WorldWideScience

Sample records for reality modeling language

  1. Dynamic concision for three-dimensional reconstruction of human organ built with virtual reality modelling language (VRML)*

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zheng-yang; Zheng, Shu-sen; Chen, Lei-ting; He, Xiao-qian; Wang, Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    This research studies the process of 3D reconstruction and dynamic concision based on 2D medical digital images using virtual reality modelling language (VRML) and JavaScript language, with a focus on how to realize the dynamic concision of 3D medical model with script node and sensor node in VRML. The 3D reconstruction and concision of body internal organs can be built with such high quality that they are better than those obtained from the traditional methods. With the function of dynamic c...

  2. Dynamic concision for three-dimensional reconstruction of human organ built with virtual reality modelling language (VRML)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng-yang; Zheng, Shu-sen; Chen, Lei-ting; He, Xiao-qian; Wang, Jian-jun

    2005-01-01

    This research studies the process of 3D reconstruction and dynamic concision based on 2D medical digital images using virtual reality modelling language (VRML) and JavaScript language, with a focus on how to realize the dynamic concision of 3D medical model with script node and sensor node in VRML. The 3D reconstruction and concision of body internal organs can be built with such high quality that they are better than those obtained from the traditional methods. With the function of dynamic concision, the VRML browser can offer better windows for man-computer interaction in real-time environment than ever before. 3D reconstruction and dynamic concision with VRML can be used to meet the requirement for the medical observation of 3D reconstruction and have a promising prospect in the fields of medical imaging. PMID:15973760

  3. Perancangan Dan Implementasi Teknologi Virtual Reality Modelling Language 3 Dimensi Pada Pengenalan Perangkat Keras Komputer Berbasis Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaskia Wiedya Sahardevi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to design and implement the technology of Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML 3D on the introduction of computer hardware websites based. Steps design of multimedia applications for learning media computer hardware is done by performing data collection, literature review, analysis and system design followed by implementation and testing of the system. In this research using a black-box test method, where the acknowledgment is made to test the success of the exist functions. The result of the design of this application is a web based interactive applications in the desktop containing material computer hardware and visualized in 3D VRML form of a variety of input devices, output, processing, and storage devices. In addition, the animation demo mode petrified to get to know more computer hardware.

  4. Data, model, and reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2000-01-01

    What does it mean for a database (or any other computer representation) to ‘model’ reality as it is, was, or might be? If the database ‘models’ reality in some way, is the same true of its schema or the underlying data model; and if not, what do they express? These questions, though more philosop...

  5. Natural Language Navigation Support in Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luin, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Giagourta, V.; Strintzis, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    We describe our work on designing a natural language accessible navigation agent for a virtual reality (VR) environment. The agent is part of an agent framework, which means that it can communicate with other agents. Its navigation task consists of guiding the visitors in the environment and to

  6. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  7. Models of Reality.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-06-02

    Conscious awareness of our environment is based on a feedback loop comprised of sensory input transmitted to the central nervous system leading to construction of our ''model of the world,'' (Lewis et al, 1982). We then assimilate the neurological model at the unconscious level into information we can later consciously consider useful in identifying belief systems and behaviors for designing diverse systems. Thus, we can avoid potential problems based on our open-to-error perceived reality of the world. By understanding how our model of reality is organized, we allow ourselves to transcend content and develop insight into how effective choices and belief systems are generated through sensory derived processes. These are the processes which provide the designer the ability to meta model (build a model of a model) the user; consequently, matching the mental model of the user with that of the designer's and, coincidentally, forming rapport between the two participants. The information shared between the participants is neither assumed nor generalized, it is closer to equivocal; thus minimizing error through a sharing of each other's model of reality. How to identify individual mental mechanisms or processes, how to organize the individual strategies of these mechanisms into useful patterns, and to formulate these into models for success and knowledge based outcomes is the subject of the discussion that follows.

  8. Language Learning in Virtual Reality Environments: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsun-Ju; Lan, Yu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the research trends in language learning in a virtual reality environment by conducting a content analysis of findings published in the literature from 2004 to 2013 in four top ranked computer-assisted language learning journals: "Language Learning & Technology," "CALICO Journal," "Computer…

  9. Automatically Generating a Distributed 3D Battlespace Using USMTF and XML-MTF Air Tasking Order, Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, Mark

    2000-01-01

    .... To more effectively exchange and share data, the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), the lead agency for the USMTF, is actively engaged in extending the USMTF standard with a new data sharing technology called Extensible Markup Language (XML...

  10. Automatically Generating a Distributed 3D Virtual Battlespace Using USMTF and XML-MTF Air Tasking Orders, Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, Mark

    2000-01-01

    .... To more effectively exchange and share data, the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), the lead agency for the USMTF, is actively engaged in extending the USMTF standard with a new data sharing technology called Extensible Markup Language (XML...

  11. Cognitive Neuroscience of Foreign Language Education: Myths and Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nouri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the educational implications of current research on cognitive neuroscience for foreign-language learning to provide an overview of myths and realities in this appealing area of research. Although the potential benefits of neuroscientific research into language acquisition are great, there are a number of popular myths that none of which are supported by scientific evidence. In this paper, three prominent examples of these myths are introduced and discussed how they are based on misinterpretation and misapplication from neuroscience research. The first pervasive example of such misconception is the prevalent belief of being the certain critical periods for learning a second language. It implies that the opportunity to acquire foreign languages is lost forever by missing these biological windows. In fact, however, extensive research shows that there are sensitive periods, but not critical periods, during which an individual can acquire certain aspects of language with greater ease than at other times. Another example of myths is a false conclusion implies that exposing children to a foreign language too early interrupts knowledge of their first language. The reality is that learning a second language not only improves language abilities in the first language, but also positively affects reading abilities and general literacy in school. Like the other myths, there is also a popular conception about ability to learn second language during sleep. It is demonstrated that previously acquired memories are consolidated and new association are learned during sleep, but learning a foreign language requires conscious effort and available data do not support this hypothesis that second language acquire during sleep. The main conclusion arising from this argument is that, while our understanding of the neural bases of language learning is continually evolving, our interpretation of the implications of these findings for foreign language

  12. FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING WITH AUGMENTED REALITY APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDOĞMUŞ, Niyazi; ORHAN, Gökhan; ŞAHIN, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    One of the main aims in Foreign Language Teaching is to actualize naturaland entertaining educational environment. Foreign Language Teaching Activitiesshould stress on motivational goals furthering interests and motivation oflearners and minimizing their anxiety in language teaching activities. So as toadopt that, these activities should be designed to incite students’ interests,curiosity and include some diverse alternatives from school textbooks tohandheld technological devices and other el...

  13. Study on Mobile Augmented Reality Adoption for Mayo Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Bojórquez, Erasmo; Vergara Villegas, Osslan Osiris; Cruz Sánchez, Vianey Guadalupe; García-Alcaraz, Jorge Luis; Favela Vara, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study applied to undergraduates in order to know how the cultural dimensions affect their perceptions of the acceptance and use of new technologies in a student-centered learning environment. A total of 85 undergraduate students from the Autonomous Indigenous University of Mexico (UAIM) participated in the study. Each student was asked to use a mobile augmented reality (MAR) application designed to learn Mayo language (language spoken in Northwestern Mexic...

  14. A Foreign Language Learning Application using Mobile Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin-Alexandru DITA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is described a foreign language learning application using mobile augmented reality based on gamification method and text recognition. The mobile augmented reality is a technology that extends the real world elements with 2D or 3D computer generated objects and lets the users interact with them. A Gamification system is based on different mechanisms that increase the motivation of students, due to the impact that videogames have in their emotional, cognitive and social areas. The proposed solution applies Optical Character Recognition technique, using the camera of the mobile device, in order to identify the text written on a card. The implementation combines the features of gamification system and mobile augmented reality in order to make the learning process more easy and fun. This paper aims to present the results after testing the foreign language learning application in different scenarios.

  15. Employment Myths and Realities in Speech and Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. C.; Curran, Theresa; Deskin, Caroline

    This study compared the professional expectations of graduate students in speech and language pathology (SLP) with the employment realities offered by the profession. A total of 89 graduate students enrolled in the SLP program at Valdosta State University (VSU) in Georgia during 1995-97 completed a seven-item questionnaire on employment prospects.…

  16. Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Piefel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.

  17. [Language and reality: the origin of man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, H

    1989-07-01

    The author proposes: 1. That a lineage of living systems is constituted by the reproductive conservation of a manner of living under the form of an ontogenic phenotype. 2. That language is a manner of living in recurrent consensual coordinations of consensual coordinations of actions. 3. That the human manner of living entails among other things, a braiding of languaging and emotioning that we call conversation. 4. That human beings arise in the history of bipedal primates with the origin of language, and the constitution of a lineage defined by the conservation of an ontogenic phenotype that includes conversations as part of it. 5. That the magnitude of the involvement of the brain and anatomy of the larynx and face in speech as our main manner of languaging indicate that language cannot have arisen later than two to three millions year ago. 6. That rationally pertains to the operational coherences of languaging and that different rational domains are constituted by different basic notions that are accepted a priori. That is, on preference. 7. That responsibility and freedom are a function of our awareness of the participation of our emotions (preferences) in the constitution of the rational domains in which we operate.

  18. Study on Mobile Augmented Reality Adoption for Mayo Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo Miranda Bojórquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study applied to undergraduates in order to know how the cultural dimensions affect their perceptions of the acceptance and use of new technologies in a student-centered learning environment. A total of 85 undergraduate students from the Autonomous Indigenous University of Mexico (UAIM participated in the study. Each student was asked to use a mobile augmented reality (MAR application designed to learn Mayo language (language spoken in Northwestern Mexico. Afterwards, the students responded to a survey with items concerning the use and technology acceptance and about cultural dimensions of individualism and uncertainty avoidance. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to analyze the data collected from students. Results provide evidence that the individualism contributes positively to perceived ease of use of the MAR app, and uncertainty avoidance has no impact. The findings showed that the MAR system could be easily used if it includes a natural way to promote collaborative work. In addition, to gain the trust of students, the uncertainty avoidance needs to be reduced by enriching the help information offered for app use.

  19. Competing Desires and Realities: Language Policies in the French-Language Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Giovanangeli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available French language policy has historically centred on ways French can be considered a dominant and influential language. It has done this since the Middle Ages, by allowing the French language to serve as a political tool. On an international level, language was a way of subjugating conquered peoples (former colonies. It promoted France’s international status (by the 18th century French was the diplomatic language of Europe. On a national level, the French language was one of the ways governments were able to centralise political power (suppression of regional languages. One of the ways French language authorities have promoted the use of language has been through education policies and the way language is taught in schools. For example, the French language was imposed on the colonised territories of France through teaching in missionary schools. Within France, stringent laws were adopted, in particular during the nineteenth century, allowing the French language to replace local languages in schools. In France today, language policies continue to exist and to have an influence on the way we view language and society. One of the main priorities of French language policy is to protect the status of the national language in particular with respect to the increasing use of English as a global dominant language in areas such as science, technology, tourism, entertainment and the media (Nunan: 2007, 178. Consequently, France has adopted policies to respond to this linguistic climate. This has implications on the way the French language is taught both within France as well as outside of France. This paper will examine some of the policies and agencies created over recent years that affect the French language. It will also identify some of the consequences these policies have on the teaching of language. Finally it will argue that a space has been created within the language classroom that attempts to find a compromise between the language policies of

  20. Models of reality : the unconscious tattletale.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.; VanHoozer, W. R.

    2000-08-29

    Humans are constantly subjected to enormous amounts of information greatly exceeding our conscious ability to sense fully experiences vis-a-vis reality. As a consequence, we assimilate this vast array of information at the unconscious level so it can later be considered useful during the process of identifying belief systems and behaviors for learning, decision-making, memory, language, and knowledge. These assimilations are ordered using internal strategies that can be externally observed as analog feedback behavior(s) from an individual's unconscious. These can then be concisely expressed in models for application regarding effective choices in decision-making and learning strategies, memory access, and the actualization of other understandings and applied as knowledge. How we can learn from the unconscious is the focus of this paper.

  1. Language-driven anticipatory eye movements in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichert, Nicole; Peeters, David; Hagoort, Peter

    2018-06-01

    Predictive language processing is often studied by measuring eye movements as participants look at objects on a computer screen while they listen to spoken sentences. This variant of the visual-world paradigm has revealed that information encountered by a listener at a spoken verb can give rise to anticipatory eye movements to a target object, which is taken to indicate that people predict upcoming words. The ecological validity of such findings remains questionable, however, because these computer experiments used two-dimensional stimuli that were mere abstractions of real-world objects. Here we present a visual-world paradigm study in a three-dimensional (3-D) immersive virtual reality environment. Despite significant changes in the stimulus materials and the different mode of stimulus presentation, language-mediated anticipatory eye movements were still observed. These findings thus indicate that people do predict upcoming words during language comprehension in a more naturalistic setting where natural depth cues are preserved. Moreover, the results confirm the feasibility of using eyetracking in rich and multimodal 3-D virtual environments.

  2. Model Process Control Language

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MPC (Model Process Control) language enables the capture, communication and preservation of a simulation instance, with sufficient detail that it can be...

  3. Exploring the Potential of a Location Based Augmented Reality Game for Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Donald

    2016-01-01

    This paper adds to the small but growing body of research into the potential of augmented reality games for teaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL). It explores the extent to which such games enhance the language learning experience of advanced level EFL learners. The author draws on his work developing "Mission not really…

  4. Model engineering : balancing between virtuality and reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Model engineering concerns the development of models of complex systems. This modeling is performed for a variety of reasons, such as system behavior prediction, system optimization or system construction. Model engineering requires a modeling framework that includes a language to represent the

  5. FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING IN SUDANESE UNIVERSITIES: GOALS, ATTITUDES, AND REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahim Hamid Mugaddam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The goals and means of language study continue in the very center of debates among specialists in language teaching/learning. Different views relating to language and its functions are reflected in two main approaches to language teaching/learning. On the one hand, language is considered to be principally instrumental, a means of communicating thought and information. One the other hand, language is viewed as an important element of human being’s thought processes, perceptions, and self-expressions; and as such, it is placed at the core of translingual and transcultural competence. This paper investigates the current situation of teaching/learning foreign languages in the Sudanese universities with special focus on the goals of teaching these languages and their role in students’ future. Goals of language teaching and students’ attitudes towards the process will be related to the job opportunities available for the students on graduation. Data for the paper have been collected using questionnaires and interviews administered to students and teachers from five language departments at Khartoum University: English, French, German, Russian, and Chinese. Questionnaires and interviews on language attitude will be administered among Four-year language majors representing the four departments. The central question the paper tries to answer is whether there is a realistic match between the goals of language teaching/learning set by policy makers and students’ interests and expectations. Results are expected to contribute to the efforts made to restructure language-in-education curriculum at university level in a way that addresses the expectations of both policy makers and students. Keywords: Foreign language teaching and learning, goals, attitude.

  6. Epidemic modeling in complex realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizza, Vittoria; Barthélemy, Marc; Barrat, Alain; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2007-04-01

    In our global world, the increasing complexity of social relations and transport infrastructures are key factors in the spread of epidemics. In recent years, the increasing availability of computer power has enabled both to obtain reliable data allowing one to quantify the complexity of the networks on which epidemics may propagate and to envision computational tools able to tackle the analysis of such propagation phenomena. These advances have put in evidence the limits of homogeneous assumptions and simple spatial diffusion approaches, and stimulated the inclusion of complex features and heterogeneities relevant in the description of epidemic diffusion. In this paper, we review recent progresses that integrate complex systems and networks analysis with epidemic modelling and focus on the impact of the various complex features of real systems on the dynamics of epidemic spreading.

  7. Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harteveld, Casper

    The first of the three worlds to be discussed is Reality. This whole level is devoted to this world consisting of consultants, subject-matter experts, and disciplines related to the domain and subject of the game. After a short introduction where I show—amongst many other things—a virtual reproduction and game interpretation of Magritte's famous painting of a pipe, I explain by using my experiences from Levee Patroller and drawing upon other examples, four relevant aspects from this world that designers need to consider. The first concerns defining the problem. This is quite hard, especially because at many times, different problem definitions can be conceived. When a problem is finally defined, the second aspect, the factors which are involved with the problem, need to be found and elaborated on. If designers start to relate the factors to each other, they are preoccupied with the third aspect, the relationships. To picture this well, it helps to draw a diagram. Mostly, games are not static and that is why the process needs to be taken into account as well. After considering this fourth aspect, the “model of reality” can be said to be complete. To judge this model and the eventual game, Reality has its own criteria of which I discuss flexibility, fidelity, and validity.

  8. Investigating the Role of Augmented Reality Technology in the Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to inform about some of the current applications and literature on Augmented Reality (AR) technology in education and to present experimental data about the effectiveness of AR application in a language classroom at the elementary level in Turkey. The research design of the study was quasi-experimental. Sixty-one 5th…

  9. Exploring the Effect of Materials Designed with Augmented Reality on Language Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the motivational level of the participants in a language classroom towards course materials designed in accordance with augmented reality technology and to identify the correlation between academic achievement and motivational level. 130 undergraduate students from a state-run university in Turkey…

  10. Parsimonious Language Models for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Robertson, Stephen; Zaragoza, Hugo

    We systematically investigate a new approach to estimating the parameters of language models for information retrieval, called parsimonious language models. Parsimonious language models explicitly address the relation between levels of language models that are typically used for smoothing. As such,

  11. Reasons to Use Virtual Reality in Education and Training Courses and a Model to Determine When to Use Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelidis, Veronica S.

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on the use of virtual reality in education and training. This article lists examples of such research. Reasons to use virtual reality are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of using virtual reality are presented, as well as suggestions on when to use and when not to use virtual reality. A model that can be…

  12. Women's Language Model: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Bethany K.

    It is possible to think of women's language in terms of the model implied by the following statement. Insofar as native speakers of English are concerned, the language of women in America has four sets of components: those shared with the language of men in America; those shared, in varying proportions, with other women living in patriarchies;…

  13. Language Learning through Social Networks: Perceptions and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Hsi; Warschauer, Mark; Blake, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Language Learning Social Network Sites (LLSNSs) have attracted millions of users around the world. However, little is known about how people participate in these sites and what they learn from them. This study investigated learners' attitudes, usage, and progress in a major LLSNS through a survey of 4,174 as well as 20 individual case studies. The…

  14. Reasons to Use Virtual Reality in Education and Training Courses and a Model to Determine When to Use Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica S. Pantelidis

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on the use of virtual reality in education and training. Thisarticle lists examples of such research. Reasons to use virtual reality are discussed.Advantages and disadvantages of using virtual reality are presented, as well as suggestions onwhen to use and when not to use virtual reality. A model that can be used to determine whento use virtual reality in an education or training course is presented.

  15. Social Perception and Social Reality: A Reflection-Construction Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussim, Lee

    1991-01-01

    A reflection-construction model of relations between social perception and social reality is presented that explicitly specifies several ways in which social perception may relate to social reality. Evidence supporting this model also supports a weaker version of the social-constructivist view. (SLD)

  16. Modeling Reality: How Computers Mirror Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, J-I

    2005-01-01

    Modeling Reality: How Computers Mirror Life covers a wide range of modern subjects in complex systems, suitable not only for undergraduate students who want to learn about modelling 'reality' by using computer simulations, but also for researchers who want to learn something about subjects outside of their majors and need a simple guide. Readers are not required to have specialized training before they start the book. Each chapter is organized so as to train the reader to grasp the essential idea of simulating phenomena and guide him/her towards more advanced areas. The topics presented in this textbook fall into two categories. The first is at graduate level, namely probability, statistics, information theory, graph theory, and the Turing machine, which are standard topics in the course of information science and information engineering departments. The second addresses more advanced topics, namely cellular automata, deterministic chaos, fractals, game theory, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Several topics included here (neural networks, game theory, information processing, etc) are now some of the main subjects of statistical mechanics, and many papers related to these interdisciplinary fields are published in Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General, so readers of this journal will be familiar with the subject areas of this book. However, each area is restricted to an elementary level and if readers wish to know more about the topics they are interested in, they will need more advanced books. For example, on neural networks, the text deals with the back-propagation algorithm for perceptron learning. Nowadays, however, this is a rather old topic, so the reader might well choose, for example, Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation by J Hertz et al (Perseus books, 1991) or Statistical Physics of Spin Glasses and Information Processing by H Nishimori (Oxford University Press, 2001) for further reading. Nevertheless, this book is worthwhile

  17. Empirical Model Building Data, Models, and Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, James R

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "This...novel and highly stimulating book, which emphasizes solving real problems...should be widely read. It will have a positive and lasting effect on the teaching of modeling and statistics in general." - Short Book Reviews This new edition features developments and real-world examples that showcase essential empirical modeling techniques Successful empirical model building is founded on the relationship between data and approximate representations of the real systems that generated that data. As a result, it is essential for researchers who construct these m

  18. Virtual-reality displaying of workpiece by reverse modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huimin; Zhang Li; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhao Ziran

    2006-01-01

    The authors first propose a suit of CT data processing system: virtual-reality-based testing of workpiece by Reverse Modeling. For reverse modeling module, the authors propose two solutions: integrating Medical CT Modeling software and using VTK library to develop independently. Then, the authors analyze the required functions and characteristics of CT-based Reverse Modeling module, and the key technologies for developing. For virtual-reality module, the authors study characteristics of CT data and the needs of CT users, and describe the required functions and key techniques as for virtual reality displaying module. The authors still analyze the problems and prospective of development. (authors)

  19. Fiia: A Model-Based Approach to Engineering Collaborative Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher; Smith, J. David; Phillips, W. Greg; Graham, T. C. Nicholas

    Augmented reality systems often involve collaboration among groups of people. While there are numerous toolkits that aid the development of such augmented reality groupware systems (e.g., ARToolkit and Groupkit), there remains an enormous gap between the specification of an AR groupware application and its implementation. In this chapter, we present Fiia, a toolkit which simplifies the development of collaborative AR applications. Developers specify the structure of their applications using the Fiia modeling language, which abstracts details of networking and provides high-level support for specifying adapters between the physical and virtual world. The Fiia.Net runtime system then maps this conceptual model to a runtime implementation. We illustrate Fiia via Raptor, an augmented reality application used to help small groups collaboratively prototype video games.

  20. Augmented reality in a tumor resection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Pauline; Collins, Toby; Debize, Clement; Novais-Gameiro, Lorraine; Pereira, Bruno; Bartoli, Adrien; Canis, Michel; Bourdel, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) guidance is a technology that allows a surgeon to see sub-surface structures, by overlaying pre-operative imaging data on a live laparoscopic video. Our objectives were to evaluate a state-of-the-art AR guidance system in a tumor surgical resection model, comparing the accuracy of the resection with and without the system. Our system has three phases. Phase 1: using the MRI images, the kidney's and pseudotumor's surfaces are segmented to construct a 3D model. Phase 2: the intra-operative 3D model of the kidney is computed. Phase 3: the pre-operative and intra-operative models are registered, and the laparoscopic view is augmented with the pre-operative data. We performed a prospective experimental study on ex vivo porcine kidneys. Alginate was injected into the parenchyma to create pseudotumors measuring 4-10 mm. The kidneys were then analyzed by MRI. Next, the kidneys were placed into pelvictrainers, and the pseudotumors were laparoscopically resected. The AR guidance system allows the surgeon to see tumors and margins using classical laparoscopic instruments, and a classical screen. The resection margins were measured microscopically to evaluate the accuracy of resection. Ninety tumors were segmented: 28 were used to optimize the AR software, and 62 were used to randomly compare surgical resection: 29 tumors were resected using AR and 33 without AR. The analysis of our pathological results showed 4 failures (tumor with positive margins) (13.8%) in the AR group, and 10 (30.3%) in the Non-AR group. There was no complete miss in the AR group, while there were 4 complete misses in the non-AR group. In total, 14 (42.4%) tumors were completely missed or had a positive margin in the non-AR group. Our AR system enhances the accuracy of surgical resection, particularly for small tumors. Crucial information such as resection margins and vascularization could also be displayed.

  1. Exploring the effect of materials designed with augmented reality on language learners' vocabulary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Solak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the motivational level of the participants in a language classroom towards course materials designed in accordance with augmented reality technology and to identify the correlation between academic achievement and motivational level. 130 undergraduate students from a state-run university in Turkey participated in this study and Turkish version of Material Motivational Survey was used to determine the undergraduate students’ motivational level about the materials which were designed with AR technology to teach English words at the elementary level. The results of this study suggested that AR technology materials had positive impact on increasing undergraduate students’ motivation towards vocabulary learning in language classroom. This study also signified that a positive significant correlation was found between academic achievement and the motivation in the use of AR technology in language classroom.

  2. Natural language modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  3. Language Models With Meta-information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Language modeling plays a critical role in natural language processing and understanding. Starting from a general structure, language models are able to learn natural language patterns from rich input data. However, the state-of-the-art language models only take advantage of words themselves, which

  4. Document Categorization with Modified Statistical Language Models for Agglutinative Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantug

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the document categorization task with statistical language models. Our study mainly focuses on categorization of documents in agglutinative languages. Due to the productive morphology of agglutinative languages, the number of word forms encountered in naturally occurring text is very large. From the language modeling perspective, a large vocabulary results in serious data sparseness problems. In order to cope with this drawback, previous studies in various application areas suggest modified language models based on different morphological units. It is reported that performance improvements can be achieved with these modified language models. In our document categorization experiments, we use standard word form based language models as well as other modified language models based on root words, root words and part-of-speech information, truncated word forms and character sequences. Additionally, to find an optimum parameter set, multiple tests are carried out with different language model orders and smoothing methods. Similar to previous studies on other tasks, our experimental results on categorization of Turkish documents reveal that applying linguistic preprocessing steps for language modeling provides improvements over standard language models to some extent. However, it is also observed that similar level of performance improvements can also be acquired by simpler character level or truncated word form models which are language independent.

  5. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876

  6. Language Networks as Models of Cognition: Understanding Cognition through Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckage, Nicole M.; Colunga, Eliana

    Language is inherently cognitive and distinctly human. Separating the object of language from the human mind that processes and creates language fails to capture the full language system. Linguistics traditionally has focused on the study of language as a static representation, removed from the human mind. Network analysis has traditionally been focused on the properties and structure that emerge from network representations. Both disciplines could gain from looking at language as a cognitive process. In contrast, psycholinguistic research has focused on the process of language without committing to a representation. However, by considering language networks as approximations of the cognitive system we can take the strength of each of these approaches to study human performance and cognition as related to language. This paper reviews research showcasing the contributions of network science to the study of language. Specifically, we focus on the interplay of cognition and language as captured by a network representation. To this end, we review different types of language network representations before considering the influence of global level network features. We continue by considering human performance in relation to network structure and conclude with theoretical network models that offer potential and testable explanations of cognitive and linguistic phenomena.

  7. Realities of and perspectives for languages in the globalised world: Can language teaching survive the inadequacies of policies implemented today at Leeds Beckett University?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Gamir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various newspaper articles report that British ministers, university representatives, exam chiefs and business bodies agree that foreign languages skills in primary, secondary and tertiary UK education are in crisis. Lower funding and policy changes have caused language skills deficiencies felt gravely in the business sectors. Funding and support initiatives pledged by policy makers appear to be election-driven, barely outliving newly elected governments. Others blame secondary school language curriculum for failing to inspire students to take up a language when they reach 13 or 14. Others still argue that severe A-level examinations marking deters students from taking up a foreign language at 6th form level, producing fewer prospective language learners for university departments. Community languages are also undervalued as small-entry languages could soon be axed from GCSE and A-level examinations. In a world increasingly interconnected, it is essential the importance of language learning be reinstated in all our educational institutions. This paper reviews two decades of the conditions of language provision in the UK in general, with an emphasis on Leeds Beckett University. It also attempts to answer two questions emerging form the author’s personal teaching experience and reflections: What are the realities and challenges language teaching faces at Leeds Beckett University? And, how may we support language learners in fulfilling their ambition to acquire the required skills to communicate effectively in this globalised world?

  8. The Construction of Social Reality through the Use of the English Language: A Study with Argentinean Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchini, Pedro Luis

    2010-01-01

    This case study aims at replicating a study conducted in 2007 with a group of ten trainees at the English Teacher Training Program at Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. In 2007, the participants recorded a dyadic interactive task. Speech data were analyzed to see how, through the use of language, learners construed their social reality. In the…

  9. Autonomous acquisition of virtual reality models from real world scenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haindl, Michal; Kittler, J.

    č. 4 (2001), s. 30-38 ISSN 1471-3225 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/0030 Grant - others:Copernicus(XE) 960174 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1075907 Keywords : virtual reality models Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://www.cultivate-int.org/issue4/virtuous/

  10. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  11. Repairing process models to reflect reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahland, D.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Barros, A.; Gal, A.; Kindler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Process mining techniques relate observed behavior (i.e., event logs) to modeled behavior (e.g., a BPMN model or a Petri net). Processes models can be discovered from event logs and conformance checking techniques can be used to detect and diagnose differences between observed and modeled behavior.

  12. Implementation of augmented reality to models sultan deli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, M. F.; Lumbantobing, N. P.; Siregar, B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Andayani, U.

    2018-03-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that can provide visualization in the form of 3D virtual model. With the utilization of augmented reality technology hence image-based modeling to produce 3D model of Sultan Deli Istana Maimun can be applied to restore photo of Sultan of Deli into three dimension model. This is due to the Sultan of Deli which is one of the important figures in the history of the development of the city of Medan is less known by the public because the image of the Sultanate of Deli is less clear and has been very long. To achieve this goal, augmented reality applications are used with image processing methodologies into 3D models through several toolkits. The output generated from this method is the visitor’s photos Maimun Palace with 3D model of Sultan Deli with the detection of markers 20-60 cm apart so as to provide convenience for the public to recognize the Sultan Deli who had ruled in Maimun Palace.

  13. Modeling complex work systems - method meets reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Hoeve, Machteld; Lenting, Bert

    1996-01-01

    Modeling an existing task situation is often a first phase in the (re)design of information systems. For complex systems design, this model should consider both the people and the organization involved, the work, and situational aspects. Groupware Task Analysis (GTA) as part of a method for the

  14. Formal models, languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangarajan, K; Mukund, M

    2006-01-01

    A collection of articles by leading experts in theoretical computer science, this volume commemorates the 75th birthday of Professor Rani Siromoney, one of the pioneers in the field in India. The articles span the vast range of areas that Professor Siromoney has worked in or influenced, including grammar systems, picture languages and new models of computation. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Finite Array Automata and Regular Array Grammars (150 KB). Contents: Finite Array Automata and Regular Array Grammars (A Atanasiu et al.); Hexagonal Contextual Array P Systems (K S Dersanambika et al.); Con

  15. An acceptance model for smart glasses based tourism augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidy, Waqas Khalid; Arshad, Haslina; Huang, Jiung Yao

    2017-10-01

    Recent mobile technologies have revolutionized the way people experience their environment. Although, there is only limited research on users' acceptance of AR in the cultural tourism context, previous researchers have explored the opportunities of using augmented reality (AR) in order to enhance user experience. Recent AR research lack works that integrates dimensions which are specific to cultural tourism and smart glass specific context. Hence, this work proposes an AR acceptance model in the context of cultural heritage tourism and smart glasses capable of performing augmented reality. Therefore, in this paper we aim to present an AR acceptance model to understand the AR usage behavior and visiting intention for tourists who use Smart Glass based AR at UNESCO cultural heritage destinations in Malaysia. Furthermore, this paper identifies information quality, technology readiness, visual appeal, and facilitating conditions as external variables and key factors influencing visitors' beliefs, attitudes and usage intention.

  16. Discovering Language through Augmented Reality and the Interactive Digital White Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruperta Pérez-Lisboa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the development of phonological, semantic, and syntactic aspects by using augmented reality and interactive whiteboard with boys and girls in the kindergarten of Liceo San Felipe, San Felipe, Chili. With the implementation of these tools, learning experiences were carried out, enhancing the understanding of sentences and words in their successive components: linguistic segmentation, phonological awareness, and reflection on the meaning of words and sentences. The experiments were carried out in a didactic classroom of the course of Educacion Parvularia (Pre-School Education at the University of Playa Ancha, San Felipe Campus, for 60 minutes, once a week for four months. It was a quasi-experimental study, and through pre- and post-tests, it was possible to verify the development of 18 children of a municipal school in San Felipe. The instruments used were the Linguistic Segmentation Test, Comprehensive and Expressive Language Examination Test (ELCE; Subtest semantic aspect, Test Evaluation O; Subtest words and phrases. The results, based on the comparison of pre- and post-test, showed changes in the management of the semantic, syntactic, and phonological aspects achieved by the children with this methodology. However, more research is needed to validate this proposal in teaching metalinguistic.

  17. RealityConvert: a tool for preparing 3D models of biochemical structures for augmented and virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrel, Alexandre; Fourches, Denis

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing interest for the broad use of Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) in the fields of bioinformatics and cheminformatics to visualize complex biological and chemical structures. AR and VR technologies allow for stunning and immersive experiences, offering untapped opportunities for both research and education purposes. However, preparing 3D models ready to use for AR and VR is time-consuming and requires a technical expertise that severely limits the development of new contents of potential interest for structural biologists, medicinal chemists, molecular modellers and teachers. Herein we present the RealityConvert software tool and associated website, which allow users to easily convert molecular objects to high quality 3D models directly compatible for AR and VR applications. For chemical structures, in addition to the 3D model generation, RealityConvert also generates image trackers, useful to universally call and anchor that particular 3D model when used in AR applications. The ultimate goal of RealityConvert is to facilitate and boost the development and accessibility of AR and VR contents for bioinformatics and cheminformatics applications. http://www.realityconvert.com. dfourch@ncsu.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. A virtual reality browser for Space Station models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Michael; Pandya, Abhilash; Aldridge, Ann; Maida, James

    1993-01-01

    The Graphics Analysis Facility at NASA/JSC has created a visualization and learning tool by merging its database of detailed geometric models with a virtual reality system. The system allows an interactive walk-through of models of the Space Station and other structures, providing detailed realistic stereo images. The user can activate audio messages describing the function and connectivity of selected components within his field of view. This paper presents the issues and trade-offs involved in the implementation of the VR system and discusses its suitability for its intended purposes.

  19. The Use of Virtual Reality Tools in the Reading-Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, J. Michael; Pilgrim, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents virtual reality as a tool for classroom literacy instruction. Building on the traditional use of images as a way to scaffold prior knowledge, we extend this idea to share ways virtual reality enables experiential learning through field trip-like experiences. The use of technology tools such Google Street view, Google…

  20. New trends in interaction, virtual reality and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Penichet, Victor MR; Gallud, José A

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between a user and a device forms the foundation of today's application design.Covering the following topics: * A suite of five structural principles helping designers to structure their mockups;* An agile method for exploiting desktop eye tracker equipment in combination with mobile devices;* An approach to explore large-scale collections based on classification systems;* A framework based on the use of modeling and components composition techniques to simplify the development of organizational collaborative systems;* A low-cost virtual reality system that provides highly sati

  1. A Core Language for Separate Variability Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosif-Lazăr, Alexandru Florin; Wasowski, Andrzej; Schaefer, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Separate variability modeling adds variability to a modeling language without requiring modifications of the language or the supporting tools. We define a core language for separate variability modeling using a single kind of variation point to define transformations of software artifacts in object...... hierarchical dependencies between variation points via copying and flattening. Thus, we reduce a model with intricate dependencies to a flat executable model transformation consisting of simple unconditional local variation points. The core semantics is extremely concise: it boils down to two operational rules...

  2. Domain-Specific Modelling Languages in Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Gian David

    " of models, in order to improve the utility of the models we build, and to ease the process of model construction by moving the languages we use to express such models closer to their respective domains. This thesis is concerned with the study of bigraphical reactive systems as a host for domain...... for deciding reaction rule causation. Finally, we provide a mechanism for the modular construction of domain-specic modelling languages as bigraphical reactive systems, exploring the relationship between vertical renement and language specialisation in this setting. The thesis is composed of several...

  3. Visualizing Compound Rotations with Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Megan; Kavanagh, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Mental rotations are among the most difficult of all spatial tasks to perform, and even those with high levels of spatial ability can struggle to visualize the result of compound rotations. This pilot study investigates the use of the virtual reality-based Rotation Tool, created using the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) together with…

  4. Image fusion in craniofacial virtual reality modeling based on CT and 3dMD photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Pengfei; Yu, Hongbo; Cheng, Huanchong; Shen, Shunyao; Shen, Steve G F

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of building a craniofacial virtual reality model by image fusion of 3-dimensional (3D) CT models and 3 dMD stereophotogrammetric facial surface. A CT scan and stereophotography were performed. The 3D CT models were reconstructed by Materialise Mimics software, and the stereophotogrammetric facial surface was reconstructed by 3 dMD patient software. All 3D CT models were exported as Stereo Lithography file format, and the 3 dMD model was exported as Virtual Reality Modeling Language file format. Image registration and fusion were performed in Mimics software. Genetic algorithm was used for precise image fusion alignment with minimum error. The 3D CT models and the 3 dMD stereophotogrammetric facial surface were finally merged into a single file and displayed using Deep Exploration software. Errors between the CT soft tissue model and 3 dMD facial surface were also analyzed. Virtual model based on CT-3 dMD image fusion clearly showed the photorealistic face and bone structures. Image registration errors in virtual face are mainly located in bilateral cheeks and eyeballs, and the errors are more than 1.5 mm. However, the image fusion of whole point cloud sets of CT and 3 dMD is acceptable with a minimum error that is less than 1 mm. The ease of use and high reliability of CT-3 dMD image fusion allows the 3D virtual head to be an accurate, realistic, and widespread tool, and has a great benefit to virtual face model.

  5. Animation Augmented Reality Book Model (AAR Book Model) to Enhance Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujitarom, Wannaporn; Piriyasurawong, Pallop

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to synthesize an Animation Augmented Reality Book Model (AAR Book Model) to enhance teamwork and to assess the AAR Book Model to enhance teamwork. Samples are five specialists that consist of one animation specialist, two communication and information technology specialists, and two teaching model design specialists, selected by…

  6. The notion of intercultural and teaching-learning process of foreign languages in Brazil: representations and realities of FFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Armani Galli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the history of humanity is merged with the history of languages, studies related to the field of language sciences have been very recent. Several elements compose the broad field of human sciences, such as behavioral analysis and the sense of belonging and exclusion. Situated in this context, the epistemological reflection about Foreign Languages (FL represents a sign of contemporaneity. This fact is maximized by its interdisciplinary character, making the lines that delimit the linguistic field research in FL very tenuous. The degree of variants of the object Language makes the research on teaching and learning highly complex due to the subjectivity it involves. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss issues such as representation and interculturalism in the research methodology. Such dimension allows some outlines for the development of linguistic research to be drawn, establishing an interface with the process of teaching and learning in FL. Cuq (2010, Puren (2009, Courtillon (1998 and De Carlo (1998 are some of the theoretical references on which this reflection is based on. Some representations related to literacy will be pointed out in order to highlight aspects related to the reality of current teaching of French as a Foreign Language (FFL in Brazil.

  7. Presheaf models for CCS-like languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winskel, Glynn

    2003-01-01

    for a general process language, in which CCS and related languages are easily encoded. The results are then transferred to traditional models for processes. By first establishing the congruence results for presheaf models, abstract, general proofs of congruence properties can be provided and the awkwardness...... caused through traditional models not always possessing the cartesian liftings, used in the breakdown of process operations, are side stepped. The abstract results are applied to show that hereditary history-preserving bisimulation is a congruence for CCS-like languages to which is added a refinement...

  8. The role of virtual reality and 3D modelling in built environment education

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, Margaret; Thompson, Emine Mine

    2007-01-01

    This study builds upon previous research on the integration of Virtual Reality (VR) within the built environment curriculum and aims to investigate the role of Virtual Reality and three-dimensional (3D) computer modelling on learning and teaching in a school of the built environment. In order to achieve this aim a number of academic experiences were analysed to explore the applicability and viability of 3D computer modelling and Virtual Reality (VR) into built environment subject areas. Altho...

  9. On Combining Language Models: Oracle Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hacioglu, Kadri; Ward, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we address the of combining several language models (LMs). We find that simple interpolation methods, like log-linear and linear interpolation, improve the performance but fall short of the performance of an oracle...

  10. Language policy myths and realities at M L Sultan Technikon | Kajee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... language debates in the country, then discusses the implementation of the Technikon's language policy. The conclusion is that despite the hegemonic role played by English, attempts must be made to encourage multilingualism or regional bilingualism, or else pay the price of further marginalising the African languages.

  11. Uterus models for use in virtual reality hysteroscopy simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Peter; Weiss, Stephan; Caduff, Rosmarie; Bajka, Michael; Szekély, Gabor; Harders, Matthias

    2009-05-01

    Virtual reality models of human organs are needed in surgery simulators which are developed for educational and training purposes. A simulation can only be useful, however, if the mechanical performance of the system in terms of force-feedback for the user as well as the visual representation is realistic. We therefore aim at developing a mechanical computer model of the organ in question which yields realistic force-deformation behavior under virtual instrument-tissue interactions and which, in particular, runs in real time. The modeling of the human uterus is described as it is to be implemented in a simulator for minimally invasive gynecological procedures. To this end, anatomical information which was obtained from specially designed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging procedures as well as constitutive tissue properties recorded from mechanical testing were used. In order to achieve real-time performance, the combination of mechanically realistic numerical uterus models of various levels of complexity with a statistical deformation approach is suggested. In view of mechanical accuracy of such models, anatomical characteristics including the fiber architecture along with the mechanical deformation properties are outlined. In addition, an approach to make this numerical representation potentially usable in an interactive simulation is discussed. The numerical simulation of hydrometra is shown in this communication. The results were validated experimentally. In order to meet the real-time requirements and to accommodate the large biological variability associated with the uterus, a statistical modeling approach is demonstrated to be useful.

  12. M3D (Media 3D): a new programming language for web-based virtual reality in E-Learning and Edutainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakaveh, Sepideh; Skaley, Detlef; Laine, Patricia; Haeger, Ralf; Maad, Soha

    2003-01-01

    Today, interactive multimedia educational systems are well established, as they prove useful instruments to enhance one's learning capabilities. Hitherto, the main difficulty with almost all E-Learning systems was latent in the rich media implementation techniques. This meant that each and every system should be created individually as reapplying the media, be it only a part, or the whole content was not directly possible, as everything must be applied mechanically i.e. by hand. Consequently making E-learning systems exceedingly expensive to generate, both in time and money terms. Media-3D or M3D is a new platform independent programming language, developed at the Fraunhofer Institute Media Communication to enable visualisation and simulation of E-Learning multimedia content. M3D is an XML-based language, which is capable of distinguishing between the3D models from that of the 3D scenes, as well as handling provisions for animations, within the programme. Here we give a technical account of M3D programming language and briefly describe two specific application scenarios where M3D is applied to create virtual reality E-Learning content for training of technical personnel.

  13. Image-Based Models for Specularity Propagation in Diminished Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Souheil Hadj; Tamaazousti, Mohamed; Bartoli, Adrien

    2018-07-01

    The aim of Diminished Reality (DR) is to remove a target object in a live video stream seamlessly. In our approach, the area of the target object is replaced with new texture that blends with the rest of the image. The result is then propagated to the next frames of the video. One of the important stages of this technique is to update the target region with respect to the illumination change. This is a complex and recurrent problem when the viewpoint changes. We show that the state-of-the-art in DR fails in solving this problem, even under simple scenarios. We then use local illumination models to address this problem. According to these models, the variation in illumination only affects the specular component of the image. In the context of DR, the problem is therefore solved by propagating the specularities in the target area. We list a set of structural properties of specularities which we incorporate in two new models for specularity propagation. Our first model includes the same property as the previous approaches, which is the smoothness of illumination variation, but has a different estimation method based on the Thin-Plate Spline. Our second model incorporates more properties of the specularity's shape on planar surfaces. Experimental results on synthetic and real data show that our strategy substantially improves the rendering quality compared to the state-of-the-art in DR.

  14. Modeling the Emergence of Contact Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tria, Francesca; Servedio, Vito D.P.; Mufwene, Salikoko S.; Loreto, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Contact languages are born out of the non-trivial interaction of two (or more) parent languages. Nowadays, the enhanced possibility of mobility and communication allows for a strong mixing of languages and cultures, thus raising the issue of whether there are any pure languages or cultures that are unaffected by contact with others. As with bacteria or viruses in biological evolution, the evolution of languages is marked by horizontal transmission; but to date no reliable quantitative tools to investigate these phenomena have been available. An interesting and well documented example of contact language is the emergence of creole languages, which originated in the contacts of European colonists and slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries in exogenous plantation colonies of especially the Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Here, we focus on the emergence of creole languages to demonstrate a dynamical process that mimics the process of creole formation in American and Caribbean plantation ecologies. Inspired by the Naming Game (NG), our modeling scheme incorporates demographic information about the colonial population in the framework of a non-trivial interaction network including three populations: Europeans, Mulattos/Creoles, and Bozal slaves. We show how this sole information makes it possible to discriminate territories that produced modern creoles from those that did not, with a surprising accuracy. The generality of our approach provides valuable insights for further studies on the emergence of languages in contact ecologies as well as to test specific hypotheses about the peopling and the population structures of the relevant territories. We submit that these tools could be relevant to addressing problems related to contact phenomena in many cultural domains: e.g., emergence of dialects, language competition and hybridization, globalization phenomena. PMID:25875371

  15. An Alternate Reality Game for Language Learning: ARGuing for Multilingual Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Thomas M.; Stansfield, Mark; Hainey, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, Alternate Reality Games (ARGs), a form of narrative often involving multiple media and gaming elements to tell a story that might be affected by participants' actions, have been used in the marketing and promotion of a number of entertainment related products such as films, computer games and music. This paper discusses the…

  16. Virtual reality in tourism : what implications will virtual reality technology have for business models in the tourism industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Økland, Marius Kavlie-Jørgensen; Lefébure, Yves-Michel Thomas Anthony

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates how business models in the tourism industry will be affected by the rapid emergence of virtual reality technology. The research is based on data gathered from two experiments, one in a lab- and one in a field environment, conducted in the fall of 2016. The implications are considered from a combination of statistical analysis and existing literature. We have examined how effects from advertisement media differ when it is displayed to participants as pic...

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Language Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Vittorio; Baronchelli, Andrea; Puglisi, Andrea

    In this chapter we explore several language games of increasing complexity. We first consider the so-called Naming Game, possibly the simplest example of the complex processes leading progressively to the establishment of human-like languages. In this framework, a globally shared vocabulary emerges as a result of local adjustments of individual word-meaning association. The emergence of a common vocabulary only represents a first stage while it is interesting to investigate the emergence of higher forms of agreement, e.g., compositionality, categories, syntactic or grammatical structures. As an example in this direction we consider the so-called Category Game. Here one focuses on the process by which a population of individuals manages to categorize a single perceptually continuous channel. The problem of the emergence of a discrete shared set of categories out of a continuous perceptual channel is a notoriously difficult problem relevant for color categorization, vowels formation, etc. The central result here is the emergence of a hierarchical category structure made of two distinct levels: a basic layer, responsible for fine discrimination of the environment, and a shared linguistic layer that groups together perceptions to guarantee communicative success.

  18. Comparative analysis of business rules and business process modeling languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Rima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During developing an information system is important to create clear models and choose suitable modeling languages. The article analyzes the SRML, SBVR, PRR, SWRL, OCL rules specifying language and UML, DFD, CPN, EPC and IDEF3 BPMN business process modeling language. The article presents business rules and business process modeling languages theoretical comparison. The article according to selected modeling aspects of the comparison between different business process modeling languages ​​and business rules representation languages sets. Also, it is selected the best fit of language set for three layer framework for business rule based software modeling.

  19. Policy versus Ground Reality: Secondary English Language Assessment System in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sharmistha; Shaheen, Robina; Shrestha, Prithvi; Rahman, Arifa; Khan, Rubina

    2014-01-01

    Any policy reform in education is highly effective when it is planned and implemented "holistically" and yet, it is the most challenging way forward. Many countries in Asia have reformed their English language policies and syllabi in the last two decades due to the increasing value of the language worldwide. Motivated by a…

  20. Impact of Augmented Reality on Programming Language Learning: Efficiency and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Chin-Hung; Chen, Jr-Yi; Chen, Zhi-Hong

    2018-01-01

    Although the learning of programming language is critical in science and technology education, it might be difficult for some students, especially novices. One possible reason might be the fact that programming language, especially for three-dimensional (3D) applications, is too complex and abstract for these students to understand. Programming…

  1. English Language Schooling, Linguistic Realities, and the Native Speaker of English in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen Edwards, Jette G.

    2018-01-01

    The study employs a case study approach to examine the impact of educational backgrounds on nine Hong Kong tertiary students' English and Cantonese language practices and identifications as native speakers of English and Cantonese. The study employed both survey and interview data to probe the participants' English and Cantonese language use at…

  2. Multiple Voices, Multiple Realities: Self-Defined Images of Self among Adolescent Hispanic English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi J.

    2006-01-01

    Acquisition of multiple identities to negotiate new forms of social participation and the concomitant attendant multiple languages and multiple cultures is "sine qua non" to success in English language learning classrooms. This study therefore, investigates how middle school Hispanic students reconceptualize their identities to negotiate…

  3. Melody Track Selection Using Discriminative Language Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Li, Ming; Suo, Hongbin; Yan, Yonghong

    In this letter we focus on the task of selecting the melody track from a polyphonic MIDI file. Based on the intuition that music and language are similar in many aspects, we solve the selection problem by introducing an n-gram language model to learn the melody co-occurrence patterns in a statistical manner and determine the melodic degree of a given MIDI track. Furthermore, we propose the idea of using background model and posterior probability criteria to make modeling more discriminative. In the evaluation, the achieved 81.6% correct rate indicates the feasibility of our approach.

  4. Student Language Production, Second Language Tasks, and Instructional Scaffolding in an English-Based Curriculum in Vietnam: Realities and Hopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuong T. M.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates L2 student language production, task-based instruction, and teachers' scaffolding strategies in two special EFL classes in a Vietnamese university. Two English teachers and 73 students were studied as they participated in a nationwide educational project known as the Advanced Curriculum (AC), an initiative launched…

  5. Operative and diagnostic hysteroscopy: A novel learning model combining new animal models and virtual reality simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassil, Alfred; Rubod, Chrystèle; Borghesi, Yves; Kerbage, Yohan; Schreiber, Elie Servan; Azaïs, Henri; Garabedian, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Hysteroscopy is one of the most common gynaecological procedure. Training for diagnostic and operative hysteroscopy can be achieved through numerous previously described models like animal models or virtual reality simulation. We present our novel combined model associating virtual reality and bovine uteruses and bladders. End year residents in obstetrics and gynaecology attended a full day workshop. The workshop was divided in theoretical courses from senior surgeons and hands-on training in operative hysteroscopy and virtual reality Essure ® procedures using the EssureSim™ and Pelvicsim™ simulators with multiple scenarios. Theoretical and operative knowledge was evaluated before and after the workshop and General Points Averages (GPAs) were calculated and compared using a Student's T test. GPAs were significantly higher after the workshop was completed. The biggest difference was observed in operative knowledge (0,28 GPA before workshop versus 0,55 after workshop, pvirtual reality simulation is an efficient model not described before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Paired structures in logical and semiotic models of natural language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo; Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The evidence coming from cognitive psychology and linguistics shows that pairs of reference concepts (as e.g. good/bad, tall/short, nice/ugly, etc.) play a crucial role in the way we everyday use and understand natural languages in order to analyze reality and make decisions. Different situations...

  7. The virtual nose: a 3-dimensional virtual reality model of the human nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, A John; Holcomb, Joi; Ai, Zhuming; Rasmussen, Mary; Tardy, M Eugene; Thomas, J Regan

    2004-01-01

    The 3-dimensionally complex interplay of soft tissue, cartilaginous, and bony elements makes the mastery of nasal anatomy difficult. Conventional methods of learning nasal anatomy exist, but they often involve a steep learning curve. Computerized models and virtual reality applications have been used to facilitate teaching in a number of other complex anatomical regions, such as the human temporal bone and pelvic floor. We present a 3-dimensional (3-D) virtual reality model of the human nose. Human cadaveric axial cross-sectional (0.33-mm cuts) photographic data of the head and neck were used. With 460 digitized images, individual structures were traced and programmed to create a computerized polygonal model of the nose. Further refinements to this model were made using a number of specialized computer programs. This 3-D computer model of the nose was then programmed to operate as a virtual reality model. Anatomically correct 3-D model of the nose was produced. High-resolution images of the "virtual nose" demonstrate the nasal septum, lower lateral cartilages, middle vault, bony dorsum, and other structural details of the nose. Also, the model can be combined with a separate virtual reality model of the face and its skin cover as well as the skull. The user can manipulate the model in space, examine 3-D anatomical relationships, and fade superficial structures to reveal deeper ones. The virtual nose is a 3-D virtual reality model of the nose that is accurate and easy to use. It can be run on a personal computer or in a specialized virtual reality environment. It can serve as an effective teaching tool. As the first virtual reality model of the nose, it establishes a virtual reality platform from which future applications can be launched.

  8. Graphical modeling and query language for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzdins, Janis; Barzdins, Juris; Rencis, Edgars; Sostaks, Agris

    2013-01-01

    So far there has been little evidence that implementation of the health information technologies (HIT) is leading to health care cost savings. One of the reasons for this lack of impact by the HIT likely lies in the complexity of the business process ownership in the hospitals. The goal of our research is to develop a business model-based method for hospital use which would allow doctors to retrieve directly the ad-hoc information from various hospital databases. We have developed a special domain-specific process modelling language called the MedMod. Formally, we define the MedMod language as a profile on UML Class diagrams, but we also demonstrate it on examples, where we explain the semantics of all its elements informally. Moreover, we have developed the Process Query Language (PQL) that is based on MedMod process definition language. The purpose of PQL is to allow a doctor querying (filtering) runtime data of hospital's processes described using MedMod. The MedMod language tries to overcome deficiencies in existing process modeling languages, allowing to specify the loosely-defined sequence of the steps to be performed in the clinical process. The main advantages of PQL are in two main areas - usability and efficiency. They are: 1) the view on data through "glasses" of familiar process, 2) the simple and easy-to-perceive means of setting filtering conditions require no more expertise than using spreadsheet applications, 3) the dynamic response to each step in construction of the complete query that shortens the learning curve greatly and reduces the error rate, and 4) the selected means of filtering and data retrieving allows to execute queries in O(n) time regarding the size of the dataset. We are about to continue developing this project with three further steps. First, we are planning to develop user-friendly graphical editors for the MedMod process modeling and query languages. The second step is to do evaluation of usability the proposed language and tool

  9. Parents' and speech and language therapists' explanatory models of language development, language delay and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Goldbart, Juliet; Phillips, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Parental and speech and language therapist (SLT) explanatory models may affect engagement with speech and language therapy, but there has been dearth of research in this area. This study investigated parents' and SLTs' views about language development, delay and intervention in pre-school children with language delay. The aims were to describe, explore and explain the thoughts, understandings, perceptions, beliefs, knowledge and feelings held by: a group of parents from East Manchester, UK, whose pre-school children had been referred with suspected language delay; and SLTs working in the same area, in relation to language development, language delay and language intervention. A total of 24 unstructured interviews were carried out: 15 with parents whose children had been referred for speech and language therapy and nine with SLTs who worked with pre-school children. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using Atlas/ti. The data were analysed, subjected to respondent validation, and grounded theories and principled descriptions developed to explain and describe parents' and SLTs' beliefs and views. Parent and SLT data are presented separately. There are commonalities and differences between the parents and the SLTs. Both groups believe that language development and delay are influenced by both external and internal factors. Parents give more weight to the role of gender, imitation and personality and value television and videos, whereas the SLTs value the 'right environment' and listening skills and consider that health/disability and socio-economic factors are important. Parents see themselves as experts on their child and have varied ideas about the role of SLTs, which do not always accord with SLTs' views. The parents and SLTs differ in their views of the roles of imitation and play in intervention. Parents typically try strategies before seeing an SLT. These data suggest that parents' ideas vary and that, although parents and SLTs may share some

  10. Language Ideologies in a Business Institute: A Case Study of Linguistic and Socio-Cultural Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Sikandar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This case study explored the English language related ideologies of different management groups and student representatives at a business school of Karachi, Pakistan. The study tried to bring an insider’s perspective to the causes of certain language ideologies prevalent in the business school’s social structure, and the role language played in power relations between the main actors of the community. For this purpose, a sample of four research participants from each of the focussed management cadres was selected for study. Analysis of semi-structured interviews, administered on the participants, was done using Fairclough’s (2009 dialectical-relational approach of critical discourse analysis (CDA. The study suggested the prevalence of certain language ideologies that were manifested and latent in the discourses of the participants. These deeply rooted beliefs were predominantly patterned by centering authorities: language became a means for those in power to sustain their hegemony and maintain social stratification in society. Functionally, English played a stratifying role, and also was found to be extensively perceived as a commodity, a product that is to be acquired or attained. The study realised this social wrong of inequity and divide in a particular community, and on the basis of the findings, recommends a reorganizing of social structures into those of more inclusive and democratic ones for the operationalizing of equality and fairness in social practices.

  11. Formal specification with the Java modeling language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Grahl, Daniel; Hentschel, Martin; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Beckert, Bernhard; Bubel, Richard; Hähnle, Reiner; Schmitt, Peter H.; Ulbrich, Mattoas

    2016-01-01

    This text is a general, self contained, and tool independent introduction into the Java Modeling Language, JML. It appears in a book about the KeY approach and tool, because JML is the dominating starting point of KeY style Java verification. However, this chapter does not depend on KeY, nor any

  12. Issues for a Model of Language Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgbose, Ayo

    1989-01-01

    Examines the following issues as they relate to a model of language planning: (1) types of decisions (policy or implemental, higher- or lower-level, rational or arbitrary); (2) the planning mechanism; (3) the role of fact finding (prepolicy, preimplementation, and intraimplementation); (4) levels of planning; and (5) the nature of status versus…

  13. Aligning Grammatical Theories and Language Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shevaun; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We address two important questions about the relationship between theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics. First, do grammatical theories and language processing models describe separate cognitive systems, or are they accounts of different aspects of the same system? We argue that most evidence is consistent with the one-system view. Second,…

  14. a Methodology to Adapt Photogrammetric Models to Virtual Reality for Oculus Gear VR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero Fdez, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we will expose the process of adapting a high resolution model (laser and photogrammetry) into a virtual reality application for mobile phones. It is a virtual archeology project carried out on the site of Lugo's Mitreo, Spain.

  15. TYPOLOGY OF THE REALITY STATUS CATEGORY IN SELECTED LANGUAGES. IS THE HABITUAL IN POLISH AN INSTANCE OF (IRREALIS OR MODALITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Pietras

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article is aimed at examining the category of the reality status by discussing the dichotomy “realis / irrealis” in the context of the categories of modality, habituality and futurity. Prototype analysis is juxtaposed with scope analysis, and the category of the habitual is discussed from the typological perspective as well as from the perspective of its connection with the category of futurity. The paper presents aspect diversity of habituals (perfective and imperfective aspect and its contextual implications as well as the differentiation between the habitual and modality. A special focus is on the prototype analysis and its application instances in Polish, English and Hebrew. The primary objective of the paper is to show that, although it is possible to treat irrealis as notional category, the habituals in Polish and many other Slavic languages (e.g. Czech should be identified with the modality domain rather than irrealis category. The paper is also an attempt to provide an insight into the distinction between (irrealis and encoding systems of modalities as the habitual aspect displays modal category features in many languages (including Polish.

  16. Stereoscopic virtual reality models for planning tumor resection in the sellar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shou-sen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is difficult for neurosurgeons to perceive the complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships in the sellar region. Methods To investigate the value of using a virtual reality system for planning resection of sellar region tumors. The study included 60 patients with sellar tumors. All patients underwent computed tomography angiography, MRI-T1W1, and contrast enhanced MRI-T1W1 image sequence scanning. The CT and MRI scanning data were collected and then imported into a Dextroscope imaging workstation, a virtual reality system that allows structures to be viewed stereoscopically. During preoperative assessment, typical images for each patient were chosen and printed out for use by the surgeons as references during surgery. Results All sellar tumor models clearly displayed bone, the internal carotid artery, circle of Willis and its branches, the optic nerve and chiasm, ventricular system, tumor, brain, soft tissue and adjacent structures. Depending on the location of the tumors, we simulated the transmononasal sphenoid sinus approach, transpterional approach, and other approaches. Eleven surgeons who used virtual reality models completed a survey questionnaire. Nine of the participants said that the virtual reality images were superior to other images but that other images needed to be used in combination with the virtual reality images. Conclusions The three-dimensional virtual reality models were helpful for individualized planning of surgery in the sellar region. Virtual reality appears to be promising as a valuable tool for sellar region surgery in the future.

  17. Physical Models and Virtual Reality Simulators in Otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javia, Luv; Sardesai, Maya G

    2017-10-01

    The increasing role of simulation in the medical education of future otolaryngologists has followed suit with other surgical disciplines. Simulators make it possible for the resident to explore and learn in a safe and less stressful environment. The various subspecialties in otolaryngology use physical simulators and virtual-reality simulators. Although physical simulators allow the operator to make direct contact with its components, virtual-reality simulators allow the operator to interact with an environment that is computer generated. This article gives an overview of the various types of physical simulators and virtual-reality simulators used in otolaryngology that have been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The combined use of virtual reality and EEG to study language processing in naturalistic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, J.; Peeters, D.G.T.; Meyer, A.S.; Hagoort, P.

    2018-01-01

    When we comprehend language, we often do this in rich settings where we can use many cues to understand what someone is saying. However, it has traditionally been difficult to design experiments with rich three-dimensional contexts that resemble our everyday environments, while maintaining control

  19. Change in Language Policy in Malaysia: The Reality of Implementation in Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Saran Kaur

    2006-01-01

    In Malaysia, a sudden change in language policy, from Bahasa Melayu to English, has been instituted for the disciplines of science and technology at varying levels of the educational system. For this paper, it will be the domain of higher education that will be focused on. In 2005, the students who had their pre-university courses in English would…

  20. Apricot - An Object-Oriented Modeling Language for Hybrid Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Huixing; Zhu, Huibiao; Shi, Jianqi

    2013-01-01

    We propose Apricot as an object-oriented language for modeling hybrid systems. The language combines the features in domain specific language and object-oriented language, that fills the gap between design and implementation, as a result, we put forward the modeling language with simple and distinct syntax, structure and semantics. In addition, we introduce the concept of design by convention into Apricot.As the characteristic of object-oriented and the component architecture in Apricot, we c...

  1. Language Models and the Teaching of English Language to Secondary School Students in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntongieh, Njwe Amah Eyovi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates Language models with an emphasis on an appraisal of the Competence Based Language Teaching Model (CBLT) employed in the teaching and learning of English language in Cameroon. Research endeavours at various levels combined with cumulative deficiencies experienced over the years have propelled educational policy makers to…

  2. A simple branching model that reproduces language family and language population distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwämmle, Veit; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro

    2009-07-01

    Human history leaves fingerprints in human languages. Little is known about language evolution and its study is of great importance. Here we construct a simple stochastic model and compare its results to statistical data of real languages. The model is based on the recent finding that language changes occur independently of the population size. We find agreement with the data additionally assuming that languages may be distinguished by having at least one among a finite, small number of different features. This finite set is also used in order to define the distance between two languages, similarly to linguistics tradition since Swadesh.

  3. Computer modelling as a tool for understanding language evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bart; Gontier, N; VanBendegem, JP; Aerts, D

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the uses of computer models in studying the evolution of language. Language is a complex dynamic system that can be studied at the level of the individual and at the level of the population. Much of the dynamics of language evolution and language change occur because of the

  4. Biologically inspired information theory: Adaptation through construction of external reality models by living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Higher animals act in the world using their external reality models to cope with the uncertain environment. Organisms that have not developed such information-processing organs may also have external reality models built in the form of their biochemical, physiological, and behavioral structures, acquired by natural selection through successful models constructed internally. Organisms subject to illusions would fail to survive in the material universe. How can organisms, or living systems in general, determine the external reality from within? This paper starts with a phenomenological model, in which the self constitutes a reality model developed through the mental processing of phenomena. Then, the it-from-bit concept is formalized using a simple mathematical model. For this formalization, my previous work on an algorithmic process is employed to constitute symbols referring to the external reality, called the inverse causality, with additional improvements to the previous work. Finally, as an extension of this model, the cognizers system model is employed to describe the self as one of many material entities in a world, each of which acts as a subject by responding to the surrounding entities. This model is used to propose a conceptual framework of information theory that can deal with both the qualitative (semantic) and quantitative aspects of the information involved in biological processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactive Scientific Visualization in 3D Virtual Reality Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Popovski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific visualization in technology of virtual reality is a graphical representation of virtual environment in the form of images or animation that can be displayed with various devices such as Head Mounted Display (HMD or monitors that can view threedimensional world. Research in real time is a desirable capability for scientific visualization and virtual reality in which we are immersed and make the research process easier. In this scientific paper the interaction between the user and objects in the virtual environment аrе in real time which gives a sense of reality to the user. Also, Quest3D VR software package is used and the movement of the user through the virtual environment, the impossibility to walk through solid objects, methods for grabbing objects and their displacement are programmed and all interactions between them will be possible. At the end some critical analysis were made on all of these techniques on various computer systems and excellent results were obtained.

  6. MODEL NATIVIS LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE (SEBUAH TEORI PEMEROLEHAN BAHASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamluatul Hasanah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of using mother tongue has been possessed by every child. They can master the language without getting specific education. In a short time a child has mastered the language to communicate with others. There are many theories of language acquisition. One of them that still exists is The Native Model of Language Acquisition (LAD. This theory was pioneered by Noam Chomsky. In this language naturally. This ability develops automatically when the language is used is Language Acquisition Device (LAD. LAD constitutes a hypothesis of feature of grammatical rules used progressively by a child in accordance with his psychological development.

  7. A model of language inflection graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukś, Henryk; Farzad, Babak; Cao, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Inflection graphs are highly complex networks representing relationships between inflectional forms of words in human languages. For so-called synthetic languages, such as Latin or Polish, they have particularly interesting structure due to the abundance of inflectional forms. We construct the simplest form of inflection graphs, namely a bipartite graph in which one group of vertices corresponds to dictionary headwords and the other group to inflected forms encountered in a given text. We, then, study projection of this graph on the set of headwords. The projection decomposes into a large number of connected components, to be called word groups. Distribution of sizes of word group exhibits some remarkable properties, resembling cluster distribution in a lattice percolation near the critical point. We propose a simple model which produces graphs of this type, reproducing the desired component distribution and other topological features.

  8. Large-Scale Topic Detection and Language Model Adaptation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seymore, Kristie

    1997-01-01

    .... We have developed a language model adaptation scheme that takes apiece of text, chooses the most similar topic clusters from a set of over 5000 elemental topics, and uses topic specific language...

  9. Self-Organizing Map Models of Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic PDP architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development.

  10. Spin Glass Models of Syntax and Language Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Siva, Karthik; Tao, Jim; Marcolli, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Using the SSWL database of syntactic parameters of world languages, and the MIT Media Lab data on language interactions, we construct a spin glass model of language evolution. We treat binary syntactic parameters as spin states, with languages as vertices of a graph, and assigned interaction energies along the edges. We study a rough model of syntax evolution, under the assumption that a strong interaction energy tends to cause parameters to align, as in the case of ferromagnetic materials. W...

  11. Statistical Language Models and Information Retrieval: Natural Language Processing Really Meets Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, natural language processing techniques for information retrieval have always been studied outside the framework of formal models of information retrieval. In this article, we introduce a new formal model of information retrieval based on the application of statistical language models.

  12. A Policy Language for Modelling Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou El Kalam, Anas; Balbiani, Philippe

    While current and emergent applications become more and more complex, most of existing security policies and models only consider a yes/no response to the access requests. Consequently, modelling, formalizing and implementing permissions, obligations and prohibitions do not cover the richness of all the possible scenarios. In fact, several applications have access rules with the recommendation access modality. In this paper we focus on the problem of formalizing security policies with recommendation needs. The aim is to provide a generic domain-independent formal system for modelling not only permissions, prohibitions and obligations, but also recommendations. In this respect, we present our logic-based language, the semantics, the truth conditions, our axiomatic as well as inference rules. We also give a representative use case with our specification of recommendation requirements. Finally, we explain how our logical framework could be used to query the security policy and to check its consistency.

  13. A conceptual model specification language (CMSL Version 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1992-01-01

    Version 2 of a language (CMSL) to specify conceptual models is defined. CMSL consists of two parts, the value specification language VSL and the object spercification language OSL. There is a formal semantics and an inference system for CMSL but research on this still continues. A method for

  14. VMTL: a language for end-user model transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald; Strüber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    , these languages are largely ill-equipped for adoption by end-user modelers in areas such as requirements engineering, business process management, or enterprise architecture. We aim to introduce a model transformation language addressing the skills and requirements of end-user modelers. With this contribution, we......Model transformation is a key enabling technology of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE). Existing model transformation languages are shaped by and for MDE practitioners—a user group with needs and capabilities which are not necessarily characteristic of modelers in general. Consequently...... hope to broaden the application scope of model transformation and MDE technology in general. We discuss the profile of end-user modelers and propose a set of design guidelines for model transformation languages addressing them. We then introduce Visual Model Transformation Language (VMTL) following...

  15. A universal model for languages and cities, and their lifetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2007-01-01

    Present human languages display slightly asymmetric log-normal (Gauss) distribution for size [1-3], whereas present cities follow power law (Pareto-Zipf law)[4]. Our model considers the competition between languages and that between cities in terms of growing (multiplicative noise process)[5] and fragmentation [6]; where, relevant parameters are (naturally) different for languages and cities. We consider lifetime distribution for old and living languages and that for old and living cities. We...

  16. Model Sistem Informasi Manajemen Sekolah Berbasiskan Notasi Unified Modeling Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Kurniawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Basically the use of integrated information systems can be applied not only for the company, but also education industry, particularly schools. To support business processes at the school, this research would like to describe a conceptual model of information systems using the Unified Modeling Language (UML notationwith "4 +1 View" architectural model. This model is expected to assist analysis and design the whole business processes at school. A conceptual model of the information system can help application developers to easily and clearly understand the school system. By adopting this information system model, schools are able to have effective understanding of management information systems.

  17. Object-oriented biomedical system modelling--the language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakman, M; Groth, T

    1999-11-01

    The paper describes a new object-oriented biomedical continuous system modelling language (OOBSML). It is fully object-oriented and supports model inheritance, encapsulation, and model component instantiation and behaviour polymorphism. Besides the traditional differential and algebraic equation expressions the language includes also formal expressions for documenting models and defining model quantity types and quantity units. It supports explicit definition of model input-, output- and state quantities, model components and component connections. The OOBSML model compiler produces self-contained, independent, executable model components that can be instantiated and used within other OOBSML models and/or stored within model and model component libraries. In this way complex models can be structured as multilevel, multi-component model hierarchies. Technically the model components produced by the OOBSML compiler are executable computer code objects based on distributed object and object request broker technology. This paper includes both the language tutorial and the formal language syntax and semantic description.

  18. Querying and Serving N-gram Language Models with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical n-gram language modeling is a very important technique in Natural Language Processing (NLP and Computational Linguistics used to assess the fluency of an utterance in any given language. It is widely employed in several important NLP applications such as Machine Translation and Automatic Speech Recognition. However, the most commonly used toolkit (SRILM to build such language models on a large scale is written entirely in C++ which presents a challenge to an NLP developer or researcher whose primary language of choice is Python. This article first provides a gentle introduction to statistical language modeling. It then describes how to build a native and efficient Python interface (using SWIG to the SRILM toolkit such that language models can be queried and used directly in Python code. Finally, it also demonstrates an effective use case of this interface by showing how to leverage it to build a Python language model server. Such a server can prove to be extremely useful when the language model needs to be queried by multiple clients over a network: the language model must only be loaded into memory once by the server and can then satisfy multiple requests. This article includes only those listings of source code that are most salient. To conserve space, some are only presented in excerpted form. The complete set of full source code listings may be found in Volume 1 of The Python Papers Source Codes Journal.

  19. KioskAR: An Augmented Reality Game as a New Business Model to Present Artworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoones A. Sekhavat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the architecture of KioskAR, which is a pervasive game implemented using augmented reality (AR. This game introduces a new business model that makes it possible for players to present their artworks in virtual kiosks using augmented reality, while they are having fun playing the game. In addition to competition between the players in the game, this game requires social interaction between players to earn more points. A user study is conducted to evaluate the sense of presence and the usability of the application. The results of experiments show that KioskAR can achieve a high level of usability as well as sense of presence.

  20. Through the Looking Glass: No Wonderland Yet! (The Reciprocal Relationship between Methodology and Models of Reality).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Rhoda Kesler

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between conceptual frameworks and methodology in psychology. Argues that models of reality influence research in terms of question selection, causal factors hypothesized, and interpretation of data. Considers the position and role of women as objects and agents of research using a sociology of knowledge perspective.…

  1. Probabilistic language models in cognitive neuroscience: Promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeni, Kristijan; Willems, Roel M; Frank, Stefan L

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists of language comprehension study how neural computations relate to cognitive computations during comprehension. On the cognitive part of the equation, it is important that the computations and processing complexity are explicitly defined. Probabilistic language models can be used to give a computationally explicit account of language complexity during comprehension. Whereas such models have so far predominantly been evaluated against behavioral data, only recently have the models been used to explain neurobiological signals. Measures obtained from these models emphasize the probabilistic, information-processing view of language understanding and provide a set of tools that can be used for testing neural hypotheses about language comprehension. Here, we provide a cursory review of the theoretical foundations and example neuroimaging studies employing probabilistic language models. We highlight the advantages and potential pitfalls of this approach and indicate avenues for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The construction of human body--from model to reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoc, A; Motoc, Marilena; Bolintineanu, S; Muşuroi, Corina; Munteanu, M

    2005-01-01

    The human body building represented a complex research topic for the scientist in the most diverse domains. Although their interests and reasons were different, the goal was always the same: establishing a relation to verify the ratio between the dimensions of the constituent segments It appears that the mystery was solved out in the XIX-th century by Adolf Zeising, a German, who, using the statistic calculus, defined the division of a segment by the gold section. This purely mathematic logic confirms the human body's integration in proportion to the finest segments, thus providing the technical instrument of building a fully harmonious human body. The present study aims to compare the ideal, the calculated perfection to the reality, namely the theoretically obtained values to the average values of an 18-year-old male. It appears that the differences refer especially to the limbs; both the superior ones and the inferior ones being longer comparing to the ideal pattern while the bust is shorter and broader.

  3. Picture languages formal models for picture recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1979-01-01

    Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Picture Languages: Formal Models for Picture Recognition treats pictorial pattern recognition from the formal standpoint of automata theory. This book emphasizes the capabilities and relative efficiencies of two types of automata-array automata and cellular array automata, with respect to various array recognition tasks. The array automata are simple processors that perform sequences of operations on arrays, while the cellular array automata are arrays of processors that operate on pictures in a highly parallel fashion, one processor per picture element. This compilation also reviews a collection of results on two-dimensional sequential and parallel array acceptors. Some of the analogous one-dimensional results and array grammars and their relation to acceptors are likewise covered in this text. This publication is suitable for researchers, professionals, and specialists interested in pattern recognition and automata theory.

  4. Bayesian Recurrent Neural Network for Language Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jen-Tzung; Ku, Yuan-Chu

    2016-02-01

    A language model (LM) is calculated as the probability of a word sequence that provides the solution to word prediction for a variety of information systems. A recurrent neural network (RNN) is powerful to learn the large-span dynamics of a word sequence in the continuous space. However, the training of the RNN-LM is an ill-posed problem because of too many parameters from a large dictionary size and a high-dimensional hidden layer. This paper presents a Bayesian approach to regularize the RNN-LM and apply it for continuous speech recognition. We aim to penalize the too complicated RNN-LM by compensating for the uncertainty of the estimated model parameters, which is represented by a Gaussian prior. The objective function in a Bayesian classification network is formed as the regularized cross-entropy error function. The regularized model is constructed not only by calculating the regularized parameters according to the maximum a posteriori criterion but also by estimating the Gaussian hyperparameter by maximizing the marginal likelihood. A rapid approximation to a Hessian matrix is developed to implement the Bayesian RNN-LM (BRNN-LM) by selecting a small set of salient outer-products. The proposed BRNN-LM achieves a sparser model than the RNN-LM. Experiments on different corpora show the robustness of system performance by applying the rapid BRNN-LM under different conditions.

  5. Augmented Reality on Android

    OpenAIRE

    Chunghan Li; Chang-Shyh Peng; Daisy F. Sang

    2013-01-01

    Augmented Reality is an application which combines a live view of real-world environment and computer-generated images. This paper studies and demonstrates an efficient Augmented Reality development in the mobile Android environment with the native Java language and Android SDK. Major components include Barcode Reader, File Loader, Marker Detector, Transform Matrix Generator, and a cloud database.

  6. Optimization of steam generator replacement with virtual reality modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong H.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) have to be carefully examined and maintained up to the point of replacing major components during the overhaul period for continued operation. Most understandably the cost of maintenance and upgrading will tend to increase with the NPP power. There is thus an escalating need for developing an optimized process management method to reduce the cost involved. Albeit the steam generators (SGs) may not directly affect the expected lifespan of NPP, thousands of tubes with diameter on the order of 3 cm in the SG operating at 320degC and 16 MPa may well tend to be called Achilles' heel of the pressurized water reactors (PWRs). For instance, the SGs of Kori Nuclear Unit 1 (KNU 1) were replaced in October 1998 after 20 years of service on account of aging and potential threat to operational safety. In the same year the SG tubes of Ulchin Nuclear Units 1 and 2 were ruptured to result in leakage of the primary coolant to the secondary side. As a result their SGs are planned to be replaced in a few years. There is, however, a limit to improving the replacement process by trial and error in practice on account of the size of NPP with the ensuing complexity in process management. This paper proposes an optimization method for the SG replacement process based on the KNU 1 experience in 1998. The whole process was simulated accounting for interactions of each part in virtual reality utilizing the computer aided design solution CATIA, and the digital process management solution DELMIA. (author)

  7. Innovations in Language Learning: The Oregon Chinese Flagship Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Falsgraf

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Language learning in the United States suffers from a culture of low expectations. Lacking bilingual role models around them, students often view language class as, at best, a way to become a tourist in a country with a language different from their own. Monolingual policymakers assume that learning another language fluently is impossible and inconsequential, since they themselves are capable professionals with one language. Educators, discouraged by years of inadequate funding and support, have come to hope for nothing more than incremental improvements. The National Flagship Language Program (NFLP aims to break this cycle of low expectations and low results by providing funding to institutions willing to accept the challenge of producing Superior (Level 3 language users through a radical re-engineering of the language learning enterprise. The need for fundamental change in language education is longstanding, but the events of September 11 brought the importance of this need to the awareness of national policymakers. Due to the emphasis of critical languages, responsibility for carrying out this fundamental re-examination of language learning has fallen to those engaged in the less commonly taught languages. 1

  8. The Learner Characteristics, Features of Desktop 3D Virtual Reality Environments, and College Chemistry Instruction: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Zahira; Goetz, Ernest T.; Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy; Kwok, Oi-man; Cifuentes, Lauren; Davis, Trina J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined a model of the impact of a 3D desktop virtual reality environment on the learner characteristics (i.e. perceptual and psychological variables) that can enhance chemistry-related learning achievements in an introductory college chemistry class. The relationships between the 3D virtual reality features and the chemistry learning test as…

  9. Generic precise augmented reality guiding system and its calibration method based on 3D virtual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Yang, Shourui; Wang, Zhangying; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Niu, Zhenqi; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Jigui; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-05-30

    Augmented reality system can be applied to provide precise guidance for various kinds of manual works. The adaptability and guiding accuracy of such systems are decided by the computational model and the corresponding calibration method. In this paper, a novel type of augmented reality guiding system and the corresponding designing scheme are proposed. Guided by external positioning equipment, the proposed system can achieve high relative indication accuracy in a large working space. Meanwhile, the proposed system is realized with a digital projector and the general back projection model is derived with geometry relationship between digitized 3D model and the projector in free space. The corresponding calibration method is also designed for the proposed system to obtain the parameters of projector. To validate the proposed back projection model, the coordinate data collected by a 3D positioning equipment is used to calculate and optimize the extrinsic parameters. The final projecting indication accuracy of the system is verified with subpixel pattern projecting technique.

  10. Model of Organizational Structure for University Institutes Binding with the Venezuelan Socioeconomic Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pertuz Belloso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at proposing a model of organizational structure for university institutes binding with the Venezuelan socioeconomic reality. This is a descriptive non-experimental cross-sectional research study. The study population included 746 professors and administration from the Cabimas and Maracaibo Technological Universities. Data was collected using a questionnaire consisting of 54 items and analyzed using the percentage frequency distribution. Results obtained indicate the sub-systems not integrated in the studied institutions, coexisting bureaucratic structural typologies, and a clear decontextualized implementation of the nation’s plans, which shows low relevance and relationship to the Venezuelan socioeconomic reality. To remedy this situation, a mixed departmental/matrix organizational structure model was designed that integrates the department into a matrix network linking teaching, research, and social action projects. The implementation of this model was proposed in three stages or phases in order to achieve the operational characteristics of the departmental model.

  11. MOCQL: A Declarative Language for Ad-Hoc Model Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Language (MOCQL), an experimental declarative textual language to express queries (and constraints) on models. We introduce MOCQL by examples and its grammar, evaluate its usability by means of controlled experiments, and find that modelers perform better and experience less cognitive load when working...

  12. Principles of parametric estimation in modeling language competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menghan; Gong, Tao

    2013-06-11

    It is generally difficult to define reasonable parameters and interpret their values in mathematical models of social phenomena. Rather than directly fitting abstract parameters against empirical data, we should define some concrete parameters to denote the sociocultural factors relevant for particular phenomena, and compute the values of these parameters based upon the corresponding empirical data. Taking the example of modeling studies of language competition, we propose a language diffusion principle and two language inheritance principles to compute two critical parameters, namely the impacts and inheritance rates of competing languages, in our language competition model derived from the Lotka-Volterra competition model in evolutionary biology. These principles assign explicit sociolinguistic meanings to those parameters and calculate their values from the relevant data of population censuses and language surveys. Using four examples of language competition, we illustrate that our language competition model with thus-estimated parameter values can reliably replicate and predict the dynamics of language competition, and it is especially useful in cases lacking direct competition data.

  13. Exploring the possibility for business model innovation in Laerdal Medical using Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Ullestad, Freddie; Søndenaa, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Business administration: Executive MBA The purpose of this paper is to check how Virtual Reality patient simulation as a disruptive technology may give opportunities for established companies, such as Laerdal Medical, to create innovative business models in the nursing and healthcare education market. The goal of the new and innovative business model would be to maintain and further strengthen existing business, when faced with threats from established and potential new ...

  14. Multiple Models of Reality and How to Use Them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamroga, W.J.; Blockeel, H.; Denecker, M.

    2002-01-01

    A virtual agent may obviously benefit from having an up-to-date model of her environment of activity. The model may include actual users' profiles, a dynamic environment characteristic or some assumptions being accepted by default. However, the agent doesn't have to stick to one model only, she can

  15. Similar words analysis based on POS-CBOW language model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongru RUAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Similar words analysis is one of the important aspects in the field of natural language processing, and it has important research and application values in text classification, machine translation and information recommendation. Focusing on the features of Sina Weibo's short text, this paper presents a language model named as POS-CBOW, which is a kind of continuous bag-of-words language model with the filtering layer and part-of-speech tagging layer. The proposed approach can adjust the word vectors' similarity according to the cosine similarity and the word vectors' part-of-speech metrics. It can also filter those similar words set on the base of the statistical analysis model. The experimental result shows that the similar words analysis algorithm based on the proposed POS-CBOW language model is better than that based on the traditional CBOW language model.

  16. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories. PMID:24312061

  17. Deformable three-dimensional model architecture for interactive augmented reality in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemuri, Anant S; Wu, Jungle Chi-Hsiang; Liu, Kai-Che; Wu, Hurng-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    Surgical procedures have undergone considerable advancement during the last few decades. More recently, the availability of some imaging methods intraoperatively has added a new dimension to minimally invasive techniques. Augmented reality in surgery has been a topic of intense interest and research. Augmented reality involves usage of computer vision algorithms on video from endoscopic cameras or cameras mounted in the operating room to provide the surgeon additional information that he or she otherwise would have to recognize intuitively. One of the techniques combines a virtual preoperative model of the patient with the endoscope camera using natural or artificial landmarks to provide an augmented reality view in the operating room. The authors' approach is to provide this with the least number of changes to the operating room. Software architecture is presented to provide interactive adjustment in the registration of a three-dimensional (3D) model and endoscope video. Augmented reality including adrenalectomy, ureteropelvic junction obstruction, and retrocaval ureter and pancreas was used to perform 12 surgeries. The general feedback from the surgeons has been very positive not only in terms of deciding the positions for inserting points but also in knowing the least change in anatomy. The approach involves providing a deformable 3D model architecture and its application to the operating room. A 3D model with a deformable structure is needed to show the shape change of soft tissue during the surgery. The software architecture to provide interactive adjustment in registration of the 3D model and endoscope video with adjustability of every 3D model is presented.

  18. Cross-Lingual Lexical Triggers in Statistical Language Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Woosung; Khudanpur, Sanjeev

    2003-01-01

    .... We achieve this through an extension of the method of lexical triggers to the cross-language problem, and by developing a likelihoodbased adaptation scheme for combining a trigger model with an N-gram model...

  19. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  20. A Situative Space Model for Mobile Mixed-Reality Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pederson, Thomas; Janlert, Lars-Erik; Surie, Dipak

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a situative space model that links the physical and virtual realms and sets the stage for complex human-computer interaction defined by what a human agent can see, hear, and touch, at any given point in time.......This article proposes a situative space model that links the physical and virtual realms and sets the stage for complex human-computer interaction defined by what a human agent can see, hear, and touch, at any given point in time....

  1. Improving Language Learning Strategies and Performance of Pre-Service Language Teachers through a CALLA-TBLT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guapacha Chamorro, Maria Eugenia; Benavidez Paz, Luis Humberto

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an action-research study on language learning strategies in tertiary education at a Colombian university. The study aimed at improving the English language performance and language learning strategies use of 33 first-year pre-service language teachers by combining elements from two models: the cognitive academic language…

  2. Leveraging Small-Lexicon Language Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-31

    Glottolog/ ... a typical example: ./geo_distance.tsv – geographical distance sets (0 to 500 km, by 100km) ./ety_distance.tsv – genetic distance...normalizing notation affected automated syllabification; while tweaks of language and subbranch-specific syllable-break rubrics affected proper...many languages – an index that points to the forms that are most likely to be genetically related, but still respects semantic variation between

  3. Wavelet Compressed PCA Models for Real-Time Image Registration in Augmented Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cooper; Kent Wise; John Cooper; Makarand Deo

    2015-01-01

    The use of augmented reality (AR) has shown great promise in enhancing medical training and diagnostics via interactive simulations. This paper presents a novel method to perform accurate and inexpensive image registration (IR) utilizing a pre-constructed database of reference objects in conjunction with a principal component analysis (PCA) model. In addition, a wavelet compression algorithm is utilized to enhance the speed of the registration process. The proposed method is used to perform r...

  4. A Model of Instruction for Integrating Culture and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony

    An integrated model of instruction in language and culture uses a sequential method of discovering sensation, perception, concept, and principle to develop self-analysis skills in students. When planning activities for learning a language and developing cultural understanding, teachers might follow a sequence such as the following: introduce…

  5. Microscopic Abrams-Strogatz model of language competition

    OpenAIRE

    Stauffer, Dietrich; Castello, Xavier; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Miguel, Maxi San

    2006-01-01

    The differential equation of Abrams and Strogatz for the competition between two languages is compared with agent based Monte Carlo simulations for fully connected networks as well as for lattices in one, two and three dimensions, with up to 10^9 agents. In the case of socially equivalent languages, agent-based models and a mean field approximation give grossly different results.

  6. A new model for competition between many languages

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2006-01-01

    Time evolutions of number of cities, population of cities, world population, and size distribution of present languages are studied in terms of a new model, where population of each city increases by a random rate and decreases by a random division. World population and size distribution of languages come out in good agreement with the available empirical data.

  7. The Illinois State Interdisciplinary Model for Teaching Languages for Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Carson H., Jr.; Whitcomb, Richard O.

    This model combines in a team-taught course the study of business and a foreign language. The objective is to give business students a foreign language experience in a relatively brief time and also to offer them a business-oriented introduction to a culture other than their own. Students in business courses are preparing for a career in…

  8. Applying the Flipped Classroom Model to English Language Arts Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Carl A., Ed.; Moran, Clarice M., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom method, particularly when used with digital video, has recently attracted many supporters within the education field. Now more than ever, language arts educators can benefit tremendously from incorporating flipped classroom techniques into their curriculum. "Applying the Flipped Classroom Model to English Language Arts…

  9. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VERSPOOR, KARIN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIN, SHOU-DE [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  10. Modeling tides and vertical tidal mixing: A reality check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great interest in the tidal contribution to vertical mixing in the ocean. In models, vertical mixing is estimated using parameterization of the sub-grid scale processes. Estimates of the vertical mixing varied widely depending on which vertical mixing parameterization was used. This study investigated the performance of ten different vertical mixing parameterizations in a terrain-following ocean model when simulating internal tides. The vertical mixing parameterization was found to have minor effects on the velocity fields at the tidal frequencies, but large effects on the estimates of vertical diffusivity of temperature. Although there was no definitive best performer for the vertical mixing parameterization, several parameterizations were eliminated based on comparison of the vertical diffusivity estimates with observations. The best performers were the new generic coefficients for the generic length scale schemes and Mellor-Yamada's 2.5 level closure scheme.

  11. Toward Cognitively Constrained Models of Language Processing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Vogelzang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained computational models, which simulate the cognitive processes involved in language processing. The theoretical claims implemented in cognitive models interact with general architectural constraints such as memory limitations. This way, it generates new predictions that can be tested in experiments, thus generating new data that can give rise to new theoretical insights. This theory-model-experiment cycle is a promising method for investigating aspects of language processing that are difficult to investigate with more traditional experimental techniques. This review specifically examines the language processing models of Lewis and Vasishth (2005, Reitter et al. (2011, and Van Rij et al. (2010, all implemented in the cognitive architecture Adaptive Control of Thought—Rational (Anderson et al., 2004. These models are all limited by the assumptions about cognitive capacities provided by the cognitive architecture, but use different linguistic approaches. Because of this, their comparison provides insight into the extent to which assumptions about general cognitive resources influence concretely implemented models of linguistic competence. For example, the sheer speed and accuracy of human language processing is a current challenge in the field of cognitive modeling, as it does not seem to adhere to the same memory and processing capacities that have been found in other cognitive processes. Architecture-based cognitive models of language processing may be able to make explicit which language-specific resources are needed to acquire and process natural language. The review sheds light on cognitively constrained models of language processing from two angles: we

  12. RIPH: A Model for Representing the Reality in the Global and Local Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Hosseynov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is witnessing great changes, and these changes are comprehensible in the realm of performance of "identity", "boundary", "geographic concept” (place and "time". Identities are now segmented, boundaries passed over, and places and time compressed. Television is one of the effective factors in making this happen. However, it seems like television, which itself is one of the evidences of globalization, has now acquired new characteristics. With a little care while reading texts related to globalization and media, we realize the four words "reality", "identity", "power" and "hyper-reality" are constantly repeated in these texts, and very few people doubt the close relationship between television and these topics. Facing such a situation, and to understand the characteristics of the global television, this article plans to start on the basis of a theoretic called "RIPH Model". Based on the presumption that the role and place of television in forming the cultural shapes must not be exaggerated, it tries to present an outlook of the activities of the local and global televisions in the age of globalization and share the outcomes with 20 Iranian experts through interviews. RIPH is the short form which stands for the four words "reality", "identity", "power" and "hyper-reality". These are the concepts with new definitions that have changed our views about life on the Planet Earth, and this article studies the factors related to global and local televisions in the frame of an innovative model suggested by the researcher called "The Lozenge of the Performance of the Global and Local Televisions (RIPH Model", by investigating the relations between television and the above-mentioned concepts.

  13. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  14. Modeling of Slovak Language for Broadcast News Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STAŠ Ján

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes recent progress in the development the Slovak language models for transcription of spontaneous speech such as broadcast news, educational talks and lectures, or meetings. This work extends previous research oriented on the automatic transcription of dictated speech and brings some new extensions for improving perplexity and robustness of the Slovak language models trained on the web-based and electronic language resources for being more precise in recognition of spontaneous speech. These improvements include better text preprocessing, document classification, class-based and filled pauses modeling, web-data augmentation and fast model adaptation to the target domain. Experiments have been performed on the four different evaluation data sets, including judicial and newspaper readings, broadcast news recordings and parliament proceedings with the Slovak transcription system. Preliminary results show significant decrease of the word error rate for multiple transcription system configurations of acoustic and language models.

  15. Klaim-DB: A Modeling Language for Distributed Database Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xi; Li, Ximeng; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    and manipulation of structured data, with integrity and atomicity considerations. We present the formal semantics of KlaimDB and illustrate the use of the language in a scenario where the sales from different branches of a chain of department stores are aggregated from their local databases. It can be seen......We present the modelling language, Klaim-DB, for distributed database applications. Klaim-DB borrows the distributed nets of the coordination language Klaim but essentially re-incarnates the tuple spaces of Klaim as databases, and provides high-level language abstractions for the access...... that raising the abstraction level and encapsulating integrity checks (concerning the schema of tables, etc.) in the language primitives for database operations benefit the modelling task considerably....

  16. Multi-modal imaging, model-based tracking, and mixed reality visualisation for orthopaedic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Bernhard; Tateno, Keisuke; Johnson, Alex; Fotouhi, Javad; Osgood, Greg; Tombari, Federico; Navab, Nassir

    2017-01-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons are still following the decades old workflow of using dozens of two-dimensional fluoroscopic images to drill through complex 3D structures, e.g. pelvis. This Letter presents a mixed reality support system, which incorporates multi-modal data fusion and model-based surgical tool tracking for creating a mixed reality environment supporting screw placement in orthopaedic surgery. A red–green–blue–depth camera is rigidly attached to a mobile C-arm and is calibrated to the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging space via iterative closest point algorithm. This allows real-time automatic fusion of reconstructed surface and/or 3D point clouds and synthetic fluoroscopic images obtained through CBCT imaging. An adapted 3D model-based tracking algorithm with automatic tool segmentation allows for tracking of the surgical tools occluded by hand. This proposed interactive 3D mixed reality environment provides an intuitive understanding of the surgical site and supports surgeons in quickly localising the entry point and orienting the surgical tool during screw placement. The authors validate the augmentation by measuring target registration error and also evaluate the tracking accuracy in the presence of partial occlusion. PMID:29184659

  17. BOLOGNA MODEL OF MEDICAL EDUCATION-UTOPIA OR REALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunic, Lejla; Donev, Doncho

    2016-07-24

    Higher education in Europe and in the Balkan's countries is undergoing major reforms. The Bologna Process was a major reform created with the claimed goal of providing responses to issues such as the public responsibility for higher education and research, higher education governance, the social dimension of higher education and research, and the values and roles of higher education and research in modern, globalized, and increasingly complex societies with the most demanding qualification needs. Changes in the curricula, modernization of facilities and their alignment with the programs of other European universities, employment of a larger number of assistants, especially in the clinical courses at our universities are necessary. Also, it is necessary to continue to conduct further detailed analysis and evaluation of teaching content and outcomes in the future. In this review authors expressed their views and experience of using Bologna model of education in the Balkan's countries with emphasis on Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Macedonia.

  18. How does language model size effects speech recognition accuracy for the Turkish language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam ASEFİSARAY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aimed at investigating the effect of Language Model (LM size on Speech Recognition (SR accuracy. We also provided details of our approach for obtaining the LM for Turkish. Since LM is obtained by statistical processing of raw text, we expect that by increasing the size of available data for training the LM, SR accuracy will improve. Since this study is based on recognition of Turkish, which is a highly agglutinative language, it is important to find out the appropriate size for the training data. The minimum required data size is expected to be much higher than the data needed to train a language model for a language with low level of agglutination such as English. In the experiments we also tried to adjust the Language Model Weight (LMW and Active Token Count (ATC parameters of LM as these are expected to be different for a highly agglutinative language. We showed that by increasing the training data size to an appropriate level, the recognition accuracy improved on the other hand changes on LMW and ATC did not have a positive effect on Turkish speech recognition accuracy.

  19. Language policy and language learning in Macedonia Which lessons may be adopted from the Swiss model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhaferri, Gëzim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The following paper will investigate the acquisition of Macedonian languages in public schools and universities, focusing on the Albanian and Macedonian languages. As the saying goes: "The more languages you speak, the more human you are". Abiding by this proverb, the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia should be encouraged to become multilingual by learning the national languages. The acquisition of the national languages in a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country like Macedonia is, in my opinion, a necessary step toward the establishment of smooth and peaceful communication between the country's two largest cultural groups (Macedonians and Albanians, and is therefore also a prerequisite for the successful integration of every citizen into their home country's society. This paper also investigates Switzerland's multilingual and multicultural society, which serves as a successful and positive example of how a nation can deal with a multilingual population and the integration of its population. With this in mind, the question is raised here whether the model of Switzerland's language policy and national language instruction can perhaps also serve as an example for the Republic of Macedonia.

  20. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  1. Imitation, sign language skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil eHolmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model (Rönnberg et al., 2013 pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1 we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2. Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at the T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills

  2. Statistical Language Models for Intelligent XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Blanken, Henk; Grabs, T.; Schek, H-J.; Schenkel, R.; Weikum, G.

    2003-01-01

    The XML standards that are currently emerging have a number of characteristics that can also be found in database management systems, like schemas (DTDs and XML schema) and query languages (XPath and XQuery). Following this line of reasoning, an XML database might resemble traditional database

  3. Statistical language Models for Intelligent XML Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Blanken, H.M.; Grabs, T.; Schek, H-J.; Schenkel, R.; Weikum, G.

    2003-01-01

    The XML standards that are currently emerging have a number of characteristics that can also be found in database management systems, like schemas (DTDs and XML schema) and query languages (XPath and XQuery). Following this line of reasoning, an XML database might resemble traditional database

  4. Methods & Strategies: A Model of Shared Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kate; Coy, Stephanie; Pocock, Aija

    2015-01-01

    The authors' rural community experienced an explosion of young learners moving into their schools who did not have English as their primary language. To help their teachers meet these challenges, they began to partner with a program that provides grant-funded support for migrant learners (see Internet Resources) to find ways to address these…

  5. Language acquisition is model-based rather than model-free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Felix Hao; Mintz, Toben H

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) propose that learning language is learning to process language. However, we believe that the general-purpose prediction mechanism they propose is insufficient to account for many phenomena in language acquisition. We argue from theoretical considerations and empirical evidence that many acquisition tasks are model-based, and that different acquisition tasks require different, specialized models.

  6. Advanced language modeling approaches, case study: Expert search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a clear and detailed overview of advanced language modeling approaches and tools, including the use of document priors, translation models, relevance models, parsimonious models and expectation maximization training. Expert search will be used as a case study to explain the

  7. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  8. State vector reduction - 2: Elements of physical reality, nonlocality and stochasticity in relativistic dynamical reduction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Pearle, P.

    1991-02-01

    The problem of getting a relativistic generalization of the CSL dynamical reduction model, which has been presented in part I, is discussed. In so doing we have the opportunity to introduce the idea of a stochastically invariant theory. The theoretical model we present, that satisfies this kind of invariance requirement, offers us the possibility to reconsider, from a new point of view, some conceptually relevant issues such as nonlocality, the legitimacy of attributing elements of physical reality to physical systems and the problem of establishing causal relations between physical events. (author). Refs, 3 figs

  9. Digital representations of the real world how to capture, model, and render visual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Magnor, Marcus A; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Theobalt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Create Genuine Visual Realism in Computer Graphics Digital Representations of the Real World: How to Capture, Model, and Render Visual Reality explains how to portray visual worlds with a high degree of realism using the latest video acquisition technology, computer graphics methods, and computer vision algorithms. It explores the integration of new capture modalities, reconstruction approaches, and visual perception into the computer graphics pipeline.Understand the Entire Pipeline from Acquisition, Reconstruction, and Modeling to Realistic Rendering and ApplicationsThe book covers sensors fo

  10. Improving Language Learning Strategies and Performance of Pre-Service Language Teachers Through a CALLA-TBLT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Guapacha Chamorro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an action-research study on language learning strategies in tertiary education at a Colombian university. The study aimed at improving the English language performance and language learning strategies use of 33 first-year pre-service language teachers by combining elements from two models: the cognitive academic language learning approach and task-based language teaching. Data were gathered through surveys, a focus group, students’ and teachers’ journals, language tests, and documentary analysis. Results evidenced that the students improved in speaking, writing, grammar, vocabulary and in their language learning strategies repertoire. As a conclusion, explicit strategy instruction in the proposed model resulted in a proper combination to improve learners’ language learning strategies and performance.

  11. An Integrated Framework to Specify Domain-Specific Modeling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    , a logic-based specification language. The drawback of MS DSL Tools is it does not provide a formal and rigorous approach for semantics specifications. In this framework, we use Microsoft DSL Tools to define the metamodel and graphical notations of DSLs, and an extended version of ForSpec as a formal......In this paper, we propose an integrated framework that can be used by DSL designers to implement their desired graphical domain-specific languages. This framework relies on Microsoft DSL Tools, a meta-modeling framework to build graphical domain-specific languages, and an extension of ForSpec...... language to define their semantics. Integrating these technologies under the umbrella of Microsoft Visual Studio IDE allows DSL designers to utilize a single development environment for developing their desired domain-specific languages....

  12. Domain Specific Language for Modeling Waste Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarrin, Bahram

    environmental technologies i.e. solid waste management systems. Flow-based programming is used to support concurrent execution of the processes, and provides a model-integration language for composing processes from homogeneous or heterogeneous domains. And a domain-specific language is used to define atomic......In order to develop sustainable waste management systems with considering life cycle perspective, scientists and domain experts in environmental science require readily applicable tools for modeling and evaluating the life cycle impacts of the waste management systems. Practice has proved...... a domain specific language for modeling of waste-management systems on the basis of our framework. We evaluate the language by providing a set of case studies. The contributions of this thesis are; addressing separation of concerns in Flow-based programming and providing the formal specification of its...

  13. FORMATION OF THE SUBJECTIVE (VIRTUAL) MODELS OF PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL REALITY BY HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS AND GIVING THEM UNDUE ONTOLOGICAL STATUS (HYPOSTATIZATIONS)

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsenko Y. V.

    2015-01-01

    On the one hand, man is a physical object and a person. Therefore, we interact with the reality, on one hand, directly as a physical object, but on the other hand as a person, i.e. indirectly through our psyche. On the basis of information from the senses, the consciousness of a person creates a subjective model of reality. A man mistakes his subjective model of reality for reality itself, i.e. unnecessarily assigns an ontological status, by the hypostatizations. In fact, as the reality a man...

  14. Modeling of luminance distribution in CAVE-type virtual reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meironke, Michał; Mazikowski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    At present, one of the most advanced virtual reality systems are CAVE-type (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) installations. Such systems are usually consisted of four, five or six projection screens and in case of six screens arranged in form of a cube. Providing the user with a high level of immersion feeling in such systems is largely dependent of optical properties of the system. The modeling of physical phenomena plays nowadays a huge role in the most fields of science and technology. It allows to simulate work of device without a need to make any changes in the physical constructions. In this paper distribution of luminance in CAVE-type virtual reality systems were modelled. Calculations were performed for the model of 6-walled CAVE-type installation, based on Immersive 3D Visualization Laboratory, situated at the Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics at the Gdańsk University of Technology. Tests have been carried out for two different scattering distribution of the screen material in order to check how these characteristicinfluence on the luminance distribution of the whole CAVE. The basis assumption and simplification of modeled CAVE-type installation and results were presented. The brief discussion about the results and usefulness of developed model were also carried out.

  15. Linguistic steganography on Twitter: hierarchical language modeling with manual interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alex; Blunsom, Phil; Ker, Andrew D.

    2014-02-01

    This work proposes a natural language stegosystem for Twitter, modifying tweets as they are written to hide 4 bits of payload per tweet, which is a greater payload than previous systems have achieved. The system, CoverTweet, includes novel components, as well as some already developed in the literature. We believe that the task of transforming covers during embedding is equivalent to unilingual machine translation (paraphrasing), and we use this equivalence to de ne a distortion measure based on statistical machine translation methods. The system incorporates this measure of distortion to rank possible tweet paraphrases, using a hierarchical language model; we use human interaction as a second distortion measure to pick the best. The hierarchical language model is designed to model the speci c language of the covers, which in this setting is the language of the Twitter user who is embedding. This is a change from previous work, where general-purpose language models have been used. We evaluate our system by testing the output against human judges, and show that humans are unable to distinguish stego tweets from cover tweets any better than random guessing.

  16. The GRAIL concept modelling language for medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, A L; Bechhofer, S; Goble, C A; Horrocks, I; Nowlan, W A; Solomon, W D

    1997-02-01

    The GALEN representation and integration language (GRAIL) has been developed to support effective clinical user interfaces and extensible re-usable models of medical terminology. It has been used successfully to develop the prototype GALEN common reference (CORE) model for medical terminology and for a series of projects in clinical user interfaces within the GALEN and PEN&PAD projects. GRAIL is a description logic or frame language with novel features to support part-whole and other transitive relations and to support the GALEN modelling style aimed at re-use and application independence. GRAIL began as an experimental language. However, it has clarified many requirements for an effective knowledge representation language for clinical concepts. It still has numerous limitations despite its practical successes. The GRAIL experience is expected to form the basis for future languages which meet the same requirements but have greater expressiveness and more soundly based semantics. This paper provides a description and motivation for the GRAIL language and gives examples of the modelling paradigm which it supports.

  17. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  18. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Augmented Reality to Improve Investigation of Historical Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chionna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an experimental system to support investigation of historical buildings using Building Information Modeling (BIM and Augmented Reality (AR. The system requires the use of an off-line software to build the BIM representation and defines a method to integrate diagnostic data into BIM. The system offers access to such information during site investigation using AR glasses supported by marker and marker-less technologies. The main innovation is the possibility to contextualize through AR not only existing BIM properties but also results from non-invasive tools. User evaluations show how the use of the system may enhance the perception of engineers during the investigation process.

  19. Auralization fundamentals of acoustics, modelling, simulation, algorithms and acoustic virtual reality

    CERN Document Server

    Vorlander, Michael

    2007-01-01

    "Auralization" is the technique of creation and reproduction of sound on the basis of computer data. With this tool is it possible to predict the character of sound signals which are generated at the source and modified by reinforcement, propagation and transmission in systems such as rooms, buildings, vehicles or other technical devices. This book is organized as a comprehensive collection of the basics of sound and vibration, acoustic modelling, simulation, signal processing and audio reproduction. Implementations of the auralization technique are described using examples drawn from various fields in acoustic’s research and engineering, architecture, sound design and virtual reality.

  20. World wide web and virtual reality in developing and using environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guariso, G.

    2001-01-01

    The application of World wide web as an active component of environmental decision support system is still largely unexplored. Environmental problems are distributed in nature, both from the physical and from the social point of view; the Web is thus an ideal tool to share concepts and decisions among multiple interested parties. Also Virtual Reality (VR) that has not find, up to know, a large application in the development and teaching of environmental models. The paper shows some recent applications that highlight the potential of these tools [it

  1. Pitch modelling for the Nguni languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Govender ngovender@csir.co.za, Etienne Barnard ebarnard@csir.co.za, Marelie Davel mdavel@csir.co.za by varying the levels of pitch, intensity and duration in the voice. An overview of intonation as observed in a variety of languages is provided in [1... nature of laryngograph data in voiced speech) and thus either could be used as the basis for the experiments. The pitch values extracted by Yin for all the laryngograph databases was consequently used as the basis for our comparisons. Pitch...

  2. Language modeling for automatic speech recognition of inflective languages an applications-oriented approach using lexical data

    CERN Document Server

    Donaj, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    This book covers language modeling and automatic speech recognition for inflective languages (e.g. Slavic languages), which represent roughly half of the languages spoken in Europe. These languages do not perform as well as English in speech recognition systems and it is therefore harder to develop an application with sufficient quality for the end user. The authors describe the most important language features for the development of a speech recognition system. This is then presented through the analysis of errors in the system and the development of language models and their inclusion in speech recognition systems, which specifically address the errors that are relevant for targeted applications. The error analysis is done with regard to morphological characteristics of the word in the recognized sentences. The book is oriented towards speech recognition with large vocabularies and continuous and even spontaneous speech. Today such applications work with a rather small number of languages compared to the nu...

  3. Language-Independent and Language-Specific Aspects of Early Literacy: An Evaluation of the Common Underlying Proficiency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying…

  4. MEMO Organisation Modelling Language (1): Focus on organisational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Organisation models are at the core of enterprise model, since they represent key aspects of a company's action system. Within MEMO, the Organisation Modelling Language (OrgML) supports the construction of organisation models. They can be divided into two main abstractions: a static abstraction is focusing on the structure of an organisation that reflects the division of labour with respect to static responsibilities and a dynamic abstraction that is focusing on models of business processes. ...

  5. Efficient Output Solution for Nonlinear Stochastic Optimal Control Problem with Model-Reality Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sie Long Kek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational approach is proposed for solving the discrete time nonlinear stochastic optimal control problem. Our aim is to obtain the optimal output solution of the original optimal control problem through solving the simplified model-based optimal control problem iteratively. In our approach, the adjusted parameters are introduced into the model used such that the differences between the real system and the model used can be computed. Particularly, system optimization and parameter estimation are integrated interactively. On the other hand, the output is measured from the real plant and is fed back into the parameter estimation problem to establish a matching scheme. During the calculation procedure, the iterative solution is updated in order to approximate the true optimal solution of the original optimal control problem despite model-reality differences. For illustration, a wastewater treatment problem is studied and the results show the efficiency of the approach proposed.

  6. Clone Detection for Graph-Based Model Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strüber, Daniel; Plöger, Jennifer; Acretoaie, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    and analytical quality assurance. From these use cases, we derive a set of key requirements. We describe our customization of existing model clone detection techniques allowing us to address these requirements. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation, indicating that our customization of ConQAT, one......Cloning is a convenient mechanism to enable reuse across and within software artifacts. On the downside, it is also a practice related to significant long-term maintainability impediments, thus generating a need to identify clones in affected artifacts. A large variety of clone detection techniques...... has been proposed for programming and modeling languages; yet no specific ones have emerged for model transformation languages. In this paper, we explore clone detection for graph-based model transformation languages. We introduce potential use cases for such techniques in the context of constructive...

  7. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  8. Andragogical Model in Language Training of Mining Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondareva, Evgeniya; Chistyakova, Galina; Kleshevskyi, Yury; Sergeev, Sergey; Stepanov, Aleksey

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays foreign language competence is one of the main professional skills of mining engineers. Modern competitive conditions require the ability for meeting production challenges in a foreign language from specialists and managers of mining enterprises. This is the reason of high demand on foreign language training/retraining courses. Language training of adult learners fundamentally differs from children and adolescent education. The article describes the features of andragogical learning model. The authors conclude that distance learning is the most productive education form having a number of obvious advantages over traditional (in-class) one. Interactive learning method that involves active engagement of adult trainees appears to be of the greatest interest due to introduction of modern information and communication technologies for distance learning.

  9. Rhetoric and Realities: On the Development of University-Wide Strategies to Promote Student English Language Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunworth, Katie; Drury, Helen; Kralik, Cynthia; Moore, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results from a national project that investigated institutional approaches to the development of student English language capabilities in Australian higher education. The project aimed to identify the various approaches and strategies that higher education providers have established and to gauge whether they have been…

  10. English language-in-education: A lesson planning model for subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English language-in-education: A lesson planning model for subject teachers. ... lack of critical academic language skills in English as the Language of Learning and ... process of lesson design and the 'forward' process of lesson presentation.

  11. Conceptual language models for domain-specific retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Trieschnigg, D.; de Rijke, M.; Kraaij, W.

    2010-01-01

    Over the years, various meta-languages have been used to manually enrich documents with conceptual knowledge of some kind. Examples include keyword assignment to citations or, more recently, tags to websites. In this paper we propose generative concept models as an extension to query modeling within

  12. Declarative versus imperative process modeling languages : the issue of maintainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahland, D.; Mendling, J.; Reijers, H.A.; Weber, B.; Weidlich, M.; Zugal, S.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Sadiq, S.; Leymann, F.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of interest in declarative languages for process modeling both justifies and demands empirical investigations into their presumed advantages over more traditional, imperative alternatives. Our concern in this paper is with the ease of maintaining business process models, for example due to

  13. UNCONSTRAINED HANDWRITING RECOGNITION : LANGUAGE MODELS, PERPLEXITY, AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marti, U-V.; Bunke, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a number of language models and their behavior in the recognition of unconstrained handwritten English sentences. We use the perplexity to compare the different models and their prediction power, and relate it to the performance of a recognition system under different

  14. Mixed reality orthognathic surgical simulation by entity model manipulation and 3D-image display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonagayoshi, Tatsunari; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Fushima, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masaru

    2005-12-01

    In orthognathic surgery, the framing of 3D-surgical planning that considers the balance between the front and back positions and the symmetry of the jawbone, as well as the dental occlusion of teeth, is essential. In this study, a support system for orthodontic surgery to visualize the changes in the mandible and the occlusal condition and to determine the optimum position in mandibular osteotomy has been developed. By integrating the operating portion of a tooth model that is to determine the optimum occlusal position by manipulating the entity tooth model and the 3D-CT skeletal images (3D image display portion) that are simultaneously displayed in real-time, the determination of the mandibular position and posture in which the improvement of skeletal morphology and occlusal condition is considered, is possible. The realistic operation of the entity model and the virtual 3D image display enabled the construction of a surgical simulation system that involves augmented reality.

  15. A New Design for Airway Management Training with Mixed Reality and High Fidelity Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yunhe; Hananel, David; Zhao, Zichen; Burke, Daniel; Ballas, Crist; Norfleet, Jack; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Restoring airway function is a vital task in many medical scenarios. Although various simulation tools have been available for learning such skills, recent research indicated that fidelity in simulating airway management deserves further improvements. In this study, we designed and implemented a new prototype for practicing relevant tasks including laryngoscopy, intubation and cricothyrotomy. A large amount of anatomical details or landmarks were meticulously selected and reconstructed from medical scans, and 3D-printed or molded to the airway intervention model. This training model was augmented by virtually and physically presented interactive modules, which are interoperable with motion tracking and sensor data feedback. Implementation results showed that this design is a feasible approach to develop higher fidelity airway models that can be integrated with mixed reality interfaces.

  16. Building CMU Sphinx language model for the Ho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yassine El Amrani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of a simplified set of Arabic phonemes in an Arabic Speech Recognition system applied to Holy Quran. The CMU Sphinx 4 was used to train and evaluate a language model for the Hafs narration of the Holy Quran. The building of the language model was done using a simplified list of Arabic phonemes instead of the mainly used Romanized set in order to simplify the process of generating the language model. The experiments resulted in very low Word Error Rate (WER reaching 1.5% while using a very small set of audio files during the training phase when using all the audio data for both the training and the testing phases. However, when using 90% and 80% of the training data, the WER obtained was respectively 50.0% and 55.7%.

  17. Language modeling for what-with-where on GOOG-411

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available . For example, consider the query “looking for restaurants in Portland Oregon.” A business annotator identifies “restaurants” as a business/category, while the location annotator identifies “portland Oregon” as a city-state. This separation enables both task...-specific data selection (location and business), and task- specific text normalization. The output of this second step is used to build the business and location language models described in Section 3. 3. Language Modeling Alternatives In this section we...

  18. Concrete syntax definition for modeling languages

    OpenAIRE

    Fondement, Frédéric; Baar, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Model Driven Engineering (MDE) promotes the use of models as primary artefacts of a software development process, as an attempt to handle complexity through abstraction, e.g. to cope with the evolution of execution platforms. MDE follows a stepwise approach, by prescribing to develop abstract models further improved to integrate little by little details relative to the final deployment platforms. Thus, the application of an MDE process results in various models residing at various levels of a...

  19. Concrete syntax definition for modeling languages

    OpenAIRE

    Fondement, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Model Driven Engineering (MDE) promotes the use of models as primary artefacts of a software development process, as an attempt to handle complexity through abstraction, e.g. to cope with the evolution of execution platforms. MDE follows a stepwise approach, by prescribing to develop abstract models further improved to integrate little by little details relative to the final deployment platforms. Thus, the application of an MDE process results in various models residing at various levels of a...

  20. Language and modeling word problems in mathematics among bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2005-09-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether the language of math word problems would affect how Filipino-English bilingual problem solvers would model the structure of these word problems. Modeling the problem structure was studied using the problem-completion paradigm, which involves presenting problems without the question. The paradigm assumes that problem solvers can infer the appropriate question of a word problem if they correctly grasp its problem structure. Arithmetic word problems in Filipino and English were given to bilingual students, some of whom had Filipino as a first language and others who had English as a first language. The problem-completion data and solution data showed similar results. The language of the problem had no effect on problem-structure modeling. The results were discussed in relation to a more circumscribed view about the role of language in word problem solving among bilinguals. In particular, the results of the present study showed that linguistic factors do not affect the more mathematically abstract components of word problem solving, although they may affect the other components such as those related to reading comprehension and understanding.

  1. Lexical access in sign language: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Naomi K; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M

    2014-01-01

    PSYCHOLINGUISTIC THEORIES HAVE PREDOMINANTLY BEEN BUILT UPON DATA FROM SPOKEN LANGUAGE, WHICH LEAVES OPEN THE QUESTION: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012) presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012), and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either (1) the time course of sign perception or (2) the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition.

  2. Lexical access in sign language: A computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kenney Caselli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psycholinguistic theories have predominantly been built upon data from spoken language, which leaves open the question: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012 presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012, and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either 1 the time course of sign perception or 2 the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition.

  3. 3D animation model with augmented reality for natural science learning in elementary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendajani, F.; Hakim, A.; Lusita, M. D.; Saputra, G. E.; Ramadhana, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Many opinions from primary school students' on Natural Science are a difficult lesson. Many subjects are not easily understood by students, especially on materials that teach some theories about natural processes. Such as rain process, condensation and many other processes. The difficulty that students experience in understanding it is that students cannot imagine the things that have been taught in the material. Although there is material to practice some theories but is actually quite limited. There is also a video or simulation material in the form of 2D animated images. Understanding concepts in natural science lessons are also poorly understood by students. Natural Science learning media uses 3-dimensional animation models (3D) with augmented reality technology, which offers some visualization of science lessons. This application was created to visualize a process in Natural Science subject matter. The hope of making this application is to improve student's concept. This app is made to run on a personal computer that comes with a webcam with augmented reality. The app will display a 3D animation if the camera can recognize the marker.

  4. Comprehensive modelling and simulation of cylindrical nanoparticles manipulation by using a virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, Moharam Habibnejad; Hoshiar, Ali Kafash; Ghofrani, Maedeh

    2017-08-01

    With the expansion of nanotechnology, robots based on atomic force microscope (AFM) have been widely used as effective tools for displacing nanoparticles and constructing nanostructures. One of the most limiting factors in AFM-based manipulation procedures is the inability of simultaneously observing the controlled pushing and displacing of nanoparticles while performing the operation. To deal with this limitation, a virtual reality environment has been used in this paper for observing the manipulation operation. In the simulations performed in this paper, first, the images acquired by the atomic force microscope have been processed and the positions and dimensions of nanoparticles have been determined. Then, by dynamically modelling the transfer of nanoparticles and simulating the critical force-time diagrams, a controlled displacement of nanoparticles has been accomplished. The simulations have been further developed for the use of rectangular, V-shape and dagger-shape cantilevers. The established virtual reality environment has made it possible to simulate the manipulation of biological particles in a liquid medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Virtual Reality Model of the Three-Dimensional Anatomy of the Cavernous Sinus Based on a Cadaveric Image and Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zeng-Hui; Feng, Xu; Li, Yang; Tang, Ke

    2018-01-01

    Studying the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the cavernous sinus is essential for treating lesions in this region with skull base surgeries. Cadaver dissection is a conventional method that has insurmountable flaws with regard to understanding spatial anatomy. The authors' research aimed to build an image model of the cavernous sinus region in a virtual reality system to precisely, individually and objectively elucidate the complete and local stereo-anatomy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on 5 adult cadaver heads. Latex mixed with contrast agent was injected into the arterial system and then into the venous system. Computed tomography scans were performed again following the 2 injections. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed again after the cranial nerves were exposed. Image data were input into a virtual reality system to establish a model of the cavernous sinus. Observation results of the image models were compared with those of the cadaver heads. Visualization of the cavernous sinus region models built using the virtual reality system was good for all the cadavers. High resolutions were achieved for the images of different tissues. The observed results were consistent with those of the cadaver head. The spatial architecture and modality of the cavernous sinus were clearly displayed in the 3D model by rotating the model and conveniently changing its transparency. A 3D virtual reality model of the cavernous sinus region is helpful for globally and objectively understanding anatomy. The observation procedure was accurate, convenient, noninvasive, and time and specimen saving.

  6. BPMN4SOA : A service oriented process modelling language

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstøl, Eivind

    2010-01-01

    Service oriented architectures have become very popular the last few years. The abstraction of computer systems into a service paradigm bring many new solutions, both for cross business processes to aid interoperability and the reuse of existing legacy systems in a new network centric world. In the wake of this, service modelling has become a part of OMGs Model Driven Architecture and new modelling languages that are based on past experience for the new paradigm are emerging. BPMN 2.0 and...

  7. Model-based design languages: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Cibrario Bertolotti, Ivan; Hu, Tingting; Navet, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Fast-paced innovation in the embedded systems domain puts an ever increasing pressure on effective software development methods, leading to the growing popularity of Model-Based Design (MBD). In this context, a proper choice of modeling languages and related tools - depending on design goals and problem qualities - is crucial to make the most of MBD benefits. In this paper, a comparison between two dissimilar approaches to modeling is carried out, with the goal of highlighting their relative ...

  8. Synchronous Modeling of Modular Avionics Architectures using the SIGNAL Language

    OpenAIRE

    Gamatié , Abdoulaye; Gautier , Thierry

    2002-01-01

    This document presents a study on the modeling of architecture components for avionics applications. We consider the avionics standard ARINC 653 specifications as basis, as well as the synchronous language SIGNAL to describe the modeling. A library of APEX object models (partition, process, communication and synchronization services, etc.) has been implemented. This should allow to describe distributed real-time applications using POLYCHRONY, so as to access formal tools and techniques for ar...

  9. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  10. Bayesian molecular design with a chemical language model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebata, Hisaki; Hongo, Kenta; Isomura, Tetsu; Maezono, Ryo; Yoshida, Ryo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of computational molecular design is the identification of promising hypothetical molecules with a predefined set of desired properties. We address the issue of accelerating the material discovery with state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. The method involves two different types of prediction; the forward and backward predictions. The objective of the forward prediction is to create a set of machine learning models on various properties of a given molecule. Inverting the trained forward models through Bayes' law, we derive a posterior distribution for the backward prediction, which is conditioned by a desired property requirement. Exploring high-probability regions of the posterior with a sequential Monte Carlo technique, molecules that exhibit the desired properties can computationally be created. One major difficulty in the computational creation of molecules is the exclusion of the occurrence of chemically unfavorable structures. To circumvent this issue, we derive a chemical language model that acquires commonly occurring patterns of chemical fragments through natural language processing of ASCII strings of existing compounds, which follow the SMILES chemical language notation. In the backward prediction, the trained language model is used to refine chemical strings such that the properties of the resulting structures fall within the desired property region while chemically unfavorable structures are successfully removed. The present method is demonstrated through the design of small organic molecules with the property requirements on HOMO-LUMO gap and internal energy. The R package iqspr is available at the CRAN repository.

  11. Motivation within the Information Processing Model of Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolopoulou-Sergi, Eleni

    2004-01-01

    The present article highlights the importance of the motivational construct for the foreign language learning (FLL) process. More specifically, in the present article it is argued that motivation is likely to play a significant role at all three stages of the FLL process as they are discussed within the information processing model of FLL, namely,…

  12. Optlang: An algebraic modeling language for mathematical optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian; Cardoso, Joao; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Optlang is a Python package implementing a modeling language for solving mathematical optimization problems, i.e., maximizing or minimizing an objective function over a set of variables subject to a number of constraints. It provides a common native Python interface to a series of optimization...

  13. LCM 3.0: A Language for describing Conceptual Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Remco; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1993-01-01

    The syntax of the conceptual model specification language LCM is defined. LCM uses equational logic to specify data types and order-sorted dynamic logic to specify objects with identity and mutable state. LCM specifies database transactions as finite sets of atomic object transitions.

  14. Syntactic discriminative language model rerankers for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method that successfully exploits syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. We motivate the utility of syntax by demonstrating the superior performance of parsers over n-gram language models in differentiating between Statistical

  15. Multidimensional Data Model and Query Language for Informetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Timo; Hirvonen, Lasse; Jarvelin, Kalervo

    2003-01-01

    Discusses multidimensional data analysis, or online analytical processing (OLAP), which offer a single subject-oriented source for analyzing summary data based on various dimensions. Develops a conceptual/logical multidimensional model for supporting the needs of informetrics, including a multidimensional query language whose basic idea is to…

  16. Phase transition in a sexual age-structured model of learning foreign languages

    OpenAIRE

    Schwammle, Veit

    2005-01-01

    The understanding of language competition helps us to predict extinction and survival of languages spoken by minorities. A simple agent-based model of a sexual population, based on the Penna model, is built in order to find out under which circumstances one language dominates other ones. This model considers that only young people learn foreign languages. The simulations show a first order phase transition where the ratio between the number of speakers of different languages is the order para...

  17. Computer-Aided Transformation of PDE Models: Languages, Representations, and a Calculus of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-05

    Computer-aided transformation of PDE models: languages, representations, and a calculus of operations A domain-specific embedded language called...languages, representations, and a calculus of operations Report Title A domain-specific embedded language called ibvp was developed to model initial...Computer-aided transformation of PDE models: languages, representations, and a calculus of operations 1 Vision and background Physical and engineered systems

  18. New Realities and the Implications for Problem Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2004-01-01

    -based learning model with the new realities of today. Three new realities are discussed, the new global realities, the new business realities, and the new realities at the individual level. The new realities challenge the problem-based learning model. Adjustments are needed in terms of closer co...

  19. A structural equation modeling investigation of the emotional value of immersive virtual reality in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Lilleholt, Lau

    2018-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is projected to play an important role in education by increasing student engagement and motivation. However, little is known about the impact and utility of immersive VR for administering e-learning tools, or the underlying mechanisms that impact learners’ emotional processes...... consisted of 104 university students (39 females). Significantly higher scores were obtained on 11 of the 13 variables investigated using the immersive VR version of the simulation, with the largest differences occurring with regard to presence and motivation. Furthermore, we identified a model with two...... general paths by which immersion in VR impacts perceived learning outcomes. Specifically, we discovered an affective path in which immersion predicted presence and positive emotions, and a cognitive path in which immersion fostered a positive cognitive value of the task in line with the control value...

  20. Frozen with fear: Conditioned suppression in a virtual reality model of human anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcoat, Devon; Greville, W James; Newton, Philip M; Dymond, Simon

    2015-09-01

    Freezing-like topographies of behavior are elicited in conditioned suppression tasks whereby appetitive behavior is reduced by presentations of an aversively conditioned threat cue relative to a safety cue. Conditioned suppression of operant behavior by a Pavlovian threat cue is an established laboratory model of quantifying the response impairment seen in anxiety disorders. Little is known however about how different response topographies indicative of conditioned suppression are elicited in humans. Here, we refined a novel virtual reality (VR) paradigm in which presentations of a threat cue of unpredictable duration occurred while participants performed an operant response of shooting and destroying boxes searching for hidden gold. The VR paradigm detected significant suppression of response topographies (shots, hits and breaks) for a Pavlovian threat cue relative to a safety cue and novel cue presentations. Implications of the present findings for translational research on appetitive and aversive conflict in anxiety disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transformation Strategies between Block-Oriented and Graph-Oriented Process Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Much recent research work discusses the transformation between different process modelling languages. This work, however, is mainly focussed on specific process modelling languages, and thus the general reusability of the applied transformation concepts is rather limited. In this paper, we aim...... to abstract from concrete transformation strategies by distinguishing two major paradigms for representing control flow in process modelling languages: block-oriented languages (such as BPEL and BPML) and graph-oriented languages (such as EPCs and YAWL). The contribution of this paper are generic strategies...... for transforming from block-oriented process languages to graph-oriented languages, and vice versa....

  2. Attention-based Memory Selection Recurrent Network for Language Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Da-Rong; Chuang, Shun-Po; Lee, Hung-yi

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have achieved great success in language modeling. However, since the RNNs have fixed size of memory, their memory cannot store all the information about the words it have seen before in the sentence, and thus the useful long-term information may be ignored when predicting the next words. In this paper, we propose Attention-based Memory Selection Recurrent Network (AMSRN), in which the model can review the information stored in the memory at each previous time ...

  3. Language Model Adaptation Using Machine-Translated Text for Resource-Deficient Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaoki Furui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Text corpus size is an important issue when building a language model (LM. This is a particularly important issue for languages where little data is available. This paper introduces an LM adaptation technique to improve an LM built using a small amount of task-dependent text with the help of a machine-translated text corpus. Icelandic speech recognition experiments were performed using data, machine translated (MT from English to Icelandic on a word-by-word and sentence-by-sentence basis. LM interpolation using the baseline LM and an LM built from either word-by-word or sentence-by-sentence translated text reduced the word error rate significantly when manually obtained utterances used as a baseline were very sparse.

  4. A 3-D Virtual Reality Model of the Sun and the Moon for E-Learning at Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Koun-Tem; Lin, Ching-Ling; Wang, Sheng-Min

    2010-01-01

    The relative positions of the sun, moon, and earth, their movements, and their relationships are abstract and difficult to understand astronomical concepts in elementary school science. This study proposes a three-dimensional (3-D) virtual reality (VR) model named the "Sun and Moon System." This e-learning resource was designed by…

  5. Training Post-9/11 Police Officers with a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training Model: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative holistic multiple-case study was to identify the optimal theoretical approach for a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training (CTRBT) model to train post-9/11 police officers to perform effectively in their counter-terrorism assignments. Post-9/11 police officers assigned to counter-terrorism duties are not trained…

  6. Modeling Chemotherapy-Induced Hair Loss: From Experimental Propositions toward Clinical Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Sharov, Andrey A

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced hair loss is one of the most devastating side effects of cancer treatment. To study the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the hair follicle, a number of experimental models have been proposed. Yoon et al. report that transplantation of human scalp hair follicles onto chemotherapy-treated immunodeficient mice serves as an excellent in vivo model for chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Yoon et al. demonstrate that (i) the response of human hair follicles grafted onto immunodeficient mice to cyclophosphamide resembles the key features of the chemotherapy-induced hair loss seen in patients with cancer and (ii) this human in vivo model for chemotherapy-induced hair loss is closer to clinical reality than to any earlier models. Undoubtedly, this model will serve as a valuable tool for analyses of the mechanisms that underlie this devastating side effect of anti-cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Categorical model of structural operational semantics for imperative language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Steingartner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Definition of programming languages consists of the formal definition of syntax and semantics. One of the most popular semantic methods used in various stages of software engineering is structural operational semantics. It describes program behavior in the form of state changes after execution of elementary steps of program. This feature makes structural operational semantics useful for implementation of programming languages and also for verification purposes. In our paper we present a new approach to structural operational semantics. We model behavior of programs in category of states, where objects are states, an abstraction of computer memory and morphisms model state changes, execution of a program in elementary steps. The advantage of using categorical model is its exact mathematical structure with many useful proved properties and its graphical illustration of program behavior as a path, i.e. a composition of morphisms. Our approach is able to accentuate dynamics of structural operational semantics. For simplicity, we assume that data are intuitively typed. Visualization and facility of our model is  not only  a  new model of structural operational semantics of imperative programming languages but it can also serve for education purposes.

  8. MODELLING OF THE PROCESS OF TEACHING READING ENGLISH LANGUAGE PERIODICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Глушко

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a scientifically substantiated process of teaching reading English language periodicals in all its components, which are consistently developed, and form of interconnection of the structural elements in the process of teaching reading. This process is presented as a few interconnected and interdetermined models: 1 the models of the process of acquiring standard and expressive lexical knowledge; 2 the models of the process of formation of skills to use such vocabulary; 3 the models of the development of skills to read texts of the different linguistic levels.

  9. The Internet and medical collaboration using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen Yau; O'Grady, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) provides a large amount of data but the presentation of the data to a physician can be less than satisfactory. Ideally, the image data should be available to physicians in interactive 3D to allow for improved visualization, planning and diagnosis. A virtual reality representation that not only allows for the manipulation of the image but also allows for the user to, in effect, move inside the image remotely would be ideal. In this paper the research associated with virtual reality is discussed. A formalism is then presented to create, from the CT data, the virtual reality world in the Virtual Reality Modeling Language. An implementation is described of this formalism that uses the Internet to allow for users in remote locations to view and manipulate the virtual worlds.

  10. Transformation Strategies between Block-Oriented and Graph-Oriented Process Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe

    to abstract from concrete transformationstrategies by distinguishing two major paradigms for process modelling languages:block-oriented languages (such as BPEL and BPML) and graph-oriented languages(such as EPCs and YAWL). The contribution of this paper are generic strategiesfor transforming from block......Much recent research work discusses the transformation between differentprocess modelling languages. This work, however, is mainly focussed on specific processmodelling languages, and thus the general reusability of the applied transformationconcepts is rather limited. In this paper, we aim......-oriented process languages to graph-oriented languages,and vice versa. We also present two case studies of applying our strategies....

  11. Modeling of Future Initial Teacher of Foreign Language Training, Using Situation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryana М. Sidun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the content of modeling of future initial teacher of foreign language, using situation analysis, defines the stages of modeling during the professional competence formation of future teacher of foreign language: preparatory, analytical and executive.

  12. Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    until exhausted. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete. UNCLASSIFIED " VIRTUAL REALITY JAMES F. DAILEY, LIEUTENANT COLONEL...US" This paper reviews the exciting field of virtual reality . The author describes the basic concepts of virtual reality and finds that its numerous...potential benefits to society could revolutionize everyday life. The various components that make up a virtual reality system are described in detail

  13. Semantic Models of Sentences with Verbs of Motion in Standard Language and in Scientific Language Used in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Banionytė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic models of sentences with verbs of motion in German standard language and in scientific language used in biology are analyzed in the article. In its theoretic part it is affirmed that the article is based on the semantic theory of the sentence. This theory, in its turn, is grounded on the correlation of semantic predicative classes and semantic roles. The combination of semantic predicative classes and semantic roles is expressed by the main semantic formula – proposition. In its practical part the differences between the semantic models of standard and scientific language used in biology are explained. While modelling sentences with verbs of motion, two groups of semantic models of sentences are singled out: that of action (Handlung and process (Vorgang. The analysis shows that the semantic models of sentences with semantic action predicatives dominate in the text of standard language while the semantic models of sentences with semantic process predicatives dominate in the texts of scientific language used in biology. The differences how the doer and direction are expressed in standard and in scientific language are clearly seen and the semantic cases (Agens, Patiens, Direktiv1 help to determine that. It is observed that in scientific texts of high level of specialization (biology science in contrast to popular scientific literature models of sentences with moving verbs are usually seldom found. They are substituted by denominative constructions. In conclusions it is shown that this analysis can be important in methodics, especially planning material for teaching professional-scientific language.

  14. Virtual reality applied to teletesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Thomas J.; Smeenk, Roland J. M.; Mazy, Alain; Jacques, Patrick; Arguello, Luis; Mills, Simon

    2003-05-01

    The activity "Virtual Reality applied to Teletesting" is related to a wider European Space Agency (ESA) initiative of cost reduction, in particular the reduction of test costs. Reduction of costs of space related projects have to be performed on test centre operating costs and customer company costs. This can accomplished by increasing the automation and remote testing ("teletesting") capabilities of the test centre. Main problems related to teletesting are a lack of situational awareness and the separation of control over the test environment. The objective of the activity is to evaluate the use of distributed computing and Virtual Reality technology to support the teletesting of a payload under vacuum conditions, and to provide a unified man-machine interface for the monitoring and control of payload, vacuum chamber and robotics equipment. The activity includes the development and testing of a "Virtual Reality Teletesting System" (VRTS). The VRTS is deployed at one of the ESA certified test centres to perform an evaluation and test campaign using a real payload. The VRTS is entirely written in the Java programming language, using the J2EE application model. The Graphical User Interface runs as an applet in a Web browser, enabling easy access from virtually any place.

  15. Conformance test development with the Java modeling language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders P.

    2017-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a Java Specification Request, a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents a model-based development of a TCK test suite and a test execution tool for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ......) profile specification. The Java Modeling Language (JML) is used to model conformance constraints for the profile. JML annotations define contracts for classes and interfaces. The annotations are translated by a tool into runtime assertion checks.Hereby the design and elaboration of the concrete test cases...

  16. Why Are There Developmental Stages in Language Learning? A Developmental Robotics Model of Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise development of cognitive abilities. We summarize work relevant to this hypothesis and suggest two simple mechanisms that account for some developmental transitions: neural readiness focuses on changes in the neural substrate resulting from ongoing learning, and perceptual readiness focuses on the perceptual requirements for learning new tasks. Previous work has demonstrated these mechanisms in replications of a wide variety of infant language experiments, spanning multiple developmental stages. Here we piece this work together as a single model of ongoing learning with no parameter changes at all. The model, an instance of the Epigenetic Robotics Architecture (Morse et al 2010) embodied on the iCub humanoid robot, exhibits ongoing multi-stage development while learning pre-linguistic and then basic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. A methodology to annotate systems biology markup language models with the synthetic biology open language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Myers, Chris J

    2014-02-21

    Recently, we have begun to witness the potential of synthetic biology, noted here in the form of bacteria and yeast that have been genetically engineered to produce biofuels, manufacture drug precursors, and even invade tumor cells. The success of these projects, however, has often failed in translation and application to new projects, a problem exacerbated by a lack of engineering standards that combine descriptions of the structure and function of DNA. To address this need, this paper describes a methodology to connect the systems biology markup language (SBML) to the synthetic biology open language (SBOL), existing standards that describe biochemical models and DNA components, respectively. Our methodology involves first annotating SBML model elements such as species and reactions with SBOL DNA components. A graph is then constructed from the model, with vertices corresponding to elements within the model and edges corresponding to the cause-and-effect relationships between these elements. Lastly, the graph is traversed to assemble the annotating DNA components into a composite DNA component, which is used to annotate the model itself and can be referenced by other composite models and DNA components. In this way, our methodology can be used to build up a hierarchical library of models annotated with DNA components. Such a library is a useful input to any future genetic technology mapping algorithm that would automate the process of composing DNA components to satisfy a behavioral specification. Our methodology for SBML-to-SBOL annotation is implemented in the latest version of our genetic design automation (GDA) software tool, iBioSim.

  18. Rosen's (M,R) system in Unified Modelling Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Williams, Richard A; Gatherer, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Robert Rosen's (M,R) system is an abstract biological network architecture that is allegedly non-computable on a Turing machine. If (M,R) is truly non-computable, there are serious implications for the modelling of large biological networks in computer software. A body of work has now accumulated addressing Rosen's claim concerning (M,R) by attempting to instantiate it in various software systems. However, a conclusive refutation has remained elusive, principally since none of the attempts to date have unambiguously avoided the critique that they have altered the properties of (M,R) in the coding process, producing merely approximate simulations of (M,R) rather than true computational models. In this paper, we use the Unified Modelling Language (UML), a diagrammatic notation standard, to express (M,R) as a system of objects having attributes, functions and relations. We believe that this instantiates (M,R) in such a way than none of the original properties of the system are corrupted in the process. Crucially, we demonstrate that (M,R) as classically represented in the relational biology literature is implicitly a UML communication diagram. Furthermore, since UML is formally compatible with object-oriented computing languages, instantiation of (M,R) in UML strongly implies its computability in object-oriented coding languages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physics imagination and reality

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, Philip Russell

    1991-01-01

    Physics: Imagination and Reality introduces the reader to major ideas and the conceptual structure of modern physics, by tracing its development from the introduction of fields into physics by Faraday and Maxwell in the last century. Because the approach is historical, the book provides a comprehensive overview of the subjects. It should appeal to anyone interested in a basic understanding of the contemporary physicists view of the physical world. It avoids all but the simplest mathematics and presents ideas and concepts in everyday language.Physics: Imagination and Reality attempts to provide

  20. Urology residents training in laparoscopic surgery. Development of a virtual reality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Baños, J L; Ballestero-Diego, R; Truan-Cacho, D; Aguilera-Tubet, C; Villanueva-Peña, A; Manuel-Palazuelos, J C

    2015-11-01

    The training and learning of residents in laparoscopic surgery has legal, financial and technological limitations. Simulation is an essential tool in the training of residents as a supplement to their training in laparoscopic surgery. The training should be structured in an appropriate environment, with previously established and clear objectives, taught by professionals with clinical and teaching experience in simulation. The training should be conducted with realistic models using animals and ex-vivo tissue from animals. It is essential to incorporate mechanisms to assess the objectives during the residents' training progress. We present the training model for laparoscopic surgery for urology residents at the University Hospital Valdecilla. The training is conducted at the Virtual Hospital Valdecilla, which is associated with the Center for Medical Simulation in Boston and is accredited by the American College of Surgeons. The model is designed in 3 blocks, basic for R1, intermediate for R2-3 and advanced for R4-5, with 9 training modules. The training is conducted in 4-hour sessions for 4 afternoons, for 3 weeks per year of residence. Residents therefore perform 240 hours of simulated laparoscopic training by the end of the course. For each module, we use structured objective assessments to measure each resident's training progress. Since 2003, 9 urology residents have been trained, in addition to the 5 who are currently in training. The model has undergone changes according to the needs expressed in the student feedback. The acquisition of skills in a virtual reality model has enabled the safe transfer of those skills to actual practice. A laparoscopic surgery training program designed in structured blocks and with progressive complexity provides appropriate training for transferring the skills acquired using this model to an actual scenario while maintaining patient safety. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-actor decision making using mixed reality technologies Urban projects and multi-actor collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Basile,, Maria; Ozdirlik, Burcu; Terrin,, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper is based on the results of an ongoing research project, IPCity, on the application of mixed reality technologies in urban environments. It questions the relevance of traditional language and communication medium such as drawings, perspectives and 3D models in the co-production of urban projects in multi-actor working environments. It then discusses the possible use of “mixed reality technologies” as alternative medium through five workshops organised within ...

  2. Interfacing modeling suite Physics Of Eclipsing Binaries 2.0 with a Virtual Reality Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriett, Edward; Conroy, Kyle; Prša, Andrej; Klassner, Frank

    2018-01-01

    To explore alternate methods for modeling eclipsing binary stars, we extrapolate upon PHOEBE’s (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs) capabilities in a virtual reality (VR) environment to create an immersive and interactive experience for users. The application used is Vizard, a python-scripted VR development platform for environments such as Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) and other off-the-shelf VR headsets. Vizard allows the freedom for all modeling to be precompiled without compromising functionality or usage on its part. The system requires five arguments to be precomputed using PHOEBE’s python front-end: the effective temperature, flux, relative intensity, vertex coordinates, and orbits; the user can opt to implement other features from PHOEBE to be accessed within the simulation as well. Here we present the method for making the data observables accessible in real time. An Occulus Rift will be available for a live showcase of various cases of VR rendering of PHOEBE binary systems including detached and contact binary stars.

  3. Modeling and computational simulation and the potential of virtual and augmented reality associated to the teaching of nanoscience and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Allan; Santos, Helen

    With the advent of new information and communication technologies (ICTs), the communicative interaction changes the way of being and acting of people, at the same time that changes the way of work activities related to education. In this range of possibilities provided by the advancement of computational resources include virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), are highlighted as new forms of information visualization in computer applications. While the RV allows user interaction with a virtual environment totally computer generated; in RA the virtual images are inserted in real environment, but both create new opportunities to support teaching and learning in formal and informal contexts. Such technologies are able to express representations of reality or of the imagination, as systems in nanoscale and low dimensionality, being imperative to explore, in the most diverse areas of knowledge, the potential offered by ICT and emerging technologies. In this sense, this work presents computer applications of virtual and augmented reality developed with the use of modeling and simulation in computational approaches to topics related to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and articulated with innovative pedagogical practices.

  4. A Language for Modeling Cultural Norms, Biases and Stereotypes for Human Behavior Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, Steven; van Lent, Michael; Core, Mark; Carpenter, Paul; Rosenberg, Milton

    2008-01-01

    .... The Culturally-Affected Behavior project seeks to define a language for encoding ethnographic data in order to capture cultural knowledge and use that knowledge to affect human behavior models...

  5. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  6. Virtual reality publication of spiral ct-derived three-dimensional models: or, creation of spiral, CT-derived, three-dimensional VRML objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, J M

    1997-01-01

    Three-dimensional models can be generated from slice images, such as those obtained from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a variety of techniques. A popular method for rendering 3D anatomical models is the creation of polygonal mesh surfaces representing the boundary between tissues. Mesh surfaces can be rendered extremely quickly using conventional personal computers, without recourse to more expensive graphic workstations. The dissemination of three-dimensional (3D) models across the Internet has been made significantly easier by the definition of the Virtual Reality Markup Language (VRML) format. The VRML definition allows the parameters and relationships of 3D objects to be described in a text format. The text file can be transfered from a host computer to a remote client computer through the World Wide Web and viewed using readily available software (See Appendix). VRML is based on the definition of primitive 3D objects such as polygons and spheres. Consequently, the transition from a mesh surface derived from a clinical image data set to a VRML object is relatively simple, allowing for convenient and cost-effective dissemination of 3D clinical models across the internet.

  7. Circumplex Model of Affect: A Measure of Pleasure and Arousal During Virtual Reality Distraction Analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharar, Sam R; Alamdari, Ava; Hoffer, Christine; Hoffman, Hunter G; Jensen, Mark P; Patterson, David R

    2016-06-01

    Immersive virtual reality (VR) distraction provides clinically effective pain relief and increases subjective reports of "fun" in medical settings of procedural pain. The goal of this study was to better describe the variable of "fun" associated with VR distraction analgesia using the circumplex model (pleasure/arousal) of affect. Seventy-four healthy volunteers (mean age, 29 years; 37 females) received a standardized, 18-minute, multimodal pain sequence (alternating thermal heat and electrical stimulation to distal extremities) while receiving immersive, interactive VR distraction. Subjects rated both their subjective pain intensity and fun using 0-10 Graphic Rating Scales, as well as the pleasantness of their emotional valence and their state of arousal on 9-point scales. Compared with pain stimulation in the control (baseline, no VR) condition, immersive VR distraction significantly reduced subjective pain intensity (P anxiety, greater fun, greater presence in the VR environment, and positive emotional valence-were associated with subjective analgesia during VR distraction. Immersive VR distraction reduces subjective pain intensity induced by multimodal experimental nociception. Subjects who report less anxiety, more fun, more VR presence, and more positive emotional valence during VR distraction are more likely to report subjective pain reduction. These findings indicate VR distraction analgesia may be mediated through anxiolytic, attentional, and/or affective mechanisms.

  8. Applications of Panoramic Images: from 720° Panorama to Interior 3d Models of Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.-C.; Tsai, F.

    2015-05-01

    A series of panoramic images are usually used to generate a 720° panorama image. Although panoramic images are typically used for establishing tour guiding systems, in this research, we demonstrate the potential of using panoramic images acquired from multiple sites to create not only 720° panorama, but also three-dimensional (3D) point clouds and 3D indoor models. Since 3D modeling is one of the goals of this research, the location of the panoramic sites needed to be carefully planned in order to maintain a robust result for close-range photogrammetry. After the images are acquired, panoramic images are processed into 720° panoramas, and these panoramas which can be used directly as panorama guiding systems or other applications. In addition to these straightforward applications, interior orientation parameters can also be estimated while generating 720° panorama. These parameters are focal length, principle point, and lens radial distortion. The panoramic images can then be processed with closerange photogrammetry procedures to extract the exterior orientation parameters and generate 3D point clouds. In this research, VisaulSFM, a structure from motion software is used to estimate the exterior orientation, and CMVS toolkit is used to generate 3D point clouds. Next, the 3D point clouds are used as references to create building interior models. In this research, Trimble Sketchup was used to build the model, and the 3D point cloud was added to the determining of locations of building objects using plane finding procedure. In the texturing process, the panorama images are used as the data source for creating model textures. This 3D indoor model was used as an Augmented Reality model replacing a guide map or a floor plan commonly used in an on-line touring guide system. The 3D indoor model generating procedure has been utilized in two research projects: a cultural heritage site at Kinmen, and Taipei Main Station pedestrian zone guidance and navigation system. The

  9. A Model of Competition Among More than Two Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, Ryo; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-04-01

    We extend the Abrams-Strogatz model for competition between two languages (Abrams and Strogatz in Nature 424:900, 2003) to the case of n (≥2) competing states (i.e., languages). Although the Abrams-Strogatz model for n=2 can be interpreted as modeling either majority preference or minority aversion, the two mechanisms are distinct when n≥3. We find that the condition for the coexistence of different states is independent of n under the pure majority preference, whereas it depends on n under the pure minority aversion. We also show that the stable coexistence equilibrium and stable monopoly equilibria can be multistable under the minority aversion and not under the majority preference. Furthermore, we obtain the phase diagram of the model when the effects of the majority preference and minority aversion are mixed, under the condition that different states have the same attractiveness. We show that the multistability is a generic property of the model facilitated by large n.

  10. Episodic grammar: a computational model of the interaction between episodic and semantic memory in language processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, G.; Zuidema, W.; Carlson, L.; Hoelscher, C.; Shipley, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model of the interaction of semantic and episodic memory in language processing. Our work shows how language processing can be understood in terms of memory retrieval. We point out that the perceived dichotomy between rule-based versus exemplar-based language modelling can be

  11. The Impact of the "First Language First" Model on Vocabulary Development among Preschool Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the role of the "First Language First" model for preschool bilingual education in the development of vocabulary depth. The languages studied were Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among bilingual children aged 4-5 years in Israel. According to this model, the children's first language of…

  12. Pemasaran Real Estate dengan Web Based Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML)

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Buyung Yudi; Indarto, Wawan

    2009-01-01

    In the concept of marketing known segmentation, targeting and potitioning concept. Al Ries and JackTrour who known as world marketing expert says that “Positioning is what you do to the mind of the prospect.That is, you position your product in the mind of prospect. Now positioning and targeting have been move outfrom mind share to heart share, to get the market share now is not enough only to win the heart of customer ,wehave to subject the customer heart. This moving up change the essence v...

  13. Pemasaran Real Estate Dengan Web Based Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML)

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Buyung Yudi; Indarto, Wawan

    2005-01-01

    In the concept of marketing known segmentation, targeting and potitioning concept. Al Ries and JackTrour who known as world marketing expert says that “Positioning is what you do to the mind of the prospect.That is, you position your product in the mind of prospect. Now positioning and targeting have been move outfrom mind share to heart share, to get the market share now is not enough only to win the heart of customer ,wehave to subject the customer heart. This moving up change the essence v...

  14. Imitative Modeling as a Theoretical Base for Instructing Language-Disordered Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, John A.; Courtright, Illene C.

    1976-01-01

    A modification of A. Bandura's social learning theory (imitative modeling) was employed as a theoretical base for language instruction with eight language disordered children (5 to 10 years old). (Author/SBH)

  15. A New Bigram-PLSA Language Model for Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrani Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for combining bigram model and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA is introduced for language modeling. The motivation behind this idea is the relaxation of the "bag of words" assumption fundamentally present in latent topic models including the PLSA model. An EM-based parameter estimation technique for the proposed model is presented in this paper. Previous attempts to incorporate word order in the PLSA model are surveyed and compared with our new proposed model both in theory and by experimental evaluation. Perplexity measure is employed to compare the effectiveness of recently introduced models with the new proposed model. Furthermore, experiments are designed and carried out on continuous speech recognition (CSR tasks using word error rate (WER as the evaluation criterion. The superiority of the new bigram-PLSA model over Nie et al.'s bigram-PLSA and simple PLSA models is demonstrated in the results of our experiments. Experiments on BLLIP WSJ corpus show about 12% reduction in perplexity and 2.8% WER improvement compared to Nie et al.'s bigram-PLSA model.

  16. Augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Pucer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Today we can obtain in a simple and rapid way most of the information that we need. Devices, such as personal computers and mobile phones, enable access to information in different formats (written, pictorial, audio or video whenever and wherever. Daily we use and encounter information that can be seen as virtual objects or objects that are part of the virtual world of computers. Everyone, at least once, wanted to bring these virtual objects from the virtual world of computers into real environments and thus mix virtual and real worlds. In such a mixed reality, real and virtual objects coexist in the same environment. The reality, where users watch and use the real environment upgraded with virtual objects is called augmented reality. In this article we describe the main properties of augmented reality. In addition to the basic properties that define a reality as augmented reality, we present the various building elements (possible hardware and software that provide an insight into such a reality and practical applications of augmented reality. The applications are divided into three groups depending on the information and functions that augmented reality offers, such as help, guide and simulator.

  17. Models, Languages and Logics for Concurrent Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The EEC Esprit Basic Research Action No 3011, Models, Languages and Logics for Con current Distributed Systems, CEDISYS, held its second workshop at Aarhus University in May, l991, following the successful workshop in San Miniato in 1990. The Aarhus Workshop was centered around CEDISYS research...... activities, and the selected themes of Applications and Automated Tools in the area of Distributed Systerns. The 24 participants were CEDISYS partners, and invited guests with expertise on the selected themes. This booklet contains the program of the workshop, short abstracts for the talks presented...

  18. Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At least three different models have been proposed: the severity model, the additional deficit model and the component model. We address this issue by comparing children with specific language impairment only, those with dyslexia-only, those with specific language impairment and dyslexia and those with no impairment, using a broad test battery of language skills. We find that specific language impairment and dyslexia do not always co-occur, and that some children with specific language impairment do not have a phonological deficit. Using factor analysis, we find that language abilities across the four groups of children have at least three independent sources of variance: one for non-phonological language skills and two for distinct sets of phonological abilities (which we term phonological skills versus phonological representations). Furthermore, children with specific language impairment and dyslexia show partly distinct profiles of phonological deficit along these two dimensions. We conclude that a multiple-component model of language abilities best explains the relationship between specific language impairment and dyslexia and the different profiles of impairment that are observed. PMID:23413264

  19. TumorML: Concept and requirements of an in silico cancer modelling markup language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Cooper, Jonathan; McKeever, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the initial groundwork carried out as part of the European Commission funded Transatlantic Tumor Model Repositories project, to develop a new markup language for computational cancer modelling, TumorML. In this paper we describe the motivations for such a language, arguing that current state-of-the-art biomodelling languages are not suited to the cancer modelling domain. We go on to describe the work that needs to be done to develop TumorML, the conceptual design, and a description of what existing markup languages will be used to compose the language specification.

  20. E language based on MCNP modeling software for autonomous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fei; Ge Liangquan; Zhang Qingxian

    2010-01-01

    MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Code) is based on the Monte Carlo method for computing neutron, photon and other particles as the object of the movement simulation computer program. Because of its powerful computing simulation, flexible and universal features in many fields has been widely used, but due to a software professional in the operating area has been greatly restricted, so that in later development has been greatly hindered. E-language was used in order to develop the autonomy of MCNP modeling software, used to address users not familiar with MCNP and can not create object model, get rid of dull red tape 'notebook' type of program type and built a new MCNP modeling system. (authors)

  1. WHEN MODEL MEETS REALITY – A REVIEW OF SPAR LEVEL 2 MODEL AGAINST FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhegang Ma

    2013-09-01

    The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models are a set of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the risk of operations at U.S. nuclear power plants and provide inputs to risk informed regulatory process. A small number of SPAR Level 2 models have been developed mostly for feasibility study purpose. They extend the Level 1 models to include containment systems, group plant damage states, and model containment phenomenology and accident progression in containment event trees. A severe earthquake and tsunami hit the eastern coast of Japan in March 2011 and caused significant damages on the reactors in Fukushima Daiichi site. Station blackout (SBO), core damage, containment damage, hydrogen explosion, and intensive radioactivity release, which have been previous analyzed and assumed as postulated accident progression in PRA models, now occurred with various degrees in the multi-units Fukushima Daiichi site. This paper reviews and compares a typical BWR SPAR Level 2 model with the “real” accident progressions and sequences occurred in Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2, and 3. It shows that the SPAR Level 2 model is a robust PRA model that could very reasonably describe the accident progression for a real and complicated nuclear accident in the world. On the other hand, the comparison shows that the SPAR model could be enhanced by incorporating some accident characteristics for better representation of severe accident progression.

  2. [Parallel virtual reality visualization of extreme large medical datasets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of a brief description of grid computing, the essence and critical techniques of parallel visualization of extreme large medical datasets are discussed in connection with Intranet and common-configuration computers of hospitals. In this paper are introduced several kernel techniques, including the hardware structure, software framework, load balance and virtual reality visualization. The Maximum Intensity Projection algorithm is realized in parallel using common PC cluster. In virtual reality world, three-dimensional models can be rotated, zoomed, translated and cut interactively and conveniently through the control panel built on virtual reality modeling language (VRML). Experimental results demonstrate that this method provides promising and real-time results for playing the role in of a good assistant in making clinical diagnosis.

  3. AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten; Bahn, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    Projektets grundlæggende idé er udvikling af visuel, æstetisk læring med Augmented Reality, hvor intentionen er at bidrage med konkrete undersøgelser og udforskning af begrebet Augmented Reality – herunder koblingen mellem det analoge og digitale i forhold til læring, multimodalitet og it...

  4. The medical simulation markup language - simplifying the biomechanical modeling workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwelack, Stefan; Stoll, Markus; Schalck, Sebastian; Schoch, Nicolai; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Bendl, Rolf; Heuveline, Vincent; Speidel, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of the human body by means of continuum mechanics has become an important tool in diagnostics, computer-assisted interventions and training. This modeling approach seeks to construct patient-specific biomechanical models from tomographic data. Usually many different tools such as segmentation and meshing algorithms are involved in this workflow. In this paper we present a generalized and flexible description for biomechanical models. The unique feature of the new modeling language is that it not only describes the final biomechanical simulation, but also the workflow how the biomechanical model is constructed from tomographic data. In this way, the MSML can act as a middleware between all tools used in the modeling pipeline. The MSML thus greatly facilitates the prototyping of medical simulation workflows for clinical and research purposes. In this paper, we not only detail the XML-based modeling scheme, but also present a concrete implementation. Different examples highlight the flexibility, robustness and ease-of-use of the approach.

  5. Huffman and linear scanning methods with statistical language models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Brian; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Gibbons, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Current scanning access methods for text generation in AAC devices are limited to relatively few options, most notably row/column variations within a matrix. We present Huffman scanning, a new method for applying statistical language models to binary-switch, static-grid typing AAC interfaces, and compare it to other scanning options under a variety of conditions. We present results for 16 adults without disabilities and one 36-year-old man with locked-in syndrome who presents with complex communication needs and uses AAC scanning devices for writing. Huffman scanning with a statistical language model yielded significant typing speedups for the 16 participants without disabilities versus any of the other methods tested, including two row/column scanning methods. A similar pattern of results was found with the individual with locked-in syndrome. Interestingly, faster typing speeds were obtained with Huffman scanning using a more leisurely scan rate than relatively fast individually calibrated scan rates. Overall, the results reported here demonstrate great promise for the usability of Huffman scanning as a faster alternative to row/column scanning.

  6. Enhancing English Language Planning Strategy Using a WebQuest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Rania Kamal Muhammad; Abdel-Haq, Eman Muhammad; El-Deeb, Mervat Abou-Bakr; Ali, Mahsoub Abdel-Sadeq

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at developing English language planning strategy of second year distinguished governmental language preparatory school pupils using the a WebQuest model. Fifty participants from second year at Hassan Abu-Bakr Distinguished Governmental Language School at Al-Qanater Al-Khairia (Qalubia Governorate) were randomly assigned…

  7. Virtual Reality Lab Assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Hrishikesh; Palmer, Timothy A.

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality Lab Assistant (VRLA) demonstration model is aligned for engineering and material science experiments to be performed by undergraduate and graduate students in the course as a pre-lab simulation experience. This will help students to get a preview of how to use the lab equipment and run experiments without using the lab hardware/software equipment. The quality of the time available for laboratory experiments can be significantly improved through the use of virtual reality technology.

  8. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  9. PRISMA-MAR: An Architecture Model for Data Visualization in Augmented Reality Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Costa, Mauro Alexandre Folha; Serique Meiguins, Bianchi; Carneiro, Nikolas S.; Gonçalves Meiguins, Aruanda Simões

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an extension to mobile augmented reality (MAR) environments--the addition of data charts to the more usual text, image and video components. To this purpose, we have designed a client-server architecture including the main necessary modules and services to provide an Information Visualization MAR experience. The server side…

  10. Modeling Augmented Reality Games with Preservice Elementary and Secondary Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Erin Peters; Frazier, Wendy; Annetta, Leonard; Lamb, Richard; Cheng, Rebecca; Chmiel, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Cell phones are ever-present in daily life, yet vastly underused in the formal science classroom. The purpose of this study was to implement a novel learning tool on cell phones, Augmented Reality Games, and determine how the interaction influenced preservice teachers' content knowledge and self-efficacy of cell phone use in schools. Results show…

  11. The AIDLET Model: A Framework for Selecting Games, Simulations and Augmented Reality Environments in Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidarra, José; Rothschild, Meagan; Squire, Kurt; Figueiredo, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Smartphones and other mobile devices like the iPhone, Android, Kindle Fire, and iPad have boosted educators' interest in using mobile media for education. Applications from games to augmented reality are thriving in research settings, and in some cases schools and universities, but relatively little is known about how such devices may be used for…

  12. Augmented Reality i naturfag: modellering – undersøgelse - dialog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Surland, Mogens

    Den fremlagte forskning rapporterede fra pilotafprøvning i 7.og 8. klasse fysik/kemi og biologi ifm. et EU-projekt, der udvikler Augmented Reality (AR) til naturfagsundervisning. Muligheder og udfordringer ved lærerens stilladsering af elevernes undersøgende samtale og modelleringskompetence er...

  13. The logical foundations of scientific theories languages, structures, and models

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Decio

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the logical aspects of the foundations of scientific theories. Even though the relevance of formal methods in the study of scientific theories is now widely recognized and regaining prominence, the issues covered here are still not generally discussed in philosophy of science. The authors focus mainly on the role played by the underlying formal apparatuses employed in the construction of the models of scientific theories, relating the discussion with the so-called semantic approach to scientific theories. The book describes the role played by this metamathematical framework in three main aspects: considerations of formal languages employed to axiomatize scientific theories, the role of the axiomatic method itself, and the way set-theoretical structures, which play the role of the models of theories, are developed. The authors also discuss the differences and philosophical relevance of the two basic ways of aximoatizing a scientific theory, namely Patrick Suppes’ set theoretical predicate...

  14. Creating Shared Mental Models: The Support of Visual Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Renske B.; van den Broek, Egon L.; Gieskes, José F. B.

    Cooperative design involves multiple stakeholders that often hold different ideas of the problem, the ways to solve it, and to its solutions (i.e., mental models; MM). These differences can result in miscommunication, misunderstanding, slower decision making processes, and less chance on cooperative decisions. In order to facilitate the creation of a shared mental model (sMM), visual languages (VL) are often used. However, little scientific foundation is behind this choice. To determine whether or not this gut feeling is justified, a research was conducted in which various stakeholders had to cooperatively redesign a process chain, with and without VL. To determine whether or not a sMM was created, scores on agreement in individual MM, communication, and cooperation were analyzed. The results confirmed the assumption that VL can indeed play an important role in the creation of sMM and, hence, can aid the processes of cooperative design and engineering.

  15. Effects of Mode of Modeling, Model Age, and Ethnicity on Rule-Governed Language Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, James I.; Harris, Mary B.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of three model variables on student performance of syntactic and semantic language behaviors in the absence of direct or vicarious reinforcement was examined. Subjects were sixth-grade students of both sexes attending New Mexico Schools. Half of the subjects and models were Chicanos and half were Anglos. (BJG)

  16. The Web of Reclassification for English Language Learners--A Cyclical Journey Waiting to Be Interrupted: Discussion of Realities, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhremtchouk, I.; Levine-Smith, J.; Clark, Adam T.

    2018-01-01

    In this article we unpack the obstacles and opportunities associated with language minority student classification practices and, more specifically, English language learners' reclassification to fluent proficient status. First, we discuss classification permanency for language minority students. Second, we provide an overview of national…

  17. Looking under Kachru's (1982, 1985 three circles model of World Englishes: the hidden reality and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Schmitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the pioneering model of World Englishes formulated by Kachru in the early 1980s that allocates the presence of English into three concentric circles: first of all, the inner circle (Great Britain, the USA where the language functions as an L1 (or native language; secondly, the outer circle (India, Nigeria where the language was forced upon the subjugated people by Britain; thirdly, the expanding circle (China, Brazil where English is studied as a foreign language. Researchers in the area of language studies tend to put too much store in Kachru's model expecting it to expose the different circles: (i the proficiency level of the speakers, (ii the variation that exists in the different dialects of the language, and (iii how the many users appropriate the language to perform their daily routine. Pung (2009 suggests "going beyond" the three circle model with his proposal of a Conical Model of English (CME, while Park and Wee (2009, p.402 state that models have no "magical efficacy in challenging dominant ideologies of English" and that change in the world is not brought about by models but my people. Based on Park and Lee's caution with regard to models, and in lieu of Pung's "going beyond" the well-known Kachruvian model, the thrust of this article is to look specifically under the inner circle, that is, the supposed "native speaker domain". It will be argued in this paper that the circles function as a palimpsest erasing and ignoring what happened in the past linguistically, historically and culturally before the appearance of English in the spaces that the language occupies at the present time in the inner, outer, and expanding circles. An examination of days gone-by, with a focus on Kachru's inner circle, can present a mirror to examine: (i bilingual (multilingual biases, (ii migration of peoples and treatment of immigrants, (iii respect (or lack of for the linguistic and cultural rights of minorities, and (iv the hegemony of

  18. The Sociolinguistic Model in Speech and Language Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Walt

    A discussion of the role of sociolinguistics in the treatment of communication disorders focuses on issues related to dialect and language variation. It begins with an examination of linguistic diversity and dynamic description of language, reporting on a study of speech and language pathologists' judgments of sentences in African American…

  19. Event Modeling in UML. Unified Modeling Language and Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    We show how events can be modeled in terms of UML. We view events as change agents that have consequences and as information objects that represent information. We show how to create object-oriented structures that represent events in terms of attributes, associations, operations, state charts......, and messages. We outline a run-time environment for the processing of events with multiple participants....

  20. Multimodal Languaging as a Pedagogical Model--A Case Study of the Concept of Division in School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsenlahti, Jorma; Kulju, Pirjo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a multimodal languaging model for mathematics education. The model consists of mathematical symbolic language, a pictorial language, and a natural language. By applying this model, the objective was to study how 4th grade pupils (N = 21) understand the concept of division. The data was collected over six…

  1. Classroom tandem – Outlining a model for language learning and ınstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Karjalaınen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the native language. We aim to give an overview description of the interaction in classroom tandem practice. The empirical data consists of longitudinal video recordings of meetings of one tandem dyad within a co-located Swedishmedium and Finnish-medium school. Focus in the analysis is on the language aspects the informants orient to and topicalize in their interaction. The language aspects vary depending on what classroom activities they are engaged in, text-based or oral activities.

  2. Stochastic Model for the Vocabulary Growth in Natural Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gerlach

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a stochastic model for the number of different words in a given database which incorporates the dependence on the database size and historical changes. The main feature of our model is the existence of two different classes of words: (i a finite number of core words, which have higher frequency and do not affect the probability of a new word to be used, and (ii the remaining virtually infinite number of noncore words, which have lower frequency and, once used, reduce the probability of a new word to be used in the future. Our model relies on a careful analysis of the Google Ngram database of books published in the last centuries, and its main consequence is the generalization of Zipf’s and Heaps’ law to two-scaling regimes. We confirm that these generalizations yield the best simple description of the data among generic descriptive models and that the two free parameters depend only on the language but not on the database. From the point of view of our model, the main change on historical time scales is the composition of the specific words included in the finite list of core words, which we observe to decay exponentially in time with a rate of approximately 30 words per year for English.

  3. Testing a model of intonation in a tone language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, M

    1986-09-01

    Schematic fundamental frequency curves of simple statements and questions are generated for Hausa, a two-tone language of Nigeria, using a modified version of an intonational model developed by Gårding and Bruce [Nordic Prosody II, edited by T. Fretheim (Tapir, Trondheim, 1981), pp. 33-39]. In this model, rules for intonation and tones are separated. Intonation is represented as sloping grids of (near) parallel lines, inside which tones are placed. The tones are associated with turning points of the fundamental frequency contour. Local rules may also modify the exact placement of a tone within the grid. The continuous fundamental frequency contour is modeled by concatenating the tonal points using polynomial equations. Thus the final pitch contour is modeled as an interaction between global and local factors. The slope of the intonational grid lines depends at least on sentence type (statement or question), sentence length, and tone pattern. The model is tested by reference to data from nine speakers of Kano Hausa.

  4. UML as a cell and biochemistry modeling language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ken; White, Tony

    2005-06-01

    The systems biology community is building increasingly complex models and simulations of cells and other biological entities, and are beginning to look at alternatives to traditional representations such as those provided by ordinary differential equations (ODE). The lessons learned over the years by the software development community in designing and building increasingly complex telecommunication and other commercial real-time reactive systems, can be advantageously applied to the problems of modeling in the biology domain. Making use of the object-oriented (OO) paradigm, the unified modeling language (UML) and Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling (ROOM) visual formalisms, and the Rational Rose RealTime (RRT) visual modeling tool, we describe a multi-step process we have used to construct top-down models of cells and cell aggregates. The simple example model described in this paper includes membranes with lipid bilayers, multiple compartments including a variable number of mitochondria, substrate molecules, enzymes with reaction rules, and metabolic pathways. We demonstrate the relevance of abstraction, reuse, objects, classes, component and inheritance hierarchies, multiplicity, visual modeling, and other current software development best practices. We show how it is possible to start with a direct diagrammatic representation of a biological structure such as a cell, using terminology familiar to biologists, and by following a process of gradually adding more and more detail, arrive at a system with structure and behavior of arbitrary complexity that can run and be observed on a computer. We discuss our CellAK (Cell Assembly Kit) approach in terms of features found in SBML, CellML, E-CELL, Gepasi, Jarnac, StochSim, Virtual Cell, and membrane computing systems.

  5. Agent based models of language competition: macroscopic descriptions and order–disorder transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, F; Castelló, X; San Miguel, M

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of two agent based models of language competition. In the first model, each individual can be in one of two possible states, either using language X or language Y, while the second model incorporates a third state XY, representing individuals that use both languages (bilinguals). We analyze the models on complex networks and two-dimensional square lattices by analytical and numerical methods, and show that they exhibit a transition from one-language dominance to language coexistence. We find that the coexistence of languages is more difficult to maintain in the bilinguals model, where the presence of bilinguals facilitates the ultimate dominance of one of the two languages. A stability analysis reveals that the coexistence is more unlikely to happen in poorly connected than in fully connected networks, and that the dominance of just one language is enhanced as the connectivity decreases. This dominance effect is even stronger in a two-dimensional space, where domain coarsening tends to drive the system towards language consensus

  6. Design Of Computer Based Test Using The Unified Modeling Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedyyana, Agus; Danuri; Lidyawati

    2017-12-01

    The Admission selection of Politeknik Negeri Bengkalis through interest and talent search (PMDK), Joint Selection of admission test for state Polytechnics (SB-UMPN) and Independent (UM-Polbeng) were conducted by using paper-based Test (PBT). Paper Based Test model has some weaknesses. They are wasting too much paper, the leaking of the questios to the public, and data manipulation of the test result. This reasearch was Aimed to create a Computer-based Test (CBT) models by using Unified Modeling Language (UML) the which consists of Use Case diagrams, Activity diagram and sequence diagrams. During the designing process of the application, it is important to pay attention on the process of giving the password for the test questions before they were shown through encryption and description process. RSA cryptography algorithm was used in this process. Then, the questions shown in the questions banks were randomized by using the Fisher-Yates Shuffle method. The network architecture used in Computer Based test application was a client-server network models and Local Area Network (LAN). The result of the design was the Computer Based Test application for admission to the selection of Politeknik Negeri Bengkalis.

  7. An Evolutionary Robotics Approach to the Control of Plant Growth and Motion: Modeling Plants and Crossing the Reality Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahby, Mostafa; Hofstadler, Daniel Nicolas; Heinrich, Mary Katherine

    2016-01-01

    approach where task performance is determined by monitoring the plant's reaction. First, we do initial plant experiments with simple, predetermined controllers. Then we use image sampling data as a model of the dynamics of the plant tip xy position. Second, we use this approach to evolve robot controllers...... in simulation. The task is to make the plant approach three predetermined, distinct points in an xy-plane. Finally, we test the evolved controllers in real plant experiments and find that we cross the reality gap successfully. We shortly describe how we have extended from plant tip to many points on the plant...

  8. Color enhanced pipelines for reality-based 3D modeling of on site medium sized archeological artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio I. Apollonio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a color enhanced processing system - applied as case study on an artifact of the Pompeii archaeological area - developed in order to enhance different techniques for reality-based 3D models construction and visualization of archaeological artifacts. This processing allows rendering reflectance properties with perceptual fidelity on a consumer display and presents two main improvements over existing techniques: a. the color definition of the archaeological artifacts; b. the comparison between the range-based and photogrammetry-based pipelines to understand the limits of use and suitability to specific objects.

  9. Two-Language, Two-Paradigm Introductory Computing Curriculum Model and its Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Zanev, Vladimir; Radenski, Atanas

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes difficulties with the introduction of object-oriented concepts in introductory computing education and then proposes a two-language, two-paradigm curriculum model that alleviates such difficulties. Our two-language, two-paradigm curriculum model begins with teaching imperative programming using Python programming language, continues with teaching object-oriented computing using Java, and concludes with teaching object-oriented data structures with Java.

  10. Optimizing DNA assembly based on statistical language modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gang; Zhang, Shemin; Dong, Yafei

    2017-12-15

    By successively assembling genetic parts such as BioBrick according to grammatical models, complex genetic constructs composed of dozens of functional blocks can be built. However, usually every category of genetic parts includes a few or many parts. With increasing quantity of genetic parts, the process of assembling more than a few sets of these parts can be expensive, time consuming and error prone. At the last step of assembling it is somewhat difficult to decide which part should be selected. Based on statistical language model, which is a probability distribution P(s) over strings S that attempts to reflect how frequently a string S occurs as a sentence, the most commonly used parts will be selected. Then, a dynamic programming algorithm was designed to figure out the solution of maximum probability. The algorithm optimizes the results of a genetic design based on a grammatical model and finds an optimal solution. In this way, redundant operations can be reduced and the time and cost required for conducting biological experiments can be minimized. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Language Model Combination and Adaptation Using Weighted Finite State Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Gales, M. J. F.; Hieronymus, J. L.; Woodland, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In speech recognition systems language model (LMs) are often constructed by training and combining multiple n-gram models. They can be either used to represent different genres or tasks found in diverse text sources, or capture stochastic properties of different linguistic symbol sequences, for example, syllables and words. Unsupervised LM adaption may also be used to further improve robustness to varying styles or tasks. When using these techniques, extensive software changes are often required. In this paper an alternative and more general approach based on weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) is investigated for LM combination and adaptation. As it is entirely based on well-defined WFST operations, minimum change to decoding tools is needed. A wide range of LM combination configurations can be flexibly supported. An efficient on-the-fly WFST decoding algorithm is also proposed. Significant error rate gains of 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art broadcast audio recognition task using a history dependently adapted multi-level LM modelling both syllable and word sequences

  12. Relating the new language models of information retrieval to the traditional retrieval models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Vries, A.P.

    During the last two years, exciting new approaches to information retrieval were introduced by a number of different research groups that use statistical language models for retrieval. This paper relates the retrieval algorithms suggested by these approaches to widely accepted retrieval algorithms

  13. Grotoco@SLAM: Second Language Acquisition Modeling with Simple Features, Learners and Task-wise Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klerke, Sigrid; Martínez Alonso, Héctor; Plank, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    We present our submission to the 2018 Duolingo Shared Task on Second Language Acquisition Modeling (SLAM). We focus on evaluating a range of features for the task, including user-derived measures, while examining how far we can get with a simple linear classifier. Our analysis reveals that errors...

  14. Capturing and Modeling Domain Knowledge Using Natural Language Processing Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auger, Alain

    2005-01-01

    .... Initiated in 2004 at Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC), the SACOT knowledge engineering research project is currently investigating, developing and validating innovative natural language processing (NLP...

  15. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Tuukka T; Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-11-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency.

  16. From Mimicry to Language: A Neuroanatomically Based Evolutionary Model of the Emergence of Vocal Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliva, Oren

    2016-01-01

    The auditory cortex communicates with the frontal lobe via the middle temporal gyrus (auditory ventral stream; AVS) or the inferior parietal lobule (auditory dorsal stream; ADS). Whereas the AVS is ascribed only with sound recognition, the ADS is ascribed with sound localization, voice detection, prosodic perception/production, lip-speech integration, phoneme discrimination, articulation, repetition, phonological long-term memory and working memory. Previously, I interpreted the juxtaposition of sound localization, voice detection, audio-visual integration and prosodic analysis, as evidence that the behavioral precursor to human speech is the exchange of contact calls in non-human primates. Herein, I interpret the remaining ADS functions as evidence of additional stages in language evolution. According to this model, the role of the ADS in vocal control enabled early Homo (Hominans) to name objects using monosyllabic calls, and allowed children to learn their parents' calls by imitating their lip movements. Initially, the calls were forgotten quickly but gradually were remembered for longer periods. Once the representations of the calls became permanent, mimicry was limited to infancy, and older individuals encoded in the ADS a lexicon for the names of objects (phonological lexicon). Consequently, sound recognition in the AVS was sufficient for activating the phonological representations in the ADS and mimicry became independent of lip-reading. Later, by developing inhibitory connections between acoustic-syllabic representations in the AVS and phonological representations of subsequent syllables in the ADS, Hominans became capable of concatenating the monosyllabic calls for repeating polysyllabic words (i.e., developed working memory). Finally, due to strengthening of connections between phonological representations in the ADS, Hominans became capable of encoding several syllables as a single representation (chunking). Consequently, Hominans began vocalizing and

  17. A Model for Community-based Language Teaching to Young Learners: The Impact of University Outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nyikos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A primary challenge given to university foreign language departments and Title VI National Resource Centers is to increase interest and participation in foreign language learning, with particular emphasis on less commonly taught languages (LCTLs. Given that many LCTLs in high demand by the US government, including Arabic, Chinese, Persian and Turkish, rarely find their way into the school curricula, this article offers a successful ongoing community-based model of how one university-town partnership addresses advocacy with programming for pre-K-grade 9. Non-native and heritage undergraduate language students who volunteered as community language teachers found the experience invaluable to their pedagogical development. Teacher education programs or language departments can employ this approach to community-based teaching, by providing free, sustained language teaching in existing community centers. This article offers guidance for how to start and expand such a program.

  18. WebWorkFlow : An Object-Oriented Workflow Modeling Language for Web Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemel, Z.; Verhaaf, R.; Visser, E.

    2008-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: MODELS 2008 - International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5301, 2008; doi:10.1007/978-3-540-87875-9_8 Workflow languages are designed for the high-level description of processes and are typically not

  19. Comparative Effectiveness of Echoic and Modeling Procedures in Language Instruction With Culturally Disadvantaged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Carolyn; Keislar, Evan

    In an attempt to explore a systematic approach to language expansion and improved sentence structure, echoic and modeling procedures for language instruction were compared. Four hypotheses were formulated: (1) children who use modeling procedures will produce better structured sentences than children who use echoic prompting, (2) both echoic and…

  20. a Geometric Processing Workflow for Transforming Reality-Based 3d Models in Volumetric Meshes Suitable for Fea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonizzi Barsanti, S.; Guidi, G.

    2017-02-01

    Conservation of Cultural Heritage is a key issue and structural changes and damages can influence the mechanical behaviour of artefacts and buildings. The use of Finite Elements Methods (FEM) for mechanical analysis is largely used in modelling stress behaviour. The typical workflow involves the use of CAD 3D models made by Non-Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) surfaces, representing the ideal shape of the object to be simulated. Nowadays, 3D documentation of CH has been widely developed through reality-based approaches, but the models are not suitable for a direct use in FEA: the mesh has in fact to be converted to volumetric, and the density has to be reduced since the computational complexity of a FEA grows exponentially with the number of nodes. The focus of this paper is to present a new method aiming at generate the most accurate 3D representation of a real artefact from highly accurate 3D digital models derived from reality-based techniques, maintaining the accuracy of the high-resolution polygonal models in the solid ones. The approach proposed is based on a wise use of retopology procedures and a transformation of this model to a mathematical one made by NURBS surfaces suitable for being processed by volumetric meshers typically embedded in standard FEM packages. The strong simplification with little loss of consistency possible with the retopology step is used for maintaining as much coherence as possible between the original acquired mesh and the simplified model, creating in the meantime a topology that is more favourable for the automatic NURBS conversion.

  1. Blueprint model and language for engineering cloud applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is positioned within the domain of engineering CSBAs. Its contribution is twofold: (1) a uniform specification language, called the Blueprint Specification Language (BSL), for specifying cloud services across several cloud vendors and (2) a set of associated

  2. Toward cognitively constrained models of language processing : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, Margreet; Mills, Anne C.; Reitter, David; van Rij, Jacolien; Hendriks, Petra; van Rijn, Hedderik

    2017-01-01

    Language processing is not an isolated capacity, but is embedded in other aspects of our cognition. However, it is still largely unexplored to what extent and how language processing interacts with general cognitive resources. This question can be investigated with cognitively constrained

  3. Pragmatic Language Assessment: A Pragmatics-as-Social Practice Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyter, Yvette D.

    2007-01-01

    Pragmatic language skills are important for developing relationships with others, and for communicating with a range of interlocutors in a variety of contexts, including preschool and elementary school classrooms. Pragmatic language difficulties frequently are a primary area of disability for children diagnosed with autism, Asperger's syndrome,…

  4. Amicus Plato, sed magis amica veritas: plots must obey the laws they refer to and models shall describe biophysical reality!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkov, Igor I

    2011-06-01

    In the companion paper, we discussed in details proper linearization, calculation of the inactive osmotic volume, and analysis of the results on the Boyle-vant' Hoff plots. In this Letter, we briefly address some common errors and misconceptions in osmotic modeling and propose some approaches, namely: (1) inapplicability of the Kedem-Katchalsky formalism model in regards to the cryobiophysical reality, (2) calculation of the membrane hydraulic conductivity L(p) in the presence of permeable solutes, (3) proper linearization of the Arrhenius plots for the solute membrane permeability, (4) erroneous use of the term "toxicity" for the cryoprotective agents, and (5) advantages of the relativistic permeability approach (RP) developed by us vs. traditional ("classic") 2-parameter model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Can mathematics explain the evolution of human language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther

    2011-09-01

    Investigation into the sequence structure of the genetic code by means of an informatic approach is a real success story. The features of human language are also the object of investigation within the realm of formal language theories. They focus on the common rules of a universal grammar that lies behind all languages and determine generation of syntactic structures. This universal grammar is a depiction of material reality, i.e., the hidden logical order of things and its relations determined by natural laws. Therefore mathematics is viewed not only as an appropriate tool to investigate human language and genetic code structures through computer science-based formal language theory but is itself a depiction of material reality. This confusion between language as a scientific tool to describe observations/experiences within cognitive constructed models and formal language as a direct depiction of material reality occurs not only in current approaches but was the central focus of the philosophy of science debate in the twentieth century, with rather unexpected results. This article recalls these results and their implications for more recent mathematical approaches that also attempt to explain the evolution of human language.

  6. Modelling the ICE standard with a formal language for information commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Wombacher, A.; Aberer, K.

    2001-01-01

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce processes. We introduce a language that is specifically designed for information commerce. It can be directly used for the implementation of the processes and communication required in information comme...

  7. Knowledge Graphs as Context Models: Improving the Detection of Cross-Language Plagiarism with Paraphrasing

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Salvador, Marc; Gupta, Parth; Rosso, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language plagiarism detection attempts to identify and extract automatically plagiarism among documents in different languages. Plagiarized fragments can be translated verbatim copies or may alter their structure to hide the copying, which is known as paraphrasing and is more difficult to detect. In order to improve the paraphrasing detection, we use a knowledge graph-based approach to obtain and compare context models of document fragments in different languages. Experimental results i...

  8. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Kjeldsen, Lars Peter Bech; Rahn, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of iPad-facilitated application of augmented reality in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level. The general aim of the project is to investigate the potentials of this application in terms...... of making the complex content and context of these subjects more approachable to the students through the visualization made possible through the use of this technology. A case study is described in this chapter. Issues and factors required for the sustainable use of the mobile-facilitated application...... of augmented reality are discussed....

  9. Perancangan Aplikasi Informasi SMS untuk Alumni Unsoed Menggunakan UML (Unified Modeling Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangun Wijayanto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language (UML is a language which have come to the standard in industry to visualize, design and document the software system. Using UML we can make model for All software application type, where the application can also written in many language. SMS (Short Message Service is the best choice to solve geographic problems in spreading information to the alumni Unsoed. The aim of this research is to compile notation of UML (Unified Modeling Language in development of SMS Server for Alumni Unsoed. This research is conducted with software engineer method. The design result of software SMS alumni Unsoed present that UML (Unified Modeling Language help in design and software programming

  10. State impulsive control strategies for a two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Lin-Fei; Teng, Zhi-Dong; Nieto, Juan J.; Jung, Il Hyo

    2015-07-01

    For reasons of preserving endangered languages, we propose, in this paper, a novel two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity, where state-dependent impulsive control strategies are introduced. The novel control model includes two control threshold values, which are different from the previous state-dependent impulsive differential equations. By using qualitative analysis method, we obtain that the control model exhibits two stable positive order-1 periodic solutions under some general conditions. Moreover, numerical simulations clearly illustrate the main theoretical results and feasibility of state-dependent impulsive control strategies. Meanwhile numerical simulations also show that state-dependent impulsive control strategy can be applied to other general two-languages competitive model and obtain the desired result. The results indicate that the fractions of two competitive languages can be kept within a reasonable level under almost any circumstances. Theoretical basis for finding a new control measure to protect the endangered language is offered.

  11. Through the Window of Language: Assessing the Influence of Language Diversity on Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. LUCY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, researchers divided over whether the diverse representations of reality across languages were natural or conventional, but all tacitly assumed an optimal fit between language and reality. Twentieth century anthropological linguists interested in linguistic relativity have questioned this assumption and sought to characterize "reality" without it by using domain- or structure-centered approaches.

  12. Pulse!!: a model for research and development of virtual-reality learning in military medical education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, James R; McDonald, Claudia L

    2010-07-01

    Pulse!! The Virtual Clinical Learning Lab at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, in collaboration with the United States Navy, has developed a model for research and technological development that they believe is an essential element in the future of military and civilian medical education. The Pulse!! project models a strategy for providing cross-disciplinary expertise and resources to educational, governmental, and business entities challenged with meeting looming health care crises. It includes a three-dimensional virtual learning platform that provides unlimited, repeatable, immersive clinical experiences without risk to patients, and is available anywhere there is a computer. Pulse!! utilizes expertise in the fields of medicine, medical education, computer science, software engineering, physics, computer animation, art, and architecture. Lab scientists collaborate with the commercial virtual-reality simulation industry to produce research-based learning platforms based on cutting-edge computer technology.

  13. From Cognition To Language: The Modeling Field Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-02

    multi-agent framework was probably best made by Ferdinand de Saussure in his famous statement “language is not complete in any speaker; it exists...according to de Saussure (see quotation above), this is not an acceptable framework for language. In addition, a bias toward compositionality is built in...signals to exchange information about n objects. Actually, since the groundbreaking work of de Saussure [1] it is known that signals refer to real

  14. Blueprint model and language for engineering cloud applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis is positioned within the domain of engineering CSBAs. Its contribution is twofold: (1) a uniform specification language, called the Blueprint Specification Language (BSL), for specifying cloud services across several cloud vendors and (2) a set of associated techniques, called the Blueprint Manipulation Techniques (BMTs), for publishing, querying, and composing cloud service specifications with aim to support the flexible design and configuration of an CSBA.

  15. Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the current state of the art in virtual reality (VR), its historical background, and future possibilities. Highlights include applications in medicine, art and entertainment, science, business, and telerobotics; and VR for information science, including graphical display of bibliographic data, libraries and books, and cyberspace.…

  16. Contesting realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Whyte

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, an unnamed Bush adviser accused a senior Wall Street Journal reporter of belonging to the “reality based community”—a community that believed solutions stem from the judicious study of reality. “We're history's actors, “ he told the journalist, “and you, all of you, will be left to just study what we do.” Overwhelmingly, the response of those on the left, and of US progressives to this comment was to smugly deride the irrationalism and the arrogance of the Bush Administration. This paper, in contrast, will examine what is missed in the rush to accept membership of the reality based community. It will suggest that that the advisor's comments express something that was once a central tenet of the left: the belief that political action is capable of transforming reality. Today, on the left, this belief has been all but abandoned in the face of a seemingly unstoppable onslaught of free market capitalism and increasingly repressive state power. This paper will ask what it would mean today, to begin to re-imagine political action as capable of remaking the world.

  17. Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Radmer, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer resultater fra pilotafprøvning i 7.-klasses fysik/kemi og biologi af to Augmented Reality (AR)-apps til naturfagsundervisning. Muligheder og udfordringer ved lærerens stilladsering af elevernes undersøgende samtale og modelleringskompetence er undersøgt med interview...

  18. A conceptual data model and modelling language for fields and agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Merijn; de Jong, Kor; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Modelling is essential in order to understand environmental systems. Environmental systems are heterogeneous because they consist of fields and agents. Fields have a value defined everywhere at all times, for example surface elevation and temperature. Agents are bounded in space and time and have a value only within their bounds, for example biomass of a tree crown or the speed of a car. Many phenomena have properties of both fields and agents. Although many systems contain both fields and agents and integration of these concepts would be required for modelling, existing modelling frameworks concentrate on either agent-based or field-based modelling and are often low-level programming frameworks. A concept is lacking that integrates fields and agents in a way that is easy to use for modelers who are not software engineers. To address this issue, we develop a conceptual data model that represents fields and agents uniformly. We then show how the data model can be used in a high-level modelling language. The data model represents fields and agents in space-time. Also relations and networks can be represented using the same concepts. Using the conceptual data model we can represent static and mobile agents that may have spatial and temporal variation within their extent. The concepts we use are phenomenon, property set, item, property, domain and value. The phenomenon is the thing that is modelled, which can be any real world thing, for example trees. A phenomenon usually consists of several items, e.g. single trees. The domain is the spatiotemporal location and/or extent for which the items in the phenomenon are defined. Multiple different domains can coexist for a given phenomenon. For example a domain describing the extent of the trees and a domain describing the stem locations. The same goes for the property, which is an attribute of the thing that is being modeled. A property has a value, which is possibly discretized, for example the biomass over the tree crown

  19. LINGUISTIC REALITIES IN KENYA: A PRELIMINARY SURVEY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amitabh@1234

    Kenya is a boon for a field linguist but misinformed politicians and education policy ... to date. Language realities have been observed in this study from a temporal lens of .... The knowledge of a language of international currency is not a curse, and it is ... But the colonial mind-sets of the people worked against the growth.

  20. Alternative realities : from augmented reality to mobile mixed reality

    OpenAIRE

    Claydon, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of (mobile) augmented and mixed reality by clarifying the different concepts of reality, briefly covering the technology behind mobile augmented and mixed reality systems, conducting a concise survey of existing and emerging mobile augmented and mixed reality applications and devices. Based on the previous analysis and the survey, this work will next attempt to assess what mobile augmented and mixed reality could make possible, and what related applications an...

  1. An Application of Augmented Reality for Teaching Modeling of Structural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Susie Camargo Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that students learn best when a variety of teaching techniques are used, and that some students respond best to certain methods. Based on this, the use of computers in classroom is more and more stimulated and many applications of computational techniques are being developed as educational tools, with the aim of providing a vast field of learning experiences for the students. One of the most difficult pedagogical problems in architectural education is the interface between structural and architectural design issues. This paper presents an Augmented Reality application implemented as a teaching tool in the Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, to introduce the novice students to the study of structural systems, in a pleasant manner suitable for the architecture student profile.

  2. Channel-dependent GMM and multi-class logistic: Regression models for language recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, D.A. van; Brümmer, Niko

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes two new approaches to spoken language recognition. These were both successfully applied in the NIST 2005 Language Recognition Evaluation. The first approach extends the Gaussian Mixture Model technique with channel dependency, which results in actual detection costs (CDET) of

  3. Weaving Together Science and English: An Interconnected Model of Language Development for Emergent Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explores third-grade science and language instruction for emergent bilinguals designed through a framework of planning, lessons, and assessment in an interconnected model including content, linguistic features, and functions. Participants were a team of language specialist, classroom teacher, and researcher who designed…

  4. Modeling the Process of Summary Writing of Chinese Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiuliang

    2016-01-01

    In language learning contexts, writing tasks that involve reading of source texts are often used to elicit more authentic integrative language use. Thus, interests in researching these read-to-write tasks in general and as assessment tasks keep growing. This study examined and modeled the process of summary writing as a read-to-write integrated…

  5. Modelling the ICE standard with a formal language for information commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas; Aberer, K.

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce

  6. Metaphoric Modeling of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning, with Special Reference to Teaching Philosophy Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghbban, Mohammed I.; Ben Salamh, Sami; Maalej, Zouheir

    2017-01-01

    The current article investigates teachers' metaphoric modeling of foreign language teaching and learning at the College of Languages and Translation, King Saud University. It makes use of teaching philosophy statements as a corpus. Our objective is to analyze the underlying conceptualizations of teaching/learning, the teachers' perception of the…

  7. You Just Want to Be Like that Teacher: Modelling and Intercultural Competence in Young Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Language teachers are called upon to understand both the nature of students' intercultural competence and their own role in its development. Limited research attention has been paid to the relationship between the types of behaviour that language teachers model and the intercultural competence their students acquire. This article reports on a case…

  8. Improving Language Models in Speech-Based Human-Machine Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Justo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on speech-based human-machine interaction. Specifically, a Spoken Dialogue System (SDS that could be integrated into a robot is considered. Since Automatic Speech Recognition is one of the most sensitive tasks that must be confronted in such systems, the goal of this work is to improve the results obtained by this specific module. In order to do so, a hierarchical Language Model (LM is considered. Different series of experiments were carried out using the proposed models over different corpora and tasks. The results obtained show that these models provide greater accuracy in the recognition task. Additionally, the influence of the Acoustic Modelling (AM in the improvement percentage of the Language Models has also been explored. Finally the use of hierarchical Language Models in a language understanding task has been successfully employed, as shown in an additional series of experiments.

  9. Applicability of the Compensatory Encoding Model in Foreign Language Reading: An Investigation with Chinese College English Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feifei

    2017-01-01

    While some first language (L1) reading models suggest that inefficient word recognition and small working memory tend to inhibit higher-level comprehension processes; the Compensatory Encoding Model maintains that slow word recognition and small working memory do not normally hinder reading comprehension, as readers are able to operate metacognitive strategies to compensate for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation as long as readers process a reading task without time constraint. Although empirical evidence is accumulated for support of the Compensatory Encoding Model in L1 reading, there is lack of research for testing of the Compensatory Encoding Model in foreign language (FL) reading. This research empirically tested the Compensatory Encoding Model in English reading among Chinese college English language learners (ELLs). Two studies were conducted. Study one focused on testing whether reading condition varying time affects the relationship between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension. Students were tested on a computerized English word recognition test, a computerized Operation Span task, and reading comprehension in time constraint and non-time constraint reading. The correlation and regression analyses showed that the strength of association was much stronger between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension in time constraint than that in non-time constraint reading condition. Study two examined whether FL readers were able to operate metacognitive reading strategies as a compensatory way of reading comprehension for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation in non-time constraint reading. The participants were tested on the same computerized English word recognition test and Operation Span test. They were required to think aloud while reading and to complete the comprehension questions. The think-aloud protocols were coded for concurrent use of reading strategies, classified

  10. A formal approach to the analysis of clinical computer-interpretable guideline modeling languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando, M Adela; Glasspool, David; Fox, John

    2012-01-01

    To develop proof strategies to formally study the expressiveness of workflow-based languages, and to investigate their applicability to clinical computer-interpretable guideline (CIG) modeling languages. We propose two strategies for studying the expressiveness of workflow-based languages based on a standard set of workflow patterns expressed as Petri nets (PNs) and notions of congruence and bisimilarity from process calculus. Proof that a PN-based pattern P can be expressed in a language L can be carried out semi-automatically. Proof that a language L cannot provide the behavior specified by a PNP requires proof by exhaustion based on analysis of cases and cannot be performed automatically. The proof strategies are generic but we exemplify their use with a particular CIG modeling language, PROforma. To illustrate the method we evaluate the expressiveness of PROforma against three standard workflow patterns and compare our results with a previous similar but informal comparison. We show that the two proof strategies are effective in evaluating a CIG modeling language against standard workflow patterns. We find that using the proposed formal techniques we obtain different results to a comparable previously published but less formal study. We discuss the utility of these analyses as the basis for principled extensions to CIG modeling languages. Additionally we explain how the same proof strategies can be reused to prove the satisfaction of patterns expressed in the declarative language CIGDec. The proof strategies we propose are useful tools for analysing the expressiveness of CIG modeling languages. This study provides good evidence of the benefits of applying formal methods of proof over semi-formal ones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of microgravity, full body functional reach envelope using 3-D computer graphic models and virtual reality technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    In microgravity conditions mobility is greatly enhanced and body stability is difficult to achieve. Because of these difficulties, optimum placement and accessibility of objects and controls can be critical to required tasks on board shuttle flights or on the proposed space station. Anthropometric measurement of the maximum reach of occupants of a microgravity environment provide knowledge about maximum functional placement for tasking situations. Calculations for a full body, functional reach envelope for microgravity environments are imperative. To this end, three dimensional computer modeled human figures, providing a method of anthropometric measurement, were used to locate the data points that define the full body, functional reach envelope. Virtual reality technology was utilized to enable an occupant of the microgravity environment to experience movement within the reach envelope while immersed in a simulated microgravity environment.

  12. Virtual Reality Hospice

    OpenAIRE

    Ejsing, Sebastian Kirkegaard; Vintersborg, Kathrine Mosbæk; Benford-Brown, Cory George; Turner, Daniel Severin Pohl

    2017-01-01

    This paper details the findings of a qualitative reception analysis performed in collaboration with Hospice Sjælland, as to the potentials of Virtual Reality technology in providing entertainment and respite. The analysis was performed utilizing a theoretical analytical model based on Kim Schrøder’s ‘Multidimensional Model of Mass Media Reception’ to discourse gathered from six interviews with four patients from Hospice Sjælland. Supporting this model was supplementary literature on cognitive...

  13. Hypermedia for language learning: the FREE model at Coventry University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Orsini-Jones

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of incorporating CALL into the language-learning curriculum goes back to the early 1980s at Coventry University, and since then has evolved in keeping with changes in the technology available (Corness 1984; Benwell 1986; Orsini-Jones 1987; Corness et al 1992; Orsini-Jones 1993. Coventry University is at present pioneering the integration of hypermedia into the curriculum for the teaching of Italian language and society. The syllabus for a complete module of the BA Modern Languages and BA European Studies Degrees, which will count as l/8th of the students' programme for year 2, has been designed upon in-house produced hypermedia courseware.

  14. The role of the putamen in language: a meta-analytic connectivity modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas-Guasch, Nestor; Wu, Yan Jing

    2017-12-01

    The putamen is a subcortical structure that forms part of the dorsal striatum of basal ganglia, and has traditionally been associated with reinforcement learning and motor control, including speech articulation. However, recent studies have shown involvement of the left putamen in other language functions such as bilingual language processing (Abutalebi et al. 2012) and production, with some authors arguing for functional segregation of anterior and posterior putamen (Oberhuber et al. 2013). A further step in exploring the role of putamen in language would involve identifying the network of coactivations of not only the left, but also the right putamen, given the involvement of right hemisphere in high order language functions (Vigneau et al. 2011). Here, a meta-analytic connectivity modeling technique was used to determine the patterns of coactivation of anterior and bilateral putamen in the language domain. Based on previous evidence, we hypothesized that left putamen coactivations would include brain regions directly associated with language processing, whereas right putamen coactivations would encompass regions involved in broader semantic processes, such as memory and visual imagery. The results showed that left anterior putamen coactivated with clusters predominantly in left hemisphere, encompassing regions directly associated with language processing, a left posterior putamen network spanning both hemispheres, and cerebellum. In right hemisphere, coactivations were in both hemispheres, in regions associated with visual and orthographic processing. These results confirm the differential involvement of right and left putamen in different language components, thus highlighting the need for further research into the role of putamen in language.

  15. Augmented reality

    OpenAIRE

    Jecha, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is focused on a technology called Augmented reality, especially on its use in marketing. The main objective of the thesis is to define why this technology is a suitable tool for marketing and to assess its use in real conditions. This is achieved by defining specific devices and use cases of this technology in practice, whereas evaluation of its use in real enviroment is based on statistics. The contribution of the thesis is objective evaluation of this technology and provision of...

  16. A Virtual Tomb for Kelvingrove: Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Terras

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of computers as an educational resource in museums is becoming increasingly popular as more and more institutions realise that multimedia displays are very successful in imparting a broad variety of information. Although three-dimensional reconstructions of sites and structures have been used in archaeology for many years, the majority of museum computer installations have dealt with two-dimensional media because of the costs, equipment and labour involved in producing interactive 3D scenes. The birth of VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language has changed the way virtual reality is implemented and viewed. As an internet protocol, VRML can be used on most major platforms and implemented by anyone with a word-processing package, an internet browser, and the relevant plug-in. There is no reason why this new technology cannot be adopted by archaeologists and museums to produce virtual reality models of structures, sites and objects to aid the research of specialists and the education of the public. This project (undertaken at the Humanities Advanced Technology and Information Institute, University of Glasgow, Scotland, between May and October 1998 investigated the practicalities involved in using VRML to create a virtual reality model for use in a public space. A model of the Egyptian tomb of Sen-nedjem was developed for installation in the Egyptian Gallery of the Kelvingrove Museum and Art Gallery, Glasgow, in the hope that the introduction of this computer display would encourage the museum visitor's interest in the gallery's existing artefacts. Creation of the model would also investigate the possibility of using VRML to build accurate archaeological reconstructions cheaply and efficiently using publicly available software and existing archaeological resources. A fully functioning virtual reality model of the tomb of Sen-nedjem has been created, incorporating interactive elements, photorealistic representation, and animation, and this

  17. Recent advances in modeling languages for pathway maps and computable biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ted

    2014-02-01

    As our theories of systems biology grow more sophisticated, the models we use to represent them become larger and more complex. Languages necessarily have the expressivity and flexibility required to represent these models in ways that support high-resolution annotation, and provide for simulation and analysis that are sophisticated enough to allow researchers to master their data in the proper context. These languages also need to facilitate model sharing and collaboration, which is currently best done by using uniform data structures (such as graphs) and language standards. In this brief review, we discuss three of the most recent systems biology modeling languages to appear: BEL, PySB and BCML, and examine how they meet these needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Educational Modelling Language and Learning Design: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, Hans; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Tattersall, Colin; Koper, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Published: Hummel, H. G. K., Manderveld, J. M., Tattersall, C.,& Koper, E. J. R. (2004). Educational Modelling Language: new challenges for instructional re-usability and personalized learning. International Journal of Learning Technology, 1, 1, 110-111.

  19. Navigating between a Monolingual Utopia and Translingual Realities: Experiences of American Learners of Yorùbá as an Additional Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Junko; Sanuth, Kazeem Ké?hìndé

    2018-01-01

    Translingualism advocates for the appreciation of multilingual speakers' fluid, flexible, and creative deployment of semiotic resources without regard to the ideological constructs of named languages. While this scholarship has been developed primarily in the contexts of world Englishes, English as a lingua franca, and bilingual education in…

  20. Conceptual model of the globalization for domain-specific languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, T.; van den Brand, M.; Combemale, B.; Rumpe, B.; Combemale, B.

    2015-01-01

    Domain Specific Languages (DSL) have received some prominence recently. Designing a DSL and all their tools is still cumbersome and lots of work. Engineering of DSLs is still at infancy, not even the terms have been coined and agreed on. In particular globalization and all its consequences need to

  1. Using Multilevel Modeling in Language Assessment Research: A Conceptual Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This article critiques traditional single-level statistical approaches (e.g., multiple regression analysis) to examining relationships between language test scores and variables in the assessment setting. It highlights the conceptual, methodological, and statistical problems associated with these techniques in dealing with multilevel or nested…

  2. Video Self-Modeling for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Précille; Rao, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    Teachers of English language learners (ELLs), expected to address grade-level standards and prepare ELLs for standardized assessments, have the difficult task of designing instruction that meets the range of needs in their classrooms. When these learners have experienced limited or interrupted education, the challenges intensify. Whereas…

  3. A DYNAMIC-SYSTEMS MODEL OF COGNITIVE AND LANGUAGE GROWTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANGEERT, P

    In the first part of the article, a conceptual framework is sketched to define cognitive growth, including language growth, as a process of growth under limited resources. Important concepts are the process, level, and rate of growth; minimal structural growth level; carrying capacity and unutilized

  4. Assessing the Accuracy and Consistency of Language Proficiency Classification under Competing Measurement Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates how measurement models and statistical procedures can be applied to estimate the accuracy of proficiency classification in language testing. The paper starts with a concise introduction of four measurement models: the classical test theory (CTT) model, the dichotomous item response theory (IRT) model, the testlet response…

  5. Integration of the virtual model of a Stewart platform with the avatar of a vehicle in a virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2016-08-01

    The development of methods of computer aided design and engineering allows conducting virtual tests, among others concerning motion simulation of technical means. The paper presents a method of integrating an object in the form of a virtual model of a Stewart platform with an avatar of a vehicle moving in a virtual environment. The area of the problem includes issues related to the problem of fidelity of mapping the work of the analyzed technical mean. The main object of investigations is a 3D model of a Stewart platform, which is a subsystem of the simulator designated for driving learning for disabled persons. The analyzed model of the platform, prepared for motion simulation, was created in the “Motion Simulation” module of a CAD/CAE class system Siemens PLM NX. Whereas the virtual environment, in which the moves the avatar of the passenger car, was elaborated in a VR class system EON Studio. The element integrating both of the mentioned software environments is a developed application that reads information from the virtual reality (VR) concerning the current position of the car avatar. Then, basing on the accepted algorithm, it sends control signals to respective joints of the model of the Stewart platform (CAD).

  6. The possibility of coexistence and co-development in language competition: ecology-society computational model and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jian; Shang, Song-Chao; Wei, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Shuang; Li, Zhi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Language is characterized by both ecological properties and social properties, and competition is the basic form of language evolution. The rise and decline of one language is a result of competition between languages. Moreover, this rise and decline directly influences the diversity of human culture. Mathematics and computer modeling for language competition has been a popular topic in the fields of linguistics, mathematics, computer science, ecology, and other disciplines. Currently, there are several problems in the research on language competition modeling. First, comprehensive mathematical analysis is absent in most studies of language competition models. Next, most language competition models are based on the assumption that one language in the model is stronger than the other. These studies tend to ignore cases where there is a balance of power in the competition. The competition between two well-matched languages is more practical, because it can facilitate the co-development of two languages. A third issue with current studies is that many studies have an evolution result where the weaker language inevitably goes extinct. From the integrated point of view of ecology and sociology, this paper improves the Lotka-Volterra model and basic reaction-diffusion model to propose an "ecology-society" computational model for describing language competition. Furthermore, a strict and comprehensive mathematical analysis was made for the stability of the equilibria. Two languages in competition may be either well-matched or greatly different in strength, which was reflected in the experimental design. The results revealed that language coexistence, and even co-development, are likely to occur during language competition.

  7. Lexical prediction via forward models: N400 evidence from German Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosemann, Jana; Herrmann, Annika; Steinbach, Markus; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Models of language processing in the human brain often emphasize the prediction of upcoming input-for example in order to explain the rapidity of language understanding. However, the precise mechanisms of prediction are still poorly understood. Forward models, which draw upon the language production system to set up expectations during comprehension, provide a promising approach in this regard. Here, we present an event-related potential (ERP) study on German Sign Language (DGS) which tested the hypotheses of a forward model perspective on prediction. Sign languages involve relatively long transition phases between one sign and the next, which should be anticipated as part of a forward model-based prediction even though they are semantically empty. Native speakers of DGS watched videos of naturally signed DGS sentences which either ended with an expected or a (semantically) unexpected sign. Unexpected signs engendered a biphasic N400-late positivity pattern. Crucially, N400 onset preceded critical sign onset and was thus clearly elicited by properties of the transition phase. The comprehension system thereby clearly anticipated modality-specific information about the realization of the predicted semantic item. These results provide strong converging support for the application of forward models in language comprehension. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An amodal shared resource model of language-mediated visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Charles Smith

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Language-mediated visual attention describes the interaction of two fundamental components of the human cognitive system, language and vision. Within this paper we present an amodal shared resource model of language-mediated visual attention that offers a description of the information and processes involved in this complex multimodal behaviour and a potential explanation for how this ability is acquired. We demonstrate that the model is not only sufficient to account for the experimental effects of Visual World Paradigm studies but also that these effects are emergent properties of the architecture of the model itself, rather than requiring separate information processing channels or modular processing systems. The model provides an explicit description of the connection between the modality-specific input from language and vision and the distribution of eye gaze in language mediated visual attention. The paper concludes by discussing future applications for the model, specifically its potential for investigating the factors driving observed individual differences in language mediated eye gaze.

  9. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Cali, Corrado

    2015-07-14

    Advances for application of electron microscopy to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions (3D). From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here, we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room where we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of electron microscopy (EM) preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to observe a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. CVXPY: A Python-Embedded Modeling Language for Convex Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Steven; Boyd, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    CVXPY is a domain-specific language for convex optimization embedded in Python. It allows the user to express convex optimization problems in a natural syntax that follows the math, rather than in the restrictive standard form required by solvers. CVXPY makes it easy to combine convex optimization with high-level features of Python such as parallelism and object-oriented design. CVXPY is available at http://www.cvxpy.org/ under the GPL license, along with documentation and examples.

  11. CVXPY: A Python-Embedded Modeling Language for Convex Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Steven; Boyd, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    CVXPY is a domain-specific language for convex optimization embedded in Python. It allows the user to express convex optimization problems in a natural syntax that follows the math, rather than in the restrictive standard form required by solvers. CVXPY makes it easy to combine convex optimization with high-level features of Python such as parallelism and object-oriented design. CVXPY is available at http://www.cvxpy.org/ under the GPL license, along with documentation and examples.

  12. Applied virtual reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, I.Y.; Lee, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    An early experience in deploying a manipulator to the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling Cell at Torness Power Station, quickly highlighted that special visualisation techniques were required to achieve a successful deployment and reduce plant system down time. This visualisation was later realised through the IGRIP software pakcage operating on a Silicon Graphics computing engine, which provides a 'Non-Immersive' Virtual Reality environment. Within this environment, models of the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling cell were generated along with a model of the manipulator, allowing manipulator deployment to the Irradiated Fuel Dismantling Cell be modelled. It is estimated that the first use of this new environment provided a significant saving to Scottish Nuclear in potential lost output. The use of this virtual reality environment is currently being extended into the design and deployment of a new manipulator for Torness in vessel inspection, the Boiler Inspection Manipulator. (author)

  13. Compulsory African languages in tertiary education: prejudices from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... of African languages, in reality more has to be done if policy provisions are to be realised. ... of language attitude planning and that existing resources at universities should be ...

  14. Language learning apps or games: an investigation utilizing the RETAIN model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda A. Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Combining games with mobile devices can promote learning opportunities at the learners' fingertips and enable ubiquitous learning experiences. As teachers increasingly assign games to reinforce language learning, it becomes essential to evaluate how effective these applications are in helping students learn the content or develop the skills that the games are reinforcing. This article examines two English language learning apps under the RETAIN model (GUNTER; KENNY; VICK, 2008. The findings indicate that although these apps offer some language learning opportunities, they do not present scenario-based quality or gameplay, among other elements, if they are to be considered games.

  15. SPECIFIC USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN A BLENDED MODEL OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Kameneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the role and analyzes specificity of the use of information technology in a mixed model of learning foreign languages in higher educational institutions. The authors also describe such forms of e-learning as a webinar, seminar videos, video conferencing, case-technology. The ways of overcoming difficulties in learning foreign languages, which the students can face when using distance learning technologies, are indicated. The positive experience of using E-learning System «Virtual Campus» in the teaching foreign languages at the Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics is mentioned.

  16. Using the SIOP Model for Effective Content Teaching with Second and Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareva, Veronika; Echevarria, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive model of instruction for providing consistent, high quality teaching to L2 students. This model, the SIOP Model (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol), provides an explicit framework for organizing instructional practices to optimize the effectiveness of teaching second and foreign language learners.…

  17. Basis of a formal language for facilitating communication among climate modelers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elia, Ramon de [Climate Analysis Team, Consortium Ouranos, Montreal, QC (Canada); Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Centre ESCER, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-08-15

    The objective of this work is to present the basis for a formal language that aims to express in a concise way some fundamental beliefs held within the climate research community. The expression of this set of beliefs takes the form of relations, conjectures or propositions that describe characteristics of different aspects of climate modeling. Examples are constructed using topics that are much discussed within the climate modeling community. The article first introduces, as elements of this formal language, models considered a priori (the model as a code or algorithm) or a posteriori (the model as output), and then presents different relations between these elements. The most important relation is that of dominance, which helps to define the superiority of one model over another based on which model a rational agent will choose. Various kinds of dominance are considered. Also presented in a formal language are propositions and conjectures relating to model development, model calibration and climate change ensemble projections, each of which are held with diverse levels of acceptance within the climate modeling community. In addition, the relevance of defining elements - models - whose existence is improbable, such as bug-free model versions, is discussed. Although the potential value of this language is shown, there remains a need to improve the definitions presented here, as some of them remain unsatisfying. Still, we believe that this attempt may help us not only communicate more clearly but also to better distinguish different schools of thought that currently exist within the community. (orig.)

  18. A Domain-Specific Language for Generic Interlocking Models and Their Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    of this work is to provide a domain-specific language for generic models and an instantiator tool taking not only configuration data but also a generic model as input instead of using a hard-coded generator for instantiating only one fixed generic model and its properties with configuration data....

  19. Effects of the teach-model-coach-review instructional approach on caregiver use of language support strategies and children's expressive language skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Y; Kaiser, Ann P; Wolfe, Cathy E; Bryant, Julie D; Spidalieri, Alexandria M

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the authors examined the effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach on caregivers' use of four enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) language support strategies and on their children's use of expressive language. Four caregiver-child dyads participated in a single-subject, multiple-baseline study. Children were between 24 and 42 months of age and had language impairment. Interventionists used the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach to teach caregivers to use matched turns, expansions, time delays, and milieu teaching prompts during 24 individualized clinic sessions. Caregiver use of each EMT language support strategy and child use of communication targets were the dependent variables. The caregivers demonstrated increases in their use of each EMT language support strategy after instruction. Generalization and maintenance of strategy use to the home was limited, indicating that teaching across routines is necessary to achieve maximal outcomes. All children demonstrated gains in their use of communication targets and in their performance on norm-referenced measures of language. The results indicate that the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach resulted in increased use of EMT language support strategies by caregivers. Caregiver use of these strategies was associated with positive changes in child language skills.

  20. Modeling object pursuit for 3D interactive tasks in virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Liere, van R.

    2011-01-01

    Models of interaction tasks are quantitative descriptions of relationships between human temporal performance and the spatial characteristics of the interactive tasks. Examples include Fitts' law for modeling the pointing task and Accot and Zhai's steering law for the path steering task, etc. Models

  1. Finite Element Methods for real-time Haptic Feedback of Soft-Tissue Models in Virtual Reality Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Andreas O.; Twombly, I. Alexander; Barth, Timothy J.; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have applied the linear elastic finite element method to compute haptic force feedback and domain deformations of soft tissue models for use in virtual reality simulators. Our results show that, for virtual object models of high-resolution 3D data (>10,000 nodes), haptic real time computations (>500 Hz) are not currently possible using traditional methods. Current research efforts are focused in the following areas: 1) efficient implementation of fully adaptive multi-resolution methods and 2) multi-resolution methods with specialized basis functions to capture the singularity at the haptic interface (point loading). To achieve real time computations, we propose parallel processing of a Jacobi preconditioned conjugate gradient method applied to a reduced system of equations resulting from surface domain decomposition. This can effectively be achieved using reconfigurable computing systems such as field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), thereby providing a flexible solution that allows for new FPGA implementations as improved algorithms become available. The resulting soft tissue simulation system would meet NASA Virtual Glovebox requirements and, at the same time, provide a generalized simulation engine for any immersive environment application, such as biomedical/surgical procedures or interactive scientific applications.

  2. Mobile augmented reality applications for heritage preservation in UNESCO world heritage sites through adopting the UTAUT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Low Wei; Siang, Tan Gek; Zakaria, Mohd Hafiz bin; Emran, Muhammad Helmy

    2017-04-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology has undergone enormous advancement and now AR applications can be seamlessly executed using modern-day smartphones. This study aims to develop a mobile AR application which consists of 3D AR models of historical monuments located within the UNESCO World Heritage Site in Melaka. The application allows tourists to obtain information of the monuments from the AR models, which provide an alternative way of visiting the actual monuments to prevent overcrowding effect and promote heritage preservation. Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease of Use (PEU), Facilitating Conditions (FC), and Perceived Playfulness (PP) are proposed as the determinants of user's Behavioural Intention to Use (BI) the application. Using 50 tourists in Melaka as respondents, a pilot study has been conducted to determine user's acceptance of the AR mobile application based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). Cronbach's Alpha test validated the internal consistency of the measures. Multiple Linear Regression analysis suggested that the proposed determinants explained 51.2% in user's BI the application. PU was the strongest determinant followed by FC while PEU and PP were found to be insignificant.

  3. Development of an Augmented Reality environment for the assembly of a precast wood-frame wall using the BIM model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina Mizrahy Cuperschmid

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents the development of an Augmented Reality (AR application to assist in the assembly of a precast wood-frame wall, based on the BIM model of the wall execution sequence. The research study used the Design Science Research approach and its aim was to develop an AR application named "montAR" (version 2.0. This application offers a tutorial that combines a wall model visualized in AR in actual scale, followed by an audio with step-by-step instructions of the assembly process. Its applicability was simulated in a laboratory with the participation of volunteers (architecture and engineering students. Two visualization gadgets were used and compared: smartphones and smart glasses. The potentialities and difficulties of the use of the AR system were assessed through a questionnaire answered by the participants and through direct observation and result analysis by the researchers. The results demonstrated the potential of using AR for precast wall assembly. From a technological innovation perspective, this study emphasizes the potential use of AR as a technology suitable for training and for construction quality control.

  4. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Pedagogical Model for Explicit Teaching of Reading Comprehension to English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Tiyb Al Khaiyali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension instruction is considered one of the major challenges that most English language teachers and students encounter. Therefore, providing a systematic, explicit, and flexible model to teaching reading comprehension strategies could help resolve some of these challenges and increase the possibility of teaching reading comprehension, particularly in language learners’ classrooms. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to provide a model to teach reading comprehension strategies in language learning classrooms. The proposed instructional model is divided into three systematic phases through which strategies are taught before reading, during reading, and after reading. Each phase is explained and elaborated using recommended models for teachers. Finally, suggested considerations to consolidate this model are provided.

  6. Virtual reality in surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T; Indelicato, D J; Rosen, J M

    2000-01-01

    Virtual reality in surgery and, more specifically, in surgical training, faces a number of challenges in the future. These challenges are building realistic models of the human body, creating interface tools to view, hear, touch, feel, and manipulate these human body models, and integrating virtual reality systems into medical education and treatment. A final system would encompass simulators specifically for surgery, performance machines, telemedicine, and telesurgery. Each of these areas will need significant improvement for virtual reality to impact medicine successfully in the next century. This article gives an overview of, and the challenges faced by, current systems in the fast-changing field of virtual reality technology, and provides a set of specific milestones for a truly realistic virtual human body.

  7. Model Problems in Technologies for Interoperability: OWL Web Ontology Language for Services (OWL-S)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metcalf, Chris; Lewis, Grace A

    2006-01-01

    .... The OWL Web Ontology Language for Services (OWL-S) is a language to describe the properties and capabilities of Web Services in such a way that the descriptions can be interpreted by a computer system in an automated manner. This technical note presents the results of applying the model problem approach to examine the feasibility of using OWL-S to allow applications to automatically discover, compose, and invoke services in a dynamic services-oriented environment.

  8. Content and Language Symbiosis in a Maieutic, Translanguaging Pattern (CLSL): An Exploratory Practice in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agolli, Renata

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce pre-CLIL through the CLSL (content & languages [L1/L2] shared learning) model, which operates as a bridge for a full CLIL immersion. It analyses the characteristics of this new learning model that springs up from immanent needs of Italian educational reality by reporting results on the way content and language…

  9. Macromolecular query language (MMQL): prototype data model and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindyalov, I N; Chang, W; Pu, C; Bourne, P E

    1994-11-01

    Macromolecular query language (MMQL) is an extensible interpretive language in which to pose questions concerning the experimental or derived features of the 3-D structure of biological macromolecules. MMQL portends to be intuitive with a simple syntax, so that from a user's perspective complex queries are easily written. A number of basic queries and a more complex query--determination of structures containing a five-strand Greek key motif--are presented to illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of the language. The predominant features of MMQL are a filter and pattern grammar which are combined to express a wide range of interesting biological queries. Filters permit the selection of object attributes, for example, compound name and resolution, whereas the patterns currently implemented query primary sequence, close contacts, hydrogen bonding, secondary structure, conformation and amino acid properties (volume, polarity, isoelectric point, hydrophobicity and different forms of exposure). MMQL queries are processed by MMQLlib; a C++ class library, to which new query methods and pattern types are easily added. The prototype implementation described uses PDBlib, another C(++)-based class library from representing the features of biological macromolecules at the level of detail parsable from a PDB file. Since PDBlib can represent data stored in relational and object-oriented databases, as well as PDB files, once these data are loaded they too can be queried by MMQL. Performance metrics are given for queries of PDB files for which all derived data are calculated at run time and compared to a preliminary version of OOPDB, a prototype object-oriented database with a schema based on a persistent version of PDBlib which offers more efficient data access and the potential to maintain derived information. MMQLlib, PDBlib and associated software are available via anonymous ftp from cuhhca.hhmi.columbia.edu.

  10. Hybrid parallel execution model for logic-based specification languages

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Jeffrey J P

    2001-01-01

    Parallel processing is a very important technique for improving the performance of various software development and maintenance activities. The purpose of this book is to introduce important techniques for parallel executation of high-level specifications of software systems. These techniques are very useful for the construction, analysis, and transformation of reliable large-scale and complex software systems. Contents: Current Approaches; Overview of the New Approach; FRORL Requirements Specification Language and Its Decomposition; Rewriting and Data Dependency, Control Flow Analysis of a Lo

  11. Coping with Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    Abstract: Despite the fact that The General Theory of Theory of Interest, Employment and Income (GT) is a highly theoretical work, Keynes tries to make his theory as realistic as possible. In this paper it is analyzed how. This is done by identifying selected quotations in which Keynes either exp...... of economic reality and by making empirically based assumptions rather than assumptions consistent to a theoretical model. If economic textbooks were to apply the same stringent principles not much would be left…...

  12. Genetic biasing through cultural transmission: do simple Bayesian models of language evolution generalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediu, Dan

    2009-08-07

    The recent Bayesian approaches to language evolution and change seem to suggest that genetic biases can impact on the characteristics of language, but, at the same time, that its cultural transmission can partially free it from these same genetic constraints. One of the current debates centres on the striking differences between sampling and a posteriori maximising Bayesian learners, with the first converging on the prior bias while the latter allows a certain freedom to language evolution. The present paper shows that this difference disappears if populations more complex than a single teacher and a single learner are considered, with the resulting behaviours more similar to the sampler. This suggests that generalisations based on the language produced by Bayesian agents in such homogeneous single agent chains are not warranted. It is not clear which of the assumptions in such models are responsible, but these findings seem to support the rising concerns on the validity of the "acquisitionist" assumption, whereby the locus of language change and evolution is taken to be the first language acquirers (children) as opposed to the competent language users (the adults).

  13. Definition of an Object-Oriented Modeling Language for Enterprise Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Lê, Lam Son; Wegmann, Alain

    2005-01-01

    In enterprise architecture, the goal is to integrate business resources and IT resources in order to improve an enterprises competitiveness. In an enterprise architecture project, the development team usually constructs a model that represents the enterprise: the enterprise model. In this paper, we present a modeling language for building such enterprise models. Our enterprise models are hierarchical object-oriented representations of the enterprises. This paper presents the foundations of o...

  14. Brain-computer interface with language model-electroencephalography fusion for locked-in syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, Barry S; Orhan, Umut; Roark, Brian; Erdogmus, Deniz; Fowler, Andrew; Mooney, Aimee; Peters, Betts; Miller, Meghan; Fried-Oken, Melanie B

    2014-05-01

    Some noninvasive brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are currently available for locked-in syndrome (LIS) but none have incorporated a statistical language model during text generation. To begin to address the communication needs of individuals with LIS using a noninvasive BCI that involves rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of symbols and a unique classifier with electroencephalography (EEG) and language model fusion. The RSVP Keyboard was developed with several unique features. Individual letters are presented at 2.5 per second. Computer classification of letters as targets or nontargets based on EEG is performed using machine learning that incorporates a language model for letter prediction via Bayesian fusion enabling targets to be presented only 1 to 4 times. Nine participants with LIS and 9 healthy controls were enrolled. After screening, subjects first calibrated the system, and then completed a series of balanced word generation mastery tasks that were designed with 5 incremental levels of difficulty, which increased by selecting phrases for which the utility of the language model decreased naturally. Six participants with LIS and 9 controls completed the experiment. All LIS participants successfully mastered spelling at level 1 and one subject achieved level 5. Six of 9 control participants achieved level 5. Individuals who have incomplete LIS may benefit from an EEG-based BCI system, which relies on EEG classification and a statistical language model. Steps to further improve the system are discussed.

  15. An analytic solution of a model of language competition with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Espinar, M. V.; Seoane, L. F.; Nieto, J. J.; Mira, J.

    2013-12-01

    An in-depth analytic study of a model of language dynamics is presented: a model which tackles the problem of the coexistence of two languages within a closed community of speakers taking into account bilingualism and incorporating a parameter to measure the distance between languages. After previous numerical simulations, the model yielded that coexistence might lead to survival of both languages within monolingual speakers along with a bilingual community or to extinction of the weakest tongue depending on different parameters. In this paper, such study is closed with thorough analytical calculations to settle the results in a robust way and previous results are refined with some modifications. From the present analysis it is possible to almost completely assay the number and nature of the equilibrium points of the model, which depend on its parameters, as well as to build a phase space based on them. Also, we obtain conclusions on the way the languages evolve with time. Our rigorous considerations also suggest ways to further improve the model and facilitate the comparison of its consequences with those from other approaches or with real data.

  16. Erroneous Realities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in a transnational Fortune 50 company headquarters' environmental management team, this paper opens up a range of situations that took part in enacting the company's carbon footprint. Common to all these situations is that the environmental realities enacted have......, order, infra-critique) as well as with these two authors intends to contribute to the identification and problematisation of the theoretical and political “mechanics” in the ontological turn.......-order critique may be generated with these scholars' work. By focussing on the capacities and modes of critique, the paper questions the character of the political in these authors' versions of ontological and ontic politics. This comparison of the possibilities and modes of criticising within the field (first...

  17. Cognitive processes and neural basis of language switching: proposal of a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2009-12-09

    Although studies on bilingualism are abundant, cognitive processes and neural foundations of language switching received less attention. The aim of our study is to provide new insights to this still open question: do dedicated region(s) for language switching exist or is this function underlain by a distributed circuit of interconnected brain areas, part of a more general cognitive system? On the basis of recent behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies, we propose an original 'hodological' model of language switching. This process might be subserved by a large-scale cortico-subcortical network, with an executive system (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulum, caudate nucleus) controlling a more dedicated language subcircuit, which involves postero-temporal areas, supramarginal and angular gyri, Broca's area, and the superior longitudinal fasciculus.

  18. Linguistic Models at the Crossroads of Agents, Learning and Formal Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor BECERRA-BONACHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reviewing the most relevant linguistic applications developed in the intersection between three different fields: machine learning, formal language theory and agent technologies. On the one hand, we present some of the main linguistic contributions of the intersection between machine learning and formal languages, which constitutes a well-established research area known as Grammatical Inference. On the other hand, we present an overview of the main linguistic applications of models developed in the intersection between agent technologies and formal languages, such as colonies, grammar systems and eco-grammar systems. Our goal is to show how interdisciplinary research between these three fields can contribute to better understand how natural language is acquired and processed.

  19. Development of clinical contents model markup language for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Sun-Ju; Kim, Yoon

    2012-09-01

    To develop dedicated markup language for clinical contents models (CCM) to facilitate the active use of CCM in electronic health record systems. Based on analysis of the structure and characteristics of CCM in the clinical domain, we designed extensible markup language (XML) based CCM markup language (CCML) schema manually. CCML faithfully reflects CCM in both the syntactic and semantic aspects. As this language is based on XML, it can be expressed and processed in computer systems and can be used in a technology-neutral way. CCML HAS THE FOLLOWING STRENGTHS: it is machine-readable and highly human-readable, it does not require a dedicated parser, and it can be applied for existing electronic health record systems.

  20. Models of language: towards a practice-based account of information in natural language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrade-Lotero, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Edgar Andrade-Lotero onderzocht twee modellen van taalkundige informatie. Hij richt zich met name op de filosofische vooronderstellingen van deze modellen. Eén van deze modellen is afkomstig uit de formele semantiek; het andere model is gebaseerd op een specifiek onderzoek naar de rol van tekens in

  1. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility. We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition model can aim to be cognitively plausible in multiple ways. We discuss these cognitive plausibility checkpoints generally and then apply them to a case study in word segmentation, investigating a promising Bayesian segmentation strategy. We incorporate cognitive plausibility by using an age-appropriate unit of perceptual representation, evaluating the model output in terms of its utility, and incorporating cognitive constraints into the inference process. Our more cognitively plausible model shows a beneficial effect of cognitive constraints on segmentation performance. One interpretation of this effect is as a synergy between the naive theories of language structure that infants may have and the cognitive constraints that limit the fidelity of their inference processes, where less accurate inference approximations are better when the underlying assumptions about how words are generated are less accurate. More generally, these results highlight the utility of incorporating cognitive plausibility more fully into computational models of language acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. A Metadata Model for E-Learning Coordination through Semantic Web Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elci, Atilla

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a study aiming to develop a metadata model for e-learning coordination based on semantic web languages. A survey of e-learning modes are done initially in order to identify content such as phases, activities, data schema, rules and relations, etc. relevant for a coordination model. In this respect, the study looks into the…

  3. A Blended Learning Model for Teaching Reading in English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkour, Islam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a blended learning model to be used in Egyptian schools when teaching reading classes in English as a foreign language. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part outlines the Egyptian context and describes the target learners. The second part describes the suggested blended learning model, which is…

  4. Assembly language program design used in model DD80 multifunction microcomputer multichannel analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiziang, Wei; Ying, Chen; Xide, Zhao

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes the structures, features, flowcharts and design considerations of assembly language program used in Model DD80 (FH1920) multifunction microcomputer multichannel analyzer. On the Model TRS-80 (I) microcomputer with DD80 multifunction interface this program can be used in spectrum data acquisition, spectrum live display and some spectrum data processing.

  5. Modelling the phonotactic structure of natural language words with simple recurrent networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoianov, [No Value; Nerbonne, J; Bouma, H; Coppen, PA; vanHalteren, H; Teunissen, L

    1998-01-01

    Simple Recurrent Networks (SRN) are Neural Network (connectionist) models able to process natural language. Phonotactics concerns the order of symbols in words. We continued an earlier unsuccessful trial to model the phonotactics of Dutch words with SRNs. In order to overcome the previously reported

  6. The assembly language program design used in model DD80 multifunction microcomputer multichannel analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yiziang; Chen Ying; Zhao Xide

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the structures, features, flowcharts and design considerations of assembly language program used in Model DD80 (FH1920) multifunction microcomputer multichannel analyzer. On the Model TRS-80 (I) microcomputer with DD80 multifunction interface this program can be used in spectrum data acquisition, spectrum live display and some spectrum data processing

  7. Surgery applications of virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Virtual reality is a computer-generated technology which allows information to be displayed in a simulated, bus lifelike, environment. In this simulated 'world', users can move and interact as if they were actually a part of that world. This new technology will be useful in many different fields, including the field of surgery. Virtual reality systems can be used to teach surgical anatomy, diagnose surgical problems, plan operations, simulate and perform surgical procedures (telesurgery), and predict the outcomes of surgery. The authors of this paper describe the basic components of a virtual reality surgical system. These components include: the virtual world, the virtual tools, the anatomical model, the software platform, the host computer, the interface, and the head-coupled display. In the chapter they also review the progress towards using virtual reality for surgical training, planning, telesurgery, and predicting outcomes. Finally, the authors present a training system being developed for the practice of new procedures in abdominal surgery.

  8. Coupled dynamics of node and link states in complex networks: a model for language competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; Miguel, Maxi San

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by language competition processes, we present a model of coupled evolution of node and link states. In particular, we focus on the interplay between the use of a language and the preference or attitude of the speakers towards it, which we model, respectively, as a property of the interactions between speakers (a link state) and as a property of the speakers themselves (a node state). Furthermore, we restrict our attention to the case of two socially equivalent languages and to socially inspired network topologies based on a mechanism of triadic closure. As opposed to most of the previous literature, where language extinction is an inevitable outcome of the dynamics, we find a broad range of possible asymptotic configurations, which we classify as: frozen extinction states, frozen coexistence states, and dynamically trapped coexistence states. Moreover, metastable coexistence states with very long survival times and displaying a non-trivial dynamics are found to be abundant. Interestingly, a system size scaling analysis shows, on the one hand, that the probability of language extinction vanishes exponentially for increasing system sizes and, on the other hand, that the time scale of survival of the non-trivial dynamical metastable states increases linearly with the size of the system. Thus, non-trivial dynamical coexistence is the only possible outcome for large enough systems. Finally, we show how this coexistence is characterized by one of the languages becoming clearly predominant while the other one becomes increasingly confined to ‘ghetto-like’ structures: small groups of bilingual speakers arranged in triangles, with a strong preference for the minority language, and using it for their intra-group interactions while they switch to the predominant language for communications with the rest of the population. (paper)

  9. Augmented reality system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2010-08-01

    In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR)[1][2][3] is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.

  10. Modelling gesture use and early language development in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, Stacy S; Mead, Danielle L; Swineford, Lauren; Thurm, Audrey

    2017-09-01

    Nonverbal communication abilities, including gesture use, are impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about how common gestures may influence or be influenced by other areas of development. To examine the relationships between gesture, fine motor and language in young children with ASD compared with a comparison group using multiple measures and methods in a structural equation modelling framework. Participants included 110 children with ASD and a non-ASD comparison group of 87 children (that included children with developmental delays (DD) or typical development (TD)), from 12 to 48 months of age. A construct of gesture use as measured by the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales-Developmental Profile Caregiver Questionnaire (CQ) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), as well as fine motor from the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) was examined using second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A series of structural equation models then examined concurrent relationships between the aforementioned latent gesture construct and expressive and receptive language. A series of hierarchical regression analyses was run in a subsample of 36 children with ASD with longitudinal data to determine how gesture factor scores predicted later language outcomes. Across study groups, the gesture CFA model with indicators of gesture use from both the CQ (parent-reported) and ADOS (direct observation), and measures of fine motor provided good fit with all indicators significantly and strongly loading onto one gesture factor. This model of gesture use, controlling for age, was found to correlate strongly with concurrent expressive and receptive language. The correlations between gestures and concurrent language were similar in magnitude in both the ASD and non-ASD groups. In the longitudinal subsample of children with ASD, gestures at time 1 predicted later receptive (but not

  11. Virtual Reality Hysteroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy

    1996-08-01

    New interactive computer technologies are having a significant influence on medical education, training, and practice. The newest innovation in computer technology, virtual reality, allows an individual to be immersed in a dynamic computer-generated, three-dimensional environment and can provide realistic simulations of surgical procedures. A new virtual reality hysteroscope passes through a sensing device that synchronizes movements with a three-dimensional model of a uterus. Force feedback is incorporated into this model, so the user actually experiences the collision of an instrument against the uterine wall or the sensation of the resistance or drag of a resectoscope as it cuts through a myoma in a virtual environment. A variety of intrauterine pathologies and procedures are simulated, including hyperplasia, cancer, resection of a uterine septum, polyp, or myoma, and endometrial ablation. This technology will be incorporated into comprehensive training programs that will objectively assess hand-eye coordination and procedural skills. It is possible that by incorporating virtual reality into hysteroscopic training programs, a decrease in the learning curve and the number of complications presently associated with the procedures may be realized. Prospective studies are required to assess these potential benefits.

  12. A model for Social Communication And Language Evolution and Development (SCALED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Bambini, Valentina

    2014-10-01

    In humans, brain connectivity implements a system for language and communication that spans from basic pre-linguistic social abilities shared with non-human primates to syntactic and pragmatic functions particular to our species. The arcuate fasciculus is a central connection in this architecture, linking regions devoted to formal aspects of language with regions involved in intentional and social communication. Here, we outline a new anatomical model of communication that incorporates previous neurofunctional accounts of language with recent advances in tractography and neuropragmatics. The model consists of five levels, from the representation of informative actions and communicative intentions, to lexical/semantic processing, syntactic analysis, and pragmatic integration. The structure of the model is hierarchical in relation to developmental and evolutionary trajectories and it may help interpreting clinico-anatomical correlation in communication disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Implementation of Markerless Augmented Reality Technology Based on Android to Introduction Lontara in Marine Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumarlis, Mila; Mirfan, Mirfan

    2018-05-01

    Local language learning had been leaving by people especially young people had affected technology advances so that involved lack of interest to learn culture especially local language. So required interactive and interest learning media for introduction Lontara. This research aims to design and implement augmented reality on introduction Lontara on mobile device especially android. Application of introduction Lontara based on Android was designed by Vuforia and Unity. Data collection method were observation, interview, and literature review. That data was analysed for being information. The system was designed by Unified Modeling Language (UML). The method used is a marker. The test result found that application of Augmented Reality on introduction Lontara based on Android could improve public interest for introducing local language particularly young people in learning about Lontara because of using technology. Application of introduction of Lontara based on Android used augmented reality occurred sound and how to write Lontara with animation. This application could be running without an internet connection, so that its used more efficient and could maximize from user.

  14. Implementing Marzano's Model: The Reality of Educational Leadership and School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveny, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Federal and state guidelines for school reform dominate the landscape of public education. Florida and its school districts, as a Race to the Top state, are in the process of fully implementing a value-added model of teacher evaluation. Effective school leaders are calling upon the theoretical framework of transformational, visionary and…

  15. A method of LED free-form tilted lens rapid modeling based on scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yidan

    2017-10-01

    According to nonimaging optical principle and traditional LED free-form surface lens, a new kind of LED free-form tilted lens was designed. And a method of rapid modeling based on Scheme language was proposed. The mesh division method was applied to obtain the corresponding surface configuration according to the character of the light source and the desired energy distribution on the illumination plane. Then 3D modeling software and the Scheme language programming are used to generate lens model respectively. With the help of optical simulation software, a light source with the size of 1mm*1mm*1mm in volume is used in experiment, and the lateral migration distance of illumination area is 0.5m, in which total one million rays are computed. We could acquire the simulated results of both models. The simulated output result shows that the Scheme language can prevent the model deformation problems caused by the process of the model transfer, and the degree of illumination uniformity is reached to 82%, and the offset angle is 26°. Also, the efficiency of modeling process is greatly increased by using Scheme language.

  16. Do we really use rainfall observations consistent with reality in hydrological modelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Follain, Stéphane; Raclot, Damien; Crabit, Armand; Pastor, Amandine; Moussa, Roger; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2017-04-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns in rainfall control how water reaches soil surface and interacts with soil properties (i.e., soil wetting, infiltration, saturation). Once a hydrological event is defined by a rainfall with its spatiotemporal variability and by some environmental parameters such as soil properties (including land use, topographic and anthropic features), the evidence shows that each parameter variation produces different, specific outputs (e.g., runoff, flooding etc.). In this study, we focus on the effect of rainfall patterns because, due to the difficulty to dispose of detailed data, their influence in modelling is frequently underestimated or neglected. A rainfall event affects a catchment non uniformly, it is spatially localized and its pattern moves in space and time. The way and the time how the water reaches the soil and saturates it respect to the geometry of the catchment deeply influences soil saturation, runoff, and then sediment delivery. This research, approaching a hypothetical, simple case, aims to stimulate the debate on the reliability of the rainfall quality used in hydrological / soil erosion modelling. We test on a small catchment of the south of France (Roujan, Languedoc Roussillon) the influence of rainfall variability with the use of a HD hybrid hydrological - soil erosion model, combining a cinematic wave with the St. Venant equation and a simplified "bucket" conceptual model for ground water, able to quantify the effect of different spatiotemporal patterns of a very-high-definition synthetic rainfall. Results indicate that rainfall spatiotemporal patterns are crucial simulating an erosive event: differences between spatially uniform rainfalls, as frequently adopted in simulations, and some hypothetical rainfall patterns here applied, reveal that the outcome of a simulated event can be highly underestimated.

  17. The reality behind the assumptions: Modelling and simulation support for the SAAF

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available : Modelling and simulation support for the SAAF Kavendra Naidoo Military Aerospace Trends & Strategy Military aerospace trends • National security includes other dimensions: social, economic development, environmental, energy security, etc.... • Military budgets constrained • Changing nature of the threat, asymmetric, non-conventional, innovative, etc. • Proliferation and availability of technology, information, skills and experience • Defence Review: official strategy to respond to global...

  18. The reality behind the assumptions: Modelling and simulation support for the SAAF

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available the required depth of know-how to support and upgrade technologies. 52. Having a strong DSET will further allow the Defence Force to leverage the capabilities of the national SET spectrum to meet future defence demands. Modelling.... • Military budgets constrained • Changing nature of the threat, asymmetric, non-conventional, innovative, etc. • Proliferation and availability of technology, information, skills and experience • Defence Review: official strategy to respond to global...

  19. A goal-oriented requirements modelling language for enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Engelsman, W.; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for enterprise architecture, such as TOGAF, acknowledge the importance of requirements engineering in the development of enterprise architectures. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. Current modelling techniques for

  20. Model-Based Requirements Management in Gear Systems Design Based On Graph-Based Design Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, a wide-spread consensus concerning the enormous importance of an in-depth clarification of the specifications of a product has been observed. A weak clarification of specifications is repeatedly listed as a main cause for the failure of product development projects. Requirements, which can be defined as the purpose, goals, constraints, and criteria associated with a product development project, play a central role in the clarification of specifications. The collection of activities which ensure that requirements are identified, documented, maintained, communicated, and traced throughout the life cycle of a system, product, or service can be referred to as “requirements engineering”. These activities can be supported by a collection and combination of strategies, methods, and tools which are appropriate for the clarification of specifications. Numerous publications describe the strategy and the components of requirements management. Furthermore, recent research investigates its industrial application. Simultaneously, promising developments of graph-based design languages for a holistic digital representation of the product life cycle are presented. Current developments realize graph-based languages by the diagrams of the Unified Modelling Language (UML, and allow the automatic generation and evaluation of multiple product variants. The research presented in this paper seeks to present a method in order to combine the advantages of a conscious requirements management process and graph-based design languages. Consequently, the main objective of this paper is the investigation of a model-based integration of requirements in a product development process by means of graph-based design languages. The research method is based on an in-depth analysis of an exemplary industrial product development, a gear system for so-called “Electrical Multiple Units” (EMU. Important requirements were abstracted from a gear system

  1. Implications of Multimodal Learning Models for foreign language teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Farías

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This literature review article approaches the topic of information and communications technologies from the perspective of their impact on the language learning process, with particular emphasis on the most appropriate designs of multimodal texts as informed by models of multimodal learning. The first part contextualizes multimodality within the fields of discourse studies, the psychology of learning and CALL; the second, deals with multimodal conceptions of reading and writing by discussing hypertextuality and literacy. A final section outlines the possible implications of multimodal learning models for foreign language teaching and learning.

  2. In Search of the Perfect Business Model: As personalized medicine moves into the mainstream, makers of diagnostics must face a new economic reality. How to develop a value proposition in a healthcare market that is becoming increasingly elastic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bob

    2012-01-01

    As personalized medicine edges toward the mainstream, economic realities threaten its existence. But without companion diagnostics, "getting the right drug to the right person" could wind up being just a slogan. What's the right business model?

  3. VMQL: A Visual Language for Ad-Hoc Model Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    In large scale model based development, analysis level models are more like knowledge bases than engineering artifacts. Their effectiveness depends, to a large degree, on the ability of domain experts to retrieve information from them ad hoc. For large scale models, however, existing query...

  4. Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Optimized animal model to mimic the reality of stress-induced depression in the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yuting; Lei, Hui; Wang, Lei; Xue, Liang; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2017-05-06

    Animal models are useful tools for verifying the relationship between stress and depression; however, an operational criterion for excluding the resilient animals from the analysis has not been established yet, which hinders the model's ability to more accurately mimic the scenario in humans. To induce depression-like symptoms, rats received maternal deprivation (MD) during PND1-14, and/or chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) exposure. The latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to determine latent subgroups in treatment naive adult rats. The percentile method was used to distinguish sensitive and non-sensitive behaviors in rats. The sucrose preference rate of treatment naive adult rats was fit using a Beta distribution, while immobility time was fit using a Gamma distribution. Indexes of behavioral tests revealed the 4-class model as the best fit for treatment naive adult rats. The incidence of stress-resilience in MD rats was significantly higher than that in CUS rats and MD + CUS rats. There was a significantly higher incidence of stress-resilience in CUS rats compared with MD + CUS rats. Recovery rate of anhedonia-like and sub anhedonia-like behaviors in CUS rats was significantly higher than that in MD and MD + CUS rats. There was a significantly higher recovery rate of anhedonia-like behaviors in MD rats compared to MD + CUS rats. The percentile method is suitable for setting up an operational cutoff to classify depression-like, sub depression-like, and resilient behaviors in rats exposed to MD and CUS.

  6. A general diagnostic model applied to language testing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias

    2008-11-01

    Probabilistic models with one or more latent variables are designed to report on a corresponding number of skills or cognitive attributes. Multidimensional skill profiles offer additional information beyond what a single test score can provide, if the reported skills can be identified and distinguished reliably. Many recent approaches to skill profile models are limited to dichotomous data and have made use of computationally intensive estimation methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo, since standard maximum likelihood (ML) estimation techniques were deemed infeasible. This paper presents a general diagnostic model (GDM) that can be estimated with standard ML techniques and applies to polytomous response variables as well as to skills with two or more proficiency levels. The paper uses one member of a larger class of diagnostic models, a compensatory diagnostic model for dichotomous and partial credit data. Many well-known models, such as univariate and multivariate versions of the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic item response theory model, the generalized partial credit model, as well as a variety of skill profile models, are special cases of this GDM. In addition to an introduction to this model, the paper presents a parameter recovery study using simulated data and an application to real data from the field test for TOEFL Internet-based testing.

  7. High Level Rule Modeling Language for Airline Crew Pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Erdal; Birbil, Ş. Ilker; Bülbül, Kerem; Yenigün, Hüsnü

    2011-09-01

    The crew pairing problem is an airline optimization problem where a set of least costly pairings (consecutive flights to be flown by a single crew) that covers every flight in a given flight network is sought. A pairing is defined by using a very complex set of feasibility rules imposed by international and national regulatory agencies, and also by the airline itself. The cost of a pairing is also defined by using complicated rules. When an optimization engine generates a sequence of flights from a given flight network, it has to check all these feasibility rules to ensure whether the sequence forms a valid pairing. Likewise, the engine needs to calculate the cost of the pairing by using certain rules. However, the rules used for checking the feasibility and calculating the costs are usually not static. Furthermore, the airline companies carry out what-if-type analyses through testing several alternate scenarios in each planning period. Therefore, embedding the implementation of feasibility checking and cost calculation rules into the source code of the optimization engine is not a practical approach. In this work, a high level language called ARUS is introduced for describing the feasibility and cost calculation rules. A compiler for ARUS is also implemented in this work to generate a dynamic link library to be used by crew pairing optimization engines.

  8. Language Learners or New Speakers: The Transfer of the Breton Diwan Immersion Education Model to the Lower Sorbian Witaj Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dołowy-Rybińska Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses several aspects of immersion and bilingual education systems in Brittany, France and in Lower Lusatia, Germany. Their role in the process of becoming a new speaker of a minority language is exemplified by the Diwan immersion education model in Brittany and the Witaj project in Lower Lusatia concerning the Sorbian people. Taking into consideration the different sociolinguistic situation of both groups, the level and reasons for language shift, the existing language policy in France and in Germany, both educational models are presented. I analyze some factors that influence the possible success or failure of these two models, such as: the linguistic environments, teaching systems, the roles of teachers, the minority language attitudes of pupils, their language practices, the availability of extracurricular activities in the minority language, and the existence of different types of communities of practice. All these factors influence pupils’ language choices and practices. Not all language learners will use a minority language in the future, since it depends on the conscious decision of each person. The distinction between language learners and minority language new speakers can thus be justified.

  9. Digital Revolution and Innovative Business Models in Healthcare: Global Trends and Russian Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereznoy, A V; Saygitov, R T

    Digital revolution is one of the major global trends resulting in the unprecedented scale and depth of penetration of information and communication technologies into all sectors of national economy, including healthcare. The development of this trend brought about high expectations related to the improvement of quality of medical assistance, accessibility and economic efficiency of healthcare services. However, euphoria of the first steps of digital revolution is passing now, opening doors to more realistic analysis of opportunities and conditions of realization of the true potential hidden in the digital transformation of healthcare. More balanced perception of the peculiarities of innovation processes in the sector is coming together with understanding of the serious barriers, hampering implementation of the new ideas and practices due to complicated interweaving of social, economic, ethical and psychological factors. When taking into account the industry specifics it becomes evident that digital revolution cannot be a quick turnaround but rather would pass a number of phases and is likely to last more than one decade. In this context the article focuses on the prospects of the new business models, capable of making significant changes in today’s economic landscape of the sector (including uber-medicine, retail clinics, retainer medicine, network models of medical services). The authors also provide assessment of the current situation and perspectives of digital healthcare development in Russia.

  10. Swiss and Dutch "consumer-driven health care": ideal model or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okma, Kieke G H; Crivelli, Luca

    2013-02-01

    This article addresses three topics. First, it reports on the international interest in the health care reforms of Switzerland and The Netherlands in the 1990s and early 2000s that operate under the label "managed competition" or "consumer-driven health care." Second, the article reviews the behavior assumptions that make plausible the case for the model of "managed competition." Third, it analyze the actual reform experience of Switzerland and Holland to assess to what extent they confirm the validity of those assumptions. The article concludes that there is a triple gap in understanding of those topics: a gap between the theoretical model of managed competition and the reforms as implemented in both Switzerland and The Netherlands; second, a gap between the expectations of policy-makers and the results of the reforms, and third, a gap between reform outcomes and the observations of external commentators that have embraced the reforms as the ultimate success of "consumer-driven health care." The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of this "triple gap". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reality Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Arvidsson

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen tager ’reality branding’ som udgangspunkt for at diskutere markedsføringens kultur- og livsstilsproducerende potentialer på en mediearena, hvor den kommercielle og hverdagslige virkelighed smelter sammen i virksomheders og konsumenters ’joint effort’ i at skabe meningsfyldte historier. Tankegangen er, at forbrugere har gennemskuet reklamernes mere eller mindre fantasifulde tegnkon- struktioner og forholder sig blasert til budskaberne. Som modsvar til denne ligegyldighed forsøger den moderne og avancerede markeds- føring at skabe nye involverende mediemiljøer og nye brugssituatio- ner for produktet – for eksempel er Polle fra Snave debuteret i film- mediet, og Starbucks skabte et nyt fysisk og symbolsk rum for kaffe og kaffedrikning så godt som uden hjælp af traditionel reklame. Artik- lens ærinde er at diskutere denne udvikling i markedsføringen – ikke ud fra traditionelle sociologiske og psykologiske antagelser om foran- dringer i mentalitetsformer, men ud fra en historisk belysning af mar- kedsføringens diskurser set i relation til udviklingen i mediesystemerne.

  12. A language-based approach to modelling and analysis of Twitter interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Alessandro; Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    More than a personal microblogging site, Twitter has been transformed by common use to an information publishing venue, which public characters, media channels and common people daily rely on for, e.g., news reporting and consumption, marketing, and social messaging. The use of Twitter...... in a cooperative and interactive setting calls for the precise awareness of the dynamics regulating message spreading. In this paper, we describe Twitlang, a language for modelling the interactions among Twitter accounts. The associated operational semantics allows users to precisely determine the effects...... of their actions on Twitter, such as post, reply-to or delete tweets. The language is implemented in the form of a Maude interpreter, Twitlanger, which takes a language term as an input and explores the computations arising from the term. By combining the strength of Twitlanger and the Maude model checker...

  13. Augmented reality services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Koubek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We assume that one of the key reasons is in the difference between a standalone application and a web service. Both architectures have some advantages and disadvantages. The Standalone application (e.g. Nokia/OVI Maps provides the required functionality. From the user point of view, main asset of this “offline” approach is network connectivity independence. However, this kind of applications must be upgraded manually. Moreover, it is hard to get any data about the application usage because it requires additional actions from the user – data are usually acquired through conventional ways, such as email or web forms.The online service such as Google Maps (including its mobile application can offer the same functionality as the offline application. Nevertheless, a permanent connection to provider servers is necessary. This can be taken as a drawback. On the other hand, usage data collection is easier and can be done without the user intervention. The data collection provides a valuable analysis basis of the user habits and needs. This analysis is necessary for design of a complex “user” based solutions such as Google Now.Augmented reality applications are usually based on the first mentioned approach. In this article, we describe our model of augmented reality as a service and compare its features with standalone solutions. Further, other important key aspects for large emergence of augmented reality services in a mainstream market are discussed.

  14. Modeling the Design Team as a Temporary Management Structure: Reality versus Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Michell

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the cost management literature is almost exclusively on technical issues, with scant attention to its social, political and organisational dimensions. In this paper the authors document research examining the design team as a temporary management structure, with emphasis on the efficacy of the cost management system as a vehicle for attaining client objectives with respect to time, cost and quality. Soft systems methodology is used to explore the perceptions of stakeholders to the cost management system, thus developing conceptual models of the theory and practice of cost management. Significant differences were found to exist between the perceptions of individual stakeholders concerning design team participants, participants’ roles, and the very purpose of the cost management system. Recommendations are made for structural, attitudinal and procedural changes to the cost management system in order to facilitate its effective functioning in the achievement of the client’s needs and objectives.

  15. Cell layer level generalized dynamic modeling of a PEMFC stack using VHDL-AMS language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Blunier, Benjamin; Miraoui, Abdellatif; El-Moudni, Abdellah [Transport and Systems Laboratory (SeT) - EA 3317/UTBM, University of Technology of Belfort-Montbeliard, Rue Thierry Mieg, 90000 Belfort (France)

    2009-07-15

    A generalized, cell layer scale proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack dynamic model is presented using VHDL-AMS (IEEE standard Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language-Analog and Mixed-Signal Extensions) modeling language. A PEMFC stack system is a complex energy conversion system that covers three main energy domains: electrical, fluidic and thermal. The first part of this work shows the performance and the advantages of VHDL-AMS language when modeling such a complex system. Then, using the VHDL-AMS modeling standards, an electrical domain model, a fluidic domain model and a thermal domain model of the PEMFC stack are coupled and presented together. Thus, a complete coupled multi-domain fuel cell stack 1-D dynamic model is given. The simulation results are then compared with a Ballard 1.2 kW NEXA fuel cell system, and show a great agreement between the simulation and experimentation. This complex multi-domain VHDL-AMS stack model can be used for a model based control design or a Hardware-In-the-Loop application. (author)

  16. Language Recognition Using Latent Dynamic Conditional Random Field Model with Phonological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirinoot Boonsuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language recognition (SLR has been of increasing interest in multilingual speech recognition for identifying the languages of speech utterances. Most existing SLR approaches apply statistical modeling techniques with acoustic and phonotactic features. Among the popular approaches, the acoustic approach has become of greater interest than others because it does not require any prior language-specific knowledge. Previous research on the acoustic approach has shown less interest in applying linguistic knowledge; it was only used as supplementary features, while the current state-of-the-art system assumes independency among features. This paper proposes an SLR system based on the latent-dynamic conditional random field (LDCRF model using phonological features (PFs. We use PFs to represent acoustic characteristics and linguistic knowledge. The LDCRF model was employed to capture the dynamics of the PFs sequences for language classification. Baseline systems were conducted to evaluate the features and methods including Gaussian mixture model (GMM based systems using PFs, GMM using cepstral features, and the CRF model using PFs. Evaluated on the NIST LRE 2007 corpus, the proposed method showed an improvement over the baseline systems. Additionally, it showed comparable result with the acoustic system based on i-vector. This research demonstrates that utilizing PFs can enhance the performance.

  17. Human processor modelling language (HPML): Estimate working memory load through interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler, J.; Scheben, C.

    2007-01-01

    To operate machines over their user interface may cause high load on human's working memory. This load can decrease performance in the working task significantly if this task is a cognitive challenging one, e. g. diagnosis. With the »Human Processor Modelling Language« (HPML) the interaction activity can be modelled with a directed graph. From such models a condensed indicator value for working memory load can be estimated. Thus different user interface solutions can get compared with respect...

  18. Optimal pacing strategy: from theoretical modelling to reality in 1500-m speed skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinga, F J; De Koning, J J; Schmidt, L J I; Wind, N A C; Macintosh, B R; Foster, C

    2011-01-01

    Athletes are trained to choose the pace which is perceived to be correct during a specific effort, such as the 1500-m speed skating competition. The purpose of the present study was to "override" self-paced (SP) performance by instructing athletes to execute a theoretically optimal pacing profile. Seven national-level speed-skaters performed a SP 1500-m which was analysed by obtaining velocity (every 100 m) and body position (every 200 m) with video to calculate total mechanical power output. Together with gross efficiency and aerobic kinetics, obtained in separate trials, data were used to calculate aerobic and anaerobic power output profiles. An energy flow model was applied to SP, simulating a range of pacing strategies, and a theoretically optimal pacing profile was imposed in a second race (IM). Final time for IM was ∼2 s slower than SP. Total power distribution per lap differed, with a higher power over the first 300 m for IM (637.0 (49.4) vs 612.5 (50.0) W). Anaerobic parameters did not differ. The faster first lap resulted in a higher aerodynamic drag coefficient and perhaps a less effective push-off. Experienced athletes have a well-developed performance template, and changing pacing strategy towards a theoretically optimal fast start protocol had negative consequences on speed-skating technique and did not result in better performance.

  19. Computational Modeling for Language Acquisition: A Tutorial With Syntactic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa S; Sprouse, Jon

    2015-06-01

    Given the growing prominence of computational modeling in the acquisition research community, we present a tutorial on how to use computational modeling to investigate learning strategies that underlie the acquisition process. This is useful for understanding both typical and atypical linguistic development. We provide a general overview of why modeling can be a particularly informative tool and some general considerations when creating a computational acquisition model. We then review a concrete example of a computational acquisition model for complex structural knowledge referred to as syntactic islands. This includes an overview of syntactic islands knowledge, a precise definition of the acquisition task being modeled, the modeling results, and how to meaningfully interpret those results in a way that is relevant for questions about knowledge representation and the learning process. Computational modeling is a powerful tool that can be used to understand linguistic development. The general approach presented here can be used to investigate any acquisition task and any learning strategy, provided both are precisely defined.

  20. SBRML: a markup language for associating systems biology data with models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Joseph O; Spasić, Irena; Paton, Norman W; Mendes, Pedro

    2010-04-01

    Research in systems biology is carried out through a combination of experiments and models. Several data standards have been adopted for representing models (Systems Biology Markup Language) and various types of relevant experimental data (such as FuGE and those of the Proteomics Standards Initiative). However, until now, there has been no standard way to associate a model and its entities to the corresponding datasets, or vice versa. Such a standard would provide a means to represent computational simulation results as well as to frame experimental data in the context of a particular model. Target applications include model-driven data analysis, parameter estimation, and sharing and archiving model simulations. We propose the Systems Biology Results Markup Language (SBRML), an XML-based language that associates a model with several datasets. Each dataset is represented as a series of values associated with model variables, and their corresponding parameter values. SBRML provides a flexible way of indexing the results to model parameter values, which supports both spreadsheet-like data and multidimensional data cubes. We present and discuss several examples of SBRML usage in applications such as enzyme kinetics, microarray gene expression and various types of simulation results. The XML Schema file for SBRML is available at http://www.comp-sys-bio.org/SBRML under the Academic Free License (AFL) v3.0.

  1. Web Based VRML Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.; Sarfraz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a method to connect VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java components in a Web page using EAI (External Authoring Interface), which makes it possible to interactively generate and edit VRML meshes. The meshes used are based on regular grids, to provide an interaction and modeling

  2. Generating Contextual Descriptions of Virtual Reality (VR) Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D. M.; Zaman, C. H.; Sutherland, A.

    2017-12-01

    Virtual reality holds great potential for science communication, education, and research. However, interfaces for manipulating data and environments in virtual worlds are limited and idiosyncratic. Furthermore, speech and vision are the primary modalities by which humans collect information about the world, but the linking of visual and natural language domains is a relatively new pursuit in computer vision. Machine learning techniques have been shown to be effective at image and speech classification, as well as at describing images with language (Karpathy 2016), but have not yet been used to describe potential actions. We propose a technique for creating a library of possible context-specific actions associated with 3D objects in immersive virtual worlds based on a novel dataset generated natively in virtual reality containing speech, image, gaze, and acceleration data. We will discuss the design and execution of a user study in virtual reality that enabled the collection and the development of this dataset. We will also discuss the development of a hybrid machine learning algorithm linking vision data with environmental affordances in natural language. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to develop a model which can generate interpretable verbal descriptions of possible actions associated with recognized 3D objects within immersive VR environments. This suggests promising applications for more intuitive user interfaces through voice interaction within 3D environments. It also demonstrates the potential to apply vast bodies of embodied and semantic knowledge to enrich user interaction within VR environments. This technology would allow for applications such as expert knowledge annotation of 3D environments, complex verbal data querying and object manipulation in virtual spaces, and computer-generated, dynamic 3D object affordances and functionality during simulations.

  3. An ontology model for nursing narratives with natural language generation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yul Ha; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Jeon, Eunjoo; Lee, Joo Yun; Jo, Soo Jung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an ontology model to generate nursing narratives as natural as human language from the entity-attribute-value triplets of a detailed clinical model using natural language generation technology. The model was based on the types of information and documentation time of the information along the nursing process. The typesof information are data characterizing the patient status, inferences made by the nurse from the patient data, and nursing actions selected by the nurse to change the patient status. This information was linked to the nursing process based on the time of documentation. We describe a case study illustrating the application of this model in an acute-care setting. The proposed model provides a strategy for designing an electronic nursing record system.

  4. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  5. Abs: a high-level modeling language for cloud-aware programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bezirgiannis (Nikolaos); F.S. de Boer (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCloud technology has become an invaluable tool to the IT business, because of its attractive economic model. Yet, from the programmers’ perspective, the development of cloud applications remains a major challenge. In this paper we introduce a programming language that allows Cloud

  6. Using the SIOP Model to Promote the Acquisition of Language and Science Concepts with English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Jana; Richards-Tutor, Catherine; Canges, Rebecca; Francis, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report findings from research through the Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching of English Language Learners (CREATE), a National Research and Development Center. In our study we examined the efficacy of a model of instruction for English learners, the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)…

  7. A User-Centered Educational Modeling Language Improving the Controllability of Learning Design Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendi, Asma; Bouhadada, Tahar; Bousbia, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Semiformal EMLs are developed to facilitate the adoption of educational modeling languages (EMLs) and to address practitioners' learning design concerns, such as reusability and readability. In this article, SDLD (Structure Dialogue Learning Design) is presented, which is a semiformal EML that aims to improve controllability of learning design…

  8. Fast N-Gram Language Model Look-Ahead for Decoders With Static Pronunciation Prefix Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Decoders that make use of token-passing restrict their search space by various types of token pruning. With use of the Language Model Look-Ahead (LMLA) technique it is possible to increase the number of tokens that can be pruned without loss of decoding precision. Unfortunately, for token passing

  9. OER "Produsage" as a Model to Support Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Teresa; Pasfield-Neofitou, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Language education faculty face myriad challenges in finding teaching resources that are suitable, of high quality, and allow for the modifications needed to meet the requirements of their course contexts and their learners. The article elaborates the grassroots model of "produsage" (a portmanteau of "production" and…

  10. Action and Language Mechanisms in the Brain: Data, Models and Neuroinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiuto, James J.; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Kemmerer, David; MacWhinney, Brian; Nielsen, Finn Årup; Oztop, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    We assess the challenges of studying action and language mechanisms in the brain, both singly and in relation to each other to provide a novel perspective on neuroinformatics, integrating the development of databases for encoding – separately or together – neurocomputational models and empirical data that serve systems and cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24234916

  11. Evaluation of Rule-based Modularization in Model Transformation Languages illustrated with ATL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Ivan; van den Berg, Klaas; Jouault, Frédéric

    This paper studies ways for modularizing transformation definitions in current rule-based model transformation languages. Two scenarios are shown in which the modular units are identified on the base of the relations between source and target metamodels and on the base of generic transformation

  12. Rule-based modularization in model transformation languages illustrated with ATL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Ivan; van den Berg, Klaas; Jouault, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies ways for modularizing transformation definitions in current rule-based model transformation languages. Two scenarios are shown in which the modular units are identified on the basis of relations between source and target metamodels and on the base of generic transformation

  13. Action and Language Mechanisms in the Brain: Data, Models and Neuroinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbib, Michael A.; Bonaiuto, James J.; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2014-01-01

    We assess the challenges of studying action and language mechanisms in the brain, both singly and in relation to each other to provide a novel perspective on neuroinformatics, integrating the development of databases for encoding - separately or together - neurocomputational models and empirical ...

  14. An object-oriented language-database integration model: The composition filters approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Vural, Sinan; Vural, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model, based on so-called object-composition filters, that uniformly integrates database-like features into an object-oriented language. The focus is on providing persistent dynamic data structures, data sharing, transactions, multiple views and associative access,

  15. Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling to Examine Factors Predicting English Language Students' Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Karen; ElAtia, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM), this study aimed to identify factors such as ESL/ELL/EAL status that would predict students' reading performance in an English language arts exam taken across Canada. Using data from the 2007 administration of the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) along with the accompanying surveys for students and…

  16. A Model of Motivation for Extensive Reading in Japanese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Burgh-Hirabe, Ryoko; Feryok, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that extensive reading (ER) has a positive influence on affect. Recent studies suggest that motivation for ER changes. This is in line with recent developments in second language (L2) motivation research that have highlighted the complex and dynamic nature of L2 motivation. This study presents a model of complex and…

  17. Assessment of Programming Language Learning Based on Peer Code Review Model: Implementation and Experience Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Hang; Feng, Yuqiang; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The traditional assessment approach, in which one single written examination counts toward a student's total score, no longer meets new demands of programming language education. Based on a peer code review process model, we developed an online assessment system called "EduPCR" and used a novel approach to assess the learning of computer…

  18. NDEA FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTITUTE PROGRAMS--THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW EDUCATIONAL MODEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AXELROD, JOSEPH

    FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTITUTE PROGRAMS, HAVING ADOPTED A STRUCTURE OUTSIDE OF THE DOMINANT MODEL IN EDUCATION, HIGHLIGHT WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE ESTABLISHED HIGHER EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND GIVE CLUES AS TO HOW IT MAY BE IMPROVED. THESE INSTITUTE PROGRAMS OFFER A PERSONALIZED ATMOSPHERE, WITH CURRICULAR UNITY, WHERE LEARNING IS MORE OF A GROUP ACTIVITY,…

  19. An Object-Oriented Language-Database Integration Model: The Composition-Filters Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Vural, S.; Vural, Sinan; Lehrmann Madsen, O.

    1992-01-01

    This paper introduces a new model, based on so-called object-composition filters, that uniformly integrates database-like features into an object-oriented language. The focus is on providing persistent dynamic data structures, data sharing, transactions, multiple views and associative access,

  20. The Reality of Virtual Reality Product Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Clark

    Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality are emerging areas of research and product development in enterprise companies. This talk will discuss industry standard tools and current areas of application in the commercial market. Attendees will gain insights into how to research, design, and (most importantly) ship, world class products. The presentation will recount the lessons learned to date developing a Virtual Reality tool to solve physics problems resulting from trying to perform aircraft maintenance on ships at sea.

  1. A Bayesian Model of Biases in Artificial Language Learning: The Case of a Word-Order Universal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian model of learning in a general type of artificial language-learning experiment in which learners are exposed to a mixture of grammars representing the variation present in real learners' input, particularly at times of language change. The modeling goal is to formalize and quantify hypothesized…

  2. Implications of the Declarative/Procedural Model for Improving Second Language Learning: The Role of Memory Enhancement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T.; Lovelett, Jarrett T.

    2018-01-01

    The declarative/procedural (DP) model posits that the learning, storage, and use of language critically depend on two learning and memory systems in the brain: declarative memory and procedural memory. Thus, on the basis of independent research on the memory systems, the model can generate specific and often novel predictions for language. Till…

  3. Instrument Motion Metrics for Laparoscopic Skills Assessment in Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Boel A; Chen, Chi-Ya; Noyes, Julie A; Ragle, Claude A

    2016-11-01

    To determine the construct and concurrent validity of instrument motion metrics for laparoscopic skills assessment in virtual reality and augmented reality simulators. Evaluation study. Veterinarian students (novice, n = 14) and veterinarians (experienced, n = 11) with no or variable laparoscopic experience. Participants' minimally invasive surgery (MIS) experience was determined by hospital records of MIS procedures performed in the Teaching Hospital. Basic laparoscopic skills were assessed by 5 tasks using a physical box trainer. Each participant completed 2 tasks for assessments in each type of simulator (virtual reality: bowel handling and cutting; augmented reality: object positioning and a pericardial window model). Motion metrics such as instrument path length, angle or drift, and economy of motion of each simulator were recorded. None of the motion metrics in a virtual reality simulator showed correlation with experience, or to the basic laparoscopic skills score. All metrics in augmented reality were significantly correlated with experience (time, instrument path, and economy of movement), except for the hand dominance metric. The basic laparoscopic skills score was correlated to all performance metrics in augmented reality. The augmented reality motion metrics differed between American College of Veterinary Surgeons diplomates and residents, whereas basic laparoscopic skills score and virtual reality metrics did not. Our results provide construct validity and concurrent validity for motion analysis metrics for an augmented reality system, whereas a virtual reality system was validated only for the time score. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Computer models versus reality: how well do in silico models currently predict the sensitization potential of a substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Anette; Schuster, Paul Xaver; Guth, Katharina; Worth, Andrew; Burton, Julien; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2013-12-01

    National legislations for the assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals are increasingly based on the globally harmonized system (GHS). In this study, experimental data on 55 non-sensitizing and 45 sensitizing chemicals were evaluated according to GHS criteria and used to test the performance of computer (in silico) models for the prediction of skin sensitization. Statistic models (Vega, Case Ultra, TOPKAT), mechanistic models (Toxtree, OECD (Q)SAR toolbox, DEREK) or a hybrid model (TIMES-SS) were evaluated. Between three and nine of the substances evaluated were found in the individual training sets of various models. Mechanism based models performed better than statistical models and gave better predictivities depending on the stringency of the domain definition. Best performance was achieved by TIMES-SS, with a perfect prediction, whereby only 16% of the substances were within its reliability domain. Some models offer modules for potency; however predictions did not correlate well with the GHS sensitization subcategory derived from the experimental data. In conclusion, although mechanistic models can be used to a certain degree under well-defined conditions, at the present, the in silico models are not sufficiently accurate for broad application to predict skin sensitization potentials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Cultural Diffusion Model for the Rise and Fall of Programming Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V

    2015-07-01

    Our interaction with complex computing machines is mediated by programming languages (PLs), which constitute one of the major innovations in the evolution of technology. PLs allow flexible, scalable, and fast use of hardware and are largely responsible for shaping the history of information technology since the rise of computers in the 1950s. The rapid growth and impact of computers were followed closely by the development of PLs. As occurs with natural, human languages, PLs have emerged and gone extinct. There has been always a diversity of coexisting PLs that compete somewhat while occupying special niches. Here we show that the statistical patterns of language adoption, rise, and fall can be accounted for by a simple model in which a set of programmers can use several PLs, decide to use existing PLs used by other programmers, or decide not to use them. Our results highlight the influence of strong communities of practice in the diffusion of PL innovations.

  6. Modelling "reality" in tectonics: Simulation of the mechanical evolution of the Jura Mountains-Molasse Basin system, and routes to forward-inverse modelling of fold thrust belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    be dealt with by conditioning the top surface of the model to "trend" towards the present day topographic profile along the cross section, in a crude proxy for erosion. In the case of the Jura-Molasse fold thrust belt, the basal boundary condition also very likely plays a significant role in the thrust-belts evolution. A large, extra component of regional basement uplift appears to have occurred across the Swiss Molasse and Jura, according to geological indicators like the present day position and altitude of Miocene marine sedimentary units. In general, the Jura-Molasse example is thus highly instructive in the difficulties of incorporating all necessary geological realities into a numerical forward model of a specific geological situation. Despite all this, we find that using a numerical forward model of minimal complexity (three rheological layers as opposed to at least eight suggested by the rheological stratigraphy of the chain) with no pre-existing weaknesses to predetermine locations of faults, we easily achieve a good facsimile of at least the distribution of shortening across the Jura-Molasse system. Localisation of shortening occurs on approximately similar numbers of major faults as in reality, and their positions in the section are also broadly similar to those known from field data. Dynamic parameters like stress evolution, recovered from the model, are also in broad agreement with paleostress level indicators from the Jura-Molasse. In our first experiments, we have used a grid of variations of basic mechanical parameters (friction of basal layer and strength of main, limestone unit) to map the model responses over a range of parameter space and search for the best fitting response. The potential to automate such searches and continuously optimise the fit to real data is clearly also there, given sufficient computer capacity. Hence, we can envisage a time when cross section balancing will be combined with and improved by a subsequent stage of forward

  7. Creating shared mental models: The support of visual language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landman, Renske B.; van den Broek, Egon; Gieskes, J.F.B.; Luo, Yuhua

    Cooperative design involves multiple stakeholders that often hold different ideas of the problem, the ways to solve it, and to its solutions (i.e., mental models; MM). These differences can result in miscommunication, misunderstanding, slower decision making processes, and less chance on cooperative

  8. Introducing the Collaborative Learning Modeling Language (ColeML)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    in this area, represented by, for example, the Workflow Management Coalition (Hollingsworth, 1995) and the very widespread standard Business Process Modeling and Notation (BPMN), has been criticized on the basis of research in knowledge work processes. Inspiration for ColeML is found in this research area...

  9. Shopping Behavior Recognition using a Language Modeling Analogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Shan, C.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic understanding and recognition of human shopping behavior has many potential applications, attracting an increasing interest inthe market- ing domain. The reliability and performance of the automatic recognition system is highly in uenced by the adopted theoretical model of behavior. In

  10. A MODELING AND SIMULATION LANGUAGE FOR BIOLOGICAL CELLS WITH COUPLED MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Endre; Glazier, James A

    2017-04-01

    Biological cells are the prototypical example of active matter. Cells sense and respond to mechanical, chemical and electrical environmental stimuli with a range of behaviors, including dynamic changes in morphology and mechanical properties, chemical uptake and secretion, cell differentiation, proliferation, death, and migration. Modeling and simulation of such dynamic phenomena poses a number of computational challenges. A modeling language describing cellular dynamics must naturally represent complex intra and extra-cellular spatial structures and coupled mechanical, chemical and electrical processes. Domain experts will find a modeling language most useful when it is based on concepts, terms and principles native to the problem domain. A compiler must then be able to generate an executable model from this physically motivated description. Finally, an executable model must efficiently calculate the time evolution of such dynamic and inhomogeneous phenomena. We present a spatial hybrid systems modeling language, compiler and mesh-free Lagrangian based simulation engine which will enable domain experts to define models using natural, biologically motivated constructs and to simulate time evolution of coupled cellular, mechanical and chemical processes acting on a time varying number of cells and their environment.

  11. Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) Representation in Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J; Lechevalier, D; Ak, R; Ferguson, M; Law, K H; Lee, Y-T T; Rachuri, S

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes Gaussian process regression (GPR) models presented in predictive model markup language (PMML). PMML is an extensible-markup-language (XML) -based standard language used to represent data-mining and predictive analytic models, as well as pre- and post-processed data. The previous PMML version, PMML 4.2, did not provide capabilities for representing probabilistic (stochastic) machine-learning algorithms that are widely used for constructing predictive models taking the associated uncertainties into consideration. The newly released PMML version 4.3, which includes the GPR model, provides new features: confidence bounds and distribution for the predictive estimations. Both features are needed to establish the foundation for uncertainty quantification analysis. Among various probabilistic machine-learning algorithms, GPR has been widely used for approximating a target function because of its capability of representing complex input and output relationships without predefining a set of basis functions, and predicting a target output with uncertainty quantification. GPR is being employed to various manufacturing data-analytics applications, which necessitates representing this model in a standardized form for easy and rapid employment. In this paper, we present a GPR model and its representation in PMML. Furthermore, we demonstrate a prototype using a real data set in the manufacturing domain.

  12. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that an intact cortical left hemisphere is crucial for language production. Recently, more credit is given to the right hemisphere and subcortical areas in the production of non-novel language, including formulaic language. John Hughlings Jackson (1874/1958, first described how propositional and non-propositional speech are differentially affected by neural impairment. Non-propositional language is often preserved following left hemisphere stroke even when aphasia is present (Code, 1982; Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006. With right hemisphere and subcortical stroke, formulaic language is reduced (Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Speedie et al., 1993. The dual process model of language competence states that propositional and non-propositional speech are processed differently in the brain, with novel speech controlled by the left hemisphere, and a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit modulating formulaic language (Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; 2012. Two studies of formulaic language will be presented as further evidence of the dual process model: a study of formulaic language in Alzheimer’s disease, and a study of recited speech in Parkinson’s disease. Formulaic language includes overlearned words, phrases or longer linguistic units that are known to the native speaker, occur naturally in discourse, and are important for normal social interaction (Fillmore, 1979; Pawley & Syder, 1983; Van Lancker, 1988; Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; Wray, 2002. Formulaic expressions include conversational speech formulas, idioms, proverbs, expletives, pause fillers, discourse elements, and sentence stems (stereotyped sentence-initials. Longer units of linguistic material, such as prayers, rhymes, and poems, termed recited speech, is another subtype of formulaic language that is learned in childhood and recited periodically throughout life. Cortical disease: Alzheimer’s disease and formulaic

  13. Using stochastic language models (SLM) to map lexical, syntactic, and phonological information processing in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopopolo, Alessandro; Frank, Stefan L; van den Bosch, Antal; Willems, Roel M

    2017-01-01

    Language comprehension involves the simultaneous processing of information at the phonological, syntactic, and lexical level. We track these three distinct streams of information in the brain by using stochastic measures derived from computational language models to detect neural correlates of phoneme, part-of-speech, and word processing in an fMRI experiment. Probabilistic language models have proven to be useful tools for studying how language is processed as a sequence of symbols unfolding in time. Conditional probabilities between sequences of words are at the basis of probabilistic measures such as surprisal and perplexity which have been successfully used as predictors of several behavioural and neural correlates of sentence processing. Here we computed perplexity from sequences of words and their parts of speech, and their phonemic transcriptions. Brain activity time-locked to each word is regressed on the three model-derived measures. We observe that the brain keeps track of the statistical structure of lexical, syntactic and phonological information in distinct areas.

  14. From exemplar to grammar: a probabilistic analogy-based model of language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bod, Rens

    2009-07-01

    While rules and exemplars are usually viewed as opposites, this paper argues that they form end points of the same distribution. By representing both rules and exemplars as (partial) trees, we can take into account the fluid middle ground between the two extremes. This insight is the starting point for a new theory of language learning that is based on the following idea: If a language learner does not know which phrase-structure trees should be assigned to initial sentences, s/he allows (implicitly) for all possible trees and lets linguistic experience decide which is the "best" tree for each sentence. The best tree is obtained by maximizing "structural analogy" between a sentence and previous sentences, which is formalized by the most probable shortest combination of subtrees from all trees of previous sentences. Corpus-based experiments with this model on the Penn Treebank and the Childes database indicate that it can learn both exemplar-based and rule-based aspects of language, ranging from phrasal verbs to auxiliary fronting. By having learned the syntactic structures of sentences, we have also learned the grammar implicit in these structures, which can in turn be used to produce new sentences. We show that our model mimicks children's language development from item-based constructions to abstract constructions, and that the model can simulate some of the errors made by children in producing complex questions. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. Development of the next generation code system as an engineering modeling language (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji; Uto, Nariaki; Kasahara, Naoto; Nagura, Fuminori; Ishikawa, Makoto; Ohira, Masanori; Kato, Masayuki

    2002-11-01

    In the fast reactor development, numerical simulation using analytical codes plays an important role for complementing theory and experiment. It is necessary that the engineering models and analysis methods can be flexibly changed, because the phenamine to be investigated become more complicated due to the diversity of the needs for research. And, there are large problems in combining physical properties and engineering models in many different fields. In this study, the goal is to develop a flexible and general-purposive analysis system, in which the physical properties and engineering models are represented as a programming language or a diagrams that are easily understandable for humans and executable for computers. The authors named this concept the Engineering Modeling Language (EML). This report describes the result of the investigation for latest computer technologies and software development techniques which seem to be usable for a realization of the analysis code system for nuclear engineering as an EML. (author)

  16. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swat, MJ; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, SM; Kristensen, NR; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, MK; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, AC; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, JN; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, HB; Parra-Guillen, ZP; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, IF; Yvon, F; Milligan, PA; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps. PMID:26225259

  17. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swat, M J; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, S M; Kristensen, N R; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, M K; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, A C; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, J N; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, H B; Parra-Guillen, Z P; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, I F; Yvon, F; Milligan, P A; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps.

  18. Pidgins and Creoles as Models of Language Change: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the interface between language change and Creole studies. Discusses the Language Bioprogram Hypothesis, the Creole continuum, Creoles and grammaticalization, theoretic syntax, creole prototypes, and second language acquisition and language change. (Author/VWL)

  19. Modeling Language and Cognition with Deep Unsupervised Learning:A Tutorial Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Marco eZorzi; Marco eZorzi; Alberto eTestolin; Ivilin Peev Stoianov; Ivilin Peev Stoianov

    2013-01-01

    Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cog...

  20. Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview

    OpenAIRE

    Zorzi, Marco; Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin P.

    2013-01-01

    Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cog...

  1. MDA-based interoperability establishment using language independent information models

    OpenAIRE

    Agostinho C.; Cerny J.; Jardim-Goncalves R.

    2012-01-01

    Part 2: Full Papers; International audience; Nowadays, more and more enterprises realize that one important step to success in their business is to create new and innovative products. Many times the solution to do that is to abandon the idea of an enterprise as an “isolated island”, and get collaboration with others: worldwide non-hierarchical networks are characterized by collaboration and non-centralized decision making. This paper proposes a conceptual model common to the entire business n...

  2. Using Solver Interfaced Virtual Reality in PEACER Design Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyong Won; Nam, Won Chang; Jeong, Seung Ho; Hwang, Il Soon; Shin, Jong Gye; Kim, Chang Hyo

    2006-01-01

    The recent research progress in the area of plant design and simulation highlighted the importance of integrating design and analysis models on a unified environment. For currently developed advanced reactors, either for power production or research, this effort has embraced impressive state-of-the-art information and automation technology. The PEACER (Proliferation-resistant, Environment friendly, Accident-tolerant, Continual and Economical Reactor) is one of the conceptual fast reactor system cooled by LBE (Lead Bismuth Eutectic) for nuclear waste transmutation. This reactor system is composed of innovative combination between design process and analysis. To establish an integrated design process by coupling design, analysis, and post-processing technology while minimizing the repetitive and costly manual interactions for design changes, a solver interfaced virtual reality simulation system (SIVR) has been developed for a nuclear transmutation energy system as PEACER. The SIVR was developed using Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) in order to interface a commercial 3D CAD tool with various engineering solvers and to implement virtual reality presentation of results in a neutral format. In this paper, we have shown the SIVR approach viable and effective in the life-cycle management of complex nuclear energy systems, including design, construction and operation. For instance, The HELIOS is a down scaled model of the PEACER prototype to demonstrate the operability and safety as well as preliminary test of PEACER PLM (Product Life-cycle Management) with SIVR (Solver Interfaced Virtual Reality) concepts. Most components are designed by CATIA, which is 3D CAD tool. During the construction, 3D drawing by CATIA was effective to handle and arrange the loop configuration, especially when we changed the design. Most of all, This system shows the transparency of design and operational status of an energy complex to operators and inspectors can help ensure accident

  3. Distributional Language Learning: Mechanisms and Models of ategory Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslin, Richard N; Newport, Elissa L

    2014-09-01

    In the past 15 years, a substantial body of evidence has confirmed that a powerful distributional learning mechanism is present in infants, children, adults and (at least to some degree) in nonhuman animals as well. The present article briefly reviews this literature and then examines some of the fundamental questions that must be addressed for any distributional learning mechanism to operate effectively within the linguistic domain. In particular, how does a naive learner determine the number of categories that are present in a corpus of linguistic input and what distributional cues enable the learner to assign individual lexical items to those categories? Contrary to the hypothesis that distributional learning and category (or rule) learning are separate mechanisms, the present article argues that these two seemingly different processes---acquiring specific structure from linguistic input and generalizing beyond that input to novel exemplars---actually represent a single mechanism. Evidence in support of this single-mechanism hypothesis comes from a series of artificial grammar-learning studies that not only demonstrate that adults can learn grammatical categories from distributional information alone, but that the specific patterning of distributional information among attested utterances in the learning corpus enables adults to generalize to novel utterances or to restrict generalization when unattested utterances are consistently absent from the learning corpus. Finally, a computational model of distributional learning that accounts for the presence or absence of generalization is reviewed and the implications of this model for linguistic-category learning are summarized.

  4. On Religion and Language Evolutions Seen Through Mathematical and Agent Based Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, M.

    Religions and languages are social variables, like age, sex, wealth or political opinions, to be studied like any other organizational parameter. In fact, religiosity is one of the most important sociological aspects of populations. Languages are also obvious characteristics of the human species. Religions, languages appear though also disappear. All religions and languages evolve and survive when they adapt to the society developments. On the other hand, the number of adherents of a given religion, or the number of persons speaking a language is not fixed in time, - nor space. Several questions can be raised. E.g. from a oscopic point of view : How many religions/languages exist at a given time? What is their distribution? What is their life time? How do they evolve? From a "microscopic" view point: can one invent agent based models to describe oscopic aspects? Do simple evolution equations exist? How complicated must be a model? These aspects are considered in the present note. Basic evolution equations are outlined and critically, though briefly, discussed. Similarities and differences between religions and languages are summarized. Cases can be illustrated with historical facts and data. It is stressed that characteristic time scales are different. It is emphasized that "external fields" are historically very relevant in the case of religions, rending the study more " interesting" within a mechanistic approach based on parity and symmetry of clusters concepts. Yet the modern description of human societies through networks in reported simulations is still lacking some mandatory ingredients, i.e. the non scalar nature of the nodes, and the non binary aspects of nodes and links, though for the latter this is already often taken into account, including directions. From an analytical point of view one can consider a population independently of the others. It is intuitively accepted, but also found from the statistical analysis of the frequency distribution that an

  5. CloudLM: a Cloud-based Language Model for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrández-Tordera Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Language models (LMs are an essential element in statistical approaches to natural language processing for tasks such as speech recognition and machine translation (MT. The advent of big data leads to the availability of massive amounts of data to build LMs, and in fact, for the most prominent languages, using current techniques and hardware, it is not feasible to train LMs with all the data available nowadays. At the same time, it has been shown that the more data is used for a LM the better the performance, e.g. for MT, without any indication yet of reaching a plateau. This paper presents CloudLM, an open-source cloud-based LM intended for MT, which allows to query distributed LMs. CloudLM relies on Apache Solr and provides the functionality of state-of-the-art language modelling (it builds upon KenLM, while allowing to query massive LMs (as the use of local memory is drastically reduced, at the expense of slower decoding speed.

  6. Introduction to the special issue: parsimony and redundancy in models of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma; Snider, Neal; Jaeger, T Florian

    2013-09-01

    One of the most fundamental goals in linguistic theory is to understand the nature of linguistic knowledge, that is, the representations and mechanisms that figure in a cognitively plausible model of human language-processing. The past 50 years have witnessed the development and refinement of various theories about what kind of 'stuff' human knowledge of language consists of, and technological advances now permit the development of increasingly sophisticated computational models implementing key assumptions of different theories from both rationalist and empiricist perspectives. The present special issue does not aim to present or discuss the arguments for and against the two epistemological stances or discuss evidence that supports either of them (cf. Bod, Hay, & Jannedy, 2003; Christiansen & Chater, 2008; Hauser, Chomsky, & Fitch, 2002; Oaksford & Chater, 2007; O'Donnell, Hauser, & Fitch, 2005). Rather, the research presented in this issue, which we label usage-based here, conceives of linguistic knowledge as being induced from experience. According to the strongest of such accounts, the acquisition and processing of language can be explained with reference to general cognitive mechanisms alone (rather than with reference to innate language-specific mechanisms). Defined in these terms, usage-based approaches encompass approaches referred to as experience-based, performance-based and/or emergentist approaches (Amrnon & Snider, 2010; Bannard, Lieven, & Tomasello, 2009; Bannard & Matthews, 2008; Chater & Manning, 2006; Clark & Lappin, 2010; Gerken, Wilson, & Lewis, 2005; Gomez, 2002;

  7. Modeling and Cognitive Behavior: The Effects of Modeling, Modes of Modeling and Selected Model Attributes on Rule-Governed Language Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, James Ivo

    The effect of modeling on the performance of rule-governed language behaviors of 208 male and female, Anglo and Chicano, sixth grade students in Albuquerque, N.M. was experimentally investigated. Eight boys and 8 girls (4 each Chicano and Anglo) were randomly assigned to each of the 12 experimental conditions and to the control group. Three modes…

  8. Recognizing Chinese characters in digital ink from non-native language writers using hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Zhang, Xi-wen

    2017-06-01

    While Chinese is learned as a second language, its characters are taught step by step from their strokes to components, radicals to components, and their complex relations. Chinese Characters in digital ink from non-native language writers are deformed seriously, thus the global recognition approaches are poorer. So a progressive approach from bottom to top is presented based on hierarchical models. Hierarchical information includes strokes and hierarchical components. Each Chinese character is modeled as a hierarchical tree. Strokes in one Chinese characters in digital ink are classified with Hidden Markov Models and concatenated to the stroke symbol sequence. And then the structure of components in one ink character is extracted. According to the extraction result and the stroke symbol sequence, candidate characters are traversed and scored. Finally, the recognition candidate results are listed by descending. The method of this paper is validated by testing 19815 copies of the handwriting Chinese characters written by foreign students.

  9. Knowledge modelling and reliability processing: presentation of the Figaro language and associated tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouissou, M.; Villatte, N.; Bouhadana, H.; Bannelier, M.

    1991-12-01

    EDF has been developing for several years an integrated set of knowledge-based and algorithmic tools for automation of reliability assessment of complex (especially sequential) systems. In this environment, the reliability expert has at his disposal all the powerful software tools for qualitative and quantitative processing, besides he gets various means to generate automatically the inputs for these tools, through the acquisition of graphical data. The development of these tools has been based on FIGARO, a specific language, which was built to get an homogeneous system modelling. Various compilers and interpreters get a FIGARO model into conventional models, such as fault-trees, Markov chains, Petri Networks. In this report, we introduce the main basics of FIGARO language, illustrating them with examples

  10. Obstacle Detection as a Safety Alert in Augmented Reality Models by the Use of Deep Learning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połap, Dawid; Kęsik, Karolina; Książek, Kamil; Woźniak, Marcin

    2017-12-04

    Augmented reality (AR) is becoming increasingly popular due to its numerous applications. This is especially evident in games, medicine, education, and other areas that support our everyday activities. Moreover, this kind of computer system not only improves our vision and our perception of the world that surrounds us, but also adds additional elements, modifies existing ones, and gives additional guidance. In this article, we focus on interpreting a reality-based real-time environment evaluation for informing the user about impending obstacles. The proposed solution is based on a hybrid architecture that is capable of estimating as much incoming information as possible. The proposed solution has been tested and discussed with respect to the advantages and disadvantages of different possibilities using this type of vision.

  11. Obstacle Detection as a Safety Alert in Augmented Reality Models by the Use of Deep Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Połap

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality (AR is becoming increasingly popular due to its numerous applications. This is especially evident in games, medicine, education, and other areas that support our everyday activities. Moreover, this kind of computer system not only improves our vision and our perception of the world that surrounds us, but also adds additional elements, modifies existing ones, and gives additional guidance. In this article, we focus on interpreting a reality-based real-time environment evaluation for informing the user about impending obstacles. The proposed solution is based on a hybrid architecture that is capable of estimating as much incoming information as possible. The proposed solution has been tested and discussed with respect to the advantages and disadvantages of different possibilities using this type of vision.

  12. M&C ML: A modeling language for monitoring and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patwari, Puneet, E-mail: patwari.puneet@tcs.com; Chaudhuri, Subhrojyoti Roy; Natarajan, Swaminathan; Muralikrishna, G

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • It is challenging to maintain consistency in the current approach to M&C design. • Based on similarity across various projects, it looks ideal to propose a solution at domain level. • Approach to create a DSL for M&C involves viewing a system through lenses of various domains. • M&CML provides a standard vocabulary and the entire process of M&C solution creation domain-aware. • M&CML provides a holistic view of control architecture. • M&CML has support for inherent consistency checks, user assistance and third party support. - Abstract: The use of System Engineering (SE) language such as SysML [1,20] is common within the community of control system designers. However the design handoff to the subsequent phases of the control system development is carried out manually in most cases without much tool support. The approach to agreeing on the control interface between components is a good example where engineers still rely on either manually created Interface Control Documents (ICD) or one off tools implemented by individual projects. Square Kilometer Array (SKA) [2] and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [3] are two good examples of such large projects adopting these approaches. This results in non-uniformity in the overall system design since individual groups invent their own vocabulary while using a language like SysML which leads to inconsistencies across the design, interface and realized code. To mitigate this, we propose the development of a Monitoring and Control Modeling Language (M&CML), a domain specific language (DSL) [4,22] for specifying M&C solutions. M&C ML starts with defining a vocabulary borrowing concepts from standard practices used in the control domain and incorporates a language which ensures uniformity and consistency across the M&C design, interfaces and implementation artifacts. In this paper we discuss this language with an analysis of its usage to point out its benefits.

  13. M&C ML: A modeling language for monitoring and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwari, Puneet; Chaudhuri, Subhrojyoti Roy; Natarajan, Swaminathan; Muralikrishna, G

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is challenging to maintain consistency in the current approach to M&C design. • Based on similarity across various projects, it looks ideal to propose a solution at domain level. • Approach to create a DSL for M&C involves viewing a system through lenses of various domains. • M&CML provides a standard vocabulary and the entire process of M&C solution creation domain-aware. • M&CML provides a holistic view of control architecture. • M&CML has support for inherent consistency checks, user assistance and third party support. - Abstract: The use of System Engineering (SE) language such as SysML [1,20] is common within the community of control system designers. However the design handoff to the subsequent phases of the control system development is carried out manually in most cases without much tool support. The approach to agreeing on the control interface between components is a good example where engineers still rely on either manually created Interface Control Documents (ICD) or one off tools implemented by individual projects. Square Kilometer Array (SKA) [2] and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [3] are two good examples of such large projects adopting these approaches. This results in non-uniformity in the overall system design since individual groups invent their own vocabulary while using a language like SysML which leads to inconsistencies across the design, interface and realized code. To mitigate this, we propose the development of a Monitoring and Control Modeling Language (M&CML), a domain specific language (DSL) [4,22] for specifying M&C solutions. M&C ML starts with defining a vocabulary borrowing concepts from standard practices used in the control domain and incorporates a language which ensures uniformity and consistency across the M&C design, interfaces and implementation artifacts. In this paper we discuss this language with an analysis of its usage to point out its benefits.

  14. The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model: theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerker eRönnberg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. Working memory helps us to keep track of and actively participate in conversation, including taking turns and following the gist. This paper examines the Ease of Language Understanding model (i.e., the ELU model, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008 in light of new behavioral and neural findings concerning the role of working memory capacity (WMC in uni-modal and bimodal language processing. The new ELU model is a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on WMC albeit in different ways. A revised ELU model is proposed based on findings that address the relationship between WMC and (a early attention processes in listening to speech, (b signal processing in hearing aids and its effects on short-term memory, (c inhibition of speech maskers and its effect on episodic long-term memory, (d the effects of hearing impairment on episodic and semantic long-term memory, and finally, (e listening effort. New predictions and clinical implications are outlined. Comparisons with other WMC and speech perception models are made.

  15. Efficient Embedded Decoding of Neural Network Language Models in a Machine Translation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Martinez, Francisco; Castro-Bleda, Maria Jose

    2018-02-22

    Neural Network Language Models (NNLMs) are a successful approach to Natural Language Processing tasks, such as Machine Translation. We introduce in this work a Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) system which fully integrates NNLMs in the decoding stage, breaking the traditional approach based on [Formula: see text]-best list rescoring. The neural net models (both language models (LMs) and translation models) are fully coupled in the decoding stage, allowing to more strongly influence the translation quality. Computational issues were solved by using a novel idea based on memorization and smoothing of the softmax constants to avoid their computation, which introduces a trade-off between LM quality and computational cost. These ideas were studied in a machine translation task with different combinations of neural networks used both as translation models and as target LMs, comparing phrase-based and [Formula: see text]-gram-based systems, showing that the integrated approach seems more promising for [Formula: see text]-gram-based systems, even with nonfull-quality NNLMs.

  16. Confronting an Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2012-01-01

    How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…

  17. Virtuality and Reality in Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G.

    1995-01-01

    This book compiles eight contributions devoted to the topical question about the relation between virtuality and reality. In the theoretical frame of quantum and relativistic particle physics, the concept of virtuality is used according to its strict and precise meaning. In this context, particles are generally invented before their discovery. Some famous historical experiments which led to the postulation and then the discovery of new particles are mentioned. These examples are used to illustrate and to discuss the concept of virtuality as well as the physical reality of virtual processes. But, how can the concept of virtuality in other scientific fields be applied ? In order to answer this question, the concepts of virtuality and reality are discussed in other branches of physics as well as in other fields such as geophysics, cosmology and biology. Philosophical and sociological implications of virtual realities are also considered. Moreover, in relation to virtuality and reality, the connections between modeling, simulation and experimentation, their respective roles, the advantages and risks of their use are discussed (in relation to nuclear sciences and geophysical problems) (N.T.)

  18. Lexical Base as a Compressed Language Model of the World (on the material of the Ukrainian language)

    OpenAIRE

    Buk, Solomiya

    2004-01-01

    In the article the fact is verified that the list of words selected by formal statistical methods (frequency and functional genre unrestrictedness) is not a conglomerate of non-related words. It creates a system of interrelated items and it can be named "lexical base of language". This selected list of words covers all the spheres of human activities. To verify this statement the invariant synoptical scheme common for ideographic dictionaries of different language was determined.

  19. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general.

  20. Role of virtual reality simulation in endoscopy training

    OpenAIRE

    Harpham-Lockyer, Louis; Laskaratos, Faidon-Marios; Berlingieri, Pasquale; Epstein, Owen

    2015-01-01

    Recent advancements in virtual reality graphics and models have allowed virtual reality simulators to be incorporated into a variety of endoscopic training programmes. Use of virtual reality simulators in training programmes is thought to improve skill acquisition amongst trainees which is reflected in improved patient comfort and safety. Several studies have already been carried out to ascertain the impact that usage of virtual reality simulators may have upon trainee learning curves and how...

  1. Comparison of Three Models Dealing with Working Memory and Its Dimensions in Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alshahrani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current status of research on working memory (WM and its components in second language acquisition (SLA was examined in this review. Literature search was done on four aspects using search terms in Google Scholar. Hence, the review results are given and introduced. 1. In the definition of WM, some confusion exists on whether short term memory (STM or recent memory is the same as WM or different. 2. In this review, three main models have been discussed elaborately, as they are the only ones discussed in literature. They are: multicomponent model of Baddeley (2000, embedded process model of Cowan (2005 and attention control model of Engle and Kane (2003. 3. The phonological and executive components of WM were examined in more detail, as these determine the two basic aspects of language acquisition: language characteristics and acquisition methods (Wen, 2012. Overall, the variables related to phonological and executive working memories are evident from published research, but their interactive relationships and affecting factors are not entirely clear. 4. Admittedly, several diverse internal and external factors affect WM in relation to SLA. Some practically useful interventions are indicated by certain findings.

  2. Virtual Reality and Engineering Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelidis, Veronica S.

    1997-01-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) offers benefits to engineering education. This article defines VR and describes types; outlines reasons for using VR in engineering education; provides guidelines for using VR; presents a model for determining when to use VR; discusses VR applications; and describes hardware and software needed for a low-budget VR and…

  3. Teaching Culture and Language through the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching Model in the ESL/EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This paper will demonstrate how to enhance second language (L2) learners' linguistic and cultural competencies through the use of the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching (MIFT) model. The paper will introduce two ideas to teachers of English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL). First, the paper shows how L2 learners learn linguistic and…

  4. From phonemes to images : levels of representation in a recurrent neural model of visually-grounded language learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderloos, L.J.; Chrupala, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    We present a model of visually-grounded language learning based on stacked gated recurrent neural networks which learns to predict visual features given an image description in the form of a sequence of phonemes. The learning task resembles that faced by human language learners who need to discover

  5. ENEKuS--A Key Model for Managing the Transformation of the Normalisation of the Basque Language in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Inazio; Pikabea, Inaki

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a reference model for intervention in the language processes applied to the transformation of language normalisation within organisations of a socio-economic nature. It is based on a case study of an experiment carried out over 10 years within a trade union confederation, and has pursued a strategy of a…

  6. Augmented reality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Donna R

    2012-01-01

    Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.

  7. Toward epigenetic and gene regulation models of specific language impairment: looking for links among growth, genes, and impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice Mabel L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children with specific language impairment (SLI are thought to have an inherited form of language impairment that spares other developmental domains. SLI shows strong heritability and recent linkage and association studies have replicated results for candidate genes. Regulatory regions of the genes may be involved. Behavioral growth models of language development of children with SLI reveal that the onset of language is delayed, and the growth trajectories of children with SLI parallel those of younger children without SLI. The rate of language acquisition decelerates in the pre-adolescent period, resulting in immature language levels for the children with SLI that persist into adolescence and beyond. Recent genetic and epigenetic discoveries and models relevant to language impairment are reviewed. T cell regulation of onset, acceleration, and deceleration signaling are described as potential conceptual parallels to the growth timing elements of language acquisition and impairment. A growth signaling disruption (GSD hypothesis is proposed for SLI, which posits that faulty timing mechanisms at the cellular level, intrinsic to neurocortical functioning essential for language onset and growth regulation, are at the core of the growth outcomes of SLI. The GSD highlights the need to document and account for growth patterns over childhood and suggests needed directions for future investigation.

  8. F-Nets and Software Cabling: Deriving a Formal Model and Language for Portable Parallel Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNucci, David C.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Parallel programming is still being based upon antiquated sequence-based definitions of the terms "algorithm" and "computation", resulting in programs which are architecture dependent and difficult to design and analyze. By focusing on obstacles inherent in existing practice, a more portable model is derived here, which is then formalized into a model called Soviets which utilizes a combination of imperative and functional styles. This formalization suggests more general notions of algorithm and computation, as well as insights into the meaning of structured programming in a parallel setting. To illustrate how these principles can be applied, a very-high-level graphical architecture-independent parallel language, called Software Cabling, is described, with many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, data parallelism, and object-based programming constructs).

  9. PharmML in Action: an Interoperable Language for Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzotto, R; Smith, G; Yvon, F; Kristensen, NR; Swat, MJ

    2017-01-01

    PharmML1 is an XML‐based exchange format2, 3, 4 created with a focus on nonlinear mixed‐effect (NLME) models used in pharmacometrics,5, 6 but providing a very general framework that also allows describing mathematical and statistical models such as single‐subject or nonlinear and multivariate regression models. This tutorial provides an overview of the structure of this language, brief suggestions on how to work with it, and use cases demonstrating its power and flexibility. PMID:28575551

  10. SSBRP Communication & Data System Development using the Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard method for specifying, visualizing, and documenting the artifacts of an object-oriented system under development. UML is the unification of the object-oriented methods developed by Grady Booch and James Rumbaugh, and of the Use Case Model developed by Ivar Jacobson. This paper discusses the application of UML by the Communications and Data Systems (CDS) team to model the ground control and command of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) User Operations Facility (UOF). UML is used to define the context of the system, the logical static structure, the life history of objects, and the interactions among objects.

  11. The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology: Capabilities and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Ken H.; Bachert, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology has been formulated and applied over a five-year period. It has proven to be a unique, integrated approach utilizing a top-down, structured technique to define and document the system of interest; a knowledge engineering technique to collect and organize system descriptive information; a rapid prototyping technique to perform preliminary system performance analysis; and a sophisticated simulation technique to perform in-depth system performance analysis.

  12. The Evolution of a Connectionist Model of Situated Human Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Marshall R.; Crocker, Matthew W.

    The Adaptive Mechanisms in Human Language Processing (ALPHA) project features both experimental and computational tracks designed to complement each other in the investigation of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie situated human utterance processing. The models developed in the computational track replicate results obtained in the experimental track and, in turn, suggest further experiments by virtue of behavior that arises as a by-product of their operation.

  13. On Training Bi-directional Neural Network Language Model with Noise Contrastive Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    He, Tianxing; Zhang, Yu; Droppo, Jasha; Yu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We propose to train bi-directional neural network language model(NNLM) with noise contrastive estimation(NCE). Experiments are conducted on a rescore task on the PTB data set. It is shown that NCE-trained bi-directional NNLM outperformed the one trained by conventional maximum likelihood training. But still(regretfully), it did not out-perform the baseline uni-directional NNLM.

  14. The Model of Blended Learning and Its Use at Foreign Language Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Kudysheva; A. N. Kudyshev

    2013-01-01

    In present article the model of Blended Learning, its advantage at foreign language teaching, and also some problems that can arise during its use are considered. The Blended Learning is a special organization of learning, which allows to combine classroom work and modern technologies in electronic distance teaching environment. Nowadays a lot of European educational institutions and companies use such technology. Through this method: student gets the opportunity to learn in a group (classroo...

  15. Quantum reality filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudder, Stan

    2010-01-01

    An anhomomorphic logic A* is the set of all possible realities for a quantum system. Our main goal is to find the 'actual reality' Φ a element of A* for the system. Reality filters are employed to eliminate unwanted potential realities until only φ a remains. In this paper, we consider three reality filters that are constructed by means of quantum integrals. A quantum measure μ can generate or actualize a Φ element of A* if μ(A) is a quantum integral with respect to φ for a density function f over events A. In this sense, μ is an 'average' of the truth values of φ with weights given by f. We mainly discuss relations between these filters and their existence and uniqueness properties. For example, we show that a quadratic reality generated by a quantum measure is unique. In this case we obtain the unique actual quadratic reality.

  16. The 'mad scientists': psychoanalysis, dream and virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Marie

    2003-04-01

    The author explores the concept of reality-testing as a means of assessing the relationship with reality that prevails in dream and in virtual reality. Based on a model developed by Jean Laplanche, she compares these activities in detail in order to determine their respective independence from the function of reality-testing. By carefully examining the concept of hallucination in the writings of Freud and Daniel Dennett, the author seeks to pinpoint the specific modalities of interaction between perceptions, ideas, wishes and actions that converge in the 'belief' and in the 'sense of reality'. The paper's main thesis consists of the distinction that it draws between immediacy-testing and reality-testing, with the further argument that this distinction not only dissipates the conceptual vagueness that generally surrounds the latter of the two concepts but also that it promotes a more precise analysis of the function of reality in dream and in virtual reality.

  17. A Development English Language Learning Management Strategies Model to Enhance Communicative Competence for High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitiya Ruennakarn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives for this research are to 1 build a development English language learning management strategies model to enhance communicative competence for high school students 2 study the results of using the model. A target group is seven English teachers in Pibulwittayalai School and the sample for studying the results of model to students are ten English club students in Pibulwittayalai School.The research tools are focus group discussion forms, communication plans, English skills evaluation forms, communicative competence test, communicative competence evaluation forms and 21st century skills evaluation forms. This model is examined by connoisseurship.The statistics for analyzing data are frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Wilcoxon test. The results of the research were as follows: 1. The development English language learning management strategies model to enhance communicative competence for high school students had4components ; 1 SWOT–Analysis, 2 strategy development, 3 strategy assessment and 4 strategy adjustment.This model had 6 strategies such as 1 genius academic strategy 2 English through AEC 3 English through World Class 4 enhancing for genius academic in communication with foreigners 5 enhancing English through world class standard and 6 enhancing for potential in English skills learning through world class standard. These were merged as only one strategy as “ Development of students’ potential for communication”. 2. The results of using the model comprised of 2.1 The results to teachers were teachers could analyze SWOT- analysis for determining strength, weakness,opportunity and threat about English language learning management, received guideline and could appropriately and efficiently construct strategies of English language learning management to enhance communicative competence. 2.2 The results to students: The students had 4 English skills, such as listening,speaking, reading and writing. It was

  18. L-py: an L-system simulation framework for modeling plant architecture development based on a dynamic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Frédéric; Pradal, Christophe; Cokelaer, Thomas; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e., languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: (i) by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, (ii) by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead, (iii) by allowing a high-level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models, and (iv) by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales) into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom.

  19. L-Py: an L-System simulation framework for modeling plant development based on a dynamic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eBoudon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e. languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: i by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, ii by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead iii allowing a high level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models iv and by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom.

  20. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling to Examine How Individual SLPs Differentially Contribute to Children's Language and Literacy Gains in Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Tambyraja, Sherine R; Logan, Jessica; Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the unique contributions in children's language and literacy gains, over 1 academic year, that are attributable to the individual speech-language pathologist (SLP) and (b) to explore possible child- and SLP-level factors that may further explain SLPs' contributions to children's language and literacy gains. Participants were 288 kindergarten and 1st-grade children with language impairment who were currently receiving school-based language intervention from SLPs. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we partitioned the variance in children's gains in language (i.e., grammar, vocabulary) and literacy (i.e., word decoding) that could be attributed to their individual SLP. Results revealed a significant contribution of individual SLPs to children's gains in grammar, vocabulary, and word decoding. Children's fall language scores and grade were significant predictors of SLPs' contributions, although no SLP-level predictors were significant. The present study makes a first step toward incorporating implementation science and suggests that, for children receiving school-based language intervention, variance in child language and literacy gains in an academic year is at least partially attributable to SLPs. Continued work in this area should examine the possible SLP-level characteristics that may further explicate the relative contributions of SLPs.