and retention of correct past form of irregular verbs by Iranian English as Foreign Language (EFL learners. Sixty out of 80 pre-intermediate EFL learners were selected as the participants, based on their performance on Key English Test (KET; their scores were between one standard deviation (SD above and below the mean (M. Thereafter, they were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: the explicit group (N = 30 who received explicit corrective feedback and the implicit group (N = 30, who received implicit feedback. Results indicate that the explicit group outperformed the implicit group on the immediate and delayed post-tests. The findings of this study have theoretical and pedagogical implications for teachers. Feedback strategy provides teachers with information on effective teaching and student comprehension, and encourages them to use technology in a way that reduces anxiety and facilitates social learning.
Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander
The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.
Full Text Available
Full Text Available The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Preferences Questionnaire was used. Results indicated that the six learning style preferences considered in the questionnaire were positively preferred. Overall, kinesthetic and tactile learning were major learning styles. Auditory, group, visual, and individual were minor. Keywords: Learning Style Preferences, High School Students, EFL
Ghanbariha, Maryam; Sheiham, Aubrey; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Dorri, Mojtaba
To assess the association between oral and general hygiene behaviours in 12-year-old Iranians and the impact of sociodemographic and educational factors on the association. A representative random sample of 550 12-year-old Iranian adolescents from two deprived tribes answered a 41-item questionnaire on sociodemographic background, education and oral and general hygiene behaviours. The association between tooth cleaning frequency and other study outcome variables were tested using binary logistic regression. The sex differences in the study outcome variables were investigated using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The frequency of tooth cleaning was significantly associated with a general hygiene behaviour: frequency of taking a bath (OR 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.7). This association remained significant when sociodemographic factors and educational factors were added to the model both separately (P hygiene behaviour were strongly associated. Oral, general and environmental hygiene programmes should use integrated approaches.
Valizadeh, Leila; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Fooladi, Marjaneh M; Azadi, Arman; Negarandeh, Reza; Monadi, Morteza
The stereotypical public image of nursing is a major concern for male nurses around the world. In this study, we explored how Iranian male nurses perceived the public view of nurses, and their perceptions of themselves. A qualitative descriptive design and content analysis were used to obtain data from 18 purposely-selected male hospital nurses with a baccalaureate nursing degree in Tabriz, Iran. Semistructured interviews were conducted and analyzed. Two main themes emerged: (i) the outsider's view of nursing, which referred to the participants' perceptions of their public image; and (ii) the insider's view, which related to the male nurses' perceptions of themselves. Results included personal transition into a positive professional self-image through the educational process, and continued public perception of nursing as a female profession ill-suited for a man. Strategies to improve the insider's and outsider's views of nursing are listed to help recruit and retain more Iranian male nurses.
Mahmoudirad, Gholamhossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Vanaki, Zohreh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim
The purpose of this study was to explore the assertiveness process in Iranian nursing leaders. A qualitative design based on the grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the assertiveness experiences of 12 nurse managers working in four hospitals in Iran. Purposeful and theoretical sampling methods were employed for the data collection and selection of the participants, and semistructured interviews were held. During the data analysis, 17 categories emerged and these were categorized into three themes: "task generation", "assertiveness behavior", and "executive agents". From the participants' experiences, assertiveness theory emerged as being fundamental to the development of a schematic model describing nursing leadership behaviors. From another aspect, religious beliefs also played a fundamental role in Iranian nursing leadership assertiveness. It was concluded that bringing a change in the current support from top managers and improving self-learning are required in order to enhance the assertiveness of the nursing leaders in Iran.
A. R. Abbasifar
Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. cannot produce seed because it is a sterile plant. For studying bolting and determination of pollen fertility, 68 Iranian garlic clones were gathered from different parts of Iran and evaluated in Research Field of Horticultural Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. For determining the pollen fertility, some tests including specific RAPD marker, pollen germination, pollen viability detection using acetocarmine and in vitro culture of ovules and fruits were used. Results showed that 37 of Iranian garlic clones could produce scape and inflorescence. The percentage range of pollen stained with acetocarmine was from 0.5 up to 20 percent showing infertility of pollens. Lack of two markers (OPJ121300 and OPJ121700 and pollen tube growth proved the infertility of garlic clones pollen. Fruits and embryo sac were alive for more than two months, showing their potential for producing seeds following pollination with fertile pollens.
Sayyed Mohammad Hoseini
Full Text Available Handling stolen goods has been recognized as an independent offence in both Iranian and English law. Committing this offence, tacitly support those actions that are called theft. However, penal policy of Iran’s legislator does not provide effective fighting against the handlers of stolen goods. In others words, comparing the two Iranian and English legal system, make this issue clear that criminalization of stolen goods has some restrictions about physical element as well as the amount of relevant punishment that we can have more effective fighting against supporting factors of larceny with eliminating them and hereto, in the course of exercising appropriate reaction to the handlers, reducing the offence of theft. The article seeks to recommend some solutions for a better penal policy, such as increasing punishment of the offence and extending the scope of its physical behaviour, through comparative analysis of the offence of stolen goods; meanwhile different elements of the offence have been studied.
Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye
of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...
Nayiere Mansoori; Seyed Ali Akbar Tahaei; Zahra Jafari; Mohammad Kamali
Background and Aim: Bilingualism, as one of the discussing issues of psychology and linguistics, can influence the speech processing. Of several tests for assessing auditory processing, dichotic digit test has been designed to study divided auditory attention. Our study was performed to compare the auditory attention between Iranian bilingual and monolingual young adults. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 students including 30 Turkish-Persian bilinguals and 30 Persian mo...
The present study was conducted to investigate the nature of perceived sources of foreign language anxiety of Iranian English language learners studying at Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU), School of Foreign Languages (SFL). The study, also, was aimed to examine the possibility of newly generated anxiety making factors, and the order of priority of those factors in terms of participants’ level of anxiety as well as their gender. The study was performed in the 2012-2013 academic year ...
Mohammadi, Easa; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh; Simbar, Masoumeh
Background: Many women, throughout their life cycle, experience unintended pregnancy and its subsequent induced abortion. Nonetheless, women's perceptions of this phenomenon – particularly in countries prohibiting elective abortion – are poorly known. The aim of this study was to explore Iranian Azeri women's perceptions of unintended pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This was a conventional content analysis study conducted in Tabriz, Iran. The data were collected through 31 semi-structured i...
Amir Foroughi; Nor Aishah Buang; Mehrdokht Sherilou
The subject of buying especially impulse buying for many marketing researchers is attractive and fascinating. Retailers interest in work in process of buying and create a situation to pursue individuals to purchase goods. The objectives of this study were to investigate: (a) to determine the level of impulse buying between Iranian( tourists ) in Malaysia, (b) To determine the influence of individuals deference variables such as shopping enjoyment and impulse buying tendency on latent construc...
there are still tangible signs, like the ruins of Persepolis , the mosques of Isfahan, or the sophistication of Iranian poetry at a time when Europe...Aspen- Persepolis Symposium. Persepolis , 15- 19 September 1975. Frye, Richard N. The Golden Age of Persia. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. 1975...Manouchehr, and Milani, Abbas. "Iran’s Development During the Last 50 Years." Paper presented at Aspen- Persepolis Sympo- sium, Persepolis , 15-19 September
Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad
Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption...
Ghannadi, Alireza; Mehregan, Iraj
The hydro-distilled essential oil from dried aerial parts of one of widespread Iranian skullcaps, Scutellaria pinnatifida A. Hamilt. sap. alpina (Bornm.) Rech. grown in Khorassan province was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Thirty components were characterized ing 93.8% of the total components detected. The major components of the oil were germacrene-D (39.7%) and beta-caryophyllene (15.0%).
Amir Foroughi; Nor Aishah Buang; Mehrdokht Sherilou
The subject of buying especially impulse buying for many marketing researchers is attractive and fascinating. Retailers interest in work in process of buying and create a situation to pursue individuals to purchase goods. The objectives of this study were to investigate: (a) to determine the level of impulse buying between Iranian( tourists ) in Malaysia, (b) To determine the influence of individuals deference variables such as shopping enjoyment and impulse buying tendency on latent construc...
that he suffered from cancer .43 Ayatollah Khomeini, now living in forced exile in Paris, France, spoke out vehemently against the Shah and the U.S...attacking Khomeini that appeared in the Iranian government newspaper Etelat on 8 June 1978.44 Khomeini followers were incensed by the Shah’s article...battle with cancer . The Shah entered the U.S. on 22 October 1979 for critical 47 Ibid. 48 Ibid. 49
Derakhshan Rokni, Tina
The present thesis: “Address forms in Persian language based on Iranian movies”, investigates address forms as socio-linguistic forms which are directly related to social factors such as age, gender and social class. In the Persian language there is a strong tradition of addressing each other in various ways, changing from one context to another. Addressing is a universal phenomenon, but the rules that govern the choice are different from one language to another. So, the hierarchical struc...
Elham, Farokh Gisour; Sedigheh, Zarmehi
Aim: The current clinical practice of endodontics involves utilization of a variety of new technological advances and materials. Technologies available for use in endodontic offices today include battery or electric motors using NiTi rotary file systems, new generation of electronic apex locators (EALs), improved digital radiographic sensors, surgical microscopes, and ultrasonic units. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and use of newer technologies among Iranian dental pra...
Delmonico, Francis L
The experience of the Iranian model should be carefully considered by those who suggest a pilot trial of a regulated market in organ sales. Mahdavi-Mazdeh's candid report makes clear that a fixed price as the basis of regulation is not possible. Iran is proceeding with an independent program of deceased organ donation in cities such as Shiraz. Mahdavi-Mazdeh's report is encouraging for the prospect of a revitalized expansion of deceased donation.
Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman
Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483
On November 4, 1979, Iranian revolutionaries seized the American embassy in Tehran and took hostage 66 American diplomats and citizens. In the midst of the massive national celebration sparked by the eventual release of the hostages, commentators started to ask sobering questions: Why did the crisis become such an obsession with the American people? How did this public obsession affect policymakers? And was there really a cause for celebration? The subject of my thesis is the American pub...
Full Text Available Background Melasma (called Kalaf in Iranian traditional medicine is a common acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of skin. Several factors including exposure to sunlight, pregnancy, and endocrine diseases increase the risk for Melasma. In traditional medicine, antecedent philosophers and physicians have tried to understand the nature and mechanisms of different systems of the human body for the diagnosis and management of Melasma; they have offered different solutions for it. This study is important since Melasma is a disease causing mental side effects in patients, due to darkness and opacity of the skin; therefore, the treatment of Melasma in terms of its psychological complications is of particular importance. In addition, texts of Iranian traditional medicine contain a wealth of nutritional advice for patients with Melasma. These texts have, until now, not yet been reviewed. The present study has considered the most important references of Iranian traditional medicine texts. Objectives The objective of this study was to extract and categorize the nutritional advice of Iranian traditional medicine texts for the treatment of Melasma. Results Dietary recommendations, not only for treatment but also for prevention of diseases and staying healthy, are very efficient. Conclusions Based on the traditional medicine texts, it is helpful to avoid Soda-producing food as well as to identify appropriate food in order to eliminate the accumulation of Soda or black bile from the blood. This study offers a set of analytical and clinical research on food, which in traditional medicine is called Soda-producing as well as Soda reducing.
Farideh Osareh; Zeinab Papi
The present study carries out a quality assessment of the library websites in Iranian State Universities in order to rank them accordingly. The evaluation tool used is the normalized Web Quality Evaluation Tools (WQET). 41 Active library websites were studied and assessed qualitatively over two time periods (Feb 2006 and May 2006) using WQET. Data were collected by direct observation of the website. The evaluation was based on user characteristics, website purpose, upload speed, structural st...
Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardrood
Full Text Available Derived from the emerging paradigm shift in English language teaching and assessment, there has been a renewal of interest in dynamic assessment (DA to be used as an alternative to the traditional static testing in language classrooms. However, to date, DA practice has been mostly limited to clinical treatments of children with learning disabilities, and it has not been widely incorporated into the EFL contexts. In order to find out the reasons behind the slow trend of DA practice, this research adopted a framework, based on the post method pedagogical principles and recommendations, to delve into the prospect of methodological realization of DA approaches in Iranian EFL classrooms. To this end, two instruments, a questionnaire and an interview were developed to explore the practicality of DA through seeking 51 Iranian EFL teachers' perception of DA practice in their classrooms. The results indicated that most of the teachers were negative about the practice of DA in their classrooms and believed that a full-fledged implementation of DA in Iranian EFL classrooms is too demanding. The feasibility of DA in Iranian EFL classrooms, where teachers are deprived of DA training, guideline, and technological resources, is questioned seriously due to the factors such as time-constrained nature of DA procedures, large number of students in EFL classrooms, the common practice of static tests as the mainstream, and overreliance on the teachers' teaching and assessment abilities. The paper suggests the framework of inquiry in this study, which was derived from the post method pedagogy, to be utilized as a blueprint for a critical appraisal of any alternative method or theory which is introduced into ELT contexts.
Mohsen Shahrokhi; Farinaz Shirani Bidabadi; Hamidah Yamat
This study discusses the findings of a qualitative study on the strategies used by Iranian female freshmen in narrow listening. The data collected through semi-structured interview with 12 female freshmen (four learners as advanced, four as intermediate and four as low) chosen purposefully based on their scores in the Oxford Placement Test administered. Six out of 12 freshmen were identified for the think-aloud protocol to draw out the strategies they used. The data collected were analyzed u...
Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Dejman, Masoumeh; Farnia, Marzieh; Alasvand, Ramin; Sehat, Mahmood; Roshanpazooh, Mohsen; Tavakoli, Mahmood; Jafari, Firoozeh; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh
Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to certain parts of the world, most epidemiological reports on this topic have been published from industrial world. To investigate pattern of drug use among Iranian drivers who were involved in fatal road accidents. This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were involved in fatal vehicle accidents and were imprisoned thereafter. Data came from a national survey of drug abuse that was done among Iranian prisoners. The survey collected data at the entry to seven prisons in different regions of the country during a 4-month period in 2008. Self-reported lifetime, last year, and last month drug use was measured. Commercial substance screening tests were applied to detect recent substance use (opioids, cannabinoids, methamphetamines, and benzodiazepines). The commercial substance screening test showed three distinct patterns of recent illicit drug use: opioids (37.3%), cannabinoids (2.0%), opioids and cannabinoids (13.7%). 29.4% were also positive for benzodiazepines. The substance use screening test detected 23.5% of participants who had used drugs but did not disclose any substance use. Opioids are the most common illicit drugs being used by Iranian drivers who are involved in fatal car accidents. The high rate of substance use prior to fatal car accidents in Iran advocates for the need for drug use control policies and programs as major strategies for injury prevention in Iran. There is also a need for substance screening among all drivers involved in fatal car accidents in Iran, as more than 20% of users may not disclose substance use.
Full Text Available Given that promoting learners’ communicative competence in a second language (L2 is one of the primary foci of communicative language teaching approaches, the late 1980s saw an expansion in research into willingness to communicate (WTC, which is deemed to affect individuals’ predisposition towards the initiation of L2 communication. The principal aims of this study are(a to reveal whether instrumental motivation and integrative orientation are correlated with WTC, (b to delve into the contribution of instrumental and integrative orientations to the explanation of WTC, (c to examine which of the two motivational propensities is a better predictor of WTC, and (d to find whether 3 groups of learners with low, medium, and high levels of instrumental and integrative orientations differ in terms of their level of reported WTC. To this end, 188 Iranian EFL learners, who were randomly selected, filled out a WTC questionnaire and a language learning motivation questionnaire. Results of path analysis and standard multiple regression revealed that although both motivational orientations significantly contributed to the explanation of WTC, instrumental motivation, which uniquely explained 3.7% of the variance in total WTC, was a better predictor of WTC. Informed by the results of one-way between-groups ANOVA, a significant difference was encountered among the reported L2 WTC levels of the 3 groups of learners with various levels of both instrumental orientation and integrative motivation. The findings could cast light onto the nexus between motivation and WTC in the Iranian EFL context and the intricacies and dynamics of the WTC process.
Hajnasiri, Hamideh; Ghanei Gheshlagh, Reza; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Moafi, Farnoosh; Farajzadeh, Mohammad
Context Violence against women, or domestic violence, is both a physical and mental health issue that is rampant in many societies. It undermines the personal health of those involved by inflicting physical, sexual, and psychological damage. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the prevalence of domestic violence in Iranian society. Evidence Acquisition A total of 31 articles published between 2000 and 2014 in Iranian and international databases (MagIran, IranMedex, SID, Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Pre Quest, and Scopus) were examined. The data collected from the articles were analyzed through a meta-analysis using a random effects model. The heterogeneity of the articles was examined using the I2 index, and the analyses were performed with STATA software version 11.2. Results Based on the 31 articles, which represent a sample size of 15,514 persons, we estimated the prevalence of domestic violence to be 66% (CI 95%: 55 - 77). The geographical classification showed that the prevalence of domestic violence was 70% (CI 95%: 57 - 84) in the east of the country, 70% in the south (CI 95%: 32 - 100), 75% in the west (CI 95%: 56 - 94), 62% in the north (CI 95%: 37 - 86), and 59% in the center (CI 95%: 44 - 74). Conclusions The results of the study showed a high prevalence of domestic violence in Iran, which requires the adoption of appropriate measures and the initiation of effective interventions by the legal authorities. These measures and interventions should aim to determine the causes of domestic violence and to develop ways of controlling and reducing this destructive phenomenon. PMID:27621936
Full Text Available Background Because of some special and privileged attractions of dentistry discipline, the first choice of volunteers who want to enter university is dentistry. The students usually choose it regardless to their interests and talents. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Iranian and Foreign student’s motivations to choose dentistry field of study. Materials and Methods We searched international databases such as PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Iranian databases such as SID, Magiran, Iranmedex using a searching strategy during 2000 to 2015 years. Database without language restriction, since 2000 sources, with the MeSH term "Choose dentistry field" AND "Students". At first, in the initial search,152 articles were found, and finally, 51 of them which were related to the subject of this research were used. Results In general, the motivation of students to choose field of study in Iranain and Foreign students include the following:: an independent office or job independence, high economic income, appropriate social status, job attractiveness of dentistry, appropriate job position, individual longing, help others, top rank of student in the university entrance exam, continue to study at specialized PhD in one of dentistry trends, successful marriage nd interest in the field of dentistry. Conclusion It seems that with regard to the high unemployment rate of university graduates in Iran, the most important incentives of applicants who want to enter the dentistry discipline are high income and particular social prestige at this major. Moreover, high income and independent job situations are the most important factors in Foreign students for choosing this filed of study in the overseas studies.
Seyyd Musa al-Reza Hosseini
Full Text Available Background: Camel milk is the closest to human mother’s milk. In the references on Iranian traditional medicine, camel’s milk has been represented as the one having numerous nutritious and medical properties.Objectives: In this article, the nutritive and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk have been examined from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine.Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative one, which was carried out, based on certain criteria, through purposeful search of certain keywords in the written references of Iranian traditional medicine.Results: Numerous pharmacological functions and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk on patients suffering from liver, kidney, bladder, spleen, stomach and intestines, uterus, skin, lungs, and brain diseases have been mentioned. Camel’s milk seems to be an appropriate alternative/supplement to nourish infants and children.Conclusions: Animal resources, such as camel’s milk and its various products, have comprehensively been dealt with regarding their nutritive and therapeutic effects. Its compatibility with and similarity to mother’s milk have led to its application in pediatrics; thus, offering valid information to pediatricians on camel’s milk can further enhance the consumption of this natural product.
Full Text Available Some factors such as stooping posture and frequent kneeling in miners can increase prevalence of their musculoskeletal disorders Present study was performed for assessment of MSDs prevalence among Iranian coal miners and finds its relationships with some their characters including age, work experience and body mass index. Participants in the persent cross sectional study, were 505 coal miners which selected among Iranian coal miners by simple random method. Data of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs gathered by Standardized Nordic self-reporting questionnaire. Demographic and work related data were collected into the check list. Findings of persent study showed that 56.1% and 66.5% of study miners claimed one of the MSDs complaints during last week and in the last year respectively. Lumbar, Knee(s and Back had most common MSDs prevalence at last week and year. MSDs prevalence had significant association with age (P≤0.02 and non-significant association with BMI (P≥0.8 of workers. MSDs in Iranian coal miners were happened in high rate. Ergonomic interventions strategies in the workplaces must be focussed for elimination of environmental hazards such as apposition at the time of work, manual handling of heavy loads.
Full Text Available Tea is the most popular beverage in the world and contains several essential nutrients, which are beneficial for human health. The contamination of tea leaves by heavy metals may pose a serious threat to human, because they are not biodegradable and remain in environment and pass to food chain. In this study, the concentration of heavy metals of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al and macro-elements of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry on 30 samples of black tea cultivated in Iran and compared with the results for 30 samples of imported black tea in 2006. The results of analysis showed that the mean level of Al was 699.2±172.7mg/kg for Iranian and 388.3±98.3mg/kg for imported black tea. However, the values for Cd, Pb, and Ni were non-detectable. The most abundant nutritive metal was manganese with 155.2-214.2mg/kg and 96.7-332.9mg/kg in Iranian and imported black tea, respectively. The average contents of detectable heavy metals were significantly (p<0.05 higher in Iranian black tea. According to the results of this study, it is justifiable to set maximum residue level for heavy metals in tea, such as Al which appears to be very high in concentration.
Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.
Nasrin D. Mamaghani
Full Text Available Problem statement: Knowledge and its management are considered as a foundation for creating competitive advantages in organizations. Most of large companies have allocated plenty of resources to Knowledge Management (KM because they believe Knowledge and its management is a foundation for creating competitive advantages in organizations. However, implementing knowledge management projects in an organization requires essential organizational changes. The main purpose of this study was to explore KM success factors of Iranian research center to make a basis for evaluating the readiness of KM in them. Approach: In this study, success factors of knowledge management were extracted from literature review on papers represented between 1997 and 2009. Then the factors were categorized and effective and critical success factors in each group were determined. The results were validated and analyzed by a questionnaire through binomial test and approved by an expert panel. Results: The study revealed that KM success factors of Iranian research centers are: Knowledge strategy, management support, motivational encouragements to share knowledge, suitable technical infrastructure. It is obvious that continuous attention of management to these factors is vital for the success of knowledge management in organizations. Conclusions: Based on results, to improve current situation of KM in Iranian research center, KM and its benefits should be represented to managers to attract their support in organization. Then KM should be employed in strategic program of organization. Besides, implementing the projects of KM should be accompanied with reward and motivational systems to facilitate knowledge sharing and create proper organizational culture.
Movahhed, Mina; Poursaleh, Zohreh
Background: Until now, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) had been extensively based on Iranian philosophy in theoretical approach in diagnosis and treatment, with doubts on academic medicine. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of temperaments, herbal standardization, and quality control had been with the obscurity of functional molecules and their action mechanisms. Proteomics is a potent board to the mechanistic investigation of ITM and has been comprehensively applied profile drug-regulated proteins. In this review, we assessed the application of this modern molecular biological method in the identification of temperaments and drug targets of ITM. Methods: All available studies related to proteomics in traditional medicine, alternative and complementary medicine, including books, journals, and other references were studied and assessed. Results: The present review showed the phenotypes of the various temperaments in healthy individuals, that is to say, same proteins with different dynamic properties. Therefore, the usefulness of proteomics seems authoritative to understand the means by which the molecular pathways protected in ITM. This might be also the key clinical viewpoint on this new approach for enabling the integration of Iranian traditional medicine and modern biological science and technology, as well for upholding the internationalization of ITM. Conclusion: Proteomics, as a powerful tool for systems biology, is an essential research methodology for understanding the mechanisms of traditional medicine. Further investigation on the applications of advanced proteomics in temperaments, herbal standardization, and quality control in ITM is recommended. PMID:27516684
Full Text Available Ever since 2002 relations between the West and Israel on the one hand and Iran on the other have been deteriorating due to the contentious issue of Iranian nuclear programme. Israel and the US have been claiming that there has been a secret Iranian nuclear weapons program, on the grounds that Iran has persisted in its effort to acquire independent uranium enrichment capability and has since 2006 allowed only limited inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Iran has been claiming that its nuclear program is entirely peaceful. Today, one certainly cannot exclude possibility of a military attack on Iranian nuclear facilities. However, one cannot properly understand the problem without taking into account the historical and structural dimensions. Namely, Iran's nuclear policy has been guided by country's determination that it will become independent and self-reliant in every possible field – a result of its very negative historical experience. Thus, Iran has been determined to fully exercise its right to peaceful nuclear development, to which it is entitled according to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Iran has been striving to overcome the structural dependence of developing countries in the field of nuclear energy, as they have been denied the possibility of comprehensive nuclear development for peaceful purposes by countries possessing developed nuclear industries. The latter have prevented balanced implementation of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
Hossein Hashem Neghad
Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate Iranian ELT English textbooks (Senior High school and Pre-University in the light of three learning theories i.e., behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each of these learning theories embedding an array of instructional strategies and techniques acted as evaluation checklist. That is, Iranian ELT English textbooks were evaluated in terms of instructional strategies and techniques cited in the related literature for each learning theory. The analysis of data in this descriptive study through frequency count and relative frequency revealed that the major principle of organization in Senior High school is the learning theory of behaviourism. Although Constructivism was observed to be the prominent learning theory in Pre- University English textbooks, combination of other learning theories were indicated. It was also indicated that cognitivism was rated as the second most important learning theory across all educational level. Analysis of the data through Chi-Square showed that reflection of learning theories in Iranian ELT textbooks is not by chance and the differences are significant with behaviourism on the one side, cognitivism in between and constructivism on the other side of continuum.
Full Text Available "nBackground: Leishmania is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite, which infects human beings when infected sand fly vector takes a blood meal. Most efforts are towards designing an effective vaccine to prevent leishmaniasis. In this way, development of candidate antigen for vaccine has special important. In this study, we cloned mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase gene of Iranian L .major in pET32a expression vector. "nMethods: Primers based on L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase sequence gene was designed and synthesized. DNA of Leishmania promastigotes was extracted and PCR reaction was done. PCR product was cloned into pTZ57R and sub cloned into pET32a expression vector. "nResults: Recombinant plasmid containing 1140 bp as L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase gene was extracted and confirmed by restriction analysis. PCR product was sequenced and deposited to GenBank. There were some differences in amino acid sequences between Iranian L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase and others previously accepted in GenBank "nConclusion: We amplified and cloned Iranian L. major mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase successfully.
Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD between boys and girls (P < 0.05. There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children.
H. R. Ansari-Renani
Full Text Available Iran together with Afghanistan is the third largest producer and exporter of cashmere in the world, after China and Mongolia. This paper assesses the status of cashmere marketing of Iran in order to evaluate sustainability, and to identify some constraints limiting the productivity and compa-tibility. In August to December 2011 structured questionnaires and interviews were used to compile information regarding market chains cashmere industry of Iran. Information compiled revealed that nearly all the cashmere was marketed by direct buying in Iran. The principle centers for the gathering and rough sorting raw cashmere in Iran were Baft, Sirjan, Mashad, and Birjand. The principle cashmere-importing countries of Iranian cashmere were China, England, Belgium and Italy. The price for Iranian cashmere has showed large fluctuations in the last forty years: it increased from 25 dollars in 1972 to 110 dollars in 1988 and decreased to 65 dollars in 2006 and again increased to 110 dollars in 2012. Given the present status of production and marketing there seems to be substantial scope to improve the value addition of Iranian cashmere.
Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Nejad, Ramin Bagheri; Alamian, Saeed; Mokhberalsafa, Ladan; Abedini, Fatemeh; Ghaderi, Rainak; Jalali, Hamid Reza
Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is a significant cause of abortion in animals. Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 is recommended as the most effective vaccine for small ruminants but the application of full doses in adult animals is restricted. This study was conducted to determine a proper reduced dose of vaccine which confers protection but which is not abortifacient in Iranian fat-tailed sheep. A total of 51 non-vaccinated pregnant ewes were divided into three main groups and several subgroups. Ewes in different groups were vaccinated at different stages of pregnancy and various subgroups were subcutaneously immunised with different quantities of the micro-organism (7.5 × 10(6), 10(6), 5 × 10(5)). Ewes again became pregnant a year later and were challenged with the wild-type strain to evaluate the protection conferred. Results revealed that the proportion of vaccination-induced abortions was significantly higher in ewes immunised with 7.5 × 10(6) Rev. 1 organisms than in those which received 10(6) or 5 × 10(5) bacteria. While 80% of non-vaccinated ewes aborted after challenge, none of the vaccinated ewes aborted post-challenge. This study indicated that a reduced dose of Rev. 1 vaccine containing 10(6) or 5 × 10(5) live cells could be safely used to induce protection in Iranian fat-tailed sheep at various stages of pregnancy.
Haghdoost, Aa; Ghazi, M; Rafiee, Z; Afshari, M
To explore the trend and composition of post-graduate Iranian students who received governmental scholarship during the last two decades. Detailed information about the awarded scholarships and also about the number of post graduate students in clinical and basic sciences in domestic universities were collected from the related offices within the ministry of health and medical education and their trends were triangulated. A sharp drop was observed in the number of awarded scholarships, from 263 in 1992 to 46 in 2009. In the beginning, almost all of scholarships fully supported students for a whole academic course; while in recent years most of scholarships supported students for a short fellowship or complementary course (more than 80%). Students studied in a wide range of colleges within 30 countries; more than 50% in Europe. Although one third of students studied in UK in the first years, only 4% of students selected this country in recent years. conversely, the number of scholarships to Germany and sweden have increased more than 10 and 3 times during this period. In parallel, the capacity of domestic universities for training of post-graduate students has been expanded dramatically. Although expanding post-graduate education has been one of the main strategic objectives of the ministry of health and medical education in last two decades, it was obtained using different approaches. By time, more attention was to expanding the capacities of Iranian universities, and choosing less but more targeted students to continue their studies abroad.
Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is a significant cause of abortion in animals. Brucella melitensis strain Rev. 1 is recommended as the most effective vaccine for small ruminants but the application of full doses in adult animals is restricted. This study was conducted to determine a proper reduced dose of vaccine which confers protection but which is not abortifacient in Iranian fat-tailed sheep. A total of 51 non-vaccinated pregnant ewes were divided into three main groups and several subgroups. Ewes in different groups were vaccinated at different stages of pregnancy and various subgroups were subcutaneously immunised with different quantities of the micro-organism (7.5 × 106, 106, 5 × 105. Ewes again became pregnant a year later and were challenged with the wild-type strain to evaluate the protection conferred. Results revealed that the proportion of vaccination-induced abortions was significantly higher in ewes immunised with 7.5 × 106 Rev. 1 organisms than in those which received 106 or 5 × 105 bacteria. While 80% of non-vaccinated ewes aborted after challenge, none of the vaccinated ewes aborted post-challenge. This study indicated that a reduced dose of Rev. 1 vaccine containing 106 or 5 × 105 live cells could be safely used to induce protection in Iranian fat-tailed sheep at various stages of pregnancy.
Conclusions: The DNT-15 (Persian version is a reliable and valid measure of diabetes-related numeracy skills for Iranian patients with diabetes; however, additional studies are needed to further explore the association between diabetes-specific numeracy and acculturation and their impact on diabetes-related outcomes in Iranian population.
The main purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL teachers' Professional Identity and their types of Multiple Intelligences. Moreover, it aimed to see the extent to which their multiple intelligences can predict their professional identity. The participants of the study were 137 Iranian EFL teachers teaching in…
Kaveh Alavi, MD
Conclusion: Iranian FM‐GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF‐GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261–268.
Kakooei, Sina; Mostafavi, Mahshid; Parirokh, Masoud; Asgary, Saeed
Introduction: Quoting an article in well-known textbooks is held as a credit for that paper. The numbers of Iranian publications mentioned in endodontic textbooks have increased during recent years. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the number of Iranian articles quoted in eminent endodontic textbooks. Methods and Materials: Three known textbooks (Ingle’s Endodontics, Seltzer and Bender’s Dental Pulp and Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp) were chosen and all the editions of the textbooks since 2000 were investigated for quoted Iranian publications. Only Iranian authors with affiliations from a domestic university were chosen. All references at the end of each chapter were read by hand searching, and results were noted. The trend and percentage of Iranian publications in different editions of the textbooks were also calculated. The number of citations of these publications in Google Scholar and Scopus databases were also obtained. Results: The number of Iranian publications in all well-known textbooks have notably increased since 2000. The number and percentage of Iranian publications in the latest edition of Cohen’s Pathways of the Pulp was higher compared to other textbooks as well as the previous edition of the same text. Conclusion: Number and percentage of Iranian publications in the field of endodontics in all three textbooks have remarkably increased since 2000. PMID:27471523
Zarei, Abbas Ali; Rahmani, Hanieh
The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' beliefs about language learning and language learning strategy use. A sample of 104 B.A and M.A Iranian EFL learners majoring in English participated in this study. Three instruments, the Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency (MTELP), Beliefs about Language…
Naeini, Ma'ssoumeh Bemani; Rezaei, Reyhaneh
This study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' performance on a reading comprehension test and their pattern of using cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies. Analysis of the data obtained from 190 Iranian intermediate EFL learners (70 males and 120 females, aged 17-25) revealed a strong relationship between reading…
Alexander Andreevich Kuznetsov
Full Text Available This article touches upon the work of the expert and analytical centers of Islamic Republic of Iran. Special attention is paid to the Iranian expert researches dedicated to the Middle East. Author of the article gives an account of the Iranian analytical centers. According to the researches of M. Shuri author emphasizes aims and goals of the Iranian foreign policy in the Middle East and in other regions. Concept of the “Axis of Resistance” is descripted as basic in the Iranian Arab policy. Author underlines importance of the strategic partnership between Iran from one side and Syria, Iraq and Hezbollah Movement from the other side. Author realizes Iranian expert appreciation of role of the outside actors (United States, Europe, Russia, China in the region and the Saudi-Iranian relations. Because of the fact that Iranian-Saudi regional rivalry is one of the key factors of the political situation in the region. According to evaluations of the Center of the Arabic researches both countries have to normalize bilateral relations. Though experts of the Center of the Strategic Studies and of the University of Tabatabai consider that Saudi Arabia and Qatar are responsible for activity of the extremeist and terrorist jihadi groups. The article also exposes views of the Iranian experts on possibilities of SCO and BRICS in the Middle East region.
Azar, Fereshteh Khaffafi; Saeidi, Mahnaz
The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' learning strategies use and their language learning beliefs. A sample of 200 Iranian EFL learners who were all English language learners at different language institutes participated in this study. Two instruments, Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) and…
Paziraie, Mandana Eftekhar
This study is devoted to the effect of "textual metafunction" on the levels of coherence and cohesion in the Iranian EFL learners' English writing performance. Sixty Iranian intermediate EFL learners who were adult females participated in this study were randomly divided into two groups; experimental, and control. They were given a…
Muthasamy, Paramasivam; Farashaiyan, Atieh
This study examined the teaching approaches and techniques that Iranian instructors utilize for teaching L2 pragmatics in their classroom practices. 238 Iranian instructors participated in this study. The data for this study were accumulated through questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. In terms of the instructional approaches, both the…
The current research was an attempt to explore the washback impact of task-based instruction (TBI) on EFL Iranian learners' vocabulary development. To this end, conducting an Oxford Placement Test (OPT), 30 out of 72 EFL Iranian learners studying in an English language institute, were randomly selected. Then, they were assigned to experimental (N…
Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Campos, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.
Nearly half a million United States residents identify themselves as being of Iranian origin, and many in this population are of high socioeconomic status. Although games of chance have been a notable part of Iranian culture for thousands of years, there is almost no research exploring gambling in this population. The objective of this case study…
... to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. 560.209 Section 560.209 Money and Finance... respect to the development of Iranian petroleum resources. Except as otherwise authorized, and... development of petroleum resources located in Iran, or (2) A guaranty of another person's performance under...
Noughabi, Mostafa Azari
Searching for the real voices in regard to pedagogical challenges Iranian EFL teachers may struggle against seems to be an unexplored issue, which is the purpose of this qualitative grounded study. To achieve generalizable findings, based on the tenets of grounded theory, data were collected using an open-ended questionnaire with 187 Iranian EFL…
Afshar, Hassan Soodmand; Doosti, Mehdi
As part of a large-scale project, this study investigated the differences between satisfied and dissatisfied Iranian junior secondary school English teachers in terms of their job performance. To this end, 64 Iranian English teachers and 1774 of their students completed a validated questionnaire specifically developed to investigate EFL teachers'…
Pakpour, Amir H; Nourozi, Saeedeh; Molsted, Stig
The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reliability of the SF-12 questionnaire in a sample of Iranian patients undergoing hemodialysis.......The aim of the study was to assess the validity and reliability of the SF-12 questionnaire in a sample of Iranian patients undergoing hemodialysis....
This study helped develop guidelines for modifying the current curriculum of the existing B.A. in English Translation within Iranian universities. Participants were 30 experts in the fields of English language translation, linguistics, and translatology from four Iranian universities. Using the Delphi research methodology, researchers administered…
Ravesh, Mahnaz Mahmoudi; Tabrizi, Hossein Heidari
The present study sought to investigate whether Iranian translation students were successful in comprehending interlanguage pragmatic (ILP) features. Moreover, it tried to figure out whether teaching interlanguage pragmatics proved helpful for the improvement of interpretation ability of Iranian translation students. To this end, 30 students of…
Sabet, Masoud Khalili; Sadeh, Nima
The main purpose of this paper is to examine the European-led projects in the field of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and their potential applicability in the Iranian EFL context. This paper tries to introduce various dimensions of CLIL and examine the compatibility of its component with the Iranian context.
Frank, Gila; Plunkett, Scott W.; Otten, Mark P.
We examined whether Iranian American adolescents' perceptions of parental support, parental knowledge, and parental psychological control relate to general self-efficacy directly, and indirectly through positive esteem and self-deprecation. To investigate this, self-report surveys were collected from 158 Iranian American adolescents attending…
Frank, Gila; Plunkett, Scott W.; Otten, Mark P.
We examined whether Iranian American adolescents' perceptions of parental support, parental knowledge, and parental psychological control relate to general self-efficacy directly, and indirectly through positive esteem and self-deprecation. To investigate this, self-report surveys were collected from 158 Iranian American adolescents attending…
Tabrizchi, Narges; Sedaghat, Mojtaba
Although the error in health care has received attention recently, patient safety culture in health centers has been relatively neglected. To measure the patient safety culture in primary health centers. A cross-sectional study, utilizing the modified version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and a demographic questionnaire. Healthcare staffs from health centers were participated in the survey. The patient safety culture score including subscores on 11 dimensions and 39 items; patient safety grade and number of events reported. The overall positive response rate of patient safety culture was 57 ± 16.8 (CI (95)55%-59%). The dimensions that received higher positive response rate were "Teamwork across units of health center", "Teamwork within units", "Head of center support for patient safety". The lowest percentage of positive responses was "Non punitive response to error". There were no relationship between working years and patients safely culture score. Similarly, no relationship was found between professional, gender and total patients safely culture score. Statistical analysis showed discrepancies between Iranian health centers and the US hospitals in three dimensions. For improving patient safety culture in health centers, it is necessary to have enough staff and establish an environment to be open and fair with staff which helps report errors spontaneously and without any fear. The findings of this study could be used to measure changes in patient safety culture over the time.
Full Text Available Although the error in health care has received attention recently, patient safety culture in health centers has been relatively neglected. To measure the patient safety culture in primary health centers. A cross-sectional study, utilizing the modified version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ and a demographic questionnaire. Healthcare staffs from health centers were participated in the survey. The patient safety culture score including subscores on 11 dimensions and 39 items; patient safety grade and number of events reported. The overall positive response rate of patient safety culture was 57 ±16.8 (CI 9555%-59%. The dimensions that received higher positive response rate were "Teamwork across units of health center", "Teamwork within units", "Head of center support for patient safety". The lowest percentage of positive responses was "Non punitive response to error". There were no relationship between working years and patients safely culture score. Similarly, no relationship was found between professional, gender and total patients safely culture score. Statistical analysis showed discrepancies between Iranian health centers and the US hospitals in three dimensions. For improving patient safety culture in health centers, it is necessary to have enough staff and establish an environment to be open and fair with staff which helps report errors spontaneously and without any fear. The findings of this study could be used to measure changes in patient safety culture over the time.
Daghigh Kia, H; Mohamadi Chapdareh, W; Hossein Khani, A; Moghaddam, G; Rashidi, A; Sadri, H; Alijani, S
Forty-eight Iranian Markhoz goats were allocated to six groups (n = 8) to study the effect of flushing and hormonal treatments on reproductive performance. Treatments were divided into two categories including, hormonal treatments and flushing. The goats in each group were fed the same basal ration and received one of the following treatments: Groups A and B--injection of GnRH and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) respectively; Groups C, D and E--a supplement of barley grain, soybean oil and sunflower oil in flushing diets, respectively, were offered and Group F--control (only received basal diet). In the flushing treatments, only the source of energy was different between rations. Both hormonal treatments and flushing treatments improved fertility and kidding rates. Treatment B with 16 and control with seven kids represented the highest and the lowest number of progeny respectively. Among flushing treatments, group C resulted in the highest number of kids being 15. Oestrogen levels in follicular phase increased with the injection of eCG and consumption of barley grain. GnRH injection and consumption of oil sources in the diet increased blood progesterone levels during ovulation and post-ovulation periods. Under current market conditions, using hormone or flushing can be profitable for Markhoz goats farmers. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available Introduction: There are major differences in neonatal and obstetrics outcomes of labour among different ethnicities. The present study compared the neonatal and obstetrics outcomes of labour between the Iranian and Afghan ethnicities. Methods: Neonatal and obstetrics problems were evaluated in Iranian and Afghan pregnant women, who had referred to Arash Educational/Treatment Center for labour during a year. Results: 3020 (93.7% Iranian and 202 (63% Afghan women were evaluated. There were no significant differences between the two ethnicities in relation to a need for Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU, the rate of live births, infant birth weight, congenital anomalies and premature births (P>0.05. The rate of Caesarian section was higher in Iranian women (P=0.001. Conclusion: It seems that the differences in neonatal problems and outcomes of labour obstetrics between Iranians and Afghans can be attributed to different cultural, economic, and social conditions in comparison to different ethnicities.
Mireshghi, Sholeh I; Matsumoto, David
This study examined the relationship between three mental health constructs and perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Specifically, differences in perceived cultural attitudes and depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress between 49 Iranians and 47 Americans were compared. It was hypothesized that (a) perceived cultural attitudes toward homosexuality would be more negative among Iranians than Americans; (b) perceived cultural attitudes would be related to depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress; and (c) that Iranian participants' scores on the depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress measures would reflect poorer mental health than that of their American counterparts. Results indicated more negative perceptions of cultural attitudes toward homosexuality among Iranians. Contrary to prediction, however, no difference was found in levels of depression, self-esteem, and perceived stress among American and Iranian participants. Findings are discussed in terms of cultural and familial differences with regard to sexual orientation disclosure.
吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李桂银; 曾融生
A new method for receiver function inversion by wavelet transformation is presented in this paper. Receiver func-tion is expanded to different scales with different resolution by wavelet transformation. After an initial model be-ing taken, a generalized least-squares inversion procedure is gradually carried out for receiver function from low tohigh scale, with the inversion result for low order receiver function as the initial model for high order. Aneighborhood containing the global minimum is firstly searched from low scale receiver function, and will gradu-ally focus at the global minimum by introducing high scale information of receiver function. With the gradual ad-dition of high wave-number to smooth background velocity structure, wavelet transformation can keep the inver-sion result converge to the global minimum, reduce to certain extent the dependence of inversion result on theinitial model, overcome the nonuniqueness of generalized least-squares inversion, and obtain reliable crustal andupper mantle velocity with high resolution.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 (PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales in children. Methods A standard forward and backward translation procedure was used to translate the US English version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales for children into the Iranian language (Persian. The Iranian version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales was completed by 503 healthy and 22 chronically ill children aged 8-12 years and their parents. The reliability was evaluated using internal consistency. Known-groups discriminant comparisons were made, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA were conducted. Results The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.70. All monotrait-multimethod correlations were higher than multitrait-multimethod correlations. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC between the children self-report and parent proxy-reports showed moderate to high agreement. Exploratory factor analysis extracted six factors from the PedsQL™ 4.0 for both self and proxy reports, accounting for 47.9% and 54.8% of total variance, respectively. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis for 6-factor models for both self-report and proxy-report indicated acceptable fit for the proposed models. Regarding health status, as hypothesized from previous studies, healthy children reported significantly higher health-related quality of life than those with chronic illnesses. Conclusions The findings support the initial reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the PedsQL™ 4.0 as a generic instrument to measure health-related quality of life of children in Iran.
Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...
Alavian, Seyed-Moayed; Izadi, Morteza; Zare, Ali-Akbar; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin; Vardi, Mohammad-Mahdi
Hepatitis B is an infectious disease to which dentists are susceptible. The main aim of this study was to determine the level of antibody titer and immunity in vaccinated Iranian general dentists. A total of 861 general dentists were invited to participate in this study; 598 persons who could recall their history of vaccination and consented to have blood samples taken were recruited. Demographic and work-related data were recorded, and anti-Hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs-Ag) evaluations were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the 598 participants, 35 (5.9%) were nonimmune (anti-HBs anti-HBs = 10-99 IU/l), and 462 (77.3%) were completely immune (anti-HBs > or =100 IU/l). Only 218 (36.5%) of the dentists knew their HBs antibody titer. Fourteen (2.3%) persons reported receiving one dose and 65 (10.9%) had received two doses. The number of those who had received the three recommended doses totaled 519 (86.8%), 491 (82.1%) of them receiving their vaccine on schedule. Age, city, pack-years of smoking, years of smoking, and the interval between the last vaccination and the commencement of the study had a significant relationship to the antibody titer level, whereas sex, marital status, place of practice, smoking, and vaccination schedule were not related. Only 36.5% of the general dentists had checked their antibody titer. We, therefore, recommend that dentists, as a potential high-risk group, should know their level of anti-HBs antibody titer so that those who require revaccination can get treatment.
Full Text Available The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations in mitochondrial coding and non coding regions seem to be important in carcinogenesis. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate coding region (mt-tRNAPhe and tRNAPro and non-coding sequence, mitochondrial displacement loop (mtDNA D-loop, in the cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of Iranian patients with breast cancer (BC. Genomic DNA was extracted from 50 breast tumors and surrounding normal tissue pairs as well as from 50 unrelated normal breast tissues from Iranian Kurdish population. Subsequently, PCR amplification was performed using specific primers, and then PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. 41 genetic variants were identified in mtDNA D-loop among tumoral and non-tumoral tissues but not in tRNAPhe and tRNAPro sequences. Our findings indicated that C182T, 194insT, 285insA and 16342delT were just found in BC tumors whereas 302insC, C309T and C16069T found in both tumors and surrounding normal tissues. Although our findings showed that the observed genetic variations were not restricted to breast cancer tissues, some genetic changes were found only in BC tumors. Our results, in agreement with the evidence from earlier studies, confirm that the mtDNA genetic alterations might be implicated in tumor initiation, progression and development. text-align: justify;
Rahimaghaee, Flora; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Mohammadi, Eesa; Salavati, Shahram
Professional development is reiterated in the new definition of modern organizations as a serious undertaking of organizations. This article aims to present and describe a prescriptive model to increase the quality of professional development of Iranian nurses within an organization-based framework. This article is an outcome of the results of a study based on grounded theory describing how Iranian nurses develop. The present study adopted purposive sampling and the initial participants were experienced clinical nurses. Then, the study continued by theoretical sampling. The present study involved 21 participants. Data were mainly collected through interviews. Analysis began with open coding and continued with axial coding and selective coding. Trustworthiness was ensured by applying Lincoln and Guba criteria such as credibility, dependability, and conformability. Based on the data gathered in the study and a thorough review of related literature, a prescriptive model has been designed by use of the methodology of Walker and Avant (2005). In this model, the first main component is a three-part structure: Reformation to establish a value-assigning structure, a position for human resource management, and a job redesigning. The second component is certain of opportunities for organization-oriented development. These strategies are as follows: Raising the sensitivity of the organization toward development, goal setting and planning the development of human resources, and improving management practices. Through this model, clinical nurses' professional development can transform the profession from an individual, randomized activity into more planned and systematized services. This model can lead to a better quality of care.
Olesen, Daniel Madelung; Jakobsen, Jakob; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik
This paper describes the current activities of GPS/GNSS Software receiver development at DTU Space. GNSS Software receivers have received a great deal of attention in the last two decades and numerous implementations have already been presented. DTU Space has just recently started development of ...... of our own GNSS software-receiver targeted for mini UAV applications, and we will in in this paper present our current progress and briefly discuss the benefits of Software Receivers in relation to our research interests....
Matin, Marzieh; Latifi, Sahar; Zoufan, Nasrin; Koushki, Davood; Mirjafari Daryasari, Seyedeh Adeleh; Rahdari, Fereshteh
Usage of 308-nm excimer laser (EL) is an effective treatment in vitiligo. As genetic predispositions along with type of skin and rate of sun exposure are known factors influencing the treatment outcomes, we tried to evaluate the treatment results of using 308 nm-excimer laser alone in comparison with the combined therapy of EL and topical tacrolimus in Iranian patients with vitiligo. We reviewed the medical files of 150 patients with vitiligo who were referred to the Behsima Laser Center between April 2012 and April 2013. Seventy five patients who received combined therapy of 308 nm EL and topical tacrolimus three times a week entered the study. Seventy-five controls with matched characteristics and who received only EL were also selected. The amount of repigmentation was estimated by an expert dermatologist and was classified in 5 ranks. In the case group, 33.3% (n: 25) showed 50-75% repigmentaion and 49.3% (n:37) had more than 75% response to therapy, whereas among the patients in the control group 29.3% (n: 22) showed no repigmentation and only 8% (n: 6) demonstrated more than 75% repigmentation response. The higher efficiency of the combination therapy on repigmentation was statistically significant (P: 0.006). Our study shows that Iranian patients with vitiligo who received a combined treatment course with 308-nm EL and tacrolimus 0.1% experienced significantly higher levels of repigmentation in comparison with laser therapy alone.
Full Text Available The present experimental study primarily aimed at examining the effect of presentation strategy on reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To determine the effect of this strategy, 61 students who enrolled in English Language Center of Chabahar Maritime University were initially selected and then divided randomly into two classes one as an experimental group and the other one as the control group. The homogeneity of their proficiency level was established via the administration of a TOEFL (the PBT proficiency test. A reading comprehension test as pre-test administered to the subjects of both groups one week before the initiation of the study. The experimental group used the strategy three sessions each week for ten weeks, while the control group was trained based on the ordinary approaches of teaching reading comprehension. Presentation strategy was worked for every two weeks during the experiment and then at the end of each two-week instruction, an immediate posttest was administered according to the strategy worked. At the end of the study, a post-test was administered to both groups. The statistical techniques being applied were Paired Sample t-test and Independent Sample t-test. The results of the study revealed that presentation strategy had significant effect on promoting reading comprehension of intermediate EFL learners.
Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a disabling disease characterized by compromised bone strength, which predisposes a patient to increased risk of fracture. The aim of this study was evaluation the pattern of bone mass in Iranian healthy population. Methods: The study was performed between December 2000 and May 2001 on one thousand three healthy Iranian sub¬jects who currently live in Tehran. They were selected randomly by cluster random sampling among men and women of 10-76 yr from 50 clusters. The volunteer people were referred to the Bone Mineral Density BMD unit of EMRC. The partici¬pants were recalled for three times and the response rate was 83%. BMD was measured by DXA using Lunar DPX-MD device. Results: Females achieved maximum lumbar BMD up to 25-35. Femur BMD maximized in 30 to 35 and after 45 the inten¬sity of bone loss increased. Female peak bone mass in lumbar region was 1.19 ± 0.12 g/cm2and in femur was 1.02±0.12 g/cm2. Male peak bone mass in lumbar region occurred between ages 25-40 yr, Male's femur BMD maximized in 20-30. In male peak lumbar bone mass was 1.22±0.16 g/cm2 and femur was 1.08±0.15 g/cm2. Osteopenia was recog¬nized in 50% and 48.8% of women above 50 in spine and total femur, respectively, however these percentages were 37.1% and 34.8% among male subjects. Conclusion: Iranian BMD values sufficiently different from other countries to warrant a separate reference sample with which to compare individuals for the purpose of diagnosing osteoporosis and osteopenia according to the WHO criteria.
Majid; Asadi-Samani; Najme; Kafash-Farkhad; Nafiseh; Azimi; Ali; Fasihi; Ebrahim; Alinia-Ahandani; Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei
There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver.In this review,we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine,with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CCI4 agent.In this study,online databases including Web of Science.PubMed.Scopus,and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013.Search terms consisted of medicinal plants,traditional medicine,folk medicine,hepatoprotective.Iran,liver,therapeutic uses,compounds,antioxidant.CCI4.anti-inflammatory,and antihepatotoxic,hepatitis,alone or in combination.Allium hirtifolium Boiss..Apium graveolens L..Cynara scolyinus.Berberis vulgaris L..,Calendula officinalis,Nigella sativa L..Taraxacum officinale.Tragopogon porrifolius.Prangos ferulacea L..Allium sativum,Marribium vulgare,Ammi majus L..Citrullus lanatus Thunb.Agrimonia eupatoria L.and Primus armeniaca L.are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine.Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents,silymarin,P-sitosterol,betalain,neoandrographolide.phyllanthin.andrographolide.curcumin.picroside.hypophyllanlhin.kutkoside,and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties.Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future,the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of inconsistent condom use among Iranian male injection drug users (IDUs.Materials and methods: Data came from the national Iranian behavioral survey of drug dependence, which sampled 7,743 individuals with drug dependence, from medical centers, prisons and streets in 29 provinces in Iran, 2007. This study included all individuals who were male, IDUs, and were sexually active (n = 1,131. The main outcome was inconsistent condom use which was assessed using a single item. A logistic regression was used to determine the association between socio-economic data, drug use data, and high risk injection behaviors with inconsistent condom use.Result: 83.3% of sexually active IDUs (n=965 reported inconsistent condom use. Based on the logistic regression, likelihood of inconsistent condom use was higher among those with a history of syringe sharing (Odds Ratio [OR]; 1.63, 95% Confidence Interval CI; 1.13- 2.34, but lower among those with higher education levels (OR; 0.34, 95% CI; 0.14- 0.82, those who mostly inject at home (OR; 0.09, 95% CI; 0.02- 0.47 and those with a history of treatment (OR; 0.54, 95% CI; 0.31- 0.94.Conclusion: Because of the link between unsafe sex and risky injecting behaviors among Iranian IDUs, combined programs targeting both sexual and injection behavior may be more appropriate than the programs which target sexual or injection behavior. The efficacy of combined programs should be, however, compared with traditional programs that only target sexual or injection behavior of IDUs.
Full Text Available A few factors appear to boost a child's risk of having recurrent febrile seizures, including young age during the first seizure, seizure type, and having immediate family members with a history of febrile seizures. The present study aimed to provide reliable information about recurrent febrile seizure in Iranian children. On the computerized literature valid on valid keyword with search in valid database PubMed, Scientific Information Databases (SID (, Global medical article limberly (Medlib, Iranian Biomedical Journals (Iran Medex, Iranian Journal Database (Magiran, and Google Scholar recruited in different geographic areas. To explore heterogeneity in studies I2 index was used. Meta-analysis used to data analysis with random effects model.Hospital data of 4,599 children with febrile seizure. Overall, 21 studies met our inclusion criteria. Febrile seizure in 2 age groups (<2 and 2-6 years were 55.8% (95% CI: 50.4-61.2 and 44.2% (95% CI: 38.8-61.2 respectively. Pooled recurrent rate of febrile seizure in Iran was 20.9% (95% CI: 12.3-29.5. In 28.8 (95% CI: 19.3-38.4, children there was positive family history. The mean prevalence of simple and complex seizures was 69.3% (95% CI: 59.5-79.0 and 28.3% (95% CI: 19.6-31.0 respectively. The rates in different geographical regions of central, east, and west of Iran, 25, 20.8 and 27.1% were estimated, respectively.According to the data the prevalence febrile seizure is higher in males and children under two years. Recurrence rate in Iran, similar to other studies performed in other regions of the world.
Full Text Available "nBackground: Marital satisfaction is affected by many factors. Satisfaction with one's sexual life tends to be a pivotal factor in marital satisfaction. In Iran, Socio-cultural and political limitations are obstacles for sexuality-related studies, therefore, insufficient information is available in the area. Unique in its own, in this paper we report how sexual relationships relate to marital satisfaction among Iranians."nMethods: This descriptive-correlation study was conducted in 2007 in Tehran, continuous sampling was used to recruit 292 married men, and women aged 19-58 yr from selected hospitals in Tehran while visiting their hospitalized relatives. Sometimes the participants were couple too. Three questionnaires were used for data collection. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (x2، Fisher and Anova with SPSS."nResults: Marital satisfaction significantly relates to sexual satisfaction (P= 0/00. There was also a significant relation between sexual satisfaction and the following variables: age difference of couples (P= 0.04, length of marital life (P= 0.05, and a drug abused participant (P= 0.007. Of these variables, only the age difference of couples significantly relates to marital satisfaction (0.00."nConclusion: Findings suggest that sexual satisfaction plays a seminal role in marital satisfaction of Iranians. Therefore, we need to develop culturally appropriate practical strategies to improve Iranian couples' awareness in sexuality issues as well as training them in communication skills through their sexual encounters.
Full Text Available Rodgers (Rg and Chido (Ch are blood-group antigens and they determine the fourthcomponentof human complement C4. Rodgers and Chido are associated with two C4isotypes (C4A and C4B. In addition to genotype determination, study on expression ofRg and Chido could be useful in disease studies.DNA was extracted from the whole blood of 60 normal individuals. Then, PCR amplificationof C4d gene fragment was followed by restriction digestion. This studydemonstrated that the frequency of Ch and Rg in Iranian healthy population was98.3 and 93.4 percent, respectively. Additionally, 6.6 percent of the studied populationshowed Chido-positive, Rodger-negative and 1.7 percent showed Rodger-positive,Chido-negative genotype. It may be concluded that upon receiving blood transfusion,6.6 and 1.7 percent of individuals could produce anti-Rg and anti-Ch antibodies, respectively.
Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to inspect the impact of podcasts as learning and teaching tools on Iranian EFL learners’ motivation for listening as well as on their listening comprehension ability. It also investigated the learners’ perception towards podcasts. 34 intermediate learners who were homogeneous in terms of listening ability were chosen and then assigned into two groups. While the experimental group were given the treatment i.e. podcasts, the control group received the traditional practice. Data analysis results showed that the learners in the podcasting group surpassed the participants in the control group in their listening comprehension tests and in ELCMS scale as used to measure changes in the motivation of learners for listening. Students' views about the program were also elicited via podcast contribution questionnaire and individual interviews. The analysis of qualitative data showed that students perceived improvement in their listening achievement. Keywords: CALL, Listening skill, Motivation, Motivational strategies, Podcast
Full Text Available Background: Hand Eczema (HE is a dermatological disorder with frequent relapses and multiple causes such as atopic, allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. The management is complex because of the wide range of different pathogenesis. Efficacy of some of available treatments is not well established and it can affect patients’ quality of life significantly.Methods: Reports on HE such as diagnosis, pathophysiology, pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy that described in medieval Iranian medicine, were gathered and analyzed from selected medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. The search of databases such as PubMed, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, Science direct, Scopus, Google scholar, Web of science, Sid, Iran medex, Irandoc, was performed to reconfirm the efficacy of ITM remedies in conventional medicine from 1980-Jan-1 to 2015-Dec-30.Results: According to their opinion, HE is highly associated with liver function. This disorder was categorized into two main types as wet and dry ones. Most Iranian textbook explained signs of HE, as excessive skin itching, redness, burning and dryness. Treatments recommended by Iranian scientists were lifestyle modification, dietary intervention and performing the rules of prevention as well as herbal therapy and special manipulations.Conclusion: Iranian practitioners believed that, six essential principles, diet therapy and medicinal plants have high impact on treatment of HE. These remedies based on Iranian scholar’s experiences might be useful for further studies to the management of HE. Keywords: Hand eczema, Herbal medicine, Iranian traditional medicine, Medicinal remedies, Diet therapy, Lifestyle modification
"The Iranian nuclear crisis has reached a new peak. An Israeli air strike on Iran’s nuclear facilities is more likely than ever. However, such a pre-emptive attack would not only be in breach of international law it would also fail to serve Israel’s interests. On the contrary, a military attack would put Israel’s security in jeopardy both in the short and long run and could provoke a regional war as well as an oil crisis of unprecedented magnitude. Therefore, the EU and its member...
Zlotogora, J. [Hebrew Univ. Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)
Anencephaly is relatively frequent in Jews originating from Iran, in particular when its incidence is compared to that of open spina bifida in the same population (12 cases of anencephaly out of 14 cases of neural tube defects). The high incidence of this disorder in Iranian Jews, a relatively isolated community with a very high rate of consanguinity, suggests that anencephaly is caused by a major recessive gene. This possibility is supported by the sex ratio among these patients, which was significantly different from that observed for patients with anencephaly in other populations. 10 refs.
Eslamifar, Ali; Ramezani, Amitis; Ehteram, Hassan; Razeghi, Effat; Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Amini, Manouchehr; Banifazl, Mohammad; Etemadi, Gelavizh; Keyvani, Hossein; Bavand, Anahita; Aghakhani, Arezoo
Background: Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is defined as the presence of HCV-RNA in liver or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) or HCV-RNA in the serum. Low concentrations of HCV-RNA may be detected in PBMCs of hemodialysis (HD) patients and this could have a great impact on the management of HD patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect the occult HCV infection in Iranian HD patients. Patients and M...
My experience as a male psychologist who was born and raised in Iran has had a tremendous impact on my professional practice in the United States. After providing a brief history of Iran to put this article in context, I explore 5 elements of that impact: Description of my diversity status, key practice issues raised for me as an Iranian therapist, my background and its impact on case formulation, key clinical issues raised for my clients given my diversity status, and effective strategies for addressing my diversity status and its impact on the treatment.
Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of peer review training on the Iranian EFL students’ subsequent revision in an advanced writing class in Larestan Islamic Azad University. After 12 weeks class demonstration, teacher-reviewer conferences with 20 male and female students, the students’ first drafts, revisions, and reviewers’ comments were collected and compared the comments before and after peer review training. The findings revealed that the students incorporated significantly more comments into subsequent revisions after peer review training. Therefore, peer review training had a positive effect on the students’ subsequent revisions.
Full Text Available The Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF project is the first large scale accelerator facility which is currently under planning in Iran. On the basis of the present design, circumference of the 3 GeV storage ring is 528 m. Beam current and natural beam emittance are 400 mA and 0.477 nm.rad, respectively. Some prototype accelerator components such as high power solid state radio frequency amplifiers, low level RF system, thermionic RF gun, H-type dipole and quadruple magnets, magnetic measurement laboratory and highly stable magnet power supplies have been constructed at ILSF R&D laboratory
Iraji zad, A.; Roshani, F.; Izadi, D.
Iranian women have shown improving contribution in the field of physics as students and researchers in recent years. More than 60% of BSc and MSc students, 47% of PhD students, and 18% of faculty members in the physics departments in Iran are female. However, in higher levels of academic fields and management, participation by women is still below the expected values. The Women in Physics branch of the Physics Society of Iran studies the related cases to find suitable strategies to improve the situation.
Full Text Available English language teaching materials (textbooks play an important role in many language classrooms, but recently there have been a lot of debates within the English language teaching profession based on the actual role that materials play in teaching English as a foreign language. Arguments have encompassed both the potential and the limitations of materials used for 'guiding' students through the learning processes and curriculum as well as the needs and preferences of teachers who are using the textbooks that are available. Other issues that have arisen in recent years include textbook design and practicality, methodological validity, the role of textbooks in innovation, the authenticity of materials in terms of their representation of language, communicative textbooks, and balance in presenting the language skills as well as cultural components.The purpose of this article is to report the findings of a study carried out in 2006 into how Iranian textbooks could be made more communicative. The textbooks referred to are three English language textbooks, which are currently used in Iranian Secondary Schools. Although the work has been done within Iranian context, many suggestions could be applied to other foreign/second language situations.I will start my discussion by presenting an overview about the English language teaching in Iran, before and after the revolution. This will be followed by presenting the findings of this research that would include the Iranian ELT curriculum, the questionnaire survey (author's and teachers' perspectives as well as their discomfort will be addressed as well as introducing the English language coursebooks for secondary schools in Iran (topic, progression, structure of the lessons, types of exercises etc.. I will then present a discussion on findings of this research which would be a detailed exemplary criticism and suggestions for changes to make the materials communicative.The findings of this explanatory case
Khosroshahi, Habib G
We report on the Iranian National Observatory (INO) ongoing site characterization studies for INO 3.4m optical telescope under development. Iran benefits from high altitude mountains and a relatively dry climate, thus offer many suitable sites for optical observations. The site selection (2001-2007) studies resulted in two promising sites in central Iran, one of which will host the 3.4m telescope. The studies between 2008 and 2010 aimed at detail characterization of the two sites. This involved measurements of a number of parameters including the wind speed and wind direction, astronomical seeing, sky brightness and microthermal variations.
Vahid Fallah Golchin
Full Text Available Language learning has experienced a shift of focus from a form-focused to a meaning-focused approach, and the necessity of using task-based learning, a relatively recent approach, has emerged. The vital role of task-based materials makes it obligatory not to exclude them from the language learning syllabi. The current study aims at investigating whether task-based reading can contribute significantly to the development of reading comprehension of Iranian advanced EFL learners of English. An experimental study was carried out in order to scrutinize the applicability of task-based language teaching. To this end, 60 female advanced EFL learners, selected from among a pool of 100 learners, were assigned equally and randomly into two groups of thirty, consisting of an experimental and a control group. The selection of the participants was based on the results of a standard and piloted version of Paper-based TOEFL. The participant’s mean age was about 23, ranging from 20 to 27 years of age. Both groups received a pretest and a post-test of reading. During the treatment period the experimental group received task-based reading activities while the control group received reading instructions through traditional methods. The impact of the treatment upon the reading comprehension ability of the participants was analyzed through an independent-samples t-test, and comparisons between groups were made. The results clearly indicated the development of reading comprehension ability of the participants in the first group (the experimental group through the application of task-based reading activities. Keywords: Task-based Reading, Traditional Reading, Reading Comprehension, EFL Learner
Full Text Available This paper presents a model to conduct an empirical study in Iranian automotive industry in order to improve their performance. The quality culture plays a vital role in determining the performance in Iranian manufacturing industries. In this research, a model has been developed that includes the factors of Total Quality Management and quality culture to study their effect on the performance of Iranian automotive industry. It is hoped that this paper can provide an academic source for both academicians and managers due to investigate the relationship between Total Quality Management, Quality Culture, and Performance in a systematic manner to increase successful rate of Total Quality Management implementation.
Full Text Available This paper presents a model to conduct an empirical study in Iranian large Industries in order to improve their performance. The Innovation plays a fundamental role in determining the performance in Iranian manufacturing industries. In this research, a model has been developed that includes the factors of Knowledge Management and Innovation to study their effect on the performance of Iranian Industries. It is hoped that this paper can provide an academic source for both academicians and managers due to investigate the relationship between Knowledge Management, Innovation, and Performance in a systematic manner to increase successful rate of Knowledge Management implementation.
Full Text Available With the purpose of examining the sources of spelling errors of Iranian school level EFL learners, the present researchers analyzed the dictation samples of 51 Iranian senior and junior high school male and female students majoring at an Iranian school in Baku, Azerbaijan. The content analysis of the data revealed three main sources (intralingual, interlingual, and unique with seven patterns of errors. The frequency of intralingual errors far outnumbers that of interlingual errors. Unique errors were even less. Therefore, in-service training programs may include some instruction on raising the teachers’ awareness of the different sources of errors to focus on during the teaching program.
Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Abedi, Siavosh; Afshari, Mahdi; Moosazadeh, Mahmood
Objectives Tuberculin skin reaction size is one indicator of bacillus Calmette-Gu?rin (BCG) vaccine efficacy and a way to diagnose latent infection. Several primary studies have examined this issue. Combining the results of these studies using a meta-analysis will provide reliable evidence regarding this indicator for policymakers. This study aimed to estimate the total frequency of different tuberculin skin test reactions among Iranian children and teenagers who received the BCG vaccination ...
Full Text Available Nowadays reflective teaching is promoted as the appropriate teacher education model around the world and it has received too much attention in language teaching. The rise of reflective teaching in English Language Teaching (ELT has encouraged ELT teachers to engage in reflective practices in order to increase their professional success and to deal with their professional environment problems and challenges. Regarding the importance of reflective teaching, the current study was conducted to explore the effect of some factors such as demographic variables on the level of teachers` reflection. 125 Iranian EFL teachers were chosen from several Language institutes in Kurdistan and Hamedan randomly. Teacher reflectivity questionnaire developed by AKbari, Behzadpour and Dadvand (2010 was used. In order to investigate the research questions, an independent sample t-test, a one way ANOVA analysis and two MANOVA analyses were run. The findings of the study showed that male and female teachers were different in the level of reflection and they were also different in the level of critical, cognitive and practical components of reflection. In addition, the results of the study showed that there were no significant differences in the level of teachers` reflection and reflection components with respect to different ages of teachers.
Full Text Available Using willingness to communicate (WTC and socio-educational models as a framework, the present study aimed at examining WTC in English and its underlying variables in a sample of 372 Iranian non-English major EFL learners. The data were collected through self-reported questionnaires. Path analysis framework using the Amos Program with maximum likelihood estimation was also utilized to examine the hypothesized model and the potential relationships between the variables. The final model showed a very good fit to the data. The results of structural equation modeling revealed that self-perceived communication competence (SPCC, international posture and motivation were significant predictors of L2WTC. The findings also showed that L2 communication anxiety (CA, motivation, personality trait of agreeableness and teacher immediacy could exert indirect effects on L2WTC. Furthermore, each of teacher immediacy and agreeableness variables predicted both international posture and CA among the EFL learners. Following these findings, potential factors affecting learners WTC should receive sufficient attention by teachers, administrators and learners alike. By adopting more immediacy behaviors, EFL teachers can also establish relaxing and supportive classroom climate and lower the learnersâ affective filter. In such an atmosphere learners are more emotionally secured, suffer less communication apprehension, perceive themselves to be more proficient and motivated, obtain promoted international posture by forming realistic attitudes toward different cultures, and consequently become more willing to communicate in English.
Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effect of virtual language learning method on Iranian intermediate EFL learners writing ability. The study was conducted with 20 English Translation students at Chabahar Maritime University who were assigned into two groups, control and experimental, after ensuring of their homogeneity by administering a TOEFL proficiency. The participants of the experimental group received virtual learning i.e. sending PowerPoint through their e-mails. The participants of the experimental group did not have to attend the classes, however they had to study the PowerPoint and send the assigned task on the mentioned deadline. A writing posttest was administered to find the impacts of both methods. A paired sample t-test and an independent sample t-test were run to analyze the posttest scores using SPSS. The findings of the study indicated that both groups showed some improvements in terms of their writing ability since the obtained p value of both groups were 0.000 which is smaller than 0.05. However using virtual method appeared to be a more fruitful tool since the mean score of the experimental group (12.75 was much higher than the mean score of the control group (9.8. Keywords: writing ability; virtual learning; product approach; process approach; virtual environment
Full Text Available Background: Stress is an important element of organization ineffectiveness and since it leads to sickness, eventually it reduces quality and quantity of health care, lead to expansion of it costs and low job satisfaction. Stress comes along with consequences, one of this reactions which comes along with horrible effects is job burnout. Health care are more exposed for job burnout. We examined the relationship between job stress and job burnout in Iranian clinical pharmacist.Methods: Sample was 50 of men and women of clinical pharmacist. Parker and De cotiis scale (1983 and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, 1981 were used to asses clinical pharmacist stress and burnout. Data were analyzed by applying regression method.Results: Results indicated that there is strong relationship between stress and burnout and its three dimensions. The result also indicated that stress have the highest impact on emotional exhaustion and the least on the depersonalization.Conclusion: Burnout is a result of stress in human services career. Human service needs are vary from other professions since in these jobs in order to fulfill the clients’ needs, employees should use themselves as the required technology, and in return they do not receive gratitude or appreciation.
Abedini, Roghayeh; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Faghih, Mohammad Amin; Mohammadi, Heidar; Kamalinia, Mojtaba; Mohraz, Majid Habibi; Arassi, Maziyar; Veyseh, Peyman Piran; Aghaei, Hamed; Hosseini, Seyed Younes
Shift-work, which is an ergonomics issue in workplaces, can negatively affect workers. The security personnel of medical centers in Iran have multiple responsibilities and consequently are exposed to such unwanted situations as observing patients, disputing with patient's attendants, unwanted shift schedules, and being away from family for long periods. This study assessed health problems of Iranian hospital security personnel (shift-worker personnel) using the Survey of Shift-workers (SOS) questionnaire (Persian version). This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven medical centers (4 hospitals and 3 clinics). A total of 416 workers were surveyed: shift-workers (exposed group) (n=209) and non-shift-workers (unexposed group) (n=207). The prevalence of adverse health effects was higher in shift-workers than day-workers. The level of education and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) in shift-workers were significantly higher compared with day-workers. The prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders, cardiovascular and psychological problems were also significantly higher in shift-workers compared with day-workers. Overall, the prevalence of health problems among the security personnel of medical centers was high. Hence, it is recommended that personnel be put under periodic monitoring and receive medical counseling and treatment if there is any disorder.
Full Text Available Background: The striking similarities between signs and symptoms of digoxin intoxication and clinical picture of primary congestive heart failure (CHF make their diagnosis relatively difficult. Narrow therapeutic window of digoxin and increasing mortality and morbidity due to its intoxication make serum digoxin measurements an essential point of concern. Objectives: The aims of present investigation were to study digoxin therapeutic and toxic levels in Iranian patients and to evaluate the applicability of most clinical findings in relation to digoxin toxic levels.Patients and Methods: Serum digoxin levels of 195 patients with heart failure, who used digoxin for at least 10 days, were evaluated by radioimmunoassay. Patients’ clinical and electrocardiographic (ECG manifestations of digoxin toxicity were evaluated and compared with serum digoxin level. Therapeutic range of digoxin in patients to be used as a reference was 0.9 to 2.3 ng/ml. Results: Twenty-one patients showed both clinical and ECG signs of digoxin toxicity, 19 patients had only a single manifestation and 155 did not present with any of these manifestations. Although the serum digoxin level in patients was of great importance, our results showed that clinical manifestation was not completely related to serum digoxin level. Conclusion: Considering the narrow therapeutic window of digoxin, periodical monitoring of serum digoxin levels must be conducted in all patients receiving digoxin. Nevertheless, clinical manifestation of digoxin toxicitywas not sufficient to be used for evaluation of drug toxicity.
Baghcheghi, Nayereh; Koohestani, Hamid Reza
The present study was carried out to explore Iranian nurses' use of placebos in clinical practice and their knowledge and attitude towards its use. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. All nurses working in a university hospital in Arak (n=342) were invited to participate in the study. Among 295 respondents, 221 (75%) reported that they had used at least one placebo within the past year and 179 (81%) told patients they were receiving actual medication. The most common reason and symptom for placebo use were after unjustified demand for medication and pain, respectively. Only 60 (20.33%) of the nurses believed that placebos should never be used. Results showed that most nurses in our study had used placebos and probably will continue to use them. Placebo use is viewed as ethically permissible among nurses. Some patients benefit from the placebos, but their use raises ethical questions. The role of placebo treatment, its mechanisms, and its ethics issues should be taught to nurses.
Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological and social health is the main problems of workers population, which can increase productivity at work and physical and mental health and provide or decline in these aspects. Materials and Methods: this study was descriptive and crosses - sectional and has been performed on 388 Iranian central iron ore company workers. The tool of study was standard GHQ-28 question are that has been measured under social performance scale. Results: 49.3 and 49 percent of the people have favorable and average score from the state of the social function condition and 1.8 percent of people have severe social dysfunction and besides the employees have less work experienced that have more social dysfunction and there is a relationship between the P = 0.026. With satisfaction with the status of social dysfunction (P = 0 and with the consent of the income (P = 0 there is significant relationship. Conclusion: In this study, a significant percentage of mineworkers were not in good condition from health, social functioning. It reveals the importance of addressing health issues and vulnerable working class, Intervention studies conducted by employers to improve job satisfaction and increased income and received social support from him, can increase the health indicators related to the body and mind.
Full Text Available Listening comprehension has found its right place in the field of SLA in recent decades. For years, among all language skills, speaking and writing were of high significance in teaching and learning a new language as they were considered to be productive skills. Listening and reading, on the other hand, were neglected since they were regarded as passive skills, means to other ends, rather than ends in themselves. This study investigates possible effects of explicit instruction of connected speech features on listening comprehension of Iranian English language learners. Forty adult female Persian speaking homogeneous English learners, aged 18-30, participated in the study. They were divided into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received explicit instructions on connected speech features, while the control group followed the routine instructions designed by their institute. Tests of connected speech features were used in pre- and post tests. The participants’ scores on the pre-posttests were compared via the paired samples t-tests and independent samples t-tests. The results indicated the outperformance of the experimental group over the control group, thus, suggesting that explicit instructions of connected speech features have facilitative roles in improving EFL learners’ listening comprehension skill. Possible implications of the findings for teaching listening comprehension are discussed.
Full Text Available Alternative assessments have received many attentions in the last decade and several forms of it have been introduced in higher education. Self-assessments are important forms of alternative assessments that play very important role in the development of lifelong learning and the development into autonomous individuals to evaluate their own learning process. This study is conducted to investigate the effects of the use of self-assessment on Iranian EFL reading comprehension skill. For the purpose of this study, 40 students of advanced level of English were chosen from among 68 advanced students from two institutions in Sanandaj based on the results of TOEFL proficiency test. A TOEFL test was administered to 68 advanced EFL learners to ensure their proficiency knowledge, then 40 of them whose scores were between - 1SDabove the mean and -1SD below the mean were selected as the subjects of the study. The results of the study indicated that there was a significant difference between the control and experimental groups` mean scores on the post test. In addition, the findings revealed that self-assessment had a positive effect on the reading ability of the students. The results of this study can be useful for students to become aware of the advantage of the independent learning and can be helpful for teachers to achieve complete information about the learners` strengths and weaknesses.
Full Text Available This descriptive study attempts to see to what extent interpreter training courses offered in bachelor’s degree of English translation in Iranian universities are able to prepare students by teaching them the necessary skills of interpreting. Semi-structured interviews with experts and review of literature were used to find the skills required in interpreter training. A researcher made questionnaire, containing 69 items with a four point Likert scale was made to find out how much the students felt they had learned each necessary skill during their courses. A total of 103 students from six different universities completed the questionnaire. SPSS 17 was used to the analysis the data. The data gathered revealed that 67% of the students received a mean score of less than half the highest possible score. There was a significant difference between the six universities (P<0.001. The results of this study can be used by curriculum planners in the reformation and improvement of interpreter training courses. Keywords: interpreter training; simultaneous interpreting; consecutive interpreting; curriculum evaluation
Full Text Available Although amebic liver abscess can be a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in all ages, there are few reports dealing with this entity in children. Twenty-four children with amebic liver abscess. Ages ranging between 8 weeks and 14.5 years were managed at the Tehran university hospital of children, Iran, between November 1987, and October 2001. The most frequency presentation was high-grade fever and right upper quadrant pain, associated with tender hepatomegaly, leukocytosis and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The diagnosis was confirmed by elevated indirect hemagglutination titers and ultrasonograpy of the liver. Unlike the experience in adult patients, none of the patients had concomitant jaundice and significant derangement of liver enzymes. The abscesses were likely to be solitary (22 of 24 patients. There were 17 males and 7 females. Most patients (80% were between 8 weeks to 14.5 years of age. In five patients possible predisposing factors were tuberculosis, chickenpox, tetralogy of fallot and thalassemia major. All patients received metronidazole (50 mg/kg/day, followed by a therapeutic course of a luminal amebicide. There was no death despite a mean delay of 15 days before presentation to our hospital. In conclusion a high index of suspicion, early institution of metronidazole therapy and aspiration of abscesses with potential to rupture are believed to have contributed to the better outcome in these children when compared with results in previous reports.
Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud
To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity.
Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud
Background: To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. Results: As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity. PMID:26985222
Full Text Available This article aimed at investigating the level of writing anxiety of the Iranian EFL students with different proficiency levels. To do so, 45 students (elementary, intermediate, and advanced learners studying in Azad University of Ilam, Iran were selected based on random sampling. Second, Language Writing Anxiety Inventory SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 was used to measure anxiety. Both descriptive and inferential statistics including One-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data. Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The results of the study indicated that the selected Iranian EFL students majoring in English language teaching experienced a high level of anxiety. In addition, students with elementary level were found to suffer higher level of English writing anxiety than the students with intermediate and advanced levels. Finally, based on the findings, cognitive anxiety was the most common type of anxiety, followed by somatic anxiety, and avoidance behavior. The results also highlighted the fact that foreign and second language teachers should be cautious of the dangers of anxiety and try to make the atmosphere of class as stress-free as possible in order to improve students’ performance. Keywords: Writing Anxiety, EFL Students, Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety, Avoidance
Full Text Available Ammonia in air can be hazardous to human and animal life and should be removed from the environment. Recently the removal of environmental pollutants such as ammonia by means of natural and modified zeolites has attracted a lot of attention and interests. In this study the capability of three Iranian natural zeolites (Clinoptilolite in point of view of removal of ammonia from air was investigated. Through this research, different zeolites from various regions of Iran including Semnan, Meyaneh, and Firoozkooh resources were considered to be studied. These samples of zeolites were ground and granulized into 425 µm to 4 mm and were utilized in dynamic sorption experiments. Curves of sorption were plotted and breakthrough and saturated points of zeolite samples were obtained. The adsorption capacities at different ammonia concentrations, temperatures, and flow – rates were also calculated. Results obtained showed that, the natural Iranian zeolite (Clinoptilolite was identified to be more efficient adsorbent than the others to remove ammonia from the air. In the same conditions, the obtained breakthrough time for clinoptilolite sample of Meyaneh was longer than the others ( 135min , while, the adsorption capacity of Semnan clinoptilolite was higher than adsorbents ( 6.30 mg /g (P<0.0001.
Full Text Available This study discusses the findings of a qualitative study on the strategies used by Iranian female freshmen in narrow listening. The data collected through semi-structured interview with 12 female freshmen (four learners as advanced, four as intermediate and four as low chosen purposefully based on their scores in the Oxford Placement Test administered. Six out of 12 freshmen were identified for the think-aloud protocol to draw out the strategies they used. The data collected were analyzed using open, axial, and selective-coding. The analysis of the participants’ interview and think-aloud protocol data generated 12 major themes. Five themes (attention, readiness, evaluating, autonomous learning, and change the speech rate described meta-cognitive; five themes (imitating and repeating, references, visualization, making notes while listening and word-by-word and sentence-by-sentence attention described cognitive strategies and two themes (asking for help, self-talk described socio-affective strategies. These strategies need to be taught explicitly to increase learners’ understanding of the spoken texts in the second/foreign language. This study recommends that Iranian EFL female freshman university learners’ top-down, bottom-up processing and listening strategy awareness should be cultivated and integrated into the teaching of listening to improve the learners’ listening ability.
Keshavarz, H; Khami, M R; Jafari, A; Virtanen, J I
A national survey was conducted to provide up-to-date data on current and ever use of tobacco among Iranian dental students. All 4th-year students of 8 randomly selected dental schools were surveyed anonymously in December 2010 using the Global Health Professions Student Survey questionnaire. Of 325 participants, 54.2% were ever users of tobacco products (73.0% of males versus 44.4% of females); 50.8% had used waterpipes, 34.2% cigarettes and 9.3% other products. The most common age at first use was 20-24 years for both sexes. Current tobacco use was reported by 20.6% of respondents, cigarette smoking by 10.8% and waterpipe smoking by 15.8%. Regression models showed that current cigarette and waterpipe smoking were significantly associated with male sex but not with type of dental school (state/private). Current waterpipe smoking was also associated with age at first experience. In view of the important role of dentists in tobacco control, the prevention of tobacco use should be stressed among Iranian dental students.
Full Text Available Iranian Mental Health Survey (IranMHS was conducted to assess the twelve-month prevalence and severity of psychiatric disorders in the Iranian adult population and to determine the pattern of health care utilization and cost of services. IranMHS is a cross-sectional national household survey with face-to-face interviews as the main data collection method. The study was carried out between January and June 2011. A three-stage probability sampling was applied for the selection of a representative sample from the non-institutionalized population aged 15 to 64. The primary instrument utilized for assessing the prevalence of mental disorders was the Persian version of Composite International Diagnosis Interview, version 2.1. The instruments for assessing the service and cost of mental illness were developed by the research team. The response rate was 86.2%, and a total of 7886 individuals participated in the study. Sampling weights were the joint product of inverse probability of unit selection, non-response weights and post-stratification weights. This paper presents an overview of the study design, fieldwork organization and procedures, weightings and analysis. The strengths and limitations of the study are also discussed.
Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the experiences of Iranian nurses concerning their quality of work life. A purposive sample of nurses (n = 14) was recruited from two university hospitals. The data were collected through unstructured interviews and were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. The results indicated that the participants discerned their quality of work life by assessing how favorable were their working conditions, the level of fulfilment of their personal needs, and the impact of their working conditions on their private life and their social life. Three main themes were identified: quality of work life, as experienced from a personal perspective; quality of work life, as experienced from a sociocultural perspective; and quality of work life, as experienced from an organizational-professional perspective. The results of the present study will help Iranian nurse administrators to adopt effective strategies in order to improve nurses' quality of work life. Future research can broaden the scope of the current results and offer a more comprehensive understanding of nurses' quality of work life. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad
Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption. Results: Overall, 51% (95% CI: 46.5 - 55.7) of the students had positive history of smoking for at least one time and 7.1% (95% CI: 5 - 10) of them were current smokers. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was TV and radio programs (48%) and friends were the second source (22%). Based on the students’ opinions, entertainment and smoker friends were the most important reasons for smoking tendency. There was significant statistical association between students smoking and positive family history of smoking (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking experince was very high among high school students. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was Iranian broadcasting companies. Positive family history of smoking and smoker friends were the important motivating factors toward smoking. PMID:26834798
Jafaragaee, Fateme; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehrdad, Neda; Rafii, Forough
Aim: Professional commitment has been widely discussed during the last decade. There is no comprehensive definition about “professional commitment in Iranian nurses.” Hence, this study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the concept of professional commitment in Iranian nurses. Materials and Methods: Hybrid model was used in three phases. Firstly, in the theoretical phase, data were retrieved from the CINHAl, MEDLINE, PubMed, OVID, Google scholar, and SID databases. The literature search used the keywords “professional commitment” and “nursing.” The final sample included 27 papers published in English between 2001 and 2011.Secondly, in the fieldwork phase, deep interviews with five clinical nurses were carried out, and thirdly, in the final analytical phase, the obtained data from theoretical and fieldwork phases were combined and a comprehensive analysis was conducted. Results: Loyalty and tendency to remain in the profession and responsibility to the professional issues were extracted in theoretical phase. Commitment to promote caring abilities, satisfying of being a nurse, and belonging to the nursing profession were obtained in fieldwork phase. Finally, two main themes including “commitment to offering the best nursing care” and “commitment to promotion of the nursing profession” were extracted. Conclusion: Nursing is a humanistic profession; it has some particular characteristics due to the profession’s nature. In this paper, a definition composed of two main dimensions of professional commitment in nursing has been introduced. PMID:23922592
Mousavi, Seyyed Shafi; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Rahimi, Yousef Ghavidel; Bidokhti, Abbasali Aliakbari
This study analyzes the total ozone column (TOC) variability over the Iranian plateau (Esfahan) from 1978 to 2011. Results show that the annual average of TOC in Esfahan tends to decrease with time, which is strongly dependent on the season, with maximum values during the winter-spring months (more than 2.2 %/decade). By applying a defined threshold that includes the TOC monthly -2 σ, it is found that the maximum occurrence of low ozone events (LOEs) tends to be more frequent in the second half of year with about four-fifth of the observed LOEs (last summer, autumn, and early winter). During two cases of LOE, the tropopause height (TH) was uplifted 2-4 km with temperature of 10 °C colder than the long-term mean, and the synoptic pattern was characterized by high-pressure systems in UTLS region. The extreme LOEs were consistent with the horizontal transport of ozone-poor air toward the Iranian plateau and vertical advection in UTLS region. The former mechanism plays a primary role in formation of extreme LOEs based on the observed TOC reductions during previous days over the source regions (Sahara desert and Himalaya region). Day-to-day variations of maximum UV index during LOEs show that by a decrease in TOC 14 %, while the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the cloudless condition reach their lowest rates (lower than 0.3), UV radiation exceeds very high and extreme levels in late winter and mid-spring, respectively.
Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad
Despite the potential benefits of total quality management (TQM), many healthcare organisations encountered difficulties in its implementation. The purpose of this paper is to explore the barriers to successful implementation of TQM in healthcare organisations of Iran. This study involved a mixed research design. In-depth interviews were conducted with TQM practitioners to explore TQM implementation obstacles in Iranian healthcare organisations. In addition, this study involved survey-based research on the obstacles associated with successful TQM transformation. TQM implementation and its impact depend on the ability of managers to adopt and adapt its values and concepts in professional healthcare organisations. Unsuccessful TQM efforts in Iranian healthcare organisations can be attributed to the non-holistic approach adopted in its implementation, inadequate knowledge of managers' about TQM implementation, frequent top management turnover, poor planning, vague and short-termed improvement goals, lack of consistent managers' and employees' commitment to and involvement in TQM implementation, lack of a corporate quality culture, lack of team orientation, lack of continuous education and training and lack of customer focus. Human resource problems, cultural and strategic problems were the most important obstacles to TQM successful implementation, respectively. Understanding the factors that are likely to obstruct TQM implementation would enable managers to develop more viable strategies for achieving business excellence. Understanding the factors that are likely to obstruct TQM implementation will help organisations in planning better TQM models.
Mousavi, Seyyed Shafi; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Rahimi, Yousef Ghavidel; Bidokhti, Abbasali Aliakbari
This study analyzes the total ozone column (TOC) variability over the Iranian plateau (Esfahan) from 1978 to 2011. Results show that the annual average of TOC in Esfahan tends to decrease with time, which is strongly dependent on the season, with maximum values during the winter-spring months (more than 2.2 %/decade). By applying a defined threshold that includes the TOC monthly -2σ, it is found that the maximum occurrence of low ozone events (LOEs) tends to be more frequent in the second half of year with about four-fifth of the observed LOEs (last summer, autumn, and early winter). During two cases of LOE, the tropopause height (TH) was uplifted ~2-4 km with temperature of 10 °C colder than the long-term mean, and the synoptic pattern was characterized by high-pressure systems in UTLS region. The extreme LOEs were consistent with the horizontal transport of ozone-poor air toward the Iranian plateau and vertical advection in UTLS region. The former mechanism plays a primary role in formation of extreme LOEs based on the observed TOC reductions during previous days over the source regions (Sahara desert and Himalaya region). Day-to-day variations of maximum UV index during LOEs show that by a decrease in TOC ~14 %, while the aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the cloudless condition reach their lowest rates (lower than 0.3), UV radiation exceeds very high and extreme levels in late winter and mid-spring, respectively.
Full Text Available Background: Existence or non-existence of adverse selection in insurance market is one of the important cases that have always been considered by insurers. Adverse selection is one of the consequences of asymmetric information. Theory of adverse selection states that high-risk individuals demand the insurance service more than low risk individuals do.Methods: The presence of adverse selection in Irans supplementary health insurance market is tested in this paper. The study group consists of 420 practitioner individuals aged 20 to 59. We estimate two logistic regression models in order to determine the effect of individual's characteristics on decision to purchase health insurance coverage and loss occurrence. Using the correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase health insurance, the adverse selection problem in Iranian supplementary health insurance market is examined.Results: Individuals with higher level of education and income level purchase less supplementary health insurance and make fewer claims than others make and there is positive correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase supplementary health insurance.Conclusion: Our findings prove the evidence of the presence of adverse selection in Iranian supplementary health insurance market.
Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid
Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society.
Shahabi, Shohreh; Fazlalizadeh, Hooman; Stedman, Jennifer; Chuang, Linus; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Ram, Regina
In 2012, Iranian's economy collapsed under strain from sanctions instituted to stop Iran from violating the International Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Sanctions have indirectly led to serious healthcare concerns, specifically cancer treatment. This is the first report to evaluate Iranian cancer healthcare while under international economic sanctions. Data and information were identified by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using the search terms: "Iran", "health policy", "sanctions", "ethics", and "cancer". Articles published in the English language between 1966 and present were included, based on relevance to sanctions or the specific case of sanctions in Iran. The Program of Action for Cancer Therapy evaluated Iran's National Cancer Control Program (NCCP), reporting it has substantial deficits, including prevention, diagnosis/treatment, palliative care, monitoring, and technology, with a serious drug shortage for cancer care. Sanctions have exemptions for medicines and food, but lead to disruption of health services through complications in transportation, transferring currencies or lack of money. There is increasing evidence that sanctions harm vulnerable populations, while blocking globalization and not creating political or social change quickly. Improvement of Iran's NCCP is not feasible, and the health of cancer patients will continue to decline while the sanctions are in effect. The solution is complex, but a modern and innovative approach to diplomacy, which includes human rights, is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Educational psychology has recently reflected a policy shift from focusing on “what goes wrong” in schools, including psychological, physical, and educational disabilities, to recognizing and promoting strengths and positive aspects of students and their environments. Within this scope, some lines of research have examined the extent to which setting personal high standards influences such positive outcomes as educational achievement and high level of motivation. The present study was motivated by the concern that Iranian English language teachers' setting high standards, i.e. perfectionism, may predict English language learners’ motivation and language achievement. Through cluster random sampling, a total of 30 English language teachers with more than one year of experience and 300 elementary English language learners were selected from English Language Institutes in Fars province, Iran. Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism scale and Motivations Underlying English Language Learning questionnaire were used to measure teachers' perfectionism and learners’ language learning motivation, respectively. The learners' final scores in the English courses were collected as a measure of their language learning achievement. The result of simple regression analysis revealed that the teachers' perfectionism did not predict English language learners’ motivation and language achievement. In other words, Iranian English language teachers' perfectionism did not account for any variance in these two variables of interest. Keywords: Perfectionism, Motivation, Language Learning Achievement
Full Text Available Background: Although the problem of substance use among drivers is not limited to a special part of the world, most published epidemiological reports on this topic is from industrial world.Aim: To determine drug use among Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. Methods: This study enrolled 51 Iranian adults who were imprisoned for vehicle accidents with fatality. This sample came from a national survey of prisoners. Data was collected at entry to prisons during the last 4 months of 2008 in 7 prisons in different parts of the country. Self reported drug use was registered. Commercial substance use screening tests were also done. Results: Drug test was positive for opioids, cannabis and both in 37.3%, 2.0% and 13.7%, respectively. 29.4% tested positive for benzodiazepines. Using test introduced 23.5% of our sample as drug users, who had declined to report any drug use. Conclusion: Opioids are the most used illicit drug in the case of vehicle accidents with fatality, however, 20% of users do not declare their use. This high rate of drug use in vehicle accidents with fatality reflects the importance of drug use control as a part of injury prevention in Iran. There might be a need for drug screening after severe car accidents.
Full Text Available Background: The hemotoxic and neurotoxic factors of snake venoms is the main responsible for necrosis and tissue sloughing. Envenomations are common in rural areas in all provinces of Iran caused by snake species which causes local swelling, ecchymosis and alterations in blood profile in case of hemotoxic venom. In this study some in vivo and in vitro properties (Hemorrhagic, edematogenic and coagualant of Iranian Vipera lebetina venom in addition to neutralizing capacity of pepsin derived Razi Institute polyvalent antivenin were assayed. Material and Methods: Escalating doses of Vipera lebetina venom dissolved in Normal saline (2.5-50 µg/ml were injected (100µl subcutaneously to dorsal area of rats (n=3 to investigate mean hemorrhagic amount after 24 hours.Groups of three mice were injected subcutaneously in the right foodpad with various amounts of venom (10-150µg.The left foodpad received the same amount (100µl ofnormal saline alone (negative control to evaluate the edematogenic property of this venom. To determine the coagulant activity, various amounts of venom dissolved in normal saline (50µl were added to human plasma (200µl and coagulation time was measured. Razi Institute antivenom was used for neutralization of all three measured biological parameters. Results: Mean hemorrhagic, procoagulant and edematous amounts (increasing 30% in hind paw edema were 8.5, 1.1 and 70 microgram, respectively. Preincubation with polyvalent antibody (30 and 200 microliter decreased hemorrhagic and procoagulant activity. Edematogenic property of this venom decreased significantly by incubation with antivenom (78% to 38% by incubation with 1000 microliter of polyvalent antivenom. Intra peritoneal injection of this remedy following envenomation had no effect in relieving symptoms. Myonecrotic effects were seen by intramuscular injection of Vipera lebetina venom in rats. Conclusion: Our study shows that Iranian antivenom could neutralize some in vivo
Full Text Available Susan Akbaroghli,1,* Maryam Balali,2,* Behnam Kamalidehghan,3,4 Siamak Saber,4 Omid Aryani,5 Goh Yong Meng,6 Massoud Houshmand4 1Mofid Children’s Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 2ENT and Head & Neck Research Center and Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS, 3Medical Genetics Department, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 4Medical Genetics Department, National Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 5Department of Neuroscience, Iran Medical University, Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM, Serdang, Malaysia *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Hereditary multiple osteochondromas (HMO, previously named hereditary multiple exostoses (HME, is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by the growth of multiple osteochondromas and is associated with bony deformity, skeletal growth reduction, nerve compression, restriction of joint motion, and premature osteoarthrosis. HMO is genetically heterogeneous, localized on at least three chromosomal loci including 8q24.1 (EXT1, 11p11-p13 (EXT2, and 19p (EXT3. The median age of diagnosis is 3 years; almost all affected individuals are diagnosed by age 12. The risk for malignant degeneration to osteochondrosarcoma increases with age, although the lifetime risk of malignant degeneration is low (~1%.Methods and results: This study was performed on an Iranian family with nine affected individuals from three consecutive generations. Here, the proband was an affected woman who received genetic counseling prior to pregnancy. All exons of the three genes were examined in the proband using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing methods (the last member of this family is a male with severe deformities and lesions, especially around his large joints. Exon 4 of EXT1 (c.1235 G>A was changed in affected
Full Text Available Background: Group B streptococcus colonization in pregnant women usually has no symptoms, but it is one of the major factors of newborn infection in developed countries. In Iran, there is a little information about the prevalence of maternal colonization and newborns infected by group B streptococcus. In order to find the necessary information to create a protocol for prevention and treatment of group B streptococcus infection in newborns, we conducted a study of its prevalence among Iranian pregnant women and its vertical transmission to their newborns. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study performed at Prenatal Care Clinic of the Sarem Hospital from 2009 to 2011. The pregnant women with the gestational age of 35-37 weeks were enrolled in the study. The vaginal culture for group B streptococcus was done for 980 mothers based on our protocol. Among 980 mothers, 48 were shown positive vaginal culture; however, 8 cases among these 48 mothers were positive for both vaginal and urine culture. Babies with mothers showing positive vaginal culture were screened for infection using complete blood count /blood culture (B/C and C-reactive protein (CRP. Then, a complete sepsis workup was performed for babies with any signs of infection in the first 48 hours after birth, and they received antibiotic therapy if necessary. All collected data were analyzed (SPSS version 15. Results: Among 980 pregnant women with vaginal culture, 48 cases had positive group B streptococcus cultures among which 8 mothers also had positive group B streptococcus urine culture. Our findings revealed that 22 (50% symptomatic neonates were born from the mothers with positive vaginal culture for group B streptococcus. About 28 of them (63% had absolute neutrophil count more than normal, and 4 (9.1 % newborns were omitted from the study. Therefore, 50% of neonates showed clinical feature, whereas para-clinical test was required to detect the
Full Text Available Mehrnaz Zangeneh Kamali 2009-04-01 Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the etiology of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD among children attending the pediatric nephrology service at Abuzar children's hospital in Ahvaz city, the referral center in Southwest of Iran.Methods: We reviewed the records of 139 children, diagnosed to have CKD over a 10-year period. CKD was defined a glomerular filtration rate (GFR below 60 ml/1.73 m2/min persisting for more than 3 months.Findings: Among 139 children 81 (58% were males. The mean age at diagnosis of CKD in the patients was 4.2 (±3.6 years. Mean level of serum creatinine at presentation was 1.9 (±1.4 mg/dl. The mean GFR at presentation was 33.5 (±15.4 ml/1.73m2/min while 22% of the patients were already at end stage renal failure indicating that these children were referred too late. Congenital urologic malformation was the commonest cause of CKD present in 70 (50.4% children [reflux nephropathy (23.1%, hypo/dysplastic kidney (15.8%, obstructive uropathy (10.8%, and prune belly syndrome (0.7%]. Other causes included hereditary nephropathies (17.2%, chronic glomerulo-nephritis (6.5%, multisystemic diseases (4.3%, miscellaneous and unknown (each one 10.8%. The mean duration of follow-up was 26 (±24.67 months. Peritoneal or hemodialysis was performed in 10 patients. Six patients underwent (4 live-related and 2 non-related renal transplantation. The rest have died or received standard conservative management for CKD.Conclusion: The commonest causes of CKD were reflux nephropathy, hypo/dysplastic kidney, hereditary nephropathy and obstructive uropathy. Patients presented late, had severe CKD and were malnourished and stunted. Mahmoud Abbasi 2014-02-01 Full Text Available Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA. Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Asadian-koohestani, Fatemeh; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Dastgiri, Saeed; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Arman, Soroor; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Motavallian, Ali 2016-01-01 Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. Method: In the present study, we selected 9,636 children and adolescents aged 6–18 years through multistage cluster random sampling method from Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. We instructed the clinical psychologists to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the participants, andthose who received a high score on SDQ, completed the Persian version of Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). We used descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval to investigate the relationship between scores of the K-SADS questionnaire and demographic factors. We used one-way ANOVA to test the significant differences among the disorders according to sex, age and province of residence. Results: Based on the results, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (4.45%) had the highest prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the five provinces and substance abuse and alcohol abuse (0%) had the lowest prevalence. In addition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had the most prevalence in boys (5.03%) and ODD had the most prevalence in girls (4.05%). Among the three age groups, 6 to 9 year olds had the highest rates of ADHD (5.69%); 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 year olds had the highest rates of ODD (4.32% and 4.37% respectively). Among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of ADHD; and Tabriz had the highest rates of social phobia. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the overall frequency of psychiatric disorders based on Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was higher than a similar study. Moreover, in this study, among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of Alireza Choobineh 2016-01-01 Conclusions: MSDs symptoms were common among the study population. Health-care provider and workers with dynamic activities had the highest rate of MSDs. These results merit attention in planning and implementing ergonomics interventional program in Iranian industrial settings. Mojgan Forootan 2014-01-01 Conclusion: Our results provide evidences that Persian version of QLQ-OES18 is a valid and reliable questionnaire when applied to a sample of Iranian patients with EC and is recommended for use in clinical research. Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Dargahi, Hossein 2013-01-01 The aim of this study was to assess the levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory had been fulfilled and to compare the Maslow's hierarchy of needs among Iranian different ethnic groups at Tehran... MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi 2005-01-01 Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.
Mehrnaz Zangeneh Kamali
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the etiology of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD among children attending the pediatric nephrology service at Abuzar children's hospital in Ahvaz city, the referral center in Southwest of Iran.Methods: We reviewed the records of 139 children, diagnosed to have CKD over a 10-year period. CKD was defined a glomerular filtration rate (GFR below 60 ml/1.73 m2/min persisting for more than 3 months.Findings: Among 139 children 81 (58% were males. The mean age at diagnosis of CKD in the patients was 4.2 (±3.6 years. Mean level of serum creatinine at presentation was 1.9 (±1.4 mg/dl. The mean GFR at presentation was 33.5 (±15.4 ml/1.73m2/min while 22% of the patients were already at end stage renal failure indicating that these children were referred too late. Congenital urologic malformation was the commonest cause of CKD present in 70 (50.4% children [reflux nephropathy (23.1%, hypo/dysplastic kidney (15.8%, obstructive uropathy (10.8%, and prune belly syndrome (0.7%]. Other causes included hereditary nephropathies (17.2%, chronic glomerulo-nephritis (6.5%, multisystemic diseases (4.3%, miscellaneous and unknown (each one 10.8%. The mean duration of follow-up was 26 (±24.67 months. Peritoneal or hemodialysis was performed in 10 patients. Six patients underwent (4 live-related and 2 non-related renal transplantation. The rest have died or received standard conservative management for CKD.Conclusion: The commonest causes of CKD were reflux nephropathy, hypo/dysplastic kidney, hereditary nephropathy and obstructive uropathy. Patients presented late, had severe CKD and were malnourished and stunted.
Full Text Available Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.
Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Asadian-koohestani, Fatemeh; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Dastgiri, Saeed; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Arman, Soroor; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Motavallian, Ali
Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. Method: In the present study, we selected 9,636 children and adolescents aged 6–18 years through multistage cluster random sampling method from Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. We instructed the clinical psychologists to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the participants, andthose who received a high score on SDQ, completed the Persian version of Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). We used descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval to investigate the relationship between scores of the K-SADS questionnaire and demographic factors. We used one-way ANOVA to test the significant differences among the disorders according to sex, age and province of residence. Results: Based on the results, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (4.45%) had the highest prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the five provinces and substance abuse and alcohol abuse (0%) had the lowest prevalence. In addition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had the most prevalence in boys (5.03%) and ODD had the most prevalence in girls (4.05%). Among the three age groups, 6 to 9 year olds had the highest rates of ADHD (5.69%); 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 year olds had the highest rates of ODD (4.32% and 4.37% respectively). Among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of ADHD; and Tabriz had the highest rates of social phobia. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the overall frequency of psychiatric disorders based on Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was higher than a similar study. Moreover, in this study, among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of
Conclusions: MSDs symptoms were common among the study population. Health-care provider and workers with dynamic activities had the highest rate of MSDs. These results merit attention in planning and implementing ergonomics interventional program in Iranian industrial settings.
Conclusion: Our results provide evidences that Persian version of QLQ-OES18 is a valid and reliable questionnaire when applied to a sample of Iranian patients with EC and is recommended for use in clinical research.
Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Dargahi, Hossein
The aim of this study was to assess the levels of Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory had been fulfilled and to compare the Maslow's hierarchy of needs among Iranian different ethnic groups at Tehran...
MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi
Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.
S Khodarahimi; D L Cothran
The goals of the present study were twofold: to examine gender differences in identity processing styles and religiosity and to examine relationships between the two in an Iranian undergraduate university sample...
The psychometric characteristics of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale in Iranian groups correlated significantly with measures of other conceptually-related variables such as depression, anxiety, and neuroticism. Factorial structure supported the multidimensionality of the scale. (Author/PN)
The psychometric characteristics of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale in Iranian groups correlated significantly with measures of other conceptually-related variables such as depression, anxiety, and neuroticism. Factorial structure supported the multidimensionality of the scale. (Author/PN)
saman saghafi; Maryam Asadi; Farideh Osareh
.... This study is a descriptive approach using scientometric methods. is The present paper mainly focuses on visualizing the structure of the Iranian scientific publications in the field of engineering indexed in Thomson Reuters (ISI...
Full Text Available This study seeks to investigate how Iranian EFL learners employ suggestion speech act. With this aim, 105 Iranian EFL learners participated in this study. A Discourse Completion Test (DCT was used to produce data related to the suggestion forms utilized by the participants. Percentage and Chi-square test were used to analyze the data. Research findings revealed similarities and differences between English natives and Iranian EFL learners in terms of suggestion forms produced. The findings further showed that different language proficiency level did not produce any significant differences in production of suggestion speech act. However, participants’ performances considering different gender reached statistical significance. It was also found that Iranian EFL learners transferred their L1 structures in using suggestion forms.
Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans
This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement
Sadeghi, Hashem; Taheri, Mohammad; Sajadi, Elham; Movafagh, Abolfazl; Arsang Jang, Shahram; Sayad, Arezou
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common disease of the central nervous system.This disease may be initiated by either vitamin deficiency or triggered by abnormality in CYP24A1 and vitamin D receptor. In this case-control study, the expression of genes encoding vitamin D receptor (VDR) and CYP24A1 in relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) patients was compared with normal individuals in the Iranian population. RNA from whole blood of 50 RR-MS patients (HLA-DRB1*15-negative and responders to interferonbeta with a normal vitamin D level) and 50 normal controls was extracted. The levels of CYP24A1 and VDR expression were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The RR-MS group had a significantly more than 2 times higher expression level of VDR than the normal group (P=0.04). On the other hand, there was a 0.89 times decrease in the expression level of CYP24A1 in RR-MS patients which was not statistically significant. There was no linear correlation between the risk of expanded disability status scale of Kurtzke (EDSS) and the expression level of either CYP24A1 or VDR. In addition, the expression level of CYP24A1 or VDR was not correlated with the duration of the disease. Up-regulation of VDR is likely to happen in RR-MS patients in the Iranian population. We did not observe a gene expression-phenotype correlation for CYP24A1 which may be due to limited statistical power as a result of the small sample size. Although the individuals taking part in this study had normal levels of vitamin D, the increase in VDR expression levels may perhaps be a response to a defect in vitamin D processing. Another possibility is that despite an increase in VDR expression level, factors such as micro-RNAs may result in their deactivation while an increase in VDR expression level can be seen as a compensatory response. Of course, further studies are required to identify the mechanism of action of vitamin D by analyzing genes involved in its signaling pathway, particularly VDR
Khatib, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed
This is a case study exploring an Iranian English language learner’s identity within the Iranian EFL context and its potential relation with the success/failure and age of the learner. Also the learner’s inclination to his Persian identity, cultural norms, values and pronunciation patterns is investigated. In order to do so, in-depth interviewing and ethnographic observation were employed. The data collection and analysis procedure occurred between February and April, 2011 in Tehran. After th...
Zahra Noroozi; Mohammad Javad Hashemzadeh
The research investigates the link and networks of Iranian research institute websites using webometrics and the link analysis method. The population includes the websites of 23 research institutes and centers in Iran. The data were collected using the Webometric Analyst software. The network diagram shows the mutual link strength among the set of research institute websites in Iran, and depicts the pattern of internal relationships among these websites. Iranian research institute websites ...
Naser Hoboubi; Alireza Choobineh; Fatemeh Kamari Ghanavati; Sareh Keshavarzi; Ali Akbar Hosseini
Background: Job stress and job satisfaction are important factors affecting workforce productivity. This study was carried out to investigate the job stress, job satisfaction, and workforce productivity levels, to examine the effects of job stress and job satisfaction on workforce productivity, and to identify factors associated with productivity decrement among employees of an Iranian petrochemical industry. Methods: In this study, 125 randomly selected employees of an Iranian petrochemic...
English, particularly regarding a foreign language teachers’ professional development, has been studied in depth. However, it is not known how Iranian English as a foreign language teachers perceive continuing professional development. This study explored the perceptions of Iranian English as a foreign language teachers of continuing professional development and identified their main professional development activities. For the study, a phenomenological research design was applied. Twenty Eng...
Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that PSA levels are correlated with age. It was also revealed that the PSA age-specific reference range obtained in this study is different from other races and is specific to Iranian men. Therefore, age-specific reference ranges of PSA obtained in the present study can increase PSA test sensitivity and specificity by reducing unnecessary diagnostic procedures and early detection of prostate cancer in Iranian men.
Mina Heidari; Akbar Azizifar; Habib Gowhary; Zahra Abbasi
The purpose of this study was to examine Iranian EFL teachers’ attitudes towards lesson plan based on their gender. The research is a quantitative study in which the data is obtained to get a great understanding on the relationship between lesson plan of Iranian English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers and teachers’ gender. The population included 93 teachers in Eyvan and Ilam, Iran high schools and institutes. Participants in this study answered a Modified Questionnaire, adopted from Ramai...
Short Message Service (SMS) advertising is a growing phenomenon in the Iranian marketing industry. Many Iranian companies are intensively interested in SMS advertising for its low cost and comprehensive coverage. The vital challenge in using SMS as an advertising medium is mobile avoidance. In this research, a conceptual model containing six hypotheses was developed and tested. Using 211 self-reporting questionnaires and structural equation modeling (SEM), this study found that self-esteem an...
Shah (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, Inc., 2009), 260, 302–303, 309. 6 Strategic Perspectives, No. 9 sector of the Iranian urban public from the...with China, Malaysia , Turkey, Turkmenistan, Brazil, Venezuela, Pakistan, and various African countries.109 In July 2011, some long-time Iran...elections of June 2009, however, the nuclear issue had proved a third rail in Iranian politics. Most detractors of Ahmadinejad seemed resolved to
Full Text Available The main purpose of the present quasi-experimental study is to investigate the effect of storytelling technique on writing ability of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To this end, 40 female intermediate EFL learners with the age range of 14-16 attending Chabahar Maritime University High School were initially selected. The homogeneity of their proficiency level was established via the administration of a TOEFL (the Paper-Based Test proficiency test. Then they were randomly divided into two control and experimental groups. A speaking test was administered to female subjects of both groups at the beginning of the study. The experimental group used storytelling technique two times a week while the control group was not trained on this technique. At the end of the study, a speaking test was administered to all subjects for examining their ability in speaking skill. Independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test were performed for data analysis. The results showed that storytelling technique had a significant effect on improving the speaking ability of intermediate EFL learners. Keywords: storytelling technique, speaking ability, EFL learners
Cohen, Y. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem); Nissenbaum, A.; Eisler, R.
Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of Iranian crude oil on colonies of the Red Sea octocoral Heteroxenia fuscescens were studied under static and continuous flow assay conditions. Static toxicity bioassays conducted in 3 litre jars at 41/sup 0///sub 00/ salinity showed that the concentration of crude oil fatal to 50 percent of the test colonies in 96 h was 12 ml/litre. Colonies surviving exposure to high sublethal levels of crude oil were adversely affected both during treatment and afterwards. Tank tests conducted in 1500 litre, deep (2 m) containers and flowing sea water demonstrated that Heteroxenia were more resistant to crude oil than when assayed in jars; no deaths were observed in tanks during exposure for 168 h to initial concentrations of 10 ml/litre (15 litres added at surface). The number of colonies exhibiting signs of stress decreased with increasing distance from the oil film at the surface. Gas chromatographic analysis showed that petroleum derived hydrocarbons were incorporated into tissues. The highest level of pollutant hydrocarbons found in these colonies was about 1 percent of their endogenic hydrocarbon content. It is concluded that while crude oil may not be acutely toxic to Heteroxenia, exposure to high sublethal oil levels may result in long term deleterious effects.
Full Text Available To find out whether or not soy milk as a phytoestrogen product can improve the quality of life of the Iranian postmenopausal women.Participants of this randomized clinical trial were 57 healthy postmenopausal women. All eligible women were randomly divided into two groups of soy milk (SG and control (CG. Individuals in the SG (n = 34 received 500 ml soy milk including genistein (28.86 mg/dl and daidzein (8.25 mg/dl per day, while the participants in the CG (n = 23 received 500 ml low fat cow milk per day during 8 months. Both groups also took daily calcium-D capsules (500 mg calcium and 200 IU D3. The quality of life of all participants was examined twice (at the baseline and the end of the eighth month using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL questionnaire.A total of 57 healthy postmenopausal women with a mean age of 52.13 (3.05 years were included in this study. Despite the significant but weak difference was observed between SG and CG in the sexual domain score (the mean of percent change: 0.46% vs. 33.94%, respectively; p = 0.031, while significant relationship was found between the soy milk consumption and improvement in the domains studied (vasomotor, psychosocial and physical.Overall our findings showed that soy milk does not improve the quality of life in postmenopausal women. But to achieve more reliable results, it is recommended further study to be done with a larger sample size, more prolonged, and with participants having severer vasomotor symptoms.
Kordi, Masoumeh; Rashidi Fakari, Farzaneh; Mazloum, Seyed Reza; Layegh, Pouran
Background Striae are a common change during pregnancy, leaving striae in various body parts after delivery, which most women find unpleasant. They create a big aesthetic concern for most women. Although striae do not endanger the mother and the fetus, they may cause a desire to scratch the region leading to small wounds, induce stress over beauty, decrease self-confidence, and create psychological disorders. They may try various treatments and often refer to dermatology clinics and receive long-term treatments; these time-consuming and costly behaviors and may affect their quality of life. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in Iranian postpartum women with and without striae gravidarum. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 145 women who had referred to health centers of Mashhad to receive post-delivery health care six weeks after delivery during year 2013. Multi-stage sampling was applied to select the participants. The tools used were demographic, SF-36 quality of life, Skindex29, Atwal and Fitzpatrick classification questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the SPSS V.11.5 software. Results The subjects’ mean age was 26.3 ± 5.7. Mann-Whitney test showed there was a significant difference between mean of Skindex29 and its dimensions (P life quality (P life dimension, except physical function in women with and without striae (P > 0.05). Conclusions The results showed that striae lead to reduced quality of general life and reduced skin quality index in women postpartum.
Gharipour, Mojgan; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Dianatkhah, Minoo; Nezafati, Pouya; Talaie, Mohammad; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Golshahi, Jafar
High triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are important cardiovascular risk factors. The exact prognostic value of the TG/HDL-C ratio, a marker for cardiovascular events, is currently unknown among Iranians so this study sought to determine the optimal cutoff point for the TG/HDL-C ratio in predicting cardiovascular disease events in the Iranian population. The Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS) is an ongoing, longitudinal, population-based study that was originally conducted on adults aged ≥ 35 years, living in urban and rural areas of three districts in central Iran. After 10 years of follow-up, 5431 participants were re-evaluated using a standard protocol similar to the one used for baseline. At both measurements, participants underwent medical interviews, physical examinations, and fasting blood measurements. "High-risk" subjects were defined by the discrimination power of indices, which were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis; the optimal cutoff point value for each index was then derived. The mean age of the participants was 50.7 ± 11.6 years. The TG/HDL-C ratio, at a threshold of 3.68, was used to screen for cardiovascular events among the study population. Subjects were divided into two groups ("low" and "high" risk) according to the TG/HDL-C concentration ratio at baseline. A slightly higher number of high-risk individuals were identified using the European cutoff points of 63.7% in comparison with the ICS cutoff points of 49.5%. The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) was greatest in high-risk individuals identified by the ICS cutoff points (HR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.33-1.79]) vs European cutoff points (HR = 1.38, 95% [1.17-1.63]). There were no remarkable changes after adjusting for differences in sex and age (HR = 1.58, 95% CI [1.36-1.84] vs HR = 1.44, 95% CI [1.22-1.71]) for the ICS and European cutoff points, respectively. The threshold of TG/HDL ≥ 3.68 is the optimal cutoff point for predicting
This study explored the experiences of Iranian refugees across their life span in Norway. More specifically, the aim was to identify what resources and demands were encountered in each period of the asylum seeking, the resettlement, and the present life of Iranian refugees and how participants perceived and experienced these resources and demands. A qualitative approach, was used to capture in detail the life experiences of individuals. Nine Iranian refugees coming to Norway as asylum seekers...
Ali Goodarzi; Hengameh Fazeli
Traditional Iranian houses have always been recognized as examples of 'good-design' in the context of Iranian Architecture according to many scholars. It is believed that their creation has been influenced by the systems of beliefs in the traditional Iranian society; an established system closely followed in their design process which has led to their phenomenal architectural design. The traditional houses of Kashan are excellent examples of such which have often been described as the finest ...
ABSTRACT: This research is based on political events before and after the Iranian presidential election in 12 June 2009, and the role of Facebook as a social networking website in this case. Facebook was utilized extensively by the Iranian people during the election and it was banned by the government just before the election. Facebook was mostly populated by reformists who were supporting opposition candidate, Mir Hussein Mousavi and the Green Movement. Many Iranians used Facebook during th...
Full Text Available Background: Inequality in households’ payments on food and health expenditures presents the accessibility and utili-zation patterns between them. This study investigated the Iranian rural and urban households’ inequality in payments on food and Out-of-Pocket health expenditures from 1998 to 2012.Methods: This descriptive study was conducted through the analysis of Iranian Statistics Centre data on Iranian households’ income and expenditures. The Gini Coefficients, Concentration and Kakwani indices have been calculat-ed for Iranian rural and urban households’ Out-of-Pocket health and food expenditures.Results: The means of Iranian rural and urban total consumption expenditures inequality were 0.48 and 0.48, respec-tively. The means of concentration index of food expenditures for rural and urban regions were 0.35 and 0.34, respec-tively. The means of Out-of-Pocket payments for health services for rural and urban regions were 0.51 and 0.5, re-spectively. Finally the means of Kakwani index of Out-of-Pocket health payments in rural and urban households were -0.005 and -0.018, respectively.Conclusion: There are relative high levels of inequality in Iranian households’ payments on food and Out-of-Pocket health expenditures.
Full Text Available Confirming the constructive effects of reading comprehension on critical thinking, this paper attempted to investigate the impact of story structures on critical thinking of Iranian EFL learners. In doing so, the researcher utilized a quasi–experimental design with 60 intermediate students who were divided into two embedded story structures and sequential story structures groups (experimental groups. After taking PET, a critical thinking questionnaire was employed as a pre-test. The two groups received 16 sessions of treatment. All participants received similar amount of instruction but one group was given embedded short stories and the other group sequential short stories. To compare the two groups, they were received the parallel critical thinking questionnaire as a post-test. The two null hypotheses in this study were rejected due to different performance of the two groups. Statistical results did not support the superiority of neither structures. Therefore, the researcher was not able to suggest which structure caused a better or higher impact on critical thinking. However, the findings reveal that teaching story structures in EFL context can develop critical thinking of intermediate EFL learners. The study have some implications for test-designers, teachers, and students. Keywords: Critical thinking, Embedded story structure, Sequential story structure, Reading comprehension
Faghanipour, Somayeh; Hajikazemi, Eftekharalsadat; Nikpour, Soghra; Shariatpanahi, Shabnam Al-Sadat; Hosseini, Agha Fatemeh
We conducted a text message-based intervention for weight management over three months by two months intervention and one month wash-out period. In a quasi-experimental study with control (n = 40) and experimental group (n = 40), 80 overweight and obese employed women were entered. Participants were recruited via announcement. All subjects attended a face-to-face information session and received a booklet that contained food calorie chart and strategies and recommendations for weight management. The experimental group received text messages (SMS) about weight management twice a day for two months, in addition to the information and the booklet which they had received in the information session. Also, the experimental group was instructed to weekly self-weight and to send the data to the principle researcher. All subjects were measured for baseline and secondary weight in a standardized manner by a nurse, and the data were compared between the two groups. Experimental group lost more weight than the control group (1.5 kg difference, P = 0.018). Text messaging seems to be an effective channel of communication for weight management in Iranian overweight and obese women. The clinical trial registration number is IRCT201204029360N1.
Full Text Available Purpose of the study:to determine the efficacy, adverse effects and safety of a new Iranian generic product of deferasirox (Osveral® in Iranian transfusion dependent major thalassemic (TD-MT patients. Methods:In 9 main thalassemia treatment centers, all of TD-MT patients (aged ≥2 yrs with serum ferritin (SF levels≥1000 ng/ml, or >100 ml/kg of RBC transfusion ,who could not tolerate parental iron chelating were recruited regardless of their previous iron chelation therapy. Periodical clinical and laboratory evaluations were conducted for adverse effects (AEs. Primary efficacy end point was Mean of Relative Change of Serum Ferritin (MRC-SF from the baseline level during one year. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, t test, chi-square or Fisher exact test were used for statistic analysis appropriately (P values <0.05 were considered as statistical significant. Results:In 407 cases the male/female ratio was 0.98. Mean age was 11.5±7.4 (2-58 years. The mean of initiating dose of Osveral® and mean usage dose during the study was 23.5±4.9 mg/kg and 24.9 ± 4.9 mg/kg respectively. MRC-SF was -11.44% ±38.92 and it showed significant decline in SF (P value<0.001 one hundred and forty eight patients out of 407 patients experienced at least one. AE, the most common of them were transient increase in serum creatinin (97;24.1% and > 5 time increase in transaminases (24;5.89%.The causes of discontinuation of treatment were non-satisfactory treatment ( 24; 5.8%, poor or non-compliance of patients (21;5.1%, and adverse effects (13; 3.1% . Conclusion:A detailed comparison with similar studies on deferasirox (Exjade® shows a promising efficacy and safety for its Iranian generic product (Osveral ®.
Nazanin Naderi Kalali
Full Text Available The main thrust of this study was to determine whether a genre-based instruction improve the writing proficiency of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 30 homogenous Iranian BA learners studying English at Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas Branch were selected as the participants of the study through a version of TOEFL test as the proficiency test. The selected participants were 15 females and 15 males who were randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control. The both experimental and control groups were asked to write on a topic determined by the researcher which were considered as the pre-test. The writing of the students were scored using holistic scoring procedure. The subjects received sixteen hours instruction—the experimental group using a genre-based pedagogy and the control group through the traditional methodology which was followed by a post-test—the subjects were, this time, asked to write on the same topic which they were asked to write before instruction. Their post-writings were also scored through the holistic scoring procedures. In analyzing the data, t-test statistic was utilized for comparing the performances of the two groups. It was found that there is statistically significant difference between the writing ability of the participants who go under a genre-based instruction and who don’t. The study, however, didn’t find any significant role for gender. Keywords: genre analysis, writing skill, holistic scoring procedure, pre-test, post-test, t-test
Samira Sadat Abolmaali
Full Text Available A simple and rapid chromatography method was developed for determination of lamotrigine in human plasma. The method was used to compare the pharmacokinetic (PK parameters of 50 mg generic and the reference lamotrigine (Lamictal tablets in healthy Iranian volunteers. High performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method was developed and validated to determine lamotrigine concentration in plasma samples. The method was linear over the range of 0.1 to 15 μg/ml. The accuracy and precision were within the acceptable range. Limits of detection and quantification were calculated 0.06 and 0.10 μg/mL, respectively. A randomized, single-dose, two-period, two-sequence crossover study was carried out in healthy subjects receiving either the test or the reference products in each period. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using non-compartmental calculations. In vivo bioequivalency between the generic and the reference product was investigated according to the guidance for industry issued by US Food Drug Administration. AUC0-t, AUC0-∞ and Cmax were calculated for the generic product 12.50±2.76 μg.h/mL, 15.04±3.66 μg.h/mL and 0.38±0.08 μg/mL, respectively. The 90% confidence interval for the test/reference ratios were laid in the range of 0.80-1.25 for the log-transformed PK parameters. The generic product is bioequivalent and can be prescribed by practitioners while indicated, however the AUC and Cmax were lower in Iranian population if compared to the literature, which requires further investigations.
Full Text Available In Iran, learning vocabulary has been considered a boring subject for a long time and the traditional way of learning vocabulary by mere copying and remembering has shown to be less than effective. Meanwhile, games are also seen as a time-filling activity in most English classrooms. The current research sought to explore the effectiveness of using word games on Iranian EFL intermediate students’ application of the words in writing one paragraph essay. It was carried out at Jahad Sharif English Institute among 60 intermediate male and female learners with the age range of 17-30 through a quasi-experimental research design. The researcher administered a PET test to determine the homogeneity of the participants regarding their general English language proficiency level. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. After coming up with the conclusion that the two groups were homogeneous, during 16 sessions of treatment, the experimental group was taught using different techniques of word games while the control group received no special treatment. At the end of the treatment, both groups participated in the word game writing test of the word game questions available in Top Notch series the post-test. A t-test was used to compare the mean scores of the two groups, the result of which showed that the learners’ mean score in the experimental group was significantly higher than the learners’ mean score in the control group. In conclusion, the result of this study suggests that foreign language pedagogy, especially for young adult English learners, would benefit from applying word games in their vocabulary instruction and writing. Key words: Word games, Iranian EFL learners, application of words, writing paragraph essays
Full Text Available "nBackground: Although metabolic syndrome (METs is receiving attention from physicians, data on the syndrome's association with coronary heart disease (CHD in the Iranian population are limited. This study was designed to determine the association of different definitions of METs and its components with CHD. "nMethods: Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze data from 5981 subjects aged ≥30 years. METs definitions by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF, the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III and the WHO for CHD were used in three models: model 1 an age adjusted model, model 2 adjusted for age, smoking status, premature history of CHD and LDL-cholesterol and model 3 adjusted for the mentioned variables plus the METs components. "nResults: METs as delineated by all three definitions was associated with CHD in models 1 and 2. In model 2, METs was most closely associated with CHD in men, as defined by the WHO [2.3 (1.8-3] and in women by the ATP III definition [1.6 (1.3-2]. In model 3, METs lost its association with CHD. However, in men high fasting plasma glucose and high blood pressure plus obesity (by the WHO definition and in women high blood pressure plus high waist circumference (by the ATP III definition, obesity and glucose domain (by the WHO definition remained associated with CHD. "nConclusions: In Iranian men and women, all three definitions of METs were associated with CHD when considering the conventional risk factors. After further adjustments for the components of METs, none of these definitions showed an association with CHD and only high blood pressure correlated with CHD in both sexes for all definitions.
Iran has a program of compensated kidney donation from living unrelated (LUR) donors since 1997. The aim of the program was to address the increasing demand for kidney transplantation in a morally sound manner. The program was successful in terms of increasing the number of kidneys available for transplantation. This paper presents a critical review of the program and its clinical status. Denying organ donors legitimate compensation because of the understandable fear of an organ trade is not morally justifiable, and the Iranian model of compensated LUR kidney donation offers substantial benefits that overcome these concerns. Despite its benefits, the program lacks secure measures to prevent the risk of a direct monetary relationship between donors and recipients, and it must be revised in order to be morally justifiable.
Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah
This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a bibliometric analysis of the Medical Sciences (MS domains in Iran. Totally 9047 articles indexed in ISI (Thomson Reuters Database from 1989 to 2008 in December 2008 have been extracted. HistCiteTM applications are used to discover the Iranian publication status during this period. The publication count has grown at an approximate rate of 40.5% per year. We tried to introduce the most productive authors, and cited works. Moreover, distributions of output in journals identified by ISI and research output analysis of different universities were presented. The most influential cited authors and articles in this research were drawn. Finally, the process of the evolution of the medical sciences discipline, and its shift over the period of the research was traced and shown in the map. Using HistCiteTM applications, retrieved articles were analyzed and visualized.
Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shahnam, Maryam
BACKGROUND: First experiences of tobacco use usually occur in adolescence. The recognition of social norms leading to youth smoking is hence necessary. We tried to assess the social norms among Iranian young cigarette and hookah smokers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 451...... girls and 361 boys aging 20-25 years old who entered Isfahan and Kashan Universities (Iran) in 2007. Demographic factors (age, gender, and age at smoking onset) cigarette and hookah smoking status, having a smoking father or smoking friends and four related social norms were recorded. Binary logistic...... regression analysis was used to separately determine associations between hookah and cigarette smoking and the four social norm variables. RESULTS: CIGARETTE AND HOOKAH SMOKERS HAD SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WITH NONSMOKERS IN TWO SOCIAL NORMS: "Perceived smoking by important characters" [odds ratio (OR) = 1...
Full Text Available Ethnopharmacological relevance: Medicinal herbs have been adopted in Iranian Traditional Medicine (Henceforth ITM for treatment of neurological diseases for millenniums. Aim of the study: Brain disorders have the highest burden of all diseases in the world with the excessive cost and low impact treatments. The purpose of this review is to augment our knowledge and understanding of traditional approaches to the brain disorders and to unravel new auspicious drugs. Materials and Methods: Major references of ITM were searched for traditional explanations of mechanisms of the brain disorders and its enhancers. After winnowing out the most frequently occurring herbs, their effects on brain disorders in recent studies were probed. Results: The findings revealed 27 medicinal plants that have special effects on the strengthening of the brain tissue and its function. Conclusion: This review demonstrates the protective and restorative effects upon nervous system; effects which have also been verified in the literature of contemporary medicine.
Nobahar, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Alhani, Fatemah; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood
Understanding the experiences of retired nurses can be useful in increasing self-confidence, motivation to work and work enthusiasm among nurses. The purpose of this study was to explore the work experiences of Iranian retired nurses. A qualitative design was conducted using a content analysis approach. Purposive sampling was used to choose the study participants. Semi-structured interviews were held to collect the perspectives of 20 retired nurses (10 female and 10 male). Two main themes emerged in the data analysis: 'work problems and unpleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'exhausting work', 'insufficient salary', 'inappropriate relation' and 'unsuitable social position'; and 'job satisfaction and pleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'divine satisfaction and religious belief', 'satisfaction of patients and their companions' and 'love of nursing profession and relaxation experience'. The findings indicate the challenges that nurses face after retirement. These experiences will help nurse managers to adopt appropriate measures to support nurses after retirement.
Oliaiy, P.; Shokouhi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Rahighi, J. [Van de Graaff Laboratory, AEOI, Tehran (Iran); Andami, P.; Dilmaghani, J.; Etezadi, M. [Tamashagah-e-Pool, General Office of Museums, MDFIR, Tehran (Iran)
Ancient Iranian silver coins minted in various parts of the ancient Iran from Transoxiana to Mesopotamia over a time span of 460 years (247BC-208AD) during Parthians dynasty were analysed by PIXE with a 2.2 MeV proton beam. Forty seven silver coins owned by Tamashagah-e-Pool (museum of money) in Tehran were examined in this study. The possible correlation between the composition of coins and the minting time or the minting location of coins has been the prime objective of the present study. Elemental analysis of ancient coins could also reveal the direct relation with the political and economical situation and also with the metallurgy of the minting time. Results on the contents of principal component elements (Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Br, Ag, Sn, Sb, Ba, Au and Pb) are presented and discussed. (author)
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to measure employee satisfaction and determine the existing gap between employees’ expectation and perception of their working condition. This paper uses SERVQUAL model to measure employee satisfaction in an Iranian auto parts manufacturing company. The results from the gap model highlighted which aspects of the job condition employees would like to see improved. The gap measurement is effective for use in managerial decisions to improve and diagnose physical environmental features. This paper can be used as a guide for managers who are interested in measuring employee satisfaction in order to excel in satisfying their expectations, increase their motivation, and as a result lead to more productivity.
Seyed Hamidreza Moteshakereh
Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been a growing trend on luxury good consumption among Iranian consumers. Many rich people change their mobile devices, purchase new expensive cars, etc. This paper investigates the effects of three factors including consumer perceived value, sensitivity to social norms and need for uniqueness on consumer’s intention to purchase luxury products based on the theory of planned behavior. The proposed study uses clustering technique and randomly chooses a sample of 250 rich people and distributes a questionnaire among them. The study uses structural equation modeling and the implementation of the proposed model has been executed using LISREL software package. The results indicate the all three factors, consumer perceived value, sensitivity to social norms and need for uniqueness, influence consumer intention to buy luxury goods. In addition, consumer knowledge is a mediator factor between need for uniqueness and purchase intention.
Methods: The Web of Science database was used to extract all papers indexed as a topic of nanomedicine through 2002-2014. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers. Results: Total number of papers extracted from the Web of Science in the field of nanomedicine was 3092 through 2002-2014. Analysis of data showed that the research activities in the field of nanomedicine increased steadily through the period of study. USA, China, and India were the most prolific countries in the field. The dominant language of publications was English. The co-authorship connection revealed a network with a density of 0.0006. Conclusion: Nanomedicine researches have markedly been increased in Iran. Ninety-five percent of Iranian papers were cooperated with multi-authors. The collaboration coefficient degree was 0.731.
Full Text Available Background and aims. Class III malocclusions are considered complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the craniofacial complex of adults with Class III malocclusion in an Iranian population. Materials and methods. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 50 patients with Class III malocclusion (20 males and 30 females; age range of 18-27 years were selected on the basis of molar relationship, concave profile and an overjet of ≤ 0 mm. The standard values of 19 soft tissue measurements were determined using McNamara, Burstone and Viazis methods. Results. Adults with Class III malocclusion exhibited distinct craniofacial morphologic characteristics manifested by a combination of retrusion of maxilla and protrusion of mandible. Conclusion. The most prevalent component was mandibular prognathism, normal maxilla and LAFH on the basis of the component analysis.
This study was designed to explore the sex and group differences in histrionic personalities of high school and university students, and also to explore the results of this study with those of Crown and Crisp from 1966 in England. A sample of 160 high school students (80 girls and 80 boys) were selected randomly from four high schools in Shiraz and Shiraz University. The mean ages for high school girls and boys were 15.3 and 17.3 yr., for university women and men were 20.6 and 23.2 yr., respectively. The hysteria (H) scale of the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire was used. The questions of this scale refer to histrionic personality according to DSM-III and DSM-III--R. Analysis showed significant effects of group (high school, college) for histrionic personality disorder. It was concluded that more histrionic personality disorders were reported among British college students than among their Iranian peers.
Full Text Available India-Persia relations go back to prehistoric age. Finds found in archaeological excavations have revealed not only these relations but also the long-distance trade. Indian Iranian cultural relations have increased moreafter the Aryan migrations dated in the middles of second thousand BC. Because the people who migrated to both India and Persia named themselves as Aryan. That two geography have the similarities of language, religion, mythology and social life reveal this relation most clearly with this era. Together with 5th century BC, with the beginning of the historical period in India, relations between these geography have become more concrete, relations in cultural are assuch as writing, literature, coins, architecture, burial customs and art have soared. These relations will contribute to the recognition of India in the Western World
Christensen, Eric; Jaffke, Patrick; Shea, Thomas
In this note we discuss the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the Iranian heavy water reactor at Arak, the IR-40, as a non-proliferation measure. We demonstrate that an above ground detector positioned right outside the IR-40 reactor building could meet and in some cases significantly exceed the verification goals identified by IAEA for plutonium production or diversion from declared inventories. In addition to monitoring the reactor during operation, observing antineutrino emissions from long-lived fission products could also allow monitoring the reactor when it is shutdown. Antineutrino monitoring could also be used to distinguish different levels of fuel enrichment. Most importantly, these capabilities would not require a complete reactor operational history and could provide a means to re-establish continuity of knowledge in safeguards conclusions should this become necessary.
Full Text Available The present study carries out a quality assessment of the library websites in Iranian State Universities in order to rank them accordingly. The evaluation tool used is the normalized Web Quality Evaluation Tools (WQET. 41 Active library websites were studied and assessed qualitatively over two time periods (Feb 2006 and May 2006 using WQET. Data were collected by direct observation of the website. The evaluation was based on user characteristics, website purpose, upload speed, structural stability, ease of searching, graphic design, availability of authors’ c.v., clear objectivity, update and internal links. Website ranking showed that the website libraries for the Iran University of Science and Technology and Mazandaran University ranked first by obtaining 82 points out of 82 points. These were followed by the library websites of University of Tehran, Imam Sadegh University, Gilan University and Tarbiyat Moddaress University.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the current study was to translate and validate the Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF. Methods A forward-backward translation procedure was followed to develop the Iranian version of the questionnaire. A stratified random sample of individuals aged 18 and over completed the questionnaire in Tehran, Iran. Psychometric properties of the instrument including reliability (internal consistency, and test-retest analysis, validity (known groups' comparison and convergent validity, and items' correlation with their hypothesized domains were assessed. Results In all 1164 individuals entered into the study. The mean age of the participants was 36.6 (SD = 13.2 years, and the mean years of their formal education was 10.7 (SD = 4.4. In general the questionnaire received well and all domains met the minimum reliability standards (Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation > 0.7, except for social relationships (alpha = 0.55. Performing known groups' comparison analysis, the results indicated that the questionnaire discriminated well between subgroups of the study samples differing in their health status. Since the WHOQOL-BREF demonstrated statistically significant correlation with the Iranian version of the SF-36 as expected, the convergent validity of the questionnaire was found to be desirable. Correlation matrix also showed satisfactory results in all domains except for social relationships. Conclusion This study has provided some preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the WHOQOL-BREF to be used in Iran, though further research is required to challenge the problems of reliability in one of the dimensions and the instrument's factor structure.
Farida Badri Ahmadi
Full Text Available The present study attempts to explore the impact of input-based and output-based pedagogical approaches on learning English phrasal verbs by upper-intermediate Iranian EFL learners. It also investigates whether there is any significant difference between Iranian male and female EFL learners regarding input-based and output-based language teaching. 73 upper-intermediate English learners participated in the study, 34 of whom were males and 39 of whom were females with an age range of 17 to 28 years old. They were divided into two intact homogeneous groups, one of which received input-based approach for teaching English phrasal verbs and the other one took advantage of output-based language teaching for the same phrasal verbs. A Test of Phrasal Verbs which is made by the researcher was used for both the pre- and post-test. Three descriptive analysis and independent-samples t-tests were used to analyze the data. Regarding the first research question, an independent-samples t-test analysis indicated that there was a significant difference between input-based and output-based instruction in teaching phrasal verbs. That is, output-based language teaching outperformed input-based language teaching and leads to better learning of the English phrasal verbs. The results of the second independent-samples t-test suggested that there was no significant difference between male and female Iranian EFL learners in output-based teaching of English phrasal verbs. The study also showed no significant difference between both genders in input-based teaching of English phrasal verbs. That is, input- and output-based instructions had no effect on genders in learning phrasal verbs.
Full Text Available Using local and continental materials, Sustainable architecture aims to design sustainable buildings, decrease its damages to the environment, sources of energy and nature. A deeper thought on the principles of traditional architecture indicates that the idea of constancy has its origins back in ancient human norms. On the one hand, solving the environmental, cultural-social and economic problems, and the intense integrity of such issues, direct us toward traditional architecture and constancy in comparison and evaluation in order to extract the required lessons for today’s architectural design. On the other hand, the historical architectural and urbanization evidence reveals that in the past, architecture and urbanization have taken place in line with the environment, traditional architecture with a tendency to environmental and social constancy and with respect to natural resources and preserving them for the future generations. Nowadays, unlimited destruction of the environment which is due to the malicious attitude toward nature in the recent centuries, threatens human life. The sudden stop in the creative process of past architecture, and the faster and easier solutions by modern architects have made forget the methods which were appropriate with the environment. In this article, traditional Iranian houses were studied in this sense in order to have looked at the traditional architecture with open eyes and to use its intellectual background in today’s architecture and building techniques. Finally, in this research the reasons for constancy of Iranian traditional houses were investigated with a descriptiveanalytic approach and strategies are suggested with respect to new technology with the purpose of preserving traditional local architecture which causes sustainable development of the houses.
Full Text Available Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4 is an important negative regulator of T-cell responses. CTLA-4 polymorphisms have been confirmed to be associated with several autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. We analyzed the role of +49AG polymorphism in exon1 of the CTLA-4 gene in Iranian patients suffering from SLE. A cohort of 180 SLE patients and 304 ethnically and age matched healthy controls were studied. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was used to analyze the genotype and allele frequencies of these polymorphisms. We found that the AA genotype was significantly higher in SLE patients (67.2% vs. 41.1%, p=0.0001. The AG genotype frequency, on the other hand, was more frequently reported in the controls (49.7% vs. 27.8%, p=0.0001. The GG genotype was also more common in the control group than SLE patients but the difference was not significant (p=0.06. The frequency of G allele was significantly higher in SLE patients: 34% versus 18.9% than in control (p=0.0001. There was no significant correlation between the risk of developing SLE and the individual’s age, parental consanguinity, and family history of SLE. We didn’t observe any significant association between genotype and the clinical features of SLE. We conclude that the +49AG polymorphism of CTLA-4 gene appear to play a significant role in the development SLE in the Iranian patients, but not to be associated with clinical features of SLE.
Full Text Available Background With technological developments, creation of new industries, and changing human behavior and lifestyles, several new infertility risk factors (IRFs are discovered annually. Although many studies have been conducted on IRFs, no research has yet been carried out on the awareness of Iranian college students about the many IRFs. Objectives Since prevention of infertility in a society is directly related to awareness about infertility, in the present study the awareness of male and female college students about IRFs was evaluated and compared at Jami institute of technology. Patients and Methods For this purpose, a survey questionnaire containing 24 factors related to IRFs was developed and 123 college students from Jami institute of technology completed it. All data was extracted from these questionnaires and was statistically analyzed. Results The results showed that both male and female participants had moderate awareness (55.86% about IRFs. Female participants had significantly more awareness about the effects of cell phone radiation, fast food, and stress in comparison with their male counterparts. However, significantly higher numbers of male participants knew that smoking has negative effects on fertility. Generally, the awareness of females about IRFs was greater than that of males (59.46% vs. 52.27%. Conclusions College students have a considerable knowledge gap relating to infertility risk factors, which could be due to the lack of a suitable module on IRFs in the curricula of Iranian universities. Generally, females have more awareness than males. The greatest awareness about IRFs concerned smoking, which may result from widespread media coverage.
Full Text Available Background: Surgery operations are the fearful events among all other medical procedures. This fear causes anxiety and stress which affects the outcome of treatments, recovery from surgery and some maladaptive behaviors. To cope with surgery worries and minimize the fear, it is important to study these fears and its associated factors. This study attempts to explore the surgery worries and the associated factors among Iranian high school adolescents.Methods: To measure surgery worries, high school adolescents of age 11-15 completed the Child Worries Questionnaire (CPCI adolescent form, and also answered the questions about the 14 independent variables (sex, age, parents education and occupation, previous hospitalization experience of child and immediate family and friends, number of hospitalization during Child's life long, previous surgery experience of child and her or his immediate families, death of close friends in hospital. Multivariate regression method was used for statistical analysis to determine the effective factors.Results: The results of this study showed that the Iranian Adolescents have most worries about the "Not being able to do the same things as before" and least worries about "What I will feel during the anesthesia". The factors associated with Surgery worries are; parent's education (P=.021 for father and 0.049 for mother, adolescent previous experience and number of hospitalizations (P=0.025 and P=0.008, respectively, the number of previous hospitalizations (P=.003, previous experience of hospitalization of immediate family and friends (P=0.035. The findings of this study have implications for parents, family, hospitals' staff and care given.Conclusions: It seems, according to the findings of this study, there should be a special educational program for children who are going to be operated in a hospital ward to reduce their worriships.
Full Text Available Thrombolytic agents are among the medications that are used widely for the treatment of thromboembolic disorders and myocardial infarction (MI. Despite the world-wide availability of newer specific agents, streptokinase (SK is still the most frequently used medication from this class in Iran. Hence we conducted this study to review the adverse reactions to this medication which were reported in the Iranian studies. We preformed this study by searching the English resources such as Pubmed, Google scholar and Scopus. Additionally, we searched Google scholar, Scientific Information Database, Magiran and IranMedex to cover Persian articles.We found 50 articles from the mentioned resources after deleting the duplicated records. Nineteen articles remained after implementing the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In most of the studies the indication for SK treatment was MI. Assessment of streptokinase ADRs was the main focus of 7 studies. The most frequent adverse drug reaction (ADR was related to the cardiovascular system. Among them arrhythmia and hypotension were the most frequent ones. The second most prevalent ADR was bleeding followed by allergic reactions. In two studies only a single system ADR was studied: neurologic adverse effects and elevation in liver enzymes. Only very limited number of studies assessed the causality of the ADRs which made the interpretation of the results difficult. Among the associated factors that were assessed as risk factors of ADRs, age was the focus of 2 studies. The Iranian studies reported frequent ADRs similar to previous reports. However, due to the heterogeneity of the studies we could not describe the frequency and severity of reported ADRs in a more clear and precise conclusion.
Full Text Available Purpose Taekwondo, as the most popular martial art among Iranian sportsmen, might lead to injury for the athletes of this sport during competitions. We decided to report the incidence rate of injuries sustained by the athletes of this sport during national competitions. Methods All competitions of Iran national championship taekwondo league in 2006-2007 with 204 athletes were observed prospectively to detect the occurrence of injuries. The severity of injuries was classified into four groups (mild, moderate, severe, and critical according to the involvement of medical care team in the contest, ability of the athletes to resume and duration of probable absence of injured athletes from future competitions and training sessions. Athlete-Exposure (A-E was defined as the number of competitions multiplied by two. On this base, the rate of injury incidence per 1000 A-Es, the rate of injuries per time unit and the rate of injury occurred for each 100 athletes were considered as the major outcomes of this study. Results Of totally 1,338 A-Es, 93 injuries were recorded during the competitions. The rate of injury incidence was found to be 69.5 injuries per 1000 A-Es and the rate of injuries per minute of competitions was 0.023 which corresponded to 23.3 injuries per 1000 minutes of competitions. 45.6 injuries were occurred for each 100 athletes during the course of competitions. The most frequent injuries were mild (68.8% and critical injuries (24.7%, followed by moderate and severe injuries; 4.3% and 2.1%, respectively. Conclusion The rate of injury we found was lower than that of western countries. In spite of finding the lower limbs as the most frequent place of injuries in other studies, we found the upper limbs as the most predisposed place of injuries which might be due to difference in the method of combat of Iranian athletes with other athletes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to explore how Iranian hospital nurses perceive and resolve conflicts at work. A purposive sample of 30 hospital nurses and nurse managers was selected to obtain data by means of in-depth semi structured interviews. Data were analysed by means of the content analysis method. Results The emerging themes were: (1 the nurses' perceptions and reactions to conflict; (2 organizational structure; (3 hospital management style; (4 the nature and conditions of job assignment; (5 individual characteristics; (6 mutual understanding and interaction; and (7 the consequences of conflict. The first six themes describe the sources of the conflict as well as strategies to manage them. Conclusion How nurses perceive conflict influences how they react to it. Sources of conflict are embedded in the characteristics of nurses and the nursing system, but at the same time these characteristics can be seen as strategies to resolve conflict. We found mutual understanding and interaction to be the main factor able to prevent and resolve conflict effectively. We therefore recommend that nurses and nurse managers encourage any virtues and activities that increase such understanding and interaction. Finally, as conflict can destroy individual nurses as well as the nursing system, we must act to control it effectively.
Full Text Available Hip fracture, the most dramatic complication of osteoporosis, constitutes a serious health problem of the elderly, with great socioeconomic consequences. Hip fracture epidemiology has been studied by many investigators. Until now, there are no reported studies in Iran regarding this issue. We studied hip fractures that occurred in Iran in 2003 and compared the findings with those of other countries. Data used were obtained from the Iranian Multicenter Study on Accidental Injuries, a large-scale population-based study conducted in 9 provinces across the country. The study was conducted by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and continued for 135 days (4.5 months in all centers, beginning in a date between 15 June 2003 and 15 July 2003 for each center. A total of 1482 new cases of hip fracture (1079 male, 403 female were recorded during the study period. The crude annual incidence of hip fracture (per 100000 person-years was 59.8 in men and 23.5 in women. The incidence rates increased exponentially after the age of 60 in both genders and nearly tripled after each decade. In comparison with hip fracture incidence rates of other countries, Iranian rates are considerably lower than other Asian, European, and American countries. The reasons for this low incidence rate remain uncertain. With increase in life span, rapid economic development and aging of the population, hip fracture will become a major health problem in Iran and studies are needed to increase awareness of osteoporosis and to monitor the epidemiology of hip fractures.
Full Text Available Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are one of the most occupational problems among nurses and often cause many physical and psychological complications for nurses, and are a financial burden for health-care systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence MSDs and their related risk factors among Iranian nurses. Patients and Methods This descriptive-correlational study included 240 hospital nurses, with a baccalaureate nursing degree, who worked at three public hospitals of the Ilam province of Iran. Data were collected through a validated self-administered questionnaire. Finally, 156 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 65% and 135 questionnaires qualified for subsequent analysis. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 15.0 software. Descriptive and inferential statistics (logistic regression were used. Results Overall, 97 (71.9% hospital nurses experienced MSDs in at least one anatomical site within the last year. Low back pain was the most prevalent MSDs (40% and hip and thigh were the least (11.1% frequent sites. Most of the nurses with MSDs worked at surgery wards (17.8%, emergency (15.6% and intensive care units (12.6%. Pain (48.1% and cramps (31.9% were the most frequent symptoms of MSDs and loss of limbs control (5.9% was the least frequent symptom. Bend or twist at waist for performing nursing procedures, patient transfer from and to beds, working with the hands higher than shoulder height and changing position of patients in beds were the most frequent occupational factors that influenced MSDs. Increased age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI and gender had no significant association with MSDs. However, being single and involved in any kinds of physical activity were significantly associated with the prevalence of MSDs (P < 0.05. Conclusions The study findings indicated high prevalence of worked-related MSDs among Iranian hospital nurses. Accordingly, appropriate policies
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of aberrant phenotypes and possible prognostic value in peripheral and bone marrow blood mononuclear cells of Iranian patients with AML. Methods: 56 cases of de novo AML (2010-2012 diagnosed by using an acute panel of monoclonal antibodies by multiparametric flowcytometry. Immunophenotyping was done on fresh bone marrow aspirate and/or peripheral blood samples using the acute panel of MoAbs is stained with Phycoerythrin (PE /fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, Allophycocyanin (APC and Peridinin-chlorophyll protein complex (perCP. We investigated Co-expression of lymphoid-associated markers CD2, CD3, CD7, CD 10, CD19, CD20 and CD22 in myeloblasts. Results: Out of the 56 cases, 32 (57.1% showed AP. CD7 was positive in 72.7% of cases in M1 and 28.5% in M2 but M3 and M4 cases lacked this marker. We detected CD2 in 58.35 of M1cases, 21.40% of M2 cases, 33.3 of M3 and 20% of M5; but M4 patients lacked this marker. The CBC analysis demonstrated a wide range of haemoglobin concentration, Platelet and WBC count which varied from normal to anaemia, thrombocytopenia to thrombocytosis and leukopenia to hyper leukocytosis. Conclusions: Our findings showed that CD7 and CD2 were the most common aberrant marker in Iranian patients with AML. However, we are not find any significant correlation between aberrant phenotype changing and MRD in our population. Taken together, this findings help to provide new insights in to the investigation of other aberrant phenotypes that may play roles in diagnosis and therapeutic of AML.
Full Text Available Buerger's disease or thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO seems to be common in IR Iran, The present study aimed to evaluate an Iranian population with Buerger's disease in order to suggest a diagnostic criterion for Buerger's disease based on the most frequent findings and to compare it with Papa diagnostic criteria. In a cross-sectional study, all patients with resting limb pain, limb ischemic ulcers, intermittent claudication and limb ischemia who referred to the Vascular Clinic of Sina Hospital during 2009-2011 were evaluated. The patients were allocated to Buerger's and non-Buerger's groups; Evaluating 122 patients (61 in each group, according to the model each clinical manifestations and risk factors in the patients with Buerger's disease obtained a score. Absent pulsation, abnormal distal Doppler sonography and ischemic ulcer were respectively present in 58 (95.1%, 58 (95.1% and 49 (80.3% individuals with Buerger's disease. Multivariate linear regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used for modeling. Considering the model finding findings, diagnostic criteria including age, sex, smoking, Raynaud's phenomenon, abnormal proximal Doppler, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia were suggested (R2=0.582; the sensitivity and specificity of the criteria was respectively 95.1% and 78.7%. Compared with Papa criteria, Kappa coefficient was measured at 0.66 with a P-value<0.001. It seems that the recommended criteria have an acceptable accuracy in diagnosing Buerger's disease, especially in the Iranian population; however, it is necessary to conduct more studies with larger sample sizes to evaluate the criteria, especially in other populations.
Dianat, Iman; Feizi, Hossein; Hasan-khali, Kosar
Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for designing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population. Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females) aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis. Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively. Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population. PMID:26000246
Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.
Full Text Available Sleep problems are common in childhood, but there are limited studies regarding that in Iranian children and awareness of the sleep problems and their complication in Iranian parents. We arranged this study in which parents of children attending for a sick visit or routine growth control to assess whether sleep problems are under-reported at general pediatric visits. In a cross - a sectional study from April 2010 to April 2011 in 301 children aged 2-14 years old attending to pediatric clinics were enrolled. To investigate the general orientation of parents about their child sleep problem we asked them a global question at first regarding sleep of their child. After that, the Persian version of BEARS questionnaire was completed by them. Only 30 (9.9% parents reported sleep problems in their children in response to primary global question but by collecting the data from BEARS questionnaire it was revealed 45.18% (136/301 of children had one or more of sleep disorders at all. As mentioned 136 (45.18% children had slept problems of which the most frequent complaint (15.28% was related to bedtime problems. The second complaint (11.96% was awakening during the night children. A significant association between sleep problems and child gender was not found. Co-sleeping with parents was found in 55.48% of all children in this study. Despite the high prevalence and adverse effects of sleep disorders, the present study suggests that parents underreport sleep problems at consultation. We suggest children should be assessed for sleep disorders in monitoring and health screening visits.
Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Bagheri Hagh, Ali; Kolbadi Nejad, Mohammad; Amirsalari, Susan; Torkaman, Mohammad
Sleep problems are common in childhood, but there are limited studies regarding that in Iranian children and awareness of the sleep problems and their complication in Iranian parents. We arranged this study in which parents of children attending for a sick visit or routine growth control to assess whether sleep problems are under-reported at general pediatric visits. In a cross-sectional study from April 2010 to April 2011 in 301 children aged 2-14 years old attending to pediatric clinics were enrolled. To investigate the general orientation of parents about their child sleep problem we asked them a global question at first regarding sleep of their child. After that, the Persian version of BEARS questionnaire was completed by them. Only 30 (9.9%) parents reported sleep problems in their children in response to primary global question but by collecting the data from BEARS questionnaire it was revealed 45.18% (136/301) of children had one or more of sleep disorders at all. As mentioned 136 (45.18%) children had slept problems of which the most frequent complaint (15.28%) was related to bedtime problems. The second complaint (11.96%) was awakening during the night children. A significant association between sleep problems and child gender was not found. Co-sleeping with parents was found in 55.48% of all children in this study. Despite the high prevalence and adverse effects of sleep disorders, the present study suggests that parents underreport sleep problems at consultation. We suggest children should be assessed for sleep disorders in monitoring and health screening visits.
Amir Reza Salehmoghaddam
Full Text Available Background: Revising the medical education programs to meet the needs of society has become both a necessity and an important priority due to the considerable increase of population, changing patterns of diseases, and new health priorities. While this necessity has been highlighted in Iran’s Fifth Development Plan as well as its National 2025 Vision Plan, the determinants of social accountability have not been explained yet. This study aimed to develop determinants of social accountability in the Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Schools. Methods: This classic Delphi study included thirty experts in Nursing and Midwifery Education, Research and Services selected based on purposive sampling and three rounds of Delphi technique and conducted in Nursing and Midwifery School of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The primary data were collected using an initial structured questionnaire prepared through extensive review of literature. SPSS 11.5 software was used to analyze the data. The interquartile deviation and percentage of agreement were also used to study the consensus of opinion by experts. Results: Finding obtained from the rounds of Delphi resulted in selecting 69 determinants out of the initial pool of 128 primary determinants of social accountability. The items were selected based on experts’ consensus and categorized under three main activities of Nursing and Midwifery School, namely education, research, and service. Conclusion: Social accountability determinants were explained by 69 items for Schools of Nursing and Midwifery in Iran. The proposed determinants can be used by managers and authorities of Nursing and Midwifery School, policy makers, and evaluating institutions associated with them to ensure realizing social accountability goals.
Salehmoghaddam, Amir Reza; Mazloom, Seyed Reza; Sharafkhani, Mohammad; Gholami, Hassan; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh; Emadzadeh, Ali
ABSTRACT Background: Revising the medical education programs to meet the needs of society has become both a necessity and an important priority due to the considerable increase of population, changing patterns of diseases, and new health priorities. While this necessity has been highlighted in Iran’s Fifth Development Plan as well as its National 2025 Vision Plan, the determinants of social accountability have not been explained yet. This study aimed to develop determinants of social accountability in the Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Schools. Methods: This classic Delphi study included thirty experts in Nursing and Midwifery Education, Research and Services selected based on purposive sampling and three rounds of Delphi technique and conducted in Nursing and Midwifery School of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The primary data were collected using an initial structured questionnaire prepared through extensive review of literature. SPSS 11.5 software was used to analyze the data. The interquartile deviation and percentage of agreement were also used to study the consensus of opinion by experts. Results: Finding obtained from the rounds of Delphi resulted in selecting 69 determinants out of the initial pool of 128 primary determinants of social accountability. The items were selected based on experts’ consensus and categorized under three main activities of Nursing and Midwifery School, namely education, research, and service. Conclusion: Social accountability determinants were explained by 69 items for Schools of Nursing and Midwifery in Iran. The proposed determinants can be used by managers and authorities of Nursing and Midwifery School, policy makers, and evaluating institutions associated with them to ensure realizing social accountability goals.
Full Text Available Background: Caucasian norms are still used in the orthodontic treatment of Iranian patients, despite the different ethnic backgrounds of Iranians. The aims of this study were to evaluate the cephalometric features of an Iranian population and to establish cephalometric norms for Iranian living in the central region of Iran (Isfahan. Materials and Methods: A total of 238 lateral cephalometric radiographs and dental casts of Iranians (142 females and 96 males; aged 6-17 years with acceptable profiles and Class I dental relationships were analyzed in five age groups. The mean value, standard deviation and range of 20 angular and linear variables were calculated. The resulting norms for Iranian were compared with Caucasian norms and results of other studies on Iranian population using t-test. Male and female groups were also compared using the independent t-test (P < 0.05. Results: Iranians tend to have an increased angle of convexity and IMPA (incisor to mandibular plane angle and bimaxillary protrusion as compared with norms of Down′s analysis. Anterior lower face height and anterior face height were greater than Burrstone′s sample measurement. Sella-Nasion (S-N length was greater than Rakosi′s norm. Iranians tend to have an increased ANB (A point-Nasion-B point angle as compared with Steiner′s norms. Males tend to have greater cranial dimensions than females as indicated by the statistically significant increase in anterior face height and S-N length (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Iranians have distinct cephalometric features, which should be used as a reference in treating Iranian orthodontic patients.
Full Text Available The research investigates the link and networks of Iranian research institute websites using webometrics and the link analysis method. The population includes the websites of 23 research institutes and centers in Iran. The data were collected using the Webometric Analyst software. The network diagram shows the mutual link strength among the set of research institute websites in Iran, and depicts the pattern of internal relationships among these websites. Iranian research institute websites are not in good conditions in link exchange and the cooperation with each other. In addition, the colink diagrams illustrated the covert relationships among Iranian research institutes suggesting that the common topics and contents have been the most important elements of colink creation among Iranian research institute websites. It was found that the websites of Scientific Information Database (SID, Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IRANDOC, and National Library and Archives of I.R of Iran (NLAI were in a better condition than those of other websites as regards the total in-links and out-links. Also, the first to the third ranks were dedicated to IRANDOC, SID, and NLAI websites respectively in in-link numbers and visibility. The analysis of Uniform Resource Locators (URLs of in-links and out-links of Iranian research institute websites showed that the maximum number of in-link to these websites was reserved for the domains .ir and .com. The websites of Iranian research institutes and centers dedicated most of their out-links to scientific, religious, and fun websites, followed by the ones for universities and the institutes of higher education.
A. K. Esman
Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range.
The current study investigated the effect of cooperative and competitive learning strategies on the acquisition of English vocabulary development by Iranian EFL intermediate learners. In addition, it explored what type of theses strategies was more effective. In such doing, utilizing an Oxford Placement Test (OPT), 45 out of 77 Iranian EFL…
Rooholamin, Amir; Biria, Reza; Haghverdi, Hamid Reza
The present study provides a report on an experiment seeking the effect of proactive intensive form-focused instruction on the grammatical development of intermediate and advanced Iranian EFL learners. More specifically the aim of the study was to discern (a) whether the grammatical knowledge of Iranian EFL learners at different proficiency levels…
Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan
This paper is a report on an experimental study which intended to look into the possible effects of Competitive Team-Based Learning (CTBL) vis-à-vis Group Investigation (GI) method of Cooperative Learning (CL) on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL intermediate students. Seventy homogeneous Iranian intermediate students were selected out of a…
Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Ahmadi Pishkuhi, Mahin; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Safiri, Saeid; Sepidarkish, Mahdi
Developing a tool for measuring patient's needs is a vital step in the process of cancer treatment and research. In recent years, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) made a questionnaire to measure cancer patients' received information. Since validity and reliability of any instrument should be evaluated in the new environment and culture, the aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the EORTC QLQ-INFO25 in Iranian cancer patients. One hundred seventy-three patients with different stages of cancer filled questionnaire EORTC QLQ-INFO25, EORTC QLQ-C30, and EORTC IN-PATSAT32. Twenty-five patients answered the questionnaire twice at an interval of 2 weeks. Reliability and validity of the questionnaire was measured by Cronbach's alpha, interclass correlation, test retest, inter-rater agreement (IRA), and exploratory factorial analyses. Using a conservative approach, the IRA for the overall relevancy and clarity of the tool was 87/86% and 83.33%, respectively. Overall appropriateness and clarity were 94.13 and 91.87%, respectively. Overall integrity of the instrument was determined to be 85%. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for all domains and total inventory were top 70 and 90%, respectively. Interclass correlation index ranges between 0.708 and 0.965. Exploratory factorial analyses demonstrate six fields suitable for instrument. Correlation between areas of the questionnaires EORTC QLQ-INFO25 and EORTC in-Patsat32 represents the convergent validity of the questionnaire. Also, results show a standard divergent validity in all domains of the questionnaire (Rho EORTC QLQ-INFO25 and EORTC QLQ-C30 (EORTC QLQ-INFO25 is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring the perception of information in cancer patients.
Somayeh Karbalaie Safarali
Full Text Available The current research sought to explore the effectiveness of using videos presenting speakers’ gestures and facial clues on Iranian EFL learners’ listening comprehension proficiency. It was carried out at Ayandeh English Institute among 60 advanced female learners with the age range of 17-30 through a quasi-experimental research design. The researcher administered a TOEFL test to determine the homogeneity of the participants regarding both their general English language proficiency level and listening comprehension ability. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. After coming up with the conclusion that the two groups were homogeneous, during 10 sessions of treatment, they received two different listening comprehension techniques, i.e. audio-visual group watching the video was equipped with the speaker’s gestures and facial clues, while the audio-only group could just listen to speaker’s voice and no additional clue was presented. Meanwhile, the participants were supposed to answer the questions related to each video. At the end of the treatment, both groups participated in the listening comprehension test of the Longman TOEFL test as the post-test. A t-test was used to compare the mean scores of the two groups, the result of which showed that the learners’ mean score in the audio-visual group was significantly higher than the learners’ mean score in the audio-only group. In conclusion, the result of this study suggests that foreign language pedagogy, especially for adult English learners, would benefit from applying videos presenting speakers’ gestures and facial clues.
Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima
Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients' conditions and prognoses, their families' emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families' peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU.
Zakeri-Milani, P; Islambulchilar, Z; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Valizadeh, H
This single dose, randomized, open label, 2-period and crossover study in healthy Iranian adult volunteers was conducted to compare the bioavailability of 2 branded formulations of olanzapine 10 mg tablets. 24 volunteers received one tablet of each olanzapine 10 mg formulation. Drugs were administered after a 12 h overnight fast in each of 2 treatment days which separated by a 2-week washout period. Serial blood samples were collected over a period of 72 h. Plasma was analyzed using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection in the range of 2-24 ng/mL with a lower limit of quantitation of 1.25 ng/mL. A non-compartmental method was employed to determine the pharmacokinetic properties (Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞ and T1/2) to test to bioequivalence. Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were used to test the bioequivalence after log-transformation of plasma data. The mean (SD) Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ for the test formulation were 15.82 (3.15) ng/mL, 447.19 (100.64) ng.h/L and 570.75 (130.55) ng.h/L respectively. Corresponding values for the test formulation were 15.72 (4.25) ng/mL, 440.37 (98.75) ng.h/mL and 558.66 (129.57) ng.h/mL. For test formulation vs. the reference formulation, the 90% CIs of the least squares mean test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 97.6-110.0%, 96.4-109.4% and 97.3-109.2%. In these volunteers, based on the FDA regulatory definition, results from the pharmacokinetic analysis suggested that the test and reference formulations of olanzapine 10 mg tablets were bioequivalent.
Hourvash Akbari Haghighinejad
Full Text Available Background: Hospital emergencies have an essential role in health care systems. In the last decade, developed countries have paid great attention to overcrowding crisis in emergency departments. Simulation analysis of complex models for which conditions will change over time is much more effective than analytical solutions and emergency department (ED is one of the most complex models for analysis. This study aimed to determine the number of patients who are waiting and waiting time in emergency department services in an Iranian hospital ED and to propose scenarios to reduce its queue and waiting time. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which simulation software (Arena, version 14 was used. The input information was extracted from the hospital database as well as through sampling. The objective was to evaluate the response variables of waiting time, number waiting and utilization of each server and test the three scenarios to improve them. Results: Running the models for 30 days revealed that a total of 4088 patients left the ED after being served and 1238 patients waited in the queue for admission in the ED bed area at end of the run (actually these patients received services out of their defined capacity. The first scenario result in the number of beds had to be increased from 81 to179 in order that the number waiting of the “bed area” server become almost zero. The second scenario which attempted to limit hospitalization time in the ED bed area to the third quartile of the serving time distribution could decrease the numberwaiting to 586 patients. Conclusion: Doubling the bed capacity in the emergency department and consequently other resources and capacity appropriately can solve the problem. This includes bed capacity requirement for both critically ill and less critically ill patients. Classification of ED internal sections based on severity of illness instead of medical specialty is another solution.
Haghighinejad, Hourvash Akbari; Kharazmi, Erfan; Hatam, Nahid; Yousefi, Sedigheh; Hesami, Seyed Ali; Danaei, Mina; Askarian, Mehrdad
Hospital emergencies have an essential role in health care systems. In the last decade, developed countries have paid great attention to overcrowding crisis in emergency departments. Simulation analysis of complex models for which conditions will change over time is much more effective than analytical solutions and emergency department (ED) is one of the most complex models for analysis. This study aimed to determine the number of patients who are waiting and waiting time in emergency department services in an Iranian hospital ED and to propose scenarios to reduce its queue and waiting time. This is a cross-sectional study in which simulation software (Arena, version 14) was used. The input information was extracted from the hospital database as well as through sampling. The objective was to evaluate the response variables of waiting time, number waiting and utilization of each server and test the three scenarios to improve them. Running the models for 30 days revealed that a total of 4088 patients left the ED after being served and 1238 patients waited in the queue for admission in the ED bed area at end of the run (actually these patients received services out of their defined capacity). The first scenario result in the number of beds had to be increased from 81 to179 in order that the number waiting of the "bed area" server become almost zero. The second scenario which attempted to limit hospitalization time in the ED bed area to the third quartile of the serving time distribution could decrease the number waiting to 586 patients. Doubling the bed capacity in the emergency department and consequently other resources and capacity appropriately can solve the problem. This includes bed capacity requirement for both critically ill and less critically ill patients. Classification of ED internal sections based on severity of illness instead of medical specialty is another solution.
Full Text Available In the past, vocabulary teaching and learning were often given little priority in second language programs but recently there has been a renewed interest in the nature of vocabulary and its role in learning and teaching. Although most teachers might be aware of the importance of technology, say, computer, rarely teachers use it for teaching vocabulary. Thus, the current study aims at exploring the effects of CALL on vocabulary learning of Iranian EFL Learners. In this study, 40 intermediate EFL learners, both male and female aged from 16 to 18 studying New Interchange, book III, were chosen randomly from a language institute in Tehran. They were dividedinto two twenty-member groups. The experimental group was given the VTS.S (a computer program for teaching vocabularies, a computerized dictionary and provided with teacher efeedback.The control group received no special software and vocabularies were taught using the conventional ways with the help of a paper dictionary. A vocabulary pre-test based on the tests available in their teacher's guide was given to both groups. The aim of this test was to make sure that the students were not familiar with the words in advance. By pre-test/post-test comparison researchers found learners exposed to VTS.S teacher e-feedback plus the computerized dictionary scored higher than the control group. Both high-stake and low-stake holders can avail from the findings of the study.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using cognitive strategies namely note- making and underlining, on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. In doing so, 60 female fourth year high school EFL learners were selected by means of the NELSON test (050A. They were then divided randomly into three groups, each group consisting of 20 homogeneous students: two experimental groups, and one control group. The experimental groups practiced note making (group A and underlining reading strategies (group B on the same reading materials while the control group received the placebo. Then, all the subjects in the three groups took the same reading comprehension test. The results of a One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and a post-hoc analysis of the Scheffe test showed that the learners who utilized note-making and underlining strategies outperformed the control group (p<.05. Furthermore, the experimental group who received note-making instruction revealed a higher efficiency than underlining group. As a result it can be concluded that note making and underlining have had positive effects on students’ rate of reading comprehensibility.Keywords: Cognitive Strategies, Note- Making, Underlining, Reading Comprehension
Full Text Available Undoubtedly, pronunciation is a significant factor in communication and it can be a source of unintelligibility between interlocutors. Several materials can contribute to the improvement of pronunciation skill one of which seems to be audiobooks. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the influence of using audiobooks on the improvement of pronunciation ability of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 90 elementary, intermediate, and upper-intermediate students from three English language institutes were selected in Shiraz, Iran. In order to examine the effect of using audiobooks on students’ sound recognition and sound production, two tests were administered to the students as pretest and posttest. To find out whether audiobooks had any effect on the pronunciation ability of learners, the mean and the standard deviation of the three groups of learners were compared. Data analyses showed that the sound recognition ability of intermediate learners improved significantly in comparison with the other two groups. Also, students at upper-intermediate level had the highest gain in pronunciation production in comparison with the other two groups of learners. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the three groups of learners with regard to their production ability of English phonemes. The study also found that females outperformed their male counterparts regarding pronunciation production tests after receiving treatment. However, males performed better than females in pronunciation recognition tests after receiving treatment. The implications are provided at the end of this study.